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Sample records for 3-4 months post-surgery

  1. Prevalence and risk of depressive symptoms 3-4 months post-surgery in a nationwide cohort study of Danish women treated for early stage breast-cancer

    Christensen, Søren; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2009-01-01

    breast cancer during the 2 1/2 year study period. Of these, 3343 women (68%) participated in a questionnaire study 12-16 weeks following surgery. Depressive symptoms (Beck's Depression Inventory II) and health-related behaviors were assessed by questionnaire. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group......BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of depressive symptoms are generally found among cancer patients, but results from existing studies vary considerably with respect to prevalence and proposed risk factors. PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depression 3-4 months following...... surgery for breast cancer, and to identify clinical risk factors while adjusting for pre-cancer sociodemographic factors, comorbidity, and psychiatric history. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study cohort consists of 4917 Danish women, aged 18-70 years, receiving standardized treatment for early stage invasive...

  2. Sleeping body temperatures in 3-4 month old infants.

    Wailoo, M P; Petersen, S A; Whittaker, H.; Goodenough, P

    1989-01-01

    Rectal, skin, and ambient temperatures were continuously recorded overnight from 3-4 month old normal infants in their home cots under conditions of room temperature and wrapping chosen freely by parents. It was found that rectal temperature was above 37 degrees C when infants were put down, but fell rapidly to 36.4 degrees C within one and a half hours, then stabilised for a few hours before rising steadily. This pattern was tied more closely to the time of putting down than time of day. The...

  3. Prediction of return-to-work of low back pain patients sicklisted for 3-4 months.

    van der Giezen, A M; Bouter, L M; Nijhuis, F J

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this Dutch prospective population-based study was to identify prognostic factors for return-to-work of employees with 3-4 months sick leave due to low back pain (LBP). A cohort of 328 employees was formed and baseline data were collected. One year after the first day of the sick leave, 91% of the original cohort participated in a second interview (n=298). During the baseline measurement, information was collected about health status, history of LBP, occupational variables, job characteristics and social economic variables. At the second interview, 66% of the employees had returned to work (n=198). Return-to-work was independently predicted by having a better general health status (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.30-1.80), having better job satisfaction (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.11-1. 44), being a bread winner (OR 2.46; 95% CI 1.37-4.40), having a lower age (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.52-0.93) and reporting less pain (OR 0. 85; 95% CI 0.73-0.99) all measured at cohort entry. This study shows that psycho-social aspects of health and work in combination with economic aspects have a significantly larger impact on return-to-work when compared to relatively more physical aspects of disability and physical requirements of the job. This suggests that interventions aimed at return-to-work of employees sicklisted with LBP should predominantly be focused on these psycho-social aspects such as health behavior and job satisfaction, and on the (lack of) economic incentives for return-to-work. PMID:10963908

  4. Survival post surgery for malignant pericardial effusion

    Olivier Nguyen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study reviews the survival of patients with malignant pericardial effusion treated with a subxiphoid pericardial window. The medical records of 60 consecutive patients diagnosed with a malignant pericardial effusion and treated with a subxiphoid pericardial window between 1994 and 2008 were reviewed. 72% had lung cancer. Overall 30-day mortality was 31%. Survival rates at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 45%, 28%, 17%, and 9%, respectively. Overall median survival was 2.6 months. Patients with malignant pericardial effusion, especially those with primary lung cancer have poor survival rates. In advanced malignancy, the subxiphoid pericardial window procedure provides only short-term palliation of symptoms, and has no effect on long-term survival. The use of any surgical procedure in patients with malignant advanced pericardial effusion should be considered along with nonsurgical options on a case-by-case basis depending on symptoms, general status, and expected survival.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules. PMID:21219984

  6. Biliary tree and cholecyst: post surgery imaging

    Valek, Vlastimil [Department of Radiology, University Hopistal Brno, Jihlavska 20, 63900 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: v.valek@fnrbno.cz; Kala, Zdenek [Department of Surgery, University Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 63900 Brno (Czech Republic); Kysela, Petr [Department of Surgery, University Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 63900 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2005-03-01

    Recently, with improvements in surgical techniques there has been a substantial reduction in the incidence of biliary complications of hepatobiliary surgery. Nevertheless, bile duct injuries and other post-cholecystectomy complications are a serious problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early complications may include bile duct injury caused by mistakenly placed clips, erroneous cutting of bile ducts based on misinterpretation of biliary anatomy, periductal bile leakage that causes edema, fibrosis and secondary stricturing, and ischemia due to injury to the right hepatic artery. Bile duct strictures are the most common of the late complications and can develop a few months or many years after surgery. Early detection and accurate diagnosis have a fundamental importance for the successful treatment of these complications. Therefore, early and meaningful application of the imaging methods immediately after detection of the first symptoms is essential. Peroperative ultrasound and direct iodine contrast application into the biliary tree (operative cholangiography) are highly important for immediate visualization of the complications during surgery. Ultrasound can be used to aid in identification of ductal structures and the cholangiogram should be obtained to document the anatomy. Plain abdominal film could be made in the patients in poor clinical conditions after biliary surgery. Oral cholecystography has largely been replaced by ultrasonography (US) for evaluation of cholelithiasis and complications like post-cholecystectomy fluid collections. The same methodology replaced the conventional intravenous cholangiography. Nowadays computed tomography (CT), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP) and ultrasound (US) have essential roles as primary imaging modalities after biliary tree and gallbladder surgery in the evaluation of associated complications and residual biliary stones. We review the role

  7. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    C. W. Tessum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12-month, 12 km horizontal resolution year 2005 air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM. We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM, and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE with a volatility basis set (VBS secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary modeling efforts used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3 mean fractional bias (MFB of 12% and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5 MFB of −1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations. Performance is better at predicting daytime-average and daily peak O3 concentrations, which are more relevant for regulatory and health effects analyses relative to annual average values. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 36%, underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = −110% and organic carbon (MFB = −29%, and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3% and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%, so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.

  8. Knee extension and flexion muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft or hamstring tendons graft: a cross-sectional comparison 3 years post surgery

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Harald; Silbernagel, Karin; Thomeé, Roland; Roos, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    Hamstring muscles play a major role in knee-joint stabilization after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Weakness of the knee extensors after ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon (PT) graft, and in the knee flexors after reconstruction with hamstring tendons (HT) graft has been observed up...... to 2 years post surgery, but not later. In these studies, isokinetic muscle torque was used. However, muscle power has been suggested to be a more sensitive and sport-specific measures of strength. The aim was to study quadriceps and hamstring muscle power in patients with ACL injury treated with...... least 4 months, were assessed with reliable, valid, and responsive tests of quadriceps and hamstring muscle power at 3 years (SD 0.9, range 2-5) after surgery. The mean difference between legs (injured minus uninjured), the hamstring to quadriceps (H:Q, hamstring divided by quadriceps) ratio, and the...

  9. 3.4 Radiotherapy

    Kramer, H.-M.; Selbach, H.-J.; Vatnitsky, S.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '3.4 Radiotherapy' of the Chapter '3 Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and Radiotherapy' with the contents:

  10. Scapula alata in early breast cancer patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of post-surgery short-course image-guided radiotherapy

    Adriaenssens Nele

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scapula alata (SA is a known complication of breast surgery associated with palsy of the serratus anterior, but it is seldom mentioned. We evaluated the risk factors associated with SA and the relationship of SA with ipsilateral shoulder/arm morbidity in a series of patients enrolled in a trial of post-surgery radiotherapy (RT. Methods The trial randomized women with completely resected stage I-II breast cancer to short-course image-guided RT, versus conventional RT. SA, arm volume and shoulder-arm mobility were measured prior to RT and at one to three months post-RT. Shoulder/arm morbidities were computed as a post-RT percentage change relative to pre-RT measurements. Results Of 119 evaluable patients, 13 (= 10.9% had pre-RT SA. Age younger than 50 years old, a body mass index less than 25 kg/m2, and axillary lymph node dissection were significant risk factors, with odds ratios of 4.8 (P = 0.009, 6.1 (P = 0.016, and 6.1 (P = 0.005, respectively. Randomization group was not significant. At one to three months’ post-RT, mean arm volume increased by 4.1% (P = 0.036 and abduction decreased by 8.6% (P = 0.046 among SA patients, but not among non-SA patients. SA resolved in eight, persisted in five, and appeared in one patient. Conclusion The relationship of SA with lower body mass index suggests that SA might have been underestimated in overweight patients. Despite apparent resolution of SA in most patients, pre-RT SA portended an increased risk of shoulder/arm morbidity. We argue that SA warrants further investigation. Incidentally, the observation of SA occurring after RT in one patient represents the second case of post-RT SA reported in the literature.

  11. Memantine before Mastectomy Prevents Post-Surgery Pain: A Randomized, Blinded Clinical Trial in Surgical Patients

    Morel, Véronique; Joly, Dominique; Villatte, Christine; Dubray, Claude; Durando, Xavier; Daulhac, Laurence; Coudert, Catherine; Roux, Delphine; Pereira, Bruno; Pickering, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain following surgical treatment for breast cancer with or without chemotherapy is a clinical burden and patients frequently report cognitive, emotional and quality of life impairment. A preclinical study recently showed that memantine administered before surgery may prevent neuropathic pain development and cognitive dysfunction. With a translational approach, a clinical trial has been carried out to evaluate whether memantine administered before and after mastectomy could prevent the development of neuropathic pain, the impairment of cognition and quality of life. Method A randomized, pilot clinical trial included 40 women undergoing mastectomy in the Oncology Department, University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Memantine (5 to 20 mg/day; n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) was administered for four weeks starting two weeks before surgery. The primary endpoint was pain intensity measured on a (0–10) numerical rating scale at three months post-mastectomy. Results Data analyses were performed using mixed models and the tests were two-sided, with a type I error set at α = 0.05. Compared with placebo, patients receiving memantine showed at three months a significant difference in post-mastectomy pain intensity, less rescue analgesia and a better emotional state. An improvement of pain symptoms induced by cancer chemotherapy was also reported. Conclusions This study shows for the first time the beneficial effect of memantine to prevent post-mastectomy pain development and to diminish chemotherapy-induced pain symptoms. The lesser analgesic consumption and better well-being of patients for at least six months after treatment suggests that memantine could be an interesting therapeutic option to diminish the burden of breast cancer therapy. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01536314 PMID:27050431

  12. Single intra-articular dexamethasone injection immediately post-surgery in a rabbit model mitigates early inflammatory responses and post-traumatic osteoarthritis-like alterations.

    Heard, Bryan J; Barton, Kristen I; Chung, May; Achari, Yamini; Shrive, Nigel G; Frank, Cyril B; Hart, David A

    2015-12-01

    Despite surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament, a significant number of patients will still develop post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Our objective was to determine if mitigating aspects of the acute phase of inflammation following a defined knee surgery with a single administration of a glucocorticoid could prevent the development of PTOA-like changes within an established rabbit model of surgically induced PTOA. An early and late post-surgical time-point was investigated in this study (48 h and 9 weeks post-surgery) in which the following groups were repeated (each n=6, for a total of 24 rabbits per time-point, and 48 rabbits used in the study): control (age/sex matched), sham (arthrotomy), drill injury (arthrotomy+two drill holes to a non-cartilaginous area of the femoral notch), and drill injury+single intra-articular (IA) injection of dexamethasone (DEX). At 48 h post-surgery, DEX treatment significantly lowered the mRNA levels for a subset of pro-inflammatory mediators, and significantly lowered the histological grade. Nine weeks post surgery, DEX treatment significantly lowered the histological scores (presented as effect size) for synovium (3.8), lateral femoral condyle (3.9), and lateral tibial cartilage (5.1) samples. Thus, DEX likely acts to prevent injury induced inflammation that could contribute to subsequent joint damage. PMID:26135713

  13. N-(3,4-Dimethylphenylbenzamide

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The conformation of the NH bond in the structure of the title compound (N34DMPBA, C15H15NO, is anti to the meta-methyl substituent in the aniline ring, similar to that observed with respect to the meta-chloro substituent in N-(3,4-dichlorophenylbenzamide (N34DCPBA, but in contrast to the syn conformation observed with respect to the meta-methyl substituent in N-(3,4-dimethylphenylacetamide. The bond parameters in N34DMPBA are similar to those in N34DCPBA and other benzanilides. The molecules in N34DMPBA are packed into a column-like structure in the direction of the a axis through N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  14. How traumatic is breast cancer? Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and risk factors for severe PTSS at 3 and 15 months after surgery in a nationwide cohort of Danish women treated for primary breast cancer

    O'Connor, Maja; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2011-01-01

    primary breast cancer. Methods: Sixty-eight percent of all Danish women receiving surgery for primary breast cancer between October 2001 to March 2004 completed a questionnaire 3 months post-surgery (n=3343), which included the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Ninety-four percent of the disease-free women...

  15. The metabolite 3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) exerts a higher ecotoxicity than the parent compounds 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and propanil.

    Xiao, Hongxia; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Nüßer, Leonie Katharina; Floehr, Tilman; Hennig, Michael Patrick; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-05-01

    3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) is not commercially manufactured but formed as an unwanted by-product in the manufacturing of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) or metabolized from the degradation of chloranilide herbicides, like propanil. While a considerable amount of research has been done concerning the toxicological and ecotoxicological effects of propanil and 3,4-DCA, limited information is available on TCAB. Our study examined the toxicity of TCAB in comparison to its parent compounds propanil and 3,4-DCA, using a battery of bioassays including in vitro with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated activity by the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay and micro-EROD, endocrine-disrupting activity with chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) as well as in vivo with fish embryo toxicity (FET) assays with Danio rerio. Moreover, the quantitative structure activity response (QSAR) concepts were applied to simulate the binding affinity of TCAB to certain human receptors. It was shown that TCAB has a strong binding affinity to the AhR in EROD and micro-EROD induction assay, with the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) of 8.7×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-5), respectively. TCAB presented to be a weak endocrine disrupting compound with a value of estradiol equivalence factor (EEF) of 6.4×10(-9) and dihydrotestosterone equivalency factor (DEF) of 1.1×10(-10). No acute lethal effects of TCAB were discovered in FET test after 96h of exposure. Major sub-lethal effects detected were heart oedema, yolk malformation, as well as absence of blood flow and tail deformation. QSAR modelling suggested an elevated risk to environment, particularly with respect to binding to the AhR. An adverse effect potentially triggering ERβ, mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid and progesterone receptor activities might be expected. Altogether, the results obtained suggest that TCAB exerts a higher toxicity than both propanil and 3,4-DCA. This should be considered when assessing the

  16. Magnetic moments of lanthanide 3-, 4-nitrobenzoates and 3,4-dinitrobenzoates

    The magnetic moments for lanthanide 3-nitro and 4-nitrobenzoates were determined at 298 K and those for 3,4-dinitrobenzoates of rare earth elements over the temperature range 77 - 296 K. The complexes of 3,4-dinitrobenzoates of rare earth were found to obey the Curie-Weiss law. The values of μ calculated for all complexes (except that for europium 3,4-dinitrobenzoates) are close to those obtained for Ln3+ ions by Hund and Van Vleck. The results reveal that irrespective of the kind of ligands (3-nitro, 4-nitro or 3,4-dinitrobenzoates) no influence of their field on lanthanide ions occurs. (author)

  17. Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Breast Reconstruction Surgery and Therapeutic Mammoplasty: Prospective Evaluation 1 Year Post-Surgery with BREAST-Q Questionnaire.

    Shekhawat, Laxmi; Busheri, Laleh; Dixit, Santosh; Patel, Chaula; Dhar, Upendra; Koppiker, Chaitanyanand

    2015-12-01

    Breast Cancer (BC) treatment leads to mutilation and destruction of breast shape with negative effects on body image and self-esteem.One of the main goals of reconstructive and oncoplastic breast surgery is to satisfy patients and improve their quality of life (QoL).Therefore, it is important to assess the patient experience post-surgery by means of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that focus on the patient's perception of the surgery and surgical care, as well as psychosocial well-being and physical functioning. The objective of the current study was to identify predictors of patient satisfaction such as breast appearance including implant type in a selective sample of women who underwent breast reconstruction surgery using implants. Participants in this prospective study were women, (age 26-75 years) that were newly diagnosed with breast carcinoma. All consecutive patients who underwent breast reconstruction between January 2013 and October 2014 were asked to complete the BREAST-Q questionnaire 1 year after surgery. 120 patients underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using implant. While 38 patients underwent reconstruction with opposite breast reduction symmertization, 27 patients underwent therapeutic mammoplasty. The response rate for BREAST-Q questionnaire completion was 98 % with 147 out of 150 study participants completed the questionnaire. From the data collected from 147 patients, the responses could be distributed into 4 distinct groups based on the reconstruction outcomes namely "very much satisfied" (93 %) or "definitely and mostly satisfied" (94 %) or "satisfied" with the outcome (88 %) or "definitely agree on having reconstruction rather than the alternative of having no breast "(91 %).The results showed significant improvement in all four areas that were evaluated after surgery namely satisfaction with the appearance of the breasts, psychosocial, sexual and physical well-being. While the reconstruction surgery had an overall

  18. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives

    Meyer JS

    2013-01-01

    Jerrold S Meyer Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Abstract: Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heighten...

  19. 3.4 Environmental impacts: energy industry

    The subchapter 3.4 'Environmental impact of the energy industry' of the 7th state of the environment report analyzes the current situation in Austria and briefly describes the following aspects: environmental policy targets, uniform taxation of energy, use of renewable energy sources, efficient use of energy, energy input, electricity supply and input, energy input into space heating and air conditioning systems, and renewable energy. In 2002, the input of final energy was risen by about 5 % in comparison to 1998. During this period, the largest increments in final energy inputs were recorded in the mobility sector with + 9.4 %, and in the private households sector with + 8.3 % . The goods production sector showed a slight decrease of about 1.3 % between 1998 and 2002. The 'goods production', 'mobility' and 'private households' sectors combined require about 87 % of the total final energy input. The final energy input for space heating and hot water in 2001 was 5.7 % above the input in 1998. Energy supply from renewable energy sources rose by about 13.8 % in 2002 compared to 1998. Domestic electricity consumption (excluding consumption for pumped-storage systems) in 2002 was about 10.5 % above consumption in 1998. Physical imports and physical exports in 2002 increased about 32 % and 8.6 % correspondingly compared to 1999. (nevyjel)

  20. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA: current perspectives

    Meyer JS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jerrold S Meyer Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Abstract: Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA. Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse

  1. The dyslipidemia-associated SNP on the APOA1/C3/A5 gene cluster predicts post-surgery poor outcome in Taiwanese breast cancer patients: a 10-year follow-up study

    Post-surgery therapies are given to early-stage breast cancer patients due to the possibility of residual micrometastasis, and optimized by clincopathological parameters such as tumor stage, and hormone receptor/lymph node status. However, current efficacy of post-surgery therapies is unsatisfactory, and may be varied according to unidentified patient genetic factors. Increases of breast cancer occurrence and recurrence have been associated with dyslipidemia, which can attribute to other known risk factors of breast cancer including obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Thus we reasoned that dyslipidemia-associated nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the APOA1/C3/A5 gene cluster may predict breast cancer risk and tumor progression. We analyzed the distribution of 5 selected APOA1/C3/A5 SNPs in recruited Taiwanese breast cancer patients (n=223) and healthy controls (n=162). The association of SNP (APOA1 rs670) showing correlation with breast cancer with baseline and follow-up parameters was further examined. APOA1 rs670 A allele carriage was higher in breast cancer patients than controls (59.64% vs. 48.77%, p=0.038). The rs670 A allele carrying patients showed less favorable baseline phenotype with positive lymph nodes (G/A: OR=3.32, 95% CI=1.77-6.20, p<0.001; A/A: OR=2.58, 95% CI=1.05-6.32, p=0.039) and negative hormone receptor expression (A/A: OR=4.85, 95%CI=1.83-12.83, p=0.001) in comparison to G/G carriers. Moreover, rs670 A/A carrying patients had higher risks in both tumor recurrence (HR=3.12, 95% CI=1.29-7.56, p=0.012) and mortality (HR=4.36, 95% CI=1.52-12.47, p=0.006) than patients with no A alleles after adjustments for associated baseline parameters. Furthermore, the prognostic effect of rs670 A/A carriage was most evident in lymph node-negative patients, conferring to the highest risks of recurrence (HR=4.98, 95% CI=1.40-17.70, p=0.013) and mortality (HR=9.87, 95%CI=1.60-60.81, p=0.014) than patients with no A alleles. APOA1 rs670 A/A carriage showed

  2. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT JURISDICTION Assignment of Agency Component for Review of Premarket Applications § 3.4 Designated...

  3. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  4. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    2010-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  5. Experiments R285-3/4/5 (ILAS 3/4/5). Activity calculations

    In the irradiation experiments ILAS 3/4/5 a number of different austenitic stainless steel types and three types of vanadium samples for advanced nuclear systems will be irradiated at a temperature of 300 C up to dpa (displacements per atom) levels of 2.5 dpa for the steel samples and up to 6 dpa for the vanadium samples. In this report the results of the activity calculations of the sample holder material and of the different types of sample materials are presented. The activity of the holder material is calculated for the vertical average of the irradiation position. The activities of the sample materials are given for the vertical maximum of the irradiation position. A relation is given to convert these data to any vertical sample position. Also the changes in chemical composition of the different sample materials, due to nuclide transmutation, are given in this report. (orig.)

  6. Complexing 7,3',4'-tryoxiflavonol with cell phosphatidylcholine

    Nusratullin V. M.; Fahretdinova E. R.; Nasibullin R. S.; Galeeva R. I.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the complex formation of 7,3',4'-try-oxyflavonol of flavonoids group with cellular phosphatidylcholine. Methods. Semi-empirical quantum chemistry, spectroscopy NMR. Results. The changes in conformational status of 7,3',4'-tryoxy- flavonol at complex formation have been shown. Conclusions. The conformational changes in phosphatidylcholine take place under the 7,3',4'-tryoxyflavonol/phosphatidylcholine complex formation.

