Sample records for 3-4 nx m0

  1. Pathologic downstaging of T3-4Nx rectal cancer after chemoradiation: 5-fluorouracil vs. Tegafur

    Purpose: To describe downstaging effects in locally advanced rectal cancer induced by 2 fluopirimidine radiosensitizing agents given through different routes in conjunction with preoperative radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: From March 1995 to December 1999, two consecutive groups of patients with cT3-4Nx rectal cancer (94% CT scan, 71% endorectal ultrasound) were treated with either (1) 45-50 Gy (1.8 Gy/day, 25 fractions) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (500-1,000 mg/m2 by 24-h continuous i.v. infusion on Days 1-4 and 21-25) or (2) oral Tegafur (1,200 mg/day on Days 1-35, including weekends). Surgery was performed 4 to 6 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. Results: The total T downstaging rate was 46% in the 5-FU group and 53% in the Tegafur group. Subcategories were downstaged by the sensitizing agents (5-FU vs. Tegafur) as follows: pT0-1, 14% vs. 23%; pT2, 32% vs. 32%; pT3, 49% vs. 37%; pT4, 5% vs. 7%; and N0, 74% vs. 86%. Analysis of residual malignant disease in the specimen discriminated mic/mac subgroups (mic: <20% of microscopic cancer residue), with evident superior downstaging effects in the Tegafur-treated group: pTmic 23% vs. 58% (p 0.002). Conclusions: When administered concurrent with pelvic irradiation, oral Tegafur induced downstaging rates in both T and N categories superior to those induced by intermediate doses of 5-FU by continuous i.v. infusion. In this pilot experience, oral Tegafur reproduced the characteristics of downstaging described previously when full doses of 5-FU have been combined with radiotherapy

  2. Emergence and dissemination of clade H5Nx influenza viruses-how is the Asian HPAI H5 lineage maintained.

    Claes, Filip; Morzaria, Subhash P; Donis, Ruben O


    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses containing the A/goose/Guangdong/96-like (GD/96) HA genes circulated in birds from four continents in the course of 2015 (Jan to Sept). A new HA clade, termed, emerged around 2010-2011 in China and revealed a novel propensity to reassort with NA subtypes other than N1, unlike dozens of earlier clades. Two subtypes, H5N6 and H5N8, have spread to countries in Asia (H5N6), Europe and North America (H5N8). Infections by clade viruses are characterized by low virulence in poultry and some wild birds, contributing to wide geographical dissemination of the viruses via poultry trade and wild bird migration. PMID:26991931

  3. m=0 Z-Pinch stability reconsidered

    The m=0 linear stability of the collisionless, small Larmor radius Z-pinch is examined. By using a generalized form of the energy principle it is shown that a finite pressure external gas can stabilize the pinch. Equilibrium skin currents are always destabilizing. Our results clarify why the gas-embedded pinch and Extrap are m=0 stable, whereas the fibre and compressional pinches are not

  4. Epitaxial stabilization of cubic-SiNx in TiN/SiNx multilayers

    The formation of cubic-phase SiNx is demonstrated in TiN/SiNx multilayers deposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering. Transmission electron microscopy examination shows a transition from epitaxially stabilized growth of crystalline SiNx to amorphous growth as the layer thickness increases from 0.3 to 0.8 nm. The observations are supported by ab initio calculations on different polytypes, which show that the NaCl structure has the best lattice match to TiN. Calculations also reveal a large difference in elastic shear modulus between NaCl-SiNx and TiN. The results for phase structure and shear modulus offer an explanation for the superhardening effect determined by nanoindentation experiments

  5. SiNx thickness dependent morphology and mechanical properties of CrAlN/SiNx nanomultilayers

    CrAlN/SiNx nanomultilayers with different SiNx layer thicknesses were synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and nano-indentation techniques. The average crystallite size, microstrain and average dislocation density of CrAlN/SiNx nanomultilayers with different SiNx layer thicknesses were evaluated by X-ray diffraction line profile analysis method. The results indicated that, when SiNx layer thickness was below 0.6 nm, SiNx was forced to crystallize and grew epitaxially with CrAlN layers, resulting in the decrease of average dislocation density and the enhancement in hardness and elastic modulus. As the SiNx layer thickness further increases, the epitaxial growth was firstly interrupted and then crystallized SiNx layers transformed back to amorphous state, leading to the increase of average dislocation density and the decrease of hardness and elastic modulus. An energy balance model was established to explain the microstructure evolution. - Highlights: ► Superhardness effect was found in reactively synthesized CrAlN/SiNx nanomultilayers. ► The maximum hardness and elastic modulus respectively reach 37.6 GPa and 437 GPa. ► Microstructural evolution was studied during disappearance of superhardness effect. ► An energy balance model was established to explain the microstructure evolution

  6. 3.4 Radiotherapy

    Kramer, H.-M.; Selbach, H.-J.; Vatnitsky, S.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '3.4 Radiotherapy' of the Chapter '3 Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and Radiotherapy' with the contents:

  7. Nef divisors on $\\bar{M}_{0,n}$ from GIT

    Alexeev, Valery; Swinarski, David


    We introduce and study the GIT CONE of $\\bar{M}_{0,n}$, which is generated by the pullbacks of the natural ample line bundles on the GIT quotients $(\\mathbb P^1)^n//SL(2)$. We give an explicit formula for these line bundles and prove a number of basic results about the GIT cone. As one application, we prove unconditionally that the log canonical models of $\\bar{M}_{0,n}$ with a symmetric boundary divisor coincide with the moduli spaces of weighted curves or with the symmetric GIT quotient, ex...

  8. Piezoelectric gravitational antennas for use at 3 m 0K

    The design of a gravitational antenna consisting of a relatively large piezoelectric quartz crystal cooled to 3 m 0K is presented. Calculations show that the use of the piezoelectric output to detect signals results in a simplification of the apparatus with no loss in sensitivity as compared to that attainable with similar antennas employing magnetic-displacement detectors. For both types of antennas the sensitivity is considerably better than that required to detect thermal oscillations at 3 m 0K and compares favorably with that attainable with massive room-temperature antennas

  9. The preparation of thermally stable TiNx/Ag(Mo)/TiNx ultrathin films by magnetron sputtering

    Thermally stable optically selective coatings are indispensable for low emissivity (low-e) applications. Low-e coatings effectively reduce energy loss from the building glazing systems by allowing high visible transmittance and reflecting most near-infrared radiation of the solar spectrum. In the present study, we investigated the thermal stability and optical properties of TiNx/Ag(Mo)/TiNx films deposited on glass substrates by using rf and dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The deposited multilayer stacks were annealed up to 873 K for 1 h in air ambient and a rigorous analysis was presented on the structure, microstructure, topography, chemical composition, and optical properties by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and Ultraviolet–visible–near infrared spectrophotometer, respectively. The results revealed that the proposed structure was thermally stable with dense and smooth microstructure until 773 K; in addition, noteworthy inward/outward diffusion of silver was not observed due to the good diffusion barrier performance of TiNx. An abrupt rise in root mean square roughness and locally isolated islands like structures was observed at 873 K annealing temperature. The deposited films showed high transmittance in the visible region and high reflectance in the infrared region of the solar radiation spectrum. - Highlights: • TiNx/Ag(Mo)/TiNx/films were thermally durable until 773 K. • High visible transmittance was obtained by adopting the amorphous TiNx films. • Ag(Mo) film was protected until 773 K by partial oxidation of TiNx layers

  10. On the derived category of $\\bar{M}_{0,n}$

    Manin, Yu


    Using Keel's presentation and Orlov's theorem, we give an inductive description of the derived category of moduli spaces of $n$--pointed stable curves of genus zero and some full exceptional collections in it. The detailed calculations are given for $\\bar{M}_{0,6}$.

  11. On the derived category of $\\bar{M}_{0,n}$

    Manin, Yu.; Smirnov, M


    Using Keel's presentation and Orlov's theorem, we give an inductive description of the derived category of moduli spaces of $n$--pointed stable curves of genus zero and some full exceptional collections in it. The detailed calculations are given for $\\bar{M}_{0,6}$.

  12. GIT Compactifications of M_{0,n} and Flips

    Giansiracusa, Noah; Jensen, David; Moon, Han-Bom


    We use geometric invariant theory (GIT) to construct a large class of compactifications of the moduli space M_{0,n}. These compactifications include many previously known examples, as well as many new ones. As a consequence of our GIT approach, we exhibit explicit flips and divisorial contractions between these spaces.

  13. Computation of Contour Integrals on ${\\cal M}_{0,n}$

    Cachazo, Freddy


    Contour integrals of rational functions over ${\\cal M}_{0,n}$, the moduli space of $n$-punctured spheres, have recently appeared at the core of the tree-level S-matrix of massless particles in arbitrary dimensions. The contour is determined by the critical points of a certain Morse function on ${\\cal M}_{0,n}$. The integrand is a general rational function of the puncture locations with poles of arbitrary order as two punctures coincide. In this note we provide an algorithm for the analytic computation of any such integral. The algorithm uses three ingredients: an operation we call general KLT, Petersen's theorem applied to the existence of a 2-factor in any 4-regular graph and Hamiltonian decompositions of certain 4-regular graphs. The procedure is iterative and reduces the computation of a general integral to that of simple building blocks. These are integrals which compute double-color-ordered partial amplitudes in a bi-adjoint cubic scalar theory.

  14. Computation of contour integrals on M_{0,n}

    Cachazo, Freddy; Gomez, Humberto


    Contour integrals of rational functions over M_{0,n} , the moduli space of n-punctured spheres, have recently appeared at the core of the tree-level S-matrix of massless particles in arbitrary dimensions. The contour is determined by the critical points of a certain Morse function on M_{0,n} . The integrand is a general rational function of the puncture locations with poles of arbitrary order as two punctures coincide. In this note we provide an algorithm for the analytic computation of any such integral. The algorithm uses three ingredients: an operation we call general KLT, Petersen's theorem applied to the existence of a 2-factor in any 4-regular graph and Hamiltonian decompositions of certain 4-regular graphs. The procedure is iterative and reduces the computation of a general integral to that of simple building blocks. These are integrals which compute double-color-ordered partial amplitudes in a bi-adjoint cubic scalar theory.

  15. Effect of hydrogen on passivation quality of SiNx/Si-rich SiNx stacked layers deposited by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on c-Si wafers

    We investigate the role of hydrogen content and fixed charges of catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) SiNx/Si-rich SiNx stacked layers on the quality of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. Calculated density of fixed charges is on the order of 1012 cm−2, which is high enough for effective field effect passivation. Hydrogen content in the films is also found to contribute significantly to improvement in passivation quality of the stacked layers. Furthermore, Si-rich SiNx films deposited with H2 dilution show better passivation quality of SiNx/Si-rich SiNx stacked layers than those prepared without H2 dilution. Effective minority carrier lifetime (τeff) in c-Si passivated by SiNx/Si-rich SiNx stacked layers is as high as 5.1 ms when H2 is added during Si-rich SiNx deposition, which is much higher than the case of using Si-rich SiNx films prepared without H2 dilution showing τeff of 3.3 ms. - Highlights: • Passivation mechanism of Si-rich SiNx/SiNx stacked layers is investigated. • H atoms play important role in passivation quality of the stacked layer. • Addition of H2 gas during Si-rich SiNx film deposition greatly enhances effective minority carrier lifetime (τeff). • For a Si-rich SiNx film with refractive index of 2.92, τeff improves from 3.3 to 5.1 ms by H2 addition

  16. GIT Compactifications of $M_{0,n}$ from Conics

    Giansiracusa, Noah; Simpson, Matthew


    We study GIT quotients parametrizing n-pointed conics that generalize the GIT quotients $(\\mathbb{P}^1)^n//SL2$. Our main result is that $\\overline{M}_{0,n}$ admits a morphism to each such GIT quotient, analogous to the well-known result of Kapranov for the simpler $(\\mathbb{P}^1)^n$ quotients. Moreover, these morphisms factor through Hassett's moduli spaces of weighted pointed rational curves, where the weight data comes from the GIT linearization data.

  17. Electron Energization During m=0 Magnetic Bursts in MST plasmas

    Young, W. C.; den Hartog, D. J.; Morton, L. A.; MST Team


    MST reversed-field pinch plasmas develop magnetic modes with both a core-resonant poloidal mode m=1 structure and edge-resonant m=0 structure on the reversal surface. The impact of the m=0 modes on electron energization has been observed with Thomson scattering under plasma conditions with suppressed m=1 modes. Under such conditions, the m=0 modes undergo brief (~100 μs) bursts of localized magnetic activity. These bursts show a localized 4% heating of electrons above a 600-900 eV background temperature, associated with a reduction of magnetic energy. An inward propagating cold pulse follows after the heating as a result of reduced confinement. Ensembles of hundreds of bursts are required to measure small relative heating, however single-shot results from MST's high repetition Thomson scattering diagnostic support the ensemble results. Analysis of Thomson scattering data also provides constraints on non-Maxwellian distributions and upcoming upgrades will improve the ability to resolve electron currents associated with the magnetic bursts. This work is supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  18. Resonant Tunnelling and Storage of Electrons in Si Nanocrystals within a-SiNx/nc-Si/a-SiNx Structures

    WANG Xiang; HUANG Jian; ZHANG Xian-Gao; DING Hong-Lin; YU Lin-Wei; HUANG Xin-Fan; LI Wei; XU Jun; CHEN Kun-Ji


    @@ The a-SiNx/nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si)/a-SiNx sandwiched structures with asymmetric double-barrier are fabricated in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) system on p-type Si substrates. The nc-Si layer in thickness 5nm is fabricated from a hydrogen-diluted silane gas by the layer-by-layer deposition technique. The thicknesses of tunnel and control SiNx layers are 3nm and 20nm,respectively. Frequency-dependent capacitance spectroscopy is used to study the electron tunnelling and the storage in the sandwiched structures.Distinct frequency-dependent capacitance peaks due to electrons tunnelling into the nc-Si dots and capacitance-voltage (C- V) hysteresis characteristic due to electrons storage in the nc-Si dots are observed with the same sample.

  19. Results of MACE tests M0 and M1

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiment (MACE) Program underway at Argonne National Laboratory under ACE/EPRI sponsorship is addressing the efficacy of water to terminate an accident situation if melt progression were to result in a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) in a reactor containment. Large-scale experiments are being conducted, in parallel with related modeling efforts, involving the addition of water to an MCCI already underway. The experiments utilize UO2/ZrO2/Zr corium mixtures, direct electrical heating for simulation of decay heating, and various types of concrete basemats. Currently the tests involve 430 kg corium mass, 25 cm depth, in a 50 cm square test section. Test M0 was a successful scoping test, but the first full size test, M1, failed to achieve melt-water contact owing to existence of a preexisting bridge crust of corium charge. A heat flux of 3.5 MW/m2 was measured in M0 which removed energy from the corium pool equivalent to its entire heat of solidification prior to abatement by formation of an interfacial crust. The crust subsequently limited heat extraction to 600 kW/m2 and less. Both tests M0 and M1 revealed physical evidence of large pool swelling events which resulted in extrusion (and ejection) of melt into water above the crust, significantly increasing the overall quench and reducing the remaining melt in contact with the concrete. Furthermore, test M1 provided evidence of occasional 'burst mode' ablation events and one additional important benefit of overlying water-aerosol capture. In summary: Both MACE tests M0 and M1 contributed important information to the MCCI and melt coolability data base. Melt-water contact was achieved in M0, but after a period of intense energy removal a bridge crust formed which thereafter separated the water from the melt zone. Melt-water contact was not achieved in M1 owing to presence of a bridge crust as an initial condition. Key findings are summarized as follows: 1) The melt

  20. Relativistic local quantum field theory for m=0 particles

    A method is introduced ta deal with relativistic quantum field theory for particles with m=0. Two mappings I and J, giving rise respectively to particle and anti particle states, are defined between a test space and the physical Hilbert space. The intrinsic field operator is then defined as the minimal causal linear combinations of operators belonging to the annihilation-creation algebra associated to the germ and antigerm parts of the element. Local elements are introduced as improper test elements and local field operators are constructed in the same way as the intrinsic ones. Commutation rules are given. (Author) 17 refs

  1. Radiotherapy for TXN2M0 pyriform sinus cancer

    We retrospectively analyzed 31 patients with TxN2M0 pyriform sinus cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy with or without neck dissection. According to the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system, the numbers of patients were T1, 4; T2, 5; T3, 11; and T4, 5. There were 27 male and 4 female patients. The ages ranged from 36 to 86 years, with a median of 64 years. Five-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 38.7% and 34.4%, respectively. The local control rate after radiotherapy, and after salvage surgery, was 29.0% and 45.0%, respectively. Although the control rate of the neck lymph nodes treated by radiotherapy alone was 26.7%, in contrast, that by surgery was 68.8%. Treatment by radiotherapy with neck dissection to selected T1-3N2 patients with pyriform sinus cancer, for voice preservation, would be an alternative treatment to the surgery that is now standard treatment. (author)

  2. The Diophantine Equation nx2 + 2m = yn%Diophantine方程nx2+2m=yn



    设n是大于3的奇数.本文运用Y.Bilu,G.Hanrot和P.M.Voutier关于Lehmer 数本原素因子存在性的新近结果,证明了方程nx2+2m=yn没有适合gcd(x,y)=1且m为奇数的正整数解(x,y,m).%Let n be an odd integer with n > 3. In this paper, using a recent result on the existence of primitive divisors of Lehmer numbers given by Y. Bilu, G. Hanrot and P.M.Voutier, we prove that the equation nx2 + 2m = yn has no positive integer solution (x, y, m)satisfying gcd(x, y) = 1 and m is odd.

  3. Novel TiNx-based biosignal electrodes for electroencephalography

    A composition, structural, morphological and electrochemical study of two titanium nitride (TiNx) thin films, sample A and sample B, obtained by dc reactive sputtering on titanium substrates was carried out in this paper. In order to assess their applicability to be used as dry electrodes, several EEG signal acquisition tests were performed using the TiNx electrodes and compared to signals acquired with conventional silver/silver-chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes. The two films displayed some compositional differences, as sample B was over-stoichiometric (x = 1.34, x = N/Ti atomic ratio) and sample A was close-stoichiometric (x = 0.94). XRD diffractograms showed that both samples developed a similar fcc crystalline structure (δ-TiN phase). XRD peak fitting showed that sample B (over-stoichiometric) has a more oriented structure (highly [1 1 1] textured), with larger grains. A columnar-type structure with pyramid-like shape at column's top was common to both TiNx films. This morphology, in addition to some columnar disaggregation, gives rise to a rather rough surface and porous structure. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results in artificial sweat showed that the electric properties of the samples remain unchanged, even after prolonged contact with sweat. The comparison of EEG signals, simultaneously recorded using the novel TiNx electrodes and conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes, showed very similar results. The root mean square deviation, which was computed for different electrode–electrolyte combinations and signal sequences of 5 s, was in the range of 4.5–9.4 µV and 6.7–20.4 µV for samples A and B, respectively. An additional test with two sets of Ag/AgCl electrodes revealed similar results, thus indicating most of the signal differences are related to the spatial distance of the compared electrodes as well as environmental noise. Therefore, our results lead to the conclusion that the novel TiNx electrodes show promising signal quality for application in

  4. Des-γ-Carboxyprothrombin (DCP) and NX-DCP Expressions and Their Relationship with Clinicopathological Features in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Akiko Sumi; Jun Akiba; Sachiko Ogasawara; Masamichi Nakayama; Yoriko Nomura; Makiko Yasumoto; Sakiko Sanada; Osamu Nakashima; Toshi Abe; Hirohisa Yano


    Aim Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) has been used as a tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently the DCP/NX-DCP ratio, calculated by dividing DCP by NX-DCP, has been reported useful in detecting HCC. The purpose of this study is to clarify the significance of DCP and NX-DCP expression in HCC tissues. Methods HCC and non-HCC tissue samples were obtained from 157 patients and were immunohistochemically examined for DCP and NX-DCP expression using anti-DCP antibody and anti-NX-DCP...

  5. Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP and NX-DCP expressions and their relationship with clinicopathological features in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Akiko Sumi

    Full Text Available Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP has been used as a tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Recently the DCP/NX-DCP ratio, calculated by dividing DCP by NX-DCP, has been reported useful in detecting HCC. The purpose of this study is to clarify the significance of DCP and NX-DCP expression in HCC tissues.HCC and non-HCC tissue samples were obtained from 157 patients and were immunohistochemically examined for DCP and NX-DCP expression using anti-DCP antibody and anti-NX-DCP antibody. DCP and NX-DCP expression scores were calculated by multiplying staining intensity grade by percentage of stained area. Serum DCP and NX-DCP levels were determined in 89 patients. We evaluated the relationship between tumor expression, serum level, and pathomorphological findings.Intrahepatic metastasis (im was significantly more frequent in cases with high DCP expression than in cases with low DCP expression. High NX-DCP expression was associated with significantly lower histological grade, and less frequent im or portal vein invasion (vp than low NX-DCP expression. Serum DCP was correlated with DCP expression, but serum NX-DCP was not correlated with NX-DCP expression. DCP-positive (≥40 mAU/L, NX-DCP-positive (≥90 mAU/L, and DCP/NX-DCP ratio-positive (≥1.5 cases were associated with significantly larger tumor size and more frequent vp than negative cases. DCP was rarely expressed, but NX-DCP was frequently expressed in non-cancerous liver tissues. Patients with NX-DCP expression-negative tumors showed a lower survival rate than those with NX-DCP expression-positive tumors (p = 0.04, whereas the survival in serum NX-DCP-positive cases was lower than that of serum negative cases (p = 0.02.DCP and NX-DCP were produced in HCC tissues, but differed in expression level and biological properties. DCP expression, serum DCP or NX-DCP level, and DCP/NX-DCP ratio were closely related to malignant properties of HCC.

  6. Self-organization during growth of ZrN/SiNx multilayers by epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    ZrN/SiNx nanoscale multilayers were deposited on ZrN seed layers grown on top of MgO(001) substrates by dc magnetron sputtering with a constant ZrN thickness of 40 Å and with an intended SiNx thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 15 Å at a substrate temperature of 800 °C and 6 Å at 500 °C. The films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The investigations show that the SiNx is amorphous and that the ZrN layers are crystalline. Growth of epitaxial cubic SiNx—known to take place on TiN(001)—on ZrN(001) is excluded to the monolayer resolution of this study. During the course of SiNx deposition, the material segregates to form surface precipitates in discontinuous layers for SiNx thicknesses ≤6 Å that coalesce into continuous layers for 8 and 15 Å thickness at 800 °C, and for 6 Å at 500 °C. The SiNx precipitates are aligned vertically. The ZrN layers in turn grow by epitaxial lateral overgrowth on the discontinuous SiNx in samples deposited at 800 °C with up to 6 Å thick SiNx layers. Effectively a self-organized nanostructure can be grown consisting of strings of 1–3 nm large SiNx precipitates along apparent column boundaries in the epitaxial ZrN

  7. N-(3,4-Dimethylphenylbenzamide

    B. Thimme Gowda


    Full Text Available The conformation of the NH bond in the structure of the title compound (N34DMPBA, C15H15NO, is anti to the meta-methyl substituent in the aniline ring, similar to that observed with respect to the meta-chloro substituent in N-(3,4-dichlorophenylbenzamide (N34DCPBA, but in contrast to the syn conformation observed with respect to the meta-methyl substituent in N-(3,4-dimethylphenylacetamide. The bond parameters in N34DMPBA are similar to those in N34DCPBA and other benzanilides. The molecules in N34DMPBA are packed into a column-like structure in the direction of the a axis through N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  8. Particular properties of Ti2O and TiNx nanoparticles prepared by thermal decomposition


    Particular properties of Ti2O and TiNx prepared by thermal decomposition were introduced.A precursor prepared by titanium powder reacting with oxalate acid was thermally decomposed in nitrogen atmosphere at 840℃ for 15 rain,and relatively pure Ti2O was then obtained.Conductive TiNx was also prepared after altering reaction conditions.Samples were characterized by resistivity,X-ray powder diffraction,transmission electron microscope,Ultraviolet-Visible diffuse reflection,and electromagnetic shielding efficiency.The results indicate that both Ti2O and TiNx have good conductivity.Moreover,Ti2O shows a better solar photoeatalytie activity and TiNx does well in the electromagnetic shield.

  9. Structure and Friction Behavior of CrNx/a-C:H Nanocomposite Films

    Lunlin Shang


    Full Text Available CrN and CrNx/a-C:H nanocomposite films were deposited on Si substrates by the magnetron sputtering technique. The structure, chemical state, and friction behavior of the CrNx/a-C:H films prepared at various CH4 content were studied systematically. The CrN film shows strong (111 and (220 orientation, while the CrNx/a-C:H films consist of the nanocrystalline CrNx or Cr particles embedded in an amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H matrix and show weak diffraction peaks, which is in accordance with the XPS analysis results. The typical Raman D and G peaks are observed, indicating that the separated amorphous carbon or CNx phase appears in the CrNx/a-C:H films. However, no chromium carbide was observed in all the as-deposited samples. From the SEM graphs, all the deposited films depicted a dense and compact microstructure with well-attached interface with the substrate. The average friction coefficient of the CrNx/a-C:H films largely decreased with increasing CH4 content.

  10. Digital development of products with NX9 for academical areas

    Goanta, A. M.


    International competitiveness forced the manufacturing enterprises to look for new ways to accelerate the development of digital products through innovation, global alliances and strategic partnerships. In an environment of global research and development of distributed geographically, all members of the joint teams made up of companies and universities need to access updated and accurate information about products created by any of the type employed, student, teacher. Current design processes involve more complex products consisting of elements of design created by multiple teams, disciplines and suppliers using independent CAD systems. Even when using a 3D CAD mature technology, many companies fail to significantly reduce losses in the process, improve product quality or product type to ensure successful innovations to market arouse interest. These challenges require a radical rethinking of the business model, which belongs to the field of design, which must be based on digital development of products based on integrated files. Through this work, the author has proposed to provide both synthesis and transformations brought news of the integrated NX [1, 2, 3] from Siemens PLM Software 9, following a news results detailed documentary study, and personal results obtained by applying the same version, the digital and integrated development of a product type device test beams. Based on educational license received for NX 9 was made a detailed study of the innovations made by this release, and the application of some of them went to graphical modelling and getting all the documentation of a test device bearing beams. Also, were synthesized in terms of methodology, the steps to take to obtain graphical documentation. The results consist of: 3D models of all parts and assembly 3D model of the three-dimensional constraints of all component parts and not least respectively all drawings and assembly drawing. The most important consequence of the paper is the obtaining of

  11. Research on an AlSiNx bi-material thermal-mechanical uncooled infrared FPA pixel

    Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Da-cheng


    AlSiNx bi-material thermal strain structure is used in uncooled optic readout infrared focal plane array (UOR IR FPA) pixel based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. In this paper, the problems that the AlSiNxstructure prevents FPA pixel scaling down and fill factor improving, and the Au reflection layer of the pixel leads to larger readout light energy loss are analyzed. The feasibility of AlSiNx instead of AlSiNx in the UOR IR FPA fabrication is researched in detail. The theoretical analyzing and simulation results demonstrate that, with optimized thicknesses and their matching designing of SiNx and Al, the thermal-mechanical response of AlSiNx bi-material structure is improved to 1.8 times and the intensity of optic readout signal is improved to about 2 times compared with AuSiNAlSiNx one.

  12. Soft x-ray yield from NX2 plasma focus

    The Lee model code is used to compute neon soft x-ray yield Ysxr for the NX2 plasma focus as a function of pressure. Comparison with measured Ysxr shows reasonable agreement in the Ysxr versus pressure curve, the absolute maximum yield as well as the optimum pressure. This gives confidence that the code gives a good representation of the neon plasma focus in terms of gross properties including speeds and trajectories and soft x-ray yields, despite its lack of modeling localized regions of higher densities and temperatures. Computed current curves versus pressure are presented and discussed particularly in terms of the dynamic resistance of the axial phase. Computed gross properties of the plasma focus including peak discharge current Ipeak, pinch current Ipinch, minimum pinch radius rmin, plasma density at the middle duration of pinch npinch, and plasma temperature at middle duration of pinch Tpinch are presented and the trends in variation of these are discussed to explain the peaking of Ysxr at optimum pressure.

  13. Space modeling with SolidWorks and NX

    Duhovnik, Jože; Drešar, Primož


    Through a series of step-by-step tutorials and numerous hands-on exercises, this book aims to equip the reader with both a good understanding of the importance of space in the abstract world of engineers and the ability to create a model of a product in virtual space – a skill essential for any designer or engineer who needs to present ideas concerning a particular product within a professional environment. The exercises progress logically from the simple to the more complex; while SolidWorks or NX is the software used, the underlying philosophy is applicable to all modeling software. In each case, the explanation covers the entire procedure from the basic idea and production capabilities through to the real model; the conversion from 3D model to 2D manufacturing drawing is also clearly explained. Topics covered include modeling of prism, axisymmetric, symmetric, and sophisticated shapes; digitization of physical models using modeling software; creation of a CAD model starting from a physical model; free fo...

