WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3-d mesoscale impact

  1. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie

    1997-12-31

    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  2. Impact of aircraft exhaust on the atmosphere. Box model studies and 3-D mesoscale numerical case studies of seasonal differences

    Petry, H.; Ebel, A.; Franzkowiak, V.; Hendricks, J.; Lippert, E.; Moellhoff, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie

    1997-12-31

    The impact of aircraft emissions released in the tropopause region on atmospheric trace gases as O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} is investigated by means of model studies. Special emphasis is drawn on seasonal effects. A box model is applied as well as a 3-D mesoscale chemistry transport model. These model studies show that the impact of aircraft emissions on ozone in the tropopause region is much stronger in summer than in late autumn with a difference of one order of magnitude. (author) 14 refs.

  3. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; DUPLESSIS KERGOMARD, Yann; Dau, Frédéric; MALHERBE, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic o...

  4. Towards high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations

    B. Buongiorno Nardelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The MyOcean R&D project MESCLA (MEsoSCaLe dynamical Analysis through combined model, satellite and in situ data was devoted to the high resolution 3-D retrieval of tracer and velocity fields in the oceans, based on the combination of in situ and satellite observations and quasi-geostrophic dynamical models. The retrieval techniques were also tested and compared with the output of a primitive equation model, with particular attention to the accuracy of the vertical velocity field as estimated through the Q vector formulation of the omega equation. The project focused on a test case, covering the region where the Gulf Stream separates from the US East Coast. This work demonstrated that innovative methods for the high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations can be used to build the next generations of operational observation-based products.

  5. Modeling heterogeneous materials failure: 3D meso-scale models with embedded discontinuities

    Benkemoun, Nathan; Hautefeuille, Martin; Colliat, Jean-Baptiste; Ibrahimbegovic, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    We present a meso-scale model for failure of heterogeneous quasi-brittle materials. The model problem of heterogeneous materials that is addressed in detail is based on two-phase 3D representation of reinforced heterogeneous materials, such as concrete, where the inclusions are melt within the matrix. The quasi-brittle failure mechanisms are described by the spatial truss representation, which is defined by the chosen Voronoi mesh. In order to explicitly incorporate heterogeneities with no ne...

  6. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  7. Observed 3D Structure, Generation, and Dissipation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddies in the South China Sea

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Tian, Jiwei; Qiu, Bo; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Ping; Wu, Dexing; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-01

    Oceanic mesoscale eddies with horizontal scales of 50–300 km are the most energetic form of flows in the ocean. They are the oceanic analogues of atmospheric storms and are effective transporters of heat, nutrients, dissolved carbon, and other biochemical materials in the ocean. Although oceanic eddies have been ubiquitously observed in the world oceans since 1960s, our understanding of their three-dimensional (3D) structure, generation, and dissipation remains fragmentary due to lack of systematic full water-depth measurements. To bridge this knowledge gap, we designed and conducted a multi-months field campaign, called the South China Sea Mesoscale Eddy Experiment (S-MEE), in the northern South China Sea in 2013/2014. The S-MEE for the first time captured full-depth 3D structures of an anticyclonic and cyclonic eddy pair, which are characterized by a distinct vertical tilt of their axes. By observing the eddy evolution at an upstream versus downstream location and conducting an eddy energy budget analysis, the authors further proposed that generation of submesoscale motions most likely constitutes the dominant dissipation mechanism for the observed eddies.

  8. The impact of non-local buoyancy flux on the convective boundary layer development as simulated by a 3-D TKE-based subgrid mixing scheme in a mesoscale model

    Zhang, Xu; Bao, Jian-Wen; Chen, Baode

    2016-04-01

    This presentation highlights a study in which a series of dry convective boundary layer (CBL) simulations are carried out using a generalized 3-dimensional (3-D) TKE-based parameterization scheme of sub-grid turbulent mixing in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The simulated characteristics of dry CBL are analyzed for the purpose of evaluating this scheme in comparison with a commonly-used scheme for sub-grid turbulent mixing in NWP models (i.e., the Mellor-Yamada 1.5-order TKE scheme). The same surface layer scheme is used in all the simulations so that only the sensitivity of the WRF model to different parameterizations of the sub-grid turbulent mixing above the surface layer is examined. The effect of horizontal grid resolution on the simulated CBL is also examined by running the model with grid sizes of 200, 400 m, 600 m, 1 km and 3 km. We will first compare the characteristics of the simulated CBL using the two schemes with the WRF LES dataset. We will then illustrate the importance of including the non-local component in the vertical buoyancy specification in the 3-D TKE-based scheme. Finally, comparing the results from the simulations against coarse-grained WRF LES dataset, we will show the feasibility and advantage of replacing conventional planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes with a scale-aware 3-D TKE-based scheme in the WRF model.

  9. Impact Performance of 3D Integrated Cellular Woven Composite Panel

    TIAN Wei; ZHU Cheng-yan

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the impact resistance of 3D integrated cellular woven composite panel under persudo-static impact,comprised the test result with property of typical 3D woven composites, analyzed some parameters that maybe affect composites' impact resistance and at last used SEM to observe the damage process and mechanism of samples. The result shows that the impact resistance of 3D integrated cellular woven composites is much better than the performance of typical 3D woven composites; it is an active method to improve the impact resistance of composites that developing preform with cellular on the basis of typical 3D woven structure; for different 3D integrated cellular woven structure, the value of absorbed-energy is incrensing with the hollow percentage; tiny deformation will not emerge on samples until the acting force gets to 85% of the maximum;similar with typical 3D woven composites, the delaminated phenomenon of 3D integrated cellular woven composites is also unapparent during impact process.

  10. Mesoscale Ocean Altimetry Requirements and Impact of GPS-R measurements for Ocean Mesoscale Circulation Mapping

    Le Traon, P Y; Ruffini, G; Cardellach, E

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the PARIS Beta project, fundamental milestones have been reached for the definition of future GNSS-R (Global Navigation Satellite System signal Reflections) altimetry missions (the PARIS concept). The most important one is the confirmation of the significant impact that GNSS-R data can have on mesoscale oceanography, as we discuss here. In this report, we first briefly review the contribution of satellite altimetry to mesoscale oceanography. We then summarise recent results obtained on the mapping capabilities of existing and future altimeter missions. From these analyses, refined requirements for mesoscale ocean altimetry (in terms of space/time sampling and accuracy) are derived. A review of on-going and planned altimetric missions is then performed and we analyse how these configurations match the user requirements. Then we will describe the simulation approach and impact analysis of GPS-R data.

  11. The business impact and value of 3-D seismic

    3-D Seismic has had a profound and lasting impact on the hydrocarbon exploration and production industry. It is a technology which is often excellent at assessing the risk associated with trap definition, seal and reservoir distribution, the very parameters which are the most critical to optimizing the economics associated with E and P projects. This paper discusses Amoco Corporation's experience with 3-D Seismic when used for new field rate acceleration, older field extension, and wildcat exploration. Its emphasis is on assessing the value added by 3-D by reviewing recent E and P experiences in a post-appraisal mode and then in applying the lessons learned from these analyses and case histories to potential new projects. This work is significant because it first assesses the impact 3-D has had on a large number of business situations at Amoco; that is, it is based on data collected on159 3-D surveys acquired at Amoco between 1991--1994. Second, it uses the data collected from these surveys and applies the business improvements observed in the data to typical international business opportunities to quantify, in expected value $ terms, the value that the technology brings to an average project. Finally, it looks at project economics not only from an oil company perspective, but from the standpoint of a host government, with a discussion of insights and implications of the data, economics and techniques utilized

  12. Mesoscale Modeling of Impact Compaction of Primitive Solar System Solids

    Davison, Thomas M; Bland, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method for simulating the mesoscale compaction of early solar system solids in low velocity impact events, using the iSALE shock physics code. Chondrules are represented by nonporous disks, placed within a porous matrix. By simulating impacts into bimodal mixtures over a wide range of parameter space (including the chondrule-to-matrix ratio, the matrix porosity and composition and the impact velocity), we have shown how each of these parameters influences the shock processing of heterogeneous materials. The temperature after shock processing shows a strong dichotomy: matrix temperatures are elevated much higher than the chondrules, which remain largely cold. Chondrules can protect some matrix from shock compaction, with shadow regions in the lee side of chondrules exhibiting higher porosity that elsewhere in the matrix. Using the results from this mesoscale modelling, we show how the $\\varepsilon-\\alpha$ porous compaction model parameters depend on initial bulk porosity. We also show that ...

  13. The impact of 3D printing on trade and FDI

    Abeliansky, Ana L.; Martínez-Zarzoso, Imnaculada; Prettner, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of 3D printing technologies on the volume of trade and on the structure of FDI. A standard model with firm-specific heterogeneity generates three main predictions. First, 3D printers are introduced in areas with high economic activity that also face high transport costs. Second, technological progress related to 3D printing machines leads to a gradual replacement of FDI that relies on traditional production structures with FDI based on 3D printing techniques. A...

  14. A cloud chemistry module for the 3-D cloud-resolving mesoscale model Meso-NH with application to idealized cases

    M. Leriche

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A complete chemical module has been developed for use in the Meso-NH three-dimensional cloud resolving mesoscale model. This module includes gaseous- and aqueous-phase chemical reactions that are analysed by a pre-processor generating the Fortran90 code automatically. The kinetic solver is based on a Rosenbrock algorithm, which is robust and accurate for integrating stiff systems and especially multiphase chemistry. The exchange of chemical species between the gas phase and cloud droplets and raindrops is computed kinetically by mass transfers considering non-equilibrium between the gas- and the condensed phases. Microphysical transfers of chemical species are considered for the various cloud microphysics schemes available, which are based on one-moment or two-moment schemes. The pH of the droplets and of the raindrops is diagnosed separately as the root of a high order polynomial equation. The chemical concentrations in the ice phase are modelled in a single phase encompassing the two categories of precipitating ice particles (snow and graupel of the microphysical scheme. The only process transferring chemical species in ice is retention during freezing or riming of liquid hydrometeors. Three idealized simulations are reported, which highlight the sensitivity of scavenging efficiency to the choice of the microphysical scheme and the retention coefficient in the ice phase. A two-dimensional warm, shallow convection case is used to compare the impact of the microphysical schemes on the temporal evolution and rates of acid precipitation. Acid wet deposition rates are shown to be overestimated when a one-moment microphysics scheme is used compared to a two-moment scheme. The difference is induced by a better prediction of raindrop radius and raindrop number concentration in the latter scheme. A two-dimensional mixed-phase squall line and a three-dimensional mixed-phase supercell were simulated to test the sensitivity of cloud vertical transport to

  15. A cloud chemistry module for the 3-D cloud-resolving mesoscale model Meso-NH with application to idealized cases

    M. Leriche

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A complete chemical module has been developed for use in the Meso-NH three-dimensional cloud resolving mesoscale model. This module includes gaseous and aqueous phase chemical reactions that are analysed by a pre-processor generating the Fortran90 code automatically. The kinetic solver is based on a Rosenbrock algorithm, which is robust and accurate for integrating stiff systems and especially multiphase chemistry. The exchange of chemical species between the gas phase and cloud droplets and raindrops is computed kinetically by mass transfers considering non-equilibrium between the gas and the condensed phases. Microphysical transfers of chemical species are considered for the various cloud microphysics schemes available, which are based on one-moment or two-moment schemes. The pH of the droplets and of the raindrops is diagnosed separately as the root of a high order polynomial equation. The chemical concentrations in the ice phase are modelled in a single phase encompassing the two categories of precipitating ice particles (snow and graupel of the microphysical scheme. The only process transferring chemical species in ice is retention during freezing or riming of liquid hydrometeors. Three idealized simulations are reported, which highlight the sensitivity of scavenging efficiency to the choice of the microphysical scheme and the retention coefficient in the ice phase. A two-dimensional warm, shallow convection case is used to compare the impact of the microphysical schemes on the temporal evolution and rates of acid precipitation. Acid wet deposition rates are shown to be overestimated when a one-moment microphysics scheme is used compared to a two-moment scheme. The difference is induced by a better prediction of raindrop radius and raindrop number concentration in the latter scheme. A two-dimensional mixed-phase squall line and a three-dimensional mixed-phase supercell were simulated to test the sensitivity of cloud vertical transport to

  16. 3-D mesoscale MHD simulations of magnetospheric cusp-like configurations: cusp diamagnetic cavities and boundary structure

    E. Adamson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present results from mesoscale simulations of the magnetospheric cusp region for both strongly northward and strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. Simulation results indicate an extended region of depressed magnetic field and strongly enhanced plasma β which exhibits a strong dependence on IMF orientation. These structures correspond to the Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities (CDC's. The typical features of these CDC's are generally well reproduced by the simulation. The inner boundaries between the CDC and the magnetosphere are gradual transitions which form a clear funnel shape, regardless of IMF orientation. The outer CDC/magnetosheath boundary exhibits a clear indentation in both the x-z and y-z planes for southward IMF, while it is only indented in the x-z plane for northward, with a convex geometry in the y-z plane. The outer boundary represents an Alfvénic transition, mostly consistent with a slow-shock, indicating that reconnection plays an important role in structuring the high-altitude cusp region.

  17. Analysis of Impact of 3D Printing Technology on Traditional Manufacturing Technology

    Wu, Niyan; Chen, Qi; Liao, Linzhi; Wang, Xin

    With quiet rise of 3D printing technology in automobile, aerospace, industry, medical treatment and other fields, many insiders hold different opinions on its development. This paper objectively analyzes impact of 3D printing technology on mold making technology and puts forward the idea of fusion and complementation of 3D printing technology and mold making technology through comparing advantages and disadvantages of 3D printing mold and traditional mold making technology.

  18. Mesoscale Modeling of Impact Compaction of Primitive Solar System Solids

    Davison, Thomas M.; Collins, Gareth S.; Bland, Philip A.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a method for simulating the mesoscale compaction of early solar system solids in low-velocity impact events using the iSALE shock physics code. Chondrules are represented by non-porous disks, placed within a porous matrix. By simulating impacts into bimodal mixtures over a wide range of parameter space (including the chondrule-to-matrix ratio, the matrix porosity and composition, and the impact velocity), we have shown how each of these parameters influences the shock processing of heterogeneous materials. The temperature after shock processing shows a strong dichotomy: matrix temperatures are elevated much higher than the chondrules, which remain largely cold. Chondrules can protect some matrix from shock compaction, with shadow regions in the lee side of chondrules exhibiting higher porosity that elsewhere in the matrix. Using the results from this mesoscale modeling, we show how the ε ‑ α porous-compaction model parameters depend on initial bulk porosity. We also show that the timescale for the temperature dichotomy to equilibrate is highly dependent on the porosity of the matrix after the shock, and will be on the order of seconds for matrix porosities of less than 0.1, and on the order of tens to hundreds of seconds for matrix porosities of ∼0.3–0.5. Finally, we have shown that the composition of the post-shock material is able to match the bulk porosity and chondrule-to-matrix ratios of meteorite groups such as carbonaceous chondrites and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites.

  19. A nonlinear 3D containment analysis for airplane impact

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, it is pertinent safety philosophy to design nuclear facilities against airplane impact, despite its very unlikely probability of occurrence. For safety reasons, the following conditions have to be met: 1) In the close impact area of the projectile, the structure can be stressed up to its ultimate load capacity, so that impact energy is dissipated partly. Hereby, it must be strictly clarified that local structural failure within the impact zone is avoided. 2) Residual impact energy is transferred to the 'non-disturbed' containment structure and to the interior structure. The subject of reinforced concrete structures under impact loads shows still clear gaps between the findings of experimental and analytical analyses. To clarify this highly nonlinear phenomena comprehensive tests have recently been performed in Germany. It is the aim of this paper to carry out a three-dimensional analysis of a nuclear facility. To perform the calculations, the finite element ADINA code is applied. In order to obtain optimum results, a very fine mesh leading to several thousand DOF is used. To model the impact area of the concrete structure realistically, its linear and mostly nonlinear material behaviour as well as its failure criteria must be taken into account. Herewith the structural response is reduced due to increased energy dissipation. This reduction rate is valued by variation of the assumed size of impact zone, the load impact location and the assumed load-time function. (orig./RW)

  20. Impacted teeth in the maxilla: usefulness of 3D Dental-CT for preoperative evaluation

    Objective: To compare the shapes of roots of impacted teeth shown in three-dimensional computed tomographic images (3D Dental-computed tomography (CT) images) and plain radiographs and to determine whether 3D Dental-CT images are useful for examination before performing an operation for extraction of a maxillary impacted tooth. Methods and patients: Images obtained from patients who had impacted teeth in the maxilla, including impacted mesial supernumerary teeth in 13 patients, impacted incisors in two patients, impacted canines in 11 patients, impacted premolars in four patients and impacted molars in three patients, were used in this study. In all patients, plain radiographs and 3D Dental-CT images were retrospectively reviewed by an oral radiologist for evidence of root dilaceration before operations to extract the impacted teeth were performed. The findings in the images were compared with intraoperative findings in all cases. Results: The mean specificity and sensitivity of plain radiographs were 95 and 8%, respectively, while those of 3D Dental-CT images were 100 and 77%, respectively. There was a statistically significant (P<0.01) difference between the depiction capabilities of plain radiographs and 3D Dental-CT images with regard to dilacerations of roots of impacted teeth. Discussion and conclusion: CT may enable radiologists to make a quick and accurate diagnosis of tooth impaction. 3D Dental-CT images are useful for determining the root shape of an impacted tooth in the maxilla

  1. THE IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGY ON THE SOCIETY AND ECONOMY

    Alexandru Pîrjan; Dana-Mihaela Petroşanu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the evolution of 3D printing technology, its applications and numerous social, economic, geopolitical, security and environmental consequences. We compare some of the most significant existing 3D printing solutions, taking into account the acquisition price, the technical specifications, their main advantages and limitations. Just as it happened in the past decades with the personal computers and Internet, the impact of 3-D printing will gradually increase in the fut...

  2. TNO : The impact of 3-D printing on supply chain management

    Janssen, G.R.; Blankers, I.J.; Moolenburgh, E.A.; Posthumus, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    It is said that 3-D printing, officially known as additive manufacturing, has the potential to become the biggest single disruptive phenomenon to impact global industry since mass production lines were introduced early in the twentieth century. McKinsey Global Institute named 3-D printing as one of

  3. 3D Printing and Its Disruptive Impacts on Supply Chains of the Future

    Sebastian Mohr; Omera Khan

    2015-01-01

    3D printing technology has emerged as one of the most disruptive innovations to impact the global supply chain and logistics industry. The technology is impacting our personal and professional lives, with some claiming that the technology will revolutionize and replace existing manufacturing technologies, while others argue that the technology merely enhances some aspects of the production process. Whether evolutionary or revolutionary, 3D printing technology is recognized as a striking trend...

  4. The impact of land-surface wetness heterogeneity on mesoscale heat fluxes

    Chen, Fei; Avissar, Roni

    1994-01-01

    Vertical heat fluxes associated with mesoscale circulations generated by land-surface wetness discontinuities are often stronger than turbulent fluxes, especially in the upper part of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer. As a result, they contribute significantly to the subgrid-scale fluxes in large-scale atmospheric models. Yet they are not considered in these models. To provide some insights into the possible parameterization of these fluxes in large-scale models, a state-of-the-art mesoscale numerical model was used to investigate the relationships between mesoscale heat fluxes and atmospheric and land-surface characteristics that play a key role in the generation of mesoscale circulations. The distribution of land-surface wetness, the wavenumber and the wavelength of the land-surface discontinuities, and the large-scale wind speed have a significant impact on the mesoscale heat fluxes. Empirical functions were derived to characterize the relationships between mesoscale heat fluxes and the spatial distribution of land-surface wetness. The strongest mesoscale heat fluxes were obtained for a wavelength of forcing corresponding approximately to the local Rossby deformation radius. The mesoscale heat fluxes are weakened by large-scale background winds but remain significant even with moderate winds.

  5. Impact of the 3-D model strategy on science learning of the solar system

    Alharbi, Mohammed

    The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own 3-D models and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of 3-D software to create 3-D models to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students' ability to learn 3-D software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of 3-D modeling on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including 3-D software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new 3-D technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using 3-D models (no 3-D, premade 3-D, and create 3-D) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students' science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students' work quality.

  6. Mesoscale morphology at nanoscale resolution: serial block-face scanning electron microscopy reveals fine 3D detail of a novel silk spinneret system in a tube-building tanaid crustacean

    Kaji, Tomonari; Kakui, Keiichi; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Palmer, A. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of morphology is experiencing a renaissance due to rapid improvements in technologies for 3D visualization of complex internal and external structures. But 3D visualization of the internal structure of mesoscale objects — those in the 10–1000 μm range — remains problematic. They are too small for microCT, many lack suitable specific fluorescent markers for confocal microscopy, or they require labor-intensive stacking and smoothing of individual TEM images. Here we illustr...

  7. Impact of packet losses in scalable 3D holoscopic video coding

    Conti, Caroline; Nunes, Paulo; Ducla Soares, Luís.

    2014-05-01

    Holoscopic imaging became a prospective glassless 3D technology to provide more natural 3D viewing experiences to the end user. Additionally, holoscopic systems also allow new post-production degrees of freedom, such as controlling the plane of focus or the viewing angle presented to the user. However, to successfully introduce this technology into the consumer market, a display scalable coding approach is essential to achieve backward compatibility with legacy 2D and 3D displays. Moreover, to effectively transmit 3D holoscopic content over error-prone networks, e.g., wireless networks or the Internet, error resilience techniques are required to mitigate the impact of data impairments in the user quality perception. Therefore, it is essential to deeply understand the impact of packet losses in terms of decoding video quality for the specific case of 3D holoscopic content, notably when a scalable approach is used. In this context, this paper studies the impact of packet losses when using a three-layer display scalable 3D holoscopic video coding architecture previously proposed, where each layer represents a different level of display scalability (i.e., L0 - 2D, L1 - stereo or multiview, and L2 - full 3D holoscopic). For this, a simple error concealment algorithm is used, which makes use of inter-layer redundancy between multiview and 3D holoscopic content and the inherent correlation of the 3D holoscopic content to estimate lost data. Furthermore, a study of the influence of 2D views generation parameters used in lower layers on the performance of the used error concealment algorithm is also presented.

  8. Mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea and their impact on temperature profiles

    WANG Guihua; SU Jilan; LI Rongfeng

    2005-01-01

    Some life history statistics of the mesoscale eddies ofthe South China Sea (SCS) derived from altimetry data will be further discussed according their different formation periods.A total of three ATLAS (autonomous temperature line acquisition system)mooring buoys data will be analyzed to discuss eddies' impact on temperature profiles.They identify that the intraseasonal variation of SCSthermocline is partly controlled by mesoscale eddies.