  7. Anthracen-9-ylmethylene-(3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylamine

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, anthracen-9-ylmethylene-(3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylamine (3, was synthesized in high yield by reaction of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde and 5-amino-3,4-dimethyl­isoxazole in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and GC-MS spectral analysis.

  8. Long-term functional duration of immune responses to HCV NS3/4A induced by DNA vaccination.

    Ahlén, G; Holmström, F; Gibbs, A; Alheim, M; Frelin, L

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated the ability of hepatitis C virus non-structural (NS) 3/4A-DNA-based vaccines to activate long-term cell-mediated immune responses in mice. Wild-type and synthetic codon optimized (co) NS3/4A DNA vaccines have previously been shown to be immunogenic in mice, rabbits and humans, although we have very poor knowledge about the longevity of the immune responses primed. We therefore analyzed the functionality of primed NS3/4A-specific immune responses in BALB/c (H-2(d)) and/or C57BL/6J (H-2(b)) mice 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 and 16 months after the last immunization. Mice were immunized one, two, three or four times using gene gun delivery to the skin or by intramuscular administration. Immunological responses after immunization were monitored by protection against in vivo challenge of NS3/4A-expressing syngeneic tumor cells. In addition, functionality of the NS3/4A-specific T cells was analyzed by a standard cytotoxicity assay. First, we identified a new unique murine H-2(d)-restricted NS3/4A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope, which enabled us to study the epitope-specific immune responses. Our results show that the coNS3/4A vaccine was highly immunogenic by determination of interferon-γ/tumor necrosis factor-α production and lytic cytotoxic T cells, which could efficiently inhibit in vivo tumor growth. Importantly, we showed that one to four monthly immunizations protected mice from tumor development when challenged up to 16 months after the last immunization. When determining the functionality of NS3/4A-specific T cells in vitro, we showed detectable lytic activity up to 12 months after the last immunization. Thus, NS3/4A-based DNA vaccines activate potent cellular immune responses that are present and function in both BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice up to 12-16 months after the last immunization. The induction of long-term immunity after NS3/4A DNA immunization has not been shown previously and supports the use of NS3/4A in hepatitis C virus vaccine

  9. 5所三级医院术后疼痛管理质量评价分析%Evaluation and analysis for post-surgery pain management quality at five tertiary hospitals

    童莺歌; 刘敏君; 刘冬华; 王宏伟; 田素明

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解我国三级医院的术后疼痛管理质量现状及美国疼痛学会推荐的急性疼痛管理质量评价体系在我国的适用情况.方法 应用美国疼痛学会推荐的评价体系,通过问卷调查和查阅病历,对我国5所三级医院的术后疼痛管理质量现状进行分析.结果 被调查医院在记录疼痛状况、应用工具记录疼痛强度、采取恰当的镇痛疗法、应用非药物镇痛措施和疼痛管理结果上存在不足之处;急性疼痛服务组和无急性疼痛服务组在疼痛管理质量上存在差异,两组活动、情绪和睡眠受疼痛影响程度分别为3.12±2.82和5.16±2.07(P<0.05).结论 我国三级医院在术后疼痛管理过程和结果两方面均存在不足之处;已开展急性疼痛服务的医院在术后疼痛管理质量上优于未开展急性疼痛服务的医院.美国疼痛学会推荐的评价体系科学、灵敏,实用性和可操作性强,适用性广,适用于我国医院急性疼痛管理质量的评价.%Objective To learn the present pain management quality at tertiary hospitals in China and the application of the quality evaluation system for acute pain management quality recommended by American Pain Society.Methods Analyzing the present pain management at five tertiary hospitals in China by using the evaluation system recommended by American Pain Society,questionnaires and medical records reading.Results The hospitals were found with setbacks in describing pains,recording pains with tools,using the right pain controls,using non-drug pain control measures and pain management outcomes; differences were found between the acute pain service group and non-acute pain service group in pain management quality,as the pain impacts of both groups on activities,emotion and sleep were 3.12±2.82 and 5.16±2.07 (P<0.05) respectively.Conclusion Setbacks exist in both the process and outcomes of post-surgery pain management at these hospitals; those with acute pain

  10. Conductimetric immunosensor based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).

    Kanungo, Mandakini; Srivastava, Divesh N; Kumar, Anil; Contractor, A Q

    2002-04-01

    A conductimetric reagentless immunosensor using the biospecific binding pair of goat antirabbit IgG and rabbit IgG has been designed and fabricated using poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as the immobilization matrix-cumtransducer. PMID:12119672

  11. Alterações lipídicas em pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória: ensaio clínico randomizado e duplo-cego com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus Lipidic alterations in patients with colorectal cancer in post-surgery phase: a randomized and double-blind clinical trial with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus

    Renata Costa Fortes

    2008-09-01

    -blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial carried out at the Federal District Base Hospital, for six months. Samples of 56 enrolled patients, stadiums phase I, II and III, divided in two groups: placebo group and group supplemented with Agaricus sylvaticus (30mg/kg/day. Results were analyzed with Microsoft Excel 2003 and SPSS 14.0 programs, with p = 0.05. RESULTS: The Agaricus sylvaticus group had initial total cholesterol levels of 207.36±52.67mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein of 120.79±44.02mg/dL and triglycerides of 181.64±187.52mg/dL. After six months of supplementation it was observed a reduction 191.11±39.72mg/dL (p = 0.01, 103.08±39.20mg/dL (p = 0.0001 and 168.04±146.91mg/dL (p = 0.18, respectively. In the placebo group it was observed not-significant increase of total cholesterol levels (p = 0.08 and significant increase of low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.01 and triglycerides (p = 0.0001. No significant statistically alterations were observed in the levels of high-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein in both groups. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that the dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus may significantly improve the lipidic profile of colorectal cancer patients in post-surgery phase.

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE : A REVIEW

    Bachwani Mukesh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole is a highly privileged structure the derivatives of which exhibit a wide range of biological activities including antibacterial, antitubercular, vasodialatory, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, hypolipidemic, anticancer and ulcerogenic activities. Resistance to number of antimicrobial agents among a variety of clinically significant species of bacteria is becoming increasingly important global problem. The search for new antimicrobial agents will consequently always remain as an important and challenging task for medicinal chemists. This Review has basic information about 1,3,4-oxadiazole and its antimicrobial activity work for further development in this field.

  13. Squaroglitter: A 3,4-Connected Carbon Net

    Prasad, Dasari L. V. K.

    2013-08-13

    Theoretical calculations are presented on a new hypothetical 3,4-connected carbon net (called squaroglitter) incorporating 1,4 cyclohexadiene units. The structure has tetragonal space group P4/mmm (No. 123) symmetry. The optimized geometry shows normal distances, except for some elongated bonds in the cyclobutane ring substructures in the network. Squaroglitter has an indirect bandgap of about 1.0 eV. The hypothetical lattice, whose density is close to graphite, is more stable than other 3,4-connected carbon nets. A relationship to a (4,4)nanotube is explored, as is a potential threading of the lattice with metal needles. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. A Characterization of the SPARC T3-4 System

    van Tol, Michiel W

    2011-01-01

    This technical report covers a set of experiments on the 64-core SPARC T3-4 system, comparing it to two similar AMD and Intel systems. Key characteristics as maximum integer and floating point arithmetic throughput are measured as well as memory throughput, showing the scalability of the SPARC T3-4 system. The performance of POSIX threads primitives is characterized and compared in detail, such as thread creation and mutex synchronization. Scalability tests with a fine grained multithreaded runtime are performed, showing problems with atomic CAS operations on such physically highly parallel systems.

  15. Synthesis of Novel Biologically Active s-Triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole Derivatives

    SUN,Yi-Feng

    2004-01-01

    @@ Heterocycles bearing a symmetrical triazole or 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring system are reported to show a broad spectrum of biological activities.[1,2] The 1,2,4-triazole nucleus has been recently incorporated into a wide variety of therapeutically interesting drugs including H1/H2 histamine receptor blockers, cholinesterase active agents, CNS stimulants, antianxiety and sedatives[3] Coumarins are nowadays an important group of organic compounds that used as bactericides, fungicides,anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, anti-HIV and antitumour agents.[4,5] Keeping in view the biological importance of the above mentioned heterocyclic compounds and in continuation of our search for biologically active nitrogen and sulphur heterocycles, a series of s-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives was synthesized.

  16. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based glucose biosensors

    Kros, A.; Nolte, R.J.M. [Nijmegen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Organic Chemistry; Hoevell, S.W.F.M. van [TNO Nutrition and Food Research Inst., Zeist (Netherlands); Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M. [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Lab. of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry

    2001-10-16

    Amperometric biosensors for the recognition of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have for the first time been fabricated and are presented in this communication. This biosensor has potential applications for long-term glucose measurements, e.g., in the treatment of diabetes. (orig.)

  17. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 3-(4-Ethoxyphenyl)-6-(phenoxymethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    LEI Xin-Xiang; LIU Miao-Chang; XIAO Hong-Ping; ZHANG An-Jiang; ZHANG Li-Xue

    2007-01-01

    The title compound C18H16N4O2S has been synthesized by the reaction of 4-amino-3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole with phenoxyacetic acid in phospho- rus oxychloride, and characterized by IR, NMR spectra and elemental analysis. Its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 1.4903(3), b = 1.5230(2), c = 0.9615(16) nm, Z = 4, V = 1.7769(5) nm3, Dc = 1.317 g/cm3, ( = 0.201 mm-1, F(000) = 736, R = 0.0795 and wR = 0.2233. In the title compound, all rings are essentially planar.

  18. Monthly Weather Review

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  19. Photoinduced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine ring conversions.

    Turovska, Baiba; Lund, Henning; Lūsis, Viesturs; Lielpētere, Anna; Liepiņš, Edvards; Beljakovs, Sergejs; Goba, Inguna; Stradiņš, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    Stable heterocyclic hydroperoxide can be easily prepared as a product of fast oxidation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine by (3)O2 if the solution is exposed to sunlight. The driving force for the photoinduced electron transfer is calculated from electrochemical and spectroscopic data. The outcome of the reaction depends on the light intensity and the concentration of O2. In the solid state the heterocyclic hydroperoxide is stable; in solution it is involved in further reactions. PMID:26664638

  20. Study on the Synthesisof 3,4, 5-Trimethoxytol uene

    2001-01-01

    The 3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene(TMT) was systhesized using p-cresol by three steps including bromina-tion, methoxylation, and methylation with an overall yield of 84%. The structure of TMT was identified byNMR, GC/MS and IR. “One-pot”method was used in methoxylation and methylation for economical and conve-nient consideration. The mechanism for the methoxylation of 2,6-dibromo-4-methylphenol was discussed.

  1. Impurities in Illicit Drug Preparations: 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)amphetamine and 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)methylamphetamine.

    Verweij, A M

    1992-12-01

    Attention is given here to the mass spectral data of impurities present in illicit drug preparations of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)methylamphetamine. These "designer" drugs, having emphatic properties, were synthesized following well-known procedures such as the reductive amination route, the Leuckart reaction, and the nitropropene and the bromopropane routes. Based on the structure elucidation of impurities - especially those so-called "route specific" ones - present in these illicit drug preparations conclusions can be drawn about the method of preparation of a drug sample. Furthermore, on the basis of this kind of information methods can be developed for the comparison of drug samples, by which questions about the origin of drug samples can be solved (commonly known as the signature method). PMID:26267375

  2. The value of positive Oct3/4 and D2-40 immunohistochemical expression in prediction of germ cell neoplasia in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism

    Clasen-Linde, Erik; Kvist, Kolja; Cortes, Dina;

    2016-01-01

    14 years, 6 months operated on for cryptorchidism were incubated with primary antibodies including anti-placental-like alkaline phosphatase, anti-Oct3/4, anti-C-kit and anti-D2-40 receptor. RESULTS: One 3-year, 8-month-old boy with 45X/46XY disorder of sexual development had ITGCN and all positive...

  3. Developmental effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: a review

    Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2008-01-01

    ± 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a chemical derivative of amphetamine that has become a popular drug of abuse and has been shown to deplete serotonin in the brains of users and animals exposed to it. To date, most studies have investigated the effects of MDMA on adult animals. With a majority of users of MDMA being young adults, the chances of the users becoming pregnant and exposing the fetuses to MDMA are also a concern. Evidence to date has shown that developmental exposure to...

  4. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    Collin, Blaise P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  5. 3,4-Diaminopyridinium 2-carboxy-4,6-dinitrophenolate

    Madhukar Hemamalini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C5H8N3+·C7H3N2O7−, the pyridine N atom of the 3,4-diaminopyridine molecule is protonated. The 3,5-dinitrosalicylate anion shows whole-molecule disorder over two orientations with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.875 (4: 0.125 (4. In the crystal, the cations and anions are connected by intermolecular N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  6. Stereoselective Synthesis of 2,3,4,6-Tetrasubstituted Tetrahydropyrans

    GONG Jun-Fang; WU Yang-Jie; Véronique Micheletb; Jean-Pierre Genêt b

    2003-01-01

    @@ The construction of stereodefined, highly substituted tetrahydropyrans has attracted a lot of interest over the years since they constitute ubiquitous fragments of numerous biologically active natural products.[1] During the course of our synthetic studies toward ambruticin, a fascinating antibiotic[2] which came back in the front scene with three recent total synthesis, [3] we have been interested in the synthesis of 2,3,4,6-tetrasubstituted tetrahydropyrans 5 (Scheme 1). [4] Moreover, this kind of subunit is found to be embedded in several other natural products such as lasonolide A, polycavernoside A, ratjadone, or concanamycin A.

  7. Reliability of poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene strain gauge

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Lillemose, Michael; Hansen, Thomas Steen;

    2007-01-01

    -polymer Microsystems. The measurements are made on microfabricated test chips with PEDT resistors patterned by conventional UV-lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). We determine a gauge factor of 3.41 ± 0.42 for the strained PEDT and we see an increase in resistivity from 1.98 · 104 X m to 2.22 · 104 X m when......We report on the experimentally observed reliability of the piezoresistive effect in strained poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT). PEDT is an intrinsic conductive polymer which can be patterned by conventional Cleanroom processing, and thus presents a promising material for all...

  8. Ultraporous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) for nanometric electrochemical supercapacitor

    Ultrathin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have been prepared by electropolymerization on steel and indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates under identical experimental conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy indicate that the substrate affects dramatically both the morphology and topography of films when the polymerization times are very short. An ultraporous three-dimensional network involving ultrathin sticks with a fiber-like morphology was formed on ITO. Asymmetric and symmetric supercapacitors have been fabricated by assembling electrodes of PEDOT deposited on ITO and steel. The specific capacitance, electrochemical stability, supercapacitor behavior and Coulombic efficiency measured for devices with an ITO/steel configuration were similar to those reported for advanced PEDOT-inorganic hybrid composites. Furthermore, the performance of the ITO/steel assembly is higher than those determined for symmetric supercapacitors derived from two identical electrodes of PEDOT deposited on steel or on ITO. The unique properties of the asymmetric supercapacitors have been attributed to the ultraporous structure of the ultrathin films deposited on ITO, which is not significantly perturbed when the device is submitted to a very high number of consecutive oxidation–reduction processes, and the different electroactivities of the two electrodes. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films show fiber-like morphology. ► The porosity of ultrathin PEDOT films induces a very high electrochemical stability. ► Asymmetric supercapacitors made of ultrathin PEDOT behave like hybrid nanocomposites.

  9. Progress report, 36 months

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  10. Progress report, 24 months

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  11. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  12. 3, 4-methylenedioximethamphetamin reverses anxiety induced by chronic mild stress

    Laura Andrea León A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of subchronic 3, 4 methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA on the elevated plusmaze, a widely used animal model of anxiety. Rats exposed to a mild chronic stress (MCS protocol received intracerebroventricular microinjections of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI – fluoxetine (2.0 ug/ul or MDMA, (2.0 ug/ul for seven days. On the eighth day rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze. Our results showed that sub chronic MDMA interacted with MCS leading to a decrease in anxiety related behaviors including: percentage of open arms entries (F [2, 26] = 4.00; p = 0.031, time spent in the open arms (F [2, 26] = 3.656; p = 0.040 and time spent in the open arms extremities (F [2, 26] = 5.842; p = 0.008. These results suggest a potential effect of MDMA in the reversion of the emotional significance of aversive stimuli.

  13. Tetrakis(μ-3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetatobis[(3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetato(1,10-phenanthrolineholmium(III

    Jian-Feng Liu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the centrosymmetric title compound, [Ho2(C10H11O46(C12H8N22], the HoIII atom is nine-coordinated by seven O atoms from the 3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetate (L anions and two N atoms from a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen molecule. The L ligands are coordinated to the HoIII ions in three modes: chelating, bridging and bridging–tridentate. Intramolecular C—H...O interactions occur. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular C—H...O interactions and weak aromatic π–π interactions between phen molecules and the aromatic rings of the L ligands [centroid–centroid distance = 3.821 (2 Å].

  14. Lightship Monthly Observations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Weather Observations (Monthly Form 1001) from lightship stations in the United States. Please see the 'Surface Weather Observations (1001)' library for more...

  15. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  16. Monthly Weather Observations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly Weather Observations (Form 1001) is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. In order to fill in the observation gap prior to the...

  17. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children. PMID:26721474

  18. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-01-01

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning. PMID:26371762

  19. Modulation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects by endocannabinoid system.

    Valverde, Olga; Rodríguez-Árias, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3, 4 Methylenedioxymethanphetamine (MDMA) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that displays numerous pharmacological effects, including neurotoxicity. MDMA, or ecstasy, acts by inducing the release of different neurotransmitters depending on the animal species and, in particular, it produces the release of serotonin and dopamine. MDMA induces rewarding and reinforcing effects in rodents, primates and humans, and is currently consumed as an illicit psychostimulant among young people. One of the most reported side effects is the hyperthermic effect and the neurotoxicity on central serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, depending on the species of animal. It seems that MDMA may also produce neurotoxic effects in humans. To date, the most consistent findings associated to MDMA consumption in humans relate to cognitive deficits in heavy users. MDMA when consumed as an illicit psychostimulant is commonly co-used with other abusers, being frequently associated with cannabinoids. The interaction between MDMA and cannabis effects is complex. Cannabis derivatives act on endocannabinoid system. Thus, at cellular levels, cannabinoids acting through CB1 cannabinoid receptors display opposite effects to those induced by MDMA, and they have been reported to develop neuroprotective actions, including the blockage of MDMA induced neurotoxicity, in laboratory animals. However, cannabis use is a recognized risk factor in the presentation and development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and also contributes to the development of psychological problems and cognitive failures observed in MDMA users. This paper represents a brief overview of the pharmacological interaction between MDMA and cannabis derivatives acting in the endocannabinoid system. We have evaluated recent findings in the literature of the most representative pharmacological effects displayed by both types of drugs. We analyze both, the synergic and opposite effects produced by these

  20. Monthly progress report

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables (7Be, 95Zr and 95Nb, 103Ru, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba and 140La, 90Sr, 106Ru and 106Rh, 226Ra, 54Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented

  1. Monthly progress report

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts(air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables (7Be, 95Zr and 95Nb, 103Ru, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba and 140La, 90Sr, 106Ru and 106Rh, 226Ra, 54Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented

  2. Monthly progress report

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables (7Be, 95Zr and 95Nb, 103Ru, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba and 140La, 90Sr, 106Ru and 104Rh, 226Ra, 54Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented

  3. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  4. Monthly energy review

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  5. Monthly Energy Review

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  6. Photos of the month

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  7. Monthly Cotton Economic Letter

    2012-01-01

    Cotton prices drifted sideways last month. A Index values ranged between 80 and 86 cents/lb. In the New York futures market, there was some volatility associated with the expiration of the July contract. However, prices for the most actively traded December contract were range-bound, generally holding to levels between 68 and 74 cents/lb.

  8. Electric power monthly

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  9. Electric power monthly

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  10. Monthly Cooton Economic Letter

    2012-01-01

    After two months of range-bound trading, cotton prices shifted lower in late November. The March New York futures contract fell through important support near 94 cents/Ib and briefly dropped below 88 cents/ Ib before appearing to have established a new range between 90 and 94 cents/lb. An Index values also declined and fell below 100 cents/Ib for the first time since September 2010.

  11. Monthly Cotton Economic Letter

    2012-01-01

    Cotton prices remained range-bound over the last month. Prices for the March futures contract on the New York exchange traded between 93 and 100 cents/lb. Over the same time period, values for the A Index ranged between 99 and 104 cents/lb. After the release of this month's USDA report, March futures moved lower, closing near 90 cents/lb.

  12. Commissioners' Monthly Case Activity Report

    Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission — Total cases pending at the beginning of the month, total cases added to the docket during the month, total cases disposed of during the month, and total cases...

  13. Simultaneous polysubstance use among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and hallucinogen users

    Licht, Cecilie L; Christoffersen, Maria; Okholm, Mads;

    2012-01-01

    To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users.......To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users....

  14. Monthly Cotton Economic Leffer

    2012-01-01

    After attempting to move higher in mid-March, cotton prices !Lave since retreated, The mostactively traded May New York futures contract increased from levels near 87 cents/tb to those near 94 cents/lb. In more recent trading, prices fell back to a range between 88 and 91 cents/lb. Values for the A Index followed those in the futures market, climbing to a level above 103 cents/Ib before decreasing to levels near 100 cents/lb. Over the past month, the general pattern in daily price movement has been inverse to that of the U.S. dollar.