  14. ARGUS disk-target experiments at 1.06 μm, 0.53 μm, 0.35 μm

    We report on ARGUS wavelength scaling experiments on disk targets at 1.06 μm, 0.53 μm, and 0.35 μm. Measurements were made of absorption, stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering, and 3/2 harmonic light

  15. Effect of nitrogen content on the properties of CrNxOyCz coating prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering

    The CrNxOyCz coatings were deposited by planar DC reactive magnetron sputtering onto AZ31 Mg alloy and high speed tool steel (HSTS) substrates at a substrate temperature of 200 deg. C. The effect of N2 content on composition and structure of the CrNxOyCz coatings was investigated. The structure of the CrNxOyCz coatings was analyzed by a glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GXRD). The cross-section morphology and thickness of the CrNxOyCz coatings were checked by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and the composition profile and chemical state were carried out by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental results showed that the structure and phase composition of the CrNxOyCz coatings depended on N2 content. The evolution of the structure of CrNxOyCz coatings was consistent with CrNx-based coatings, and the CrNxOyCz coatings contained Cr2O3, CrO2, CrO, Cr3C2, CrNx (Cr, CrN, Cr2N), as well as different chromium oxynitride. However, the carbide and oxynitride were oxidized after annealing

  16. Fe-Nx/C assisted chemical–mechanical polishing for improving the removal rate of sapphire

    Highlights: • A novel non-noble metal catalyst (Fe-Nx/C) was prepared. • Fe-Nx/C shows remarkable catalytic activity for improving the removal rate of sapphire in alkaline solution. • The optimum CMP removal by Fe-Nx/C yielded a superior surface finish of 0.078 nm the average roughness. • Fe2O3, Fe3O4, pyridinic N as well as pyrrolic N group possibly serving as the catalytic sites. • A soft hydration layer (boehmite, AlO(OH)) was generated on the surface of sapphire during CMP process. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel non-noble metal catalyst (Fe-Nx/C) is used to improve the removal mass of sapphire as well as obtain atomically smooth sapphire wafer surfaces. The results indicate that Fe-Nx/C shows good catalytic activity towards sapphire removal rate. And the material removal rates (MRRs) are found to vary with the catalyst content in the polishing fluid. Especially that when the polishing slurry mixes with 16 ppm Fe-Nx/C shows the maximum MRR and its removal mass of sapphire is 38.43 nm/min, more than 15.44% larger than traditional CMP using the colloidal silicon dioxide (SiO2) without Fe-Nx/C. Catalyst-assisted chemical–mechanical polishing of sapphire is studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the formation of a soft hydration layer (boehmite, γ-AlOOH or γ-AlO(OH)) on sapphire surface facilitates the material removal and achieving fine surface finish on basal plane. Abrasives (colloid silica together with magnetite, ingredient of Fe-Nx/C) with a hardness between boehmite and sapphire polish the c-plane of sapphire with good surface finish and efficient removal. Fe2O3, Fe3O4, pyridinic N as well as pyrrolic N group would be the catalytical active sites and accelerate this process. Surface quality is characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optimum CMP removal by Fe-Nx/C also yields a superior surface finish of 0.078 nm the average roughness (Ra)

  17. Corrosion resistance of duplex and gradient CrNx coated H13 steel

    The electrochemical behavior of H13 steel coated with duplex and gradient CrNx coatings deposited by cathodic arc deposition has been studied. The substrate material was coated with CrN by cathodic arc deposition technique. Duplex layers of CrNx, which normally include an interlayer approximately 100-200 nm of Cr under the main CrN coating, were prepared; gradient CrNx coating were produced with continuous elevated nitrogen pressure. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to characterize the chemical composition, and the glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) was used to examine the crystallographic structure. The potentiodynamic polarization was examined by Zahner IM6e electrochemical workstation in a 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at ambient temperature, and the corrosive surface was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that the gradient coating could enhance the corrosion performance of CrNx coated H13 steel. The corrosion resistance improvement was not only attributed to the increase in thickness, but also to the internal microstructure and phase composition. Gradient CrNx coating produced in this work was proved to be particularly promising in terms of corrosion resistance, owing to its incontinuous pinholes and different composition: Cr, Cr2N in inner part and CrN in surface. The results showed that the gradient coating had an improved electrochemical performance than duplex CrN coating

  18. NxRepair: error correction in de novo sequence assembly using Nextera mate pairs

    Rebecca R. Murphy


    Full Text Available Scaffolding errors and incorrect repeat disambiguation during de novo assembly can result in large scale misassemblies in draft genomes. Nextera mate pair sequencing data provide additional information to resolve assembly ambiguities during scaffolding. Here, we introduce NxRepair, an open source toolkit for error correction in de novo assemblies that uses Nextera mate pair libraries to identify and correct large-scale errors. We show that NxRepair can identify and correct large scaffolding errors, without use of a reference sequence, resulting in quantitative improvements in the assembly quality. NxRepair can be downloaded from GitHub or PyPI, the Python Package Index; a tutorial and user documentation are also available.

  19. Anomalous epitaxial stability of (001 interfaces in ZrN/SiNx multilayers

    Naureen Ghafoor


    Full Text Available Isostructural stability of B1-NaCl type SiN on (001 and (111 oriented ZrN surfaces is studied theoretically and experimentally. The ZrN/SiNx/ZrN superlattices with modulation wavelength of 3.76 nm (dSiNx∼0.4 nm were grown by dc-magnetron sputtering on MgO(001 and MgO(111. The results indicate that 0.4 nm thin SiNx layers utterly influence the preferred orientation of epitaxial growth: on MgO(001 cube-on-cube epitaxy of ZrN/SiNx superlattices were realized whereas multilayers on MgO(111 surface exhibited an unexpected 002 texture with a complex fourfold 90°-rotated in-plane preferred orientation. Density functional theory calculations confirm stability of a (001 interface with respect to a (111 which explains the anomaly.

  20. Spark Plasma Sintering Bulk Sm2 Fe17NxMagnets

    Yue Ming; Zhang Dongtao; Ji Yongcheng; Zhang Jiuxing


    High performance Sm2Fe17Nx magnetic powders were fabricated by ball-milling method and were compacted using spark plasma sintering(SPS) technique.Effects of processing conditions on the magnetic properties and decomposition dynamic of the magnets were investigated.It is found that higher sintering temperature improves the densification of the magnets, while deteriorates their magnetic properties simultaneously due to the decomposition of the Sm2Fe17Nx.Sintering at lower temperature can preserve the crystal structure of Sm2Fe17Nx compound, while the powders cannot be consolidated into a fully dense compact.An increased compressive pressure leads to better magnetic properties and higher density for the magnet at the same sintering temperature.

  1. Realization of Colored Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with SiO2/SiNx:H Double Layer Antireflection Coatings

    Minghua Li


    Full Text Available We presented a method to use SiO2/SiNx:H double layer antireflection coatings (DARC on acid textures to fabricate colored multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si solar cells. Firstly, we modeled the perceived colors and short-circuit current density (Jsc as a function of SiNx:H thickness for single layer SiNx:H, and as a function of SiO2 thickness for the case of SiO2/SiNx:H (DARC with fixed SiNx:H (refractive index n=2.1 at 633 nm, and thickness = 80 nm. The simulation results show that it is possible to achieve various colors by adjusting the thickness of SiO2 to avoid significant optical losses. Therefore, we carried out the experiments by using electron beam (e-beam evaporation to deposit a layer of SiO2 over the standard SiNx:H for 156×156 mm2 mc-Si solar cells which were fabricated by a conventional process. Semisphere reflectivity over 300 nm to 1100 nm and I-V measurements were performed for grey yellow, purple, deep blue, and green cells. The efficiency of colored SiO2/SiNx:H DARC cells is comparable to that of standard SiNx:H light blue cells, which shows the potential of colored cells in industrial applications.

  2. Structure and properties of nanocrystalline ZrNxOy thin films: Effect of the oxygen content and film thickness

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the structure and properties of ZrNxOy thin films associated with oxygen content and film thickness. ZrNxOy thin films were deposited using hollow cathode discharge ion plating on Si (100) substrate. The thickness of ZrNxOy films increased with increasing oxygen flow rate, ranging from 143 to 894 nm. Phase separation from ZrNxOy to ZrN and monoclinic ZrO2 (m-ZrO2) was observed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrical and mechanical properties were influenced by the film thickness and the amount of separated phase, m-ZrO2. ZrNxOy thin films with smaller thickness or deposited at higher O2 flow rate were found to have higher electrical resistivity. Hardness of the ZrNxOy thin films increased with increasing thickness, which could be related to microstructure change of the thin films. Residual stress of the ZrN phase in the ZrNxOy thin films, measured using the modified sin2 ψ XRD method, decreased with increasing oxygen flow rate. The thickness dependence of the residual stress in ZrN was different with different oxygen flow rates. The average residual stress of the ZrNxOy thin films also decreased with increasing oxygen flow rate and the stress did not showed significant dependence on the film thickness.

  3. Risk and timing of biochemical recurrence in pT3aN0/Nx prostate cancer with positive surgical margin – A multicenter study

    Background and purpose: Positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy have been shown to be associated with impaired outcome. In pT3pN0 patients with PSM either immediate radiotherapy or clinical and biological monitoring followed by salvage radiotherapy is recommended by the latest guidelines of the European Association of Urology. Materials and methods: A retrospective, multicenter study of eight urological centers was conducted on 536 prostatectomy patients with pT3aN0/NxR1 tumors and no neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy. A pathological re-review of all prostate specimens was performed. Association of clinical and pathological features with biochemical recurrence (BCR) was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: With 48 months median follow-up, BCR occurred in 39.7%. Preoperative PSA value, performance of pelvic lymph node dissection and Gleason score were significantly associated with BCR. In multivariate analysis, Gleason score was the only independent prognostic factor (p < 0.001) for BCR. Five-year BCR-free survival rates were 74%, 70%, 38%, and 51% with Gleason score 6, 3 + 4 = 7a, 4 + 3 = 7b, and 8–10, respectively. Conclusions: In pT3aN0/NxR1 patients with no adjuvant/neoadjuvant treatment, Gleason Score permits independent prediction of the risk for BCR. These findings could help to estimate and discuss the individual risk for BCR with our patients on an individual basis

  4. Formation and coarsening of near-surface Ga nanoparticles on SiNx

    Canniff, J. C.; Jeon, S.; Huang, S.; Goldman, R. S.


    We have investigated the formation and coarsening of near-surface Ga nanoparticles (NPs) in SiNx using Ga+ focused-ion-beam-irradiation of SiNx, followed by rapid thermal annealing. For surfaces with minimal curvature, diffusive growth is apparent, leading to nearly close packed arrays with NP diameters as small as 3 nm and densities as high as ˜4 × 1012 cm-2. The diffusive flux increases with annealing temperature, leading to NP coarsening by Ostwald ripening. For surfaces with increased curvature, diffusion towards the valleys also increases during annealing, leading to Ga NP coalescence and a bi-modal distribution of NP sizes.

  5. Activation energy of water vapor and oxygen transmission through TiNxOy/PET gas barrier films

    Titanium oxynitride (TiNxOy) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by means of a reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system in which the power density was the varied parameter. Experimental results show that the deposited TiNxOy films with a thickness of about 55 nm have similar contents of TiN, TiNxOy and TiO2 bonds, although they are deposited at different power densities. The TiNxOy films deposited at a lower power density have fewer internal defects and grain boundaries and possess higher activation energy and a lower rate of water vapor and oxygen transmission through TiNxOy/PET films.

  6. Preparation and annealing study of TaNx coatings on WC-Co substrates

    To prevent Co diffusion from cemented carbides at high temperatures, we fabricated TaNx coatings by reactive direct current (d.c.) magnetron sputtering onto 6 wt.% cobalt cemented carbide substrates, to form diffusion barrier layers. Varying the nitrogen flow ratio, N2/(Ar + N2), from 0.05 to 0.4 during the sputtering process had a significant effect on coating structure and content. Deposition rate reduced as the nitrogen flow ratio increased. The effects of nitrogen flow ratio on the crystalline characteristics of the TaNx coatings were examined by X-ray diffraction. The TaNx coatings annealing conditions were 500, 600, 700, and 800 deg. C for 4 h in air. We evaluated the performance of the diffusion barrier using both Auger electron spectroscopy depth-profiles and X-ray diffraction techniques. We also investigated oxidation resistance of the TaNx coatings annealed in air, and under a 50 ppm O2-N2 atmosphere, to evaluate the fabricated layers effectiveness as a protective coating for glass molding dies.

  7. Lepton pairs from a forbidden M0 transition : Signaling an elusive light neutral boson?

    Krasznahorkay, A; De Boer, FWN; Csatlos, M; Csige, L; Gacsi, Z; Gulyas, J; Hunyadi, M; Ketel, TJ; Van Klinken, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Vitez, A


    Electron-positron pairs have been observed in the 10.95 MeV 0(-) -> 0(+) decay in O-16. This magnetic monopole (M0) transition cannot proceed by gamma-ray decay and is, to first order, forbidden for internal pair creation. However, the transition may also proceed by the emission of a light neutral 0

  8. Irreducibility of \\bar{M}_{0,n}(G/P,\\beta)

    Thomsen, Jesper Funch


    Let G be a linear algebraic group, P be a parabolic subgroup of G and \\beta be a cycle of dimension 1 in the Chow group of the quotient G/P. Using geometric arguments and Borel's fixed point theorem, we prove that the moduli space \\bar{M}_{0,n}(G/P, \\beta) of n-pointed genus 0 stable maps representing \\beta is irreducible.

  9. A Contribution to the Theory Behind the M0 Capture-Recapture Model: An Improved Estimator

    Vincent, Kyle


    We explore the use of a sufficient statistic based on the identified members that are obtained for samples that are selected under the $M_0$ capture-recapture closed population model (Schwarz and Seber, 1999). A Rao-Blackwellized version of the estimator based on a sufficient statistic is then presented. We explore the efficiency of the improved estimator via a simulation study. The R code for the simulation is provided in the appendix.

  10. Dependence of Threshold Voltage of a-Si:H TFT on a-SiNx:H Film①


    The relation between threshold voltage for hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film transistors(a-Si:HTFTs)and deposition conditions for hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride(a-SiNx:H)films is investigated.It is observed that the threshold voltage,Vth,of a-Si:HTFT increases with the increase of the thickness of a-SiNx:H film,and the threshold voltage is reduced apparently with the increase of NH3/SiH4 gas flow rate ratio.

  11. Application of rapid thermal processing on SiNx thin film to solar cells

    Youjie LI; Peiqing LUO; Zhibin ZHOU; Rongqiang CUI; Jianhua HUANG; Jingxiao WANG


    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) of SiNx thin films from PECVD with low temperature was investigated. A special processing condition of this technique which could greatly increase the minority lifetime was found in the experiments. The processing mechanism and the application of the technique to silicon solar cells fabrication were dis-cussed. A main achievement is an increase of the minority lifetime in silicon wafer with SiNx thin film by about 200% after the RTP was reached. PC-1D simulation results exhibit an enhancement of the efficiency of the solar cell by 0.42% coming from the minority lifetime improvement. The same experiment was also conducted with P-diffusion silicon wafers, but the increment of minority lifetime is just about 55%. It could be expected to improve the solar cell efficiency if it would be used in silicon solar cells fabrication with the combination of laser firing contact technique.

  12. Memristor and selector devices fabricated from HfO2-xNx

    Murdoch, B. J.; McCulloch, D. G.; Ganesan, R.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Partridge, J. G.


    Monoclinic HfO2-xNx has been incorporated into two-terminal devices exhibiting either memristor or selector operation depending on the controlled inclusion/suppression of mobile oxygen vacancies. In HfO2 memristors containing oxygen vacancies, gradual conductance modulation, short-term plasticity, and long-term potentiation were observed using appropriate voltage-spike stimulation, suggesting suitability for artificial neural networks. Passivation of oxygen vacancies, confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, was achieved in HfO2-xNx films by the addition of nitrogen during growth. Selector devices formed on these films exhibited threshold switching and current controlled negative differential resistance consistent with thermally driven insulator to metal transitions.

  13. New permanent-installation device for monitoring stress changes in NX core holes

    A solid-inclusion probe has been developed to monitor stress changes in rock. The probe is designed for use in NX-sized drill holes and it can detect stress changes from 0 to 5,000 pounds per square inch from a few milliseconds to a few years in the time domain. These probes have been used to monitor the dynamic stresses of low-yield nuclear detonations at a distance of a few hundred feet and they have remained operable during and after the detonations. The device is composed of fluid-filled hydraulic cells that are mounted radially on a mandrel. The device is emplaced and grouted in a newly drilled NX hole. Stress changes in the wall rock result in borehole diameter changes that vary the hydraulic-cell pressure. Relative cell pressures can be monitored by either Bourdon gages or electronic transducers. Hydraulic-cell pressure changes are used to calculate rock-stress change. (WHK)

  14. Thermodynamic Factors Affecting UC1-xNxIrradiation and Synthesis

    There is interest in attempting to synthesize nearly pure uranium nitride (UN) kernels for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. Because the proposed process involves carbothermic conversion of a urania-carbon mixture in nitrogen and because there is a complete ideal solution of uranium carbide (UC) and UN, which is written as UC1-xNx, the practical value of x for fuel irradiation needs to be determined. Insight is to be gained by relevant thermodynamic calculations of carbide-nitride equilibria for the fuel and fission product systems. The equilibria are readily compared on the nitrogen-based Ellingham diagram, which, in turn, provides guidance in interpreting past irradiations and in synthesis of the UC1-xNx kernels

  15. XPS analysis and corrosion resistance of CrNx film prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering on surface of depleted uranium

    The chemical nature of depleted uranium is very active and prone to oxidation corrosion in nature environment. In this study, CrNx film was prepared on the surface of depleted uranium by unbalance magnetron sputtering ion plating to improve its corrosion resistance. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the chemical state and depth profiles of Cr, N and O elements. XRD was employed to examine the phase structure of CrNx film. The corrosion behavior of the samples was measured by using polarization curves (E/I). The results show that CrNx film prepared by unbalance magnetron sputtering has good density and corrosion resistance. The phase composition of CrNx films is composed with Cr, CrN and Cr2N when the N2 flow is lower. After a layer of CrNx is deposited on the surface of uranium, the corrosion potential increases about 465 mV, while the corrosion current density decreases significantly. It is indicated that the corrosion resistance of depleted uranium is effectively improved after depositing CrNx thin film by unbalance magnetron sputtering. (authors)

  16. Gradient SiNx IBAD coating: preparation and measurement of concentration profile

    Preparation of gradient SiNx coating by the ion beam assisted deposition method with high ion energy is described. Special shape of the concentration of nitrogen in the coating was chosen and constructed. Concentration profile was constructed in three steps with different ratios of nitrogen and silicon atom fluxes. Ion energy was 90 keV. Concentration profile was measured by RBS (Rutherford Back Scattering) method. (author). 1 ref., 2 figs

  17. Corrosion behaviour of single layered ZrNxOy thin films in artificial sweat solutions

    Ariza, E.; Rocha, L. A.; Ferreira, S. C.; Vaz, F; Cunha, L.; Carvalho, P.; Rebouta, L.; E. Alves; Goudeau, Ph.; Rivière, J.P.


    Applications of coloured thin films can be found on the production of high-quality consumer products, such as eyeglass frames, wristwatch casings and wristbands. These components should possess scratch and corrosion resistant surfaces through the desired lifetime. Recently, metal oxynitrides, MeNxOy (Me = early transition metal) were proposed for decorative applications. In these materials, variations on the amount of oxygen allow the film properties to be tailored, originating a wide rang...

  18. Infrared absorption of thin films MoSi2/SiNx micro-bridge

    Jiang, Bo; Su, Yan; He, Yong; Wang, Kaiying


    In this paper, we report the infrared absorption and opto-electrical characteristics of multilayered thin films of MoSi2/SiNx with a micro-bridge structure. The thin films of MoSi2 deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering exhibit a relatively smooth surface (RMS roughness work provides the physical understanding regarding the building of micro-bridges with the high infrared absorption.

  19. Friction and wear properties of C-N/MeNx nanolayer composites

    Nanolayer composite coatings enable creation of stable structures with unique properties, and in particular, combination of properties conventionally considered excluding one another, such as high hardness and high toughness. Coatings, typically 1-4 μm thick, were deposited at a total pressure ranging from 0.9 to 3 Pa, at relatively low substrate temperatures not exceeding 200 deg. C. We deposited nanostructured multilayer coatings of the C-N/MeNx type, where Me could be Ti, Nb or Zr. Various substrates such as, highly polished tungsten carbide, steel and silicon were used. This study concentrated on the tribological properties of C-N/MeNx nanostructured multilayers. The friction coefficient, wear and the film transfer in a ball-on-disk tribometer were presented. The samples were measured after the deposition and then thermally treated at a constant temperature in the air. Afterwards, the samples were again measured and then exposed to a higher temperature, until the layer broke down. We also investigated the structure of the coating by means of low-angle X-ray reflection and high-angle X-ray diffraction. The potential application of C-N/MeNx nanolayer composites as hard solid lubricant is discussed

  20. Remarkable Resistance Change in Plasma Oxidized TiOx/TiNx Film for Memory Application

    WU Liang-Cai; SONG Zhi-Tang; LIU Bo; RAO Feng; XU Cheng; ZHANG Ting; YIN Wei-Jun; FENG Song-Lin


    We report the experimental phenomenon of large resistance change in plasma oxidized TiOx/TiNx film fabricated on W bottom-electrode-contact(W-BEC)array.The W-BEC in diameter 260nm is fabricated by a 0.18μm CMOS technology,and the TiOx/TiNx cell array is formed by rf magnetron sputtering and reactive ion etching.IN current-voltage(Ⅰ-Ⅴ)measurement for current-sweeping mode,large snap-back of voltage is observed,which indicates that the sample changes from high-resistance state(HRS) to low-resistance state (LRS).In the Ⅰ-Ⅴ measurement for voltage-sweeping mode,large current collapse is observed,which indicates that the sample changes from LRS to HRS.The current difference between HRS and LRS is about two orders.The threshold current and voltage for the resistance change is about 5.0×10-5 A and 2.5 V,respectively.The pulse voltage can also change the resistance and the pulse time is as shorter as 30 ns for the resistance change.These properties of TiOx/TiNx film are comparable to that of conventional phase-change material,which makes it possible for RRAM application.

  1. Linear Analysis of the m=0 Instability for a Visco-resistive Hall MHD Plasma

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the linear dispersion relation for the axisymmetric (m=0) compressible interchange instability of Bennett equilibria in a visco-resistive, Hall MHD plasma. The full anisotropic stress tensor with Braginskii viscous coefficients is considered. The eigenvalues are obtained numerically. For small axial mode number, Hall currents enhance the growth rates, whereas in the limit of high mode number the growth rates are suppressed, eventually resulting in wave cutoff, even in the ideal limit. For the visco-resistive plasma the unstable spectra are weakly dependent on the off-diagonal elements of the stress tensor

  2. Glioblastoma-infiltrated innate immune cells resemble M0 macrophage phenotype

    Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Wei, Jun; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Healy, Luke M.; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Thomas, Ginu; Zhou, Shouhao; Wang, Qianghu; Elakkad, Ahmed; Liebelt, Brandon D.; Yaghi, Nasser K.; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Huang, Neal; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Prabhu, Sujit S.; Rao, Ganesh; Sawaya, Raymond; Langford, Lauren A.; Bruner, Janet M.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Bar-Or, Amit; Li, Wei; Colen, Rivka R.; Curran, Michael A.; Bhat, Krishna P.; Antel, Jack P.; Cooper, Laurence J.; Sulman, Erik P.; Heimberger, Amy B.


    Glioblastomas are highly infiltrated by diverse immune cells, including microglia, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Understanding the mechanisms by which glioblastoma-associated myeloid cells (GAMs) undergo metamorphosis into tumor-supportive cells, characterizing the heterogeneity of immune cell phenotypes within glioblastoma subtypes, and discovering new targets can help the design of new efficient immunotherapies. In this study, we performed a comprehensive battery of immune phenotyping, whole-genome microarray analysis, and microRNA expression profiling of GAMs with matched blood monocytes, healthy donor monocytes, normal brain microglia, nonpolarized M0 macrophages, and polarized M1, M2a, M2c macrophages. Glioblastoma patients had an elevated number of monocytes relative to healthy donors. Among CD11b+ cells, microglia and MDSCs constituted a higher percentage of GAMs than did macrophages. GAM profiling using flow cytometry studies revealed a continuum between the M1- and M2-like phenotype. Contrary to current dogma, GAMs exhibited distinct immunological functions, with the former aligned close to nonpolarized M0 macrophages. PMID:26973881

  3. Cosmological expansion and contraction from Pauli exclusion principle in $M0$-branes

    Sepehri, Alireza; Bamba, Kazuharu; Capozziello, Salvatore; Pincak, Richard; Pradhan, Anirudh; Rahaman, Farook; Saridakis, Emmanuel N


    We show that the Pauli exclusion principle in a system of $M0$-branes can give rise to the expansion and contraction of the universe which is located on an $M3$-brane. We start with a system of $M0$-branes with high symmetry, which join mutually and form pairs of $M1$-anti-$M1$-branes. The resulting symmetry breaking creates gauge fields that live on the $M1$-branes and play the role of graviton tensor modes, which induce an attractive force between the $M1$ and anti-$M1$ branes. Consequently, the gauge fields that live on the $M1$-branes, and the scalar fields which are attached symmetrically to all parts of these branes, decay to fermions that attach anti-symmetrically to the upper and lower parts of the branes, and hence the Pauli exclusion principle emerges. By closing $M1$-branes mutually, the curvatures produced by parallel spins will be different from the curvatures produced by anti-parallel spins, and this leads to an inequality between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the ...

  4. Comparing Luminex NxTAG-Respiratory Pathogen Panel and RespiFinder-22 for multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens.