  9. Composite laminate impact damage assessment by high resolution 3D X-ray tomography and laminography

    Bull, D. J.; Sinclair, I.; Spearing, S.M.; Helfen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Improvements to toughening mechanisms in composite materials have hitherto relied on visual inspection techniques that can be rather limited, especially since the inherent damage behaviour is three-dimensional (3D) requiring high resolution to capture micro-cracks and similar damage. To achieve a better understanding of impact damage behaviour, synchrotron radiation computed laminography (SRCL) and computed tomography (SRCT) techniques were used to capture 3D damage mechanisms with voxel size...

  10. 3D Printing and Its Disruptive Impacts on Supply Chains of the Future

    Sebastian Mohr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology has emerged as one of the most disruptive innovations to impact the global supply chain and logistics industry. The technology is impacting our personal and professional lives, with some claiming that the technology will revolutionize and replace existing manufacturing technologies, while others argue that the technology merely enhances some aspects of the production process. Whether evolutionary or revolutionary, 3D printing technology is recognized as a striking trend that will significantly impact supply chains. Although the expansion of 3D printing in the private consumer market is an interesting development in its own right, the biggest potential for disruption lies in industrial applications and how 3D printing will influence supply chains of the future. In this article, we examine the areas of the supply chain most likely to be disrupted by 3D printing technology and we identify the key questions that must be answered in a roadmap for future research and practice. While we seek answers to these questions, we suggest that managers should develop a flexible change management strategy to mitigate the effects of disruption to their future supply chains and take advantage of the resulting opportunities. Those that do nothing will be left wanting, because the influence of 3D printing technology on supply chains is expected to grow.

  11. Impact of Level of Details in the 3d Reconstruction of Trees for Microclimate Modeling

    Bournez, E.; Landes, T.; Saudreau, M.; Kastendeuch, P.; Najjar, G.

    2016-06-01

    In the 21st century, urban areas undergo specific climatic conditions like urban heat islands which frequency and intensity increase over the years. Towards the understanding and the monitoring of these conditions, vegetation effects on urban climate are studied. It appears that a natural phenomenon, the evapotranspiration of trees, generates a cooling effect in urban environment. In this work, a 3D microclimate model is used to quantify the evapotranspiration of trees in relation with their architecture, their physiology and the climate. These three characteristics are determined with field measurements and data processing. Based on point clouds acquired with terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), the 3D reconstruction of the tree wood architecture is performed. Then the 3D reconstruction of leaves is carried out from the 3D skeleton of vegetative shoots and allometric statistics. With the aim of extending the simulation on several trees simultaneously, it is necessary to apply the 3D reconstruction process on each tree individually. However, as well for the acquisition as for the processing, the 3D reconstruction approach is time consuming. Mobile laser scanners could provide point clouds in a faster way than static TLS, but this implies a lower point density. Also the processing time could be shortened, but under the assumption that a coarser 3D model is sufficient for the simulation. In this context, the criterion of level of details and accuracy of the tree 3D reconstructed model must be studied. In this paper first tests to assess their impact on the determination of the evapotranspiration are presented.

  12. Low-Cost Impact Detection and Location for Automated Inspections of 3D Metallic Based Structures

    Carlos Morón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new low-cost means to detect and locate mechanical impacts (collisions on a 3D metal-based structure. We employ the simple and reasonably hypothesis that the use of a homogeneous material will allow certain details of the impact to be automatically determined by measuring the time delays of acoustic wave propagation throughout the 3D structure. The location of strategic piezoelectric sensors on the structure and an electronic-computerized system has allowed us to determine the instant and position at which the impact is produced. The proposed automatic system allows us to fully integrate impact point detection and the task of inspecting the point or zone at which this impact occurs. What is more, the proposed method can be easily integrated into a robot-based inspection system capable of moving over 3D metallic structures, thus avoiding (or minimizing the need for direct human intervention. Experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Finite element analysis of the impact response of reinforced concrete structures using DYNA3D

    Reinforced concrete structures in nuclear installations are potentially subject to accidental impact from external or internally generated hazards. These include: soft impacts such as aircraft crash on containment structures; and hard impacts such as heavy dropped loads on pond floors, or plant-generated fragments on structural and protective walls. The explicit finite element code DYNA3D has been used extensively for analysis of the response of structures to dynamic loadings, and a constitutive material model for reinforced concrete has been developed within DYNA3D to represent local cracking and crushing due to impact loads, as well as treating the elastic and plastic global response modes of the structure. This model has been extensively validated against impact tests for simulated aircraft impact on containment structures, but more recent interest has concentrated on analysis of hard impacts on floors and walls. Whilst a simplified constitutive model is adequate for the response to soft impacts, in which the dominant response mode is flexural, the local damage and high rates experienced in hard impacts have required further development of the material model. This paper describes the main features of the constitutive model, and presents the results of a validation case of a heavy dropped load on a reinforced concrete floor. (author)

  14. FURTHER CASE STUDIES ON THE IMPACT OF MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS ON REGIONAL OZONE AND HAZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    The report is a continuation of an earlier effort to study the impact of mesoscale convective precipitation systems upon distributions of aerosol and photochemical oxidant pollutants in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Analyses of surface visibility and ozone data revealed a d...

  15. Nonlinear 3D calculations of turbine blade impact on turbine cover

    This paper present the approach used at the VUJE institute for the evaluation of a ruptured blade impact on the current protection cover of a SKODA 220 MW turbine. Firstly, it briefly describes experiments (Hopkinson-Davies split bar facility, Taylor tests) and numerical simulations used to obtain realistic material parameters needed for the Cowper- Symonds material model that is implemented in the code LS-DYNA3D. Then, numerical simulations, by using the code, of the ruptured blade impact on various protection barriers are presented. These simulations make it possible to find an optimal solution for a new turbine protection cover. (author)

  16. A self-healing 3D woven fabric reinforced shape memory polymer composite for impact mitigation

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) woven fabric reinforced shape memory polymer composite for impact mitigation was proposed, fabricated, programmed using a three-step strain-controlled thermomechanical cycle at a pre-strain level of 5% and machined to two groups of specimens (G1 and G2) with dimensions 152.4 mm × 101.6 mm × 12.7 mm. The specimens were impact tested, transversely, centrally and repeatedly with 32 and 42 J of energy. G1 specimens were healed after each impact until perforation occurred. G2 specimens were not healed after each impact and served as controls. At 32 J impact energy, G2 specimens were perforated at the 9th impact while G1 specimens lasted until the 15th impact; at 42 J impact energy, G2 specimens were perforated at the 5th impact while G1 specimens were perforated at the 7th impact. Visual inspection, C-scan, and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to evaluate damage, failure modes, and healing efficiency

  17. Impact of 3-D printed PLA- and chitosan-based scaffolds on human monocyte/macrophage responses: unraveling the effect of 3-D structures on inflammation.

    Almeida, Catarina R; Serra, Tiziano; Oliveira, Marta I; Planell, Josep A; Barbosa, Mário A; Navarro, Melba

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have pointed towards a decisive role of inflammation in triggering tissue repair and regeneration, while at the same time it is accepted that an exacerbated inflammatory response may lead to rejection of an implant. Within this context, understanding and having the capacity to regulate the inflammatory response elicited by 3-D scaffolds aimed for tissue regeneration is crucial. This work reports on the analysis of the cytokine profile of human monocytes/macrophages in contact with biodegradable 3-D scaffolds with different surface properties, architecture and controlled pore geometry, fabricated by 3-D printing technology. Fabrication processes were optimized to create four different 3-D platforms based on polylactic acid (PLA), PLA/calcium phosphate glass or chitosan. Cytokine secretion and cell morphology of human peripheral blood monocytes allowed to differentiate on the different matrices were analyzed. While all scaffolds supported monocyte/macrophage adhesion and stimulated cytokine production, striking differences between PLA-based and chitosan scaffolds were found, with chitosan eliciting increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, while PLA-based scaffolds induced higher production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12/23 and IL-10. Even though the material itself induced the biggest differences, the scaffold geometry also impacted on TNF-α and IL-12/23 production, with chitosan scaffolds having larger pores and wider angles leading to a higher secretion of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings strengthen the appropriateness of these 3-D platforms to study modulation of macrophage responses by specific parameters (chemistry, topography, scaffold architecture). PMID:24211731

  18. Origins and impacts of mesoscale meanders in the Agulhas Current

    Elipot, S.; Beal, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Agulhas Current (AC) is the western boundary current of the South Indian subtropical gyre and is also the pathway for the inter-basin exchange of water, heat and salt between the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, and thus a crucial part of the global overturning circulation of the world ocean. The AC, which otherwise flows stably along the coast of South Africa, undergoes dramatic offshore excursions from its mean path, forming large mesoscale solitary meanders propagating downstream and potentially linked to the leakage of Indian Ocean waters to the South Atlantic. These irregular meander events have been referred to as Natal Pulses.Here we present new observations and analyses of Agulhas meanders using full-depth velocity mooring observations from the Agulhas Current Time series experiment (ACT). Detailed analyses of the in-situ velocity reveal important differences between the behavior of the flow during solitary meander events and during meander events of smaller amplitude. During solitary meanders, an onshore cyclonic circulation and an offshore anticyclonic circulation act in concert to displace the jet offshore, leading to sudden and strong positive conversion of kinetic energy of the mean flow to the meander. In contrast, smaller amplitude meanderings are principally represented by a single cyclonic circulation spanning the entire jet that acts to displace the jet without significantly extracting kinetic energy from the mean flow. Solitary meander events can be traced upstream using satellite altimetry and linked to either Mozambique Channel eddies or Madagascar dipoles, the latter possibly part of a basin-wide pattern of propagating sea level anomalies consistent with Rossby wave dynamics. However, only a small number of these anomalies lead to solitary meanders. Altimetric observations suggest 1.5 meanders per year and show that the two-year period during ACT when no events were observed is unprecedented in the 20-year satellite record.

  19. Modeling the Impact of Drizzle and 3D Cloud Structure on Remote Sensing of Effective Radius

    Platnick, Steven; Zinner, Tobias; Ackerman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing of cloud particle size with passive sensors like MODIS is an important tool for cloud microphysical studies. As a measure of the radiatively relevant droplet size, effective radius can be retrieved with different combinations of visible through shortwave infrared channels. MODIS observations sometimes show significantly larger effective radii in marine boundary layer cloud fields derived from the 1.6 and 2.1 pm channel observations than for 3.7 pm retrievals. Possible explanations range from 3D radiative transport effects and sub-pixel cloud inhomogeneity to the impact of drizzle formation on the droplet distribution. To investigate the potential influence of these factors, we use LES boundary layer cloud simulations in combination with 3D Monte Carlo simulations of MODIS observations. LES simulations of warm cloud spectral microphysics for cases of marine stratus and broken stratocumulus, each for two different values of cloud condensation nuclei density, produce cloud structures comprising droplet size distributions with and without drizzle size drops. In this study, synthetic MODIS observations generated from 3D radiative transport simulations that consider the full droplet size distribution will be generated for each scene. The operational MODIS effective radius retrievals will then be applied to the simulated reflectances and the results compared with the LES microphysics.

  20. Simulation of the impact of 3-D porosity distribution in metallic U-10Zr fuels

    Yun, Di; Yacout, Abdellatif M.; Stan, Marius; Bauer, Theodore H.; Wright, Arthur E.

    2014-05-01

    Evolution of porosity generated in metallic U-Zr fuel irradiated in fast spectrum reactors leads to changes in fuel properties and impacts important phenomena such as heat transport and constituent redistribution. The porosity is generated as a result of the accumulation of fission gases and is affected by the possible bond sodium infiltration into the fuel. Typically, the impact of porosity development on properties, such as thermal conductivity, is accounted for through empirical correlations that are dependent on porosity and infiltrated sodium fractions. Currently available simulation tools make it possible to take into account fuel 3-D porosity distributions, potentially eliminating the need for such correlations. This development allows for a more realistic representation of the porosity evolution in metallic fuel and creates a framework for truly mechanistic fuel development models. In this work, COMSOL multi-physics simulation platform is used to model 3-D porosity distributions and simulate heat transport in metallic U-10Zr fuel. Available experimental data regarding microstructural evolution of fuel that was irradiated in EBR-II and associated phase stability information are used to guide the simulation. The impact of changes in porosity characteristics on material properties is estimated and the results are compared with calculated temperature distributions. The simulations demonstrate the developed capability and importance of accounting for detailed porosity distribution features for accurate fuel performance evaluation.

  1. 3D Characterization of the Magnetic Signature of a Medium Sized Impact Crater at Odessa, TX

    Robinson, A.; Soule, D.; Everett, M.; Rodman, T.; Mangue Ndong, M.; Pereira, A.; Platt, P.; Trahan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Meteorite impacts are a common occurrence throughout Earth's geologic history. Many of the surface expressions of large ancient impacts have been subsequently erased by weathering and erosion processes. The study of preserved meteorite impacts is necessary to better understand this natural hazard which has been increasingly linked to rapid climate change and mass extinctions. The 60 ka Odessa meteorite crater located in Ector Co. Texas, is unique because it is not only well-preserved, but also has been the subject of extensive geologic examination. Geologic mapping and numeric models indicate that the crater was caused by a relatively small oblique impactor. The crater rim is remarkably well exposed. Much of the ejecta blanket is present, although deeply eroded. There has been considerable site disturbance due to drilling, shaft excavation, trenching, construction of a museum, trails, and the oil/gas activity in surrounding fields. Two previous geophysical investigations have shown that our data clearly corresponds to large-scale thrust deformation. With this in mind we have performed 3D high resolution magnetic gradiometer surveys that will allow us to quantify and characterize the magnetic signature of small to medium impacts. We will tie this data set to a 3D photorealistic outcrop image provided by laser scanning with coarser-scale, below-ground geophysical information. Our geophysical imagery provides a useful constraint on numerical simulations of the impact and its immediate regional-scale environmental effects. This information can be used to identify impact sites whose surface expression has been erased by natural erosional processes, allowing for improved frequency estimates and improved geo-hazard assessment.

  2. Impact of Particle Size of Ceramic Granule Blends on Mechanical Strength and Porosity of 3D Printed Scaffolds

    Sebastian Spath; Philipp Drescher; Hermann Seitz

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is a promising method for the fabrication of scaffolds in the field of bone tissue engineering. To date, the mechanical strength of 3D printed ceramic scaffolds is not sufficient for a variety of applications in the reconstructive surgery. Mechanical strength is directly in relation with the porosity of the 3D printed scaffolds. The porosity is directly influenced by particle size and particle-size distribution of the raw material. To investigate this impact, a hydroxyapatite gran...

  3. 3D Finite Element Analysis of a Man Hip Joint Femur under Impact Loads

    YU Xue-zhong; GUO Yi-mu; LI Jun; ZHANG Yun-qiu; HE Rong-xin

    2007-01-01

    The biomechanical characters of the bone fracture of the man femoral hip joint under impact loads are explored. Methods: A biosystem model of the man femoral hip joint by using the GE ( General Electric) lightspeed multi-lay spiral CT is conducted. A 3D finite element model is established by employing the finite element software ANSYS. The FE analysis mainly concentrates on the effects of the impact directions arising from intense movements and the parenchyma on the femoral hip joint on the stress distributions of the proximal femur. Results:The parenchyma on the hip joint has relatively large relaxation effect on the impact loads. Conclusion:Effects of the angle δ of the impact load to the anterior direction and the angle γ of the impact load to the femur shaft on the bone fracture are given;δ has larger effect on the stress and strain distributions than the angle γ, which mainly represents the fracture of the upper femur including the femoral neck fracture when the posterolateral femur is impacted, consistent with the clinical results.

  4. A DYNA3D calculation for impact on a pipe target

    This report describes experimental studies to examine the response of pipework, typical of that used in nuclear power plants, to the impact of missiles representing fragments of disintegrating machinery. The finite element code DYNA3D has been used to make a calculation for one experiment in which an instrumented target pipe was impacted by a cylindrical steel billet. Transient displacement of the missile and target as well as permanent deformations of the target pipe were well-predicted by the code. The code reproduced the main features of the experimental transient strain measurements with the timings of the various straining phases being calculated very closely. Detailed quantitative comparisons cannot be made because of the lack of appropriate facilities in the GRAPE post-processing code. (U.K.)

  5. Impact of Particle Size of Ceramic Granule Blends on Mechanical Strength and Porosity of 3D Printed Scaffolds

    Sebastian Spath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a promising method for the fabrication of scaffolds in the field of bone tissue engineering. To date, the mechanical strength of 3D printed ceramic scaffolds is not sufficient for a variety of applications in the reconstructive surgery. Mechanical strength is directly in relation with the porosity of the 3D printed scaffolds. The porosity is directly influenced by particle size and particle-size distribution of the raw material. To investigate this impact, a hydroxyapatite granule blend with a wide particle size distribution was fractioned by sieving. The specific fractions and bimodal mixtures of the sieved granule blend were used to 3D print specimens. It has been shown that an optimized arrangement of fractions with large and small particles can provide 3D printed specimens with good mechanical strength due to a higher packing density. An increase of mechanical strength can possibly expand the application area of 3D printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

  6. Research on the Impact of 3D Printing on the International Supply Chain

    Zhen Chen

    2016-01-01

    In recent years 3D printing technology is developing rapidly. In the foreseeable future, when 3D printing is widely used, the world’s industrial structure will be greatly changed. Based on the actual data, this paper constructs an international supply chain model using system dynamics method. And it simulates the reconstruction trend of the supply chain after 3D printing application. The conclusion shows that the universal application of 3D printing will lead to the worldwide transport volume...

  7. 3-D geometrical analysis tool for meteoroids/debris impact risk assessment

    Borde, J.; Drolshagen, G.

    1991-01-01

    It is widely appreciated that meteoroids and space debris are critical factors in the safety and reliability of future missions, especially long-term mission such as the Space Station Freedom. In this paper, enhanced a 3-D numerical analysis tool for meteoroids/debris risk evaluation is presented. It is based on presently available environment and particle/wall interaction models together with spacecraft shielding design. This provides impact probabilities and resulting damaging effects using realistic geometrical treatments. The shielding by other parts of the spacecraft is considered. It accounts for directional and geometrical effects both in the environment and in the damage evaluation. It includes the latest environment and design models and allows an easy updating of these data as they are improved upon. This tool is a new application of the ESABASE framework, a geometrical system level analysis and engineering tool developed by MATRA ESPACE for ESA/ESTEC.

  8. The potential impact of 3D telepresence technology on task performance in emergency trauma care

    Söderholm, Hanna M.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Cairns, Bruce;

    2007-01-01

    simulated emergency situation 60 paramedics diagnosed and treated a trauma victim while working alone or in collaboration with a physician via 2D video or a 3D proxy. Analysis of paramedics' task performance shows that the fewest harmful procedures occurred in the 3D proxy condition. Paramedics in the 3D...

  9. Test impact on the overall die-to-wafer 3D stacked IC cost

    Taouil, M.; Hamdioui, S.; Beenakker, K.; Marinissen, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the key challenges in 3D Stacked-ICs (3D-SIC) is to guarantee high product quality at minimal cost. Quality is mostly determined by the applied tests and cost trade-offs. Testing 3D-SICs is very challenging due to several additional test moments for the mid-bond stacks, i.e., partially create

  10. Impact of SLA assimilation in the Sicily Channel Regional Model: model skills and mesoscale features

    A. Olita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the assimilation of MyOcean sea level anomalies along-track data on the analyses of the Sicily Channel Regional Model was studied. The numerical model has a resolution of 1/32° degrees and is capable to reproduce mesoscale and sub-mesoscale features. The impact of the SLA assimilation is studied by comparing a simulation (SIM, which does not assimilate data with an analysis (AN assimilating SLA along-track multi-mission data produced in the framework of MyOcean project. The quality of the analysis was evaluated by computing RMSE of the misfits between analysis background and observations (sea level before assimilation. A qualitative evaluation of the ability of the analyses to reproduce mesoscale structures is accomplished by comparing model results with ocean colour and SST satellite data, able to detect such features on the ocean surface. CTD profiles allowed to evaluate the impact of the SLA assimilation along the water column. We found a significant improvement for AN solution in terms of SLA RMSE with respect to SIM (the averaged RMSE of AN SLA misfits over 2 years is about 0.5 cm smaller than SIM. Comparison with CTD data shows a questionable improvement produced by the assimilation process in terms of vertical features: AN is better in temperature while for salinity it gets worse than SIM at the surface. This suggests that a better a-priori description of the vertical error covariances would be desirable. The qualitative comparison of simulation and analyses with synoptic satellite independent data proves that SLA assimilation allows to correctly reproduce some dynamical features (above all the circulation in the Ionian portion of the domain and mesoscale structures otherwise misplaced or neglected by SIM. Such mesoscale changes also infer that the eddy momentum fluxes (i.e. Reynolds stresses show major changes in the Ionian area. Changes in Reynolds stresses reflect a different pumping of eastward momentum from the eddy to

  11. Measuring the impact of 3D data geometric modeling on spatial analysis: Illustration with Skyview factor

    Brasebin, M.; Perret, J.; Mustière, S.; Weber, C.

    2012-10-01

    The increased availability of 3D urban data reflects a growing interest in 3D spatial analysis. As 3D spatial analysis often uses complex 3D data, studies of the potential gains of using more detailed 3D urban databases for specific uses is an important issue. First, more complex data implies an increase in time and memory usage for the analysis (and calls for more research on the efficiency of the algorithms used). Second, detailed 3D urban data are complex to produce, expensive and it is important to be well informed in order to decide whether of not to invest in such data. Currently, many studies have been led about the fitness for use of 2D data but they are very scarce concerning 3D data. This article presents a method to determine the influence of 3D modeling on the results of 3D analysis by isolating the potential sources of errors (such as roof modeling and geometric accuracy). This method is applied on two 3D datasets (LOD1 and LOD2) and a 3D indicator (the sky view factor or SVF). The results show that the significant influence of roof modeling is globally compensated by the difference in geometric modeling but that important local variations are noticed. Nevertheless, for 75% of the SVF processed the difference between the results using these two databases is lower than 2%.