  15. The monthly sky guide

    Ridpath, Ian

    2006-01-01

    In full colour throughout, the seventh edition of Ian Ridpath and Wil Tirion's famous guide to the night sky is fully revised and updated for planet positions and forthcoming eclipses up to the end of the year 2011. The book contains a chapter on the main sights visible in each month of the year, and is an easy-to-use companion to the night sky. It will help you to identify prominent stars, constellations, star clusters, nebulae and galaxies, to watch out for meteor showers, and to follow the movement of the four brightest planets. Most of the sights described are visible to the naked eye and

  16. Improved C3-4 transfer for treatment of root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk

    Zou, Lin; Cao, Xuecheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Lifeng; Wang, Pingshan; Cai, Jinfang

    2012-01-01

    Experimental rats with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were treated with the improved C3-4 transfer for neurotization of C5-6. Results showed that Terzis grooming test scores were significantly increased at 6 months after treatment, the latency of C5-6 motor evoked potential was gradually shortened, and the amplitude was gradually increased. The rate of C3 instead of C5 and the C4 + phrenic nerve instead of C6 myelinated nerve fibers crossing through the anastomotic stoma was...

  17. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyl levels in plasma from 42-month-old children

    Fidler, [No Value; Huisman, M; Boersma, ER

    1998-01-01

    We report on the PCB levels in plasma from 42-month-old children and the factors that determine these levels. We measured the levels of the PCB congeners 118 (2,4,5-3'4' pentachlorobiphenyl (CB)), 138 (2,3,4-2'4'5'hexaCB), 153 (2,4,5-2'4'5'hexaCB), and 180 (2,3,4,5-2'4'5'heptaCB) in cord plasma, bre

  18. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on N(CH3)4+ cation motion in ferroelectric N(CH3)4H(Cl3CCOO)2.

    Zdanowska-Fraczek, M; Lewicki, S; Jakubas, R; Wasicki, J

    2000-06-01

    The proton spin-lattice relaxation time in ferroelectric N(CH3)4H(Cl3CCOO)2 has been studied under isobaric conditions at pressures 0.1, 200 and 400 MPa over a wide range of temperature. The data indicate that the dominant relaxation mechanism for T1 can be attributed to the classical CH3 group reorientation of N(CH3)4+ cation. The influence of pressure on methyl group reorientation of N(CH3)4+ cation was analysed. PMID:10868567

  19. Angular Distributions for 3,4 Lambda H Bound States in the 3,4 He(e,e'K+) reaction

    Dohrmann, Frank; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Asaturyan, Razmik; Avery, Steven; Bailey, Kevin; Hu, Bitao; Breuer, Herbert; Brown, Daniel; Carlini, Roger; Cha, Jinseok; Chant, Nicholas; Christy, Michael; Cochran, Anthony; Cole, Leon; Crowder, J.; Danagoulian, Samuel; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Gan, Liping; Garrow, Kenneth; Gueye, Paul; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hinton, Wendy; Juengst, Henry; Keppel, Cynthia; Liang, Yongguang; Liu, Jinghua; Lung, Allison; Mack, David; Markowitz, Pete; Mitchell, Joseph; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Mueller, Robert; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Potterveld, David; Raue, Brian; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; Sarsour, Murad; Sato, Yoshinori; Segel, Ralph; Semenov, Andrei; Stepanyan, Samuel; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Tang, Liguang; Uzzle, Alicia; Wood, Stephen; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yan, Chen; Yuan, Lulin; Zeidman, Benjamin; Zeier, Markus; Zihlmann, Benedikt

    2004-12-01

    The 3Lambda H and 4Lambda H hypernuclear bound states have been observed for the first time in kaon electroproduction on 3,4He targets. The production cross sections have been determined at Q**2= 0.35 GeV**2 and W= 1.91 GeV. For either hypernucleus the nuclear form factor is determined by comparing the angular distribution of the 3,4He(e,e'K+)3,4Lambda H processes to the elementary cross section 1H(e,e'K+) Lambda on the free proton, measured during the same experiment.

  20. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  1. Preparation of QTi4.3-4Graghite Composite by Semi-solid Casting Technology

    ZHANG Peng; DU Yunhui; LIU Hanwu; ZENG Daben; BA Limin

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic-mechanical stirring technology was employed for preparing QTi4.3-4 graghite composite slurry, and QTi4.3-4 graghite composite with uniform distribution of graphite particles was prepared using the semi-solid casting technology successfully. The structure of this QTi4.3-4 graghite composite was studied and the condition for uniform distribution of graphite particles was got. The experimental results show that there exists a linear relationship between the solid fraction aud the stirring temperature of QTi4.3-4 graphite slurry. With the decreasing of stirring temperature, the solid fraction of QTi4.3-4 graghite slurry increases constantly. In casting, with the iucreasing of solid fraction of QTi4.3-4graghite slurry, the agglomeration of graphite particles is removed gradually. When the solid fraction is higher than 40% , graphite particles can distribute evenly in QTi4.3-4 graghite composite.

  2. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel fused heterocyclic 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine derivatives

    Jagdish K. Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine including different pharmacophores are aimed at. In this study, a series of 6-aryl-3- (3,4 -dialkoxyphenyl-7H -[1,2,4]triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine (7a-7k was synthesized by condensing 4-amino-5-(3,4-dialkoxyphenyl-4H-[1,2,4]- triazole-3-thiol (6 with various aromatic carboxylic acids in the presence of phenacyl bromides through one-pot reaction. Eleven fused heterocyclic derivatives were successfully synthesized. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial evaluation. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial activity. From the present study it may be concluded that synthesized compounds are fruitful in terms of their structural novelty and marked biological activities. These compounds could be further modified to develop potential and safer antifungal agents.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  4. COSMIC monthly progress report

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. An Examination of the Hadley Sea-Surface Temperature Time Series for the Nino 3.4 Region

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The Hadley sea-surface temperature (HadSST) dataset is investigated for the interval 1871-2008. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the degree of success in identifying and characterizing El Nino (EN) southern (ENSO) extreme events, both EN and La Nina (LN) events. Comparisons are made against both the Southern Oscillation Index for the same time interval and with published values of the Oceanic Nino Index for the interval since 1950. Some 60 ENSO extreme events are identified in the HadSST dataset, consisting of 33 EN and 27 LN events. Also, preferential associations are found to exist between the duration of ENSO extreme events and their maximum anomalous excursion temperatures and between the recurrence rate for an EN event and the duration of the last known EN event. Because the present ongoing EN is a strong event, it should persist 11 months or longer, inferring that the next EN event should not be expected until June 2012 or later. Furthermore, the decadal sum of EN-related months is found to have increased somewhat steadily since the decade of 1920-1929, suggesting that the present decade (2010-2019) possibly will see about 3-4 EN events, totaling about 37 +/- 3 EN-related months (i.e., months that meet the definition for the occurrence of an EN event).

  7. Effects of 3,4-Dichloroaniline on Testicle Enzymes as Biological Markers in Rats

    Bo ZHANG; SEN LIN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of 3,4-dichlomaniline (3,4-DCA) on activities of testicle enzymes as biological markers in rats. Methods Fifty male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10). One group was left untreated and used as a solvent control (administered orally by corn oil), while the other 4 groups were treated with 3, 4-DCA. Corn oil was used as a solvent, and 3,4-DCA was diluted into tested concentrations (39, 81, 170, and 357 mg/kg). All the groups orally administered 3,4-DCA or corn oil, once a day for 4 weeks. The testicle tissue was homogenized in a 0.1 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/L, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 5 rain at 4 ℃. The supematant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of the enzyme activities. Results Compared with the control, the activities of ALP, ACE and SDH were increased significantly at a lower level of 3,4-DCA, and decreased at a higher level of 3, 4-DCA, whreas the activities of LDH, LDH-X, and G6PDH were inhibited significantly with the increased 3,4-DCA concentration. Organ coefficient "organ weight/total body weight × 100" of testis, liver, and spleen increased significantly with the increased 3,4-DCA concentration. These results suggest that 3,4-DCA toxicity to the male reproductive system was associated with the activities of testicular enzymes which are the sensitive biochemical endpoints reflecting 3,4-DCA toxicity to the male reproductive system. Conclusion 3,4-DCA has toxicity to the reproductive system in male rats.

  8. Pemerolehan Leksikal Nomina Bahasa Angkola Anak Usia 3-4 Tahun: Analisis Psikolinguistik

    Lumbanraja, Novelina

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis pemerolehan leksikal nomina bahasa Angkola anak usia 3-4 tahun: analisis psikolinguistik dengan tujuan mendeskripsikan bagaimana pemerolehan leksikal nomina bahasa Angkola anak usia 3-4 tahun dan bagaimana urutan lpemerolehan leksikal nomina bahasa Angkola anak usia 3-4 tahun. Pengumpulan data dilakukan terlebih dahulu dengan melakukan observasi. Hal ini dilakukan untuk mengamati pemahaman kata benda yang diucapkan anak-anak dengan kata benda ya...

  9. Electronic Services Monthly MI Report

    Social Security Administration — This electronic services monthly MI report contains monthly MI data for most public facing online online applications such as iClaim, electronic access, Mobile wage...

  10. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives

    Mohamed R. Abdel Aziz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available New series of 1,3,4-thiadiazoles have been prepared via reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazolenaminones 1 with N-phenyl 2-oxopropanehydrazonoyl chloride (2 in dioxane in the presence of triethylamine. Also, some new heterocycles incorporating 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring were obtained by reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazolenaminones 1 with nitrogen-nucleophiles like hydrazine hydrate, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole and 2-aminobenzimidazole. The structure of the new products was established based on elemental and spectral analysis. The relation between the structure of the products and their activity towards some microorganisms was studied and promising results were obtained.

  11. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  12. Synthesis of 1-Substituted Carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and Carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carboline Analogs as Potential Antitumor Agents

    Ji-Wang Chern

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1-substituted carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-b-carboline analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity against human tumor cells including KB, DLD, NCI-H661, Hepa, and HepG2/A2 cell lines. Among these, compounds 2, 6, 7, and 9 exhibited the most potent and selective activity against the tested tumor cells. As for inhibition of topoisomerase II, compounds 1–14 and 18 showed better activity than etoposide. Among them, compounds 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 exhibited potent activity. The structure and activity relationship (SAR study revealed correlation between carbon numbers of the side chain and biological activities. The molecular complex with DNA for compound 2 was proposed.

  13. 3,4-DGE is cytotoxic and decreases HSP27/HSPB1 in podocytes.

    Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Poveda, Jonay; Sanz, Ana Belen; Carrasco, Susana; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Selgas, Rafael; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Hyperglycemia is the key driver of diabetic complications and increased concentrations of glucose degradation products. The study of peritoneal dialysis solution biocompatibility has highlighted the adverse biological effects of glucose degradation products. Recently, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as the most toxic glucose degradation product in peritoneal dialysis fluids. In addition, 3,4-DGE is present in high-fructose corn syrup, and its precursor 3-deoxyglucosone is increased in diabetes. The role of 3,4-DGE in glomerular injury had not been addressed. We studied the effects of 3,4-DGE on cultured human podocytes and in vivo in mice. 3,4-DGE induced apoptosis in podocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 3,4-DGE promoted the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspase-3. While high glucose concentrations increased the levels of the podocyte intracellular antiapoptotic protein HSP27/HSPB1, 3,4-DGE decreased the expression of podocyte HSP27/HSPB1. Apoptosis induced by 3,4-DGE was caspase-dependent and could be prevented by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Antagonism of Bax by a Ku-70-derived peptide also prevented apoptosis. Intravenous administration of 3,4-DGE to healthy mice resulted in a decreased expression of HSP27/HSPB1 and caspase-3 activation in whole kidney and in podocytes in vivo. In conclusion, 3,4-DGE induces apoptotic cell death in cultured human podocytes, suggesting a potential role in glomerular injury resulting from metabolic disorders. PMID:24337777

  14. Synthesis and thermolysis of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex

    Present article is devoted to synthesis and thermolysis of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex. The synthesis method of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex is elaborated. The kinetics of its thermolysis process is studied. The thermodynamic functions of thermolysis process are evaluated.

  15. Adjustable Intragastric Balloons: A 12-Month Pilot Trial in Endoscopic Weight Loss Management

    E. Machytka; P. Klvana; A. Kornbluth; S. Peikin; L.E.M. Mathus-Vliegen; C. Gostout; G. Lopez-Nava; S. Shikora; J. Brooks

    2011-01-01

    Intragastric balloons are associated with (1) early period intolerance, (2) diminished effect within 3-4 months, and (3) bowel obstruction risk mandating removal at 6 months. The introduction of an adjustable balloon could improve comfort and offer greater efficacy. A migration prevention function,

  16. Three-dimensional photochemical microfabrication of poly(3,4-ethylene- dioxythiophene) in transparent polymer sheet

    Yamada, Katsumi, E-mail: kyamada@chem.t-kougei.ac.jp [Department of Life Science and Sustainable Chemistry, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa, 243-0297 (Japan); Yamada, Yumiko [Department of Life Science and Sustainable Chemistry, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa, 243-0297 (Japan); Sone, Junji [Department of Applied Computer Science, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa, 243-0297 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    A dimeric compound of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene was polymerized to form poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) by multi-photon sensitized polymerization using a femtosecond laser. In contrast, photopolymerization could not be achieved using 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene as the starting material, because it has a more positive oxidation peak potential compared to the redox potential of the tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium complex used as the photosensitizer. Furthermore, three-dimensional micropatterns of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) could be produced in a transparent polymer sheet by scanning the laser focal point. - Highlights: • Multi-photon sensitized polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT). • Three-dimensional microstructures of poly(EDOT) in the transparent polymer sheet. • The dimeric compound of EDOT was employed as the starting material. • The lateral precision of this system exceeded the diffraction limit.

  17. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Perceived Infant Outcomes at 18-24 months: Neural and Psychological Correlates of Parental Thoughts and Actions Assessed during the First Month Postpartum

    Pilyoung eKim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The first postpartum months constitute a critical period for parents to establish an emotional bond with their infants. Neural responses to infant-related stimuli have been associated with parental sensitivity. However, the associations among these neural responses, parenting, and later infant outcomes for mothers and fathers are unknown. In the current longitudinal study, we investigated the relationships between parental thoughts/actions and neural activation in mothers and fathers in the neonatal period with infant outcomes at the toddler stage. At the first month postpartum, mothers (n=21 and fathers (n=19 underwent a neuroimaging session during which they listened to their own and unfamiliar baby’s cry. Parenting-related thoughts/behaviors were assessed by interview twice at the first month and 3-4 months postpartum and infants’ socioemotional outcomes were reported by mothers and fathers at 18-24 months postpartum. In mothers, higher levels of anxious thoughts/actions about parenting at the first month postpartum, but not at 3-4 months postpartum, were associated with infant’s low socioemotional competencies at 18-24 months. Anxious thoughts/actions were also associated with heightened responses in the motor cortex and reduced responses in the substantia nigra to own infant cry sounds. On the other hand, in fathers, higher levels of positive perception of being a parent at the first month postpartum, but not at 3-4 months postpartum, were associated with higher infant socioemotional competencies at 18-24 months. Positive thoughts were associated with heightened responses in the auditory cortex and caudate to own infant cry sounds. The current study provides evidence that parental thoughts are related to concurrent neural responses to their infants at the first month postpartum as well as their infant’s future socioemotional outcome at 18-24 months. Parent differences suggest that anxious thoughts in mothers and positive thoughts in

  18. Left behind by birth month

    Solli, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative from Norway I investigate birth month effects on school performance at age 16, educational achievement at age 19 and 25 and earnings at age 30. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher 10th grade GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are similar across gender, but stronger for less advantaged children. The birth month effects are robust to controlling for sibling fixed effects. On longer term outcome...

  19. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  20. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  1. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  2. Boronic, diboronic, and α-amino-boronic acids derived from 1-ethynyl-3, 4-dimethoxybenzene

    This work was undertaken with the intention of synthesizing (α-amino-β-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethylboronic acid. Unfortunately, the goal could not be attained since the isolation of the target compound could not be achieved though some information suggested its existence in the final product. The methods of synthesis used in the second half of the attempted preparation are described here (compounds in the first half have been published elsewhere). In this procedure, (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethenylboronic acid is esterified and azeotropic distillation is conducted to provide diethyl (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethenylboronate. This compound is dissolved in diglyme and diborane gas is introduced. The hydroboration product is then subjected to amination with hydroxylamine-0-sulfonic acid. (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethyl-α, α-diboronic acid is obtained from the residue of acetone extraction. The acetone extract is concentrated to a solid caramel, from which (α-borono-β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethylammonium tetraphenylborate is formed. Conversion from the tetraphenylborate salt to (α-amino-β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethylboronic acid hydrochloride is attempted by the double decomposition RH BPh4 + CsCl -- RH Cl + CsBPh4. The product is subjected to demethylation and treated with sodium tetraphenylborate to precipitate (α-borono-β-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)) ethylammonium tetraphenylborate. Conversion of this to the target compound is tried by double decomposition. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Analysis of common cause failure in Wolsong 2/3/4 NPPs PSA

    Wolsong 2/3/4 Nuclear Power Plants (WS 2/3/4 NPPs) are CANDU 6 type Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) being built in Wolsong site of Korea by Korea Power Electric Corporation (KEPCO). WS 2/3/4 NPPs are designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). AECL performs Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for these NPPs. In this PSA, however, the effect of Common Cause Failure (CCF) is not analyzed due to the limitation of CANDU reliability data. Since the CCF is regarded as one of the most dominant contributors to the total core damage frequency (CDF) in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) PSA. KEPCO and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) initiated WS 2/3/4 NPPs Level 2 PSA which includes the CCF analysis and detailed HRA. In WS 2/3/4 NPPs Level 2 PSA, the authors reviewed the CCF data used in PWR PSA, and applied these data for WS 2/3/4 NPPs Level 2 PSA. The MGL method is implemented for the CCF analysis of WS 2/3/4 NPPs. The analyzed results show that the effect of CCF is not negligible in CANDU PSA as well as in PWR PSA. So the CCF data of CANDU plants should be collected and incorporated into CANDU PSA

  4. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats after oral administration

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) is an UV-filter frequently used in sunscreens and cosmetics. Equivocal findings in some screening tests for hormonal activity initiated a discussion on a possible weak estrogenicity of 4-MBC. In this study, the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 4-MBC were characterized in rats after oral administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group) were administered single oral doses of 25 or 250 mg/kg bw of 4-MBC in corn oil. Metabolites formed were characterized and the kinetics of elimination for 4-MBC and its metabolites from blood and with urine were determined. Metabolites of 4-MBC were characterized by 1H NMR and LC-MS/MS as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and as four isomers of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor containing the hydroxyl group located in the camphor ring system with 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor as the major metabolite. After oral administration of 4-MBC, only very low concentrations of 4-MBC were present in blood and the peak concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were approximately 500-fold above those of 4-MBC; blood concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were below the limit of detection. Blood concentration of 4-MBC and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor peaked within 10 h after 4-MBC administration and then decreased with half-lives of approximately 15 h. No major differences in peak blood levels between male and female rats were seen. In urine, one isomer of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor was the predominant metabolite [3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor], the other isomers and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were only minor metabolites excreted with urine. However, urinary excretion of 4-MBC-metabolites represents only a minor pathway of elimination for 4-MBC, since most of the applied dose was recovered in feces as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and, to a smaller extent, as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor

  5. Changes in cortical relative power in patients submitted to a tendon transfer: a pre and post surgery study Alterações na potência relativa cortical em pacientes submetidos a transferência de tendão: estudo pré e pós-cirurgico

    Julio Guilherme Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is analyze possible modifications in the cerebral cortex, through quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG in patients submitted to a tendon transfer procedure (posterior tibialis by the Srinivasan's technique. Four subjects (2 men and 2 women, 49.25 age average (SD±21.4 were studied. All subjects have been through surgical procedure due to leprosy and had, at least, two years of drop foot condition. The qEEG measured the electrocortical activity (relative power between 8 and 25 Hz frequencies pre and post surgery. A paired t test analyzed all data (pO objetivo deste estudo é analisar possíveis modificações no córtex cerebral, através da electrencefalografia quantitativa (EEGq, em pacientes submetidos a um procedimento de transferência de tendão (tibial posterior pela técnica de Srinivasan. Quatro sujeitos (2 homens e 2 mulheres, com média de idade de 49,25 anos (±21,4 DP foram estudados. Todos os sujeitos realizaram o procedimento cirúrgico devido a hanseníase e tinham, pelo menos, dois anos de pé caído. O EEGq mediu a atividade electrocortical (potencia relativa entre freqüências de 8 e 25 Hz, no pré e pós-operatório. Um teste t pareado analisou todos os dados (p<0,05. Os resultados mostram alterações significativas na potência relativa em alfa, nos elétrodos F7 (p=0,01 e F8 (p=0,021. Baseados em recentes achados na literatura, podemos concluir que o procedimento de transferência de tendão sugere alterações eletrocorticais sensíveis às freqüên-cias específicas do EEGq.

  6. Post-Surgery Codeine Puts Kids at Risk

    ... Médicos Dispositivos que Emiten Radiación Fraude en la Salud Medicamentos Nutrición Productos Veterinarios Productos de Tabaco Salud Infantil Salud de la Mujer Suplementos Dietéticos Vacunas, ...

  7. Effect of Preoperative Play Interventions on Post Surgery Anxiety

    Narges Alirezaei

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "n "nObjective: Many studies have shown that the level of postoperative distress and anxiety in children is associated with the amount of anxiety during the pre operative period. In this study, we compared the effect of pre-operational attending in a playroom and using play activities on the level of anxiety increment after surgery in an intervention and a control group of Iranian children. "n "nMethod: In a clinical trial, 75 children aged 5 to 12 enrolled in the intervention and the control group. The anxiety symptoms were assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and Yale modified Pre operative Anxiety Scale. The mean differences of pre and post operative anxiety scores were calculated and compared using the ANCOVA statistical method. "n "nResults: The two groups had similar demographic characteristics except for age which was higher in the control group. The baseline anxiety score was lower in the intervention compare to the control group and was statistically significant. There was a significant reduction in the trend of anxiety increment after surgery in the intervention group in comparison to the control group. "n "nConclusion: Attending in playrooms and using play activities may reduce the trend of increment in the anxiety level induced by surgical procedures.