    Beckmann, Christiane; Hirsch, Hans H


    Respiratory tract infection (RTI) involves a variety of viruses and bacteria, which can be conveniently detected by multiplex nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT). To compare the novel Luminex-based NxTAG-Respiratory Pathogen Panel (NxTAG-RPP) with the routine multiplex-ligation-NAT based RespiFinder-22® (RF-22), 282 respiratory specimens including nasopharyngeal swabs (71%), broncho-alveolar lavage (27%), throat swabs, tracheal secretions, and sputum (2%) from 116 children and 155 adults were extracted using a Corbett CAS1200 (Qiagen), and analyzed in parallel by the routine RF-22 and NxTAG-RPP. Concordant results were obtained in 263 (93.3%) cases consisting of concordant positives in 167 (59.2%) and concordant negatives in 96 (34%). Results were discordant in 19 (6.7%) consisting of 15 positive:negative, and 4 negative:positive results by NxTAG-RPP versus RF-22, respectively. Co-infections were observed in 10.3% with NxTAG-RPP and in 5.9% with RF-22. Most additional viral pathogens identified by the NxTAG-RPP involved dual infections with rhinovirus and RSV. Discordant samples were mainly due to low genome signals of Ct less than 36, when retested by QNAT suggesting a higher sensitivity of the NxTAG-RPP, also when detecting multiple infections. Hands-on time after extraction for 24 and 96 samples was 0.25 and <0.5 hr for the NxTAG-RPP, and 2 and 4 hr for the RF-22, respectively. The median turn-around time was 6 hr (range 5-7 hr) for NxTAG-RPP and 12 hr (range 8-16 hr) for RF-22. The NxTAG-RPP showed comparable detection rates for most respiratory pathogens, while hands-on and turn-around time were considerably shorter. The clinical significance of detecting multiple viruses needs further clinical evaluation. J. Med. Virol. 88:1319-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856438

  5. Laser-radiation therapy for T2N0M0 laryngeal-glottic cancer

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the laser-radiation combined therapy for T2N0M0 laryngeal-glottic cancer in order to preserve the larynx. The subjects consisted of 52 patients with T2N0M0 laryngeal-glottic cancer treated with laser-radiation combined therapy between 1980 and 1999. Patients ranged in age from 40-88 years, with a median of 70 years, and included 51 men and one woman. During this period, treatment was administered with different radiation devices (60Co or 4 MV-X ray), and 40-72 Gy (median, 60Gy) of radiation therapy were administered. Tumor and treatment characteristics were correlated with local control at a median follow-up of 61 months (range 12-210 months). Concurrent chemotherapy was administered to 32 patients; 29 were treated with 5-FU and vitamin A (FAR), and 3 were treated with low-dose CDDP. Post treatment vocal function was examined in 37 patients. The voice was evaluated in terms of four parameters: maximum phonation time (MPT), mean air flow rate during phonation over a comfortable duration (MFR), fundamental frequency range of phonation (F0 range), and sound pressure level range of phonation (SPL range). The five-year cause-specific-survival rate was 98.0%, and the local control rate was 91.8%. Three of 4 patients who had locally relapsed were administered total laryngectomy as salvage therapy. One patient was administered the tracheostomy for late complication. The actuarial laryngeal preservation rate was 92.3%. We did not find any significant relationship between local relapse and extent of disease, subglottic extension, or anterior commissure involvement. Concurrent chemotherapy was not a significant prognostic factor. Laser debulking followed by radiation therapy did not change the voice significantly except the F0 range. We conclude that the laser-radiation combined therapy for T2N0M0 laryngeal-glottic cancer was effective therapy for not only preservation of the voice but also for vocal function. (author)

  6. Laser-radiation therapy for T2N0M0 laryngeal-glottic cancer

    Suzuki, Gen; Hayabuchi, Naofumi; Toda, Yukihiro; Suefuji, Hiroaki; Ogo, Etuyo; Nakajima, Tadashi [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the laser-radiation combined therapy for T2N0M0 laryngeal-glottic cancer in order to preserve the larynx. The subjects consisted of 52 patients with T2N0M0 laryngeal-glottic cancer treated with laser-radiation combined therapy between 1980 and 1999. Patients ranged in age from 40-88 years, with a median of 70 years, and included 51 men and one woman. During this period, treatment was administered with different radiation devices ({sup 60}Co or 4 MV-X ray), and 40-72 Gy (median, 60Gy) of radiation therapy were administered. Tumor and treatment characteristics were correlated with local control at a median follow-up of 61 months (range 12-210 months). Concurrent chemotherapy was administered to 32 patients; 29 were treated with 5-FU and vitamin A (FAR), and 3 were treated with low-dose CDDP. Post treatment vocal function was examined in 37 patients. The voice was evaluated in terms of four parameters: maximum phonation time (MPT), mean air flow rate during phonation over a comfortable duration (MFR), fundamental frequency range of phonation (F0 range), and sound pressure level range of phonation (SPL range). The five-year cause-specific-survival rate was 98.0%, and the local control rate was 91.8%. Three of 4 patients who had locally relapsed were administered total laryngectomy as salvage therapy. One patient was administered the tracheostomy for late complication. The actuarial laryngeal preservation rate was 92.3%. We did not find any significant relationship between local relapse and extent of disease, subglottic extension, or anterior commissure involvement. Concurrent chemotherapy was not a significant prognostic factor. Laser debulking followed by radiation therapy did not change the voice significantly except the F0 range. We conclude that the laser-radiation combined therapy for T2N0M0 laryngeal-glottic cancer was effective therapy for not only preservation of the voice but also for vocal function. (author)

  7. Optimization of Al2O3/SiNx stacked antireflection structures for N-type surface-passivated crystalline silicon solar cells

    In the case of N-type solar cells, the anti-reflection property, as one of the important factors to further improve the energy-conversion efficiency, has been optimized using a stacked Al2O3/SiNx layer. The effect of SiNx layer thickness on the surface reflection property was systematically studied in terms of both experimental and theoretical measurement. In the stacked Al2O3/SiNx layers, results demonstrated that the surface reflection property can be effectively optimized by adding a SiNx layer, leading to the improvement in the final photovoltaic characteristic of the N-type solar cells. (semiconductor devices)

  8. High-rate deposition of a-SiNx:H for photovoltaic applications by the expanding thermal plasma

    Driven by the need for improvement of the economical competitiveness of photovoltaic energy, the feasibility of high-rate (>1 nm/s) amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) deposited by the expanding thermal plasma (ETP) technique has been explored with respect to the application of the a-SiNx:H as functional antireflection coating on crystalline silicon solar cells. First, the deposition rate and the a-SiNx:H film properties, such as refractive index, Si, N, and H atomic density, and hydrogen bonding configurations, have been mapped for various operating conditions. From ellipsometry, elastic recoil detection, and infrared spectroscopy, it has been shown that deposition rates up to 20 nm/s can be reached with a fair film homogeneity and that the refractive index and the N/Si ratio can fully be tuned by the plasma composition while the hydrogen content can be controlled by the substrate temperature. Good antireflection coating performance of the a-SiNx:H has therefore been observed for monocrystalline silicon solar cells. These cells with ETP a-SiNx:H yielded only slightly lower conversion efficiencies than high-quality reference cells due to a much lower degree of surface passivation. This lack of surface passivation has also been shown in a separate study on the surface recombination velocity. Furthermore, it has been tested whether the a-SiNx:H films lead to silicon bulk passivation, which is essential for solar cells based on cheaper, defective silicon stock material such as multicrystalline silicon. It has been proven that bulk passivation of the cells is indeed induced by the high-rate ETP deposited a-SiNx:H after a high-temperature step in which the metal contacts of the cells are processed. These results make the ETP technique an interesting candidate for high-throughput processing of competitive silicon solar cells

  9. Geomagnetic paleointensity and direct age determination of the ISEA (M0r?) chron

    Zhu, Rixiang; Hoffman, Kenneth A.; Nomade, Sébastien; Renne, Paul R.; Shi, Ruiping; Pan, Yongxin; Shi, Guanghai


    A combined paleomagnetic and geochronologic study has been conducted on an andesite lava sequence at Jianguo (Liaoning province, northeastern China). Thermal demagnetization and thermomagnetic analysis revealed that natural remanent magnetization is carried by both magnetite and hematite. Stepwise thermal demagnetization up to 675°C isolated well-defined reverse characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) in three time-independent lava flows with a mean direction of D/ I=179.2°/-59.7° with α95=3.0°. It also showed that a high-temperature component (>585°C) has the same ChRM direction as that of the low- to medium-temperature (ca. 170/300-585°C) components. A modified version of the Thellier-Thellier paleointensity method [Coe, J. Geophys. Res. 72 (1967) 3247-3262] with systematic partial thermoremanent magnetization checks was used for paleointensity determinations. Twelve out of 39 samples yielded reliable results in the temperature interval of 170-550°C. Virtual dipole moment values range from 3.9 to 4.7×10 22 Am 2 with an average of 4.2±0.1×10 22 Am 2. 40Ar/ 39Ar age determination on one lava flow is 116.8±3.0 Myr (2σ error, relative to Fish Canyon sanidine: 28.02±0.28 Myr). The magnetic reversed polarity with well-defined age could correspond to the 'ISEA' within the older part of the Cretaceous normal superchron (CNS), but we cannot rule out the possibility that this reversal interval could also correspond to the M0r due to many ambiguities on previous published ages on ISEA and M0r intervals as well as the new monitor age correction we applied. It also suggests that a weak magnetic field nature already documented before the CNS extended at least into the very beginning of the CNS.

  10. Characterization of GaNxAs1-x Alloy Grown on GaAs by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    李联合; 张伟; 潘钟; 林耀望; 吴荣汉


    The GaNxAs1-x alloy has been investigated which is grown on GaAs (100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy with a DC-plasma nitrogen source. The samples are characterized by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Both HRXRD and PL measurements demonstrate that the crystalline and optical qualities of GaNxAs1-x alloy degrade rapidly with the increase of N composition. The nitrogen composition of 4.5 % can be obtained in GaNxAs1-x/GaAs quantum well by optimizing growth conditions,through which a photoluminescence peak of 1201nm is observed at a low temperature (10 K). The dependence of GaNxAs1-x band gap energy on the nitrogen composition in this investigation corresponds very well with that of the theoretical one based on the dielectric model when considering the effect of the strain. At the same time,we also demonstrate that the bowing parameter of GaNxAs1-x alloy is composition dependent.

  11. The metabolite 3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) exerts a higher ecotoxicity than the parent compounds 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and propanil.

    Xiao, Hongxia; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Nüßer, Leonie Katharina; Floehr, Tilman; Hennig, Michael Patrick; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner


    3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) is not commercially manufactured but formed as an unwanted by-product in the manufacturing of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) or metabolized from the degradation of chloranilide herbicides, like propanil. While a considerable amount of research has been done concerning the toxicological and ecotoxicological effects of propanil and 3,4-DCA, limited information is available on TCAB. Our study examined the toxicity of TCAB in comparison to its parent compounds propanil and 3,4-DCA, using a battery of bioassays including in vitro with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated activity by the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay and micro-EROD, endocrine-disrupting activity with chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) as well as in vivo with fish embryo toxicity (FET) assays with Danio rerio. Moreover, the quantitative structure activity response (QSAR) concepts were applied to simulate the binding affinity of TCAB to certain human receptors. It was shown that TCAB has a strong binding affinity to the AhR in EROD and micro-EROD induction assay, with the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) of 8.7×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-5), respectively. TCAB presented to be a weak endocrine disrupting compound with a value of estradiol equivalence factor (EEF) of 6.4×10(-9) and dihydrotestosterone equivalency factor (DEF) of 1.1×10(-10). No acute lethal effects of TCAB were discovered in FET test after 96h of exposure. Major sub-lethal effects detected were heart oedema, yolk malformation, as well as absence of blood flow and tail deformation. QSAR modelling suggested an elevated risk to environment, particularly with respect to binding to the AhR. An adverse effect potentially triggering ERβ, mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid and progesterone receptor activities might be expected. Altogether, the results obtained suggest that TCAB exerts a higher toxicity than both propanil and 3,4-DCA. This should be considered when assessing the

  12. Magnetic moments of lanthanide 3-, 4-nitrobenzoates and 3,4-dinitrobenzoates

    The magnetic moments for lanthanide 3-nitro and 4-nitrobenzoates were determined at 298 K and those for 3,4-dinitrobenzoates of rare earth elements over the temperature range 77 - 296 K. The complexes of 3,4-dinitrobenzoates of rare earth were found to obey the Curie-Weiss law. The values of μ calculated for all complexes (except that for europium 3,4-dinitrobenzoates) are close to those obtained for Ln3+ ions by Hund and Van Vleck. The results reveal that irrespective of the kind of ligands (3-nitro, 4-nitro or 3,4-dinitrobenzoates) no influence of their field on lanthanide ions occurs. (author)

  13. Emergence and expansion of cosmic space as due to M0-branes

    Sepehri, Alireza, E-mail: [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Campus of Bijar, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, 80126, Naples (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, 80126, Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Viale F. Crispi, 7, 67100, L’Aquila (Italy)


    Recently, Padmanabhan discussed that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region causes the accelerated expansion of the universe. The main question arising is: what is the origin of this inequality between the surface degrees of freedom and the bulk degrees of freedom? We answer this question in M-theory. In our model, first M0-branes are compactified on one circle and ND0-branes are created. Then ND0-branes join each other, grow, and form one D5-branes. Next, the D5-brane is compactified on two circles and our universe’s D3-brane, two D1-branes and some extra energies are produced. After that, one of the D1-branes, which is closer to the universe’s brane, gives its energy into it, and this leads to an increase in the difference between the numbers of degrees of freedom and the occurring inflation era. With the disappearance of this D1-brane, the number of degrees of freedom of boundary surface and bulk region become equal and inflation ends. At this stage, extra energies that are produced due to the compactification cause an expansion of the universe and deceleration epoch. Finally, another D1-brane dissolves in our universe’s brane, leads to an inequality between degrees of freedom, and there occurs a new phase of acceleration.

  14. Emergence and expansion of cosmic space as due to M0-branes

    Recently, Padmanabhan discussed that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region causes the accelerated expansion of the universe. The main question arising is: what is the origin of this inequality between the surface degrees of freedom and the bulk degrees of freedom? We answer this question in M-theory. In our model, first M0-branes are compactified on one circle and ND0-branes are created. Then ND0-branes join each other, grow, and form one D5-branes. Next, the D5-brane is compactified on two circles and our universe’s D3-brane, two D1-branes and some extra energies are produced. After that, one of the D1-branes, which is closer to the universe’s brane, gives its energy into it, and this leads to an increase in the difference between the numbers of degrees of freedom and the occurring inflation era. With the disappearance of this D1-brane, the number of degrees of freedom of boundary surface and bulk region become equal and inflation ends. At this stage, extra energies that are produced due to the compactification cause an expansion of the universe and deceleration epoch. Finally, another D1-brane dissolves in our universe’s brane, leads to an inequality between degrees of freedom, and there occurs a new phase of acceleration

  15. On the temperature dependence of the photoconductivity of amorphous silicon nitride (a-Si Nx: H)

    Experimental results on the photoconducticity of amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride a-SiNx: H prepared from plasma decomposition of a gaseus mixture of silane and nitrogen ([Si H4]/[N2] ∼ 0.33) are presented. The material is deposited in a capacitively coupled glow discharge system and nitrogen content was continuously increased by increasing the RF power dissipated in the plasma. Studies of the photocurrent as a function of temperature as a function of temperature and lig ht intensities are reported. (Author)

  16. Nature of critical current and coherent phenomena in granular MoNx thin films

    Investigations of the critical current versus temperature and applied magnetic field were carried out for granular MoNx films. All samples display a two-stage superconducting transition and can be treated as a percolating network of SNS contacts with a Josephson coupling between grains. The temperature behaviour of the critical current for the films studied is the same as the Ic(T) dependence for a SNS junction in the diffusive limit. The value of critical current in a magnetic field is governed by the pinning of Josephson vortices

  17. Strong Green Light Emission from Low-Temperature Grown a-SiNx:H Film after Different Oxidation Routes

    DONG Heng-Ping; HUANG Rui; WANG Dan-Qing; CHEN Kun-Ji; LI Wei; MA Zhong-Yuan; XU Jun; HUANG Xin-Fan


    Room-temperature deposited amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx: H) films exhibit intense green light emission after post-treated by plasma oxidation, thermal oxidation and natural oxidation, respectively. All the photoluminescence (PL) spectra are peaked at around 500 nm, independent of oxidation method and excitation wavelength.Compared with the PL results from oxidized a-Si:H and as-deposited a-SiNx :H samples, it is indicated that not only oxygen but also nitrogen is of an important role in enhancing light emission from the oxidized a-SiNx:H.Combining the PL results with the analyses of the bonding configurations as well as chemical compositions of the films, the strong green light emission is suggested to be from radiative recombination in luminescent centres related to N-Si-O bonds.

  18. Cross-sectional X-ray nanobeam diffraction analysis of a compositionally graded CrNx thin film

    Synchrotron X-ray nanodiffraction is used for the position-resolved characterization of a nanocrystalline graded CrNx thin film deposited with continuously increasing nitrogen content over the 6 μm film thickness. The diffraction experiment is performed in wide angle X-ray scattering transmission geometry using a monochromatic beam of 100 nm in diameter. The results reveal a complex microstructure and texture evolution in hexagonal Cr2N and cubic CrNx phases as well as a compressive strain increase in CrNx towards the film surface. - Highlights: • Cross-sectional X-ray nanodiffraction analysis of a graded thin film • Position-resolved characterization of microstructure, strain and phases • Comparison of cross-sectional TEM and X-ray nanodiffraction

  19. Organic thin film transistors with a SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulator layer

    Liu Xiang; Liu Hui


    We have investigated a SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer structured gate dielectric for an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) with the purpose of improving the performance of the SiO2 gate insulator.The SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer was prepared by magnetron sputtering.Compared with the same thickness of a SiO2 insulation layer device,the SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer is an effective method of fabricating OTFT with improved electric characteristics and decreased leakage current.Electrical parameters such as carrier mobility by field effect measurement have been calculated.The performances of different insulating layer devices have been studied,and the results demonstrate that when the insulation layer thickness increases,the off-state current decreases.

  20. Influence of sputtering pressure on optical constants of a-GaAs1-xNx thin films

    Jia Baoshan; Wang Yunhua; Zhou Lu; Bai Duanyuan; Qiao Zhongliang; Gao Xin; Bo Baoxue


    Amorphous GaAs1-xNx (a-GaAs1-xNx) thin films have been deposited at room temperature by a reactive magnetron sputtering technique on glass substrates with different sputtering pressures.The thickness,nitrogen content,carrier concentration and transmittance of the as-deposited films were determined experimentally.The influence of sputtering pressure on the optical band gap,refractive index and dispersion parameters (Eo,Ed) has been investigated.An analysis of the absorption coefficient revealed a direct optical transition characterizing the asdeposited films.The refractive index dispersions of the as-deposited a-GaAs1-xNx films fitted well to the Cauchy dispersion relation and the Wemple model.

  1. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives

    Meyer JS


    Jerrold S Meyer Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Abstract: Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heighten...

  2. Emergence and expansion of cosmic space as due to M0-branes

    Sepehri, Alireza [Shahid Bahonar University, Faculty of Physics, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, Mohammad Reza [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Complutense Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)


    Recently, Padmanabhan (arXiv:1206.4916 [hepth]) discussed that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region causes the accelerated expansion of the universe. The main question arising is: what is the origin of this inequality between the surface degrees of freedom and the bulk degrees of freedom? We answer this question in M-theory. In our model, first M0-branes are compactified on one circle and N D0-branes are created. Then N D0-branes join each other, grow, and form one D5-branes. Next, the D5-brane is compactified on two circles and our universe's D3-brane, two D1-branes and some extra energies are produced. After that, one of the D1-branes, which is closer to the universe's brane, gives its energy into it, and this leads to an increase in the difference between the numbers of degrees of freedom and the occurring inflation era. With the disappearance of this D1-brane, the number of degrees of freedom of boundary surface and bulk region become equal and inflation ends. At this stage, extra energies that are produced due to the compactification cause an expansion of the universe and deceleration epoch. Finally, another D1-brane dissolves in our universe's brane, leads to an inequality between degrees of freedom, and there occurs a new phase of acceleration. (orig.)

  3. Emergence and expansion of cosmic space as due to M0-branes

    Recently, Padmanabhan (arXiv:1206.4916 [hepth]) discussed that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region causes the accelerated expansion of the universe. The main question arising is: what is the origin of this inequality between the surface degrees of freedom and the bulk degrees of freedom? We answer this question in M-theory. In our model, first M0-branes are compactified on one circle and N D0-branes are created. Then N D0-branes join each other, grow, and form one D5-branes. Next, the D5-brane is compactified on two circles and our universe's D3-brane, two D1-branes and some extra energies are produced. After that, one of the D1-branes, which is closer to the universe's brane, gives its energy into it, and this leads to an increase in the difference between the numbers of degrees of freedom and the occurring inflation era. With the disappearance of this D1-brane, the number of degrees of freedom of boundary surface and bulk region become equal and inflation ends. At this stage, extra energies that are produced due to the compactification cause an expansion of the universe and deceleration epoch. Finally, another D1-brane dissolves in our universe's brane, leads to an inequality between degrees of freedom, and there occurs a new phase of acceleration. (orig.)

  4. Thickness and composition of TiNx and TiCy coatings determined by low energy ion beams

    TiNx and TiCy coatings were deposited by physical vapour deposition (PVD) under different process conditions. The coatings were studied by particle induced X-Ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) with a low energy (300 keV) ion beam. The layer thicknesses from the PIXE and the RBS analyses are in good agreement. Correlations were found between the chemical composition of the TiNx and TiCy layers and the partial pressures of N2 and C2H2 (C3H8), respectively. (orig.)

  5. Synthesis and properties of CrNx/amorphous-WC nanocomposites prepared using hybrid arc ion plating and direct current magnetron sputtering

    Hybrid deposition method was used to prepare CrNx/amorphous-WC (CrNx/a-WC) films. The effect of the arc ion plating and direct current magnetron sputtering on the changes in microstructure and properties such as hardness and thermal stability were studied. The amorphous WC phase of the CrNx/a-WC films was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. A bi-phase nanocomposite kinetic model and the Koehler's theory were used to explain the growth mechanism of CrNx/a-WC films. A superhard superlattice Cr2N/a-WC film with hardness up to ∼ 48 GPa was abtained. The CrN/a-WC films displayed better resistance to oxidation than pure CrN and CrN-based films. As such, CrNx/a-WC nanocomposite films are very promising for high-speed drying machines and other high-temperature applications.

  6. CFD Analysis of Thermal Control System Using NX Thermal and Flow

    Fortier, C. R.; Harris, M. F. (Editor); McConnell, S. (Editor)


    The Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) is a key part of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this subsystem is to provide thermal control, mainly cooling, to the other APH subsystems. One of these subsystems, the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), controls the temperature and humidity of the growth chamber (GC) air to optimize the growth of plants in the habitat. The TCS provides thermal control to the ECS with three cold plates, which use Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs) to heat or cool water as needed to control the air temperature in the ECS system. In order to optimize the TCS design, pressure drop and heat transfer analyses were needed. The analysis for this system was performed in Siemens NX Thermal/Flow software (Version 8.5). NX Thermal/Flow has the ability to perform 1D or 3D flow solutions. The 1D flow solver can be used to represent simple geometries, such as pipes and tubes. The 1D flow method also has the ability to simulate either fluid only or fluid and wall regions. The 3D flow solver is similar to other Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. TCS performance was analyzed using both the 1D and 3D solvers. Each method produced different results, which will be evaluated and discussed.

  7. Molecular metal-Nx centres in porous carbon for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Brüller, Sebastian; Dong, Renhao; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus


    Replacement of precious platinum with efficient and low-cost catalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution at low overpotentials holds tremendous promise for clean energy devices. Here we report a novel type of robust cobalt-nitrogen/carbon catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) that is prepared by the pyrolysis of cobalt-N4 macrocycles or cobalt/o-phenylenediamine composites and using silica colloids as a hard template. We identify the well-dispersed molecular CoNx sites on the carbon support as the active sites responsible for the HER. The CoNx/C catalyst exhibits extremely high turnover frequencies per cobalt site in acids, for example, 0.39 and 6.5 s-1 at an overpotential of 100 and 200 mV, respectively, which are higher than those reported for other scalable non-precious metal HER catalysts. Our results suggest the great promise of developing new families of non-precious metal HER catalysts based on the controlled conversion of homogeneous metal complexes into solid-state carbon catalysts via economically scalable protocols.

  8. Giant negative thermal expansion covering room temperature in nanocrystalline GaNxMn3

    Nanocrystalline antiperovskite GaNxMn3 powders were prepared by mechanically milling. The micrograin GaNxMn3 exhibits an abrupt volume contraction at the antiferromagnetic (AFM) to paramagnetic (PM) (AFM-PM) transition. The temperature window of volume contraction (ΔT) is broadened to 50 K as the average grain size (〈D〉) is reduced to ∼30 nm. The corresponding coefficient of linear thermal expansion (α) reaches ∼ −70 ppm/K, which are comparable to those of giant NTE materials. Further reducing 〈D〉 to ∼10 nm, ΔT exceeds 100 K and α remains as large as −30 ppm/K (−21 ppm/K) for x = 1.0 (x = 0.9). Excess atomic displacements together with the reduced structural coherence, revealed by high-energy X-ray pair distribution functions, are suggested to delay the AFM-PM transition. By controlling 〈D〉, giant NTE may also be achievable in other materials with large lattice contraction due to electronic or magnetic phase transitions

  9. Metastability of SiNx/a-Si:H crystalline silicon surface passivation for PV application

    In this paper we investigate one of the most promising solution for crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation in solar cell fabrication consisting in a double layer of intrinsic amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and amorphous silicon nitride (SiNx) obtained in PECVD system. Indeed this has led to a minority carrier lifetime up to 0.5 ms, on both p- and n-type doped c-Si substrates. We have found out that the passivation mechanism is mainly provided by the superficial field effect induced by the charge of hydrogen ions within both materials incorporated during the double layer deposition. But this high amount of hydrogen induces metastability due to ions mobility and Si-H bond breaking by high energy photons exposure. This strongly affects the passivation quality of the double layer as evident from Capacitance-Voltage measurements performed on Al/SiNx/a-Si/c-Si Metal Insulator Semiconductor and photo-conductance decay evaluated on both side passivated c-Si wafer. Particular thermal annealing procedure can be adopted at the end of the layers growth to reduce the metastability and increase the passivation quality of c-Si surfaces. This double passivation layer has been demonstrated effective to increase the photovoltaic performances of silicon based solar cell as surface passivation either on front emitter either between local back contacts

  10. Electrical characterization of MIS devices using PECVD SiNx:H films for application of silicon solar cells

    The surface passivation of crystalline silicon solar cells using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), hydrogenated, silicon-nitride (SiNx:H) thin films has become significant due to a low-temperature, low-cost and very effective defect passivation process. Also, a good quality antireflection coating can be formed. In this work, SiNx:H thin films were deposited by varying the gas ratio R (=NH3/SiH4+NH3) and were annealed by rapid thermal processing (RTP). Metal-insulator- semiconductor (MIS) devices were fabricated using SiNx:H thin films as insulator layers and they were analyzed in the temperature range of 100 - 400 K by using capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The annealed SiNx:H thin films were evaluated by using the electrical properties at different temperature to determine the effect of surface passivation. We achieved an energy conversion efficiency of 18.1% under one-sun standard testing conditions for large-area (156 mm x 156 mm) crystalline-silicon solar cells.

  11. Nonlinear sigma-model in the case of rectangular NxαN matrices in two-dimensional euclidean space

    Matrix nonlinear σ-model is considered in the case of rectangular matrices of the dimension NxαN. Renormalizability of the model with respect to α and 1/N is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional Euclidean space. Validity of the chiral identity is proved in the operator expansion for the renormalized theory

  12. Role of N in the permanent magnet material Sm2Fe17Nx

    The magnetic properties of the permanent magnet material Sm2Fe17Nx are discussed in terms of the change in the electronic structure caused by the insertion of N into the system. The magnetic moments are mainly determined by the Fe-d states: On insertion of N, the d states at Fe near N hybridize with the N-p states and acquire an electronic structure similar to that of Co. As a result, the magnetic moments at these sites decrease. The magnetic moments at other Fe sites increase because of the hybridization with the thus-changed d states of Fe near N. The Sm-f states also hybridize with N; however, these states in the absence of N would have nearly an atomlike electronic structure. This change affects the band energy and causes a large uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy. We also discuss the cases where N is replaced by other typical elements. (author)

  13. Strength analysis of parallel robot components in PLM Siemens NX 8.5 program

    Ociepka, P.; Herbus, K.


    This article presents a series of numerical analyses in order to identify the states of stress in elements, which arise during the operation of the mechanism. The object of the research was parallel robot, which is the basis for the prototype of a driving simulator. To conduct the dynamic analysis was used the Motion Simulation module and the RecurDyn solver. In this module were created the joints which occur in the mechanism of a parallel robot. Next dynamic analyzes were performed to determine the maximal forces that will applied to the analyzed elements. It was also analyzed the platform motion during the simulation a collision of a car with a wall. In the next step, basing on the results obtained in the dynamic analysis, were performed the strength analyzes in the Advanced Simulation module. For calculation the NX Nastran solver was used.

  14. Possible interactions between two-level system defects in SiNx films

    Gladchenko, Sergiy; Khalil, Moe; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.; Osborn, Kevin D.


    Low-temperature properties of PECVD SiNx dielectric films are measured within the capacitor of superconducting LC resonators. Experiments are made at temperatures from 30 to 300 mK, and at storage energies from 1 to 106 photons in a resonant cavity. While the power and temperature dependence of the loss agrees with two-level system (TLS) theory above 60 mK, below this temperature we observe significant deviations. In this regime we observe a reduction in loss upon lowering dielectric temperature, in direct contrast with the independent TLS model of defects within our film. This new phenomena may indicate interactions between two-level systems. We can also spectroscopically resolve the loss from dominant defects in our capacitors, which have a volume of ~ 2000 μ m 3 .

  15. An automation of design and modelling tasks in NX Siemens environment with original software - generator module

    Zbiciak, M.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.


    Nowadays the design constructional process is almost exclusively aided with CAD/CAE/CAM systems. It is evaluated that nearly 80% of design activities have a routine nature. These design routine tasks are highly susceptible to automation. Design automation is usually made with API tools which allow building original software responsible for adding different engineering activities. In this paper the original software worked out in order to automate engineering tasks at the stage of a product geometrical shape design is presented. The elaborated software works exclusively in NX Siemens CAD/CAM/CAE environment and was prepared in Microsoft Visual Studio with application of the .NET technology and NX SNAP library. The software functionality allows designing and modelling of spur and helicoidal involute gears. Moreover, it is possible to estimate relative manufacturing costs. With the Generator module it is possible to design and model both standard and non-standard gear wheels. The main advantage of the model generated in such a way is its better representation of an involute curve in comparison to those which are drawn in specialized standard CAD systems tools. It comes from fact that usually in CAD systems an involute curve is drawn by 3 points that respond to points located on the addendum circle, the reference diameter of a gear and the base circle respectively. In the Generator module the involute curve is drawn by 11 involute points which are located on and upper the base and the addendum circles therefore 3D gear wheels models are highly accurate. Application of the Generator module makes the modelling process very rapid so that the gear wheel modelling time is reduced to several seconds. During the conducted research the analysis of differences between standard 3 points and 11 points involutes was made. The results and conclusions drawn upon analysis are shown in details.