  12. 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes

    Gems, Bernhard; Mazzorana, Bruno; Hofer, Thomas; Sturm, Michael; Gabl, Roman; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Given the current challenges in flood risk management and vulnerability assessment of buildings exposed to flood hazards, this study presents three-dimensional numerical modelling of torrential floods and its interaction with buildings. By means of a case study application, the FLOW-3D software is applied to the lower reach of the Rio Vallarsa torrent in the village of Laives (Italy). A single-family house on the flood plain is therefore considered in detail. It is exposed to a 300-year flood hydrograph. Different building representation scenarios, including an entire impervious building envelope and the assumption of fully permeable doors, light shafts and windows, are analysed. The modelling results give insight into the flooding process of the building's interior, the impacting hydrodynamic forces on the exterior and interior walls, and further, they quantify the impact of the flooding of a building on the flow field on the surrounding flood plain. The presented study contributes to the development of a comprehensive physics-based vulnerability assessment framework. For pure water floods, this study presents the possibilities and limits of advanced numerical modelling techniques within flood risk management and, thereby, the planning of local structural protection measures.

  13. Research on the Impact of 3D Printing on the International Supply Chain

    Zhen Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years 3D printing technology is developing rapidly. In the foreseeable future, when 3D printing is widely used, the world’s industrial structure will be greatly changed. Based on the actual data, this paper constructs an international supply chain model using system dynamics method. And it simulates the reconstruction trend of the supply chain after 3D printing application. The conclusion shows that the universal application of 3D printing will lead to the worldwide transport volume shrinking dramatically. The manufacturing activities will gradually outflow to the countries which are closer to the final customers. The relevant countries should carry out feasible measures to face this opportunity and challenge. The measures include the reform of logistics facilities, the logistics cooperation with the origin of 3D printing materials, and the matched transportation of 3D printing materials and traditional processing ones.

  14. Multidimensional morphometric 3D MRI analyses for detecting brain abnormalities in children: impact of control population.

    Wilke, Marko; Rose, Douglas F; Holland, Scott K; Leach, James L

    2014-07-01

    Automated morphometric approaches are used to detect epileptogenic structural abnormalities in 3D MR images in adults, using the variance of a control population to obtain z-score maps in an individual patient. Due to the substantial changes the developing human brain undergoes, performing such analyses in children is challenging. This study investigated six features derived from high-resolution T1 datasets in four groups: normal children (1.5T or 3T data), normal clinical scans (3T data), and patients with structural brain lesions (3T data), with each n = 10. Normative control data were obtained from the NIH study on normal brain development (n = 401). We show that control group size substantially influences the captured variance, directly impacting the patient's z-scores. Interestingly, matching on gender does not seem to be beneficial, which was unexpected. Using data obtained at higher field scanners produces slightly different base rates of suprathreshold voxels, as does using clinically derived normal studies, suggesting a subtle but systematic effect of both factors. Two approaches for controlling suprathreshold voxels in a multidimensional approach (combining features and requiring a minimum cluster size) were shown to be substantial and effective in reducing this number. Finally, specific strengths and limitations of such an approach could be demonstrated in individual cases. PMID:25050423

  15. Use of 3D imaging in CT of the acute trauma patient: impact of a PACS-based software package.

    Soto, Jorge A; Lucey, Brain C; Stuhlfaut, Joshua W; Varghese, Jose C

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of a picture archiving and communication systems (PACS)-based software package on the requests for 3D reconstructions of multidetector CT (MDCT) data sets in the emergency radiology of a level 1 trauma center, we reviewed the number and type of physician requests for 3D reconstructions of MDCT data sets for patients admitted after sustaining multiple trauma, during a 12-month period (January 2003-December 2003). During the first 5 months of the study, 3D reconstructions were performed in dedicated workstations located separately from the emergency radiology CT interpretation area. During the last 7 months of the study, reconstructions were performed online by the attending radiologist or resident on duty, using a software package directly incorporated into the PACS workstations. The mean monthly number of 3D reconstructions requested during the two time periods was compared using Student's t test. The monthly mean +/- SD of 3D reconstructions performed before and after 3D software incorporation into the PACS was 34+/-7 (95% CI, 10-58) and 132+/-31 (95% CI, 111-153), respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001). In the multiple trauma patient, implementation of PACS-integrated software increases utilization of 3D reconstructions of MDCT data sets. PMID:16028324

  16. Eye Tracking to Explore the Impacts of Photorealistic 3d Representations in Pedstrian Navigation Performance

    Dong, Weihua; Liao, Hua

    2016-06-01

    Despite the now-ubiquitous two-dimensional (2D) maps, photorealistic three-dimensional (3D) representations of cities (e.g., Google Earth) have gained much attention by scientists and public users as another option. However, there is no consistent evidence on the influences of 3D photorealism on pedestrian navigation. Whether 3D photorealism can communicate cartographic information for navigation with higher effectiveness and efficiency and lower cognitive workload compared to the traditional symbolic 2D maps remains unknown. This study aims to explore whether the photorealistic 3D representation can facilitate processes of map reading and navigation in digital environments using a lab-based eye tracking approach. Here we show the differences of symbolic 2D maps versus photorealistic 3D representations depending on users' eye-movement and navigation behaviour data. We found that the participants using the 3D representation were less effective, less efficient and were required higher cognitive workload than using the 2D map for map reading. However, participants using the 3D representation performed more efficiently in self-localization and orientation at the complex decision points. The empirical results can be helpful to improve the usability of pedestrian navigation maps in future designs.

  17. Impact of strengthening fluids on roughness of 3D printed models

    T. Galeta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For some applications, 3D printed parts usually do not have satisfactory mechanical properties, so to broaden their usage, additive technologies should be combined with the well-known metallurgical processes, such as investment and others casting techniques. 3D printing developers persistently introduce new base materials and strengthening fluids which may cause different surface roughness. Therefore, in this paper, the authors have tested the roughness of 3D printed samples strengthened with common, but also with alternative fluids. Measurements proved that fluids do have significant influence on the roughness.

  18. The mesoscale moisture variability and its impact on the energy transfer through the boundary layer

    Frech, M.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of mesoscale moisture variability on the vertical energy transfer through a pre-frontal boundary layer is studied with NOPEX aircraft data. The moisture variability relates to a cold front which passed the area 2 1/2 hours after the observations. We find a density front ahead of the cold front. The large vertical divergence of the turbulent moisture flux in the surface layer is partly related to this moisture variability. Large scale horizontal advection contributes to the observed vertical turbulent flux divergence. The estimated horizontal mesoscale advection term in the budget of sensible heat and moisture is on average small but locally it can be large. This term acts to re-distribute moisture in the boundary layer and leads to sub-grid variations of relative humidity which is an important parameter for boundary layer cloud models. The distinct spatial variations of specific humidity are mainly related to synoptic forcing and not to heterogeneity in the surface energy balance. (orig.)

  19. Propagation of impact-induced shock waves in porous sandstone using mesoscale modeling

    GÜLdemeister, Nicole; WÜNnemann, Kai; Durr, Nathanael; Hiermaier, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Generation and propagation of shock waves by meteorite impact is significantly affected by material properties such as porosity, water content, and strength. The objective of this work was to quantify processes related to the shock-induced compaction of pore space by numerical modeling, and compare the results with data obtained in the framework of the Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling Impact Research Network (MEMIN) impact experiments. We use mesoscale models resolving the collapse of individual pores to validate macroscopic (homogenized) approaches describing the bulk behavior of porous and water-saturated materials in large-scale models of crater formation, and to quantify localized shock amplification as a result of pore space crushing. We carried out a suite of numerical models of planar shock wave propagation through a well-defined area (the "sample") of porous and/or water-saturated material. The porous sample is either represented by a homogeneous unit where porosity is treated as a state variable (macroscale model) and water content by an equation of state for mixed material (ANEOS) or by a defined number of individually resolved pores (mesoscale model). We varied porosity and water content and measured thermodynamic parameters such as shock wave velocity and particle velocity on meso- and macroscales in separate simulations. The mesoscale models provide additional data on the heterogeneous distribution of peak shock pressures as a consequence of the complex superposition of reflecting rarefaction waves and shock waves originating from the crushing of pores. We quantify the bulk effect of porosity, the reduction in shock pressure, in terms of Hugoniot data as a function of porosity, water content, and strength of a quartzite matrix. We find a good agreement between meso-, macroscale models and Hugoniot data from shock experiments. We also propose a combination of a porosity compaction model (ɛ-α model) that was previously only used for

  20. Radiobiology goes 3D: How ECM and cell morphology impact on cell survival after irradiation

    Translational research is essential to find new therapeutic approaches to improve cancer patient survival. Despite extensive efforts in preclinical studies, many novel therapies fail to turn out to be translational from bench to beside. Therefore, new models better reflecting the conditions in vivo are needed to generate results, which transfer reliably into the clinic. The use of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models has provided new emerging insights into the understanding of cellular behavior upon cancer therapies. Interestingly, cells cultured in a 3D extracellular matrix are more radio- and chemoresistant than cells grown under conventional 2D conditions. In this review, we summarize and discuss underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon including integrin-mediated cell-matrix interactions, cell shape, nuclear organization and chromatin structure. Identifying the molecular differences between 2D and 3D cultured cells will offer the opportunity to improve our research and widen our therapeutic possibilities against cancer.

  1. Patient doses in paediatric interventional cardiology: impact of 3D rotational angiography

    The aim of this study was to calculate the contribution of 3D rotational angiography to radiation doses received by paediatric patients in a cardiac catheterisation laboratory. The percentage increase in the median value of air kerma-area product due to cone beam CT was 33 and 16% for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, respectively. Results are presented separately for five age groups and ten weight groups. Several methods for reducing radiation from 3D rotational angiography are suggested and patient doses are compared with previously published values. (paper)

  2. Solar radiation transport in the cloudy atmosphere: a 3D perspective on observations and climate impacts

    The interplay of sunlight with clouds is a ubiquitous and often pleasant visual experience, but it conjures up major challenges for weather, climate, environmental science and beyond. Those engaged in the characterization of clouds (and the clear air nearby) by remote sensing methods are even more confronted. The problem comes, on the one hand, from the spatial complexity of real clouds and, on the other hand, from the dominance of multiple scattering in the radiation transport. The former ingredient contrasts sharply with the still popular representation of clouds as homogeneous plane-parallel slabs for the purposes of radiative transfer computations. In typical cloud scenes the opposite asymptotic transport regimes of diffusion and ballistic propagation coexist. We survey the three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric radiative transfer literature over the past 50 years and identify three concurrent and intertwining thrusts: first, how to assess the damage (bias) caused by 3D effects in the operational 1D radiative transfer models? Second, how to mitigate this damage? Finally, can we exploit 3D radiative transfer phenomena to innovate observation methods and technologies? We quickly realize that the smallest scale resolved computationally or observationally may be artificial but is nonetheless a key quantity that separates the 3D radiative transfer solutions into two broad and complementary classes: stochastic and deterministic. Both approaches draw on classic and contemporary statistical, mathematical and computational physics.

  3. An experimental analysis for the impact of 3D variation assi- milation of satellite data on typhoon track simulation

    XIE Hongqin; WU Zengmao; GAO Shanhong

    2004-01-01

    A series of test simulations are performed to evaluate the impact of satellite-derived meteorological data on numerical typhoon track prediction. Geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS-5) and NOAA's TIROS operational vertical sounder (TOVS) observations are used in the experiments. A three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) assimilation scheme is developed to assimilate the satellite data directly into the Penn State-NCAR nonhydrostatic meteorological model (MM5). Three-dimensional objective analysis fields based on the T213 results and conventional observations are employed as the background fields of the initialization. The comparisons of the simulated typhoon tracks are carried out, which correspond respectively to assimilate different kinds of satellite data. It is found that, compared with the experiment without satellite data assimilation, the 3D-Var assimilation schemes lead to significant improvements on typhoon track prediction. Track errors reduce from approximately 25% at 24 h to approximately 30% at 48 h for 3D-Var assimilation experiments.

  4. Impact of 3D magnetic field structure on boundary and divertor plasmas in stellarator/heliotron devices

    Kobayashi, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck-Institute fuer Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Xu, Y. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Tabares, F.L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Ida, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Schmitz, O. [University of Wisconsin – Madison, WI (United States); Evans, T.E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Frerichs, H. [University of Wisconsin – Madison, WI (United States); Liang, Y. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Jülich (Germany); Bader, A. [University of Wisconsin – Madison, WI (United States); Itoh, K.; Yamada, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ghendrih, Ph.; Ciraolo, G. [IRFM, CEA Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Tafalla, D.; Lopez-Fraguas, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Guo, H.Y. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei (China); Cui, Z.Y. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Reiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Jülich (Germany); Asakura, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); and others

    2015-08-15

    This paper overviews recent progress on the experimental identification and physics interpretation of 3D effects of magnetic field geometry on divertor transport. The 3D effects are elucidated as a consequence of competition between transports parallel (||) and perpendicular (⊥) to magnetic field, in open field lines cut by divertor plates, or in magnetic islands. The competition has strong impacts on divertor functions, such as determination of density regime, impurity screening, and detachment control. The effects of magnetic perturbation on the edge electric field and turbulent transport are also discussed. Based on the experiments and numerical simulations, key parameters governing the 3D transport physics for the individual divertor functions, e.g. pumping efficiency through divertor density regime, impurity screening and detachment control, are discussed.

  5. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    W.-L. Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the Western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada using CCSM4 (CAM4/CLM4 global model with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation [3-D − PP (plane-parallel] adjustment to ensure that energy balance at the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization. We show that deviations of the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains, but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while decreases for higher elevations with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases in higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.

  6. 3D Modelling of the impact of outflow channel events on Late Hesperian Mars climate.

    Turbet, M.; Forget, F.; Wordsworth, R.; Head, J. W.

    2015-10-01

    During late Hesperian, large outflow channels observed in the Chryse Planitia area [1] are thought to have been carved by catastrophic and sudden water floods [2,3]. It has been speculated that such events may have modified the climate, at least locally and episodically, and could have induced precipitations and even rain [4] that could explain the formation of Late Hesperian valley networks under a cold contemporaneous climate. We present below 3D modeling of a sudden and extreme release of warm liquid water in the Chryse Planitia area on ancient Mars, assuming a faint young Sun and CO2 -dominated atmospheres thicker than today. 3D climate modeling under these conditions [5,6], and performed with a water cycle taking into account water vapor and clouds, have not been able yet to produce liquid water or at least significant precipitations by climatic processes anywhere on the planet, even when maximizing the greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds.

  7. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature.

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-01-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km(2) residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers. PMID:27079537

  8. STEM and ICT Instructional Worlds: The 3D Experience, The impact on today’s students

    William Edward Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In our project, 3D immersive virtual worlds have been implemented in middle schools for instruction in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM.  The learning and playing, as a curricular tool, has enormous potential for engaging children of all ages in deep learning (Lim, Nonis, &  Hedberg 2006. STEM and ICT Instructional Worlds: The 3D Experience (STEM-ICT 3D is funded by the National Science Foundation Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST program. The project is intended to inspire middle school students to pursue studies and careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics – particularly information and communication technology (ICT fields - as well as prepare students with the skills necessary to succeed in STEM education and careers. The project, based on research suggesting student gains in engagement, efficacy, and achievement (Barab, et al, 2005; Educause, 2006; Ketelhut, et al, 2006 proposes to translate the success of an earlier pilot toward a model that can be replicated in other middle schools over time.

  9. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-04-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km2 residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers.

  10. The impact of flattening-filter-free beam technology on 3D conformal RT

    The removal of the flattening filter (FF) leads to non-uniform fluence distribution with a considerable increase in dose rate. It is possible to adapt FFF beams (flattening-filter-free) in 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) by using field in field techniques (FiF). The aim of this retrospective study is to clarify whether the quality of 3D CRT plans is influenced by the use of FFF beams. This study includes a total of 52 CT studies of RT locations that occur frequently in clinical practice. Dose volume targets were provided for the PTV of breast (n=13), neurocranium (n=11), lung (n=7), bone metastasis (n=10) and prostate (n=11) in line with ICRU report 50/62. 3D CRT planning was carried out using FiF methods. Two clinically utilized photon energies are used for a Siemens ARTISTE linear accelerator in FFF mode at 7MVFFF and 11MVFFF as well as in FF mode at 6MVFF and 10MVFF. The plan quality in relation to the PTV coverage, OAR (organs at risk) and low dose burden as well as the 2D dosimetric verification is compared with FF plans. No significant differences were found between FFF and FF plans in the mean dose for the PTV of breast, lung, spine metastasis and prostate. The low dose parameters V5Gy and V10Gy display significant differences for FFF and FF plans in some subgroups. The DVH analysis of the OAR revealed some significant differences. Significantly more fields (1.9 – 4.5) were necessary in the use of FFF beams for each location (p<0.0001) in order to achieve PTV coverage. All the tested groups displayed significant increases (1.3 – 2.2 times) in the average number of necessary MU with the use of FFF beams (p<0.001). This study has shown that the exclusive use of a linear accelerator in FFF mode is feasible in 3D CRT. It was possible to realize RT plans in comparable quality in typical cases of clinical radiotherapy. The 2D dosimetric validation of the modulated fields verified the dose calculation and thus the correct reproduction of the

  11. Impact of mesoscale meteorological processes on anomalous radar propagation conditions over the northern Adriatic area

    Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Horvat, Igor; Tomažić, Igor; Kvakić, Marko; Viher, Mladen; Grisogono, Branko

    2015-09-01

    The impact of mesoscale structures on the occurrence of anomalous propagation (AP) conditions for radio waves, including ducts, superrefractive, and subrefractive conditions, was studied. The chosen meteorological situations are the bora wind and the sporadic sea/land breeze (SB/LB) during three selected cases over a large portion of the northern Adriatic. For this purpose, we used available radio soundings and numerical mesoscale model simulations (of real cases and their sensitivity tests) at a horizontal resolution of 1.5 km and 81 vertical levels. The model simulated the occurrences of AP conditions satisfactorily, although their intensities and frequency were underestimated at times. Certain difficulties appeared in reproducing the vertical profile of the modified refractive index, which is mainly dependent on the accuracy of the modeled humidity. The spatial distributions of summer AP conditions reveal that the surface layer above the sea (roughly between 30 and 100 m asl) is often covered by superrefractive conditions and ducts. The SB is highly associated with the formations of AP conditions: (i) in the first 100 m asl, where trapping and superrefractive conditions form because of the advection of cold and moist air, and (ii) inside the transition layer between the SB body and the elevated return flow in the form of subrefractive conditions. When deep convection occurs, all three types of AP conditions are caused by the downdraft beneath the cumulonimbus cloud base in its mature phase that creates smaller but marked pools of cold and dry air. The bora wind usually creates a pattern of AP conditions associated with the hydraulic jump and influences distribution of AP conditions over the sea surface.

  12. Dosimetric impact of different CT datasets for stereotactic treatment planning using 3D conformal radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Oechsner, Markus; Odersky, Leonhard; Berndt, Johannes; Combs, Stephanie Elisabeth; Wilkens, Jan Jakob; DUMA, MARCIANA NONA

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the impact on dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR) by using four differently generated CT datasets for dose calculation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of lung and liver tumors. Additionally, dose differences between 3D conformal radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans calculated on these CT datasets were determined. Methods Twenty SBRT patients, ten lung cases and ten liver cases, ...

  13. Recipes for correcting the impact of effective mesoscale resolution on the estimation of extreme winds

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Ott, Søren; Badger, Jake;

    2012-01-01

    Extreme winds derived from simulations using mesoscale models are underestimated due to the effective spatial and temporal resolutions. This is reflected in the spectral domain as an energy deficit in the mesoscale range. The energy deficit implies smaller spectral moments and thus underestimatio...

  14. Eccentricity in Images of Circular and Spherical Targets and its Impact to 3D Object Reconstruction

    Luhmann, T.

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses a feature of projective geometry which causes eccentricity in the image measurement of circular and spherical targets. While it is commonly known that flat circular targets can have a significant displacement of the elliptical image centre with respect to the true imaged circle centre, it can also be shown that the a similar effect exists for spherical targets. Both types of targets are imaged with an elliptical contour. As a result, if measurement methods based on ellipses are used to detect the target (e.g. best-fit ellipses), the calculated ellipse centre does not correspond to the desired target centre in 3D space. This paper firstly discusses the use and measurement of circular and spherical targets. It then describes the geometrical projection model in order to demonstrate the eccentricity in image space. Based on numerical simulations, the eccentricity in the image is further quantified and investigated. Finally, the resulting effect in 3D space is estimated for stereo and multi-image intersections. It can be stated that the eccentricity is larger than usually assumed, and must be compensated for high-accuracy applications. Spherical targets do not show better results than circular targets. The paper is an updated version of Luhmann (2014) new experimental investigations on the effect of length measurement errors.

  15. The impact of martian mesoscale winds on surface temperature and on the determination of thermal inertia

    Spiga, Aymeric; Forget, François; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Montabone, Luca; Lewis, Stephen R.; Millour, Ehouarn

    2011-04-01

    Radiative control of surface temperature is a key characteristic of the martian environment and its low-density atmosphere. Here we show through meteorological modeling that surface temperature can be far from radiative equilibrium over numerous sloping terrains on Mars, where nighttime mesoscale katabatic winds impact the surface energy budget. Katabatic circulations induce both adiabatic atmospheric heating and enhancement of downward sensible heat flux, which then becomes comparable to radiative flux and acts to warm the ground. Through this mechanism, surface temperature can increase up to 20 K. One consequence is that warm signatures of surface temperature over slopes, observed through infrared spectrometry, cannot be systematically associated with contrasts of intrinsic soil thermal inertia. Apparent thermal inertia maps retrieved thus far possibly contain wind-induced structures. Another consequence is that surface temperature observations close to sloping terrains could allow the validation of model predictions for martian katabatic winds, provided contrasts in intrinsic thermal inertia can be ruled out. The thermal impact of winds is mostly discussed in this paper in the particular cases of Olympus Mons/Lycus Sulci and Terra Meridiani but is generally significant over any sloped terrains in low thermal inertia areas. It is even general enough to apply under daytime conditions, thereby providing a possible explanation for observed afternoon surface cooling, and to ice-covered terrains, thereby providing new insights on how winds could have shaped the present surface of Mars.

  16. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    Lee, W.-L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H.-H.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, using the global CCSM4 (Community Climate System Model version 4; Community Atmosphere Model/Community Land Model - CAM4/CLM4) with a 0.23° x 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation (3-D-PP (plane-parallel)) adjustment to ensure that the energy balance at the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization. We show that deviations in the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher-elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while it decreases for higher elevations, with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases at higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.