  8. Effect of Preoperative Play Interventions on Post Surgery Anxiety

    Narges Alirezaei; Bahar Ashjaei; Zahra Shahrivar; Fatemeh Moharari; Javad Mahmoudi-gharaei; Jaleh Parizad

    2008-01-01

    "n "nObjective: Many studies have shown that the level of postoperative distress and anxiety in children is associated with the amount of anxiety during the pre operative period. In this study, we compared the effect of pre-operational attending in a playroom and using play activities on the level of anxiety increment after surgery in an intervention and a control group of Iranian children. "n "nMethod: In a clinical trial, 75 children aged 5 to 12 enrolled in the intervention and the control...

  9. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  10. U.S. Monthly Extremes

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GIS U.S. Monthly Extremes is a web based product that is extracted from the U.S. COOP Summary of the Month dataset (DSI-3220). This is meteorological data from the...

  11. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  15. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  1. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  2. Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazine, 1,3,6-Thiadiazepane and Quinoxaline Derivatives from Symmetrical Dithiobiureas and Thioureidoethylthiourea Derivatives

    A. Abou-Zied

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of N,N`-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides 8a-c and substituted thioureidoethylthioureas 9a-c with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil, 10a and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, 10b to form N,N`-disubstituted [1,3,4]thiadiazole-2,5-diamines 11a-c, 6,7-dichloro-3-substituted amino-1H-benzo[1,3,4]- thiadiazine-5,8-diones 12a-c, 2,3,7,8-tetrahalothianthrene-1,4,6,9-tetraones 13a,b, 5,6,8- trihalo-7-oxo-3,7-dihydro-2H-quinoxaline-1-carbothioic acid substituted amides 14a-c, 15a-c and 7-substituted imino-[1,3,6]thiadiazepane-3-thiones 16a-c are reported. Rationales for the observed conversions are presented.

  3. Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazine, 1,3,6-Thiadiazepane and Quinoxaline Derivatives from Symmetrical Dithiobiureas and Thioureidoethylthiourea Derivatives

    Abou-Zied, A.; K. El-Shaieb; A. Mourad; Hassan, A

    2005-01-01

    Reactions of N,N`-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides 8a-c and substituted thioureidoethylthioureas 9a-c with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil, 10a) and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, 10b) to form N,N`-disubstituted [1,3,4]thiadiazole-2,5-diamines 11a-c, 6,7-dichloro-3-substituted amino-1H-benzo[1,3,4]- thiadiazine-5,8-diones 12a-c, 2,3,7,8-tetrahalothianthrene-1,4,6,9-tetraones 13a,b, 5,6,8- trihalo-7-oxo-3,7-dihydro-2H-quinoxaline-1-carbothioic acid substit...

  4. Regurgitation and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Six to Nine Months Old Indonesian Infants

    Hegar, Badriul; Satari, Debora Hindra I.; Sjarif, Damayanti R.; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Regurgitation is known to peak at the age of 3-4 months, with a sharp decrease around the age of 6 months. Little is known about the natural evolution of infants who still regurgitate after the age of 6 months. Methods Hundred thirty-one infants older than 6 months regurgitating more than once a day were followed for a period of 3 months. Results According to our data, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is seldom at this age. Most of the infants regurgitated 3 or more times/day an...

  5. Electrical conductivity in 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhidride (PTCDA): Električna prevodnost v 3,4,9,10 perilendianhidrid tetrakarboksilni kislini (PTCDA):

    Bratina, Gvido; Brownell, John Nimly; Hudej, Robert; Zavrtanik, Marko

    2001-01-01

    The transient photoresponse in 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride was examined in metal/organic semiconductor/metal heterostructures. Electron-hole pairs are generated within the structure for fields higher than 5 X 10sup4 V/cm as a consequence of the exciton dissociation. The mobility of the electrons perpendicular to the molecular layers increases with the applied electric field and saturates for fields higher than 5 X 10sup4 V/cm.

  6. Re-examination of the "3/4-law" of Metabolism

    Dodds, P S; Weitz, J S; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the scaling law $B \\propto M^{\\alpha}$ which connects organismal metabolic rate $B$ with organismal mass $M$, where $\\alpha$ is commonly held to be 3/4. Since simple dimensional analysis suggests $\\alpha=2/3$, we consider this to be a null hypothesis testable by empirical studies. We re-analyze data sets for mammals and birds compiled by Heusner, Bennett and Harvey, Bartels, Hemmingsen, Brody, and Kleiber, and find little evidence for rejecting $\\alpha=2/3$ in favor of $\\alpha=3/4$. For mammals, we find a possible breakdown in scaling for larger masses reflected in a systematic increase in $\\alpha$. We also review theoretical justifications of $\\alpha=3/4$ based on dimensional analysis, nutrient-supply networks, and four-dimensional biology. We find that present theories for $\\alpha=3/4$ require assumptions that render them unconvincing for rejecting the null hypothesis that $\\alpha=2/3$.

  7. Human reliability analysis in Wolsong 2/3/4 nuclear power plants probabilistic safety assessment

    The Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for Wolsong(WS) 2/3/4 nuclear power plant(NPPs) in design stage is performed using the methodologies being equivalent to PWR PSA. Accident sequence evaluation program (ASEF) human reliability analysis (HRA) procedure and technique for human error rate prediction (THERP) are used in HRA of WS 2/3/4 NPPs PSA. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the procedure and methodology of HRA in WS 2/3/4 NPPs PSA. Also, this paper describes the interim results of importance analysis for human actions modeled in WS 2/3/4 PSA and the findings and recommendations of administrative control of secondary control area from the view of human factors

  8. Structure and phase transitions in [(CH3)4P]3[Sb2Br9] and [(CH3)4P]3[Bi2Br9

    Two new phosphonium bromoantimonate(III) and bromobismuthate(III) [(CH3)4P]3[Sb2Br9] (PBA) and [(CH3)4P]3[Bi2Br9] (PBB) crystals have been synthesized and their structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds are isomorphous in the room temperature phase and crystallize in the trigonal space group (polar), P31c. The structure consists of discrete [M2X9]3- anions and [(CH3)4P]+ cations. A sequence of structural phase transitions in PBA and PBB is established on the basis of differential scanning calorimetry and dilatometric studies. Two reversible phase transitions are found: (I↔II) at 540/540 K and (II↔III) at 193/195 K for PBA and (I↔II) at 550/550 K and (II↔III) at 205/207.5 K for PBB (on cooling/heating). The pyroelectric measurements of both compounds have confirmed the polar nature of phases (II) and (III). Proton spin-lattice relaxation time of polycrystalline PBA have been studied in temperatures 77-400 K. A dynamic inequivalence of two tetramethylphosphonium cations has been detected. A ferroelastic domain structure was found over the lowest temperature phase (III) of both crystals studied. The possible mechanisms of the phase transitions are discussed on the basis of the presented results

  9. Structure and phase transitions in [(CH 3) 4P] 3[Sb 2Br 9] and [(CH 3) 4P] 3[Bi 2Br 9

    Wojtaś, M.; Jakubas, R.; Ciunik, Z.; Medycki, W.

    2004-04-01

    Two new phosphonium bromoantimonate(III) and bromobismuthate(III) [(CH 3) 4P] 3[Sb 2Br 9] (PBA) and [(CH 3) 4P] 3[Bi 2Br 9] (PBB) crystals have been synthesized and their structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds are isomorphous in the room temperature phase and crystallize in the trigonal space group (polar), P31 c. The structure consists of discrete [ M2X9] 3- anions and [(CH 3) 4P] + cations. A sequence of structural phase transitions in PBA and PBB is established on the basis of differential scanning calorimetry and dilatometric studies. Two reversible phase transitions are found: (I↔II) at 540/540 K and (II↔III) at 193/195 K for PBA and (I↔II) at 550/550 K and (II↔III) at 205/207.5 K for PBB (on cooling/heating). The pyroelectric measurements of both compounds have confirmed the polar nature of phases (II) and (III). Proton spin-lattice relaxation time of polycrystalline PBA have been studied in temperatures 77- 400 K. A dynamic inequivalence of two tetramethylphosphonium cations has been detected. A ferroelastic domain structure was found over the lowest temperature phase (III) of both crystals studied. The possible mechanisms of the phase transitions are discussed on the basis of the presented results.

  10. Structure and properties of [(CH3)4P]3[Sb2Cl9] and [(CH3)4P]3[Bi2Cl9

    Wojtas, M.; Jakubas, R.

    2004-10-01

    Two new phosphonium chloroantimonate(III) and chlorobismuthate(III) crystals ([(CH3)4P]3[Sb2Cl9] (PCA) and [(CH3)4P]3[Bi2Cl9] (PCB)) have been synthesized and their structure determined by means of single-crystal x-ray diffraction. The structure of the title compounds contains discrete [M2Cl9]3- anions in general positions and disordered [(CH3)4P]+ cations. The two compounds are isomorphous in the room temperature phase and crystallize in the polar trigonal space group, P31c. The phase situation in PCA and PCB is established on the basis of differential scanning calorimetry and dilatometric studies. Two phase transitions are found: at 534/534 K (\\mathrm {I}\\leftrightarrow \\mathrm {II} ) and at 135/138 K (\\mathrm {II}\\leftrightarrow \\mathrm {III} ) for PCA and at 550/550 K (\\mathrm {I}\\leftrightarrow \\mathrm {II} ) and at 151/155 K (\\mathrm {II}\\leftrightarrow \\mathrm {III} ) for PCB (on cooling/heating). The values of the transition entropies (DgrStr) obtained suggest that the \\mathrm {II}\\rightarrow \\mathrm {III} transitions are of the order-disorder type. The dielectric dispersion measurements have revealed a relaxation process in the PCB crystal. The pyroelectric measurements of both compounds have confirmed the polar nature of the low temperature phase (III). The ferroic (ferroelastic) properties were found over phase III for both crystals.

  11. Synthesis of New 1,3,4-Thiadiazole and 1,2,3,4-Oxathiadiazole Derivatives from Carbohydrate Precursors and Study of Their Effect on Tyrosinase Enzyme

    Huda E. Abdelwahab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available 5-(1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroxybutyl-2-methylfuran-3-carbohydrazide (2 was condensed with a variety of ketones to afford carbohydrazide derivatives 36. Acetylation of 35 afforded the acetyl derivatives 79, while periodate oxidation of 36 afforded the formyl derivatives 1013. Acid catalyzed condensation of thiosemicarbazide or o-tolylthiosemicarbazide with the prepared aldehydes 1012 gave thiosemicarbazone derivatives 1419. Cyclization of the latter with acetic anhydride afforded 4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazolyl derivatives 2025. On the other hand, condensation of p-tosylhydrazine with the prepared aldehydes 1012 afforded p-tosylhydrazone derivatives 2628. Cyclization of 2628 with acetic anhydride afforded 1,2,3,4-oxathiadiazole derivatives 2931 respectively. Moreover, the obtained results regarding to the effect of some of the prepared compounds on tyrosinase enzyme showed that the majority of these compounds having an inhibitory effect; especially compounds 12, 16, 17, and 28.

  12. n-Propyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside

    Bettina Mönch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R-2-(acetoxymethyl-6-propoxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triyl triacetate], C17H26O10, was formed by a Koenigs–Knorr reaction of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl bromide and n-propanol. The central ring adopts a chair conformation. The crystal does not contain any significant interactions such as hydrogen bonds.

  13. Implementation experiences of NASTRAN on CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 operating system

    Go, J. C.; Hill, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The implementation of the NASTRAN system on the CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 Operating System is described. The flexibility of the NASTRAN system made it possible to accomplish the change with no major problems. Various sizes of benchmark and test problems, ranging from two hours to less than one minute CP time were run on the CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.3, Univac EXEC-8, and CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.4. The NASTRAN installation deck is provided.

  14. N-[(9-Ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine

    Abdullah Mohamed Asiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, N-[(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine has been synthesized by reaction of 9-ethyl-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde with 5-amino-3,4-dimethylisoxazole in the presence of acetic acid in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  15. Magnetic phase transitions in new multiferroic SmCr3(BO3)4

    The optical spectra, as well as thermal and magnetic properties, of the compound SmCr3(BO3)4, both pure and doped with 1% erbium, have been investigated in a wide temperature range. It has been found that SmCr3(BO3)4 undergoes a cascade of phase transitions at temperatures (7.8±0.5) K, (6.7±0.5) K, and (4.3±0.2) K

  16. New 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from Croton micans.

    Mateu, Elsa; Chavez, Katiuska; Riina, Ricarda; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Delle Monache, Franco; Suárez, Alírica I

    2012-01-01

    From the stems of Croton micans Sw., five new 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers: micansinoic acid (1), isomicansinoic acid (2), and the dimethyl (3), monomethyl (4) and monoethyl ester (5) of micansinoic acid were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS. These compounds are the first 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from a Croton species. PMID:22428229

  17. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review, May 1990

    This document is a monthly report of Energy Information Administration on production, consumption, stocks, imports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. International energy data is also presented. 47 figs., 67 tabs

  20. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  1. Monthly Energy Review, July 1992

    None

    1992-07-27

    The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration. Topics discussed include: Energy Overview, Energy Consumption, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Oil and Gas Resource Development, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, International Energy. (VC)

  2. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  3. Is inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate a new second messenger

    Hansen, C.A.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    Hormone-stimulated hydrolysis of inositol (Ins) lipids results in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, the second messenger for intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization. Recently, a more polar inositol phosphate, Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ as well as its probable hydrolysis product Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ have been reported to accumulate in carbachol-stimulated brain slices. Vasopressin addition to hepatocytes prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)-Ins also showed a rapid increase of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/, which was similar to that of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, while the accumulation of Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ was slower. In order to examine whether Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ has any functional effects on Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis, it was synthesized enzymatically from (/sup 3/H)-Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ using a partially purified phosphoinositol kinase activity from rat brain cortex. (/sup 3/H)-labeled inositol phosphates were separated by anion exchange chromatography and analyzed by HPLC using ammonium formate/phosphoric acid gradient elution. Preliminary experiments indicate that Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ up to 10 ..mu..M does not release Ca/sup 2 +/ from vesicular pools in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes. It has a slight inhibitory effect on Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release. The effect of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ on plasma membrane Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes are presently being investigated.

  4. Influence of southern oscillation and SSTs over Nino-3.4 region on the winter monsoon rainfall over coastal Andhra Pradesh

    O S R U Bhanu Kumar; C V Naidu; S R L Rao

    2004-09-01

    An analysis of the mean monthly data of 124 years reveals that the relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index in September and the winter monsoon rainfall (WMR) over Coastal Andhra Pradesh (CAP) is variable and non-stationary. In the recent four decades, however, SOI (Sept) is negatively and significantly correlated with CAP WMR. A similar analysis is performed using 50 years of mean monthly SSTs over Nino-3.4 region in August and September and CAP WMR to detect a possible relationship and there is a striking positive relation between them. In both of the above cases, the September signal is more significant in the recent four decades than for the other months and seasons for probable prediction of CAP WMR. Finally, to examine the influence of SO on the winter monsoon rainfall, a non-parametric test "Mann-Whitney Rank Statistics" test has been applied to the rainfall associated with extreme positive and negative SOI events.

  5. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  6. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review, April 1998

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy data. A brief summary of the monthly and historical comparison data is provided in Section 1 of the report. A highlight section of the report provides an assessment of summer 1997 motor gasoline price increases.

  8. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  9. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  10. Electric Power Monthly, March 1991

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are presented on generation, fuel consumption, stockpiles, costs, sales, and unusual occurrences. Fuels considered are: coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydroelectric power. 4 figs., 48 tabs

  11. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. Novel lanthanide complexes constructed from 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoic acid: crystal structures, spectrum and thermochemical properties

    Qi, Xiao-Xia; Wu, Jun-Chen [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Ren, Ning, E-mail: ningren9@163.com [College of Chemical engineering & Material, Handan College, Handan 056005 (China); Zhao, Chun-Li [Raoyang High School of Hebei, Raoyang 053900 (China); Zhang, Jian-Jun, E-mail: jjzhang6@126.com [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Zong, Guang-Cai; Gao, Jie [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2015-09-10

    Graphical abstract: Four novel lanthanide coordination polymers [Ln(3,4-DMOBA){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O·C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Single crystal structures indicates 1 D stucture of the title complexes are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure. Complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb{sup 3+} ion({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6-3}). The investigation of TG-FTIR and IR spectra of the evolved gases shows uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules tend to lose firstly, and then 3,4-DMOBA ligands begin to decompose. - Highlights: • Four lanthanide coordination polymers were synthesized and characterized. • 1-D chain structures of the title complexes are are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a 3-D structures. • Thermal decomposition processes of the title complexes were studied using TG-FTIR techniques. • IR spectra of evolved gases in thermal decomposition process were obtained and analyzed. - Abstract: Four novel lanthanide complexes [Ln(3,4-DMOBA){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O·C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Structural analyses reveal that adjacent lanthanide ions are connected by 3,4-DMOBA ligands adopting bridging bidentate mode to generate one-dimensional (1-D) structure with the uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules. 1-D structures are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure, which is rarely observed in lanthanide carboxylic acids complexes. Under the radiation of UV light, complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb{sup 3+} ion ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6-3}). The thermal decomposition mechanism is investigated by TG-FTIR technology. IR spectra of the evolved gases show that the uncoordinated water and ethanol

  15. Novel lanthanide complexes constructed from 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoic acid: crystal structures, spectrum and thermochemical properties

    Graphical abstract: Four novel lanthanide coordination polymers [Ln(3,4-DMOBA)3(H2O)2]·H2O·C2H5OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Single crystal structures indicates 1 D stucture of the title complexes are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure. Complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb3+ ion(5D4 → 7F6-3). The investigation of TG-FTIR and IR spectra of the evolved gases shows uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules tend to lose firstly, and then 3,4-DMOBA ligands begin to decompose. - Highlights: • Four lanthanide coordination polymers were synthesized and characterized. • 1-D chain structures of the title complexes are are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a 3-D structures. • Thermal decomposition processes of the title complexes were studied using TG-FTIR techniques. • IR spectra of evolved gases in thermal decomposition process were obtained and analyzed. - Abstract: Four novel lanthanide complexes [Ln(3,4-DMOBA)3(H2O)2]·H2O·C2H5OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Structural analyses reveal that adjacent lanthanide ions are connected by 3,4-DMOBA ligands adopting bridging bidentate mode to generate one-dimensional (1-D) structure with the uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules. 1-D structures are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure, which is rarely observed in lanthanide carboxylic acids complexes. Under the radiation of UV light, complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb3+ ion (5D4 → 7F6-3). The thermal decomposition mechanism is investigated by TG-FTIR technology. IR spectra of the evolved gases show that the uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules lose in the first step. And then 3,4-DMOBA ligand is decomposed into H2O, CO2 and other gaseous molecules as well as the gaseous

  16. High cervical C3-4 ′disc′ compression associated with basilar invagination

    Goel Atul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old male had torticollis and short neck since birth. He presented with symptom of progressive quadriparesis over a two-year period. Investigations revealed basilar invagination with marked rotation in the craniovertebral region and relatively large C3-4 region osteophytes. Serial MRI over two years showed persistent signal opposite C3-4 disc space suggestive of cord compression. Although the cord was humped over the odontoid process, there was no clear radiological evidence that the cord was compromised at this level. During surgery, instability was identified only at the craniovertebral region and not at the level of C3-4. Distraction of the lateral masses of atlas and axis and fixation using interarticular spacers and bone graft and direct screw implantation in the lateral mass of the atlas and pars of the axis resulted in reduction of the basilar invagination and of atlantoaxial dislocation. The patient had marked clinical recovery, despite the fact that no direct procedure was done for C3-4 disc decompression. The case suggests that C3-4 disc changes could be secondary to primary instability at the craniovertebral junction.

  17. Ionic fragmentation following core excitation of Sn(CH3)4 and Pb(CH3)4 by soft X-rays

    Ionic photofragmentation has been studied on Sn(CH3)4 (TMT) and Pb(CH3)4 (TML) in the photon energy range 60-600 eV using time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The photoionization of Sn:4d in TMT (Pb:5d in TML) above 60 eV produces predominantly a doubly-charged ion which dissociates into two singly-charged ions and some neutral fragments. The ions produced in this pathway are CH3+, C2H3+, C2H5+, MCHm+ and/or M+, where M is Sn or Pb. The photoioinization of Sn:4p in TMT (Pb:5p in TML) produces a triply-charged parent ion and enhances the production of H+, CHm+ (m'=0-3) and M+. The photoionization of Sn:3d in TMT (Pb:4f in TML) produces a multiply-charged ion with the degree of charge 3-5 and enhances the production of H+, C+ (or CH+), and M+ significantly

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    Popat B. Mohite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In attempt to find new pharmacologically active molecules, we report here the synthesis and in vitro antimicrobial activities of various novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole containing 5-phenyltetrazole. The Schiff bases were obtained by condensation 2-(5-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-1-ylacetohydrazide with various aromatic aldehydes. Cyclocondensation of Schiff’s bases with acetic anhydride results in 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives. The structures of the newly synthesized 1,3,4-oxadiazole were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. The antimicrobial activity was determined by MIC method. All the compounds exhibited weak to potent antimicrobial activity. Some derivatives bearing a methoxy group exhibited very good antimicrobial activity at conc. of 62.5 µg/mL.