  16. Thermomechanical behavior and microstructural evolution of SiNx/Al bimaterial microcantilevers

    Bimaterial microcantilevers are used in numerous applications in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for thermal, mechanical, optical, tribological and biological functionalities. Unfortunately, the residual stress-induced curvature and combined effects of creep and stress relaxation in the thin film significantly compromises the performance of these structures. To fully understand the themomechanical deformation and microstructural evolution of such microcantilevers, SiNx/Al bilayer cantilever beams were studied in this work. These microcantilevers were heated and subsequently cooled for five cycles between room temperature and 250 °C, with the peak temperature in each successive cycle increased in increments of 25 °C using a custom-built micro-heating stage. The in situ curvature change was monitored using an interferometric microscope. The general behavior of the bimaterial microcantilever beams can be characterized by linear thermoelastic regimes with (dκ/dT)ave = 0.079 mm−1 °C−1 and inelastic regimes. After thermal cycling with a maximum temperature of 225 °C, upon returning to room temperature, the bimaterial microcantilever beams were flattened and the curvature decreased by 99%. The thermoelastic deformation during thermal cycling was well described by the Kirchhoff plate theory. Deformation of bimaterial microcantilevers during long-term isothermal holding was studied at temperatures of 100 °C, 125 °C and 150 °C with a holding period of 70 h. The curvature of bimaterial microcantilever beams decreased more for higher holding temperatures. Finite element analysis (FEA) with power-law creep in Al was used to simulate the creep and stress relaxation and thus the curvature change of the bimaterial microcantilever beams. The microstructure evolutions due to isothermal holding in SiNx/Al microcantilevers were studied using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The grain growth in both the vertical and lateral directions was present due to isothermal

  17. 3.4 Environmental impacts: energy industry

    The subchapter 3.4 'Environmental impact of the energy industry' of the 7th state of the environment report analyzes the current situation in Austria and briefly describes the following aspects: environmental policy targets, uniform taxation of energy, use of renewable energy sources, efficient use of energy, energy input, electricity supply and input, energy input into space heating and air conditioning systems, and renewable energy. In 2002, the input of final energy was risen by about 5 % in comparison to 1998. During this period, the largest increments in final energy inputs were recorded in the mobility sector with + 9.4 %, and in the private households sector with + 8.3 % . The goods production sector showed a slight decrease of about 1.3 % between 1998 and 2002. The 'goods production', 'mobility' and 'private households' sectors combined require about 87 % of the total final energy input. The final energy input for space heating and hot water in 2001 was 5.7 % above the input in 1998. Energy supply from renewable energy sources rose by about 13.8 % in 2002 compared to 1998. Domestic electricity consumption (excluding consumption for pumped-storage systems) in 2002 was about 10.5 % above consumption in 1998. Physical imports and physical exports in 2002 increased about 32 % and 8.6 % correspondingly compared to 1999. (nevyjel)

  18. Photoluminescence of heterostructures with GaP1−xNx and GaP1−x−yNxAsy layers grown on GaP and Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy

    The structural and optical properties of heterostructures containing GaP1−xNx ternary and GaP1−x−yNxAsy quaternary alloy layers are discussed. The heterostructures are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaP and Si substrates. The structures are studied by the high-resolution X-ray diffraction technique and photoluminescence measurements in a wide temperature range from 10 to 300 K. In the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the alloys with a low nitrogen fraction (x < 0.007), two clearly resolved narrow lines attributed to the localized states of nitrogen pairs and the phonon replicas of these lines are observed

  19. Estimation of moisture barrier ability of thin SiNx single layer on polymer substrates prepared by Cat-CVD method

    The SiNx films with the thickness of 50 nm were prepared by Cat-CVD method on the cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) and the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, and their moisture barrier abilities were evaluated. MOCON measurement method and Ca degradation test showed the moisture permeation results of 0.02 g/(m2 day) for PET substrate and 0.006 g/(m2 day) for COC substrate after SiNx deposition. Applying the simple model of gas barrier property, it was estimated that the Cat-CVD method achieves the high coverage ratio of over 99% for SiNx film on these substrates, and the moisture permeation rate of single SiNx film with the thickness of 50 nm was estimated to be 0.0045 g/(m2 day)

  20. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA: current perspectives

    Meyer JS


    Full Text Available Jerrold S Meyer Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Abstract: Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA. Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse

  1. Influence of low energy argon plasma treatment on the moisture barrier performance of hot wire-CVD grown SiNx multilayers

    Majee, Subimal; Cerqueira, M. F.; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Alpuim, P.; Bourée, Jean Eric


    The reliability and stability are key issues for the commercial utilization of organic photovoltaic devices based on flexible polymer substrates. To increase the shelf-lifetime of these devices, transparent moisture barriers of silicon nitride (SiNx) films are deposited at low temperature by hot wire CVD (HW-CVD) process. Instead of the conventional route based on organic/inorganic hybrid structures, this work defines a new route consisting in depositing multilayer stacks of SiNx thin films, ...

  2. Influence of adsorption kinetics on stress evolution in magnetron-sputtered SiO2 and SiNx films

    An in situ multi-beam optical sensor system was used to monitor and analyze the force per unit width (F/w) and stress evolution during several stages in magnetron-sputtered SiO2 and SiNx films. Stress was observed to relieve quickly after interrupt and recover rapidly after growth resumption in both films. Stress relief was reversible in SiO2 film but partial reversible in SiNx film. Stress relief results from both physical and chemical adsorption. Stress recovery is caused by physical desorption. And chemical adsorption results in an irreversible stress relief component. No chemical adsorption occurs in SiO2 film because of the stable chemical structure. The relationship between adsorption kinetics and films' mechanical behavior is revealed

  3. High-pressure synthesis and crystal structures of beta- M NX (M = Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, I)

    Chen, X; Yamanaka, S


    The single crystals of six kinds of metal nitride halide, beta- M NX (M = Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, I), were grown in sealed Au (or Pt) tubes by the reaction of M N or M NX powders with NH sub 4 X as fluxes under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions such as 3-5 GPa at 900-1200 sup o C. The x-ray structure analysis revealed that all six kinds of compound crystallize in a rhombohedral space group R3-bar m, Z = 6. beta-ZrNCl, beta-ZrNBr, and beta-HfNCl are isotypic with SmSI, and the others isostructural with YOF.

  4. Ultra-thin α-SiNx protective overcoats for hard disks and read/write heads

    This paper reports that amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx) overcoats were deposited at room temperature by microwave ECR plasma enhanced unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The 2 nm a-SiNx overcoat has better anti-corrosion properties than that of reference a-CNx overcoats (2–4.5 nm). The superior anti-corrosion performance is attributed to its stoichiometric bond structure, where 94.8% Si atoms form Si–N asymmetric stretching vibration bonds. The N/Si ratio is 1.33 as in the stoichiometry of Si3N4 and corresponds to the highest hardness of 25.0 GPa. The surface is atomically smooth with RMS x overcoats are promising for hard disks and read/write heads protective coatings. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  5. Influence of total film thickness on high-frequency magnetic properties of the [FeCoSiN/SiNx]n multilayer thin films

    [FeCoSiN/SiNx]n multilayer thin films with different number of layers were fabricated by alternating magnetron sputtering at room temperature with no external magnetic field applied on substrates. A well-defined laminated structure consisting of 7 nm FeCoSiN magnetic layer and 2 nm SiNx insulating layer was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The static magnetic hysteresis loops of the [FeCoSiN/SiNx]n multilayer thin films measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) presented an obvious in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The dynamic magnetic performance of the [FeCoSiN/SiNx]n multilayer films was studied by vector network analyzer and LLG equation. The results indicated that the total film thickness has slightly impact on the high-frequency magnetic performance of the multilayer thin films. When the total thickness of the [FeCoSiN/SiNx]n multilayer thin films increased to micron level, they could still maintain encouraging high-frequency magnetic properties and electrical property: the ferromagnetic resonance frequency fr=3.74 GHz, real permeability µ′=93.73, and electrical resistivity ρ=196 µΩ cm. - Highlights: • The [FeCoSiN/SiNx]n multilayer thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • The influence of total film thickness on high-frequency properties was studied. • The multilayer thin films exhibited excellent high-frequency properties

  6. Improved performance of semi-polar (11-22) GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on SiNx interlayer

    Jeong, Joocheol; Jang, Jongjin; Hwang, Jungwhan; Jung, Chilsung; Kim, Jinwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Lim, Hyoungjin; Nam, Okhyun


    We report on the effectiveness of the in-situ SiNx nanomask in reducing defects in semipolar (11-22) GaN films grown on m-plane sapphire. The properties of the semipolar InGaN/GaN double quantum well (DQW) LEDs were improved with a high-quality (11-22) GaN epilayer grown on the SiNx interlayer. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there was a great reduction in the full width at half maximum of both on-axis and off-axis planes on SiNx interlayer. The room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) band-edge emission intensity of (11-22) GaN grown on the SiNx interlayer was approximately 4 times higher than that of GaN without the SiNx interlayer, which suggests reduction in the nonradiative recombination centers. The optical power of LEDs with the SiNx interlayer was 200% and 270% higher at injection currents of 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively, compared to the reference LEDs.

  7. Low-noise on-chip frequency conversion by four-wave-mixing Bragg scattering in SiNx waveguides

    Agha, Imad; Davanco, Marcelo; Thurston, Bryce; Srinivasan, Kartik


    Low-noise, tunable wavelength-conversion through non-degenerate four-wave mixing Bragg scattering in SiNx waveguides is experimentally demonstrated. Finite element method simulations of waveguide dispersion are used with the split-step Fourier method to predict device performance, and indicate a strong dependence of the conversion efficiency on phase matching, which is controlled by the waveguide geometry. Two 1550 nm wavelength band pulsed pumps are used to achieve tunable conversion of a 98...

  8. The microstructure and properties of unbalanced magnetron sputtered CrNx coatings

    The most widely used surface treatment to protect engineering components is the deposition of hard chromium by electroplating. The coatings are known to be quite thick (up to 20 μm), reasonably hard (∼HV1000), but contain micro-cracks. This wet deposition process is well understood, but it has technical limitations and is under high political pressure because of the environmental pollution by hexavalent chromium. The physical vapour deposition (PVD) technique is an alternative method to produce high quality coatings. PVD is an almost pollution free technique, because the process occurs under vacuum. CrN by PVD is one of the most promising PVD coatings as a candidate to replace eventually electroplated hard chromium. The growth characteristics of CrN coatings are less understood than those of TiN, the well-known PVD coating material. This thesis anticipates to fill this technological gap. Along a wide range of experiments based on the deposition of CrNx coatings, XRD, SEM, SNMS and tribological analysis have been used to complete a thorough understanding of CrNx growth. The experiments show that there exist several different phases within the Cr-N system: bcc-Cr, hcp-Cr2N, fcc-CrN, and mixed phases. This is not fundamentally new, but the work has resulted in two new modifications, which are highly interesting candidates for the industry, including electroplating replacements, namely high nitrogen containing metallic bcc-Cr (solid solution with up to 18 at.% nitrogen) in the hardness range up to HV1800 and a very hard fcc-CrN phase with hardness values between HV1500 and HV3000, similar to TiN. The solid solution bcc-Cr-N is very dense fine-grained, reasonably hard (almost twice as hard as electroplated hard chromium), very smooth, and with a Young's modulus very similar to that of (hardened) steel. The hard fcc-CrN phase (approximately three times harder than electroplated hard chromium) could only be obtained by the current experiments in a rather non

  9. A method of computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens environment

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Kempa, W.; Paprocka, I.


    Currently in CAD/CAE/CAM systems it is possible to create 3D design virtual models which are able to capture certain amount of knowledge. These models are especially useful in an automation of routine design tasks. These models are known as self-generative or auto generative and they can behave in an intelligent way. The main difference between the auto generative and fully parametric models consists in the auto generative models ability to self-organizing. In this case design model self-organizing means that aside from the possibility of making of automatic changes of model quantitative features these models possess knowledge how these changes should be made. Moreover they are able to change quality features according to specific knowledge. In spite of undoubted good points of self-generative models they are not so often used in design constructional process which is mainly caused by usually great complexity of these models. This complexity makes the process of self-generative time and labour consuming. It also needs a quite great investment outlays. The creation process of self-generative model consists of the three stages it is knowledge and information acquisition, model type selection and model implementation. In this paper methods of the computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens CAD/CAE/CAM software are presented. There are the five methods of self-generative models preparation in NX with: parametric relations model, part families, GRIP language application, knowledge fusion and OPEN API mechanism. In the paper examples of each type of the self-generative model are presented. These methods make the constructional design process much faster. It is suggested to prepare this kind of self-generative models when there is a need of design variants creation. The conducted research on assessing the usefulness of elaborated models showed that they are highly recommended in case of routine tasks automation. But it is still difficult to distinguish

  10. A transparent diode with high rectifying ratio using amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide/SiNx coupled junction

    We introduce a transparent diode that shows both high rectifying ratio and low leakage current at process temperature below 250 °C. This device is clearly distinguished from all previous transparent diodes in that the rectifying behavior results from the junction between a semiconductor (amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO)) and insulator (SiNx). We systematically study the properties of each junction within the device structure and demonstrate that the a-IGZO/SiNx junction is the source of the outstanding rectification. The electrical characteristics of this transparent diode are: 2.8 A/cm2 on-current density measured at −7 V; lower than 7.3 × 10−9 A/cm2 off-current density; 2.53 ideality factor; and high rectifying ratio of 108–109. Furthermore, the diode structure has a transmittance of over 80% across the visible light range. The operating principle of the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/a-IGZO/SiNx/ITO device was examined with an aid of the energy band diagram and we propose a preliminary model for the rectifying behavior. Finally, we suggest further directions for research on this transparent diode

  11. Laser physical and laser chemical vapor deposition of TiN and TiNxOy films

    The authors have investigated the formation of polycrystalline TiN and amorphous TiNxOy films using laser physical (LPVD) and laser chemical (LCVD) vapor deposition techniques. The LPVD method involved the ablation of a TiN hot pressed pellet and Ti in the presence of nitrogen plasma using nanosecond XeCl excimer laser pulses (wavelength 308nm, pulse duration 45 x 10-9 seconds, and energy density ∼ 4-5 Jcm-2). The films were polycrystalline (average grain size ∼ 100 angstrom) with face-centered-cubic structure and lattice constant of 4.25 angstrom. The average grain size remained constant as the substrate temperature ranged from 25 to 550 degrees C. In the LCVD method, a pulsed CO2 laser beam was used to crack TiCl4 and NH3 and from TiN films. Amorphous TiNxOy films were formed under poor vacuum conditions in the LPVD techniques. These amorphous TiNxOy films often exhibited explosive recrystallization with characteristic star patterns. Resistivity and microhardness measurements were made on these films and these results have been correlated with microstructure and chemical composition

  12. Microwave conductance and electrochemical characterization of Si/a-SiNx:H heterojunctions in contact to aqueous electrolyte

    In the present work, electrochemical impedance measurements in combination with conductance measurements in the microwave frequency range were applied to semiconductor/insulator heterojunctions in an electrochemical cell configuration. It is shown that the combination of both techniques yields a more reliable and detailed interpretation of the experimental results. The Si/a-SiNx:H interface was characterized by three different methods. Quasi-stationary photoconductance measurements in combination with photocurrent measurements were performed as function of the external cell polarization. Potential modulated conductance and impedance measurements were used to characterize the electrical properties of the Si/a-SiNx:H interface. The reliability of the Mott–Schottky procedure was successfully tested for two different electrochemical cells. Transient photoconductance measurements as a function of the applied potential were used to determine the surface recombination kinetics at the active interface. The experimental results led to the conclusion that the fixed charge in a-SiNx:H is responsible for the electrical passivation of Si wafer. Furthermore, it was observed that the electronic configuration of this interface presents certain instabilities when driven in aqueous media

  13. Corrosion behaviors of CrNx and (Ti1-xCrx)N coatings produced by ion plating

    The corrosion behavior of CrNx and (Ti1-xCrx)N coatings, produced by reactive ion plating using thermal and electron beam evaporation, was investigated. To deposit the CrNx coatings, Cr was evaporated by resistance heating and CrNx coatings of various N/Cr composition ratios were obtained by altering the NH3 flow rate. For deposition of the (Ti1-xCrx)N coatings, Ti and Cr were evaporated by electron beam and resistant heating, respectively. The Ti and Cr concentrations were controlled by the Ti to Cr evaporation ratio. Electrochemical properties of the coatings were examined with an EG and G 273 A potentiostat in a pH 7, 0.8 M NaCl solution. The corrosion behavior of both CrN and (Ti,Cr)N coatings showed a similar trend to that of pure Cr. At voltages 0.5 V (versus SCE), the corrosion current increased abruptly with dissolution of Cr-oxide from the surface oxide layer

  14. High frequency electromagnetic properties of interstitial-atom-modified Ce2Fe17NX and its composites

    The magnetic and microwave absorption properties of the interstitial atom modified intermetallic compound Ce2Fe17NX have been investigated. The Ce2Fe17NX compound shows a planar anisotropy with saturation magnetization of 1088 kA/m at room temperature. The Ce2Fe17NX paraffin composite with a mass ratio of 1:1 exhibits a permeability of μ′ = 2.7 at low frequency, together with a reflection loss of −26 dB at 6.9 GHz with a thickness of 1.5 mm and −60 dB at 2.2 GHz with a thickness of 4.0 mm. It was found that this composite increases the Snoek limit and exhibits both high working frequency and permeability due to its high saturation magnetization and high ratio of the c-axis anisotropy field to the basal plane anisotropy field. Hence, it is possible that this composite can be used as a high-performance thin layer microwave absorber.

  15. Structures, mechanical properties and thermal stability of TiN/SiNx multilayer coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Polycrystalline TiN/SiNx multilayer coatings with different modulation periods were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering Ti and Si targets, respectively, and annealed at different temperatures in a vacuum furnace. Their structures and mechanical properties were characterized using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation experiments. The results showed that both modulation period and annealing treatment had a significant influence on the structures and mechanical properties for multilayer coatings. As modulation period was below 5.03 nm the preferred orientation for TiN layer in multilayer coatings was (1 1 1), while above 10.05 nm the preferred orientation turned to (2 0 0). The hardness for coatings reached a maximum value of 38.27 ± 0.30 GPa as modulation period was 5.03 nm, but the internal compressive stress decreased with an increase in modulation period. It was found that thermal stability of TiN/SiNx multilayer coatings depended on modulation period, and large modulation period had a relatively high thermal stability. An enhancement in hardness for the as-deposited multilayer coatings, compared to either TiN or SiNx single layer film, could be attributed to the presence of internal compressive stress and the effect of interface strain and quantum trapping in the interfaces. The resistance to plastic deformation for the obtained coatings was reduced after annealing treatment.

  16. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for T3 and T4N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer.

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Nishimura, Shuichi; Takagawa, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Saeki, Noriyuki; Yashiro, Kae; Mizuno, Tomikazu; Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei; Yokosuka, Tetsuya; Shigematsu, Naoyuki


    To evaluate the outcomes and feasibility of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for cT3 and cT4N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 25 patients with localized primary NSCLC diagnosed as cT3 or cT4N0M0, given SBRT between May 2005 and July 2013, were analyzed. All patients had inoperable tumors. The major reasons for tumors being unresectable were insufficient respiratory function for curative resection, advanced age (>80 years old) or technically inoperable due to invasion into critical organs. The median patient age was 79 years (range; 60-86). The median follow-up duration was 25 months (range: 5-100 months). The 2-year overall survival rates for T3 and T4 were 57% and 69%, respectively. The 2-year local control rates for T3 and T4 were 91% and 68%, respectively. As for toxicities, Grade 0-1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 radiation pneumonitis occurred in 23, 1 and 1 patient, respectively. No other acute or symptomatic late toxicities were reported. Thirteen patients who had no local, mediastinal or intrapulmonary progression at one year after SBRT underwent pulmonary function testing. The median variation in pre-SBRT and post-SBRT forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) values was -0.1 (-0.8-0.8). This variation was not statistically significant (P = 0.56). Forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), %VC and %FEV1 also showed no significant differences. SBRT for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC was both effective and feasible. Considering the favorable survival and low morbidity rate, SBRT is a potential treatment option for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC. PMID:26983978

  17. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XXVI. Two giant planets around M0 dwarfs

    Forveille, Thierry; Bonfils, Xavier; Curto, Gaspare Lo; Delfosse, Xavier; Udry, Stephane; Bouchy, Francois; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Moutou, Claire; Naef, Dominique; Pepe, Francesco; Perrier, Christian; Queloz, Didier; Santos, Nuno


    Fewer giants planets are found around M dwarfs than around more massive stars, and this dependence of planetary characteristics on the mass of the central star is an important observational diagnostic of planetary formation theories. In part to improve on those statistics, we are monitoring the radial velocities of nearby M dwarfs with the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO 3.6 m telescope. We present here the detection of giant planets around two nearby M0 dwarfs: planets, with minimum masses of ...

  18. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for T3 and T4N0M0 non–small cell lung cancer

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Nishimura, Shuichi; Takagawa, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Saeki, Noriyuki; Yashiro, Kae; Mizuno, Tomikazu; Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei; Yokosuka, Tetsuya; Shigematsu, Naoyuki


    To evaluate the outcomes and feasibility of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for cT3 and cT4N0M0 non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 25 patients with localized primary NSCLC diagnosed as cT3 or cT4N0M0, given SBRT between May 2005 and July 2013, were analyzed. All patients had inoperable tumors. The major reasons for tumors being unresectable were insufficient respiratory function for curative resection, advanced age (>80 years old) or technically inoperable due to invasion into critical organs. The median patient age was 79 years (range; 60–86). The median follow-up duration was 25 months (range: 5–100 months). The 2-year overall survival rates for T3 and T4 were 57% and 69%, respectively. The 2-year local control rates for T3 and T4 were 91% and 68%, respectively. As for toxicities, Grade 0–1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 radiation pneumonitis occurred in 23, 1 and 1 patient, respectively. No other acute or symptomatic late toxicities were reported. Thirteen patients who had no local, mediastinal or intrapulmonary progression at one year after SBRT underwent pulmonary function testing. The median variation in pre-SBRT and post-SBRT forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) values was –0.1 (–0.8–0.8). This variation was not statistically significant (P = 0.56). Forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), %VC and %FEV1 also showed no significant differences. SBRT for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC was both effective and feasible. Considering the favorable survival and low morbidity rate, SBRT is a potential treatment option for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC. PMID:26983978

  19. 长江中下游地区亚洲镰刀菌 NX-2毒素群体的检测%Detection of NX-2 producing Fusarium asiaticum strains in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River

    罗文; 张昊; 许景升; 徐进; 冯洁


    Fusarium head blight (FHB)caused by Fusarium graminearum species complex is a very important dis-ease in agricultural production.To analyze the composition and geographic distribution of F .graminearum species complex in the main areas of wheat production in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River in China, wheat spikes with FHB symptoms were collected from 3 provinces including Jiangsu,Zhejiang and Hubei in 2008. A total of 656 strains were isolated.The results showed that 558 strains were F .asiaticum and 98 strains were F .graminearum s.str among the 656 isolates.Population of F .asiaticum is predominant.F .asiaticum was se-lected to detect NX-2 producing strains through the PCR-RFLP method.The results showed that there were no NX-2 producing strains in the main areas of wheat production in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River in China.The aim of this research is to get a detailed geographic distribution of NX-2 producing strains in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River in China,lay the foundation for further study of the population ge-netic diversity,and provide theoretical basis for disease and mycotoxin control.%由禾谷镰刀菌复合种(Fusarium graminearum species complex,FGSC)引起的麦类赤霉病,是农业生产上的重要病害。为明确中国长江中下游冬小麦主产区小麦赤霉病菌种的构成及其地理分布,对2008年从江苏、浙江和湖北3省采集的656株小麦赤霉病菌株进行了分类鉴定。结果显示,其中558个菌株为亚洲镰刀菌(Fusarium asi-aticum),98个菌株为禾谷镰刀菌(Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto),表明中国长江中下游冬小麦主产区小麦赤霉病的主要致病菌是亚洲镰刀菌。选择亚洲镰刀菌(F.asiaticum)为研究对象,通过 PCR-RFLP 的方法对其进行产 NX-2毒素菌株的检测。结果没有检测到产 NX-2毒素菌株,表明中国长江中下游冬小麦主产区并未出现 NX-2毒素

  20. Carbon-supported Pt0.75M0.25 (M = Ni or Co) electrocatalysts for borohydride oxidation

    Highlights: • BH4− electrooxidation at carbon supported Pt-alloys (Pt0.75M0.25/C, M = Ni or Co). • Influence of BH4− concentration and temperature on BH4− electrooxidation. • Evaluation of charge transfer coefficients and number of electrons exchanged. • Assessment of heterogeneous rate constants and activation energies. • Higher catalytic activity of Pt0.75M0.25/C than Pt/C for BH4− electrooxidation. -- Abstract: Electrochemical oxidation of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) at carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C) and carbon-supported bimetallic platinum alloys (Pt0.75M0.25/C, with M = Ni or Co) is studied in alkaline media using cyclic voltammetry and linear scan voltammetry with rotating disc electrode. Main kinetic parameters (e.g., charge transfer coefficients, number of electrons exchanged, standard heterogeneous rate constants and activation energies) for NaBH4 oxidation on these electrocatalysts are determined. Results indicate the highest catalytic activity of Pt0.75Ni0.25/C alloy electrocatalyst, followed by Pt0.75Co0.25/C, while the lowest activity is observed for Pt/C electrocatalyst. The influence of electrolyte composition and temperature on NaBH4 electrooxidation at the three materials is also explored. The good performance of these bimetallic alloys makes them a lower cost alternative to single Pt as electrocatalysts for the direct borohydride fuel cell anode

  1. Composition, microstructure, and properties of CrNx films deposited using medium frequency magnetron sputtering

    CrNx films were deposited on stainless steel and Si (1 1 1) substrates via medium frequency magnetron sputtering in a N2 + Ar mixed atmosphere. The influence of N2 content on the deposition rate, composition, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of the as-deposited films was investigated by means of the X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), nanoindentation and tribometer testing. It was found that the N atomic concentration increased and the phase transformed from a mixture of Cr2N + Cr(N) to single-phase Cr2N, and then Cr2N + CrN to pure CrN phase with the increase of N2 content. The Cr 2p3/2 and N 1s of XPS spectra also confirmed the evolution of phase. Accordingly, all films exhibited a typical columnar structure which lies in the zone T of Thornton Model. The mixed Cr2N and Cr(N) phases showed low hardness and high friction coefficient. Cr2N possessed higher hardness than CrN while CrN exhibited lower friction coefficient.

  2. 试用三星NX10数码相机



    前不久,三星推出了新型数码相机NX10,这种被称作混合式数码相机(HYbrid Digital Camera)的新型产品,与早前松下和奥林巴斯发布的微型4/3系统可更换镜头数码相机具有异曲同工之处。但由于采用了更大画幅的感光器件,使图像画质更具优势。与以往的单镜头反光数码相机相比,这种相机由于取消了五棱镜和反光板,使得体积更小巧。许多摄影器材专家甚至认为,这种相机在未来很有可能取代单反数码而成为新一代的主力专业摄影器材。那么,这种相机到底有什么优势呢。

  3. Electronic structure and magnetic anisotropy of Sm2Fe17Nx

    Akai, Hisazumi; Ogura, Masako


    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17Nx are studies on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation in the framework of the density functional theory within the local density and coherent potential approximations. The magnetic anisotropy of the system as a function of nitrogen concentration x is discussed by taking account not only of the crystal field effects but also of the effects of the f-electron transfer from Sm to the neighboring sites. Also discussed is the magnetic transition temperature that is estimated by mapping the system into a Heisenberg model. The results show the crystalline magnetic anisotropy changes its direction from in-plane to uniaxial ones as x increases. It takes the maximum value near x ~ 2 . 8 and then decreases slightly towards x = 3 . The mechanism for these behaviors is discussed in the light of the results of detailed calculations on the bonding properties between Sm and its neighboring N. This work was partly supported by Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials Project, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  4. Deep Defects Annihilation in GaAs1-xNx Layers by Si-doping

    N. Ben Sedrine


    Full Text Available The photoluminescence (PL properties of Si-doped GaAs0.985N0.015 with different silicon content were investigated. The study was carried out on a set of three samples grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE on GaAs (001 oriented substrate using a radio frequency nitrogen beam source. For all samples, the PL measurements show the presence of a wide band situated at 0.83 eV which intensity decreases by increasing silicon content. This wide band was attributed to the presence of deep localized states induced by a three-dimensional growth of the GaAsN layer. In addition, these deep localized states are annihilated by the free carriers from silicon atoms. PL measurements in the range of 10 to 300 K were also performed to identify the band gap energy of GaAs1-xNx structure. The decrease of the activation energies with increasing silicon content was observed.

  5. XPS and RBS investigation of TiNxOy films prepared by vacuum arc discharge

    Highlights: ► We prepare three TiNxOy films by vacuum arc discharge technique with different temperatures. ► Increasing the temperature will improve titanium nitride components. ► Temperature plays a major role in the thickness of films. ► Crystalline and texture developments of the films depend on the temperature. - Abstract: Three titanium oxynitride films have been prepared by vacuum arc discharge technique at different chamber temperatures (50 °C, 150 °C and 300 °C). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to reveal the elemental and chemical compositions by analyzing high resolution spectra of Ti 2p3/2, N 1s and O 1s. Higher temperatures were found to promote the nitride components and to produce nitrogen-rich films. Homogeneity and thickness of the films have been estimated by means of Rutherford Back Scattering technique, which showed that the film thickness increased with the increasing of temperature. A significant improvement in the crystalline quality and texture when increasing the temperature was found by X-ray diffraction technique. Electrical resistivity of the films was measured at room temperature and was found to decrease from 46.6 μΩ cm down to 26.3 μΩ cm for the samples prepared at 50 °C and 300 °C, respectively.