  17. Electron impact excitation of the 3d104p 2P state in copper

    Differential and total cross sections for the excitation of the 3d104p state in copper by electrons have been measured at incident energies of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 eV. The differential cross sections cover the angular range from 2.5o to 130o. Absolute values of the cross sections have been assigned using a generalized oscillator strength technique and the validity of this technique is explored in some detail. The measured cross sections are compared with those predicted by several theories where it is found that the close-coupling calculation of Msezane and Henry accurately predicts the value of the total cross sections for incident energies greater than 20 eV. Agreement between theory and experiment for the differential cross sections is poor. The present measurements of the differential cross sections resolves the ambiguity in the absolute values of the cross sections measured by Trajmar and coworkers. (author)

  18. Automatic contact algorithm in ppercase[dyna3d] for crashworthiness and impact problems

    This paper presents a new approach for the automatic definition and treatment of mechanical contact in explicit non-linear finite element analysis. Automatic contact offers the benefits of significantly reduced model construction time and fewer opportunities for user error, but faces significant challenges in reliability and computational costs. Key aspects of the proposed new method include automatic identification of adjacent and opposite surfaces in the global search phase, and the use of a well-defined surface normal which allows a consistent treatment of shell intersection and corner contact conditions without adhoc rules. The paper concludes with three examples which illustrate the performance of the newly proposed algorithm in the public ppercase[dyna3d] code. ((orig.))

  19. Impact of 3D-model thickness on FE-simulations of microstructure

    Soppa, Ewa, E-mail: ewa.soppa@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de [Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Nellesen, Jens [Dortmunder Initiative zur rechnerintegrierten Fertigung (RIF) e.V., Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Strasse 20, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Romanova, Varvara [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, pr. Academicheskii 2/1, 634021 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fischer, Gottfried [Dortmunder Initiative zur rechnerintegrierten Fertigung (RIF) e.V., Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Strasse 20, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Crostack, Horst-Artur [Lehrstuhl fuer Qualitaetswesen (LQW), Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Str. 20, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Beckmann, Felix [GKSS-Research Center, c/o GKSS at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    To investigate the effect of model thickness on simulated strain and stress fields in two-phase materials three-dimensional and two-dimensional finite element simulations were performed. The microstructure of the models was generated both by a stochastic procedure and by transforming computer tomograms representing the microstructure into a FE mesh (artificial and realistic models, respectively). The simulated equivalent plastic strains at the surface of the realistic model were compared to equivalent strain maps obtained by digital image correlation of SEM images. The results of this study demonstrate that 2D FE simulations generally do not describe the mechanical behaviour of two-phase materials adequately. The calculated distribution of surface strain coincides with the measured one only if the thickness of 3D model exceeds a minimum value that corresponds to microstructural length scale of the material. Therefore, the thickness should be equal or larger than this minimum to get correct results at the surface.

  20. Radiation-induced second cancers: the impact of 3D-CRT and IMRT

    Information concerning radiation-induced malignancies comes from the A-bomb survivors and from medically exposed individuals, including second cancers in radiation therapy patients. The A-bomb survivors show an excess incidence of carcinomas in tissues such as the gastrointestinal tract, breast, thyroid, and bladder, which is linear with dose up to about 2.5 Sv. There is great uncertainty concerning the dose-response relationship for radiation-induced carcinogenesis at higher doses. Some animal and human data suggest a decrease at higher doses, usually attributed to cell killing; other data suggest a plateau in dose. Radiotherapy patients also show an excess incidence of carcinomas, often in sites remote from the treatment fields; in addition there is an excess incidence of sarcomas in the heavily irradiated in-field tissues. The transition from conventional radiotherapy to three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) involves a reduction in the volume of normal tissues receiving a high dose, with an increase in dose to the target volume that includes the tumor and a limited amount of normal tissue. One might expect a decrease in the number of sarcomas induced and also (less certain) a small decrease in the number of carcinomas. All around, a good thing. By contrast, the move from 3D-CRT to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) involves more fields, and the dose-volume histograms show that, as a consequence, a larger volume of normal tissue is exposed to lower doses. In addition, the number of monitor units is increased by a factor of 2 to 3, increasing the total body exposure, due to leakage radiation. Both factors will tend to increase the risk of second cancers. Altogether, IMRT is likely to almost double the incidence of second malignancies compared with conventional radiotherapy from about 1% to 1.75% for patients surviving 10 years. The numbers may be larger for longer survival (or for younger patients), but the ratio should remain the same

  1. Radiation-induced second cancers: the impact of 3D-CRT and IMRT

    Hall, Eric J.; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2003-01-01

    Information concerning radiation-induced malignancies comes from the A-bomb survivors and from medically exposed individuals, including second cancers in radiation therapy patients. The A-bomb survivors show an excess incidence of carcinomas in tissues such as the gastrointestinal tract, breast, thyroid, and bladder, which is linear with dose up to about 2.5 Sv. There is great uncertainty concerning the dose-response relationship for radiation-induced carcinogenesis at higher doses. Some animal and human data suggest a decrease at higher doses, usually attributed to cell killing; other data suggest a plateau in dose. Radiotherapy patients also show an excess incidence of carcinomas, often in sites remote from the treatment fields; in addition there is an excess incidence of sarcomas in the heavily irradiated in-field tissues. The transition from conventional radiotherapy to three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) involves a reduction in the volume of normal tissues receiving a high dose, with an increase in dose to the target volume that includes the tumor and a limited amount of normal tissue. One might expect a decrease in the number of sarcomas induced and also (less certain) a small decrease in the number of carcinomas. All around, a good thing. By contrast, the move from 3D-CRT to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) involves more fields, and the dose-volume histograms show that, as a consequence, a larger volume of normal tissue is exposed to lower doses. In addition, the number of monitor units is increased by a factor of 2 to 3, increasing the total body exposure, due to leakage radiation. Both factors will tend to increase the risk of second cancers. Altogether, IMRT is likely to almost double the incidence of second malignancies compared with conventional radiotherapy from about 1% to 1.75% for patients surviving 10 years. The numbers may be larger for longer survival (or for younger patients), but the ratio should remain the same.

  2. A WRF simulation of the impact of 3-D radiative transfer on surface hydrology over the Rocky–Sierra Mountains

    K. N. Liou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Essentially all modern climate models utilize a plane-parallel (PP radiative transfer approach in physics parameterizations; however, the potential errors that arise from neglecting three-dimensional (3-D interactions between radiation and mountains/snow on climate simulations have not been studied and quantified. This paper is a continuation of our efforts to investigate 3-D mountains/snow effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the Western United States, specifically the Rocky and Sierra-Nevada Mountains. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model applied at a 30 km grid resolution with incorporation of a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization covering a time period from 1 November 2007 to 31 May 2008 during which abundant snowfall occurred. Comparison of the 3-D WRF simulation with the observed snow water equivalent (SWE and precipitation from Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL sites shows reasonable agreement in terms of spatial patterns and daily and seasonal variability, although the simulation generally has a positive precipitation bias. We show that 3-D mountain features have a profound impact on the diurnal and monthly variation of surface radiative and heat fluxes and on the consequent elevation-dependence of snowmelt and precipitation distributions. In particular, during the winter months, large deviations (3-D–PP of the monthly mean surface solar flux are found in the morning and afternoon hours due to shading effects for elevations below 2.5 km. During spring, positive deviations shift to earlier morning. Over the mountain tops above 3 km, positive deviations are found throughout the day, with the largest values of 40–60 W m−2 occurring at noon during the snowmelt season of April to May. The monthly SWE deviations averaged over the entire domain show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas

  3. Application of Lidar Data and 3D-City Models in Visual Impact Simulations of Tall Buildings

    Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    The paper examines possibilities and limitations of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models to provide specialist urban analyses of tall buildings. The location and height of tall buildings is a subject of discussions, conflicts and controversies in many cities. The most important aspect is the visual influence of tall buildings to the city landscape, significant panoramas and other strategic city views. It is an actual issue in contemporary town planning worldwide. Over 50% of high-rise buildings on Earth were built in last 15 years. Tall buildings may be a threat especially for historically developed cities - typical for Europe. Contemporary Earth observation, more and more available Lidar scanning and 3D city models are a new tool for more accurate urban analysis of the tall buildings impact. The article presents appropriate simulation techniques, general assumption of geometric and computational algorithms - available methodologies and individual methods develop by author. The goal is to develop the geometric computation methods for GIS representation of the visual impact of a selected tall building to the structure of large city. In reference to this, the article introduce a Visual Impact Size method (VIS). Presented analyses were developed by application of airborne Lidar / DSM model and more processed models (like CityGML), containing the geometry and it's semantics. Included simulations were carried out on an example of the agglomeration of Berlin.

  4. The impact of ICT on market organisation – A case of 3D-models in engineering consultancy

    Falch, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of the use of ICT in production and delivery of technical engineering consultancy services on business structures with regard to industry convergence and transaction costs. The paper takes an empirical study on the introduction of 3D-modelling tools in the building...... section in a Scandinavian engineering consultancy firm as its point of departure. The discussion identifies three different structural aspects, which all are affected by the use of ICT: Internationalisation vs. Local markets, Outsourcing vs. Structural integration, and Division of work between actors...

  5. Large-scale 3D modeling of projectile impact damage in brittle plates

    Seagraves, A.; Radovitzky, R.

    2015-10-01

    The damage and failure of brittle plates subjected to projectile impact is investigated through large-scale three-dimensional simulation using the DG/CZM approach introduced by Radovitzky et al. [Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 2011; 200(1-4), 326-344]. Two standard experimental setups are considered: first, we simulate edge-on impact experiments on Al2O3 tiles by Strassburger and Senf [Technical Report ARL-CR-214, Army Research Laboratory, 1995]. Qualitative and quantitative validation of the simulation results is pursued by direct comparison of simulations with experiments at different loading rates and good agreement is obtained. In the second example considered, we investigate the fracture patterns in normal impact of spheres on thin, unconfined ceramic plates over a wide range of loading rates. For both the edge-on and normal impact configurations, the full field description provided by the simulations is used to interpret the mechanisms underlying the crack propagation patterns and their strong dependence on loading rate.

  6. Analysis of thermomechanical response of polycrystalline HMX under impact loading through mesoscale simulations

    D. B. Hardin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the response of polycrystalline HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine under impact loading through a 3-dimensional mesoscale model that explicitly accounts for anisotropic elasticity, crystalline plasticity, and heat conduction. This model is used to quantify the variability in temperature and stress fields due to random distributions of the orientations of crystalline grains in HMX under the loading scenarios considered. The simulations carried out concern the response of fully dense HMX polycrystalline ensembles under impact loading at imposed boundary velocities from 50 to 400 m/s. The polycrystalline ensemble studied consists of a geometrically arranged distribution of bi-modally sized and shaped grains. To quantify the effect of crystalline slip, two models with different numbers of available slip systems are used, reflecting differing characterizations of the slip systems of the HMX molecular crystal in the literature. The effects of microstructure and anisotropy on the distribution of heating and stress evolution are investigated. The results obtained indicate that crystalline response anisotropy at the microstructure level plays an important role in influencing both the overall response and the localization of stress and temperature. The overall longitudinal stress is up to 16% higher and the average temperature rise is only half in the material with fewer potential slip systems compared to those in the material with more available slip systems. Local stresses can be as high as twice the average stresses. The results show that crystalline anisotropy induces significant heterogeneities in both mechanical and thermal fields that previously have been neglected in the analyses of the behavior of HMX-based energetic materials.

  7. Damage assessment of particle-toughened carbon fibre composites subjected to impact and compression-after-impact using 3D X-ray tomography

    Bull, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, particle-toughened and untoughened, carbon fibre composite material systems with quasi-isotropic layups were investigated. This was to understand better the toughening behaviour leading to increased impact damage resistance and post-impact compression damage tolerance performance. To achieve this, mechanical testing and conventional ultrasonic C-scan methods were combined with damage assessments using several 3D X-ray computed tomography techniques. These consisted of lab base...

  8. TAMDAR Observation Assimilation in WRF 3D-Var and Its Impact on Hurricane Ike (2008) Forecast

    Hong-Li WANG; Xiang-Yu HUANG

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of atmospheric observations from the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) observing system on numerical weather prediction of hurricane Ike (2008) using three-dimensional data assimilation system for the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model (WRF 3D-Var). The TAMDAR data assimilation capability is added to WRF 3D-Var by incorporating the TAMDAR observation operator and corresponding observation processing procedure. Two 6-h cycling data assimilation and forecast experiments are conducted. Track and intensity forecasts are verified against the best track data from the National Hurricane Center. The results show that, on average, assimilating TAMDAR observations has a positive impact on the forecasts of hurricane Ike. The TAMDAR data assimilation reduces the track errors by about 30 km for 72-h forecasts. Improvements in intensity forecasts are also seen after four 6-h data assimilation cycles. Diagnostics show that assimilation of TAMDAR data improves subtropical ridge and steering flow in regions along Ike's track, resulting in better forecasts.

  9. Simulation of the Initial 3-D Instability of an Impacting Drop Vortex Ring

    Sigurdson, Lorenz; Wiwchar, Justin; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    Computational vortex particle method simulations of a perturbed vortex ring are performed to recreate and understand the instability seen in impacting water drop experiments. Three fundamentally different initial vorticity distributions are used to attempt to trigger a Widnall instability, a...... Rayleigh centrifugal instability, or a vortex breakdown-type instability. Simulations which simply have a perturbed solitary ring result in an instability similar to that seen experimentally. Waviness of the core which would be expected from a Widnall instability is not visible. Adding an opposite......, though tests are not conclusive. Perhaps the opposite-signed secondary vortex was not strong enough or placed appropriately. Elliptical streamlines , as expected, are visible in the core of the solitary ring at early times. Support from the Canadian Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council grant...

  10. The Impact of Mesoscale Environmental Uncertainty on the Prediction of a Tornadic Supercell Storm Using Ensemble Data Assimilation Approach

    Nusrat Yussouf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical experiments over the past years indicate that incorporating environmental variability is crucial for successful very short-range convective-scale forecasts. To explore the impact of model physics on the creation of environmental variability and its uncertainty, combined mesoscale-convective scale data assimilation experiments are conducted for a tornadic supercell storm. Two 36-member WRF-ARW model-based mesoscale EAKF experiments are conducted to provide background environments using either fixed or multiple physics schemes across the ensemble members. Two 36-member convective-scale ensembles are initialized using background fields from either fixed physics or multiple physics mesoscale ensemble analyses. Radar observations from four operational WSR-88Ds are assimilated into convective-scale ensembles using ARPS model-based 3DVAR system and ensemble forecasts are launched. Results show that the ensemble with background fields from multiple physics ensemble provides more realistic forecasts of significant tornado parameter, dryline structure, and near surface variables than ensemble from fixed physics background fields. The probabilities of strong low-level updraft helicity from multiple physics ensemble correlate better with observed tornado and rotation tracks than probabilities from fixed physics ensemble. This suggests that incorporating physics diversity across the ensemble can be important to successful probabilistic convective-scale forecast of supercell thunderstorms, which is the main goal of NOAA’s Warn-on-Forecast initiative.

  11. Testing remote sensing on artificial observations: impact of drizzle and 3-D cloud structure on effective radius retrievals

    T. Zinner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud effective particle size with passive sensors like the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS is an important tool for cloud microphysical studies. As a measure of the radiatively relevant droplet size, effective radius can be retrieved with different combinations of visible through shortwave and midwave infrared channels. In practice, retrieved effective radii from these combinations can be quite different. This difference is perhaps indicative of different penetration depths and path lengths for the spectral reflectances used. In addition, operational liquid water cloud retrievals are based on the assumption of a relatively narrow distribution of droplet sizes; the role of larger precipitation particles in these distributions is neglected. Therefore, possible explanations for the discrepancy in some MODIS spectral size retrievals could include 3-D radiative transport effects, including sub-pixel cloud inhomogeneity, and/or the impact of drizzle formation.

    For three cloud cases the possible factors of influence are isolated and investigated in detail by the use of simulated cloud scenes and synthetic satellite data: marine boundary layer cloud scenes from large eddy simulations (LES with detailed microphysics are combined with Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations that explicitly account for the detailed droplet size distributions as well as 3-D radiative transfer to simulate MODIS observations. The operational MODIS optical thickness and effective radius retrieval algorithm is applied to these and the results are compared to the given LES microphysics.

    We investigate two types of marine cloud situations each with and without drizzle from LES simulations: (1 a typical daytime stratocumulus deck at two times in the diurnal cycle and (2 one scene with scattered cumulus. Only small impact of drizzle formation on the retrieved domain average and on the differences between the three

  12. The impact of forest regeneration on streamflow in 12 meso-scale humid tropical catchments

    H. E. Beck

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although regenerating forests make up an increasingly large portion of humid tropical landscapes, comparatively little is known of their water use and effects on streamflow (Q. Since the 1950s the island of Puerto Rico has experienced widespread abandonment of pastures and agricultural lands, followed by forest regeneration. This paper examines the possible impacts of forest regeneration on several Q metrics for 12 meso-scale catchments (23–346 km2; mean precipitation 1720–3422 mm yr−1 with long (33–51 yr and simultaneous records for Q, precipitation (P, potential evapotranspiration (PET, and land cover. A simple spatially-lumped, conceptual rainfall-runoff model that uses daily P and PET time series as inputs (HBV-light was used to simulate Q for each catchment. Annual time series of observed and simulated values of four Q metrics were calculated. A least-squares trend was fitted through annual time series of the residual difference between observed and simulated time series of each Q metric. From this the total cumulative change  was calculated, representing the change in each metric after controlling for climate variability and water storage carry-over effects between years. Negative values of  were found for most catchments and Q metrics, suggesting enhanced actual evapotranspiration overall following forest regeneration. However, correlations between changes in urban or forest area and values of  were insignificant (p ≥ 0.389 for all Q metrics. This suggests there is no convincing evidence that changes in the chosen Q metrics in these Puerto Rican catchments can be ascribed to changes in urban or forest area. The present results are in line with previous studies of meso- and macro-scale (sub-tropical catchments, which generally found no significant change in Q that can be attributed to changes in forest cover. Possible explanations for the apparent lack of a clear signal may include: errors in the land-cover, climate, Q

  13. Multi-scale 3D imaging of carbon fibre laminate impact and compression after impact damage using computed tomography and laminography

    Bull, D. J.; Helfen, L.; Sinclair, I.; Spearing, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    3D X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to study the effects of particle toughening within unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials subjected to impact damage, followed by ex situ CT of compression after impact (CAI) tests at incremental loads. A multi-scale approach utilizing synchrotron radiation CT and laminography was used to study the damage micro-mechanisms of impact-loaded specimens, and micro-focus CT (?CT) assessed damage at meso- and macro-scopic levels. Fo...

  14. Propagation of Impact-Induced Shock Waves in Heterogenous Rocks Using Mesoscale Modeling

    Güldemeister, N.; Durr, N.; Wünnemann, K.; Elbeshausen, D.; Hiermaier, S.

    2011-03-01

    In the framework of the “MEMIN” project, the effect of porosity in dry and water-saturated sandstone on shock wave loading is investigated. We conducted a series of numerical experiments of shock wave propagation in porous material using macro- as well as mesoscale models.

  15. Testing remote sensing on artificial observations: impact of drizzle and 3-D cloud structure on effective radius retrievals

    T. Zinner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud effective particle size with passive sensors like the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS is an important tool for cloud microphysical studies. As a measure of the radiatively relevant droplet size, effective radius can be retrieved with different combinations of visible through shortwave and midwave infrared channels. In practice, retrieved effective radii from these combinations can be quite different. This difference is perhaps indicative of different penetration depths and path lengths for the spectral reflectances used. In addition, operational liquid water cloud retrievals are based on the assumption of a relatively narrow distribution of droplet sizes; the role of larger precipitation particles in these distributions is neglected. Therefore, possible explanations for the discrepancy in some MODIS spectral size retrievals could include 3-D radiative transport effects, including sub-pixel cloud inhomogeneity, and/or the impact of drizzle formation.

    The possible factors of influence are isolated and investigated in detail by the use of simulated cloud scenes and synthetic satellite data: marine boundary layer cloud scenes from large eddy simulations (LES with detailed microphysics are combined with Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations that explicitly account for the detailed droplet size distributions as well as 3-D radiative transfer to simulate MODIS observations. The operational MODIS optical thickness and effective radius retrieval algorithm is applied to these and the results are compared to the given LES microphysics.

    We investigate two types of marine cloud situations each with and without drizzle from LES simulations: (1 a typical daytime stratocumulus deck at two times in the diurnal cycle and (2 one scene with scattered cumulus. Only small impact of drizzle formation on the retrieved domain average and on the differences between the three effective radius retrievals

  16. Impact of mesoscale order on open-circuit voltage in organic solar cells.

    Poelking, Carl; Tietze, Max; Elschner, Chris; Olthof, Selina; Hertel, Dirk; Baumeier, Björn; Würthner, Frank; Meerholz, Klaus; Leo, Karl; Andrienko, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Structural order in organic solar cells is paramount: it reduces energetic disorder, boosts charge and exciton mobilities, and assists exciton splitting. Owing to spatial localization of electronic states, microscopic descriptions of photovoltaic processes tend to overlook the influence of structural features at the mesoscale. Long-range electrostatic interactions nevertheless probe this ordering, making local properties depend on the mesoscopic order. Using a technique developed to address spatially aperiodic excitations in thin films and in bulk, we show how inclusion of mesoscale order resolves the controversy between experimental and theoretical results for the energy-level profile and alignment in a variety of photovoltaic systems, with direct experimental validation. Optimal use of long-range ordering also rationalizes the acceptor-donor-acceptor paradigm for molecular design of donor dyes. We predict open-circuit voltages of planar heterojunction solar cells in excellent agreement with experimental data, based only on crystal structures and interfacial orientation. PMID:25532071

  17. Impact of nonlinear 3D equilibrium response on edge topology and divertor heat load in Wendelstein 7-X

    Suzuki, Y.; Geiger, J.

    2016-06-01

    The impact of the 3D equilibrium response on the plasma edge topology is studied. In Wendelstein 7-X, the island divertor concept is used to assess scenarios for quasi-steady-state operation. However, the boundary islands necessary for the island divertor are strongly susceptible to plasma beta and toroidal current density effects because of the low magnetic shear. The edge magnetic topology for quasi-steady-state operation scenarios is calculated with the HINT-code to study the accompanying changes of the magnetic field structures. Two magnetic configurations have been selected, which had been investigated in self consistent neoclassical transport simulations for low bootstrap current but which use the alternative natural island chains to the standard iota value of 1 (ι b   =  5/5, periodicity), namely, at high-iota (ι b   =  5/4) and at low-iota (ι b   =  5/6). For the high-iota configuration, the boundary islands are robust but the stochasticity around them is enhanced with beta. The addition of toroidal current densities enhances the stochasticity further. The increased stochasticity changes the footprints on in-vessel components with a direct impact on the corresponding heat loads. In the low-iota configuration the boundary islands used for the island divertor are dislocated radially due to the low shear and even show healing effects, i.e. the island width vanishes. In the latter case the plasma changes from divertor to limiter operation. To realize the predicted high-performance quasi-steady-state operation of the transport simulations, further adjustments of the magnetic configuration may be necessary to achieve a proper divertor compatibility of the scenarios.