  19. Synthesis of 1,2-bis[2-methyl-5(3,4-difluorophenyl)-3-thienyl] perfluorocyclopentene

    Taiqi LIU; Liyan YANG; Jianxiang YU

    2008-01-01

    2,Methylthiophene (1) was treated at 0℃ with liquid bromine to form 3,5,dibromo,2,methylthiophene (2) which reacted with tributyl borate to give 2,methyl,3,bromo,5,boronate thiophene (3) at,78℃. Treatment of 3 with 3,4,difluorobrombenzene gave 2,methyl,3,bromo,5,(3,4,difluorophenyl)thiophene (4). Finally,a novel photochromic dithienylethene compound,1,2,bis [2,methyl,5(3,4,difluorophenyl),3,thienyl]perfluorocyclopentene (DT,1),was synthesized by the reaction of 4 with perfluorocyclopentene at,78℃. The compound (DT,1)was characterized by IR,NMR,MS,elemental analysis and its photochromic behavior was also discussed.

  20. Metabolites of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in monkey urine

    [14C(U)]-Labeled 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene was administered orally to squirrel monkeys. Urine was collected from these animals, pooled and analyzed for metabolites by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. N-Acetyl-s(2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenyl) cysteine was shown to be the major metabolite and accounted for 85% of the radioactivity found in urine. A minor metabolite was identified at 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol. This study demonstrates for the first time that an N-acetyl cysteine conjugate has been isolated and identified as metabolite of a chlorinated benzene. This pattern of chlorobenzene metabolism is significantly different from the one obtained with the rat and rabbit, where tetrachlorophenols constitute the major metabolites

  1. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    Highlights: → Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. → iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. → 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. → Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-κB in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-κB activation, leading to tumor development.

  2. Sodium samarium tetrakis(polyphosphate), NaSm(PO3)4

    Dan Zhao; Lina Zhang; Feifei Li

    2010-01-01

    NaSm(PO3)4 has been prepared by solid state reactions. It belongs to type II of the structural family of MILnIII(PO3)4 compounds (MI = alkali metal and LnIII = rare earth metal) and is composed of ∞(PO3)n]n− polyphosphate chains with a repeating unit of four PO4 tetrahedra. The chains extend parallel to [100] and share O atoms with irregular SmO8 polyhedra, forming a three-dimensional framework which delimits tunnels occupied by Na+ cations in a distorted octahedral enviro...

  3. Interleukin 2 promotes growth and cytolytic activity in human T3+4-8- thymocytes.

    de la Hera, A; Toribio, M L; Marquez, C; C. Martinez

    1985-01-01

    Human thymocytes bearing T3 but neither T4 nor T8 antigens (T3+4-8- cells) were obtained after negative selection of thymocytes, either fresh or cultured in medium containing recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2), by treatment with Na1/34, OKT4A and B9.4 monoclonal antibodies (which recognize T6, T4, and T8 antigens, respectively) and complement. Quantitative flow cytometry showed a 98% pure population of T3+4-8- lymphocytes, which included proliferating cells. The growth and maturation requiremen...

  4. Raman scattering from phonons and magnons in RFe3(BO3)(4)

    Fausti, Daniele; Nugroho, Agung A.; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.; Klimin, Sergei A.; Popova, Marina N.; Bezmaternykh, Leonard N.

    2006-01-01

    Inelastic light scattering spectra of several members of the RFe3(BO3)(4) family reveal a cascade of phase transitions as a function of temperature, starting with a structural, weakly first-order, phase transition followed by two magnetic phase transitions. Those consist of the ordering of the Fe-spin sublattice, revealed by all the compounds, and a subsequent spin-reorientational transition for GdFe3(BO3)(4). The Raman data evidence a strong coupling between the lattice and magnetic degrees ...

  5. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenyl esters as antiseptics for fibrous materials

    Stepanenko, N.I.; Ryakhovskaya, A.I.; Romanenko, O.A.; Garifullina, K.R.

    1983-09-10

    Wastes containing tri- and tetrachlorobenzenes are obtained during production of di- and trichlorobenzenes. One way of utilizing these wastes is conversion into di- and trichlorophenols by saponification. Chlorination of a mixture of di- and trichlorophenols converts it into 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol with high yields (95-96 wt. %). The uses of tetrachlorophenol are limited by its strong specific odor and volatility. The possibility of obtaining esters of 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and saturated aliphatic C/sub 2/-C/sub 12/ monocarboxylic acids, which have good antiseptic properties in relation to fibrous materials are described.

  6. Development of intelligent ECT system for 3/4 inch SG tubes

    Intelligent ECT system for 7/8 inch tubes has been qualified as official method for inspection of Steam Generator tubes in Japan since 2003. We have developed Intelligent ECT system for 3/4 inch outer diameter tubes, which is applicable for full length inspection of all tubes in Steam Generator. We have carried out the verification test on passage, scanning speed, detectability of various defects performance of auto screening, effectiveness of filtering, and accuracy of depth sizing of wears. Totally we have confirmed the performance of Intelligent ECT system for 3/4 inch tubes is equivalent to that of Intelligent ECT system for 7/8 inch tubes. (author)

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structure of 2-iodo-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid

    Kolev, Iliyan N.; Petrova, Svetlana P.; Nikolova, Rositsa P.; Dimowa, Louiza T.; Shivachev, Boris L.

    2013-02-01

    This work describes the synthesis of 2-iodo-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid. The combination of iodine and silver trifluoroacetate (AgTFA) reagents was used successfully for the iodination of 3,4,5-trimetoxybenzoic acid. To improve the efficiency of the synthetic process a significant modification on the experimental design was also performed. The main structural features of the obtained aryl iodide were investigated by a single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives

    Asma Agrebi; Fatma Allouche; Hamadi Fetoui; Fakher Chabchoub

    2014-01-01

    Several new pyrazolopyrimidine compounds were achieved from aminocyanopyarazole 1. The starting material 1 was initially coupled with orthoester at refluxed with various primary amines, ammonia, hydrazines and hydroxylamine to furnish a series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines. The reaction of imidate 2a-b with hydrazide derivatives led to the formation of pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]pyrimidines. Some of the synthesized compounds 3a and 4c were evaluated for the...

  9. Could a wait and see policy be justified in T3/4 rectal cancers after chemo-radiotherapy?

    Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision is the standard when MRI staging demonstrates threatened surgical margins in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Interest in non-surgical management of LARC as an alternative to a resection has been provoked by published excellent long-term outcomes of patients who achieve clinical complete responses (cCR) after CRT. The present retrospective study aimed to determine whether similar rates of local disease control are seen in a UK cancer centre in patients with T3-4 tumours, who obtained a cCR after preoperative CRT, but did not undergo surgery. Method. The outcome and treatment details of 266 patients who underwent CRT for clinically staged T3-4 rectal adenocarcinomas between 1993 and 2005 were reviewed. Results. Fifty-eight patients did not proceed to surgery, 10 of whom were identified as having a cCR. Six of these 10 patients subsequently developed intrapelvic recurrent disease with a median time to local progression of 20 months. Local relapse preceded the development of metastatic disease or occurred simultaneously. No patients underwent salvage resection. Conclusion. CRT alone in cT3/T4 rectal cancers has a high rate of local relapse even after cCR. Delaying or avoiding surgery might be appropriate for cT1 or cT2 tumours, or elderly and frail patients with co-morbidity, but these results do not support the current uncritical move to extrapolate this approach to all surgically fit patients with rectal cancer

  10. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  11. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  12. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  13. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  14. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  15. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  16. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  17. Electric power monthly, November 1994

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  18. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  20. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  1. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  2. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  3. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  4. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite based thin films for Schottky diode application

    Transparent, conductive films of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite were synthesized by in-situ oxidative polymerization and investigated for their Schottky diode property. The prepared films were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), surface resistivity, cyclic voltametery, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). SEM reveals the formation of homogeneous and adhesive polymer films while HRTEM confirms the uniform wrapping of polymer chains around the nanotube walls for PEDOT-FWCNT film. Improved thermal stability, conductivity and charge storage property of PEDOT in the presence of FWCNT is observed. Among different compositions, 5 wt. % of FWCNT is found to be optimum with sheet resistance and transmittance of 500 Ω sq−1 and 77%, respectively. Moreover, the electronic and junction properties of polymer films were studied and compared by fabricating sandwich type devices with a configuration of Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposite/indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. The measured current density-voltage characteristics show typical rectifying behavior for both configurations. However, enhanced rectification ratio and higher forward current density is observed in case of PEDOT-FWCNT based Schottky diode. Furthermore, reliability test depicts smaller hysteresis effect and better performance of PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes. - Highlights: • Single step synthesis of PEDOT and PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposites films via in-situ oxidative polymerization. • Thermal, electrical and electrochemical properties of films show positive effect of FWCNT on PEDOT films. • Schottky diodes based on metal Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT composites/ITO glass are fabricated. • Improved electrical characteristics with better reliability is achieved for PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes

  6. Highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) enwrapped Sb2S3 nanorods for flexible supercapacitors.

    Reddy, B Narsimha; Deepa, Melepurath; Joshi, Amish G

    2014-02-01

    Composites of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) or PEDOP and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or PEDOT enwrapped Sb2S3 nanorods have been synthesized for the first time for use as supercapacitor electrodes. Hydrothermally synthesized Sb2S3 nanorods, several microns in length and 50-150 nm wide, offer high surface area and serve as a scaffold for coating conducting polymers, and are a viable alternative to carbon nanostructures. Fibrillar morphologies are achieved for the PEDOP-Sb2S3 and PEDOT-Sb2S3 films in contrast to the regular granular topologies attained for the neat polymers. The remarkably high nanoscale (∼5 S cm(-1)) conductivity of the Sb2S3 nanorods enables facile electron transport in the composites. We constructed asymmetric supercapacitors using the neat polymer or composite and graphite as electrodes. High specific capacitances of 1008 F g(-1) and 830 F g(-1) (at 1 A g(-1)), enhanced power densities (504 and 415 W kg(-1)) and excellent cycling stability (88 and 85% capacitance retention at the end of 1000 cycles) are delivered by the PEDOP-Sb2S3 and PEDOT-Sb2S3 cells relative to the neat polymer cells. A demonstration of a light emitting diode illumination using a light-weight, flexible, supercapacitor fabricated with PEDOP-Sb2S3 and carbon-fiber cloth shows the applicability of Sb2S3 enwrapped conducting polymers as sustainable electrodes for ultra-thin supercapacitors. PMID:24343566

  7. Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite based thin films for Schottky diode application

    Gupta, Bhavana, E-mail: bgupta1206@gmail.com [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Mehta, Minisha, E-mail: mehta.mini@gmail.com [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Melvin, Ambrose [Catalysis Division, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha, Pune 411008 (India); Kamalakannan, R.; Dash, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Tyagi, A.K. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Transparent, conductive films of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite were synthesized by in-situ oxidative polymerization and investigated for their Schottky diode property. The prepared films were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), surface resistivity, cyclic voltametery, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). SEM reveals the formation of homogeneous and adhesive polymer films while HRTEM confirms the uniform wrapping of polymer chains around the nanotube walls for PEDOT-FWCNT film. Improved thermal stability, conductivity and charge storage property of PEDOT in the presence of FWCNT is observed. Among different compositions, 5 wt. % of FWCNT is found to be optimum with sheet resistance and transmittance of 500 Ω sq{sup −1} and 77%, respectively. Moreover, the electronic and junction properties of polymer films were studied and compared by fabricating sandwich type devices with a configuration of Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposite/indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. The measured current density-voltage characteristics show typical rectifying behavior for both configurations. However, enhanced rectification ratio and higher forward current density is observed in case of PEDOT-FWCNT based Schottky diode. Furthermore, reliability test depicts smaller hysteresis effect and better performance of PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes. - Highlights: • Single step synthesis of PEDOT and PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposites films via in-situ oxidative polymerization. • Thermal, electrical and electrochemical properties of films show positive effect of FWCNT on PEDOT films. • Schottky diodes based on metal Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT composites/ITO glass are fabricated. • Improved electrical characteristics with better reliability is achieved for PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes.

  8. Treatment Implications for Young Adult Users of MDMA (3,4-Methylenedyoxymethamphetamine)

    Dew, Brian J.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2006-01-01

    Young adults' 3,4-methylenedyoxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is a national public health concern. Although research on the epidemiology of MDMA use has increased, inquiry into intervention and treatment is needed. The authors examine results from an epidemiological investigation from a clinical perspective and provide suggestions for clinicians…

  9. Ethanol co-administration moderates 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects on human physiology

    Dumont, G.J.H.; Kramers, C.; Sweep, F.C.G.J.; Willemsen, J.J.; Touw, D.J.; Schoemaker, R.C.; Van Gerven, J.M.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is frequently used in combination with 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Both drugs affect cardiovascular function, hydration and temperature regulation, but may have partly opposing effects. The present study aims to assess the acute physiologic effects of (co-) administration of M

  10. 4-[5-(2-Methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]benzohydrazide

    Muhammad Taha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 4-(5-(2-Methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylbenzohydrazide (5 was synthesized by three steps. The synthesis started with 2-methoxybenzohydrazide to form hydrazone (3 which was then cyclized to oxadiazole (4 and finally, treatment of oxadiazole (4 with hydrazine hydrate afforded the final product (5.

  11. Structure and luminescence properties of silver-doped NaY(PO3)4 crystal

    Single crystals of NaY(PO3)4 and Ag0.07Na0.93Y(PO3)4 have been synthesized by flux method. These new compounds turned out to be isostructural to NaLn(PO3)4, with Ln=La, Nd, Gd and Er [monoclinic, P21/n, a=7.1615(2) A, b=13.0077(1) A, c=9.7032 (3) A, β=90.55 (1)o, V=903.86(14) A3 and Z=4]. The structure is based upon long polyphosphate chains running along the shortest unit-cell direction and made up of PO4 tetrahedra sharing two corners, linked to yttrium and sodium polyhedra. Infrared and Raman spectra at room temperature confirms this atomic arrangement. The luminescence of silver ions was reported in metaphosphate of composition Ag0.07Na0.93Y(PO3)4. One luminescent centre was detected and assigned to single Ag+ ions. - Graphical abstract: The presence of only one Ag+ luminescence centre is the result from the perfect isolation (Ag+-Ag+=5.90 A) of each oxygenated silver site (AgO8 polyhedra) sharing two faces and one corner with three yttrium polyhedra

  12. Preparation and Luminescence Characteristics of Ca3Y2(BO3)4:Eu3+ Phosphor

    LI Pan-Lai; YANG Zhi-Ping; WANG Zhi-Jun; Guo Qing-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Ca3Y2(BO3)4:Eu3+ phosphor is synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction method, and the luminescence characteristics are investigated. The emission spectrum exhibits two strong red emissions at 613 and 621 nm corresponding to the electric dipole 5 Do-7F2 transition of Eu3+ under 365 nm excitation, the reason is that Eu3+ substituting for y3+ occupies the non-centrosymmetric position in the crystal structure of Ca3Y2 (BO3 )4. The excitation spectrum for 613 nm indicates that the phosphor can be effectively excited by ultraviolet (UV) (254 nm,365nm and 400nm) and blue (470nm) light. The effect of Eu3+ concentration on the emission intensity of Ca3Y2 (BO3 )4:Eu3+ phosphor is measured, the result shows that the emission intensities increase with increasing Eu3+ concentration, then decrease. The CIE colour coordinates of Ca3Y2(BO3)4:Eu3+ phosphor is (0.639, 0.357) at 15mol% Eu3+.

  13. 39 CFR 3.4 - Matters reserved for decision by the Governors.

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.4 Matters reserved for decision by the Governors. The...) Appointment and removal of the Inspector General under 39 U.S.C. 202(e). (j) Exercise of the authority of the... research special postage stamp under 39 U.S.C. 414 and any semipostal stamp under 39 U.S.C. 416....

  14. Pharmacological Studies of p, N-(3, 4-Methylenedioxy phenyl Benzoic Acid (RRL-1364 - Part-I

    Dahanukar Sharadini

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed pharmacological investigations of p-N-(3, 4-methylene dioxy phenyl benzoic acid revealed marked hypotensive action which was dose dependent and most marked in cats; it was absent in rats. Atropine could block this hypotensive action, thus suggest-ing cholinomimetic mechanism. Further studies indicated that the hypotension produced was central and possibly medullary in origin.

  15. 1-(4-Chlorophenyl-3-(3,4-dimethylphenylprop-2-en-1-one

    Meng Guo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H15ClO, was prepared from 3,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde and 4-chlorohypnone by Aldol condensation. The dihedral angle formed by the two benzene rings is 48.91 (8°. Only van der Waals forces affect the packing.

  16. 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one

    Meng Guo

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C17H15ClO, was prepared from 3,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde and 4-chlorohypnone by Aldol condensation. The dihedral angle formed by the two benzene rings is 48.91 (8)°. Only van der Waals forces affect the packing.

  17. Development of the RETRAN input model for Kori 3/4 transient analyzer

    As a part of the long-term nuclear R and D program, KAERI has developed the so-called 'NSSS transient analyzer based on best-estimate codes for Kori 3/4 plants'. The MARS and RETRAN codes are used as the best-estimate codes for the NSSS transient analyzer. Among these two codes, the RETRAN code is used for realistic analysis of Non-LOCA transients and small-break loss-of-coolant accidents, of which break size is less than 3 inch diameter. So it is necessary to develop the RETRAN input model for Kori 3/4 plants. In recognition of this, we have developed the RETRAN input model for Kori 3/4 plants. This report includes the input model requirements and the calculation note for the input data generation (see the Appendix). In order to confirm the validity of the input data, we performed the calculations for a steady state at 100 % power operation condition, inadvertent reactor trip and two cases of loss of flow accidents. The results of the steady-state calculation agree well with the design data. The results of the other transient calculations seem to be reasonable and consistent with those of other best-estimate calculations. Therefore, the RETRAN input data can be used as a base input deck for the RETRAN transient analyzer for Kori 3/4

  18. SAC on a Niagara T3-4 Server: Lessons and Experiences

    C. Grelck; R. Douma

    2011-01-01

    The Sparc T3-4 server provides up to 512 concurrent hardware threads, a degree of concurrency that is unprecedented in a single server system. This paper reports on how the automatically parallelising compiler of the data-parallel functional array language SAC copes with up to 512 execution units. W

  19. Antiviral activity of 3,4'-dihydroxyflavone on influenza a virus.

    Hossain, Mohammed Kawser; Choi, Hye Yeon; Hwang, Jae-Seon; Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Young Bong; Poo, Haryoung; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2014-06-01

    Influenza virus infection causes thousands of deaths and millions of hospitalizations worldwide every year and the emergence of resistance to anti-influenza drugs has prompted scientists to seek new natural antiviral materials. In this study, we screened 13 different flavonoids from various flavonoid groups to identify the most potent antiviral flavonoid against human influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). The 3-hydroxyl group flavonoids, including 3,2᾿dihydroxyflavone (3,2᾿DHF) and 3,4᾿dihydroxyflavone (3,4᾿DHF), showed potent anti-influenza activity. They inhibited viral neuraminidase activity and viral adsorption onto cells. To confirm the anti-influenza activity of these flavonoids, we used an in vivo mouse model. In mice infected with human influenza, oral administration of 3,4᾿DHF significantly decreased virus titers and pathological changes in the lung and reduced body weight loss and death. Our data suggest that 3-hydroxyl group flavonoids, particularly 3,4᾿DHF, have potent antiviral activity against human influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) in vitro and in vivo. Further clinical studies are needed to investigate the therapeutic and prophylactic potential of the 3-hydroxyl group flavonoids in treating influenza pandemics. PMID:24871979

  20. CLONING IN PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA: EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF THE PROTOCATECHUATE 3,4-DIOXYGENASE GENES

    Genes for the a and B subunits of the enzyme protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase were cloned from the Pseudomonas cepacia DB01 chromosome on a 9.5 kilobase pair PstI fragment into the broad-host-range cloning vector pR023l7. he resultant clone was able to complement protocatechuate 3...

  1. Synthesis of novel pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone derivatives as cytotoxic inhibitors

    Ameur Rahmouni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Various α-fonctionalized iminoethers 2 were easily prepared from ethyl 5-amino-3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate 1. The reaction of iminoethers 2 with ammonia afforded 3-substitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 3 which were also synthesized by the addition of formamide to ethyl 5-amino-3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate 1. The 5-amino-3-substitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 4 were obtained from hydrazonolysis of iminoethers 2. Otherwise, the condensation of these intermediates 2 with a series of some primary amines and hydroxylamine led respectively, to the corresponding 3,5-disubstitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 5 and the 3-substitued-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4-(5H-ones 6. The synthesized compounds 1-6 were completely characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and HRMS. Some synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect using the Human cervical adenocarcinoma Hela cell line.

  2. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  3. Monthly energy review, February 1990

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  4. Monthly energy review, January 1996

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum,natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal metric conversion factors.

  5. Monthly energy review, November 1995

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal and metric conversion factors are included.

  6. Celebrating White Cane Awareness Month.

    Koch, Judy; McGraw, Jane M.

    1995-01-01

    White Cane Awareness Month was created to teach the public that the long cane is a tool for maintaining independence and dignity and a symbol of freedom, not of pity or helplessness. Public relations materials were developed, including a demonstration for television stations on use of the long cane and a quiz to distribute at information booths.…

  7. Monthly energy review, February 1994

    1994-02-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  8. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    1993-12-22

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy.

  9. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons.

  10. Monthly energy review, April 1997

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents an overview of monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal metric conversion factors are included.