  6. Combined cryosurgical, chemotherapeutic, and radiotherapeutic management of T1-4N0M0 oral cavity cancers

    Eighty-four previously untreated patients (69 males, 15 females) with squamous carcinoma of the tongue (30 patients), floor of the mouth (30), cheek (16), and retromolar region (8) were treated using a protocol comprising cryosurgery + chemotherapy, followed by external 60Co radiotherapy. The follow-up period was at least 6 months (median, 50 months). Cryosurgery (1-2 sessions in 49 T1-2 cases; 2-4 in 35 T3-4 cases) was accompanied by a CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) schedule (T1-2, two courses; T3-4, three courses). Radiotherapy was given 15 to 20 days after combined cryochemotherapy (T1, 50 Gy on tumor and lymph nodes; T2-3-4, same with an extra dose of 10 to 15 Gy on the primary lesion). Complete remission was reached 4 months after treatment in 76 of 84 patients (90.5%). Survival with no evidence of disease (NED) in the 57 patients (27 T1-2, 30 T3-4) with a follow-up of more than 3 years was 59.6% for the series as a whole, 70.3% for T1-2, and 50.0% for T3-4; 78.2% for the tongue, 52.6% for the floor, 66.6% for the cheek, and 0% for the retromolar region. The picture was much the same after 5 years. Actuarial survival at 6 years was 66% in the series as a whole, 75.5% in T1-2, and 57.5% in T3-4 (tongue 86.9%, floor 56.1%, cheek 68.4%, and retromolar region 0%). It is believed that the results obtained in tumors of the tongue, floor and cheek, coupled with the conservative aspects of the protocol, make it a suitable subject for a controlled trial

  7. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT JURISDICTION Assignment of Agency Component for Review of Premarket Applications § 3.4 Designated...

  8. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.


    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  9. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  10. Experiments R285-3/4/5 (ILAS 3/4/5). Activity calculations

    In the irradiation experiments ILAS 3/4/5 a number of different austenitic stainless steel types and three types of vanadium samples for advanced nuclear systems will be irradiated at a temperature of 300 C up to dpa (displacements per atom) levels of 2.5 dpa for the steel samples and up to 6 dpa for the vanadium samples. In this report the results of the activity calculations of the sample holder material and of the different types of sample materials are presented. The activity of the holder material is calculated for the vertical average of the irradiation position. The activities of the sample materials are given for the vertical maximum of the irradiation position. A relation is given to convert these data to any vertical sample position. Also the changes in chemical composition of the different sample materials, due to nuclide transmutation, are given in this report. (orig.)

  11. Relativistic local quantum field theory for m=0 particles; Campos cuanticos locales relativos a particulas de masa no nula

    Morales Villasevil, A.


    A method is introduced ta deal with relativistic quantum field theory for particles with m=0. Two mappings I and J, giving rise respectively to particle and anti particle states, are defined between a test space and the physical Hilbert space. The intrinsic field operator is then defined as the minimal causal linear combinations of operators belonging to the annihilation-creation algebra associated to the germ and antigerm parts of the element. Local elements are introduced as improper test elements and local field operators are constructed in the same way as the intrinsic ones. Commutation rules are given. (Author) 17 refs.

  12. Utilization of N-X bonds in the synthesis of N-heterocycles.

    Minakata, Satoshi


    Nitrogen-containing heterocycles--such as aziridines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, and oxazolines--frequently show up as substructures in natural products. In addition, some of these species show potent biological activities. Therefore, researchers would like to develop practical and convenient methods for constructing these heterocycles. Among the available methods, the transfer of N(1) units to organic molecules, especially olefins, is a versatile method for the synthesis of N-heterocycles. This Account reviews some of our recent work on the synthesis of N-heterocycles using the N-X bond. A nitrogen-halogen bond bearing an electron-withdrawing group on the nitrogen can be converted to a halonium ion. In the presence of C-C double bonds, these species produce three-membered cyclic halonium intermediates, which can be strong electrophiles and can produce stereocontrolled products. N-Halosuccinimides are representative sources of halonium ions, and the nitrogen of succinimide is rarely used in organic synthesis. If the nitrogen could act as a nucleophile, after releasing halonium ions to C-C double bonds, we expect great advances would be possible in the stereoselective functionalization of olefins. We chose N-chloro-N-sodio-p-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine-T, CT), an inexpensive and commercially available reagent, as our desired reactant. In the presence of a catalytic amount of CuCl or I(2) and AgNO(3), we achieved the direct aziridination of olefins with CT. The reaction catalyzed by I(2) could be carried out in water or silica-water as a green process. The reaction of iodoolefins with CT gave pyrrolidine derivatives under extremely mild conditions with complete stereoselectivity. We also extended the utility of the N-chloro-N-metallo reagent, which is often unstable and difficult to work with. Although CT does not react with electron-deficient olefins without a metal catalyst or an additive, we found that N-chloro-N-sodiocarbamates react with electron

  13. Clinical Evaluation of the New High-Throughput Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel Assay for Multiplex Respiratory Pathogen Detection.

    Chen, Jonathan H K; Lam, Ho-Yin; Yip, Cyril C Y; Wong, Sally C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; Ma, Edmond S K; Cheng, Vincent C C; Tang, Bone S F; Yuen, Kwok-Yung


    A broad range of viral and bacterial pathogens can cause acute respiratory tract infection. For rapid detection of a broad respiratory pathogen spectrum, multiplex real-time PCR is ideal. This study evaluated the performance of the new Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel (NxTAG-RPP) in comparison with the BioFire FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FA-RP) or singleplex real-time PCR as reference. A total of 284 clinical respiratory specimens and 3 influenza A/H7N9 viral culture samples were tested. All clinical specimens were processed and analyzed in parallel using NxTAG-RPP and the reference standard method. The H7N9 viral culture samples were tested using NxTAG-RPP only. Overall, the NxTAG-RPP demonstrated ≥93% sensitivity and specificity for all respiratory targets except human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and HCoV-HKU1. The H7N9 virus was detected by the influenza A virus matrix gene target, while other influenza A virus subtyping gene targets in the panel remained negative. Complete concordance between NxTAG-RPP and FA-RP was observed in 98.8% (318/322) of positive results (kappa = 0.92). Substantial agreement was found for most respiratory targets, but significant differences were observed in human metapneumovirus (P = 0.001) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (P = 0.031). NxTAG-RPP has a higher sample throughput than FA-RP (96 samples versus 1 sample per run) while the turnaround times for NxTAG-RPP and FA-RP were 5 h (up to 96 samples) and 1 h (for one sample), respectively. Overall, NxTAG-RPP demonstrated good diagnostic performance for most respiratory pathogens. The high sample throughput with reasonable turnaround time of this new assay makes it a suitable multiplex platform for routine screening of respiratory specimens in hospital-based laboratories. PMID:27122380

  14. Development of broadband antireflection of high-index substrate using SiNx/SiO2

    Lim, Kim Peng; Ng, Doris K. T.; Wang, Qian


    Broadband antireflection coatings are commonly required in many silicon or III-V compound semiconductor based optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, and image sensors so as to enhance light conversion efficiency. Conventional approach using a single-layer antireflection coating is simple and commonly used in industry but it has a limited working bandwidth. To achieve broadband or even omni-directional characteristics, structures using thick graded refractive index (GRIN) multilayers or nanostructured surfaces which have equivalent graded refractive index profile have been proposed and demonstrated. In this paper, we will show our development of broadband antireflection for high index substrate using SiNx/SiO2 via inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICPCVD). Global optimization of thin-film broadband antireflection coating using adaptive simulated annealing is presented. Unlike the conventional optical coating design which uses the refractive index of available materials, the optimization approach used here decides the optimal values of the refractive index as well as the thickness of each layer. The first thin-film material optimization is carried out on the ICP-CVD machine operating at low temperature of 250°C by tuning the SiH4/N2 gas ratio. The demonstrated double layer antireflection thin film reduces the average reflectance of Si surface from ~32% to ~3.17% at normal incidence for wavelength range from 400 to 1100 nm. This optical thin-film design and material development can be extended to optical wavelength filters and integrated micro-GRIN devices.

  15. Column Number Density Expressions Through M = 0 and M = 1 Point Source Plumes Along Any Straight Path

    Woronowicz, Michael S.


    Analytical expressions for column number density (CND) are developed for optical line of sight paths through a variety of steady free molecule point source models including directionally-constrained effusion (Mach number M = 0) and flow from a sonic orifice (M 1). Sonic orifice solutions are approximate, developed using a fair simulacrum fitted to the free molecule solution. Expressions are also developed for a spherically-symmetric thermal expansion (M = 0). CND solutions are found for the most general paths relative to these sources and briefly explored. It is determined that the maximum CND from a distant location through directed effusion and sonic orifice cases occurs along the path parallel to the source plane that intersects the plume axis. For the effusive case this value is exactly twice the CND found along the ray originating from that point of intersection and extending to infinity along the plumes axis. For sonic plumes this ratio is reduced to about 43. For high Mach number cases the maximum CND will be found along the axial centerline path.

  16. Induced m=0 instability in fast ablative capillary discharges and possible utilisation for X-ray lasers

    High current linear discharges confined by their own magnetic field are subject to magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities which perturb a straight plasma column. An example is the m=0 mode, which is characterised by the development of necks contracting rapidly towards the axis with the ion sound speed. Discharges through capillaries were assumed to be stable hitherto, but by cutting capillaries lengthwise after a few shots hot spot traces clearly imprinted on the inner wall of the capillary are observed. They are interpreted as marks of an m=0 instability, and this interpretation is substantiated by a series of time-gated pinhole images, which show that the hot plasma region is clearly detached from the wall at the second current maximum and concentrated on the axis thus making the development of the instability possible. The instability occurs only with a specific sample of polyacetal as wall material, and its axial wavelength increases with the length of the capillary. By modulating respectively the inner wall of the capillary the wavelength can be imposed within limits. This is exploited for a soft X-ray laser scheme based on charge exchange pumping of bare carbon ions of hot plasma streaming from the necks and colliding with cold plasma outside the neck regions. Exponential growth of the Balmer-a line of CVI at 18.22 nm is realised. (author)

  17. Cathode encapsulation of organic light emitting diodes by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films and Al2O3/a-SiNx:H stacks

    Al2O3 thin films synthesized by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) at room temperature (25 deg. C) have been tested as water vapor permeation barriers for organic light emitting diode devices. Silicon nitride films (a-SiNx:H) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition served as reference and were used to develop Al2O3/a-SiNx:H stacks. On the basis of Ca test measurements, a very low intrinsic water vapor transmission rate of ≤ 2 x 10-6 g m-2 day-1 and 4 x 10-6 g m-2 day-1 (20 deg. C/50% relative humidity) were found for 20-40 nm Al2O3 and 300 nm a-SiNx:H films, respectively. The cathode particle coverage was a factor of 4 better for the Al2O3 films compared to the a-SiNx:H films and an average of 0.12 defects per cm2 was obtained for a stack consisting of three barrier layers (Al2O3/a-SiNx:H/Al2O3).

  18. Various Recipes of SiNx Passivated AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors in Correlation with Current Slump

    The current slump of different recipes of SiNx passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) is investigated. The dc and pulsed current-voltage curves of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs using different recipes are analyzed. It is found that passivation leakage has a strong relationship with NH3 flow in the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor phase deposition process, which has impacted on the current collapse of SiNx passivated devices. We analyze the pulsed IDS – VDS characteristics of different recipes of SiNx passivation devices for different combinations of gate and drain quiescent biases (VGS0, VDS0) of (0, 0), (−6, 0), (−6, 15) and (0, 15)V. The possible mechanisms are the traps in SiNx passivation capturing the electrons and the surface states at the SiNx/AlGaN interface, which can affect the channel of two-dimensional electron gas and cause the current collapse. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Growth and characterization of dilute nitride GaNxP1−x nanowires and GaNxP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowires on Si (111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    We have demonstrated self-catalyzed GaNxP1−x and GaNxP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowire growth by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The growth window for GaNxP1−x nanowires was observed to be comparable to that of GaP nanowires (∼585 °C to ∼615 °C). Transmission electron microscopy showed a mixture of cubic zincblende phase and hexagonal wurtzite phase along the [111] growth direction in GaNxP1−x nanowires. A temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) study performed on GaNxP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowires exhibited an S-shape dependence of the PL peaks. This suggests that at low temperature, the emission stems from N-related localized states below the conduction band edge in the shell, while at high temperature, the emission stems from band-to-band transition in the shell as well as recombination in the GaNxP1−x core.

  20. Complexing 7,3',4'-tryoxiflavonol with cell phosphatidylcholine

    Nusratullin V. M.; Fahretdinova E. R.; Nasibullin R. S.; Galeeva R. I.


    Aim. To investigate the complex formation of 7,3',4'-try-oxyflavonol of flavonoids group with cellular phosphatidylcholine. Methods. Semi-empirical quantum chemistry, spectroscopy NMR. Results. The changes in conformational status of 7,3',4'-tryoxy- flavonol at complex formation have been shown. Conclusions. The conformational changes in phosphatidylcholine take place under the 7,3',4'-tryoxyflavonol/phosphatidylcholine complex formation.

  1. Near infra-red photoluminescence of Nd3+ in hydrogenated amorphous silicon sub-nitrides a-SiNx:H

    Neodymium-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon sub-nitrides a-SiNx:H thin films were deposited by rf-sputtering using a Si target partially covered by metallic Nd chips and Ar+N2+H2 sputtering gas. Characteristic Nd3+ near infra-red (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) was detected between 10 and 300 K with peaks at ∼935, ∼1090 and ∼1390 nm, corresponding to the intra-4f transitions 4F3/2→4I9/2, 4F3/2→4I11/2 and 4F3/2→4I13/2, respectively. Measurements using different excitation wavelengths indicate that the Nd3+ excitation occurs through the a-SiNx:H matrix. Varying the nitrogen content x from 0 to nearly 1.3 increases the matrix bandgap. The PL efficiency is maximum when the bandgap corresponds to twice the 4F3/2→4I9/2 transition, indicating a defect-related energy transfer mechanism. The temperature quenching can be as low as less than a factor 3 between 10 and 300 K for 2.8 eV gap samples. Thermal annealing can enhance the PL intensity by a factor 10. Neodymium concentrations above ∼3x1020 atoms/cm3 slightly reduce the PL intensity probably due to excess of inactive defect centers. Along with erbium-doped amorphous silicon alloys, a-SiNx:H can be used in the development of photonic devices in the future

  2. Solution processed SiNxCyOz thin films thermally transformed from silicon oxide/melamine hybrid system

    In this study, a solution-processable precursor of melamine and silicon oxide, was prepared and thermally converted into inorganic thin films of SiNxCyOz. Using tetra-ethoxysilane and hydroxyl-methyl-melamine, a transparent coating with a high loading content of silica of up to 50% was achieved through the hydrolysis/condensation reactions, which provided a transmittance of 85.1% (thickness of 1.5 ± 0.2 μm) and hard coating grade of 4H pencil test. When the silica/melamine coating was further heat-treated up to 900 °C in an inert environment, the organic melamine was converted into an inorganic compound composed of Si, N, C, and O atoms in the form of SiNxCyOz. The relative compositions of films varied with the heat-treatment temperature, e.g., providing SiN0.03C0.59O1.87 for the thin film heat-treated at 700 °C. The resulting inorganic thin films were mechanically strong and optically shiny with a low root mean square of roughness (< 1.0 nm) giving dielectric constants varying from 2.75 to 1.82 with heat treatment temperature that could be used as low-k materials in commercialized optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • A solution-processable dielectric layer was fabricated through sol–gel process. • A fabricated hybrid film has an excellent optical transmittance and hardness. • The hybrid film was converted into an inorganic compound in the form of SiNxCyOz. • The dielectric constant of heat-treated specimen was measured lower than 2.0

  3. Physical mechanisms of SiNx layer structuring with ultrafast lasers by direct and confined laser ablation

    In the production process of silicon microelectronic devices and high efficiency silicon solar cells, local contact openings in thin dielectric layers are required. Instead of photolithography, these openings can be selectively structured with ultra-short laser pulses by confined laser ablation in a fast and efficient lift off production step. Thereby, the ultrafast laser pulse is transmitted by the dielectric layer and absorbed at the substrate surface leading to a selective layer removal in the nanosecond time domain. Thermal damage in the substrate due to absorption is an unwanted side effect. The aim of this work is to obtain a deeper understanding of the physical laser-material interaction with the goal of finding a damage-free ablation mechanism. For this, thin silicon nitride (SiNx) layers on planar silicon (Si) wafers are processed with infrared fs-laser pulses. Two ablation types can be distinguished: The known confined ablation at fluences below 300 mJ/cm2 and a combined partial confined and partial direct ablation at higher fluences. The partial direct ablation process is caused by nonlinear absorption in the SiNx layer in the center of the applied Gaussian shaped laser pulses. Pump-probe investigations of the central area show ultra-fast reflectivity changes typical for direct laser ablation. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrate that the Si surface under the remaining SiNx island is not damaged by the laser ablation process. At optimized process parameters, the method of direct laser ablation could be a good candidate for damage-free selective structuring of dielectric layers on absorbing substrates

  4. Ionic fragmentation following core excitation of Sn(CH3)4 and Pb(CH3)4 by soft X-rays

    Ionic photofragmentation has been studied on Sn(CH3)4 (TMT) and Pb(CH3)4 (TML) in the photon energy range 60-600 eV using time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The photoionization of Sn:4d in TMT (Pb:5d in TML) above 60 eV produces predominantly a doubly-charged ion which dissociates into two singly-charged ions and some neutral fragments. The ions produced in this pathway are CH3+, C2H3+, C2H5+, MCHm+ and/or M+, where M is Sn or Pb. The photoioinization of Sn:4p in TMT (Pb:5p in TML) produces a triply-charged parent ion and enhances the production of H+, CHm+ (m'=0-3) and M+. The photoionization of Sn:3d in TMT (Pb:4f in TML) produces a multiply-charged ion with the degree of charge 3-5 and enhances the production of H+, C+ (or CH+), and M+ significantly

  5. Low-noise on-chip frequency conversion by four-wave-mixing Bragg scattering in SiNx waveguides

    Agha, Imad; Thurston, Bryce; Srinivasan, Kartik


    Low-noise, tunable wavelength-conversion through non-degenerate four-wave mixing Bragg scattering in SiNx waveguides is experimentally demonstrated. Finite element method simulations of waveguide dispersion are used with the split-step Fourier method to predict device performance, and indicate a strong dependence of the conversion efficiency on phase matching, which is controlled by the waveguide geometry. Two 1550 nm wavelength band pulsed pumps are used to achieve tunable conversion of a 980 nm signal over a range of 5 nm with a peak conversion efficiency of \\approx 5 %. The demonstrated Bragg scattering process is suitable for frequency conversion of quantum states of light.

  6. A (Nd, Zr(Fe, Co11.5Ti0.5Nx compound as a permanent magnet material

    S. Suzuki


    Full Text Available We studied NdFe11TiNx compounds as permanent magnet materials. The (Nd0.7,Zr0.3(Fe0.75Co0.2511.5Ti0.5N0.52 powder that contained a limited amount of the α-(Fe, Co phase shows fairly good magnetic properties, such as a saturation polarization (Js of 1.68 T and an anisotropic field (Ha of 2.88 (Law of approach to saturation – 4.0 MA/m (Intersection of magnetization curves. Both properties are comparable to those of the Nd2Fe14B phase.

  7. Influence of nitrogen-related defects on optical and electrical behaviour in HfO2-xNx deposited by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Murdoch, B. J.; Ganesan, R.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McCulloch, D. G.; Partridge, J. G.


    HfO2-xNx films have been deposited by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering in an Ar-O2-N2 atmosphere with a series of nitrogen partial pressures. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed the optimum deposition conditions required to passivate O vacancies in the HfO2-xNx films by nitrogen. Low-mobility interstitial species prevent crystallisation of nitrogen-incorporated films. These effects combine to remove leakage paths resulting in superior breakdown strengths compared to films deposited without nitrogen. The bandgap was maintained at ˜5.9 eV in the films in which nitrogen passivated the oxygen vacancies. This is essential to provide sufficient band offsets for HfO2-xNx films to be used an effective gate dielectric.

  8. Anthracen-9-ylmethylene-(3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylamine

    Abdullah M. Asiri


    Full Text Available The title compound, anthracen-9-ylmethylene-(3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylamine (3, was synthesized in high yield by reaction of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde and 5-amino-3,4-dimethyl­isoxazole in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and GC-MS spectral analysis.

  9. First-principles calculations of vacancy effects on structural and electronic properties of TiCx and TiNx

    First-principles calculations have been used to study the effect of vacancies on the structural and electronic properties in substoichiometric TiCx and TiNx. The effect of vacancies on equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, electronic band structures and density of states of the substoichiometric phases was studied using a full-potential linear augmented plane-wave method. A model structure of eight-atom supercells with ordered vacancies within the carbon and nitrogen sublattices is used. We find that the lattice parameters of the studied stoichiometries in both TiCx and TiNx are smaller than that of ideal stoichiometric TiC and TiN. Our results for the variation of the lattice parameters and the bulk moduli for TiCx are found to be in good agreement with experiment. The variation of the energy gaps with the atomic concentration ratio shows that these compounds present the same trends. Results for TiCx are compared to a recent full-potential calculation with relaxed 16-atom supercells

  10. The simultaneous production of sphingan Ss and poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) in Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02.

    Wu, Mengmeng; Li, Guoqiang; Huang, Haidong; Chen, Sibin; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Keran; Zhou, Jiefang; Ma, Ting


    Sphingans and poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) are both widely used biopolymers produced by bacteria. In the batch fermentation of Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02 in a 5L fermenter using glucose as carbon source, ivory colored sphingan Ss production was a growth-associated process with a maximum purified production of 14.88 ± 0.83 g/L, while 6.08 ± 0.23 g/L PHB was simultaneously produced. Sphingan Ss and PHB were separated by a simple dilution, heating and centrifugation or filtration process, and sphingan Ss can be cost-effectively extracted using a small amount of acid rather than multi-fold volumes of alcohols. From ultrathin sections of S. sanxanigenens NX02, we found that the interior space of the cells was filled with PHB granules, and the outside was surrounded by abundant Ss. The purified sphingan Ss can be used as an excellent gelling and emulsifying agent in biotechnology applications such as food, personal care and production processes. Proposed pathways of Ss and PHB biosynthesis from glucose are also presented. PMID:26434528

  11. Synthesis and properties of SiNx coatings as stable fluorescent markers on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    Ryan Pearce


    Full Text Available The growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs in a catalytic dc ammonia/acetylene plasma process on silicon substrates is often accompanied by sidewall deposition of material that contains predominantly Si and N. In fluorescent microscopy experiments, whereby VACNFs are interfaced to cell and tissue cultures for a variety of applications, it was observed that this material is broadly fluorescent. In this paper, we provide insight into nature of these silicon/nitrogen in-situ coatings. We propose a potential mechanism for deposition of SiNx coating on the sidewalls of VACNFs during PECVD synthesis and explore the origin of the coating's fluorescence. It is most likely that the substrate reacts with process gases similar to reactive sputtering and chemical vapor deposition (CVD, forming silane and other silicon bearing compounds prior to isotropic deposition as a SiNx coating onto the VACNFs. The formation of Sinanoclusters (NCs is also implicated due to a combination of strong fluorescence and elemental analysis of the samples. These broadly luminescent fibers can prove useful as registry markers in fluorescent cellular studies and for tagging and tracing applications.

  12. Study of SiNx:Hy passivant layers for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    In this work, hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiNx:Hy) grown by chemical vapour deposition as passivant layers for high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) have been studied. The film composition and bonding structure were determined by ion beam analysis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques, respectively. The effects of gas precursors (SiH4/N2 and SiH4/NH3) and film/substrate interface on the film growth have been addressed. The growth on different substrates (Si, GaN, AlGaN), and the effects of plasma pre-treatments have been studied before the growth and the film growth evolution. Results yield no significant differences in all the analysed samples. This points out the relevant role of SiHn radicals as growth precursor species and that intrinsic characteristics of the SiNx:Hy layers are not affected by the film/substrate interface. Hence, improved performance of HEMT with surface plasma pre-treatments before passivation should be related to extrinsic mechanisms (such as creation of defects in AlGaN surface, removal of the surface contamination or ion-induced roughness). (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Therapeutic outcomes of papillary thyroid carcinomas with tumors more advanced than T1N0M0

    Purpose: This retrospective study analyzed the role of total or near-total thyroidectomy and adjuvant radioactive iodide (131I) therapy in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with disease more advanced than T1N0M0. Methods: The study analyzed 1055 consecutive papillary thyroid cancer patients, 825 women and 230 men, who underwent near-total or total thyroidectomy, thyroid remnant ablation with 131I, and follow-up at Chang Gung Medical Center in Linkou, Taiwan. Patients with T1N0M0 stage tumors were excluded. Patients were categorized into four groups according to treatment outcome. Group A was disease-free patients with negative results of 131I whole body scan, undetected serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and Tg antibody, and no recurrence. Group B patients had no clinical evidence of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer but were not in disease-free status. Group C were patients with cancer tissue persisting after surgery. Group D were patients suffering cancer recurrence after surgery and 131I ablation. Results: After a mean follow-up period of 10.1 ± 5.4 years (median: 9.5 years), 46 (4.36%) patients died of thyroid cancer. Nine Group A cases with persistent or recurrent cancer were treated until achieving disease-free status. Group C patients received the highest 131I dose but had a 25.7% mortality rate. In Group D, the mean duration from first thyroidectomy to recurrence was 5.1 ± 0.4 years and ranged from 0.8 to 18.7 years. Four of 56 (7.1%) patients with recurrent local neck cancer died of thyroid cancer and 12 (21.4%) died of thyroid cancer with distant metastases. Conclusions: Radioactive iodide therapy effectively controlled papillary thyroid carcinoma after neck surgery in 23.9% of patients. After surgery and 131I treatments, most patients with persistent or recurrent local-regional neck cancer were free of relapse; the cancer mortality rate was 19.0%

  14. Radiation therapy for early glottic cancer (T1N0M0): II. Prospective randomized study concerning radiation field

    Teshima, T.; Chatani, M.; Inoue, T. (Center for Adult Diseases, Osaka (Japan))


    A prospective randomized study to determine the effect of radiation field on the local control of early glottic cancer was performed. From May 1982 through December 1985, a total of 87 patients with early glottic cancer (T1N0M0) were treated at our department with an individualized wedge filter technique using a shell to improve the dose distribution and immobilization during radiotherapy with 4 MV X ray. Patients were randomly allocated to either treatment group A (radiation field size: 5 x 5 cm2) or B (6 x 6 cm2) using bilateral parallel opposed portals. Total radiation dose administered was 60 Gy in 30 fractions over a 6-week period. The 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 93% in group A and 96% in group B (no significant difference). Comparison with historical control showed that both arms achieved better results. These results were mainly due to the improved local control of whole-length lesions of single vocal cords. Acute mucosal reaction (p less than 0.05) and persistent arytenoid edema lasting more than 6 months (p less than 0.02) were more frequently observed in group B than in group A. It is concluded that the critical factor in getting optimal results in the treatment of early glottic cancer is careful attention to the technique of treatment.


    罗向东; 徐仲英; 潘钟; 李联合; 林耀望; 葛维琨


    用光荧光谱(PL)研究了GaNxAs1-x/G aAs单量子阱(SQW)的光跃迁性质和带阶.通过研究积分荧光强度与激发强度的关系及光谱峰 值位置与温度的关系,发现GaNxAs1-x/GaAs单量子阱中的发光是本征带- 带跃迁,并且低温发光是局域激子发光.通过自洽计算发现它的导带带阶(ΔEc)与氮含 量的关系不是纯粹的线性关系,其平均变化速率(0.110eV/N%)比文献中报道的要慢得多(0.15 6~0.175eV/N%),此外发现Qc(=ΔEc/ΔEg)随氮含量的变化很小,可以用Qc≈x 0.25来表示.还研究了GaNxAs1-x/GaAs单量子阱中氮含量的变化对 能带弯曲参数(b)的影响.%The optical properties and the band lineup in GaNAs/GaAs single quantum wells (SQWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) usi ng photoluminescence (PL) technique were investigated. It was found that the low -temperature PL is dominated by the intrinsic localized exciton emission. By f i tting the experimental datawith a simple calculation, band offset of the GaN 0.015As0.985/GaAs heterostructure was estimated. Moreover, ΔEc, t he discontinuity of the conduction band was found to be a nonlinear function of the nitrogen composition (x) and the average variation of ΔEc is abou t 0.110eV per % N, such smaller than that reported on the literature (0.156~0.1 75 eV/N%).In addition, Qc has little change whtn N composition increares, wi th an experimential relation of Qc≈x0.25. The band bowing coefficient (b) was also studied in this paper. The measured band bowing coefficient sh ows a strong function of x,giving an experimental support to the theoretic c alculation of Wei Su-Huai and Zunger Alex (1996).