  18. The impact of anticyclonic mesoscale structures on microbial food webs in the Mediterranean Sea

    U. Christaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and activity of the major members of the heterotrophic microbial community – from viruses to ciliates – were studied along a longitudinal transect across the Mediterranean Sea in the summer of 2008. The Mediterranean Sea is characterized by a west to the east gradient of deepening of DCM (deep chlorophyll maximum and increasing oligotrophy reflected in gradients of heterotrophic microbial biomass and production. However, within this longitudinal trend, hydrological mesoscale features exist and likely influence microbial dynamics. We show here the importance of mesoscale structures by a description of the structure and function of the microbial food web through an investigation of 3 geographically distant eddies within a longitudinal transect. Three selected sites each located in the center of an anticyclonic eddy were intensively investigated: in the Algero-Provencal Basin (St. A, the Ionian Basin (St. B, and the Levantine Basin (St. C. The 3 geographically distant eddies showed the lowest values of the different heterotrophic compartments of the microbial food web, and except for viruses in site C, all stocks were higher in the neighboring stations outside the eddies. During our study the 3 eddies showed equilibrium between GCP (Gross Community Production and DCR (Dark Community Respiration; moreover, the west-east (W-E gradient was evident in terms of heterotrophic biomass but not in terms of production. Means of integrated PPp values were higher at site B (~190 mg C m−2 d−1 and about 15% lower at sites A and C (~160 mg C m−2 d−1. Net community production fluxes were similar at all three stations exhibiting equilibrium between gross community production and dark community respiration.

  19. Impact of intensified Indian Ocean winds on mesoscale variability in the Agulhas system

    Backeberg, Björn C.; Penven, Pierrick; Rouault, Mathieu

    2012-08-01

    South of Africa, the Agulhas Current retroflects and a portion of its waters flows into the South Atlantic Ocean, typically in the form of Agulhas rings. This flux of warm and salty water from the Indian to the Atlantic Ocean (the Agulhas leakage) is now recognized as a key element in global climate. An Agulhas leakage shutdown has been associated with extreme glacial periods, whereas a vigorous increase has preceded shifts towards interglacials. In the absence of a coherent observing system, studies of the Agulhas have relied heavily on ocean models, which have revealed a possible recent increase in Agulhas leakage. However, owing to the high levels of oceanic turbulence, model solutions of the region are highly sensitive to their numerical choices, stressing the need for observations to confirm these important model results. Here, using satellite altimetry observations from 1993 to 2009, we show that the mesoscale variability of the Agulhas system, in particular in the Mozambique Channel and south of Madagascar, has intensified. This seems to result from an increased South Equatorial Current driven by enhanced trade winds over the tropical Indian Ocean. Overall, the intensified mesoscale variability of the Agulhas system is reflected in accelerated eddy propagation, in its source regions as well as the retroflection from which eddies propagate into the South Atlantic Ocean. This suggests that the Agulhas leakage may have increased from 1993 to 2009, confirming previous modelling studies that have further implied an increased Agulhas leakage may compensate a deceleration of meridional overturning circulation associated with a freshening of the North Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Atmospheric Motion Vectors from INSAT-3D: Initial quality assessment and its impact on track forecast of cyclonic storm NANAUK

    Deb, S. K.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Kumar, Prashant; Kiran Kumar, A. S.; Pal, P. K.; Kaushik, Nitesh; Sangar, Ghansham

    2016-03-01

    The advanced Indian meteorological geostationary satellite INSAT-3D was launched on 26 July 2013 with an improved imager and an infrared sounder and is placed at 82°E over the Indian Ocean region. With the advancement in retrieval techniques of different atmospheric parameters and with improved imager data have enhanced the scope for better understanding of the different tropical atmospheric processes over this region. The retrieval techniques and accuracy of one such parameter, Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMV) has improved significantly with the availability of improved spatial resolution data along with more options of spectral channels in the INSAT-3D imager. The present work is mainly focused on providing brief descriptions of INSAT-3D data and AMV derivation processes using these data. It also discussed the initial quality assessment of INSAT-3D AMVs for a period of six months starting from 01 February 2014 to 31 July 2014 with other independent observations: i) Meteosat-7 AMVs available over this region, ii) in-situ radiosonde wind measurements, iii) cloud tracked winds from Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) and iv) numerical model analysis. It is observed from this study that the qualities of newly derived INSAT-3D AMVs are comparable with existing two versions of Meteosat-7 AMVs over this region. To demonstrate its initial application, INSAT-3D AMVs are assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and it is found that the assimilation of newly derived AMVs has helped in reduction of track forecast errors of the recent cyclonic storm NANAUK over the Arabian Sea. Though, the present study is limited to its application to one case study, however, it will provide some guidance to the operational agencies for implementation of this new AMV dataset for future applications in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) over the south Asia region.

  1. The impact of active versus passive use of 3D technology: a study of dental students at Wuhan University, China.

    Qi, Shengcai; Yan, Yanhong; Li, Rong; Hu, Jian

    2013-11-01

    A variety of computer-based 3D applications are becoming regular tools for dental students for self-learning. This study investigated the learning effectiveness of junior dental students in passively versus actively controlling the 3D virtual scenes of implant dentistry. Participants were randomized into three groups and were exposed to three designs of educational materials: traditional 2D webpages (2D); active-controlling 3D webpages (A3); and passive-controlling 3D webpages (P3). After reviewing the webpages, the participants were asked to complete a posttest to assess the relative quality of information acquisition. Their responses were compared and analyzed. The results indicated that the P3 group received the highest score of 26.4±3.1 on the post-test, significantly better than the A3 group, which had the worst performance with a score of 20.3±4.0. The 2D group received a score of 24.2±4.6. There was a significant correlation between the scores on a mental rotations test and the subjects' performance on the posttest (pimpacts on students, especially for individuals with low spatial ability. PMID:24192420

  2. Impact of mesoscale eddies on water transport between the Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea

    Prants, S V; Budyansky, M V; Uleysky, M Yu

    2013-01-01

    Sea surface height anomalies observed by satellites in 1993--2012 are combined with simulation and observations by surface drifters and Argo floats to study water flow pattern in the Near Strait (NS) connected the Pacific Ocean with the Bering Sea. Daily Lagrangian latitudinal maps, computed with the AVISO surface velocity field, and calculation of the transport across the strait show that the flow through the NS is highly variable and controlled by mesoscale and submesoscale eddies in the area. On the seasonal scale, the flux through the western part of the NR is negatively correlated with the flux through its eastern part ($r=-0.93$). On the interannual time scale, a significant positive correlation ($r=0.72$) is diagnosed between the NS transport and the wind stress in winter. Increased southward component of the wind stress decreases the northward water transport through the strait. Positive wind stress curl over the strait area in winter--spring generates the cyclonic circulation and thereby enhances the...

  3. Impact of the common genetic associations of age-related macular degeneration upon systemic complement component C3d levels.

    Tina Ristau

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a common condition that leads to severe vision loss and dysregulation of the complement system is thought to be associated with the disease. To investigate associations of polymorphisms in AMD susceptibility genes with systemic complement activation, 2655 individuals were genotyped for 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in or near 23 AMD associated risk genes. Component 3 (C3 and its catabolic fragment C3d were measured in serum and AMD staging was performed using multimodal imaging. The C3d/C3 ratio was calculated and associations with environmental factors, SNPs and various haplotypes of complement factor H (CFH genes and complement factor B (CFB genes were analyzed. Linear models were built to measure the influence of genetic variants on the C3d/C3 ratio. The study cohort included 1387 patients with AMD and 1268 controls. Higher C3d/C3 ratios were found for current smoker (p = 0.002, higher age (p = 1.56 × 10(-7, AMD phenotype (p = 1.15 × 10(-11 and the two SNPs in the C3 gene rs6795735 (p = 0.04 and rs2230199 (p = 0.04. Lower C3d/C3 ratios were found for diabetes (p = 2.87 × 10(-6, higher body mass index (p = 1.00 × 10(-13, the SNPs rs1410996 (p = 0.0001, rs800292 (p = 0.003, rs12144939 (p = 4.60 × 10(-6 in CFH, rs4151667 (p = 1.01 × 10(-5 in CFB and individual haplotypes in CFH and CFB. The linear model revealed a corrected R-square of 0.063 including age, smoking status, gender, and genetic polymorphisms explaining 6.3% of the C3d/C3 ratio. After adding the AMD status the corrected R-square was 0.067. In conclusion, none of the evaluated genetic polymorphisms showed an association with increased systemic complement activation apart from two SNPs in the C3 gene. Major genetic and non-genetic factors for AMD were not associated with systemic complement activation.

  4. Exploring the Impact of Visual Complexity Levels in 3d City Models on the Accuracy of Individuals' Orientation and Cognitive Maps

    Rautenbach, V.; Çöltekin, A.; Coetzee, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we report results from a qualitative user experiment (n=107) designed to contribute to understanding the impact of various levels of complexity (mainly based on levels of detail, i.e., LoD) in 3D city models, specifically on the participants' orientation and cognitive (mental) maps. The experiment consisted of a number of tasks motivated by spatial cognition theory where participants (among other things) were given orientation tasks, and in one case also produced sketches of a path they `travelled' in a virtual environment. The experiments were conducted in groups, where individuals provided responses on an answer sheet. The preliminary results based on descriptive statistics and qualitative sketch analyses suggest that very little information (i.e., a low LoD model of a smaller area) might have a negative impact on the accuracy of cognitive maps constructed based on a virtual experience. Building an accurate cognitive map is an inherently desired effect of the visualizations in planning tasks, thus the findings are important for understanding how to develop better-suited 3D visualizations such as 3D city models. In this study, we specifically discuss the suitability of different levels of visual complexity for development planning (urban planning), one of the domains where 3D city models are most relevant.

  5. Nuclear contribution into single-event upset in 3D on-board electronics at moderate energy cosmic proton impact

    Chechenin, N. G.; Chuvilskaya, T. V.; Shirokova, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    In continuation and development of our previous works where nuclear reactions of moderate energy (10 - 400 MeV) protons with Si, Al and W have been investigated, the results of reactions with Cu are reported in this paper. Cu is a most important component in composition of materials in contact pads and pathways of modern and perspective ultra large-scale integration circuitry, especially in 3D topology.

  6. Impact of continuing scaling on the device performance of 3D cylindrical junction-less charge trapping memory

    Xinkai, Li; Zongliang, Huo; Lei, Jin; Dandan, Jiang; Peizhen, Hong; Qiang, Xu; Zhaoyun, Tang; Chunlong, Li; Tianchun, Ye

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of 3D cylindrical junction-less charge trapping memory device performance regarding continuous scaling of the structure dimensions. The key device performance, such as program/erase speed, vertical charge loss, and lateral charge migration under high temperature are intensively studied using the Sentaurus 3D device simulator. Although scaling of channel radius is beneficial for operation speed improvement, it leads to a retention challenge due to vertical leakage, especially enhanced charge loss through TPO. Scaling of gate length not only decreases the program/erase speed but also leads to worse lateral charge migration. Scaling of spacer length is critical for the interference of adjacent cells and should be carefully optimized according to specific cell operation conditions. The gate stack shape is also found to be an important factor affecting the lateral charge migration. Our results provide guidance for high density and high reliability 3D CTM integration. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474137, 61176073, 61306107).

  7. Impact of deep convection in the tropical tropopause layer in West Africa: in-situ observations and mesoscale modelling

    F. Fierli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of the impact of convection on the composition of the tropical tropopause layer region (TTL in West-Africa during the AMMA-SCOUT campaign. Geophysica M55 aircraft observations of water vapor, ozone, aerosol and CO2 show perturbed values at altitudes ranging from 14 km to 17 km (above the main convective outflow and satellite data indicates that air detrainment is likely originated from convective cloud east of the flight. Simulations of the BOLAM mesoscale model, nudged with infrared radiance temperatures, are used to estimate the convective impact in the upper troposphere and to assess the fraction of air processed by convection. The analysis shows that BOLAM correctly reproduces the location and the vertical structure of convective outflow. Model-aided analysis indicates that in the outflow of a large convective system, deep convection can largely modify chemical composition and aerosol distribution up to the tropical tropopause. Model analysis also shows that, on average, deep convection occurring in the entire Sahelian transect (up to 2000 km E of the measurement area has a non negligible role in determining TTL composition.

  8. Impact of deep convection in the tropical tropopause layer in West Africa: in-situ observations and mesoscale modelling

    F. Fierli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of the impact of convection on the composition of the tropical tropopause layer region (TTL in West-Africa during the AMMA-SCOUT campaign. Geophysica M55 aircraft observations of water vapor, ozone, aerosol and CO2 during August 2006 show perturbed values at altitudes ranging from 14 km to 17 km (above the main convective outflow and satellite data indicates that air detrainment is likely to have originated from convective cloud east of the flights. Simulations of the BOLAM mesoscale model, nudged with infrared radiance temperatures, are used to estimate the convective impact in the upper troposphere and to assess the fraction of air processed by convection. The analysis shows that BOLAM correctly reproduces the location and the vertical structure of convective outflow. Model-aided analysis indicates that convection can influence the composition of the upper troposphere above the level of main outflow for an event of deep convection close to the observation site. Model analysis also shows that deep convection occurring in the entire Sahelian transect (up to 2000 km E of the measurement area has a non negligible role in determining TTL composition.

  9. 3D video

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  10. 3D Animation Essentials

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  11. A comparison of multi-scale 3D X-ray tomographic inspection techniques for assessing carbon fibre composite impact damage

    Bull, D. J.; Helfen, L.; Sinclair, I.; Spearing, S.M.; Baumbach, T.

    2013-01-01

    Tomographic imaging using both laboratory sources and synchrotron radiation (SR) was performed to achieve a multi-scale damage assessment of carbon fibre composites subjected to impact damage, allowing various internal damage modes to be studied in three-dimensions. The focus of this study is the comparison of different tomographic methods, identifying their capabilities and limitations, and their use in a complementary manner for creating an overall 3D damage assessment at both macroscopic a...

  12. Brief communication: Impact of mesh resolution for MISMIP and MISMIP3d experiments using Elmer/Ice

    Gagliardini, O.; Brondex, J.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Tavard, L.; Peyaud, V.; Durand, G.

    2016-02-01

    The dynamical contribution of marine ice sheets to sea level rise is largely controlled by grounding line (GL) dynamics. Two marine ice sheet model intercomparison exercises, namely MISMIP and MISMIP3d, have been proposed to the community to test and compare the ability of models to capture the GL dynamics. Both exercises are known to present a discontinuity of the friction at the GL, which is believed to increase the model sensitivity to mesh resolution. Here, using Elmer/Ice, the only Stokes model which completed both intercomparisons, the sensitivity to the mesh resolution is studied from an extended MISMIP experiment in which the friction continuously decreases over a transition distance and equals zero at the GL. Using this MISMIP-like setup, it is shown that the sensitivity to the mesh resolution is not improved for a vanishing friction at the GL. For the original MISMIP experiment, i.e. for a discontinuous friction at the GL, we further show that the results are moreover very sensitive to the way the friction is interpolated in the close vicinity of the GL. In the light of these new insights, and thanks to increased computing resources, new results for the MISMIP3d experiments obtained for higher resolutions than previously published are made available for future comparisons as the Supplement.

  13. An amalgamation of 3D city models in urban air quality modelling for improving visual impact analysis

    Ujang, U.; Anton, F.; Ariffin, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GISs) can be seen as a common tool to map and visualize the air quality index based on geographical locations. However, in urban areas, the area resolution for air quality models is less than 2 kilometres.Since the main emissions agent in urban areas is predomina......,engineers and policy makers to design the street geometry (building height and width, green areas, pedestrian walks, roads width, etc.).......Geographical Information Systems (GISs) can be seen as a common tool to map and visualize the air quality index based on geographical locations. However, in urban areas, the area resolution for air quality models is less than 2 kilometres.Since the main emissions agent in urban areas is...... physical data input. The Level of Details (LoD) in 3D city models (i.e. LoD1 and LoD2) ascertains the potentials of implementing air quality modelling for urban areas. Therefore, this research is focused towards investigating the integration of 3D city models in air quality modelling for urban areas. The...

  14. The role of mesoscale meteorology in modulating the 222Rn concentrations in Huelva (Spain) – impact of phosphogypsum piles

    The combined analysis of 222Rn activity concentrations and mesoscale meteorological conditions at Huelva city (Spain) was addressed in this study to understand the potential impact of phosphogypsum piles on the 222Rn activity concentrations registered at this area. Hourly mean data from April 2012 to February 2013 registered at two sampling sites (Huelva city and in the background station of El Arenosillo, located 27 km to the south-east) have been used in the study. The results of the present study showed a large difference in mean radon concentrations between the two stations during the sampling period, 6.3 ± 0.4 Bq m−3 at Huelva and 3.0 ± 0.2 Bq m−3 at El Arenosillo. The analysis has demonstrated that hourly 222Rn concentrations at Huelva city above 22 Bq m−3, with nocturnal peaks up to 50 Bq/m3, mainly coincided with the occurrence of a pure sea-land breeze cycle. Mesoscale circulations in this region are mainly characterized by two patterns of sea-land breeze, pure and non-pure, with the phosphosypsum piles directly upstream (south) of the city during the afternoon on pure sea-breeze days. The difference between mean 222Rn activity concentrations at Huelva city were 9.9 ± 1.5 Bq m−3 for the pure pattern and 3.3 ± 0.5 Bq m−3 for the non-pure pattern, while in the background station concentrations were 3.9 ± 0.4 Bq m−3 and 2.8 ± 0.4 Bq m−3 respectively. Considering these large differences, a detailed analysis of composites and case studies of representative sea-land breeze cycles of both types and their impact on 222Rn activity concentration was performed. The results suggested that the presence of the phosphogypsum piles was necessary in order to justify the high 222Rn activity concentrations observed at Huelva compared with the background station in the afternoons on pure sea breeze days (1.5–2.0 Bq m−3). On the other hand, large night time differences between the two sites on these days were likely to be

  15. 3-D numerical approach to simulate the overtopping volume caused by an impulse wave comparable to avalanche impact in a reservoir

    Gabl, R.; Seibl, J.; Gems, B.; Aufleger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of an avalanche in a reservoir induces impulse waves, which pose a threat to population and infrastructure. For a good approximation of the generated wave height and length as well as the resulting overtopping volume over structures and dams, formulas, which are based on different simplifying assumptions, can be used. Further project-specific investigations by means of a scale model test or numerical simulations are advisable for complex reservoirs as well as the inclusion of hydraulic structures such as spillways. This paper presents a new approach for a 3-D numerical simulation of the avalanche impact in a reservoir. In this model concept the energy and mass of the avalanche are represented by accelerated water on the actual hill slope. Instead of snow, only water and air are used to simulate the moving avalanche with the software FLOW-3D. A significant advantage of this assumption is the self-adaptation of the model avalanche onto the terrain. In order to reach good comparability of the results with existing research at ETH Zürich, a simplified reservoir geometry is investigated. Thus, a reference case has been analysed including a variation of three geometry parameters (still water depth in the reservoir, freeboard of the dam and reservoir width). There was a good agreement of the overtopping volume at the dam between the presented 3-D numerical approach and the literature equations. Nevertheless, an extended parameter variation as well as a comparison with natural data should be considered as further research topics.

  16. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  17. Parameterization of 3D Radiative Transfer over Mountains and Investigation of its Impact on Surface Hydrology over the Western United States Using WRF

    Gu, Y.; Liou, K.; Leung, L.; Lee, W.; Fovell, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Modern climate models have used a plane-parallel (PP) radiative transfer approach in physics parameterizations; however, the potential errors that arise from neglecting three-dimensional (3D) interactions between radiation and mountains/snow on climate simulations have not been studied and quantified. We have developed a surface solar radiation parameterization based on the regression analysis of flux deviations between 3D and conventional PP radiative transfer models, which has been incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to investigate the impact of the spatial and temporal distribution and variation of surface solar fluxes on surface hydrology. Using the Rocky and Sierra-Nevada Mountains in the Western United States as a testbed, the WRF model with the incorporation of the 3D parameterization is applied at a 30 km grid resolution covering a time period from November 1, 2007 to May 31, 2008 during which abundant snowfall occurred. Comparison of the 3D WRF simulation with the observed snow water equivalent (SWE) and precipitation from Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites shows reasonable agreement in terms of spatial patterns and daily and seasonal variability, although the simulation generally has a positive precipitation bias. We show that 3D mountain features have a profound impact on the diurnal and monthly variation of surface radiative and heat fluxes and on the consequent elevation-dependence of snowmelt and precipitation distributions. For lower elevations, positive deviations (3D - PP) of the monthly mean surface solar flux are found in the morning and afternoon hours, while negative deviations are shown between 10 am-2 pm during the winter months, leading to reduced diurnal variations. Over the mountain tops above 3 km, positive deviations are found throughout the day, with the largest values of 40 - 60 W/m2 occurring at noon during the snowmelt season of April to May. The monthly SWE deviations averaged over the entire domain

  18. Solid works 3D

    This book explains modeling of solid works 3D and application of 3D CAD/CAM. The contents of this book are outline of modeling such as CAD and 2D and 3D, solid works composition, method of sketch, writing measurement fixing, selecting projection, choosing condition of restriction, practice of sketch, making parts, reforming parts, modeling 3D, revising 3D modeling, using pattern function, modeling necessaries, assembling, floor plan, 3D modeling method, practice floor plans for industrial engineer data aided manufacturing, processing of CAD/CAM interface.

  19. Development of a Hausdorff distance based 3D quantification technique to evaluate the CT imaging system impact on depiction of lesion morphology

    Sahbaee, Pooyan; Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a 3D quantification technique to assess the impact of imaging system on depiction of lesion morphology. Regional Hausdorff Distance (RHD) was computed from two 3D volumes: virtual mesh models of synthetic nodules or "virtual nodules" and CT images of physical nodules or "physical nodules". The method can be described in following steps. First, the synthetic nodule was inserted into anthropomorphic Kyoto thorax phantom and scanned in a Siemens scanner (Flash). Then, nodule was segmented from the image. Second, in order to match the orientation of the nodule, the digital models of the "virtual" and "physical" nodules were both geometrically translated to the origin. Then, the "physical" was gradually rotated at incremental 10 degrees. Third, the Hausdorff Distance was calculated from each pair of "virtual" and "physical" nodules. The minimum HD value represented the most matching pair. Finally, the 3D RHD map and the distribution of RHD were computed for the matched pair. The technique was scalarized using the FWHM of the RHD distribution. The analysis was conducted for various shapes (spherical, lobular, elliptical, and speculated) of nodules. The calculated FWHM values of RHD distribution for the 8-mm spherical, lobular, elliptical, and speculated "virtual" and "physical" nodules were 0.23, 0.42, 0.33, and 0.49, respectively.