  11. Monthly energy review, July 1996

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents an overview of the recent monthly energy statistics from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Statistical data covers activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels , nuclear energy, and electricity. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  12. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  13. Monthly energy review, July 1991

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  14. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  15. STD Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    2011-04-19

    April is National STD Awareness Month. STDs can affect anyone. Many STDs don't have symptoms so it's important to get tested.  Created: 4/19/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 4/19/2011.

  16. Periodic progress report, 12 months

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the first 12 months of the project started with the establishment of the cutting theory for the cutting of heavy sections (phase 1). Phase 2 comprises the design of the first laboratory version cutting head with optics, nozzle systems and interfaces for the various...

  17. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy

  18. Monthly energy review, December 1994

    This monthly publication contains statistical data on energy resources in the United States. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy are covered. Additional sections include an energy overview, energy consumption, oil and gas resource development and energy prices. This issue includes a market assessment of alternative-fuel vehicles in the Atlanta private fleet for 1994

  19. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  20. Prediction of Malaysian monthly GDP

    Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei; Yeing, Pan Wei

    2015-12-01

    The paper attempts to use a method based on multivariate power-normal distribution to predict the Malaysian Gross Domestic Product next month. Letting r(t) be the vector consisting of the month-t values on m selected macroeconomic variables, and GDP, we model the month-(t+1) GDP to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1),…,r(t-l+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a [(m+1)l+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. The 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution may be used to form an out-of sample prediction interval. This interval together with the mean of the conditional distribution may be used to predict the month-(t+1) GDP. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), estimated coverage probability and average length of the prediction interval are used as the criterions for selecting the suitable lag value l-1 and the subset from a pool of 17 macroeconomic variables. It is found that the relatively better models would be those of which 2 ≤ l ≤ 3, and involving one or two of the macroeconomic variables given by Market Indicative Yield, Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Import Trade.

  1. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  2. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  3. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  4. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons

  5. Monthly energy review, November 1994

    This monthly publication contains statistical data on energy resources in the United States. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy are covered. Additional sections include an energy overview, energy consumption, oil and gas resource development and energy prices. This issue includes features on energy-related housing characteristics and the propane-provider fleet

  6. Monthly energy review, April 1991

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  8. Electric power monthly, July 1994

    1994-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  9. 29 CFR 3.4 - Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll records.

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection of weekly payroll records. 3.4 Section 3.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.4 Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll... subcontractor, within seven days after the regular payment date of the payroll period, to a representative of...

  10. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR 3/4 Experiment

    Pham, Binh Thi-Cam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN 3636, “Technical Program Plan for INL Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program”). The AGR 3/4 test was inserted in the Northeast Flux Trap position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in December 2011 and successfully completed irradiation in mid-April 2014, resulting in irradiation of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel for 369.1 effective full-power days (EFPDs) during approximately 2.4 calendar years. The AGR 3/4 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of twelve AGR 3/4 capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in ECAR-2807, “AGR 3/4 Daily As Run Thermal Analyses”. The ABAQUS code’s finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume average (VA) fuel temperature (FT), peak FT, and graphite matrix, sleeve, and sink temperature in each capsule. The JMOCUP simulation codes were also created to perform depletion calculations for the AGR 3/4 experiment (ECAR-2753, “JMOCUP As-Run Daily Physics Depletion Calculation for the AGR 3/4 TRISO Particle Experiment in ATR

  11. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR 3/4 Experiment

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN 3636, 'Technical Program Plan for INL Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program'). The AGR 3/4 test was inserted in the Northeast Flux Trap position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in December 2011 and successfully completed irradiation in mid-April 2014, resulting in irradiation of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel for 369.1 effective full-power days (EFPDs) during approximately 2.4 calendar years. The AGR 3/4 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of twelve AGR 3/4 capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in ECAR-2807, 'AGR 3/4 Daily As Run Thermal Analyses'. The ABAQUS code's finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume average (VA) fuel temperature (FT), peak FT, and graphite matrix, sleeve, and sink temperature in each capsule. The JMOCUP simulation codes were also created to perform depletion calculations for the AGR 3/4 experiment (ECAR-2753, 'JMOCUP As-Run Daily Physics Depletion Calculation for the AGR 3/4 TRISO Particle

  12. Evaluation of the oral subchronic toxicity of AHTN (7-Acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) in the rat.

    Api, Anne Marie; Smith, Robert L; Pipino, Sandra; Marczylo, Timothy; De Matteis, Francesco

    2004-05-01

    7-Acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) is used as a fragrance material in a wide variety of consumer products. Because of its widespread exposure, a 90-day oral feeding study, with 4-week recovery periods for selected rats, was conducted. AHTN was added to the diet of rats at levels calculated to result in mean daily doses of 1.5, 5, 15 or 50 mg AHTN/kg body weight/day. On completion of the treatment period, 3 males and 3 females from each of the high dose groups and controls were maintained for a treatment free period of 4 weeks. There were no adverse effects revealed upon clinical examination or following extensive histopathological examinations. Histopathological examination of the prostate, seminal vesicles, mammary gland and testes of males and ovaries, mammary gland, uterus and vagina of females, undertaken on all animals in all test groups, revealed no evidence of hormonal effects of AHTN. A statistically significant decrease in body weight gain was observed in both sexes in the high dose group only. Statistically significant effects were observed in hematology and blood chemistry, although these effects were all within the range for historical controls and were not proportional to dose. A green to dark brown coloration in the livers and mesenteric lymph nodes was also seen in high dose animals. At the end of the treatment-free period, the color change was almost completely reversed; one high dose male still had green colored lymph nodes, but the liver appeared normal. A green coloration of the lacrimal glands in females, but not males, was also seen in 8/12, 4/15 and in 1 female given 50, 15 and 5 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. This green color was still present in 2/3 of the high dose females after the treatment-free period. Microscopic examination of unstained sections of frozen livers under UV illumination did not reveal any fluorescence that might have been consistent with porphyrin accumulation. These findings were

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  14. Monthly energy review, March 1998

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Energy production during December 1997 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 2.8 percent increase from the level of production during December 1996. Coal production increased 9.5 percent, natural gas production increased 3.9 percent, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.9 percent from the level of production during December 1996.

  15. Natural gas monthly, February 1997

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

  16. Electric power monthly, April 1991

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are given for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 6 figs., 57 tabs

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, February 1996

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  20. Mineral of the month: magnesium

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium, often confused with last month’s mineral of the month manganese, is valued primarily because of its light weight and high strength-to-weight ratio. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element and constitutes about 2 percent of the Earth’s crust. It is the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater, with a concentration averaging 0.13 percent. Magnesium is found in over 60 minerals, and also is recovered from seawater, wells, and lake brines and bitterns.

  1. Monthly energy review, December 1995

    NONE

    1995-12-21

    This publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. An energy preview of alternative fuel providers vehicle fleet surveys is included. The publication is intended for use by members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  2. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  3. Monthly energy review, October 1997

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided for oil and gas resource development. International energy statistics are given for petroleum production, consumption, and stocks, and for nuclear electricity gross generation. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  4. Electric Power monthly, November 1996

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  5. Electric power monthly, May 1996

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and Stage agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities in Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  6. Electric Power Monthly, June 1990

    1990-09-13

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 40 tabs.

  7. Electric power monthly, February 1994

    1994-02-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EMP) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  8. Electric power monthly, October 1993

    1993-10-20

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  9. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    1994-01-26

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  10. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels

  11. The subchronic effects of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress in rat brain

    Simić Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the subchronic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on several oxidative stress markers: index of lipid peroxidation (ILP, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, superoxide radical (O2.- levels, and reduced glutathione (GSH levels in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of the rat. The study included 64 male Wistar rats (200-250g. The animals were treated per os with of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA every day for 15 days. The subchronic administration of MDMA resulted in an increase in ILP, SOD and O2.-, and a decrease in GSH, from which we conclude that oxidative stress was induced in rat brain.

  12. Development of full power risk monitoring system for nuclear power plant for UCN 3, 4

    Recently, RIA/R has been widely used which reduce costs by optimizing resources. One of essential RIAs is the development of computerized risk monitoring system which can evaluated the risk in real time using the plant configuration information such as basic event of inoperable equipments and environmental variables. KAERI has developed the full power risk monitoring system (DynaRM) for the UCN 3,4 NPPs. In order to develop UCN 3,4 full power risk monitoring system PSA model for risk monitor should be developed with reflecting the changes of plant configuration from the beginning of plant operation. As a risk monitor system, two main modules have been developed to monitor the current risk of the plant and to assist the maintenance schedule decision making

  13. N-(5-Benzylsulfanyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl-2-(piperidin-1-ylacetamide

    D. S. Ismailova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H20N4OS2, was synthesized by the reaction of 2-benzylsulfanyl-5-chloroacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole and piperidine in a 1:2 ratio. The planes of the acetamide and 1,3,4-thiadiazole units are twisted by 10.8 (4°. The thiadiazole S atom and the acetamide O atom are syn-oriented due to a hypervalent S...O interaction of 2.628 (4 Å. In the crystal, molecules form centrosymmetric dimers via N—H...N hydrogen bonds. These dimers are further connected by C—H...O interactions into (100 layers.

  14. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives.

    Kumar, Sujeet; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Hegde, Mahesh; Rana, Vivek; Dhepe, Sharad S; Ramareddy, Sureshbabu A; Leoni, Alberto; Locatelli, Alessandra; Morigi, Rita; Rambaldi, Mirella; Srivastava, Mrinal; Raghavan, Sathees C; Karki, Subhas S

    2014-10-01

    A series of 2,5,6-substituted imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives have been prepared and were tested for antiproliferative activity on cancer cells at the National Cancer Institute. Results showed that molecules with a benzyl group at position 2, exhibited an increase in activity for the introduction of a formyl group at the 5 position. The compound 2-benzyl-5-formyl-6-(4-bromophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole 22 has been chosen for understanding the mechanism of action by various molecular and cellular biology studies. Results obtained from cell cycle evaluation analysis, analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential and Annexin V-FITC by flow cytometric analysis, ROS production and expression of apoptotic and DNA-repair proteins suggested that compound 22 induced cytotoxicity by activating extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, however, without affecting cell cycle progression. PMID:25205189

  15. Application of stochastic variational method to 3-4 body systems with realistic nuclear force

    Ohbayashi, Yoshihide [Niigata Univ. (Japan); Varga, K.; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    1997-05-01

    SVM (stochastic variational method) was applied to simulate triton and alpha with realistic nuclear force such as Reid V8 (RV8), Argonne V6, V8 (AV6 and aV8). 3-4 body systems were solved by about 300-400 dimensions and the results were agreed with the most accurate solution. Convergence of energy of 3-4 body systems was rapid by using AV6 and AV8 potential, but it was slow by RV8 with strong repulsive force core. The energy values using SVM and GFMC were almost same. Number of dimension to convert the energy of triton was decreased by refinement. (S.Y.)

  16. Crystal structure of 2-(1,3-dioxoindan-2-ylisoquinoline-1,3,4-trione

    Raza Murad Ghalib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione derivative, C18H9NO5, the five-membered ring of the indane fragment adopts an envelope conformation with the nitrogen-substituted C atom being the flap. The planes of the indane benzene ring and the isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione ring make a dihedral angle of 82.06 (6°. In the crystal, molecules are linked into chains extending along the bc plane via C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions, enclosing R22(8 and R22(10 loops. The chains are further connected by π–π stacking interations, with centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.9050 (7 Å, forming layers parallel to the b axis.

  17. Coordination Compounds Based on 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-isoquinoline-3-carboxylic Acid

    Markéta Svobodová

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of 2,6-bis[((3S-3-(methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-ylcarbonyl]pyridine and its coordination compounds with Cu2+, Co2+, Co3+, or Fe3+ are described. By means of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra it was proved that 2,6-bis[((3S-3-(methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-ylcarbonyl]pyridine as well as its coordination compound with Co3+ exist in the form of a mixture of three conformers, differing in the conformations at the two amide groups present. The prepared coordination compounds were tested in the enantioselective catalysis of the nitroaldol addition of nitromethane with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde or 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, and in the Michael addition of ethyl 2-oxocyclohexanecarboxylate to but-3-en-2-one.

  18. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Novel Imidazo[2,1-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    Kamal F. M. Atta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 2-Amino-5-(2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 2-4 have been synthesized by the reaction of 2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acids 1 with thiosemicarbazide. Their reaction with phenacyl (p-substituted phenacyl bromides led to formation of the respective 6-aryl-2-(2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylimidazo[2,1-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 5. Reactivity of the latter fused ring towards reaction with different electrophilic reagents afforded the corresponding 5-substituted derivatives 6-8. The structure of the above compounds was confirmed from their spectral characteristics. Some of these compounds were found to possess slight to moderate activity against the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli.

  19. 2-amino-1,3,4-tiadiazol Schiff Bazları

    Aysel GÜRSOY ve Hayriye AMAL, Aysel GÜRSOY ve Hayriye AMAL

    2013-01-01

    2-Amino-l,3,4-tiadiazolün tereftalaldehit, vanilin, salisilaldehit, p-dimetilaminobenzaldehit ve p-nitrobenzaldehit ile Schiff bazı ha­zırlamak üzere kondansasyonu yapılmış, ancak piridinli vasatta yal­nız tereftalaldehidle reaksiyon mahsulü elde edilebilmiştir. Bu maddenin ince tabaka kromatografisi, UV ve IR muayeneleri, C, H, N, S yüzdeleri tayini ve hidroliz mahsullerinin teşhisi yapılmış ve böylece p-fenilenbis (2-metiIenamino-l,3,4-tiadiazol) bünyesinde olduğu tes-bit edilmiştir. 2-Amin...

  20. Crystal structure of tetraethylammonium chloride 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene

    Jasmine Viger-Gravel; Ilia Korobkov; Bryce, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Equimolar quantities of tetraethylammonium chloride (Et4NCl) and 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene (o-DITFB or o-C6F4I2) have been co-crystallized in a solution of dichloromethane yielding a pure halogen-bonded compound, 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene–tetraethyl ammonium chloride (2/1), Et4N+·Cl−·2C6F4I2, in the form of translucent needles. [(Et4NCl)(o-C6F4I2)2] packs in the C2/c space group. The asymmetric unit includes one molecule of DITFB, one Et4N+ cation located on a twofold ...

  1. Synthesis, antiproliferative activities, and computational evaluation of novel isocoumarin and 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivatives.

    Guimarães, Keller G; de Freitas, Rossimiriam P; Ruiz, Ana L T G; Fiorito, Giovanna F; de Carvalho, João E; da Cunha, Elaine F F; Ramalho, Teodorico C; Alves, Rosemeire B

    2016-03-23

    A series of novel isocoumarin derivatives were synthesized using Castro-Stephens cross-coupling. Moreover, novel 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivatives were obtained by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding isocoumarin precursors. The antiproliferative activity of all compounds was evaluated in vitro in different tumor cells. Furthermore, docking calculations were performed for the kallikrein 5 (KLK5) active site to predict the possible mechanism of action of this series of compounds. Theoretical findings indicate that the 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivative 10a forms hydrogen bonds with Ser190 and Gln192 residues of KLK5. This derivative was the most active compound in the series with potent antiproliferative activity and high selectivity index (SI > 378.79) against breast cancer cells (MCF-7, GI50 = 0.66 μg mL(-1)). This compound represents a promising matrix for developing new antiproliferative agents. PMID:26859070

  2. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  3. High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins Based on 2,3,3',4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride

    Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Yokota, R.; Criss, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop materials for resin transfer molding (RTM) processes to fabricate high performance/high temperature composite structures, phenylethynyl containing imides have been under investigation. New phenylethynyl containing imide compositions were prepared using 2,3,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (a-BPDA) and evaluated for cured glass transition temperature (Tg), melt flow behavior, and for processability into flat composite panels via RTM. The a-BPDA imparts a unique combination of properties that are desirable for high temperature transfer molding resins. In comparison to its symmetrical counterpart (i.e. 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride), a-BPDA affords oligomers with lower melt viscosities and when cured, higher Tgs. Several candidates exhibited the appropriate combination of properties such as a low and stable melt viscosity required for RTM processes, high cured Tg, and moderate toughness. The chemistry, physical, and composite properties of select resins will be discussed.

  4. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) neurotoxicity in rats: a reappraisal of past and present findings

    Baumann, Michael H.; Wang, Xiaoying; Rothman, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused illicit drug. In animals, high-dose administration of MDMA produces deficits in serotonin (5-HT) neurons (e.g., depletion of forebrain 5-HT) that have been interpreted as neurotoxicity. Whether such 5-HT deficits reflect neuronal damage is a matter of ongoing debate. Objective The present paper reviews four specific issues related to the hypothesis of MDMA neurotoxicity in rats: (1) the effects of MDMA on monoamine neurons,...

  5. NEURAL AND CARDIAC TOXICITIES ASSOCIATED WITH 3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE (MDMA)

    Baumann, Michael H.; Rothman, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a commonly abused illicit drug which affects multiple organ systems. In animals, high-dose administration of MDMA produces deficits in serotonin (5-HT) neurons (e.g., depletion of forebrain 5-HT) that have been viewed as neurotoxicity. Recent data implicate MDMA in the development of valvular heart disease (VHD). The present paper reviews several issues related to MDMA-associated neural and cardiac toxicities. The hypothesis of MDMA neurotoxicit...

  6. Zingiber Officinale Alters 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rat Brain

    Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Dabaghian, Fataneh; Nejhadi, Akram; Fallah-huseini, Hassan; Choopani, Samira; Shekarriz, Nima; Molavi, Nima; Basirat, Arghavan; Mohammadzadeh Kazorgah, Farzaneh; Samzadeh-Kermani, Alireza; Soleimani Asl, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The spice Zingiber officinale or ginger possesses antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this traditional herbal medicine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induced neurotoxicity have not yet been studied. The present study considers the effects of Zingiber officinale on MDMA-induced spatial memory impairment and apoptosis in the hippocampus of male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 21 adult male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250...

  7. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and Its Enantiomers in Mice: Pharmacokinetic Considerations

    Fantegrossi, William E.; Murai, Naoki; Mathúna, Brian Ó.; Pizarro, Nieves; de la Torre, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a drug of abuse with mixed stimulant- and hallucinogen-like effects. The aims of the present studies were to establish discrimination of S(+)-MDMA, R(-)-MDMA, or their combination as racemic MDMA in separate groups of mice to assess cross-substitution tests among all three compounds, to determine the time courses of the training doses, to assess pharmacokinetic variables after single injections and after cumulative dosing, an...

  8. Endocrine and Neurochemical Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and Its Stereoisomers in Rhesus Monkeys

    Murnane, K.S.; Fantegrossi, W. E.; Godfrey, J. R.; Banks, M L; Howell, L L

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an amphetamine derivative that elicits complex biological effects in humans. One plausible mechanism for this phenomenon is that racemic MDMA is composed of two stereoisomers that exhibit qualitatively different pharmacological effects. In support of this, studies have shown that R(−)-MDMA tends to have hallucinogen-like effects, whereas S(+)-MDMA tends to have psychomotor stimulant-like effects. However, relatively little is known about whether the...

  9. ACTIONS OF 3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE (MDMA) ON CEREBRAL DOPAMINERIC, SEROTONERGIC AND CHOLINERGIC NEURONS

    Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2007-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an amphetamine derivative and a popular drug of abuse that exhibits mild hallucinogenic and rewarding properties and engenders feelings of connectedness and openness. The unique psychopharmacological profile of this drug of abuse most likely is derived from the property of MDMA to promote the release of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) in multiple brain regions. The present review highlights primarily data from studies employing in vivo microdialysis t...

  10. Preliminary evidence of motor impairment among polysubstance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine users with intact neuropsychological functioning

    Bousman, Chad A.; Cherner, Mariana; Emory, Kristen T; BARRON, DANIEL; Grebenstein, Patricia; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Heaton, Robert K.; Grant, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological disturbances have been reported in association with use of the recreational drug “ecstasy,” or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but findings have been inconsistent. We performed comprehensive neuropsychological testing examining seven ability domains in 21 MDMA users (MDMA+) and 21 matched control participants (MDMA−). Among MDMA+ participants, median [interquartile range] lifetime MDMA use was 186 [111, 516] doses, with 120 [35–365] days of abstinence. There were ...

  11. The role of norephinephrine in the pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy")

    Hysek, Cédric Marc

    2013-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a widely used recreational drug, which produces strong psychological effects such as increased empathy and sociability. MDMA inhibits the uptake of and releases serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine via an interaction with the respective monoamine transporter. While the role of serotonin in the human pharmacology of MDMA has been well described, the role of norepinephrine in the mediation of the effect of MDMA i...

  12. Interactions between bupropion and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in healthy subjects

    Schmid, Yasmin; Rickli, Anna; Schaffner, Antonia; Duthaler, Urs; Grouzmann, Eric; Hysek, Cédric M.; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a popular recreational drug. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of dopamine in the psychotropic effects of MDMA using bupropion to inhibit the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters through which MDMA releases dopamine and norepinephrine by investigating. The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between bupropion and MDMA in 16 healthy subjects were investigated using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cro...

  13. Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics of (±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Its Pharmacodynamic Consequences in the Rat

    Concheiro, Marta; Baumann, Michael H.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Rothman, Richard B.; Marrone, Gina F.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused illicit drug that can cause severe and even fatal adverse effects. However, interest remains for its possible clinical applications in posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety treatment. Preclinical studies to determine MDMA’s safety are needed. We evaluated MDMA’s pharmacokinetics and metabolism in male rats receiving 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg s.c. MDMA, and the associated pharmacodynamic consequences. Blood was collected via jugular ca...