  16. Conductimetric immunosensor based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).

    Kanungo, Mandakini; Srivastava, Divesh N; Kumar, Anil; Contractor, A Q


    A conductimetric reagentless immunosensor using the biospecific binding pair of goat antirabbit IgG and rabbit IgG has been designed and fabricated using poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as the immobilization matrix-cumtransducer. PMID:12119672

  17. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Ωm0 from the galaxy clustering ratio measured at z ~ 1

    Bel, J.; Marinoni, C.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Branchini, E.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Iovino, A.; Percival, W. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.


    We use a sample of about 22 000 galaxies at 0.65 measurement of the galaxy clustering ratio ηg,R. This statistic has favourable properties, which is defined as the ratio of two quantities characterizing the smoothed density field in spheres of a given radius R: the value of its correlation function on a multiple of this scale, ξ(nR), and its variance σ2(R). For sufficiently large values of R, this is a universal number, which captures 2-point clustering information independently of the linear bias and linear redshift-space distortions of the specific galaxy tracers. In this paper, we discuss how to extend the application of ηg,R to quasi-linear scales and how to control and remove observational selection effects, which are typical of redshift surveys as VIPERS, in detail. We verify the accuracy and efficiency of these procedures using mock catalogues that match the survey selection process. These results show the robustness of ηg,R to non-linearities and observational effects, which is related to its very definition as a ratio of quantities that are similarly affected. At an effective redshift z = 0.93, we measured the value ηg,R(15) = 0.141 ± 0.013 at R = 5h-1 Mpc. Within a flat ΛCDM cosmology and by including the best available priors on H0, ns and baryon density, we obtain a matter density parameter at the current epoch Ωm,0 = 0.270-0.025+0.029. In addition to the great precision achieved on our estimation of Ωm using VIPERS PDR-1, this result is remarkable because it appears to be in good agreement with a recent estimate at z ≃ 0.3, which was obtained by applying the same technique to the SDSS-LRG catalogue. It, therefore, supports the robustness of the present analysis. Moreover, the combination of these two measurements at z ~ 0.3 and z ~ 0.9 provides us with a very precise estimate of Ωm,0 = 0.274 ± 0.017, which highlights the great consistency between our estimation and other cosmological probes, such as baryonic acoustic oscillations, cosmic

  18. MR spectroscopy in diagnosis of local recurrence of T3N0M0 of prostate cancer after cryotherapy

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in detecting local recurrence in patients with T3N0M0 prostate cancer after cryotherapy. Methods: Sixty-five patients with T3N0M0 prostate cancer underwent cryotherapy. The preoperative data of conventional MRI, MRS, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy were collected. After cryotherapy, the prostate specific antigen (PSA) of all patients was detected monthly.If PSA >5 μg/L, MRI, MRS, and TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were planned within a week. If PSA was unremarkable, MRI, MRS, and TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were planned 12 months after cryotherapy. The prostate was divided 6 regions and the cancerous and noncancerous were marked. The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of choline (Cho), citrate (Cit) and the ratios of Cho + creatine (Cre)/Cit of each regions were measured in pre-operation and postoperation. The patients were divided into non-recurrence and recurrence group according to TRUS-guided biopsy. The S/N of Cho, Cit, and the ratio of Cho + Cre/Cit were compared between the groups before and after cryotherapy by using independent samples t-test. Results: (1) Fifteen patients were confirmed local recurrence 12 months after cryotherapy, including 11 patients with an evaluate PSA level and 4 patients with PSA unremarkable. (2) The S/N of Cho, Cit and the ratios of Cho + Cre/Cit in the cancerous and noncancerous regions before cryotherapy in the sixty-five patients were 25±9, 11±5, and 18±5, and 39 ±12, 2.33±0.60, and 0.53 ± 0.19. There had significant difference between that of two groups (t values were 11.36, 9.81, and 13.39, respectively, P=0.00). (3) In the patients with non-recurrence, The S/N of Cho, Cit in the cancerous and noncancerous regions were 4 ± 2 and 3 ± 2 (t=1.024, P=0.305), and 2±2 and 4 ±3 (t=1.147, P=0.178) and no difference was found. In necrotic area,the ratios of Cho + Cre/Cit could not be calculated because of low level of the S/N of

  19. Naprašované vrstvy SiNx:H s leptáním mono-Si povrchu v plazmatickém H2

    Hégr, O.; Boušek, J.; Fořt, Tomáš; Sobota, Jaroslav; Varuňková, V.; Bařinka, R.; Poruba, A.

    Brno : Czech RE Agency, 2008. s. 53. ISBN N. [Česká fotovoltaická konference /3./. 03.11.2008-05.11.2008, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : magnetron sputtering * passivation layer * SiNx:H * MW-PCD * FTIR Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  20. Compositional and Structural Properties of TiO2-xNx Thin Films Deposited by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    JING Shi-Wei; LIU Yi-Chun; LIANG Yu; MA Jian-Gang; LU You-Ming; SHEN De-Zhen; ZHANG Ji-Ying; FAN Xi-Wu; MU Ri-Xiang


    @@ TiO2-xNx thin films are deposited onto Si(100) and quartz substrates by a rf magnetron sputtering method using a titanium metal disc as a target in Ar, N2, and O2 atmospheres. The substrate temperature is kept at 300°C. The O2 and Ar gas flow rates are kept to be constants and the N gas flow rate is varied. TiO2-xNx films with different N contents are characterized by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that the TiO2-xNx thin films can be obtained at 13% N and 15% N contents in the film, and the films with mixed TiO2 and TiN crystal can be obtained at 13% N and 15% N contents in the film. In terms of the results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N 1s of β-N (396 eV) is the main component in the TiO2-xNx thin films.

  1. Crystal and Electronic Structures, Photoluminescence Properties of Eu2+-Doped Novel Oxynitride Ba4Si6O16-3x/2Nx

    Takashi Takeda


    Full Text Available The crystal structure and the photoluminescence properties of novel green Ba4-yEuySi6O16-3x/2Nx phosphors were investigated. The electronic structures of the Ba4Si6O16 host were calculated by first principles pseudopotential method based on density functional theory. The results reveal that the top of the valence bands are dominated by O-2p states hybridized with Ba-6s and Si-3p states, while the conduction bands are mainly determined by Ba-6s states for the host, which is an insulator with a direct energy gap of 4.6 eV at Γ. A small amount of nitrogen can be incorporated into the host to replace oxygen and forms Ba4-yEuySi6O16-3x/2Nx solid solutions crystallized in a monoclinic (space group P21/c, Z = 2 having the lattice parameters a = 12.4663(5 Å, b = 4.6829(2 Å, c = 13.9236(6 Å, and β = 93.61(1°, with a maximum solubility of nitrogen at about x = 0.1. Ba4Si6O16-3x/2Nx:Eu2+ exhibits efficient green emission centered at 515–525 nm varying with the Eu2+ concentration when excited under UV to 400 nm. Furthermore, the incorporation of nitrogen can slightly enhance the photoluminescence intensity. Excitation in the UV-blue spectral range (λexc = 375 nm, the absorption and quantum efficiency of Ba4-yEuySi6O16-3x/2Nx (x = 0.1, y = 0.2 reach about 80% and 46%, respectively. Through further improvement of the thermal stability, novel green phosphor of Ba4-yEuySi6O16-3x/2Nx is promising for application in white UV-LEDs.

  2. Formation of SiNx:H by PECVD: optimization of the optical, bulk passivation and structural properties for photovoltaic applications

    The hydrogenated silicon nitride SiNx:H is widely used as antireflection coating and passivation layer in the manufacture of silicon photovoltaic cells. The aim of this work was to implement a low frequency (440 kHz) PECVD reactor and to characterize the obtained SiN layers. After having determined the parameters of the optimal deposition, the physico-chemical structure of the layers has been studied. The optical properties have been studied with the aim to improve the antireflection coating of the photovoltaic cells. The surface and bulk passivation properties, induced by the SiN layer in terms of its stoichiometry, have been analyzed and have revealed the excellent passivating efficiency of this material. At last, have been studied the formation conditions of the silicon nano-crystals in the SiN matrix. (O.M.)

  3. Verifying field-effect passivation of a SiNx layer on a silicon nanopillar array using surface photovoltage characterization

    Kim, Eunah; Cho, Yunae; Sohn, Ahrum; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    In silicon (Si) wafer based photovoltaic (PV) devices, light-trapping strategies to improve optical absorption are very important due to the indirect bandgap of Si. Surface nano-patterned Si enable omnidirectional broadband antireflection (AR) effects with the help of graded refractive index, multiple scattering, diffraction, and Mie resonance. In this work, the surface photovoltage (SPV) of periodic nanopillar (NP) arrays were investigated using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The SPV characteristics clearly revealed that positive fixed charges in SiNx layers induced downward band bending at the Si surface and increased SPV at the NP top surface. The similar SPV value of NPs and planar counterpart suggests that field effect passivation by the dielectric layer coating could help improve PV performance of nanostructure-based Si solar cells and that KPFM measurements are useful tool for quantitative investigation of surface electrical properties of Si nanostructures.

  4. Evolution of silicon nanoclusters and hydrogen in SiNx:H films: Influence of high hydrostatic pressure under annealing

    Hydrogenated silicon-rich nitride (SRN) films of various stoichiometry (SiNx:H, 0.7 x:H, x > 1); furnace annealing leads to segregation of the Si and Si3N4 phases, so, the amorphous Si clusters were observed in annealed films according to Raman data. Surprisingly, after annealing with such high thermal budget, according to the FTIR data, the SRN film with parameter x close to that of the stoichiometric silicon nitride contains hydrogen in the form of Si-H bonds. From analysis of the FTIR data of the Si-N bond vibrations one can conclude that silicon nitride is partly crystallized in the films with x > 1 after annealing for 5 h. No influence of HP on the structure of Si nanoclusters was observed in the case of SRN films with x ≤ 1.1. Dramatic changes in the PL spectra of the SRN films with the x parameter close to that of the stoichiometric silicon nitride (x ≈ 1.3), annealed under atmospheric pressure and HP, were observed. HP stimulates the formation of very small hydrogenated amorphous nanoclusters. The size of amorphous Si nanoclusters determined from the quantum size effect model describing the PL spectra, should be 2–4 nm in this case. - Highlights: ► We study the optical properties of SiNx:H films annealed at a high pressure. ► After annealing at 1130 °S, 5 h, the SiN1.3 film contains hydrogen. ► Films annealed under high pressure showed changes in their photoluminescence spectra.

  5. Squaroglitter: A 3,4-Connected Carbon Net

    Prasad, Dasari L. V. K.


    Theoretical calculations are presented on a new hypothetical 3,4-connected carbon net (called squaroglitter) incorporating 1,4 cyclohexadiene units. The structure has tetragonal space group P4/mmm (No. 123) symmetry. The optimized geometry shows normal distances, except for some elongated bonds in the cyclobutane ring substructures in the network. Squaroglitter has an indirect bandgap of about 1.0 eV. The hypothetical lattice, whose density is close to graphite, is more stable than other 3,4-connected carbon nets. A relationship to a (4,4)nanotube is explored, as is a potential threading of the lattice with metal needles. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


    Bachwani Mukesh


    Full Text Available 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole is a highly privileged structure the derivatives of which exhibit a wide range of biological activities including antibacterial, antitubercular, vasodialatory, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, hypolipidemic, anticancer and ulcerogenic activities. Resistance to number of antimicrobial agents among a variety of clinically significant species of bacteria is becoming increasingly important global problem. The search for new antimicrobial agents will consequently always remain as an important and challenging task for medicinal chemists. This Review has basic information about 1,3,4-oxadiazole and its antimicrobial activity work for further development in this field.

  7. A Characterization of the SPARC T3-4 System

    van Tol, Michiel W


    This technical report covers a set of experiments on the 64-core SPARC T3-4 system, comparing it to two similar AMD and Intel systems. Key characteristics as maximum integer and floating point arithmetic throughput are measured as well as memory throughput, showing the scalability of the SPARC T3-4 system. The performance of POSIX threads primitives is characterized and compared in detail, such as thread creation and mutex synchronization. Scalability tests with a fine grained multithreaded runtime are performed, showing problems with atomic CAS operations on such physically highly parallel systems.

  8. Synthesis of Novel Biologically Active s-Triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole Derivatives



    @@ Heterocycles bearing a symmetrical triazole or 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring system are reported to show a broad spectrum of biological activities.[1,2] The 1,2,4-triazole nucleus has been recently incorporated into a wide variety of therapeutically interesting drugs including H1/H2 histamine receptor blockers, cholinesterase active agents, CNS stimulants, antianxiety and sedatives[3] Coumarins are nowadays an important group of organic compounds that used as bactericides, fungicides,anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, anti-HIV and antitumour agents.[4,5] Keeping in view the biological importance of the above mentioned heterocyclic compounds and in continuation of our search for biologically active nitrogen and sulphur heterocycles, a series of s-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives was synthesized.

  9. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based glucose biosensors

    Kros, A.; Nolte, R.J.M. [Nijmegen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Organic Chemistry; Hoevell, S.W.F.M. van [TNO Nutrition and Food Research Inst., Zeist (Netherlands); Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M. [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Lab. of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry


    Amperometric biosensors for the recognition of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have for the first time been fabricated and are presented in this communication. This biosensor has potential applications for long-term glucose measurements, e.g., in the treatment of diabetes. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 3-(4-Ethoxyphenyl)-6-(phenoxymethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    LEI Xin-Xiang; LIU Miao-Chang; XIAO Hong-Ping; ZHANG An-Jiang; ZHANG Li-Xue


    The title compound C18H16N4O2S has been synthesized by the reaction of 4-amino-3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole with phenoxyacetic acid in phospho- rus oxychloride, and characterized by IR, NMR spectra and elemental analysis. Its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 1.4903(3), b = 1.5230(2), c = 0.9615(16) nm, Z = 4, V = 1.7769(5) nm3, Dc = 1.317 g/cm3, ( = 0.201 mm-1, F(000) = 736, R = 0.0795 and wR = 0.2233. In the title compound, all rings are essentially planar.

  11. Study on the Synthesisof 3,4, 5-Trimethoxytol uene


    The 3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene(TMT) was systhesized using p-cresol by three steps including bromina-tion, methoxylation, and methylation with an overall yield of 84%. The structure of TMT was identified byNMR, GC/MS and IR. “One-pot”method was used in methoxylation and methylation for economical and conve-nient consideration. The mechanism for the methoxylation of 2,6-dibromo-4-methylphenol was discussed.

  12. Photoinduced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine ring conversions.

    Turovska, Baiba; Lund, Henning; Lūsis, Viesturs; Lielpētere, Anna; Liepiņš, Edvards; Beljakovs, Sergejs; Goba, Inguna; Stradiņš, Jānis


    Stable heterocyclic hydroperoxide can be easily prepared as a product of fast oxidation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine by (3)O2 if the solution is exposed to sunlight. The driving force for the photoinduced electron transfer is calculated from electrochemical and spectroscopic data. The outcome of the reaction depends on the light intensity and the concentration of O2. In the solid state the heterocyclic hydroperoxide is stable; in solution it is involved in further reactions. PMID:26664638

  13. Electrical evaluation of crack generation in SiNx and SiOxNy thin-film encapsulation layers for OLED displays

    Park, Eun Kil; Kim, Sungmin; Heo, Jaeyeong; Kim, Hyeong Joon


    By measuring leakage current density, we detected crack generation in silicon nitride (SiNx) and silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) thin-film encapsulation layers, and correlated with the films' water vapor permeability characteristics. After repeated bending cycles, both the changes in water vapor transmission rate and leakage current density were directly proportional to the crack density. Thick SiNx films had better water vapor barrier characteristics in their pristine state, but cyclic loading led to fast failure. Varying the atomic concentration of the SiOxNy films affected their bending reliability. We attribute these differences to changes in the shape of the crack tip as the oxygen content varies.

  14. Magnetic properties of a new series of rare-earth iron nitrides R3(Fe, Mo)29Nx (R = Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy or Y)

    A series of interstitial nitrides R3(Fe, Mo)29Nx with 3.7≤x≤4.0 has been prepared for R = Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy or Y. The nitrides have structures related to Nd3(Fe, Ti)29, but the unit-cell volumes are 4.7-6.6% greater and the magnetic ordering temperatures some 224-361 K higher than those of the R3(Fe, Mo)29 parent compounds, and the saturation magnetizations Ms are also higher than those of the corresponding parent compounds. All compounds investigated exhibit easy-plane anisotropy at room temperature, except for Sm3(Fe, Mo)29Nx which is of an easy-axis nature. (author)

  15. Naprašované vrstvy SiNx:H s leptáním mono-Si povrchu v plazmatickém H2

    Hégr, O.; Boušek, J.; Fořt, Tomáš; Sobota, Jaroslav; Vavruňková, V.; Bařinka, R.; Poruba, A.

    Rožnov pod Radhoštěm : Czech RE Agency, 2008, s. 172-177. ISBN 978-80-254-3528-1. [Česká fotovoltaická konference /3./. Brno (CZ), 03.11.2008-05.11.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : magnetron sputtering * passivation layer * SiNx:H * MW-PCD * FTIR Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  16. Impact of firing on surface passivation of p-Si by SiO2/Al and SiO2/SiNx/Al stacks

    Chen, J.; Cornagliotti, E.; Loozen, X.; Simoen, E.; Vanhellemont, J.; Lauwaert, J.; Vrielinck, H.; Poortmans, J.


    Firing impacts on surface passivation provided by a SiO2 and SiO2/SiNx stack with evaporated Al films are studied by capacitance-based techniques on MIS capacitors. For devices with insulator layers consisting solely of as-deposited SiO2, the densities of either interface states (Dit) or fixed charges (Qfc) are hardly influenced by firing. Capping the SiO2 layer with a SiNx layer results in a shift of the peak activation energy of Dit toward the valence band (Ev) of Si. Firing this SiO2/SiNx stack leads to an increase of Qfc, a reduction of Dit, and a moderate shift of peak activation energy of Dit toward Ev. Co-firing with the Al film on top significantly reduces the Qfc, Dit, and Dit peak activation energy, which is resulting from the atomic hydrogen passivation. These results are of particular interest for the development of solar cells with rear surface passivation and local contacts.

  17. CrNx and Cr1-xAlxN as template films for the growth of α-alumina using ac reactive magnetron sputtering

    Crystalline alumina thin films were deposited on WC-Co substrates using a reactive inverted cylindrical ac magnetron sputtering technique with a chromium oxide prelayer. The interfacial prelayer of chromium oxide was prepared by controlled oxidation of CrNx and Cr1-xAlxN films deposited previously using the same ac reactive magnetron configured with one Cr and Al target. The oxidation was carried out by annealing CrNx and Cr1-xAlxN films in air at 973 and 1373 K, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis were carried out to investigate the thin film surface morphology and composition. The alumina coatings obtained on oxidized CrNx films (templates) were smooth and consisted primarily of κ and α phases. The diffraction peaks from the γ phase were not observed in any of the alumina coatings. The morphology and phase composition of the alumina coatings on the oxidized Cr1-xAlxN films (templates) were strongly dependent on the aluminum content in the films

  18. Effects of N2 content and thickness on CrNx coatings on Mg alloy by the planar DC reactive magnetron sputtering

    The CrNx (0 2. The effects of N2 content and thickness on the CrNx coatings were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The experimental results show that the N atomic concentration increases exponentially and N1s spectrum shifts downward with the increase in N2 content (φ(N2)), and the deposition rate decreases exponentially. The morphologies evolution of CrNx coatings shows that the growth structure changes from fibre growth to columnar growth with the increase in φ(N2). Based on evolution of phase and structure, a SZM model is summarized, indicating that the change of structure and phase is consistent; ZT and sub-ZT correspond to Cr2N + Cr and CrN + Cr2N, respectively. The in-plane mean grain size linearly increases and the Root Mean Square roughness WRMS increases exponentially with coating thickening, and grain size obeys Gaussian distribution.

  19. Electromigration in multilayer metallization: Drift-controlled degradation and the electromigration threshold of Al-Si- Cu/TiNxOy/TiSi2 contacts

    Oates, A. S.


    Metallizations that incorporate a conductive layer beneath an Al alloy (multilayers) are necessary for the improvement in electromigration performance required by the continued feature size reduction and increased integration of microelectronic devices. Degradation of contact structures that utilize multilayer metallization will result from electromigration-induced voiding of the Al layer. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of voiding is required for the accurate prediction of contact reliability. We have examined electromigration voiding in Al-Si-Cu/TiNxOy/TiSi2 multilayer contacts. Accelerated testing reveals that a TiNxOy/TiSi2 layer formed by rapid thermal anneal of Ti is an effective Si diffusion barrier at operating temperatures (Al-Si-Cu layer. Voiding involves drift-controlled edge displacement where the Al-Si-Cu layer migrates out of positively biased contacts, leaving the TiNxOy/TiSi2 layer intact. For 1-μm-diam contacts, the drift velocity has a significant lattice diffusion component and failure times are expected to far exceed operation lifetimes of devices. Additionally, evidence is presented for an electromigation threshold that eliminates voiding degradation for contacts connected by stripes.

  20. Broadband antireflection for a high-index substrate using SiNx/SiO2 by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition

    This paper presents the development of broadband antireflection coating for a high-index substrate such as Si using SiNx/SiO2 by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD). The thin-film design employs a simulated annealing method for a minimal average reflectance over the wavelength range and incidence angles involved, which gives the optimized refractive index and thickness of each layer of the thin-film stack under different layer numbers. Using ICP-CVD, the SiNx material system is optimized by tuning the SiH4/N2 gas ratio. The corresponding thin-film characterization shows the precise refractive index/film thickness control in deposition, and the deposited film also has a low absorption coefficient and smooth surface. The double-layer SiNx/SiO2 coating with the optimized refractive index and thickness for broadband antireflection is demonstrated experimentally. The average reflectance of the Si surface is reduced from ∼32% to ∼3.17% at normal incidence for a wavelength range from 400 to 1100 nm. (paper)

  1. Impurities in Illicit Drug Preparations: 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)amphetamine and 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)methylamphetamine.

    Verweij, A M


    Attention is given here to the mass spectral data of impurities present in illicit drug preparations of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)methylamphetamine. These "designer" drugs, having emphatic properties, were synthesized following well-known procedures such as the reductive amination route, the Leuckart reaction, and the nitropropene and the bromopropane routes. Based on the structure elucidation of impurities - especially those so-called "route specific" ones - present in these illicit drug preparations conclusions can be drawn about the method of preparation of a drug sample. Furthermore, on the basis of this kind of information methods can be developed for the comparison of drug samples, by which questions about the origin of drug samples can be solved (commonly known as the signature method). PMID:26267375

  2. Reliability of poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene strain gauge

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Lillemose, Michael; Hansen, Thomas Steen;


    -polymer Microsystems. The measurements are made on microfabricated test chips with PEDT resistors patterned by conventional UV-lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). We determine a gauge factor of 3.41 ± 0.42 for the strained PEDT and we see an increase in resistivity from 1.98 · 104 X m to 2.22 · 104 X m when......We report on the experimentally observed reliability of the piezoresistive effect in strained poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT). PEDT is an intrinsic conductive polymer which can be patterned by conventional Cleanroom processing, and thus presents a promising material for all...

  3. Developmental effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: a review

    Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V.


    ± 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a chemical derivative of amphetamine that has become a popular drug of abuse and has been shown to deplete serotonin in the brains of users and animals exposed to it. To date, most studies have investigated the effects of MDMA on adult animals. With a majority of users of MDMA being young adults, the chances of the users becoming pregnant and exposing the fetuses to MDMA are also a concern. Evidence to date has shown that developmental exposure to...

  4. Sleeping body temperatures in 3-4 month old infants.

    Wailoo, M P; Petersen, S A; Whittaker, H.; Goodenough, P


    Rectal, skin, and ambient temperatures were continuously recorded overnight from 3-4 month old normal infants in their home cots under conditions of room temperature and wrapping chosen freely by parents. It was found that rectal temperature was above 37 degrees C when infants were put down, but fell rapidly to 36.4 degrees C within one and a half hours, then stabilised for a few hours before rising steadily. This pattern was tied more closely to the time of putting down than time of day. The...

  5. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    Collin, Blaise P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  6. 3,4-Diaminopyridinium 2-carboxy-4,6-dinitrophenolate

    Madhukar Hemamalini


    Full Text Available In the title salt, C5H8N3+·C7H3N2O7−, the pyridine N atom of the 3,4-diaminopyridine molecule is protonated. The 3,5-dinitrosalicylate anion shows whole-molecule disorder over two orientations with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.875 (4: 0.125 (4. In the crystal, the cations and anions are connected by intermolecular N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  7. Stereoselective Synthesis of 2,3,4,6-Tetrasubstituted Tetrahydropyrans

    GONG Jun-Fang; WU Yang-Jie; Véronique Micheletb; Jean-Pierre Genêt b


    @@ The construction of stereodefined, highly substituted tetrahydropyrans has attracted a lot of interest over the years since they constitute ubiquitous fragments of numerous biologically active natural products.[1] During the course of our synthetic studies toward ambruticin, a fascinating antibiotic[2] which came back in the front scene with three recent total synthesis, [3] we have been interested in the synthesis of 2,3,4,6-tetrasubstituted tetrahydropyrans 5 (Scheme 1). [4] Moreover, this kind of subunit is found to be embedded in several other natural products such as lasonolide A, polycavernoside A, ratjadone, or concanamycin A.

  8. Increased p-type conductivity in GaNxSb1−x, experimental and theoretical aspects

    The large increase in the p-type conductivity observed when nitrogen is added to GaSb has been studied using positron annihilation spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Doppler broadening measurements have been conducted on samples of GaNxSb1−x layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and the results have been compared with calculated first-principle results corresponding to different defect structures. From the calculated data, binding energies for nitrogen-related defects have also been estimated. Based on the results, the increase in residual hole concentration is explained by an increase in the fraction of negative acceptor-type defects in the material. As the band gap decreases with increasing N concentration, the ionization levels of the defects move closer to the valence band. Ga vacancy-type defects are found to act as positron trapping defects in the material, and the ratio of Ga vacancy-type defects to Ga antisites is found to be higher than that of the p-type bulk GaSb substrate. Beside Ga vacancies, the calculated results imply that complexes of a Ga vacancy and nitrogen could be present in the material

  9. Estimates of in situ deformability witn an NX borehole jack, Spent Fuel Test - Climax, Nevada test site

    A series of borehole modulus measurements was obtained at the Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) facility following removal of heat sources and a subsequent 1-year cooling period. A total of 212 measurements were obtained using a standard hardrock NX borehole (Goodman) jack. The results of 64 measurements made at the site before heating were reanalyzed for comparison with the post-heat data. Modulus values were calculated from the straight-line portion of the pressure vs displacement curves. Although the deformation modulus was observed to be highly variable, models were developed to explain much of this variability. Typically, spacial effects, anisotropy, and heating effects were present. The test results indicate that the deformation modulus tended to increase in the pillars between the underground openings where temperatures increased about 100C above the ambient 240C during the SFT-C. Conversely, a decrease in modulus was observed where temperatures were near 600C for a three-year period. In most cases, we found the modulus values to be slightly higher for vertical than for horizontal loading. There was a tendency for the modulus to be lower near excavated openings. While this effect was not ubiquitous, it was statistically significant

  10. Factors on prognosis in patients of stage pT3N0M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after two-field esophagectomy

    Yuxiang Wang


    Conclusion: For patients of pT3N0M0 thoracic ESCC, the independent factors were the site of a lesion for OS and PFS, Hb levels, small LN in CT, and number of removed LN for OS. The value of postoperative adjuvant therapy need be further proved.

  11. Theoretical and experimental study for possibility of nuclear burn wave initiation in Z-pinch due to M=0 instability development

    The development of sausage type (m=0) instabilities in initially homogeneous plasma column leads to the appearance of dense plasma. Temperature of this plasma is substantially higher, than the average plasma temperature in the column. Therefore the reasonable idea might be the using of this high temperature areas for nuclear burn wave initiation. The study for possibility of this phenomenon is presented. (author)

  12. Ultraporous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) for nanometric electrochemical supercapacitor

    Ultrathin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have been prepared by electropolymerization on steel and indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates under identical experimental conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy indicate that the substrate affects dramatically both the morphology and topography of films when the polymerization times are very short. An ultraporous three-dimensional network involving ultrathin sticks with a fiber-like morphology was formed on ITO. Asymmetric and symmetric supercapacitors have been fabricated by assembling electrodes of PEDOT deposited on ITO and steel. The specific capacitance, electrochemical stability, supercapacitor behavior and Coulombic efficiency measured for devices with an ITO/steel configuration were similar to those reported for advanced PEDOT-inorganic hybrid composites. Furthermore, the performance of the ITO/steel assembly is higher than those determined for symmetric supercapacitors derived from two identical electrodes of PEDOT deposited on steel or on ITO. The unique properties of the asymmetric supercapacitors have been attributed to the ultraporous structure of the ultrathin films deposited on ITO, which is not significantly perturbed when the device is submitted to a very high number of consecutive oxidation–reduction processes, and the different electroactivities of the two electrodes. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films show fiber-like morphology. ► The porosity of ultrathin PEDOT films induces a very high electrochemical stability. ► Asymmetric supercapacitors made of ultrathin PEDOT behave like hybrid nanocomposites.