  20. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  1. Open 3D Projects

    Felician ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many professionals and 3D artists consider Blender as being the best open source solution for 3D computer graphics. The main features are related to modeling, rendering, shading, imaging, compositing, animation, physics and particles and realtime 3D/game creation.

  2. KPG Index versus OPG Measurements: A Comparison between 3D and 2D Methods in Predicting Treatment Duration and Difficulty Level for Patients with Impacted Maxillary Canines

    Domenico Dalessandri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to test the agreement between orthopantomography (OPG based 2D measurements and the KPG index, a new index based on 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT images, in predicting orthodontic treatment duration and difficulty level of impacted maxillary canines. Materials and Methods. OPG and CBCT images of 105 impacted canines were independently scored by three orthodontists at t0 and after 1 month (t1, using the KPG index and the following 2D methods: distance from cusp tip and occlusal plane, cusp tip position in relation to the lateral incisor, and canine inclination. Pearson’s coefficients were used to evaluate the degree of agreement and the χ2 with Yates correction test was used to assess the independence between them. Results. Inter- and intrarater reliability were higher with KPG compared to 2D methods. Pearson’s coefficients showed a statistically significant association between all the indexes, while the χ2 with Yates correction test resulted in a statistically significant rejection of independency only for one 2D index. Conclusions. 2D indexes for predicting impacted maxillary canines treatment duration and difficulty sometimes are discordant; a 3D index like the KPG index could be useful in solving these conflicts.

  3. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of

  4. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of

  5. Dynamic pulse buckling of cylindrical shells under axial impact: A comparison of 2D and 3D finite element calculations with experimental data

    A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. Four axial impact tests were performed on 4 in-diameter, 8 in-long, 304 L stainless steel cylinders with a 3/16 in wall thickness. The cylinders were struck by a 597 lb mass with an impact velocity ranging from 42.2 to 45.1 ft/sec. During the impact event, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. The instability occurred at the top of the cylinder in three tests and at the bottom in one test. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using the following codes and element types: PRONTO2D with axisymmetric four-node quadrilaterals; PRONTO3D with both four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons; and ABAQUS/Explicit with axisymmetric two-node shells and four-node quadrilaterals, and 3D four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons. All of the calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history. As in the tests, the location of the instability is not consistent in all of the calculations. However, the calculations show good agreement with impact load measurements with the exception of an initial load spike which is proven to be the dynamic response of the load cell to the impact. Finally, the PRONIT02D calculation is compared to the tests with respect to strain and acceleration histories. Accelerometer data exhibited good qualitative agreement with the calculations. The strain comparisons show that measurements are very sensitive to gage placement

  6. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  7. Impact of observations in a mesoscale NWP model in the Arctic

    Randriamampianina, Roger; Máté, Mile; Guedj, Stephanie; Schyberg, Harald

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of the EU-funded project ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society), MET Norway aimed 1) to describe the present monitoring and forecasting capabilities in the Arctic; and 2) to identify the key factors limiting the forecasting capabilities and to give recommendations on key areas to improve the forecasting capabilities in the Arctic. The first task was assessed using observing system experiments (OSE), while second one was evaluated applying observing system simulation experiments (OSSE). We have observed that the NWP forecast quality is lower in the Arctic than in the regions further south. An earlier research indicated that one of factors behind this is the composition of the observing system in the Arctic, in particular the scarceness of conventional observations. To further assess possible strategies for alleviating the situation and propose scenarios for a future Arctic observing system, we have performed a set of experiments to gain a more detailed insight in the contribution of the components of the present observing system in a regional state-of-the-art non-hydrostatic NWP model. These observing system experiments have been evaluated 1) in terms of a measure of the information content of observations with respect to analysis quality and 2) with respect to the impact on forecasts assessed (a) through case studies, (b) through a norm measuring the impact on forecasts and (c) through the quality of forecasts verified with available reference observations. The OSE studies show that conventional observations (Synop, Buoys) can play an important role in correcting the surface state of the model, but prove that the present upper-air conventional (Radiosondes, Arcraft) observations in the area are too scarce to have a significant effect on forecasts. We demonstrate that satellite sounding data play important role in improving forecasts quality at present. This is the case with the satellite temperature sounding data (AMSU-A, IASI), as well as

  8. Assessing impact of climate and land use change on water quality in two contrasting meso-scale catchments in Poland

    Marcinkowski, Pawel; Kardel, Ignacy; Ksiezniak, Marta; Berezowski, Tomasz; Okruszko, Tomasz; Mezghani, Abdelkader; Dobler, Andreas; Piniewski, Mikolaj

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Narew (4280 km2) and the Barycz (5520 km2) are two Polish, meso-scale, lowland catchments, contrasting in terms of land use, water management and water quality. Semi-distributed process-based SWAT model was applied in both catchments for assessment of climate change impact on selected water quality parameters. The model setup was developed based on high-resolution inputs, e.g. 5 km gridded precipitation and temperature dataset and 30 m Landsat8-based land cover map. Multi-site calibration and validation against observed discharge, sediment loads and nutrients loads (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) gave predominantly satisfactory goodness-of-fit measures which enabled further model use for scenario analysis. Impact of land use on water quality can be assessed by comparing nutrients loads and concentrations simulated for the current conditions between two contrasting catchments. Both specific loads and concentrations of major nitrogen and phosphorous forms were on average 80-100% higher in the Barycz than in the Upper Narew catchment. This is a result of more intensive agricultural practices taking place in the Barycz, unlike the Upper Narew where agriculture is mostly extensive. Large parts of the Barycz catchment have been designed as the Nitrates Vulnerable Zones and since 2007 there are legal restrictions concerning agricultural practices in these areas. Nine GCM-RCM runs projected to the year 2100 for RCP 4.5 and 8.5 provided within the EURO-CORDEX experiment were first bias-corrected using quantile mapping method and then used as an ensemble of climate change scenarios in SWAT. Precipitation projections were largely consistent in showing an increasing precipitation trend, present particularly in winter and spring, in both catchments. This clearly affected the hydrological and biogeochemical cycle and resulted in higher projected water yield, increased erosion, and elevated nitrogen and phosphorus emission to water bodies. The rate of change caused

  9. IZDELAVA TISKALNIKA 3D

    Brdnik, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  10. Stress analysis of a complete maxillary denture under various drop impact conditions: a 3D finite element study.

    Sunbuloglu, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Complete maxillary dentures are one of the most economic and easy ways of treatment for edentulous patients and are still widely used. However, their survival rate is slightly above three years. It is presumed that the failure reasons are not only due to normal fatigue but also emerge from damage based on unavoidable improper usage. Failure types other than long-term fatigue, such as over-deforming, also influence the effective life span of dentures. A hypothesis is presumed, stating that the premature/unexpected failures may be initiated by impact on dentures, which can be related to dropping them on the ground or other effects such as biting crispy food. Thus, the behavior of a complete maxillary denture under impact loading due to drop on a rigid surface was investigated using the finite element method utilizing explicit time integration and a rate-sensitive elastoplastic material model of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Local permanent deformations have been observed along with an emphasis on frenulum region of the denture, regardless of the point of impact. Contact stresses at the tooth-denture base were also investigated. The spread of energy within the structure via wave propagation is seen to play a critical role in this fact. Stress-wave propagation is also seen to be an important factor that decreases the denture's fatigue life. PMID:24945936

  11. The 2D versus 3D imaging trade-off: The impact of over- or under-estimating small throats for simulating permeability in porous media

    Peters, C. A.; Crandell, L. E.; Um, W.; Jones, K. W.; Lindquist, W. B.

    2011-12-01

    property distributions were used to generate different network flow models, to examine permeability alterations due to reaction-induced changes in throat sizes. 3D CT images, limited to a resolution of approximately 4 microns, miss small throats present at grain-to-grain contacts. The higher resolution of SEM images captures small throats between grains, however grain surface roughness and other small scale features may be misinterpreted. Precise determination of throat distributions requires careful thresholding to distinguish flow-conducting throats from throats leading to pores that are really just surface roughness. Using the pore network model, the sensitivity of permeability to the throat size roughness threshold was evaluated. Permeabilities calculated from the 2D and 3D pore and throat size distributions are compared to determine the impact of the lower resolution 3D images missing small throats.

  12. Impacts of 3-D radiative effects on satellite cloud detection and their consequences on cloud fraction and aerosol optical depth retrievals

    Yang, Yuekui; di Girolamo, Larry

    2008-02-01

    We present the first examination on how 3-D radiative transfer impacts satellite cloud detection that uses a single visible channel threshold. The 3-D radiative transfer through predefined heterogeneous cloud fields embedded in a range of horizontally homogeneous aerosol fields have been carried out to generate synthetic nadir-viewing satellite images at a wavelength of 0.67 μm. The finest spatial resolution of the cloud field is 30 m. We show that 3-D radiative effects cause significant histogram overlap between the radiance distribution of clear and cloudy pixels, the degree to which depends on many factors (resolution, solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol optical depth (AOD), cloud top variability, etc.). This overlap precludes the existence of a threshold that can correctly separate all clear pixels from cloudy pixels. The region of clear/cloud radiance overlap includes moderately large (up to 5 in our simulations) cloud optical depths. Purpose-driven cloud masks, defined by different thresholds, are applied to the simulated images to examine their impact on retrieving cloud fraction and AOD. Large (up to 100s of %) systematic errors were observed that depended on the type of cloud mask and the factors that influence the clear/cloud radiance overlap, with a strong dependence on solar zenith angle. Different strategies in computing domain-averaged AOD were performed showing that the domain-averaged BRF from all clear pixels produced the smallest AOD biases with the weakest (but still large) dependence on solar zenith angle. The large dependence of the bias on solar zenith angle has serious implications for climate research that uses satellite cloud and aerosol products.

  13. Impact of HONO sources on the performance of mesoscale air quality models

    Gonçalves, M.; Dabdub, D.; Chang, W. L.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) photolysis constitutes a primary source of OH in the early morning, which leads to changes in model gas-phase and particulate matter concentrations. However, state-of-the-art models of chemical mechanisms share a common representation of gas-phase chemistry leading to HONO that fails in reproducing the observed profiles. Hence, there is a growing interest in improving the definition of additional HONO sources within air quality models, i.e. direct emissions or heterogeneous reactions. In order to test their feasibility under atmospheric conditions, the WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ modeling system is applied with high horizontal resolution (4 × 4 km2) to Spain for November 24-27, 2008. HONO modeled sources include: (1) direct emissions from on-road transport; NO2 hydrolysis on aerosol and ground surfaces, the latter with (2) kinetics depending exclusively on available surfaces for reaction and (3) refined kinetics considering also relative humidity dependence; and (4) photoenhanced NO2 reduction on ground surfaces. The DOMINO measurement campaign performed in El Arenosillo (Southern Spain) provides valuable HONO observations. Modeled HONO results are consistently below observations, even when the most effective scenario is assessed, corresponding to contributions of direct emissions and NO2 hydrolysis with the simplest kinetics parameterization. With the additional sources of HONO, PM2.5 predictions can be up to 14% larger in urban areas. Quantified impacts on secondary pollutants have to be taken as a low threshold, due to the proven underestimation of HONO levels. It is fundamental to improve HONO sources definition within air quality models, both for the scientific community and decision makers.

  14. 3D and Education

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  15. Numerical simulations of impacts involving porous bodies: I. Implementing sub-resolution porosity in a 3D SPH Hydrocode

    Jutzi, M; Michel, P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we extend our Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) impact code to include the effect of porosity at a sub-resolution scale by adapting the so-called $P-alpha$ model. Many small bodies in the different populations of asteroids and comets are believed to contain a high degree of porosity and the determination of both their collisional evolution and the outcome of their disruption requires that the effect of porosity is taken into account in the computation of those processes. Here, we present our model and show how porosity interfaces with the elastic-perfectly plastic material description and the brittle fracture model generally used to simulate the fragmentation of non-porous rocky bodies. We investigate various compaction models and discuss their suitability to simulate the compaction of (highly) porous material. Then, we perform simple test cases where we compare results of the simulations to the theoretical solutions. We also present a Deep Impact-like simulation to show the effect of porosit...

  16. Dynamic pulse buckling of cylindrical shells under axial impact: A benchmark study of 2D and 3D finite element calculations

    A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. During the pulse buckling tests, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using PRONTO, a Sandia developed transient dynamics analysis code, and ABAQUS/Explicit with both shell and continuum elements. The calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history

  17. The impact of 3D image guided prostate brachytherapy on therapeutic ratio: the Quebec University Hospital experience

    Purpose: to evaluate the impact of adaptative image-guided brachytherapy on therapeutic outcome and toxicity in prostate cancer. Materials and methods: the 1110 first patients treated at the C.H.U.Q.-l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec were divided in five groups depending on the technique used for the implantation, the latest being intra operative treatment planning. Biochemical disease free survival (5-b.D.F.S.), toxicities and dosimetric parameters were compared between the groups. Results: 5-b.D.F.S. (A.S.T.R.O. + Houston) were of 88.5% and 90.5% for the whole cohort. The use of intra operative treatment planning resulted in better dosimetric parameters. Clinically, this resulted in a decreased use of urethral catheterization, from 18.8% in group 1 to 5.2% in group 5, and in a reduction in severe acute urinary side effects (21.3 vs 33.3% P = 0.01) when compared with pre-planning. There was also less late gastrointestinal side effects (groups 5 vs 1: 26.6 vs 43.2% P < 0.05). Finally, when compared with pre-planning, intra operative treatment planning was associated with a smaller reduction between planned D90 and the dose calculated at the CT scan 1 month after the implant (38 vs 66 Gy). Conclusion: the evolution of prostate brachytherapy technique toward intra operative treatment planning allowed dosimetric gains which resulted in significant clinical benefits by increasing the therapeutic ratio mainly through a decreased urinary toxicity. A longer follow-up will answer the question whether there is an impact on 5-b.D.F.S.. (authors)

  18. Climate change impact on the discharge in meso-scale catchments and consequences for the hydropower-production in Switzerland

    Rössler, Ole; Hänggi, Pascal; Köplin, Nina; Meyer, Rapahel; Schädler, Bruno; Weingartner, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    The potential effect of climate change on hydrology is the acceleration of the hydrological cycle that in turn will likely cause changes in the discharge regime. As a result, socio-economic systems (e.g., tourism, hydropower industry) may be drastically affected. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the effect of climate change on different hydrological components like mean and low-flow levels, and drought stress in mesoscale catchments of Switzerland. In terms of mean flows approx. 200 catchments in Switzerland were simulated for the reference period 1984-2005 using the hydrological model PREVAH and projection for near (2025-2046) and far future (2074-2095) are based on delta-change values of 10 ENSEMBLES regional climate models assuming A1B emission scenario (CH2011 climate scenario data sets). We found seven distinct response types of catchments, each exhibiting a characteristic annual cycle of hydrologic change. A general pattern observed for all catchments, is the clearly decreasing summer runoff. Hence, within a second analysis of future discharge a special focus was set on summer low flow in a selection of 29 catchments in the Swiss Midlands. Low flows are critical as they have great implications on water usage and biodiversity. We re-calibrated the hydrological model PREVAH with a focus on base-flow and gauged discharge and used the aforementioned climate data sets and simulation time periods. We found low flow situations to be very likely to increase in both, magnitude and duration, especially in central and western Switzerland plateau. At third, the drought stress potential was analyzed by simulating the soil moisture level under climate change conditions in a high mountain catchment. We used the distributed hydrological model WaSiM-ETH for this aspect as soil characteristics are much better represented in this model. Soil moisture in forests below 2000 m a.s.l. were found to be affected at most, which might have implication to their function as

  19. Individualized margins in 3D conformal radiotherapy planning for lung cancer: analysis of physiological movements and their dosimetric impacts.

    Germain, François; Beaulieu, Luc; Fortin, André

    2008-01-01

    In conformal radiotherapy planning for lung cancer, respiratory movements are not taken into account when a single computed tomography (CT) scan is performed. This study examines tumor movements to design individualized margins to account for these movements and evaluates their dosimetric impacts on planning volume. Fifteen patients undergoing CT-based planning for radical radiotherapy for localized lung cancer formed the study cohort. A reference plan was constructed based on reference gross, clinical, and planning target volumes (rGTV, rCTV, and rPTV, respectively). The reference plans were compared with individualized plans using individualized margins obtained by using 5 serial CT scans to generate individualized target volumes (iGTV, iCTV, and iPTV). Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy was used for plan generation using 6- and 23-MV photon beams. Ten plans for each patient were generated and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were calculated. Comparisons of volumetric and dosimetric parameters were performed using paired Student t-tests. Relative to the rGTV, the total volume occupied by the superimposed GTVs increased progressively with each additional CT scans. With the use of all 5 scans, the average increase in GTV was 52.1%. For the plans with closest dosimetric coverage, target volume was smaller (iPTV/rPTV ratio 0.808) but lung irradiation was only slightly decreased. Reduction in the proportion of lung tissue that received 20 Gy or more outside the PTV (V20) was observed both for 6-MV plans (-0.73%) and 23-MV plans (-0.65%), with p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively. In conformal RT planning for the treatment of lung cancer, the use of serial CT scans to evaluate respiratory motion and to generate individualized margins to account for these motions produced only a limited lung sparing advantage. PMID:18262123

  20. Individualized Margins in 3D Conformal Radiotherapy Planning for Lung Cancer: Analysis of Physiological Movements and Their Dosimetric Impacts

    In conformal radiotherapy planning for lung cancer, respiratory movements are not taken into account when a single computed tomography (CT) scan is performed. This study examines tumor movements to design individualized margins to account for these movements and evaluates their dosimetric impacts on planning volume. Fifteen patients undergoing CT-based planning for radical radiotherapy for localized lung cancer formed the study cohort. A reference plan was constructed based on reference gross, clinical, and planning target volumes (rGTV, rCTV, and rPTV, respectively). The reference plans were compared with individualized plans using individualized margins obtained by using 5 serial CT scans to generate individualized target volumes (iGTV, iCTV, and iPTV). Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy was used for plan generation using 6- and 23-MV photon beams. Ten plans for each patient were generated and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were calculated. Comparisons of volumetric and dosimetric parameters were performed using paired Student t-tests. Relative to the rGTV, the total volume occupied by the superimposed GTVs increased progressively with each additional CT scans. With the use of all 5 scans, the average increase in GTV was 52.1%. For the plans with closest dosimetric coverage, target volume was smaller (iPTV/rPTV ratio 0.808) but lung irradiation was only slightly decreased. Reduction in the proportion of lung tissue that received 20 Gy or more outside the PTV (V20) was observed both for 6-MV plans (-0.73%) and 23-MV plans (-0.65%), with p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively. In conformal RT planning for the treatment of lung cancer, the use of serial CT scans to evaluate respiratory motion and to generate individualized margins to account for these motions produced only a limited lung sparing advantage

  1. 3D non-woven polyvinylidene fluoride scaffolds: fibre cross section and texturizing patterns have impact on growth of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Anne Schellenberg

    Full Text Available Several applications in tissue engineering require transplantation of cells embedded in appropriate biomaterial scaffolds. Such structures may consist of 3D non-woven fibrous materials whereas little is known about the impact of mesh size, pore architecture and fibre morphology on cellular behavior. In this study, we have developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF non-woven scaffolds with round, trilobal, or snowflake fibre cross section and different fibre crimp patterns (10, 16, or 28 needles per inch. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs from adipose tissue were seeded in parallel on these scaffolds and their growth was compared. Initial cell adhesion during the seeding procedure was higher on non-wovens with round fibres than on those with snowflake or trilobal cross sections. All PVDF non-woven fabrics facilitated cell growth over a time course of 15 days. Interestingly, proliferation was significantly higher on non-wovens with round or trilobal fibres as compared to those with snowflake profile. Furthermore, proliferation increased in a wider, less dense network. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed that the MSCs aligned along the fibres and formed cellular layers spanning over the pores. 3D PVDF non-woven scaffolds support growth of MSCs, however fibre morphology and mesh size are relevant: proliferation is enhanced by round fibre cross sections and in rather wide-meshed scaffolds.

  2. 3D Printing Making the Digital Real .

    Miss Prachi More

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is quickly expanding field, with the popularity and uses for 3D printers growing every day. 3D printing can be used to prototype, create replacement parts, and is even versatile enough to print prostheses and medical implants. It will have a growing impact on our world, as more and more people gain access to these amazing machines.[1] In this article, we would like to attempt to give an introduction of the technology. 3Dimensions printing is a method of converting a virtual 3D model into a physical object. 3D printing is a category of rapid prototyping technology. 3D printers typically work by printing successive layers on top of the previous to build up a three dimensional object. 3D printing is a revolutionary method for creating 3D models with the use of inkjet technology.[7

  3. Impact of 4DVAR Assimilation of Rainfall Data on the Simulation of Mesoscale Precipitation Systems in a Mei-yu Heavy Rainfall Event

    2007-01-01

    The multi-scale weather systems associated with a mei-yu front and the corresponding heavy precipitation during a particular heavy rainfall event that occurred on 4-5 July 2003 in east China were successfully simulated through rainfall assimilation using the PSU/NCAR non-hydrostatic, mesoscale, numerical model (MM5) and its four-dimensional, variational, data assimilation (4DVAR) system. For this case, the improvement of the process via the 4DVAR rainfall assimilation into the simulation of mesoscale precipitation systems is investigated. With the rainfall assimilation, the convection is triggered at the right location and time, and the evolution and spatial distribution of the mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are also more correctly simulated. Through the interactions between MCSs and the weather systems at different scales,including the low-level jet and mei-yu front, the simulation of the entire mei-yu weather system is significantly improved, both during the data assimilation window and the subsequent 12-h period. The results suggest that the rainfall assimilation first provides positive impact at the convective scale and the influences are then propagated upscale to the meso- and sub-synoptic scales.Through a set of sensitive experiments designed to evaluate the impact of different initial variables on the simulation of mei-yu heavy rainfall, it was found that the moisture field and meridional wind had the strongest effect during the convection initialization stage, however, after the convection was fully triggered,all of the variables at the initial condition seemed to have comparable importance.

  4. 3D virtuel udstilling

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  5. Quantification of anthropogenic impact on groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystem using geochemical and isotope tools combined with 3-D flow and transport modelling

    Zurek, A. J.; Witczak, S.; Dulinski, M.; Wachniew, P.; Rozanski, K.; Kania, J.; Postawa, A.; Karczewski, J.; Moscicki, W. J.