  14. New 3,4-seco-Grayanane Diterpenoids from the Flowers of Pieris japonica.

    Cao, Lang; Li, Yanping; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Dan; Li, Rongtao

    2016-01-01

    Three new 3,4-seco-grayanane diterpenoids, neopierisoids D-F (2-4), and a new natural one, neopierisoid C (1), were isolated from the flowers of Pieris japonica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including one and two dimensional (1- and 2D)-NMR, as well as high resolution-electron ionization (HR-EI)-MS. PMID:27477663

  15. 2-[3-(4-Methoxyphenyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]phenol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H18N2O2, was derived from 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl-3-(4-methoxyphenylpropane-1,3-dione. The central pyrazole ring forms dihedral angles of 16.83 (5, 48.97 (4 and 51.68 (4°, respectively, with the methoxyphenyl, phenyl and hydroxyphenyl rings. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H...N hydrogen bonding.

  16. Monte Carlo Renormalization Group Analysis of Lattice $\\phi^4$ Model in $D=3,4$

    Itakura, M

    1999-01-01

    We present a simple, sophisticated method to capture renormalization group flow in Monte Carlo simulation, which provides important information of critical phenomena. We applied the method to $D=3,4$ lattice $\\phi^4$ model and obtained renormalization flow diagram which well reproduces theoretically predicted behavior of continuum $\\phi^4$ model. We also show that the method can be easily applied to much more complicated models, such as frustrated spin models.

  17. Optical properties of undoped and Yb3+-doped YAl3(BO3)4 crystals

    The ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of nominally undoped and Yb3+-doped (7 at %) YAl3(BO3)4 crystals have been measured in the visible range at temperatures from 20 to 400 deg C. The refractive indices are found to increase with temperature. The thermo-optic coefficients are on the order of ∼10-6. The temperature dependences of the refractive indices show a number of anomalies, suggestive of an incommensurate staircase-like system for the crystal

  18. Electrical conductivity in 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhidride (PTCDA)

    Bratina, Gvido; Hudej, Robert; Zavrtanik, Marko; Brownell, John Nimly

    2015-01-01

    The transient photoresponse in 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride was examined in metal/organic semiconductor/metal heterostructures. Electron-hole pairs are generated within the structure for fields higher than 5 X 10[sup]4 V/cm as a consequence of the exciton dissociation. The mobility of the electrons perpendicular to the molecular layers increases with the applied electric field and saturates for fields higher than 5 X 10[sup]4 V/cm.

  19. Early effects of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, and observed for life-span dose-effect relationship, died from radiation pneumonitis (4 of 5) at the highest dosage level, 14 to 25 mo postexposure. There were also indications in these dogs of radiation osteosis, characterized by peritrabecular fibrosis. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and decreased numbers of circulating monocytes and eosinophils occurred at the two highest dosage levels, as previously reported

  20. Autotoxicity and Allelopathy of 3,4-Dihydroxyacetophenone Isolated from Picea schrenkiana Needles

    Zhao-Hui Li; Xiao Ruan; G. Geoff Wang; De-An Jiang; Cun-De Pan; Qiang Wang

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the diethyl ether fraction of a water extract of Picea schrenkiana needles led to the isolation of the phenolic compound 3,4-dihydroxy- acetophenone (DHAP). The allelopathic effects of DHAP were evaluated under laboratory conditions on P. schrenkiana, rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.). DHAP significantly inhibited se...

  1. Fluorescent PET probes based on perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetraesters.

    Dubey, Rajeev K; Knorr, Gergely; Westerveld, Nick; Jager, Wolter F

    2016-01-27

    Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetraester-based fluorescent PET probes with aniline receptors attached either at the peri- or the bay-positions have been synthesized. By attaching aniline receptors at the bay position, pH-sensitive "light-up" probes, with fluorescence quantum yields ΦF > 0.75 and fluorescent enhancements FE > 500 in ethanol, have been obtained. PMID:26740333

  2. Der Einfluss von Bodeneigenschaften auf die Wirkung des Nitrifikationshemmstoffes 3,4 - Dimethylpyrazole - Phosphat

    Barth, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    The influence of soil properties, inhibitor concentration, soil matric potential and application form on the nitrification inhibitory effect of 3,4-dimethylpyrazole-phosphate (DMPP) has been investigated. Based on short - term incubation experiments, the inhibitor effect was higher in sandy soils compared with loamy soils. The influence of soil parameters on the relative nitrite formation were best described by a multiple regression model including the sand fraction, soil H+-concentration...

  3. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Nupur Jaiswal; Arvind Kumar Singh; Deepika Singh; Tanveer Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Heterocyclic compounds possess diverse biological properties that has lead to intense study and research of these compounds. One of these compounds is oxadiazole which has been found to exhibit various pharmacological activities. Oxadiazole is a five membered heterocyclic ring which is a versatile lead compound for designing potent bioactive agents. It exists in four isomeric forms. Out of its four isomers 1, 3, 4-oxadizole exhibited a wide range of biological activities which includes antib...

  4. Electric-field-induced linear birefringence in TmAl3(BO3)4.

    Pashchenko, M I; Bedarev, V A; Merenkov, D N; Gnatchenko, S L; Bezmaternykh, L N; Sukhachev, A L; Temerov, V L

    2016-04-20

    The linear birefringence induced by the electric field was first detected in a TmAl3(BO3)4 single crystal. The electric field dependence of the birefringence was investigated. The estimation of the electro-optical coefficient of the material gives ≈1.5×10-10  cm/V for a wavelength 632.8 nm. PMID:27140114

  5. Polymerization of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) around living neural cells

    Richardson-Burns, Sarah M.; Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Foster, Brian; Povlich, Laura K.; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Martin, David C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe interactions between neural cells and the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) toward development of electrically conductive biomaterials intended for direct, functional contact with electrically-active tissues such as the nervous system, heart, and skeletal muscle. We introduce a process for polymerizing PEDOT around living cells and describe a neural cell-templated conducting polymer coating for microelectrodes and a hybrid conducting polymer-...

  6. Synthesis and Evaluation of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Coated Magnesium for Nerve Regeneration

    Sebaa, Meriam Amel

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to develop conductive, biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible nerve conduits, pure magnesium (Mg) was used as the biodegradable substrate material to provide strength while the conductive polymer, poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was used as a conductive coating material to control Mg degradation and improve cytocompatibility of Mg substrates. A series of electrochemical deposition conditions were explored to produce a uniform, consistent PEDOT coating on M...

  7. High momentum transfer RT,L inclusive response functions for 3,4He

    Inclusive electron scattering cross sections for 3,4He have been measured in the quasielastic region at electron energies between 0.9 and 4.3 GeV, and scattering angles of 15 degree and 85 degree. Longitudinal (RL) and transverse (RT) response functions have been extracted using a Rosenbluth separation at constant |q| of 1.050 GeV/c. The ratio of the longitudinal to the transverse reduced response functions in the negative y region reaches unity

  8. 2-(4-tert-Butylphenyl-5-p-tolyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole

    Biao Jin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H20N2O, the dihedral angles between the 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring and the pendant 4-tert-butylphenyl and 4-methylphenyl rings are 12.53 (17 and 2.14 (17°, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming chains.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of NH4Dy(PO3)4

    Chemingui, S.; Ferhi, M.; Horchani-Naifer, K.; Férid, M.

    2014-09-01

    Polycrystalline powders of NH4Dy(PO3)4 polyphosphate have been grown by the flux method. This compound was found to be isotopic with NH4Ce(PO3)4 and RbHo(PO3)4. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n with unit cell parameters a=10.474(6) Å, b=9.011(4) Å, c=10.947(7) Å and β=106.64(3)°. The title compound has been transformed to triphosphate Dy(PO3)3 after calcination at 800 °C. Powder X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the differential thermal analysis have been used to identify these materials. The spectroscopic properties have been investigated through absorption, excitation, emission spectra and decay curves of Dy3+ ion in both compounds at room temperature. The emission spectra show the characteristic emission bands of Dy3+ in the two compounds, before and after calcination. The integrated emission intensity ratios of the yellow to blue (IY/IB) transitions and the chromaticity properties have been determined from emission spectra. The decay curves are found to be double-exponential. The non-exponential behavior of the decay rates was related to the resonant energy transfer as well as cross-relaxation between the donor and acceptor Dy3+ ions. The determined properties have been discussed as function of crystal structure of both compounds. They reveal that NH4Dy(PO3)4 is promising for white light generation but Dy(PO3)3 is potential candidates in field emission display (FED) and plasma display panel (PDP) devices.

  10. Significant Electronic Thermal Transport in the Conducting Polymer Poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene)

    Weathers, Annie; Khan, Zia Ullah; Brooke, Robert;

    2015-01-01

    Suspended microdevices are employed to measure the in-plane electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient of suspended poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films. The measured thermal conductivity is higher than previously reported for PEDOT and generally increases...... with the electrical conductivity. The increase exceeds that predicted by the Wiedemann–Franz law for metals and can be explained by significant electronic thermal transport in PEDOT....

  11. Synthesis of Furazano[3,4-e]-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide%呋咱并[3,4-e]-1,2,3,4-四嗪-1,3-二氧化物(FTDO)的合成

    董琳琳; 张光全; 池钰; 范桂娟; 何玲; 陶国宏; 黄明

    2012-01-01

    Furazano[3,4-e]-1 ,2 ,3 ,4-tetrazine-1 ,3-dioxide( FTDO) has been synthesized in the work. Firstly, diaminoglyoxime (DAG) was obtained via the one-step reaction of glyoxal with hydroxylammonium chloride. 3 ,4-Diaminofurazan ( DAF) was obtained by the dehydration reaction of DAG. Then the oxidation of DAF using 30% H2O2 gave 3-amino-4-nitrosofurazan( ANF), and 3-amino-4-( tert-butyl) azoxyfurazan was prepared after the treatment of ANF with tert-butyl-N, N-dibromide in dichlorometh-ane. Finally, FTDO was obtained by the nitration and cyclization of 3-amino-4-(tert-butyl) azoxyfurazan with nitronium tetraflu-orobrate ( NO2BF4) in acetonitrile with the total yield of 1 8% . The structures of FTDO and its intermediates were characterized by IR and NMR.%以乙二醛和盐酸羟胺为原料,合成了二氨基乙二肟(DAG),经过脱水成环得到3,4-二氨基呋咱(DAF),再在30%的双氧水作用下氧化得到亚硝基氨基呋咱(ANF),ANF与N,N-二溴叔丁基胺缩合得到3-氨基-4-(叔丁基氧化偶氮基)呋咱,最后经四氟硼酸銷(NO2BF4)硝化成环得目标产物FTDO,总收率18%(基于DAF),并对其进行了红外和核磁表征.

  12. Electroproduction of strangeness on (Lambda)H-3,4 bound states on helium

    F. Dohrmann; D. Abbott; A. Ahmidouch; P. Ambrozewicz; C. S. Armstrong; J. Arrington; R. Asaturyan; K. Assamagan; S. Avery; K. Bailey; S. Beedoe; H. Bitao; H. Breuer; D. S. Brown; R. Carlini; J. Cha; N. Chant; E. Christy; A. Cochran; L. Cole; G. Collins; C. Cothran; J. Crowder; W. J. Cummings; S. Danagoulian; F. Duncan; J. Dunne; D. Dutta; T. Eden; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; L. Ewell; H. Fenker; H. T. Fortune; Y. Fujii; L. Gan; H. Gao; K. Garrow; D. F. Geesaman; P. Gueye; K. Gustafsson; K. Hafidi; J. O. Hansen; W. Hinton; H. E. Jackson; H. Juengst; C. Keppel; A. Klein; D. Koltenuk; Y. Liang; J. H. Liu; A. Lung; D. Mack; R. Madey; P. Markowitz; C. J. Martoff; D. Meekins; J. Mitchell; T. Miyoshi; H. Mkrtchyan; R. Mohring; S. K. Mtingwa; B. Mueller; T. G. O& #x27; Neill; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; D. Potterveld; J. W. Price; B. A. Raue; P. E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; ; J. Roche; P. Roos; M. Sarsour; Y. Sato; G. Savage; R. Sawafta; R. E. Segel; A. Yu. Semenov; S. Stepanyan; V. Tadevosian; S. Tajima; L. Tang; B. Terburg; A. Uzzle; S. Wood; H. Yamaguchi; C. Yan; C. Yan; L. Yuan; M. Zeier; B. Zeidman; B. Zihlmann

    2005-05-01

    The A(e,eK+)X reaction has been investigated at Jefferson Laboratory. Data were taken for Q{sup 2} approx. 0.35 GeV{sup 2} at a beam energy of 3.245 GeV for 1H,3He and 4He targets. Evidence for Lambda-hypernuclear bound states is seen for 3,4He targets. This is the first time that the electroproduction of these hypernuclei has been observed.

  13. Analysis of cellular phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate levels and distribution using confocal fluorescent microscopy.

    Palmieri, Michelle; Nowell, Cameron J; Condron, Melanie; Gardiner, James; Holmes, Andrew B; Desai, Jayesh; Burgess, Antony W; Catimel, Bruno

    2010-11-01

    We have developed an immunocytochemistry method for the semiquantitative detection of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) at the cell plasma membrane. This protocol combines the use of a glutathione S-transferase-tagged pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of the general phosphoinositides-1 receptor (GST-GRP1PH) with fluorescence confocal microscopy and image segmentation using cell mask software analysis. This methodology allows the analysis of PI(3,4,5)P3 subcellular distribution in resting and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated HEK293T cells and in LIM1215 (wild-type phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)) and LIM2550 (H1047R mutation in PI3K catalytic domain) colonic carcinoma cells. Formation of PI(3,4,5)P3 was observed 5min following EGF stimulation and resulted in an increase of the membrane/cytoplasm fluorescence ratio from 1.03 to 1.53 for HEK293T cells and from 2.2 to 3.3 for LIM1215 cells. Resting LIM2550 cells stained with GST-GRP1PH had an elevated membrane/cytoplasm fluorescence ratio of 9.8, suggesting constitutive PI3K activation. The increase in the membrane/cytoplasm fluorescent ratio was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. This cellular confocal imaging assay can be used to directly assess the effects of PI3K mutations in cancer cell lines and to determine the potential specificity and effectiveness of PI3K inhibitors in cancer cells. PMID:20599646

  14. Synthesis and luminescence characteristics of Dy3+ doped KLa(PO3)4

    Polycrystalline powders of KLa(1−x)Dyx(PO3)4 (x=0.5%, 1%, 5% and 10%) with linear chain have been grown by solid state reaction. The obtained powders are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. Emission, excitation spectra and decay curves analysis have been used to study the spectroscopic properties of Dy3+ in KLa(PO3)4. The photoluminescence spectra show two characteristic blue and yellow bands of Dy3+. The yellow-to-blue emission intensity ratios and CIE chromaticity coordinates have been determined from emission spectra to evaluate the emitted light as function of Dy3+ concentration. The measured decay rates for 4F9/2→6H15/2 deviated from exponential to non-exponential shape with increase of Dy3+ concentration. The observed non-exponential behavior of the decay curve has been fitted to Inokuti–Hirayama model, which indicates that the energy transfer between the donor and the acceptor is of dipole–dipole nature. The energy transfer, between the donor (excited Dy3+) and the acceptor (unexcited Dy3+), increases with Dy3+ ions concentration. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline powders of KLa(1−x)Dyx(PO3)4 were grown by solid state reaction. • The obtained samples are characterized by XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. • The luminescent properties of Dy3+ in KLa(PO3)4 are investigated. • Lifetime and chromatic coordinates depend strongly on Dy3+ concentration. • White and blue emissions are obtained at high and low concentration, respectively

  15. 4-Chloro-N-[(E-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylmethylidene]aniline

    M. Nawaz Tahir

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C15H14ClNO2, contains two molecules with significantly different conformations: the dihedral angles between the 4-chloroaniline and 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl (excluding C atoms moieties are 19.68 (7 and 45.54 (4°. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...π interactions.

  16. Poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene as an entrapment support for amperometric enzyme sensor

    Fabiano, Silvia; Tran-Minh, Canh; Piro, Benoît; Anh Dang, Lan; Chau Pham, Minh; Vittori, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    International audience A conducting polymer of poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT) was used as a matrix for entrapment of enzymes onto a platinum electrode surface in order to construct amperometric biosensors. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was used as an example, and it was entrapped in the polymer during the electrochemical polymerization. Glucose in oxygenated solutions was tested by amperometric measurements at +650 mV (vs. SCE) in a batch system. The influence of several experimental param...

  17. Novel reaction of 3,4-dibromofuran with azo diesters to give tetrahydropyridazinones

    Aitken, Kati Marianne; Aitken, Robert Alan; Slawin, Alexandra Martha Zoya

    2016-01-01

    Cycloaddition of 3,4-dibromofuran with azo diesters proceeds by a Diels–Alder reaction followed by a novel rearrangement to give 3,5-dibromotetrahydropyridazin-4-ones. Variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy shows four separate conformations at low temperature attributed to restricted rotation about the carbamate functions. The ethyl compound decomposes upon storage with loss of the carbamate groups and aromatisation to give a simple bromohydroxypyridazinium salt.

  18. Yb3+:Sr3Y2(BO3)4: A potential ultrashort pulse laser crystal

    Highlights: • A Yb3+:Sr3Y2(BO3)4 crystal was grown successfully by Czochralski method. • The crystal has wide absorption and emission bandwidth. • 3.47 W continuous wave laser output with a slope efficiency of 29% was obtained. • The results show that the crystal is a promising ultrashort pulse laser material. - Abstract: A Yb3+:Sr3Y2(BO3)4 crystal was grown successfully by the Czochralski method. The polarized spectral properties and continuous wave laser output of this crystal were investigated in detail. The crystal has larger absorption and emission cross sections compared with many mature Yb3+-doped borate crystals. The full width at half maximum of the emission bands around 1023 nm are 69 nm (E//a), 61 nm (E//b) and 65 nm (E//c). 3.47 W continuous wave laser output with a slope efficiency of 29% and an optical conversion efficiency of 24% was obtained. The results reveal that Yb3+:Sr3Y2(BO3)4 crystal is an excellent candidate for ultrashort pulse laser crystal

  19. Continuum emission at 3.4 millimeters from Orion-KL

    The 3.4 mm radio continuum emission from the Kleinmann-Low nebula (KL) in Orion has been mapped with 3 arcsec angular resolution using the Hat Creek millimeter-interferometer. The continuum emission in this wavelength region is attributable to a blend of spectral lines and to thermal emission from dust. It is found that the integrated flux density from dust emission is not less than 1.2 Jy from the central 30 arcsec of the Orion molecular cloud. This implies that the dust emissivity in this cloud varies approximately as lambda exp -1.3 between 0.4 and 3.4 mm. The continuum emission is strongest approximately 2 arcsec SE of the infrared source IRc2, suggesting that a dense condensation lies along this line of sight. In this direction the dust has an optical depth of 0.01 at 3.4 mm, which implies a hydrogen column density of 10 to the 24th/sq cm and a total mass of 1-3 solar masses for this condensation. This condensation may be responsible for much of the hot core emission seen in NH3 and in other molecular lines. 18 references

  20. Lack of Evidence for 3/4 Scaling of Metabolism in Terrestrial Plants

    Hai-Tao LI; Xing-Guo HAN; Jian-Guo WU

    2005-01-01

    Scaling, as the translation of information across spatial, temporal, and organizational scales, is essential to predictions and understanding in all sciences and has become a central issue in ecology. A large body of theoretical and empirical evidence concerning allometric scaling in terrestrial individual plants and plant communities has been constructed around the fractal volume-filling theory of West, Brown, and Enquist (the WBE model). One of the most thought-provoking findings has been that the metabolic rates of plants, like those of animals, scale with their size as a 3/4 power law. The earliest, single most-important study cited in support of the application of the WBE model to terrestrial plants claims that whole-plant resource use in terrestrial plants scales as the 3/4 power of total mass, as predicted by the WBE model.However, in the present study we show that empirical data actually do not support such a claim. More recent studies cited as evidence for 3/4 scaling also suffer from several statistical and data-related problems. Using a forest biomass dataset including 1 266 plots of 17 main forest types across China, we explored the scaling exponents between tree productivity and tree mass and found no universal value across forest stands. We conclude that there is not sufficient evidence to support the existence of a single constant scaling exponent for the metabolism-biomass relationship for terrestrial plants.

  1. Inelastic Neutron Scattering on Multiferroics NdFe3(BO3)4

    Hayashida, Shohei; Soda, Minoru; Itoh, Shinichi; Yokoo, Tetsuya; Ohgushi, Kenya; Kawana, Daichi; Masuda, Takatsugu

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiment is performed on single crystals of multiferroics NdFe3(11BO3)4 to explore the magnetic excitations. Fe-centered dispersive excitation with the band width of 5 meV is observed along the crystallographic c∗ direction and that of 3 meV is along the a∗ direction. The energy gap of 0.57 meV due to an axial-type anisotropy is ob- served at the AF zone center. The energy of Nd-centered flat excitation is 1 meV. Furthermore, anticrossing of the Fe- and Nd-centered excitations is observed, meaning the existence of the f -d coupling, i.e., the interaction between the Nd3+ and Fe3+ moments. Spin-wave analysis on the observed neutron spectrum revealed the underlying magnetic Hamiltonian in NdFe3(11BO3)4. Discussion on the axial-type anisotropy in the ab - plane based on the magnetic model leads to the conclusion that the anisotropy of the Nd3+ ion plays a main role in the determination of the structures of both magnetic moment and electric polarization in NdFe3(BO3)4.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitor activity of some novel pyrazinamide condensed 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines

    Karthikeyan Elumalai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new series of some novel pyrazinamide condensed 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines was prepared by reacting of N-(3-oxobutanoylpyrazine-2-carboxamide with urea/thiourea and appropriate aldehyde in the presence of catalytic amount of laboratory made p-toluenesulfonic acid as an efficient catalyst. Confirmation of the chemical structure of the synthesized compounds (4a–l was substantiated by TLC, different spectral data IR, 1H NMR, mass spectra and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for acetyl and butyl cholinesterase (AChE and BuChE inhibitor activity. The titled compounds exhibited weak, moderate or high AChE and BuChE inhibitor activity. Especially, compound (4l showed the best AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity of all the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives, with an IC50 value of 0.11 μM and 3.4 μM.