  13. 3, 4-methylenedioximethamphetamin reverses anxiety induced by chronic mild stress

    Laura Andrea León A


    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of subchronic 3, 4 methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA on the elevated plusmaze, a widely used animal model of anxiety. Rats exposed to a mild chronic stress (MCS protocol received intracerebroventricular microinjections of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI – fluoxetine (2.0 ug/ul or MDMA, (2.0 ug/ul for seven days. On the eighth day rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze. Our results showed that sub chronic MDMA interacted with MCS leading to a decrease in anxiety related behaviors including: percentage of open arms entries (F [2, 26] = 4.00; p = 0.031, time spent in the open arms (F [2, 26] = 3.656; p = 0.040 and time spent in the open arms extremities (F [2, 26] = 5.842; p = 0.008. These results suggest a potential effect of MDMA in the reversion of the emotional significance of aversive stimuli.

  14. Analysis of the Prognosis for Patients with Stage T3N0~1M0 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated by Chemotherapy Combined with Radiotherapy

    Guorong Zou; Fangyun Xie; Jianming Gao; Shaoxiong Wu; Shunan Qi; Miao Peng


    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between the therapeutic modality and prognostic factors for the patients with T3N0~1M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma.METHODS The clinical data from 127 cases of T3N0~1M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with initial treatment, during the period from January 4th, 2000 to November 12th, 2001, were retrospectively analyzed. The cases were divided into Group A with simple radiotherapy (90) and Group B with the radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy (37), based on various patients' conditions. In group B, inductive chemotherapywas conducted for 18 cases, inductive chemotherapy plus homochronous chemotherapy for 5 and homochronous chemotherapy for 14.RESULTS The 5-year overall survival (OS) in the groups A and B was 73.4% and 72.3% respectively (P>0.05); the cancer-correlated survival (CCS) in the 2 groups was 76.4% and 72.3% respectively (P>0.05); the disease-free survival (DFS) in group A and B was 65.5% and 71.7% respectively (P<0.05). A multiple analysis showed that the mode of radiation therapy plus chemotherapy was a favorable independent impact factor for DFS.CONCLUSION Chemotherapy plus radiotherapy can improve the DFS of patients with T3N0~1M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma, but fails to prolong the survival time of the patients. The modality of chemotherapy plus radiotherapy is not the necessary choice in treatment of patients with T3N0~ 1M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  15. Microstructures and mechanical properties of multi-component (AlCrTaTiZr)NxCy nanocomposite coatings

    Multi-component (AlCrTaTiZr)NxCy coatings with the incorporation of quinary metallic elements and different N and C contents were deposited by AlCrTaTiZr/C co-sputtering in an N2/Ar mixed atmosphere under an AlCrTaTiZr-alloy-target power of 150 W and different C-target powers (0-200 W). At a C-target power of 0 W, an (AlCrTaTiZr)N0.6 coating with a face-centered cubic solid-solution structure was deposited and exhibited a large columnar structure; its hardness and steady-stage creep strain rate were measured as about 20 GPa and 1.5 x 10-4 1/s, respectively. By applying a C-target power of 100 W, an (AlCrTaTiZr)N0.6C0.2 coating was formed with a fine columnar structure. Owing to the incorporated C atoms, the (111) interplanar spacing of the face-centered cubic structure was increased from 0.249 to 0.253 nm. The hardness increased to 32 GPa and the creep strain rate was lowered to 1.1 x 10-4 1/s attributed to the introduction of covalent-like bonds, grain refinement and the formation of an amorphous-like and nanocomposite structure. Furthermore, under a C-target power of 200 W, excess C atoms agglomerated to form clusters in the deposited (AlCrTaTiZr)N0.6C0.4 coating. Consequently, the hardness slightly decreased to 30 GPa and the creep strain rate increased to 2.4 x 10-4 1/s.

  16. Silicon nanocrystals in SiNx/SiO2 hetero-superlattices: The loss of size control after thermal annealing

    Superlattices containing 3 nm thick silicon rich silicon nitride sublayers and 3 nm and 10 nm thick SiO2 barriers were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Despite the as-prepared samples represented a well-kept multilayer structure with smooth interfaces, the high temperature annealing resulted in the total destruction of multilayer structure in the samples containing 3 nm SiO2 barriers. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy images of these samples indicated a silicon nanoclusters formation with sizes of 2.5–12.5 nm, which were randomly distributed within the structure. Although in the sample with 10 nm SiO2 barriers some fragments of the multilayer structure could be still observed after thermal annealing, nevertheless, the formation of large nanocrystals with diameters up to 10 nm was confirmed by dark field transmission electron microscopy. Thus, in contrast to the previously published results, the expected size control of silicon nanocrystals was lost. According to the FTIR results, the thermal annealing of SiNx/SiO2 superlattices led to the formation of silicon nanocrystals in mostly oxynitride matrix. Annealed samples demonstrated a photoluminescence peak at 885 nm related to the luminescence of silicon nanocrystals, as confirmed by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The loss of nanocrystals size control is discussed in terms of the migration of oxygen atoms from the SiO2 barriers into the silicon rich silicon nitride sublayers. A thermodynamic mechanism responsible for this process is proposed. According to this mechanism, the driving force for the oxygen migration is the gain in the configuration entropy related to the relative arrangements of oxygen and nitrogen atoms.

  17. Tetrakis(μ-3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetatobis[(3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetato(1,10-phenanthrolineholmium(III

    Jian-Feng Liu


    Full Text Available In the centrosymmetric title compound, [Ho2(C10H11O46(C12H8N22], the HoIII atom is nine-coordinated by seven O atoms from the 3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetate (L anions and two N atoms from a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen molecule. The L ligands are coordinated to the HoIII ions in three modes: chelating, bridging and bridging–tridentate. Intramolecular C—H...O interactions occur. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular C—H...O interactions and weak aromatic π–π interactions between phen molecules and the aromatic rings of the L ligands [centroid–centroid distance = 3.821 (2 Å].

  18. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].


    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children. PMID:26721474

  19. Band gap characterization of ternary BBi1−xNx (0≤x≤1) alloys using modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) potential

    The semi-local Becke–Johnson (BJ) exchange-correlation potential and its modified form proposed by Tran and Blaha have attracted a lot of interest recently because of the surprisingly accurate band gaps they can deliver for many semiconductors and insulators (e.g., sp semiconductors, noble-gas solids, and transition-metal oxides). The structural and electronic properties of ternary alloys BBi1−xNx (0≤x≤1) in zinc-blende phase have been reported in this study. The results of the studied binary compounds (BN and BBi) and ternary alloys BBi1−xNx structures are presented by means of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional of Wu and Cohen (WC) which is an improved form of the most popular Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE). For electronic properties the modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) potential, which is more accurate than standard semi-local LDA and PBE calculations, has been chosen. Geometric optimization has been implemented before the volume optimization calculations for all the studied alloys structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of the studied binary compounds are in coincidence with experimental works. And, the variation of the lattice parameter of ternary alloys BBi1−xNx almost perfectly matches with Vegard's law. The spin–orbit interaction (SOI) has been also considered for structural and electronic calculations and the results are compared to those of non-SOI calculations

  20. Synthesis, physic and structural characterization of rare-earth oxynitrides REFeO3-xNx (RE=La, Pr, Nd, Sm)

    Morales Victoria, Luis Ángel


    Abstract:this work studies the synthesis of the perovskite oxynitrides REFeO3-xNx (RE=La, Pr, Nd, Sm). For comparison purposes and as precursors in some of the synthesis reactions studied; their respective oxides, the orthoferrites REFeO3 (RE=La, Pr, Nd, Sm), have been synthetized by the self-combustion glycine-nitrate process. The oxides synthetized were characterized by XRD, Rietveld refinement, SEM and EDS in order to determine their purity and correct stoichiometry. These measurements est...

  1. Nuclear effect in deuteron, Q2-evolution of F3N(x, Q2) structure function and Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    Deep-inelastic neutrino-deuteron scattering is considered in the covariant approach. The deuteron structure function F3N(x, Q2) in the relativistic impulse approximation is calculated on the basis of the relativistic wave function. The results are compared with available experimental data. The nuclear effect of relativistic Fermi motion described by ratio F3D/F3N is estimated. The dependence of the ratio and of the Gross-Llewellyn Smith integral on x and Q2 is considered

  2. Magnetization enhancement due to incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content in (Co84Zr16)Nx nano-composite films

    Jitendra Singh; Rishabh Shukla; Anita Bagri; Rajendra S. Dhaka; Jamil Akhtar


    We report the magnetic, electronic, and structural properties of nano-composite (Co84Zr16)Nx or CZN films prepared by reactive co-sputter deposition method. As-deposited CZN films have shown enhancement in magnetization (Ms) with incorporation of nitrogen content, which is related to the evolution of nano-composite phase. X-ray diffraction study has confirmed poly-crystalline growth of CZN films with fcc(331) and fcc(422) phases. High-resolution transmission electron microscope study reveals...

  3. Semiclassical distorted wave model analysis of inclusive (N, N'x) reactions for incident energies up to 400 MeV

    The semiclassical distorted wave (SCDW) model with the Wigner transform of a one-body density matrix is applied to analyses of multistep direct processes in (p, p'x) reactions on 12C, 90Zr, and 197Au at incident energies near 150 MeV, and 392 MeV (p, p'x) and 346 MeV (p, nx) reactions on 40Ca. The calculations show good agreement with experimental double-differential cross sections over a wide mass range of target nuclei, except at backward angles. (author)

  4. The dynamics of TiNx (x = 1–3) admolecule interlayer and intralayer transport on TiN/TiN(001) islands

    It has been shown both experimentally and by density functional theory calculations that the primary diffusing species during the epitaxial growth of TiN/TiN(001) are Ti and N adatoms together with TiNx complexes (x = 1, 2, 3), in which the dominant N-containing admolecule species depends upon the incident N/Ti flux ratio. Here, we employ classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations to probe the dynamics of TiNx (x = 1–3) admolecules on 8 × 8 atom square, single-atom-high TiN islands on TiN(001), as well as pathways for descent over island edges. The simulations are carried out at 1000 K, a reasonable epitaxial growth temperature. We find that despite their lower mobility on infinite TiN(001) terraces, both TiN and TiN2 admolecules funnel toward descending steps and are incorporated into island edges more rapidly than Ti adatoms. On islands, TiN diffuses primarily via concerted translations, but rotation is the preferred diffusion mechanism on infinite terraces. TiN2 migration is initiated primarily by rotation about one of the N admolecule atoms anchored at an epitaxial site. TiN admolecules descend from islands by direct hopping over edges and by edge exchange reactions, while TiN2 trimers descend exclusively by hopping. In contrast, TiN3 admolecules are essentially stationary and serve as initiators for local island growth. Ti adatoms are the fastest diffusing species on infinite TiN(001) terraces, but on small TiN/TiN(001) islands, TiN dimers provide more efficient mass transport. The overall results reveal the effect of the N/Ti precursor flux ratio on TiN(001) surface morphological evolution and growth modes. - Highlights: • Classical MD is used to model TiNx admolecule dynamics on TiN/TiN(001) islands. • TiNx admolecules descend from islands by both direct hopping and exchange reactions. • TiN and TiN2 exhibit surprisingly high diffusivities on TiN/TiN(001) islands. • TiN3 tetramers are essentially stationary on both TiN/TiN(001) islands and

  5. 美利肯Millad NX 8000透明剂为Sistema聚丙烯容器赢得更多客户青睐



    在2011芝加哥国际家庭用品博览会上,总部位于新西兰的Sistema塑胶有限公司隆重推介其全新升级的聚丙烯(PP)食品储藏容器产品线。此类产品采用了美利肯公司的Millad NX 8000高级透明剂,具有堪比玻璃的出色清晰度,这也正是成就Sistema产品卓越品质的一个重要因素。

  6. Ionic fragmentation following core-level photoionization of Sn(CH3)4 by soft X-rays

    Ionic fragmentation following the photoionization of Sn(CH3)4 (TMT) has been studied in the photon energy range of 60-600 eV using synchrotron radiation and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Each of the Sn:4d, 4p, 3d and C:1s photoionization leads to a type of ionic fragmentation that is characteristic of each ionized core. The Sn:4d photoionization above 60 eV predominantly produces the doubly-charged TMT which dissociates into two singly-charged ions and some neutral fragments. The ions produced in this pathway are CH3+, C2H3+, C2H5+, SnCHm+ and/or Sn+. The Sn:4p photoionization produces the triply-charged TMT and enhances the production of H+, CHsub(m'+) (m' = 0-3) and Sn+ significantly. The Sn:3d photoionization produces multiply-charged TMT whose charges are 3-5 and enhances the production of H+, CHsub(m'+) (m' = 0-2) and Sn+ significantly. The C:1s photoionization produces doubly-charged TMT via the KVV Auger transition and enhances the production of CH3+, C2H3+, SnCHm+ and/or Sn+. (orig.)

  7. Nonpolar a-plane light-emitting diode with an in-situ SiNx interlayer on r-plane sapphire grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    Fang Hao; Long Hao; Sang Li-Wen; Qi Sheng-Li; Xiong Chang; Yu Tong-Jun; Yang Zhi-Jian; Zhang Guo-Yi


    We report on the growth and fabrication of nonpolar a-plane light emitting diodes with an in-situ SiNx interlayer grown between the undoped a-plane GaN buffer and Si-doped GaN layer. X-ray diffraction shows that the crystalline quality of the GaN buffer layer is greatly improved with the introduction of the SiNx interlayer. The electrical properties are also improved. For example, electron mobility and sheet resistance are reduced from high resistance to 31.6 cm2/(V·s) and 460 Ω/□ respectively. Owing to the significant effect of the SiNx interlayer, a-plane LEDs are realized. Electroluminescence of a nonpolar a-plane light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 488nm is demonstrated.The emission peak remains constant when the injection current increases to over 20 mA.

  8. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L


    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning. PMID:26371762

  9. Modulation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects by endocannabinoid system.

    Valverde, Olga; Rodríguez-Árias, Marta


    The amphetamine derivative 3, 4 Methylenedioxymethanphetamine (MDMA) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that displays numerous pharmacological effects, including neurotoxicity. MDMA, or ecstasy, acts by inducing the release of different neurotransmitters depending on the animal species and, in particular, it produces the release of serotonin and dopamine. MDMA induces rewarding and reinforcing effects in rodents, primates and humans, and is currently consumed as an illicit psychostimulant among young people. One of the most reported side effects is the hyperthermic effect and the neurotoxicity on central serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, depending on the species of animal. It seems that MDMA may also produce neurotoxic effects in humans. To date, the most consistent findings associated to MDMA consumption in humans relate to cognitive deficits in heavy users. MDMA when consumed as an illicit psychostimulant is commonly co-used with other abusers, being frequently associated with cannabinoids. The interaction between MDMA and cannabis effects is complex. Cannabis derivatives act on endocannabinoid system. Thus, at cellular levels, cannabinoids acting through CB1 cannabinoid receptors display opposite effects to those induced by MDMA, and they have been reported to develop neuroprotective actions, including the blockage of MDMA induced neurotoxicity, in laboratory animals. However, cannabis use is a recognized risk factor in the presentation and development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and also contributes to the development of psychological problems and cognitive failures observed in MDMA users. This paper represents a brief overview of the pharmacological interaction between MDMA and cannabis derivatives acting in the endocannabinoid system. We have evaluated recent findings in the literature of the most representative pharmacological effects displayed by both types of drugs. We analyze both, the synergic and opposite effects produced by these

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye using Bi3.25M0.75Ti3O12 nanowires (M = La, Sm, Nd, and Eu)

    Highlights: ► BMT nanostructures with high photocatalytic activity were successfully synthesized through a facile template-free hydrothermal method. ► BMT samples were characterized by various characterization technologies. ► BMT samples presented outstanding visible-light-induced photocatalytic performance. ► The photoactivity of BMT is highly affected by its morphology. ► BMT nanowires showed the highest photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: Bi3.25M0.75Ti3O12 (BMT, M = La, Sm, Nd, and Eu) nanowires were synthesized through simple hydrothermal route and their structural and photocatalytic properties were investigated. XRD results indicated that these compounds are of layered perovskites structure. In addition, the band gaps of Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 (BLT), Bi3.25Sm0.75Ti3O12 (BST), Bi3.25Nd0.75Ti3O12 (BNT), and Bi3.25Eu0.75Ti3O12 (BET) were estimated to be about 2.403, 2.594, 2.525, and 2.335 eV, respectively. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). Bi3.25M0.75Ti3O12 (M = La, Sm, Nd, and Eu) showed markedly higher catalytic activity compared to traditional N doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) and pure bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12, BIT) for MO photocatalytic degradation under visible light irradiation. The high photocatalytic performance of Bi3.25M0.75Ti3O12 photocatalysts could be attributed to the strong visible light absorption and the recombination restraint of the e−/h+ pairs resulting from doping of rare earth metal ions. Furthermore, BET nanowires exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity

  11. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael


    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  12. The evolution of Brown-York quasilocal energy as due to evolution of Lovelock gravity in a system of M0-branes

    Sepehri, Alireza; Capozziello, Salvatore; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pradhan, Anirudh


    Recently, it has been suggested in [JHEP 12(2015)003] that the Brown-York mechanism can be used to measure the quasilocal energy in Lovelock gravity. We have used this method in a system of M0-branes and show that the Brown-York energy evolves in the process of birth and growth of Lovelock gravity. This can help us to predict phenomenological events which are emerged as due to dynamical structure of Lovelock gravity in our universe. In this model, first, M0-branes join to each other and form an M3-brane and an anti-M3-branes connected by an M2-brane. This system is named BIon. Universes and anti-universes live on M3-branes and M2 plays the role of wormhole between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M3's and nonlinear massive gravities like Lovelock massive gravity emerges and grows. By closing M3-branes, BIon evolves and wormhole between branes makes a transition to black hole. During this stage, Brown-York energy increases and shrinks to large values at the colliding points of branes. By approaching M3-b...

  13. CT characteristics and pathological implications of early stage (T1N0M0) lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass opacity

    Jin, Xin; Zhao, Shao-hong; Wu, Jian; Wu, Chong-chong; Chang, Rui-ping; Ju, Hai-yue [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Gao, Jie; Wang, Dian-jun [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Beijing (China)


    To analyze the CT characteristics and pathological classification of early lung adenocarcinoma (T1N0M0) with pure ground-glass opacity (pGGO). Ninety-four lesions with pGGO on CT in 88 patients with T1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma were selected from January 2010 to December 2012. All lesions were confirmed by pathology. CT appearances were analyzed including lesion location, size, density, uniformity, shape, margin, tumour-lung interface, internal and surrounding malignant signs. Lesion size and density were compared using analysis of variance, lesion size also assessed using ROC curves. Gender of patients, lesion location and CT appearances were compared using χ2-test. There were no significant differences in gender, lesion location and density with histological invasiveness (P > 0.05). The ROC curve showed that the possibility of invasive lesion was 88.73 % when diameter of lesion was more than 10.5 mm. There was a significant difference between lesion uniformity and histological invasiveness (P = 0.01). There were significant differences in margin, tumour-lung interface, air bronchogram with histological invasiveness (P = 0.02,P = 0.00,P = 0.048). The correlation index of lesion size and uniformity was r = 0.45 (P = 0.00). The lesion size and uniformity, tumour-lung interface and the air bronchogram can help predict invasive extent of early stage lung adenocarcinoma with pGGO. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical studies of LiNi0.8M0.2O2 cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    R Sathiyamoorthi; P Manisankar; P Shakkthivel; Mu Sang Lee; T Vasudevan


    LiNiO2 and substituted nickel oxides, LiNi0.8M0.2O2 and LiCo0.8M0.2O2 (M = Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+), have been synthesized using simple solid state technique and used as cathode active materials for lithium rechargeable cells. Physical properties of the synthesized products are discussed in the structural (XRD, TEM, SEM with EDAX) and spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. XRD results show that the compounds are similar to LiNiO2 in structure. TEM and SEM analyses were used to examine the particle size, nature and morphological aspects of the synthesized oxides. The composition of the materials was explored by EDAX analysis. Electrochemical studies were carried out in the range 3–4.5 V (vs Li metal) using 1 M LiBF4 in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. The doping involving 20% Mg resulted in a discharge capacity of 185 mAhg-1 at 0.1 mA/cm2 and remained stable even after 25 cycles. Discharge capacity retention for Mg doped lithium nickelate at 25th cycle was noted to be nearly 7% higher than for the undoped material.

  15. CT characteristics and pathological implications of early stage (T1N0M0) lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass opacity

    To analyze the CT characteristics and pathological classification of early lung adenocarcinoma (T1N0M0) with pure ground-glass opacity (pGGO). Ninety-four lesions with pGGO on CT in 88 patients with T1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma were selected from January 2010 to December 2012. All lesions were confirmed by pathology. CT appearances were analyzed including lesion location, size, density, uniformity, shape, margin, tumour-lung interface, internal and surrounding malignant signs. Lesion size and density were compared using analysis of variance, lesion size also assessed using ROC curves. Gender of patients, lesion location and CT appearances were compared using χ2-test. There were no significant differences in gender, lesion location and density with histological invasiveness (P > 0.05). The ROC curve showed that the possibility of invasive lesion was 88.73 % when diameter of lesion was more than 10.5 mm. There was a significant difference between lesion uniformity and histological invasiveness (P = 0.01). There were significant differences in margin, tumour-lung interface, air bronchogram with histological invasiveness (P = 0.02,P = 0.00,P = 0.048). The correlation index of lesion size and uniformity was r = 0.45 (P = 0.00). The lesion size and uniformity, tumour-lung interface and the air bronchogram can help predict invasive extent of early stage lung adenocarcinoma with pGGO. (orig.)

  16. Robust TaNx diffusion barrier for Cu-interconnect technology with subnanometer thickness by metal-organic plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    TaNx diffusion barriers with good barrier properties at subnanometer thickness were deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) from pentakis(dimethylamino)Ta. Hydrogen and/or nitrogen plasma was used as reactants to produce TaNx thin films with a different nitrogen content. The film properties including the carbon and oxygen impurity content were affected by the nitrogen flow during the process. The deposited film has nanocrystalline grains with hydrogen-only plasma, while the amorphous structure was obtained for nitrogen plasma. The diffusion barrier properties of deposited TaN films for Cu interconnects have been studied by thermal stress test based on synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the PE-ALD TaN films are good diffusion barriers even at a small thickness as 0.6 nm. Better diffusion barrier properties were obtained for higher nitrogen content. Based on a diffusion kinetics analysis, the nanocrystalline microstructure of the films was responsible for the better diffusion barrier properties compared to polycrystalline PE-ALD TaN films deposited from TaCl5

  17. Effect of interface and bulk traps on the C–V characterization of a LPCVD-SiNx/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor structure

    Bao, Qilong; Huang, Sen; Wang, Xinhua; Wei, Ke; Zheng, Yingkui; Li, Yankui; Yang, Chengyue; Jiang, Haojie; Li, Junfeng; Hu, Anqi; Yang, Xuelin; Shen, Bo; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Chao


    Silicon nitride (SiNx) film grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) is utilized as a gate dielectric for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs). Trap distribution at the gate-dielectric/III-nitrides interface is characterized by a temperature-dependent ac-capacitance technique. The extracted interface state density D it decreases from 2.92 × 1013 to 1.59 × 1012 cm‑2 eV‑1 as the energy level depth (E C-E T) increases from 0.29 to 0.50 eV, and then levels off to E C-E T = 0.80 eV. Capacitance-mode deep level transient spectroscopy (C-DLTS) and energy band diagram simulations reveal that deep levels with E C-E T > 0. 83 eV are responsible for the dispersion of capacitances at high temperature (>125 °C) and low frequencies (<1 kHz). A high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) reveals that re-oxidation of the RCA-treated AlGaN barrier surface may be responsible for the relatively high density of shallow states at the LPCVD-SiNx/III-nitride interface.

  18. Multi-functional TiO2/Si/Ag(Cr)/TiNx coatings for low-emissivity and hydrophilic applications

    Loka, Chadrasekhar; Park, Kyoung Ryeol; Lee, Kee-Sun


    Multi-functional (coatings with some additional functional properties such as high transparency, antireflection, hydrophilicity and antifogging) coatings are indispensable for the modern energy saving systems. In this regard, we deposited TiO2/Si/Ag(Cr)/TiNx multilayer thin films on soda-lime glass by using RF and DC magnetron sputtering to achieve a multi-functional thin film stack with the combination low-emissivity (low-e) and hydrophilicity properties in addition to the high transparency. Primary deposition of Ag(Cr)/TiNx was tried for the low-e effect and successfully obtained a very low emissivity value of 0.067, and then Si and TiO2 films with different bandgap were subsequently deposited to provide the hydrophilic properties. X-ray diffraction results revealed the anatase phase formation of TiO2 after annealing the films at 673 K by using the rapid thermal annealing system. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was carried out to determine the chemical composition and elemental depth distribution. The multilayer stack exhibited superhydrophilicity with a water contact angle of about 5° after irradiation by UV light. A Heterojunction film with wide and narrow bandgap semiconductor materials was effective to improve the hydrophilicity. The films exhibited a high visible transmittance (∼85.5%, at 550 nm) and low infrared transmittance (7%, at 2000 nm) including low-e and superhydrophilicity.

  19. Tunable inverse topological heterostructure utilizing (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3 and multichannel weak-antilocalization effect

    Brahlek, Matthew J.; Koirala, Nikesh; Liu, Jianpeng; Yusufaly, Tahir I.; Salehi, Maryam; Han, Myung-Geun; Zhu, Yimei; Vanderbilt, David; Oh, Seongshik


    In typical topological insulator (TI) systems the TI is bordered by a non-TI insulator, and the surrounding conventional insulators, including vacuum, are not generally treated as part of the TI system. Here, we implement a material system where the roles are reversed, and the topological surface states form around the non-TI (instead of the TI) layers. This is realized by growing a layer of the tunable non-TI (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3 in between two layers of the TI B i2S e3 using the atomically precise molecular beam epitaxy technique. On this tunable inverse topological platform, we systematically vary the thickness and the composition of the (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3 layer and show that this tunes the coupling between the TI layers from strongly coupled metallic to weakly coupled, and finally to a fully decoupled insulating regime. This system can be used to probe the fundamental nature of coupling in TI materials and provides a tunable insulating layer for TI devices.

  20. Electrochemical and structural characterization of nanocomposite Agy:TiNx thin films for dry bioelectrodes: the effect of the N/Ti ratio and Ag content

    Highlights: • Agy:TiNx thin films were sputtered with different N/Ti atomic ratios and Ag contents. • The electroactive area increases (1000-fold) with increasing N/Ti atomic ratios. • The films display impedances <10 kΩ at the 1–50 Hz interval (EEG range). • No Ag surface segregation was visible in the under-stoichiometric samples. • The samples with N/Ti atomic ratio = 0.3 (15 at.% Ag) and 0.7 (32 at.% Ag) are the most appropriate for bioelectrode applications. - ABSTRACT: Agy:TiNx nanocomposite thin films sputtered with different N/Ti atomic ratios and Ag atomic contents were characterized from the structural and morphological points of view. Their electrochemical behaviour was studied in a synthetic sweat solution, aiming at selecting a suitable material for biolectrode applications. An increase of the N/Ti atomic ratio, which is accompanied by an increase of the Ag atomic content, leads to a substantial increase of the roughness and porosity of the samples, especially for N/Ti ratios >0.2. For N/Ti atomic ratios up to 0.3 (15 at.% Ag) no metallic Ag segregation is visible in the TiNx matrix. Hence, the possible formation of TiAg and Ti2Ag intermetallics or even a Ag/TiAg/Ti2Ag phase mixture, although not demonstrated, should not be disregarded. As for the N/Ti atomic ratio = 0.7 (32 at.% Ag) sample, the Ag phases are predominantly concentrated near the interface with the substrate. The amount of Ag phases at the surface of the films remains somewhat low for all TiN under-stoichiometric films, even for Ag atomic contents up to 32 at.%. When the TiNx matrix reaches the stoichiometric condition (sample with N/Ti atomic ratio = 1 and 20 at.% Ag), Ag segregation occurs and metallic Ag aggregates are visible at the surface of the film, leading to a substantially different electrochemical behaviour. The impedance of the Agy:TiNx films in synthetic sweat solution is mainly ruled by the roughness/porosity variation, thus the higher the N/Ti atomic ratio

  1. NX15 science workshop


    Science. For some of us, it's daunting or maybe even terrifying. How to tell a good science story? That's the question we will explore together in this workshop. Conceived and produced by journalist and Scientific News producer Claudio Rosmino of Euronews, and presented by Euronews' Jeremy Wilks, the workshop will look at actual case studies (from Euronews and beyond) where science news proved exciting, inspiring and accessible to audiences around the world. These might include the Rosetta mission and CERN's work on Science for Peace. Together, we'll share ideas and knowledge around how science journalism and science news can increase its visibility in the media and maybe save the planet...!