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) have important functions in all climatic zones as they contribute to biological and landscape diversity and provide important economic and social services. Steadily growing anthropogenic pressure on groundwater resources creates a conflict situation between nature and man which are competing for clean and safe sources of water. Such conflicts are particularly noticeable in GDEs located in densely populated regions. A dedicated study was launched in 2010 with the main aim to better understand the functioning of a groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystem (GDTE) located in southern Poland. The GDTE consists of a valuable forest stand (Niepolomice Forest) and associated wetland (Wielkie Błoto fen). It relies mostly on groundwater from the shallow Quaternary aquifer and possibly from the deeper Neogene (Bogucice Sands) aquifer. In July 2009 a cluster of new pumping wells abstracting water from the Neogene aquifer was set up 1 km to the northern border of the fen. A conceptual model of the Wielkie Błoto fen area for the natural, pre-exploitation state and for the envisaged future status resulting from intense abstraction of groundwater through the new well field was developed. The main aim of the reported study was to probe the validity of the conceptual model and to quantify the expected anthropogenic impact on the studied GDTE. A wide range of research tools was used. The results obtained through combined geologic, geophysical, geochemical, hydrometric and isotope investigations provide strong evidence for the existence of upward seepage of groundwater from the deeper Neogene aquifer to the shallow Quaternary aquifer supporting the studied GDTE. Simulations of the groundwater flow field in the study area with the aid of a 3-D flow and transport model developed for Bogucice Sands (Neogene) aquifer and calibrated using environmental tracer data and observations of hydraulic head in three different locations on the study area

  6. Underwater 3D filming

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  7. A new method to explore the spectral impact of the piriform fossae on the singing voice: benchmarking using MRI-based 3D-printed vocal tracts.

    Delvaux, Bertrand; Howard, David

    2014-01-01

    The piriform fossae are the 2 pear-shaped cavities lateral to the laryngeal vestibule at the lower end of the vocal tract. They act acoustically as side-branches to the main tract, resulting in a spectral zero in the output of the human voice. This study investigates their spectral role by comparing numerical and experimental results of MRI-based 3D printed Vocal Tracts, for which a new experimental method (based on room acoustics) is introduced. The findings support results in the literature: the piriform fossae create a spectral trough in the region 4-5 kHz and act as formants repellents. Moreover, this study extends those results by demonstrating numerically and perceptually the impact of having large piriform fossae on the sung output. PMID:25048199

  8. A new method to explore the spectral impact of the piriform fossae on the singing voice: benchmarking using MRI-based 3D-printed vocal tracts.

    Bertrand Delvaux

    Full Text Available The piriform fossae are the 2 pear-shaped cavities lateral to the laryngeal vestibule at the lower end of the vocal tract. They act acoustically as side-branches to the main tract, resulting in a spectral zero in the output of the human voice. This study investigates their spectral role by comparing numerical and experimental results of MRI-based 3D printed Vocal Tracts, for which a new experimental method (based on room acoustics is introduced. The findings support results in the literature: the piriform fossae create a spectral trough in the region 4-5 kHz and act as formants repellents. Moreover, this study extends those results by demonstrating numerically and perceptually the impact of having large piriform fossae on the sung output.

  9. Blender 3D cookbook

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  10. 3D Digital Modelling

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3......D Modelling (in Denmark) stabilizes - Examine how 3D Modelling manifests itself in the early design phases of a construction project with a view to discuss the effects hereof for i.a. the management of the building process. Structure. The paper introduces a few, basic methodological concepts...

  11. Professional Papervision3D

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  12. Mesoscale Simulations of Powder Compaction

    Lomov, Ilya.; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-12-01

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  13. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  14. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    Bershady, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  15. 3D Projection Installations

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  16. Herramientas SIG 3D

    Francisco R. Feito Higueruela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Geographical Information Systems on several Archeology fields have been increasing during the last years. Recent avances in these technologies make possible to work with more realistic 3D models. In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for this system, the GIS Thetrahedron, in which we define the fundamental elements of GIS, in order to provide a better understanding of their capabilities. At the same time the basic 3D characteristics of some comercial and open source software are described, as well as the application to some samples on archeological researchs

  17. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  18. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-01-01

    In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot o...

  19. 3D Dental Scanner

    Kotek, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about 3D scan of plaster dental casts. The main aim of the work is a hardware and software proposition of 3D scan system for scanning of dental casts. There were used camera, projector and rotate table for this scanning system. Surface triangulation was used, taking benefits of projections of structured light on object, which is being scanned. The rotate table is controlled by PC. The camera, projector and rotate table are synchronized by PC. Controlling of stepper motor is prov...

  20. Interaktiv 3D design

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  1. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  2. 3D Harmonic Echocardiography:

    M.M. Voormolen

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThree dimensional (3D) echocardiography has recently developed from an experimental technique in the ’90 towards an imaging modality for the daily clinical practice. This dissertation describes the considerations, implementation, validation and clinical application of a unique

  3. Tangible 3D Modelling

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...

  4. Shaping 3-D boxes

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  5. Aerosol impact on atmospheric meso-scale circulation over the Baltic region: A HARMONIE model case study and verification versus radar data

    Palamarchuk, Iuliia; Mahura, Alexander; Ivanov, Sergiy; Ruban, Igor; Pavlova, Hanna

    2015-04-01

    An important goal in operational weather forecasting is an accurate prediction of precipitation on meso-scales. This demands, among the others, detailed representation of aerosol impact on the troposphere. Various direct, semi-direct and indirect effects of aerosols lead to significant changes in amount and distribution of precipitation, especially for weak patterns. Features of the atmosphere sensitivity to aerosols is studied employing the HARMONIE (Hirlam Aladin Regional/Meso-scale Operational NWP In Europe) model. Numerical experiments are performed for the Baltic region during the BaltRad experiment (August 2010). The focus of the study is the life-time of convective cells along with feedbacks from aerosols toward meteorological parameters, physical and dynamical mechanisms responsible for developing of precipitation forecast features, direct and indirect aerosol effects. Numerical results are verified by comparing model microphysics fields versus radar reflectivity.

  6. 3D Printing Making the Digital Real .

    Miss Prachi More

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is quickly expanding field, with the popularity and uses for 3D printers growing every day. 3D printing can be used to prototype, create replacement parts, and is even versatile enough to print prostheses and medical implants. It will have a growing impact on our world, as more and more people gain access to these amazing machines.[1] In this article, we would like to attempt to give an introduction of the technology. 3Dimensions printing is a method of converting a virtual 3D mod...

  7. LandSIM3D: modellazione in real time 3D di dati geografici

    Lambo Srl Lambo Srl

    2009-01-01

    LandSIM3D: realtime 3D modelling of geographic dataLandSIM3D allows to model in 3D an existing landscape in a few hours only and geo-referenced offering great landscape analysis and understanding tools. 3D projects can then be inserted into the existing landscape with ease and precision. The project alternatives and impact can then be visualized and studied into their immediate environmental. The complex evolution of the landscape in the future can also be simulated and the landscape model ca...

  8. Transportstromen verschuiven door toepassing 3-D

    Janssen, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    3-D printing is aan een gestage opmars bezig.ln een paar jaar tijd is er een miljardenmarkt ontstaan die exponentieel groeit. TNO deed onderzoek naar de impact van deze ontwikkelingen op supply chains.

  9. 3D animace

    Klusoň, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Computer animation has a growing importance and application in the world. With expansion of technologies increases quality of the final animation as well as number of 3D animation software. This thesis is currently mapped animation software for creating animation in film, television industry and video games which are advisable users requirements. Of them were selected according to criteria the best - Autodesk Maya 2011. This animation software is unique with tools for creating special effects...

  10. SU-E-T-596: Axillary Nodes Radiotherapy Boost Field Dosimetric Impact Study: Oblique Field and Field Optimization in 3D Conventional Breast Cancer Radiation Treatment

    Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric impact of two axillary nodes (AX) boost techniques: (1) posterior-oblique optimized field boost (POB), (2) traditional posterior-anterior boost (PAB) with field optimization (O-PAB), for a postmastectomy breast patient with positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods: Five patients, 3 left and 2 right chest walls, were included in this study. All patients were simulated in 5mm CT slice thickness. Supraclavicular (SC) and level I/II/III AX were contoured based on the RTOG atlas guideline. Five treatment plans, (1) tangential chest wall, (2) oblique SC including AX, (3) PAB, O-PAB and POB, were created for each patient. Three plan sums (PS) were generated by sum one of (3) plan with plan (1) and (2). The field optimization was done through PS dose distribution, which included a field adjustment, a fractional dose, a calculation location and a gantry angle selection for POB. A dosimetric impact was evaluated by comparing a SC and AX coverage, a PS maximum dose, an irradiated area percentage volume received dose over 105% prescription dose (V105), an ipsi-laterial mean lung dose (MLD), an ipsi-laterial mean humeral head dose (MHHD), a mean heart dose (MHD) (for left case only) and their DVH amount these three technique. Results: O-PAB, POB and PAB dosimetric results showed that there was no significant different on SC and AX coverage (p>0.43) and MHD (p>0.16). The benefit of sparing lung irradiation from PAB to O-PAB to POB was significant (p<0.004). PAB showed a highest PS maximum dose (p<0.005), V105 (p<0.023) and MLD (compared with OPAB, p=0.055). MHHD showed very sensitive to the patient arm positioning and anatomy. O-PAB convinced a lower MHHD than PAB (p=0.03). Conclusion: 3D CT contouring plays main role in accuracy radiotherapy. Dosimetric advantage of POB and O-PAB was observed for a better normal tissue irradiation sparing

  11. SU-E-T-596: Axillary Nodes Radiotherapy Boost Field Dosimetric Impact Study: Oblique Field and Field Optimization in 3D Conventional Breast Cancer Radiation Treatment

    Su, M [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Elmhurst, NY (United States); Sura, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric impact of two axillary nodes (AX) boost techniques: (1) posterior-oblique optimized field boost (POB), (2) traditional posterior-anterior boost (PAB) with field optimization (O-PAB), for a postmastectomy breast patient with positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods: Five patients, 3 left and 2 right chest walls, were included in this study. All patients were simulated in 5mm CT slice thickness. Supraclavicular (SC) and level I/II/III AX were contoured based on the RTOG atlas guideline. Five treatment plans, (1) tangential chest wall, (2) oblique SC including AX, (3) PAB, O-PAB and POB, were created for each patient. Three plan sums (PS) were generated by sum one of (3) plan with plan (1) and (2). The field optimization was done through PS dose distribution, which included a field adjustment, a fractional dose, a calculation location and a gantry angle selection for POB. A dosimetric impact was evaluated by comparing a SC and AX coverage, a PS maximum dose, an irradiated area percentage volume received dose over 105% prescription dose (V105), an ipsi-laterial mean lung dose (MLD), an ipsi-laterial mean humeral head dose (MHHD), a mean heart dose (MHD) (for left case only) and their DVH amount these three technique. Results: O-PAB, POB and PAB dosimetric results showed that there was no significant different on SC and AX coverage (p>0.43) and MHD (p>0.16). The benefit of sparing lung irradiation from PAB to O-PAB to POB was significant (p<0.004). PAB showed a highest PS maximum dose (p<0.005), V105 (p<0.023) and MLD (compared with OPAB, p=0.055). MHHD showed very sensitive to the patient arm positioning and anatomy. O-PAB convinced a lower MHHD than PAB (p=0.03). Conclusion: 3D CT contouring plays main role in accuracy radiotherapy. Dosimetric advantage of POB and O-PAB was observed for a better normal tissue irradiation sparing.

  12. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  13. Massive 3D Supergravity

    Andringa, Roel; de Roo, Mees; Hohm, Olaf; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K

    2009-01-01

    We construct the N=1 three-dimensional supergravity theory with cosmological, Einstein-Hilbert, Lorentz Chern-Simons, and general curvature squared terms. We determine the general supersymmetric configuration, and find a family of supersymmetric adS vacua with the supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum as a limiting case. Linearizing about the Minkowski vacuum, we find three classes of unitary theories; one is the supersymmetric extension of the recently discovered `massive 3D gravity'. Another is a `new topologically massive supergravity' (with no Einstein-Hilbert term) that propagates a single (2,3/2) helicity supermultiplet.

  14. Massive 3D supergravity

    Andringa, Roel; Bergshoeff, Eric A; De Roo, Mees; Hohm, Olaf [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Sezgin, Ergin [George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Townsend, Paul K, E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.n, E-mail: O.Hohm@rug.n, E-mail: sezgin@tamu.ed, E-mail: P.K.Townsend@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-21

    We construct the N=1 three-dimensional supergravity theory with cosmological, Einstein-Hilbert, Lorentz Chern-Simons, and general curvature squared terms. We determine the general supersymmetric configuration, and find a family of supersymmetric adS vacua with the supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum as a limiting case. Linearizing about the Minkowski vacuum, we find three classes of unitary theories; one is the supersymmetric extension of the recently discovered 'massive 3D gravity'. Another is a 'new topologically massive supergravity' (with no Einstein-Hilbert term) that propagates a single (2,3/2) helicity supermultiplet.

  15. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  16. Mesoscale eddies are oases for higher trophic marine life

    Godø, Olav R.

    2012-01-17

    Mesoscale eddies stimulate biological production in the ocean, but knowledge of energy transfers to higher trophic levels within eddies remains fragmented and not quantified. Increasing the knowledge base is constrained by the inability of traditional sampling methods to adequately sample biological processes at the spatio-temporal scales at which they occur. By combining satellite and acoustic observations over spatial scales of 10 s of km horizontally and 100 s of m vertically, supported by hydrographical and biological sampling we show that anticyclonic eddies shape distribution and density of marine life from the surface to bathyal depths. Fish feed along density structures of eddies, demonstrating that eddies catalyze energy transfer across trophic levels. Eddies create attractive pelagic habitats, analogous to oases in the desert, for higher trophic level aquatic organisms through enhanced 3-D motion that accumulates and redistributes biomass, contributing to overall bioproduction in the ocean. Integrating multidisciplinary observation methodologies promoted a new understanding of biophysical interaction in mesoscale eddies. Our findings emphasize the impact of eddies on the patchiness of biomass in the sea and demonstrate that they provide rich feeding habitat for higher trophic marine life. 2012 God et al.

  17. Impact of 3D image-based PDR brachytherapy on outcome of patients treated for cervix carcinoma in France: Results of the French STIC prospective study

    Purpose: In 2005 a French multicentric non randomized prospective study was initiated to compare two groups of patients treated for cervix carcinoma according to brachytherapy (BT) method: 2D vs 3D dosimetry. The BT dosimetric planning method was chosen for each patient in each center according to the availability of the technique. This study describes the results for 705 out of 801 patients available for analysis. Patients and methods: For the 2D arm, dosimetry was planned on orthogonal X-Rays using low dose rate (LDR) or pulsed dose rate (PDR) BT. For the 3D arm, dosimetry was planned on 3D imaging (mainly CT) and performed with PDR BT. Each center could follow the dosimetric method they were used to, according to the chosen radioelement and applicator. Manual or graphical optimization was allowed. Three treatment regimens were defined: Group 1: BT followed by surgery; 165 patients (2D arm: 76; 3D arm: 89); Group 2: EBRT (+chemotherapy), BT, then surgery; 305 patients (2D arm: 142; 3D arm: 163); Group 3: EBRT (+chemotherapy), then BT; 235 patients, (2D arm: 118; 3D arm: 117). The DVH parameters for CTVs (High Risk CTV and Intermediate Risk CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were computed as recommended by GYN GEC ESTRO guidelines. Total doses were converted to equivalent doses in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2). Side effects were prospectively assessed using the CTCAEv3.0. Results: The 2D and 3D arms were well balanced with regard to age, FIGO stage, histology, EBRT dose and chemotherapy. For each treatment regimen, BT doses and volumes were comparable between the 2D and 3D arms in terms of dose to point A, isodose 60 Gy volume, dose to ICRU rectal points, and TRAK. Dosimetric data in the 3D arm showed that the dose delivered to 90% of the High Risk CTV (HR CTV D90) was respectively, 81.2 Gyα/β10, 63.2 Gyα/β10 and 73.1 Gyα/β10 for groups 1, 2 and 3. The Intermediate Risk (IR) CTV D90 was respectively, 58.5 Gyα/β10, 57.3 Gyα/β10 and 61.7 Gyα/β10 for groups 1, 2 and

  18. Flash 3D Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3D Flash Ladar is a breakthrough technology for many emerging and existing 3D vision areas, and sensor improvements will have an impact on nearly all these fields....

  19. Recognition of Symmetric 3D Bodies

    Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2014), s. 722-757. ISSN 2073-8994 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : rotation symmetry * reflection symmetry * 3D complex moments * 3D rotation invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.826, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/suk-0431156.pdf

  20. 3D printing for dummies

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  1. 3D monitor

    Szkandera, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá návrhem a realizací systému, který umožní obraz scény zobrazovaný na ploše vnímat prostorově. Prostorové vnímání 2D obrazové informace je umožněno jednak stereopromítáním a jednak tím, že se obraz mění v závislosti na poloze pozorovatele. Tato práce se zabývá hlavně druhým z těchto problémů. This Bachelor's thesis goal is to design and realize system, which allows user to perceive 2D visual information as three-dimensional. 3D visual preception of 2D image i...

  2. Mobile 3D tomograph

    Mobile tomographs often have the problem that high spatial resolution is impossible owing to the position or setup of the tomograph. While the tree tomograph developed by Messrs. Isotopenforschung Dr. Sauerwein GmbH worked well in practice, it is no longer used as the spatial resolution and measuring time are insufficient for many modern applications. The paper shows that the mechanical base of the method is sufficient for 3D CT measurements with modern detectors and X-ray tubes. CT measurements with very good statistics take less than 10 min. This means that mobile systems can be used, e.g. in examinations of non-transportable cultural objects or monuments. Enhancement of the spatial resolution of mobile tomographs capable of measuring in any position is made difficult by the fact that the tomograph has moving parts and will therefore have weight shifts. With the aid of tomographies whose spatial resolution is far higher than the mechanical accuracy, a correction method is presented for direct integration of the Feldkamp algorithm

  3. Analogy between impact of architectural design characteristics of learning spaces on learners in the physical world and 3D virtual world

    Saleeb, Noha; Dafoulas, George

    2010-01-01

    This research starts by establishing from literature the importance of architectural design elements of physical learning spaces on face-to-face learning, hence, after illustrating examples of different types of architecture in Second Life, delves into exploring the effect of individual architectural features of 3D virtual building design, such as color, shape of class, lighting and open spaces, height of space, textures and other aspects on higher education learners during online e-learni...

  4. X3D: Extensible 3D Graphics Standard

    Daly, Leonard; Brutzman, Don

    2007-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2007.905889 Extensible 3D (X3D) is the open standard for Web-delivered three-dimensional (3D) graphics. It specifies a declarative geometry definition language, a run-time engine, and an application program interface (API) that provide an interactive, animated, real-time environment for 3D graphics. The X3D specification documents are freely available, the standard can be used without paying any royalties,...

  5. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  6. 3D Printing an Octohedron

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a regular octohedron on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of 3D printing. In the project, we use fundamental ideas to calculate the vertices and faces of an octohedron. Then, we utilize the OPENSCAD program to create a virtual 3D model and an STereoLithography (.stl) file that can be used by a 3D printer.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided “fusion” prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. Methods: T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Results: Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm3 or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each tumor was

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis

    Martin, Peter R., E-mail: pmarti46@uwo.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Cool, Derek W. [Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada and Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Romagnoli, Cesare [Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Fenster, Aaron [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Ward, Aaron D. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided “fusion” prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. Methods: T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Results: Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm{sup 3} or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each

  9. Quantifying mesoscale neuroanatomy using X-ray microtomography

    Dyer, Eva L.; Roncal, William Gray; Fernandes, Hugo L.; Gürsoy, Doga; Xiao, Xianghui; Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Jacobsen, Chris; Körding, Konrad P.; Kasthuri, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Common methods for imaging the 3D microstructure of the brain often require slicing the brain, imaging these slices, and stitching the images back together. In contrast, X-rays allow access into centimeter-thick samples without sectioning, providing an unique and largely untapped approach for producing large 3D mesoscale brain maps. Here we demonstrate the use of synchrotron X-ray microtomography ($\\mu$CT) for brain science and provide a much needed toolkit for analyzing the large datasets af...

  10. 3D modelling and recognition

    Rodrigues, Marcos; Robinson, Alan; Alboul, Lyuba; Brink, Willie

    2006-01-01

    3D face recognition is an open field. In this paper we present a method for 3D facial recognition based on Principal Components Analysis. The method uses a relatively large number of facial measurements and ratios and yields reliable recognition. We also highlight our approach to sensor development for fast 3D model acquisition and automatic facial feature extraction.

  11. Mesoscale Simulations of Power Compaction

    Lomov, I; Fujino, D; Antoun, T; Liu, B

    2009-08-06

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line also observed in experiments. They found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations.

  12. 3-D contextual Bayesian classifiers

    Larsen, Rasmus

    distribution for the pixel values as well as a prior distribution for the configuration of class variables within the cross that is made of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. We will extend these algorithms to 3-D, i.e. we will specify a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for a pixel and its 6 nearest 3......-D neighbours, and generalise the class variable configuration distributions within the 3-D cross given in 2-D algorithms. The new 3-D algorithms are tested on a synthetic 3-D multivariate dataset....

  13. Taming Supersymmetric Defects in 3d-3d Correspondence

    Gang, Dongmin; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group $SL(N,\\mathbb{C})$, in the context of its relation with 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d $(2,0)$ theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold $\\hat{M}$. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d $SL(N,\\mathbb{C})$ Chern-Simons theory, in 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ theory, in 5d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper, which contains more details and more results.

  14. A new method to explore the spectral impact of the piriform fossae on the singing voice:Benchmarking using MRI-based 3D-printed vocal tracts

    Bertrand Delvaux; David Howard

    2014-01-01

    The piriform fossae are the 2 pear-shaped cavities lateral to the laryngeal vestibule at the lower end of the vocal tract. They act acoustically as side-branches to the main tract, resulting in a spectral zero in the output of the human voice. This study investigates their spectral role by comparing numerical and experimental results of MRI-based 3D printed Vocal Tracts, for which a new experimental method (based on room acoustics) is introduced. The findings support results in the literature...

  15. 3D Printing Functional Nanocomposites

    Leong, Yew Juan

    2016-01-01

    3D printing presents the ability of rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing. Techniques such as stereolithography (SLA) and fused deposition molding (FDM) have been developed and utilized since the inception of 3D printing. In such techniques, polymers represent the most commonly used material for 3D printing due to material properties such as thermo plasticity as well as its ability to be polymerized from monomers. Polymer nanocomposites are polymers with nanomaterials composited into the ...

  16. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  17. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  18. 3D for Graphic Designers

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  19. 3-D printers for libraries

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  20. A 3-D Contextual Classifier

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1997-01-01

    . This includes the specification of a Gaussian distribution for the pixel values as well as a prior distribution for the configuration of class variables within the cross that is m ade of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. We will extend this algorithm to 3-D, i.e. we will specify a simultaneous Gaussian...... distr ibution for a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours, and generalise the class variable configuration distribution within the 3-D cross. The algorithm is tested on a synthetic 3-D multivariate dataset....

  1. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  2. Interactive 3D multimedia content

    Cellary, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The book describes recent research results in the areas of modelling, creation, management and presentation of interactive 3D multimedia content. The book describes the current state of the art in the field and identifies the most important research and design issues. Consecutive chapters address these issues. These are: database modelling of 3D content, security in 3D environments, describing interactivity of content, searching content, visualization of search results, modelling mixed reality content, and efficient creation of interactive 3D content. Each chapter is illustrated with example a

  3. Tropical deep convection and its impact on composition in global and mesoscale models - Part 1: Meteorology and comparison with observations.

    M. R. Russo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropical convection is a very important atmospheric process acting on the water cycle, radiative budget of the atmosphere and air composition of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS, and it affects a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. The fast vertical transport in convective plumes can efficiently redistribute water vapour and pollutants up to the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, and therefore affect the composition of the lower stratosphere. Chemistry Climate Models and Chemistry Transport Models are routinely used to study chemical processes in the atmosphere. In these models convection and convective transport of tracers are parameterised, and due to the interplay of chemical and dynamical processes, it has proven difficult to evaluate the convective transport of chemical species by comparison with observed chemical fields.

    In this work we investigate different characteristics of tropical convection by using convective proxies from many independent observational datasets (including surface precipitation rates, cloud top pressure and OLR. We use observations to analyse the seasonal cycle and geographical preferences of convection, and its impact on water vapour. Using highly temporally resolved cloud top data we calculate the frequency distribution of high clouds in three tropical regions. The observational data is used as a benchmark for a number of numerical models, with a view to assess the ability of models to reproduce the seasonality, preferential location and vertical extent of tropical convection. Finally we discuss the implications of our findings on modelling the composition of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  4. Modelling of Criegee Intermediates using the 3-D global model, STOCHEM-CRI and investigating their global impacts on Secondary Organic Aerosol formation

    Khan, M. Anwar H.; Cooke, Michael; Utembe, Steve; Archibald, Alexander; Derwent, Richard; Jenkin, Mike; Lyons, Kyle; Kent, Adam; Percival, Carl; Shallcross, Dudley E.

    2016-04-01

    Gas phase reactions of ozone with unsaturated compounds form stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) which play an important role in controlling the budgets of many tropospheric species including OH, organic acids and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Recently sCI has been proposed to play a significant role in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate chemistry by forming sulfuric acid (promoter of aerosol formation) and nitrate radical (a powerful oxidizing agent). sCI can also undergo association reactions with water, alcohols, and carboxylic acids to form hydroperoxides and with aldehydes and ketones to form secondary ozonides. The products from these reactions are low volatility compounds which can contribute to the formation of SOA. The importance of plant emitted alkenes (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes) in the production of SOA through sCI formation have already been investigated in laboratory studies. However, the SOA formation from these reactions are absent in current global models. Thus, the formation of SOA has been incorporated in the global model, STOCHEM-CRI, a 3-D global chemistry transport model and the role of CI chemistry in controlling atmospheric composition and climate, and the influence of water vapor has been discussed in the study.

  5. Increasing the impact of medical image computing using community-based open-access hackathons: The NA-MIC and 3D Slicer experience.

    Kapur, Tina; Pieper, Steve; Fedorov, Andriy; Fillion-Robin, J-C; Halle, Michael; O'Donnell, Lauren; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Pinter, Csaba; Finet, Julien; Pujol, Sonia; Jagadeesan, Jayender; Tokuda, Junichi; Norton, Isaiah; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Gering, David; Aerts, Hugo J W L; Jakab, Marianna; Hata, Nobuhiko; Ibanez, Luiz; Blezek, Daniel; Miller, Jim; Aylward, Stephen; Grimson, W Eric L; Fichtinger, Gabor; Wells, William M; Lorensen, William E; Schroeder, Will; Kikinis, Ron

    2016-10-01

    The National Alliance for Medical Image Computing (NA-MIC) was launched in 2004 with the goal of investigating and developing an open source software infrastructure for the extraction of information and knowledge from medical images using computational methods. Several leading research and engineering groups participated in this effort that was funded by the US National Institutes of Health through a variety of infrastructure grants. This effort transformed 3D Slicer from an internal, Boston-based, academic research software application into a professionally maintained, robust, open source platform with an international leadership and developer and user communities. Critical improvements to the widely used underlying open source libraries and tools-VTK, ITK, CMake, CDash, DCMTK-were an additional consequence of this effort. This project has contributed to close to a thousand peer-reviewed publications and a growing portfolio of US and international funded efforts expanding the use of these tools in new medical computing applications every year. In this editorial, we discuss what we believe are gaps in the way medical image computing is pursued today; how a well-executed research platform can enable discovery, innovation and reproducible science ("Open Science"); and how our quest to build such a software platform has evolved into a productive and rewarding social engineering exercise in building an open-access community with a shared vision. PMID:27498015

  6. Improvement of 3D Scanner

    2003-01-01

    The disadvantage remaining in 3D scanning system and its reasons are discussed. A new host-and-slave structure with high speed image acquisition and processing system is proposed to quicken the image processing and improve the performance of 3D scanning system.

  7. 3D Printing for Bricks

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    Building Bytes, by Brian Peters, is a project that uses desktop 3D printers to print bricks for architecture. Instead of using an expensive custom-made printer, it uses a normal standard 3D printer which is available for everyone and makes it more accessible and also easier for fabrication.

  8. Modular 3-D Transport model

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  9. Using 3D in Visualization

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen;

    2005-01-01

    The notion of three-dimensionality is applied to five stages of the visualization pipeline. While 3D visulization is most often associated with the visual mapping and representation of data, this chapter also identifies its role in the management and assembly of data, and in the media used...... to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  10. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  11. Impact of inter- and intrafraction deviations and residual set-up errors on PTV margins. Different alignment techniques in 3D conformal prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Langsenlehner, T.; Doeller, C.; Winkler, P.; Kapp, K.S. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology; Galle, G. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Urology

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work was to analyze interfraction and intrafraction deviations and residual set-up errors (RSE) after online repositioning to determine PTV margins for 3 different alignment techniques in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The present prospective study included 44 prostate cancer patients with implanted fiducials treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy. Daily localization was based on skin marks followed by marker detection using kilovoltage (kV) imaging and subsequent patient repositioning. Additionally, in-treatment megavoltage (MV) images were obtained for each treatment field. In an off-line analysis of 7,273 images, interfraction prostate motion, RSE after marker-based prostate localization, prostate position during each treatment session, and the effect of treatment time on intrafraction deviations were analyzed to evaluate PTV margins. Margins accounting for interfraction deviation, RSE and intrafraction motion were 14.1, 12.9, and 15.1 mm in anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and left-right (LR) direction for skin mark alignment and 9.6, 8.7, and 2.6 mm for bony structure alignment, respectively. Alignment to implanted markers required margins of 4.6, 2.8, and 2.5 mm. As margins to account for intrafraction motion increased with treatment prolongation PTV margins could be reduced to 3.9, 2.6, and 2.4 mm if treatment time was {<=} 4 min. With daily online correction and repositioning based on implanted fiducials, a significant reduction of PTV margins can be achieved. The use of an optimized workflow with faster treatment techniques such as volumetric modulated arc techniques (VMAT) could allow for a further decrease. (orig.)

  12. ADT-3D Tumor Detection Assistant in 3D

    Jaime Lazcano Bello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes ADT-3D (Three-Dimensional Tumor Detector Assistant, a prototype application developed to assist doctors diagnose, detect and locate tumors in the brain by using CT scan. The reader may find on this document an introduction to tumor detection; ADT-3D main goals; development details; description of the product; motivation for its development; result’s study; and areas of applicability.

  13. Color 3D Reverse Engineering

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a principle and a method of col or 3D laser scanning measurement. Based on the fundamental monochrome 3D measureme nt study, color information capture, color texture mapping, coordinate computati on and other techniques are performed to achieve color 3D measurement. The syste m is designed and composed of a line laser light emitter, one color CCD camera, a motor-driven rotary filter, a circuit card and a computer. Two steps in captu ring object's images in the measurement process: Firs...

  14. 3-D neutron transport benchmarks

    A set of 3-D neutron transport benchmark problems proposed by the Osaka University to NEACRP in 1988 has been calculated by many participants and the corresponding results are summarized in this report. The results of Keff, control rod worth and region-averaged fluxes for the four proposed core models, calculated by using various 3-D transport codes are compared and discussed. The calculational methods used were: Monte Carlo, Discrete Ordinates (Sn), Spherical Harmonics (Pn), Nodal Transport and others. The solutions of the four core models are quite useful as benchmarks for checking the validity of 3-D neutron transport codes

  15. 3D on the internet

    Puntar, Matej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the presentation of already established and new technologies of displaying 3D content in a web browser. The thesis begins with a short presentation of the history of 3D content available on the internet and its development together with advantages and disadvantages of individual technologies. The latter two are described in detail as well is their use and the differences among them. Special emphasis has been given to WebGL, the newest technology of 3D conte...

  16. 5-axis 3D Printer

    Grutle, Øyvind Kallevik

    2015-01-01

    3D printers have in recent years become extremely popular. Even though 3D printing technology have existed since the late 1980's, it is now considered one of the most significant technological breakthroughs of the twenty-first century. Several different 3D printing processes have been invented during the years. But it is the fused deposition modeling (FDM) which was one of the first invented that is considered the most popular today. Even though the FDM process is the most popular, it still s...

  17. Handbook of 3D integration

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  18. Exploration of 3D Printing

    Lin, Zeyu

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technology is introduced and defined in this Thesis. Some methods of 3D printing are illustrated and their principles are explained with pictures. Most of the essential parts are presented with pictures and their effects are explained within the whole system. Problems on Up! Plus 3D printer are solved and a DIY product is made with this machine. The processes of making product are recorded and the items which need to be noticed during the process are the highlight in this th...

  19. Tuotekehitysprojekti: 3D-tulostin

    Pihlajamäki, Janne

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-tulostamisen teknologiaan. Työssä käytiin läpi 3D-tulostimesta tehty tuotekehitysprojekti. Sen lisäksi esiteltiin yleisellä tasolla tuotekehitysprosessi ja syntyneiden tulosten mahdollisia suojausmenetelmiä. Tavoitteena tässä työssä oli kehittää markkinoilta jo löytyvää kotitulostin-tasoista 3D-laiteteknologiaa lähemmäksi ammattilaistason ratkaisua. Tavoitteeseen pyrittiin keskittymällä parantamaan laitteella saavutettavaa tulostustarkkuutta ja -nopeutt...

  20. Dosimetric impact of inter-observer variability for 3D conformal radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy: the rectal tumor target definition case

    To assess the dosimetric effect induced by inter-observer variability in target definition for 3D-conformal RT (3DCRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy by RapidArc (RA) techniques for rectal cancer treatment. Ten patients with rectal cancer subjected to neo-adjuvant RT were randomly selected from the internal database. Four radiation oncologists independently contoured the clinical target volume (CTV) in blind mode. Planning target volume (PTV) was defined as CTV + 7 mm in the three directions. Afterwards, shared guidelines between radiation oncologists were introduced to give general criteria for the contouring of rectal target and the four radiation oncologists defined new CTV following the guidelines. For each patient, six intersections (I) and unions (U) volumes were calculated coupling the contours of the various oncologists. This was repeated for the contours drawn after the guidelines. Agreement Index (AI = I/U) was calculated pre and post guidelines. Two RT plans (one with 3DCRT technique using 3–4 fields and one with RA using a single modulated arc) were optimized on each radiation oncologist’s PTV. For each plan the PTV volume receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose (PTV V95%) was calculated for both target and non-target PTVs. The inter-operator AI pre-guidelines was 0.57 and was increased up to 0.69 post-guidelines. The maximum volume difference between the various CTV couples, drawn for each patient, passed from 380 ± 147 cm3 to 137 ± 83 cm3 after the introduction of guidelines. The mean percentage for the non-target PTV V95% was 93.7 ± 9.2% before and 96.6 ± 4.9%after the introduction of guidelines for the 3DCRT, for RA the increase was more relevant, passing from 86.5 ± 13.8% (pre) to 94.5 ± 7.5% (post). The OARs were maximally spared with VMAT technique while the variability between pre and post guidelines was not relevant in both techniques. The contouring inter-observer variability has dosimetric effects in the PTV coverage

  1. Impact of time-of-flight on indirect 3D and direct 4D parametric image reconstruction in the presence of inconsistent dynamic PET data.

    Kotasidis, F A; Mehranian, A; Zaidi, H

    2016-05-01

    reconstruction can substantially prevent kinetic parameter error propagation either from erroneous kinetic modelling, inter-frame motion or emission/transmission mismatch. Furthermore, we demonstrate the benefits of TOF in parameter estimation when conventional post-reconstruction (3D) methods are used and compare the potential improvements to direct 4D methods. Further improvements could possibly be achieved in the future by combining TOF direct 4D image reconstruction with adaptive kinetic models and inter-frame motion correction schemes. PMID:27049697

  2. Impact of time-of-flight on indirect 3D and direct 4D parametric image reconstruction in the presence of inconsistent dynamic PET data

    Kotasidis, F. A.; Mehranian, A.; Zaidi, H.

    2016-05-01

    reconstruction can substantially prevent kinetic parameter error propagation either from erroneous kinetic modelling, inter-frame motion or emission/transmission mismatch. Furthermore, we demonstrate the benefits of TOF in parameter estimation when conventional post-reconstruction (3D) methods are used and compare the potential improvements to direct 4D methods. Further improvements could possibly be achieved in the future by combining TOF direct 4D image reconstruction with adaptive kinetic models and inter-frame motion correction schemes.

  3. Main: TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D [PLACE

    Full Text Available TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D S000256 01-August-2006 (last modified) kehi TATCCAY motif found in rice (O. ... otif and G motif (see S000130) are responsible for sugar ... repression (Toyofuku et al. 1998); GATA; amylase; ...

  4. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  5. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi;

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...

  6. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  7. AI 3D Cybug Gaming

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper I briefly discuss 3D war Game based on artificial intelligence concepts called AI WAR. Going in to the details, I present the importance of CAICL language and how this language is used in AI WAR. Moreover I also present a designed and implemented 3D War Cybug for AI WAR using CAICL and discus the implemented strategy to defeat its enemies during the game life.

  8. 3D Face Appearance Model

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  9. 3D Face Apperance Model

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  10. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  11. Acid rain: Mesoscale model

    Hsu, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model of the Florida peninsula was formulated and applied to a dry, neutral atmosphere. The prospective use of the STAR-100 computer for the submesoscale model is discussed. The numerical model presented is tested under synoptically undisturbed conditions. Two cases, differing only in the direction of the prevailing geostrophic wind, are examined: a prevailing southwest wind and a prevailing southeast wind, both 6 m/sec at all levels initially.

  12. Systematic measurement of the relative electron-impact excitation cross section of the 3d→2p1P1 resonance and 3D1 intercombination lines in mid-Z neonlike ions

    The relative electron-impact cross sections for exciting the 3d→2p1P1 resonance and 3D1 intercombination lines have been measured in nine neonlike ions between Cr14+ and Kr26+. The ratio drops from about 4.4 for Cr14+ to less than unity for Kr26+ in response to an increase in relativistic effects. A measurement of the dependence of this ratio on electron energy is presented for Fe16+. No dependence on electron energy is found. The measured ratios are generally lower than theory, showing that the relative intensity of the intercombination line is larger than predicted and illustrating the difficulty to predict electron-impact excitation cross sections in the intermediate coupling regime at the level needed for spectral diagnostics

  13. From 3D view to 3D print

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  14. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  15. 3D high resolution stratigraphy of early rift deltaic deposits in the Sergipe-Alagoas basin: impact on the reservoir compartmentalization; Estratigrafia de alta resolucao 3D em depositos deltaicos do inicio do rifte da bacia de Sergipe-Alagoas: impacto na compartimentacao de reservatorios

    Borba, Claudio [Petroleo Brasileiro S. A. (PETROBRAS/UO-SEAL), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Unidade de Operacoes de Exploracao e Producao de Sergipe e Alagoas], E-mail: cborba@petrobras.com; Paim, Paulo Sergio Gomes [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: ppaim@unisinos.br; Garcia, Antonio Jorge Vasconcellos [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)], E-mail: garciageo@pq.cnpq.br

    2009-05-15

    A high resolution stratigraphic study applied to reservoir characterization, based on well logs, cuts and cores from the Furado Field, a mature oil field of the Alagoas Sub-basin, was carried out on deltaic strata of the lower portion of the Barra de Itiuba Formation (early rifting of the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin). Three lacustrine systems tracts were recognized within a 3rd order sequence: the low stand systems tract (tectonic pulse initiation) that includes extensive, medium- to coarse-grained fluvial-deltaic sandstones that display good reservoir quality; the transgressive systems tract (tectonic climax), which comprises lacustrine and pro delta shale and distal delta front, fine- to very fine-grained sandstone; and the high stand system tract (tectonic quiescence) that encompasses several cycles of delta front progradation and related poor quality reservoirs relative to those of the low stand system tract. The 4th order sequences are represented by climate-driven transgressive-regressive cycles that constitute independent reservoirs, equivalent to a reservoir zones. This high resolution stratigraphic framework was then used on the building of the 3D geologic model, which honored the systems tracts geometry, and related facies, as well as the paleostructure, including a syn-depositional fault propagation anticline. Several normal faults split the reservoirs at different scales. Their potential impact on reservoir fragmentation was approached through the use of fault juxtaposition and shale gouge ratio diagrams. (author)

  16. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  17. Novel 3D media technologies

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  18. 3D future internet media

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  19. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  20. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  1. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  2. The Cambrian Explosion of Popular 3D Printing

    Juan Luis Chulilla Cano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The unexpected appearance of 3D printing has caught many of technology analyst by surprise. In this paper we aim to provide a social context to the feedback loops that have generated this rapid evolution of technologies and skills involved in 3D printing, as well as and online communities related with 3D printing and the impact of this evolution on media an popular imaginary… and our near future.

  3. The Cambrian Explosion of Popular 3D Printing

    Juan Luis Chulilla Cano

    2011-01-01

    The unexpected appearance of 3D printing has caught many of technology analyst by surprise. In this paper we aim to provide a social context to the feedback loops that have generated this rapid evolution of technologies and skills involved in 3D printing, as well as and online communities related with 3D printing and the impact of this evolution on media an popular imaginary… and our near future.

  4. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on biogeochemical cycle in Yangtze River basin: Source, transformation and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) characterized by 3-D fluorescence spectroscopy

    Gan, Shuchai; Wu, Ying; Bao, Hongyan; Zhang, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Inland waters play an important role in the global carbon cycle as reactors for DOM cycling, transformation and transportation. With large amounts of terrestrial DOM, the Yangtze River is vital for coastal environment and ecosystem. In the context of climate change, it's critical to evaluate both hydrodynamic conditions and increasing human activities' impacts on biogeochemical cycle of DOM in Yangtze River across different climatic and hydrologic regions which are poorly understood. What's more, the hydrologic condition changes caused by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD, world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity) have recently proven to be a partition factor for fluvial particle. However, it's still an enigma for dissolved matter cycle. To address those issues, this study applies EEMs combined with bulk characteristics, chlorophyll and absorption spectrum in an attempt to assess characteristics and dynamics of DOM in Yangtze River. It's a novel optical approach that could 'see' molecular structure of DOM without the limits of time-consuming and laborious molecular measurements. Combined with parallel factor analysis, 5 individual fluorescent components have been identified: 3 humic-like (H1, H2, H3) and 2 protein-like components (P1, P2). With typical bioavailability and photo-reactivity, these components suggest different sources and dynamics. On the whole, both DOC and the sum of all 5 components (? Fluo) increased remarkably from the upper reach especially to the Three Gorge Dam and thereafter remained constant (R2between DOC and - Fluo: 0.92). The protein-like components (- P) accounted for 1/4 of - Fluo with apparently weak correlations with DOC and chlorophyll, which implied that the DOM is not dominated by autochthonous production, especially for the upper reach with high concentration of total suspended matter. As for Humic-like component, increasing H1 and DOC in the TGD reservoir area implied impacts from human activities there with intercept

  5. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    Halamíček, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  6. 3D Imager and Method for 3D imaging

    Kumar, P.; Staszewski, R.; Charbon, E.

    2013-01-01

    3D imager comprising at least one pixel, each pixel comprising a photodetectorfor detecting photon incidence and a time-to-digital converter system configured for referencing said photon incidence to a reference clock, and further comprising a reference clock generator provided for generating the re

  7. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  8. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    Therese Andersen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent, and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  9. Crowded Field 3D Spectroscopy

    Becker, T; Roth, M M; Becker, Thomas; Fabrika, Sergei; Roth, Martin M.

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative spectroscopy of stellar objects in complex environments is mainly limited by the ability of separating the object from the background. Standard slit spectroscopy, restricting the field of view to one dimension, is obviously not the proper technique in general. The emerging Integral Field (3D) technique with spatially resolved spectra of a two-dimensional field of view provides a great potential for applying advanced subtraction methods. In this paper an image reconstruction algorithm to separate point sources and a smooth background is applied to 3D data. Several performance tests demonstrate the photometric quality of the method. The algorithm is applied to real 3D observations of a sample Planetary Nebula in M31, whose spectrum is contaminated by the bright and complex galaxy background. The ability of separating sources is also studied in a crowded stellar field in M33.

  10. Validation of TRAB-3D

    TRAB-3D is a reactor dynamics code with three-dimensional neutronics coupled to core and circuit thermal-hydraulics. The code, entirely developed at VTT, can be used in transient and accident analyses of boiling (BWR) and pressurized water (PWR) reactors with rectangular fuel bundle geometry. The validation history of TRAB-3D includes calculation of international benchmark exercises, as well as comparisons with measured data from real plant transients. The most recent validation case is a load rejection test performed at the Olkiluoto 1 nuclear power plant in 1998 in connection with the power uprating project. The fact that there is local power measurement data available from this test makes it a suitable case for three-dimensional core model validation. The agreement between the results of the TRAB-3D calculation and the measurements is very good. (orig.)