  2. Amplified segment in the 'Down syndrome critical region' on HSA21 shared between Down syndrome and euploid AML-M0 excludes RUNX1, ERG and ETS2.

    Canzonetta, Claudia; Hoischen, Alexander; Giarin, Emanuela; Basso, Guiseppe; Veltman, Joris A; Nacheva, Elisabeth; Nizetic, Dean; Groet, Jürgen


    Children with Down syndrome have a 20- to 50-fold increased risk of acute lymphocytic or myeloid leukaemia. Whole or partial gains of chromosome 21 have been described in multiple childhood leukaemias, and have recently been reported as a likely primary event in B-precursor-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. It is unclear which amplified gene(s) on chromosome 21 play a key role in leukaemia progression. We describe a minimal amplified segment within the so-called 'Down syndrome critical region' shared between two cases of AML-M0; a Down syndrome, and a constitutionally normal individual. Interestingly, the amplified region does not include the oncogenes RUNX1, ETS2 and ERG. PMID:22221250

  3. Born-Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    Sepehri, Alireza


    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born-Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge between

  4. Presence of ductal carcinoma in situ confers an improved prognosis for patients with T1N0M0 invasive breast carcinoma

    A.F. Logullo


    Full Text Available We have retrospectively analyzed a series of 155 sequential cases of T1N0M0 ductal carcinomas of which 51 tumors had a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS component for correlation between the presence of DCIS and clinicopathological variables, recurrence and patient survival. No correlations between the presence of DCIS and age, menopausal status, size, estrogen or progesterone receptors were found. High-grade infiltrative tumors tended not to present a DCIS component (P = 0.08. Patients with tumors associated with DCIS form a subgroup with few recurrences (P = 0.003 and good survival (P = 0.008. When tumors were classified by size, an association between large tumors (>1.0 cm and increased recurrence and shortened overall survival was found. The presence of DCIS in this subgroup significantly reduced the relative risk of death.

  5. Coping with uncertainty: T1a,bN0M0 HER2-positive breast cancer, do we have a treatment threshold?

    Kelly, C M


    BACKGROUND: Recent retrospective studies have suggested that patients with T1a,bN0M0 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer are at a higher risk for recurrence and might benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab. The absolute benefits associated with treating this subgroup are uncertain. Design: We reviewed recent studies examining the prognostic value of HER2 in patients with node-negative T1a,b HER2-positive breast cancer. We calculated the number needed to treat (NNT) using baseline risk estimates for untreated T1a,bN0M0 breast cancer and the number needed to harm (NNH) using the incidence of cardiac events in each of the adjuvant trastuzumab clinical trials. RESULTS: Several studies were identified, each with limitations inherent to retrospective database analyses: small cohort sizes, lack of systematic HER2 testing in older specimens, variations in the use of adjuvant therapy and definitions of study end points, and lack of information relating to comorbidities. The 5-year disease-free survival in the pre-trastuzumab era ranged from 77% to 95%. Comparisons between small HER2 -positive and small HER2 -negative cancers showed numerically worse outcome for the HER2-positive cohort in some but not all studies. In many instances, the NNH was larger (26-250) than the NNT (13-35); however, in a subset of patients, the NNH was lower (6) than the NNT (13-35). CONCLUSIONS: Better prediction tools to estimate more precisely the risk for death due to comorbid illness versus breast cancer are needed. In some patients, the risks of therapy could outweigh the benefits. Treatment selection for T1a,bN0 HER2-positive cancers remains in the transition area between evidence- and subjective judgment-based medicine.

  6. 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-Decafluorodiphenylamine and its 1:1 cocrystal with diphenylamine.

    Grzegorczyk, Monika; Gdaniec, Maria


    In the structures of decafluorodiphenylamine, C(12)HF(10)N, and its 1:1 cocrystal with diphenylamine, C(12)HF(10)NxC(12)H(11)N, the molecules are located on special positions of C(2) symmetry. The NH groups are not involved in hydrogen bonding and the usual face-to-face stacking interactions between phenyl and pentafluorophenyl rings are not observed in the cocrystal. PMID:16823219

  7. Simultaneous polysubstance use among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and hallucinogen users

    Licht, Cecilie L; Christoffersen, Maria; Okholm, Mads;


    To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users.......To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users....

  8. MC3T3-E1 Cell Response to Ti1-xAgx and Ag-TiNx Electrodes Deposited on Piezoelectric Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Substrates for Sensor Applications.

    Marques, S M; Rico, P; Carvalho, I; Gómez Ribelles, J L; Fialho, L; Lanceros-Méndez, S; Henriques, M; Carvalho, S


    In the sensors field, titanium based coatings are being used for the acquisition/application of electrical signals from/to piezoelectric materials. In this particular case, sensors are used to detect dynamic mechanical loads at early stages after intervention of problems associated with prostheses implantation. The aim of this work is to select an adequate electrode for sensor applications capable, in an initial stage to avoid bone cell adhesion, but at a long stage, permit osteointegration and osteoinduction. This work reports on the evaluation of osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells behavior in terms of proliferation, adhesion and long-term differentiation of two different systems used as sensor electrodes: Ti1-xAgx and Ag-TiNx deposited by d.c. and pulsed magnetron sputtering at room temperature on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The results indicated an improved effect of Ag-TiNx electrodes compared with Ti1-xAgx and TiN, in terms of diminished cell adhesion and proliferation at an initial cell culture stage. Nevertheless, when cell culture time is longer, cells grown onto Ag-TiNx electrodes are capable to proliferate and also differentiate at proper rates, indicating the suitability of this coating for sensor application in prostheses devices. Thus, the Ag-TiNx system was considered the most promising electrode for tissue engineering applications in the design of sensors for prostheses to detect dynamic mechanical loads. PMID:26840928

  9. Rapid thermally annealed plasma deposited SiNx:H thin films: Application to metal-insulator-semiconductor structures with Si, In0.53Ga0.47As, and InP

    We present in this article a comprehensive study of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) effects on the physical properties of SiNx:H thin films deposited by the electron cyclotron resonance plasma method. Films of different as-deposited compositions (defined in this article as the nitrogen to silicon ratio, x=N/Si) were analyzed: from Si-rich (x=0.97) to N-rich (x=1.6) films. The evolution of the composition, bonding configuration, and paramagnetic defects with the annealing temperature are explained by means of different network bond reactions that take place depending on the as-deposited film composition. All the analyzed films release hydrogen, while Si-rich and near-stoichiometric (x=1.43) ones also lose nitrogen upon annealing. These films were used to make Al/SiNx:H/semiconductor devices with Si, In0.53Ga0.47As, and InP. After RTA treatments, the electrical properties of the three different SiNx:H/semiconductor interfaces can be explained, noting the microstructural modifications that SiNx:H experiences upon annealing

  10. Angular Distributions for 3,4 Lambda H Bound States in the 3,4 He(e,e'K+) reaction

    Dohrmann, Frank; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Asaturyan, Razmik; Avery, Steven; Bailey, Kevin; Hu, Bitao; Breuer, Herbert; Brown, Daniel; Carlini, Roger; Cha, Jinseok; Chant, Nicholas; Christy, Michael; Cochran, Anthony; Cole, Leon; Crowder, J.; Danagoulian, Samuel; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Gan, Liping; Garrow, Kenneth; Gueye, Paul; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hinton, Wendy; Juengst, Henry; Keppel, Cynthia; Liang, Yongguang; Liu, Jinghua; Lung, Allison; Mack, David; Markowitz, Pete; Mitchell, Joseph; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Mueller, Robert; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Potterveld, David; Raue, Brian; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; Sarsour, Murad; Sato, Yoshinori; Segel, Ralph; Semenov, Andrei; Stepanyan, Samuel; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Tang, Liguang; Uzzle, Alicia; Wood, Stephen; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yan, Chen; Yuan, Lulin; Zeidman, Benjamin; Zeier, Markus; Zihlmann, Benedikt


    The 3Lambda H and 4Lambda H hypernuclear bound states have been observed for the first time in kaon electroproduction on 3,4He targets. The production cross sections have been determined at Q**2= 0.35 GeV**2 and W= 1.91 GeV. For either hypernucleus the nuclear form factor is determined by comparing the angular distribution of the 3,4He(e,e'K+)3,4Lambda H processes to the elementary cross section 1H(e,e'K+) Lambda on the free proton, measured during the same experiment.

  11. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on N(CH3)4+ cation motion in ferroelectric N(CH3)4H(Cl3CCOO)2.

    Zdanowska-Fraczek, M; Lewicki, S; Jakubas, R; Wasicki, J


    The proton spin-lattice relaxation time in ferroelectric N(CH3)4H(Cl3CCOO)2 has been studied under isobaric conditions at pressures 0.1, 200 and 400 MPa over a wide range of temperature. The data indicate that the dominant relaxation mechanism for T1 can be attributed to the classical CH3 group reorientation of N(CH3)4+ cation. The influence of pressure on methyl group reorientation of N(CH3)4+ cation was analysed. PMID:10868567

  12. 基于UG NX的变螺距螺旋面风道的设计%Design of variable pitch helicoids duct based on UG NX

    侯卫平; 钟苏丽


    通过对变螺距正螺旋面的形成原理进行分析,建立变螺距螺旋线的参数表达式,利用UG NX设计出变螺距螺旋面风道,创建一种新的变螺距螺旋面风道的设计方法.该设计改变了传统设计方法的局限性.%Establishs the parametric expression of the variable spiral face base on UG NX through by analyzing the forming principle of the variable spiral face. A new methods about the designing of the variable pitch helicoids duel were established. Changed the limitations of the traditional designing has a great guidance meaning to actual production.

  13. Porous Fe-Nx/C hybrid derived from bi-metal organic frameworks as high efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Wu, Yijin; Zhao, Shenlong; Zhao, Kun; Tu, Tengxiu; Zheng, Jianzhong; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Haifeng; Chen, Dejian; Li, Shunxing


    A simple, low-cost and large-scale synthesis method for the carbonized porous cubes (CPCs) containing Fe and N co-doped porous carbon hybrid (Fe-Nx/C) with controlled-morphology, uniform elemental distribution and well-defined pore size is developed by pyrolyzing bimetallic FeIII-modified IRMOF-3 cubes in Argon atmosphere at 800 °C. Furtherly, the CPCs are used as the electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution. Impressively, the CPCs hybrid exhibits a superior electrocatalytic activity with high onset potential (0.93 V) and half-wave potential (0.78 V), and excellent stability, which is attributed to the synergistic effect of its high the surface to volume ratio, well-defined pore size, multi-active composition and high exposed catalytic active sites. We believe the materials based on earth-abundant elements have a huge potential to apply in catalysis, energy, and environment.

  14. The Semiclassical distorted wave (SCDW) model for multistep direct processes in (p,px) and (p, nx) reactions at intermediate energies: formalism and application

    Kawai, M; Watanabe, Y


    The semi-classical distorted wave (SCDW) model for (p,p sup ' x) and (p,nx) reactions at intermediate energies is presented. Simple closed forms with no free adjustable parameter are derived for inclusive double differential cross sections and spin observables. The formulae allow simple intuitive physical interpretations. Applications of the model to analyses of experimental data at 120 to 400 MeV on target nuclei sup 1 sup 2 C, sup 4 sup 0 Ca and sup 9 sup 0 Zr are discussed. Calculations include up to three-step processes with realistic effective nucleon-nucleon interactions modified in the nuclear medium. Good over all agreement with the data is obtained including absolute magnitude of the cross sections. Through the analysis the role of multistep processes is revealed and the possibility of extracting information on nucleon-nucleon interaction in the nuclear medium becomes clear

  15. Rietveld analysis of x-ray powder diffraction patterns for the new SmFe10Mo2Nx nitride compound

    Considerable improvement of the magnetic properties has been achieved by nitrogen absorption in the RFe10Mo2 compounds with ThMn12-type structure. A lattice expansion has been observed (a=8.6781, c=4.8531 A for the nitride and a=8.5869, c=4.8002 A for the nitrogen-free sample) from N2 absorption and a determination of the displaced Sm, Fe, and Mo positions has been achieved from Rietveld analysis for the SmFe10Mo2Nx compound. This structure determination provides some evidence for the site occupation of the nitrogen atoms in the tetragonal ThMn12-type structure. Measurements of an oriented powder sample at 295 K show that the easy magnetization direction is in the (a,b) plane

  16. Synthesis and characterization of self-assembled ZnO nano-dots grown on SiNx/Si(001) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of self-assembled ZnO nano-dots deposited on SiNx/Si(001) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of the working pressure on the microstructure of the as-grown ZnO thin films was examined. At a working pressure of 6 x 10-3 Torr, a flat layered structure was dominant with a preferred orientation of the ZnO(0002) plane, while ZnO nano-structures were observed on the samples grown at 2 x 10-2 Torr. This was attributed to the columnar growth that facilitated the nucleation of ZnO nano-structures on the growing surfaces. Hexagonal nano-pyramids were formed, which then transformed into nano-dots as the film became thicker. The ZnO nano-dots were uniform and well dispersed, exhibiting distinct photoluminescence spectra due to the quantum confinement effect.

  17. Preparation of QTi4.3-4Graghite Composite by Semi-solid Casting Technology

    ZHANG Peng; DU Yunhui; LIU Hanwu; ZENG Daben; BA Limin


    The electromagnetic-mechanical stirring technology was employed for preparing QTi4.3-4 graghite composite slurry, and QTi4.3-4 graghite composite with uniform distribution of graphite particles was prepared using the semi-solid casting technology successfully. The structure of this QTi4.3-4 graghite composite was studied and the condition for uniform distribution of graphite particles was got. The experimental results show that there exists a linear relationship between the solid fraction aud the stirring temperature of QTi4.3-4 graphite slurry. With the decreasing of stirring temperature, the solid fraction of QTi4.3-4 graghite slurry increases constantly. In casting, with the iucreasing of solid fraction of QTi4.3-4graghite slurry, the agglomeration of graphite particles is removed gradually. When the solid fraction is higher than 40% , graphite particles can distribute evenly in QTi4.3-4 graghite composite.

  18. Influence of a-Si:H deposition power on surface passivation property and thermal stability of a-Si:H/SiNx:H stacks

    Hua Li


    Full Text Available The effectiveness of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H layers for passivating crystalline silicon surfaces has been well documented in the literature for well over a decade. One limitation of such layers however has arisen from their inability to withstand temperatures much above their deposition temperature without significant degradation. This limitation is of importance particularly with multicrystalline silicon materials where temperatures of at least 400°C are needed for effective hydrogenation of the crystallographic defects such as grain boundaries. To address this limitation, in this work the surface passivation quality and thermal stability of a stack passivating system, combining a layer of intrinsic a-Si:H and a capping layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H, on p-type crystalline silicon wafers is studied and optimized. In particular the sensitivity of different microwave (MW power levels for underlying a-Si:H layer deposition are examined. Both effective minority carrier lifetime (ζeff measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometry were employed to study the bonding configurations, passivating quality and thermal stability of the a-Si:H/SiNx:H stacks. It is established that the higher MW power could result in increased as-deposited ζeff and implied Voc (iVoc values, indicating likely improved surface passivation quality, but that this combination degrades more quickly when exposed to prolonged thermal treatments. The more dihydride-rich film composition corresponding to the higher MW power appears to be beneficial for bond restructuring by hydrogen interchanges when exposed to short term annealing, however it also appears more susceptible to providing channels for hydrogen out-effusion which is the likely cause of the poorer thermal stability for prolonged high temperature exposure compared with stacks with underlying a-Si:H deposited with lower MW power.

  19. Realization of MBD model digitalization definition in UG/NX%基于模型的数字化定义在UG/NX中的实现

    陶杰; 葛如海; 周临震


    Through studying the development process of DPD and in-depth analysis of the relationship between DPD and MBD, the importance of DPD as the basis of MBD technology application system was revealed. The content of Digital Product Definition, the definition method of GD&T in 3D model, the application of 3D cutaway view and the comments expression of non-geometry manufacturing information of air bag support were analyzed based on UG/ NX platform. In addition, the expression method of product manufacturing information under NX platform was given. DPD, as the basis of MBD technology, will completely change the information carrier from 2D drawings to 3D model and lead digital manufacturing technology to great changes.%通过探究DPD的发展历程,深入剖析DPD与MBD的关系,揭示了DPD作为MBD技术应用体系基础的重要性.以UG/NX软件为平台,以气囊下支座为研究对象,分析了DPD定义的内容,GD&T在三维数模中的定义方法,三维剖视图的应用及非几何信息的注释表达,明确了在NX平台下产品制造信息的表达方法.DPD作为MBD技术的基础,彻底将产品定义信息载体变更为三维模型,必将引起数字化制造技术的巨大变革.

  20. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel fused heterocyclic 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine derivatives

    Jagdish K. Sahu


    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine including different pharmacophores are aimed at. In this study, a series of 6-aryl-3- (3,4 -dialkoxyphenyl-7H -[1,2,4]triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine (7a-7k was synthesized by condensing 4-amino-5-(3,4-dialkoxyphenyl-4H-[1,2,4]- triazole-3-thiol (6 with various aromatic carboxylic acids in the presence of phenacyl bromides through one-pot reaction. Eleven fused heterocyclic derivatives were successfully synthesized. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial evaluation. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial activity. From the present study it may be concluded that synthesized compounds are fruitful in terms of their structural novelty and marked biological activities. These compounds could be further modified to develop potential and safer antifungal agents.

  1. Thermoelectric Properties of Fe2VAl and Fe2V0.75M0.25Al (M = Mo, Nb, Ta) Alloys: First-Principles Calculations

    Al-Yamani, H.; Hamad, B.


    Ab initio investigations of the structural, electronic, and thermoelectric properties of stoichiometric Fe2VAl full-Heusler alloy and Fe2V0.75M0.25Al (M = Mo, Nb, Ta) nonstoichiometric alloys have been performed using density functional theory on the basis of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method with the generalized gradient approximation. The thermoelectric properties are calculated using semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory within the constant-relaxation-time approximation. Fe2VAl, Fe2V0.75Nb0.25Al, and Fe2V0.75Ta0.25Al alloys are found to exhibit a semimetallic behavior, while Fe2V0.75Mo0.25Al acts as a metal. We found that Fe2VAl has a pseudogap of about -0.13 eV, whereas Fe2V0.75Nb0.25Al and Fe2V0.75Ta0.25Al are characterized by a zero energy gap around the Fermi level. Thermoelectric calculations showed that Fe2VAl has both p- and n-type thermoelectric properties, where the p-type thermopower values are found to be higher than those of n-type. The Seebeck coefficient S has maximum values from 20 μV K-1 to 125 μV K-1 and from 19 μV K-1 to 90 μV K-1 in the temperature range of 100 K to 800 K for p- and n-type, respectively. The maximum thermoelectric properties can be obtained at carrier concentration of the order of 1020 cm-3 for p- or n-type doping. Substitution of Nb and Ta atoms enhanced the thermoelectric properties to 150 μV K-1 at 800 K. The optimum concentrations for the three partially substituted alloys were found to be between 1020 cm-3 and 1021 cm-3.

  2. Hydrogen storage properties of LaMgNi3.6M0.4 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Cu, Al) alloys

    Highlights: • La–Mg–Ni system AB2-type alloys were prepared by induction melting. • Structures and lattice parameters were analysed by XRD. • Hydrogen absorption/desorption performances were studied. • Mechanisms of hydrogen absorption capacity fading were investigated. - Abstract: LaMgNi3.6M0.4 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Cu, Al) alloys were prepared through induction melting process. The phase compositions and crystal structures were characterised via X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydrogen storage properties, including activation performance, hydrogen absorption capacity, cycle stability, alloy particle pulverisation and plateau pressure, were systemically investigated. Results show that Ni, Co, Mn and Cu substitution alloys exhibit multiphase structures comprising the main phase LaMgNi4 and the secondary phase LaNi5. However, the secondary phase of the Al substitution alloy changes into LaAlNi4. The lattice parameters and cell volumes of the LaMgNi4 phase follow the order Ni < Co < Al < Cu < Mn. Activation is simplified through partial substitution of Ni with Al, Cu and Co. The hydrogen absorption capacities of all of the alloys are approximately 1.7 wt.% at the first activation process; however, they rapidly decrease with increasing cycle number. In addition, the stabilities of hydriding and dehydriding cycles decrease in the order Al > Co > Ni > Cu > Mn. Hydriding processes result in numerous cracks and amorphisation of the LaMgNi4 phase in the alloys. The p–c isotherms were determined by a Sieverts-type apparatus. Two plateaus were observed for the Ni, Co and Al substitution alloys, whereas only one plateau was found for Mn and Cu. This result was caused by the amorphisation of the LaMgNi4 phase during the hydriding cycles. Reversible absorption and desorption of hydrogen are difficult to achieve. Substitutions of Ni with Co, Mn, Cu and Al significantly influence the reduction of hysteresis between hydriding and dehydriding

  3. Pemerolehan Leksikal Nomina Bahasa Angkola Anak Usia 3-4 Tahun: Analisis Psikolinguistik

    Lumbanraja, Novelina


    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis pemerolehan leksikal nomina bahasa Angkola anak usia 3-4 tahun: analisis psikolinguistik dengan tujuan mendeskripsikan bagaimana pemerolehan leksikal nomina bahasa Angkola anak usia 3-4 tahun dan bagaimana urutan lpemerolehan leksikal nomina bahasa Angkola anak usia 3-4 tahun. Pengumpulan data dilakukan terlebih dahulu dengan melakukan observasi. Hal ini dilakukan untuk mengamati pemahaman kata benda yang diucapkan anak-anak dengan kata benda ya...

  4. Effects of 3,4-Dichloroaniline on Testicle Enzymes as Biological Markers in Rats



    Objective To investigate the effects of 3,4-dichlomaniline (3,4-DCA) on activities of testicle enzymes as biological markers in rats. Methods Fifty male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10). One group was left untreated and used as a solvent control (administered orally by corn oil), while the other 4 groups were treated with 3, 4-DCA. Corn oil was used as a solvent, and 3,4-DCA was diluted into tested concentrations (39, 81, 170, and 357 mg/kg). All the groups orally administered 3,4-DCA or corn oil, once a day for 4 weeks. The testicle tissue was homogenized in a 0.1 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/L, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 5 rain at 4 ℃. The supematant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of the enzyme activities. Results Compared with the control, the activities of ALP, ACE and SDH were increased significantly at a lower level of 3,4-DCA, and decreased at a higher level of 3, 4-DCA, whreas the activities of LDH, LDH-X, and G6PDH were inhibited significantly with the increased 3,4-DCA concentration. Organ coefficient "organ weight/total body weight × 100" of testis, liver, and spleen increased significantly with the increased 3,4-DCA concentration. These results suggest that 3,4-DCA toxicity to the male reproductive system was associated with the activities of testicular enzymes which are the sensitive biochemical endpoints reflecting 3,4-DCA toxicity to the male reproductive system. Conclusion 3,4-DCA has toxicity to the reproductive system in male rats.

  5. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives

    Mohamed R. Abdel Aziz


    Full Text Available New series of 1,3,4-thiadiazoles have been prepared via reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazolenaminones 1 with N-phenyl 2-oxopropanehydrazonoyl chloride (2 in dioxane in the presence of triethylamine. Also, some new heterocycles incorporating 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring were obtained by reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazolenaminones 1 with nitrogen-nucleophiles like hydrazine hydrate, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole and 2-aminobenzimidazole. The structure of the new products was established based on elemental and spectral analysis. The relation between the structure of the products and their activity towards some microorganisms was studied and promising results were obtained.

  6. Synthesis of 1-Substituted Carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and Carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carboline Analogs as Potential Antitumor Agents

    Ji-Wang Chern


    Full Text Available A series of 1-substituted carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-b-carboline analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity against human tumor cells including KB, DLD, NCI-H661, Hepa, and HepG2/A2 cell lines. Among these, compounds 2, 6, 7, and 9 exhibited the most potent and selective activity against the tested tumor cells. As for inhibition of topoisomerase II, compounds 1–14 and 18 showed better activity than etoposide. Among them, compounds 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 exhibited potent activity. The structure and activity relationship (SAR study revealed correlation between carbon numbers of the side chain and biological activities. The molecular complex with DNA for compound 2 was proposed.

  7. 3,4-DGE is cytotoxic and decreases HSP27/HSPB1 in podocytes.

    Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Poveda, Jonay; Sanz, Ana Belen; Carrasco, Susana; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Selgas, Rafael; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto


    Hyperglycemia is the key driver of diabetic complications and increased concentrations of glucose degradation products. The study of peritoneal dialysis solution biocompatibility has highlighted the adverse biological effects of glucose degradation products. Recently, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as the most toxic glucose degradation product in peritoneal dialysis fluids. In addition, 3,4-DGE is present in high-fructose corn syrup, and its precursor 3-deoxyglucosone is increased in diabetes. The role of 3,4-DGE in glomerular injury had not been addressed. We studied the effects of 3,4-DGE on cultured human podocytes and in vivo in mice. 3,4-DGE induced apoptosis in podocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 3,4-DGE promoted the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspase-3. While high glucose concentrations increased the levels of the podocyte intracellular antiapoptotic protein HSP27/HSPB1, 3,4-DGE decreased the expression of podocyte HSP27/HSPB1. Apoptosis induced by 3,4-DGE was caspase-dependent and could be prevented by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Antagonism of Bax by a Ku-70-derived peptide also prevented apoptosis. Intravenous administration of 3,4-DGE to healthy mice resulted in a decreased expression of HSP27/HSPB1 and caspase-3 activation in whole kidney and in podocytes in vivo. In conclusion, 3,4-DGE induces apoptotic cell death in cultured human podocytes, suggesting a potential role in glomerular injury resulting from metabolic disorders. PMID:24337777

  8. Synthesis and thermolysis of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex

    Present article is devoted to synthesis and thermolysis of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex. The synthesis method of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex is elaborated. The kinetics of its thermolysis process is studied. The thermodynamic functions of thermolysis process are evaluated.

  9. Three-dimensional photochemical microfabrication of poly(3,4-ethylene- dioxythiophene) in transparent polymer sheet

    Yamada, Katsumi, E-mail: [Department of Life Science and Sustainable Chemistry, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa, 243-0297 (Japan); Yamada, Yumiko [Department of Life Science and Sustainable Chemistry, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa, 243-0297 (Japan); Sone, Junji [Department of Applied Computer Science, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa, 243-0297 (Japan)


    A dimeric compound of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene was polymerized to form poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) by multi-photon sensitized polymerization using a femtosecond laser. In contrast, photopolymerization could not be achieved using 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene as the starting material, because it has a more positive oxidation peak potential compared to the redox potential of the tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium complex used as the photosensitizer. Furthermore, three-dimensional micropatterns of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) could be produced in a transparent polymer sheet by scanning the laser focal point. - Highlights: • Multi-photon sensitized polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT). • Three-dimensional microstructures of poly(EDOT) in the transparent polymer sheet. • The dimeric compound of EDOT was employed as the starting material. • The lateral precision of this system exceeded the diffraction limit.

  10. Boronic, diboronic, and α-amino-boronic acids derived from 1-ethynyl-3, 4-dimethoxybenzene

    This work was undertaken with the intention of synthesizing (α-amino-β-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethylboronic acid. Unfortunately, the goal could not be attained since the isolation of the target compound could not be achieved though some information suggested its existence in the final product. The methods of synthesis used in the second half of the attempted preparation are described here (compounds in the first half have been published elsewhere). In this procedure, (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethenylboronic acid is esterified and azeotropic distillation is conducted to provide diethyl (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethenylboronate. This compound is dissolved in diglyme and diborane gas is introduced. The hydroboration product is then subjected to amination with hydroxylamine-0-sulfonic acid. (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethyl-α, α-diboronic acid is obtained from the residue of acetone extraction. The acetone extract is concentrated to a solid caramel, from which (α-borono-β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethylammonium tetraphenylborate is formed. Conversion from the tetraphenylborate salt to (α-amino-β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethylboronic acid hydrochloride is attempted by the double decomposition RH BPh4 + CsCl -- RH Cl + CsBPh4. The product is subjected to demethylation and treated with sodium tetraphenylborate to precipitate (α-borono-β-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)) ethylammonium tetraphenylborate. Conversion of this to the target compound is tried by double decomposition. (Nogami, K.)