  3. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Hua Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computations by density functional theory (DFT method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different substituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that –N3 and –NN– groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMO–LUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the Kamlet–Jacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that –NO2, –NF2, –NH–, –NH–NH– and –NN– groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the –CH2–, –CH2–CH2– and –CHCH– groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  4. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Hua ZHOU; Zhong-liang MA; Jian-long WANG; Dong WANG

    2014-01-01

    Computations by density functional theory (DFT) method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different sub-stituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF ) is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that eN3 and eN]Ne groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMOeLUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the KamleteJacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that eNO2, eNF2, eNHe, eNHeNHe and eN]Ne groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the eCH2e, eCH2eCH2e and eCH]CHe groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  5. Substituent effect on photophysical properties of bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives in solution

    Chen, Fangyi; Tian, Taiji; Zhao, Chengxiao; Bai, Binglian; Li, Min; Wang, Haitao

    2016-04-01

    A series of phenyl substituted bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives were designed and synthesized; the effect of substituent on the photophysical properties and molecular electronic structures was fully studied by the combination of experimental techniques and theoretical calculations. Compared to parent compound without any substituent (BOXD), fluoro-substituent shows little effect on the absorption and emission spectra, whilst a little larger spectral red-shift could be observed for methoxy-, nitro-substituted derivatives and thienyl-substituted bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole (TBOXD). These spectral changes can be well explained by theoretically calculated HOMO and LUMO energy level changes. All these molecules show high fluorescence quantum yield except for nitro-substituted derivative in dilute solutions. The quantum yield of BOXD changes with the concentration and exhibits a high value at the concentrated solution. This work revealed the influence of substituent on the photophysical properties of bi-1,3,4-oxadizaole derivatives in dilute solutions and provided guidance for designing molecules with potential application.

  6. Magnetoelectricity in the system RAl3 (BO3)4 (R = Tb, Ho, Er, Tm)

    The magnetoelectric effect in the system RAl3(BO3)4 (R = Tb, Ho, Er, Tm) is investigated between 3 K and room temperature and at magnetic fields up to 70 kOe. We show a systematic increase of the magnetoelectric effect with decreasing magnetic anisotropy of the rare earth moment. A giant magnetoelectric polarization is found in the magnetically (nearly) isotropic HoAl3(BO3)4. The polarization value in transverse field geometry at 70 kOe reaches 3600 μC/m2 which is significantly higher than reported values for the field-induced polarization of linear magnetoelectric or even multiferroic compounds. The results indicate a very strong coupling of the f-moments to the lattice. They further indicate the importance of the field-induced ionic displacements in the unit cell resulting in a polar distortion and a change in symmetry on a microscopic scale. The system RAl3(BO3)4 could be interesting for the technological utilization of the high-field magnetoelectric effect.

  7. Disease activity in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a 3-month follow-up study

    Skau, Maren; Sander, Birgit; Milea, Dan;

    2011-01-01

    , fast RNFL 3.4 protocol), and Humphrey visual field testing were evaluated at regular intervals. Repeat lumbar puncture was performed at final visit (n = 13). The diagnostic delay was 3 months and initial symptoms were headache (94%), visual blurring (82%) and pulsatile tinnitus (65%). Complete clinical...

  8. Sprague-Dawley rats display sex-linked differences in the pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)

    The use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has increased in recent years; it can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia and serotonin syndrome. Human and rodent males appear to be more sensitive to acute toxicity than are females. MDMA is metabolized to five main metabolites by the enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2D and COMT. Little is presently known about sex-dependent differences in the pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its metabolites. We therefore analyzed MDMA disposition in male and female rats by measuring the plasma and urine concentrations of MDMA and its metabolites using a validated LC-MS method. MDA AUClast and Cmax were 1.6- to 1.7-fold higher in males than in females given MDMA (5 mg/kg sc), while HMMA Cmax and AUClast were 3.2- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively. MDMA renal clearance was 1.26-fold higher in males, and that of MDA was 2.2-fold higher. MDMA AUClast and t1/2 were 50% higher in females given MDMA (1 mg/kg iv). MDA Cmax and AUClast were 75-82% higher in males, with a 2.8-fold higher metabolic index. Finally, the AUClast of MDA was 0.73-fold lower in males given 1 mg/kg iv MDA. The volumes of distribution of MDMA and MDA at steady-state were similar in the two sexes. These data strongly suggest that differences in the N-demethylation of MDMA to MDA are major influences on the MDMA and MDA pharmacokinetics in male and female rats. Hence, males are exposed to significantly more toxic MDA, which could explain previously reported sexual dysmorphism in the acute effects and toxicity of MDMA in rats.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  11. Electric Power Monthly, June 1988

    The data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The Electric Power Monthly contains information from three data sources: the Form EIA-759, 'Monthly Power Plant Report'; the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 423, 'Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants; and the Form EIA-826, Monthly Electric Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions'. The Form EIA-759 collects data from all operators of electric utility generating plants (except those having plants solely on standby), approximately 800 of the more than 3,200 electric utilities in the United States. To reduce the reporting burden for utilities, the FERC Form 423 and Form EIA-826 data are based on samples, which cover less than 100 percent of all central station generating utilities. The FERC Form 423 collects data from steam-electric power generating plants with a combined installed nameplate capacity of 50 megawatts or larger (approximately 230 electric utilities). The 50-megawatt threshold was established by FERC. The Form EIA-826 collects sales and revenue data in the residential, commercial, industrial, and other sectors of the economy. Other sales data collected include public street and highway lighting, other sales to public authorities, sales to railroads and railways, and interdepartmental sales. Respondents to the Form EIA-826 were statistically chosen and include approximately 225 privately and publicly owned electric utilities from a universe of more than 3,200 utilities. The sample selection for the Form EIA-826 is evaluated annually. Currently, the Form EIA-826 data account for approximately 83 percent of

  12. Monthly energy review, September 1997

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided on international energy, including petroleum production, consumption, and stocks and nuclear electricity gross generation. This issues provides a brief industry overview and a detailed analysis of the spring 1996 gasoline price runup, crude oil supply issues, U.S. crude oil imports, petroleum stocks, futures markets, refining cash margin trends, and the financial performance of U.S. refining and marketing firms. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  15. Monthly energy review, January 1994

    This publication contains statistical information and data analysis of energy production and consumption within the major energy industries of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy and oil and gas resource development. Energy production during October 1993 totaled 5.5-quadrillion Btu, a 3.0 percent decrease from the level of production during October 1992. Coal production decreased 5.6 percent, petroleum production decreased 3.4 percent, and natural gas production increased 1.9 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.0 percent from the level of production during October 1992. Energy consumption during October 1993 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 0.9 percent above the level of consumption during October 1992. Natural gas consumption increased 6.5 percent, coal consumption rose 2.9 percent, and petroleum consumption was down 1.3 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.5 percent from the level of 1 year earlier

  16. Monthly energy review, January 1994

    1994-01-01

    This publication contains statistical information and data analysis of energy production and consumption within the major energy industries of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy and oil and gas resource development. Energy production during October 1993 totaled 5.5-quadrillion Btu, a 3.0 percent decrease from the level of production during October 1992. Coal production decreased 5.6 percent, petroleum production decreased 3.4 percent, and natural gas production increased 1.9 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.0 percent from the level of production during October 1992. Energy consumption during October 1993 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 0.9 percent above the level of consumption during October 1992. Natural gas consumption increased 6.5 percent, coal consumption rose 2.9 percent, and petroleum consumption was down 1.3 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.5 percent from the level of 1 year earlier.

  17. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  19. Best pictures of the month

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    The last sector of the Big Muon Wheels was brought to the cavern in the morning of September 20... ... installed on one of the Big Muon Wheels during the same afternoon... ... just in time to sqeeze lots of people in between two of the all-completed Big Muon Wheels on the 21st of September to celebrate the installation of the last sector. Installation of the first ATLAS small wheel in building 191 on September 10. Some of the people involved in the construction and installation of the chambers on the first ATLAS small wheel in building 191 celebrating its completion on September 20. After hearing that the rock band The Police played in Geneva last month, Muriel got inspired and decided to become a rock star, just like one of her favorites, Keith Richards from the Rolling Stones. Special accomplishment of the month: (top) Martina Hurwitz (#908) and Monica Dunford (680), both from the Chicago University group, completed the Lausanne Marathon on October 21 in 4h 4...

  20. Inhibition of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) metabolism leads to marked decrease in 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) formation but no change in serotonin neurotoxicity: Implications for mechanisms of neurotoxicity

    Mueller, Melanie; Yuan, Jie; Adrian, Concepcion Maldonado; McCann, Una D.; Ricaurte, George A.

    2011-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)’s O-demethylenated metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA), has been hypothesized to serve as a precursor for the formation of toxic catechol thioether metabolites (e.g. 5-N-acetylcystein-S-yl-HHMA) that mediate 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) neurotoxicity. To further test this hypothesis, HHMA formation was blocked with dextromethorphan (DXM), which competitively inhibits cytochrome P450 enzyme-mediated O-demethylenation of MDMA to H...

  1. Improved C3-4 transfer for treatment of root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk Animal experiments and clinical application

    Lin Zou; Xuecheng Cao; Jing Li; Lifeng Liu; Pingshan Wang; Jinfang Cai

    2012-01-01

    Experimental rats with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were treated with the improved C3-4 transfer for neurotization of C5-6. Results showed that Terzis grooming test scores were significantly increased at 6 months after treatment, the latency of C5-6 motor evoked potential was gradually shortened, and the amplitude was gradually increased. The rate of C3 instead of C5 and the C4 + phrenic nerve instead of C6 myelinated nerve fibers crossing through the anastomotic stoma was approximately 80%. Myelinated nerve fibers were arranged loosely but the thickness of the myelin sheath was similar to that of the healthy side. In clinical applications,39 patients with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were followed for 6 months to 4.5 years after treatment using the improved C3 instead of C5 nerve root transfer and C4 nerve root and phrenic nerve instead of C6 nerve root transfer. Results showed that the strength of the brachial biceps and deltoid muscles recovered to level III-IV, scapular muscle to level III-IV, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major muscles to above level III, and the brachial triceps muscle to level 0-III. Results showed that the improved C3-4 transfer for root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk in animal models is similar to clinical findings and that C3-4 and the phrenic nerve transfer for neurotization of C5-6 can innervate the avulsed brachial plexus upper trunk and promote the recovery of nerve function in the upper extremity.

  2. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E. [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Chan, Benny C. [Department of Chemistry, The College of New Jersey, 2000 Pennington Road, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States); Lill, Daniel T. de, E-mail: ddelill@fau.edu [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C{sub 6}H{sub 2}O{sub 5})(C{sub 6}H{sub 3}O{sub 5})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented. - Graphical abstract: A new two-dimensional coordination polymer derived from the in-situ hydrolysis of a furan dimethyl ester with lanthanide(III) ions was obtained in order to study its photophysical behavior when constructed from trivalent Eu and Tb. Quantum yields, lifetime measurements, and singlet/triplet state energies values were obtained. The nature of the material's excited state dynamics is examined and correlated to its structure in order to explain the overall luminescent efficiency of the system. - Highlights: • A new lanthanide–furandicarboxylate coordination polymer is presented. • Eu and Tb compounds display luminescent properties, albeit with low quantum yields. • Photophysical behavior explained through the compound's triplet state and structure. • Nonradiative deactivation of luminescence through high-energy oscillators was noted. • Molecular modeling of the organic moiety was conducted.

  3. Energy transfer and luminescence dynamics in Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Eu3+

    Eu3+-doped and -undoped Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 phosphors were synthesized by the high temperature solid-state reaction. The excitation and emission spectra and the decays of the Gd3+ and Eu3+ luminescence in Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Eu3+ under excitation into the self-trapped excitation (STE) state are investigated in the wavelength region from vacuum ultraviolet to visible. The efficient energy transfer occurs from the host STE state to the emitting state of Eu3+5D0 via two intermediate states: the Gd3+6P7/2 state or the O–Eu charge transfer state. The analyses of decay curves of the Eu3+5D0 emission at 615 nm and the Gd3+6P7/2 emission at 314 nm show much faster energy transfer from Gd3+ to Eu3+ than the energy diffusion among the Gd3+ ions. -- Highlights: • Luminescence dynamics are investigated in Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Eu3+. • The excited STE state relaxes to the Eu3+5D0 state through the Gd3+6P7/2 state or the O–Eu charge transfer state. • Much faster energy transfer occurs from Gd to Eu than the energy diffusion among the Gd3+ ions. • The feeding of the 5D0 population occurs dominantly from the O–Eu charge transfer state at higher Eu3+ concentration

  4. Tolerance to 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in Rats Exposed to Single High-Dose Binges

    Baumann, Michael H.; Clark, Robert D; Franken, Frederick H.; Rutter, John J.; Rothman, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy) stimulates the transporter-mediated release of monoamines, including serotonin (5-HT). High-dose exposure to MDMA causes persistent 5-HT deficits (e.g., depletion of brain 5-HT) in animals, yet the functional and clinical relevance of such deficits are poorly defined. Here we examine functional consequences of MDMA-induced 5-HT depletions in rats. Male rats received binges of 3 ip injections of MDMA or saline, one injection every 2 h; MDMA w...

  5. Vibrational spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in terahertz range

    Wang, Guangqin; Shen, Jingling; Jia, Yan

    2007-07-01

    The terahertz spectrum of ketamine hydrochloride at room temperature, in the range of 0.2-2.6THz, has been measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). Full-geometry optimizations and frequency calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) are also applied to predict the absorption spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The results of the simulation show qualitative agreement with the experimental data especially for MDMA, and the observed spectra features are assigned based on the DFT calculation. The results suggest that use of the terahertz TDS technique can be an effective method for the detection and inspection of illicit drugs.

  6. Recognizability of the Simple $K_n$-Groups ($n=3, 4$)

    Khosravi, Behrooz; Khosravi, Bahman; Khosravi, Behnam

    2008-01-01

    Let $G$ be a finite group. Based on the prime graph of $G$, the order of $G$ can be divided into a product of co-prime positive integers. These integers are called order components of $G$ and the set of order components is denoted by $OC(G)$. Some non-abelian simple groups are known to be uniquely determined by their order components. In this paper we discuss the recognizability of simple $K_n$-groups ($n=3, 4$) by their order components.

  7. 2,3,4,5-Tetrafluorobenzoic acid–4,4′-bipyridine (2/1

    Xiaohui Zhu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C7H2F4O2·C10H8N2, contains one molecule of 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorobenzoic acid (tfb and half of a centrosymmetric 4,4′-bipyridine molecule. Intermolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds link two tfb molecules and one 4,4′-bipyridine molecule into a trimer. Weak intermolecular C—H...F interactions assemble these trimers into a three-dimensional network structure.

  8. 2,3,4,5-Tetrafluorobenzoic acid–4,4′-bipyridine (2/1)

    Xiaohui Zhu

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C7H2F4O2·C10H8N2, contains one molecule of 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorobenzoic acid (tfb) and half of a centrosymmetric 4,4′-bipyridine molecule. Intermolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds link two tfb molecules and one 4,4′-bipyridine molecule into a trimer. Weak intermolecular C—H...F interactions assemble these trimers into a three-dimensional network structure.

  9. Characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate conductive polymer microelectrodes for transmitter detection

    Larsen, Simon T.; Vreeland, Richard F.; Heien, Michael L.;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the physical and electrochemical properties of micropatterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) microelectrodes for neurochemical detection. PEDOT:tosylate is a promising conductive polymer electrode material for chip-based bioanalytical...... applications such as capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and constant potential amperometry at living cells. Band electrodes with widths down to 3 μm were fabricated on polymer substrates using UV lithographic methods. The electrodes are electrochemically stable in a range...

  10. 2-Isobutyl-6-(4-methoxyphenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H17N3OS, the dihedral angle between the statistically planar imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole fused-ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.002 Å and the methyoxbenzene ring is 4.52 (6°. In the crystal, molecules are arranged into columns and stacked down the a axis. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak C—H...π and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid separations = 3.6053 (8 and 3.7088 (7 Å].

  11. (Z-Ethyl 3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyano-3-(2,6-difluorobenzamidoacrylate

    Zhang Xiaoyan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C19H13ClF2N2O3, was prepared by the reaction of (Z-ethyl 3-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyanoacrylate and 2,6-difluorobenzoyl chloride. The dihedral angle between the chlorobenzene and fluorobenzene rings is 37.0 (1°. The ethyl group is disordered over two positions [occupancies = 0.52 (2:0.48 (2]. In addition to intramolecular N—H...O and N—H...F hydrogen bonds, the crystal packing shows the molecules to be connected by intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  12. Pyrrolodiazines. 4. Structure and chemistry of 3,4-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine

    Minguez Ortega, José Miguel; Castellote Álvaro, María Isabel; Vaquero López, Juan José; García Navío, José Luis; Álvarez-Builla Gómez, Julio; Castaño González, Obis Dionisio; Andrés, José L. de

    1997-01-01

    The structure of 3,4-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine and its N-protonated form is studied by ab initio calculations. Examples of the reactivity of this poorly studied system are presented in which it is shown that the imino moiety does not react with dienes but does undergo inter- and intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions by reaction of azomethine ylides of this bicyclic system with suitable dipolarophiles. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia Centro de Computación de Galixia (CESGA)

  13. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety

    Moger, Manjunath [Mangalore University, Karnataka (India). Department of Chemistry; Satam, Vijay; Paniraj, A.S.; Gopinath, Vadiraj S.; Hindupur, Rama Mohan; Pati, Hari N., E-mail: hari.pati@advinus.com [Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 and 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Karnataka (India); Govindaraju, Darshan Raj C. [Department of Bio-Medicinal Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd., Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-15

    A series of ten novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety were synthesized using linear as well as convergent synthesis approach. All the compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared (IR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR) spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among ten analogs, four compounds, namely, 8a, 8d, 8e and 8j were found to be highly active antibacterial and antifungal agents (author)

  14. Crystal structure of 4-allylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine

    Mohammed El Fal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C8H8N4S, the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine ring system is essentially planar, with a maximum deviation from the mean plane of 0.025 (3 Å. The allyl group is disordered over two sites in a 0.512 (6:0.488 (6 ratio. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R22(8 graph-set motif.

  15. Synthesis and Bioassay of a New Class of Furanyl-1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    Galila A. Yacout

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase enzyme is a monophenol monoxygenase enzyme, which plays an important role in human as a rate limiting step enzyme for different specific metabolic pathways, as well as its useful application in industry and agriculture. So this study was carried out to test the effect of newly prepared compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazoles with different substituted groups on tyrosinase enzyme activity, hoping to use them in the treatment of some diseases arising from tyrosinase activity disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, autism, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and cancer.

  16. Chromatographic separation of 3,4-difluorophenylacetic acid and its positional isomers using five different techniques.

    Zhou, L; Wu, Y; Johnson, B D; Thompson, R; Wyvratt, J M

    2000-01-14

    The separation of five positional isomers from 3,4-difluorophenylacetic acid was investigated using normal- and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, capillary zone electrophoresis, gas chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography. Operating parameters of each technique, such as temperature, type of stationary phase, mobile phase pH, ionic strength, organic modifiers and additives were varied in order to elucidate the separation mechanisms. Based on the advantages and disadvantages of each methodology, a simple and practical RPLC method was selected. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection, accuracy, recovery, ruggedness and precision. PMID:10670818

  17. Kinetics of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats and humans after dermal application

    The toxicokinetics of 4-MBC after dermal administration were investigated in human subjects and in rats. Humans (3 male and 3 female subjects) were exposed to 4-MBC by topical application of a commercial sunscreen formulation containing 4% 4-MBC (w/w), covering 90% of the body surface and resulting in a mean dermal 4-MBC dose of 22 mg/kg bw. In rats, dermal 4-MBC doses of 400 and 2000 mg/kg bw were applied in a formulation using an occlusive patch for 24 h. Concentrations of 4-MBC and its metabolites were monitored over 96 h in plasma (rats and humans) and urine (humans). In human subjects, plasma levels of 4-MBC peaked at 200 pmol/ml in males and 100 pmol/ml in females 6 h after application and then decreased to reach the limit of detection after 24 h (females), respectively, 36 h (males). After dermal application of 4-MBC, peak plasma concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were 50-80 pmol/ml at 12 h and of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were 100-200 pmol/ml at 24 h. In male and female rats, peak plasma levels of 4-MBC were 200 (dose of 400 mg/kg bw) and 1 200 pmol/ml (dose of 2000 mg/kg bw). These levels remained constant for up to 24-48 h after dermal application. Peak plasma concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were 18,000 pmol/ml (males) and of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were 55,000 pmol/ml (females) between 48 and 72 h after application of the high dose of 4-MBC. In human subjects, only a small percentage of the dermally applied dose of 4-MBC was recovered in the form of metabolites in urine, partly as glucuronides. The obtained results suggest a more intensive biotransformation of 4-MBC in rats as compared to humans after dermal application and a poor absorption of 4-MBC through human skin

  18. 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-8-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one

    Ivan Svinyarov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel protocol for the synthesis of 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-8-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one via demethylation/delactonization/elimination/lactonization/ decarboxylation domino reaction sequence of diastereomeric mixture of cis- and trans-3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1-oxoisochroman-4-carboxylic acids in boiling HBr/AcOH. The structure of the target compound was established for the first time by means of spectral methods such as 1H-, 13C-, DEPT-135-NMR, IR and HRMS.

  19. Design, synthesis and cytotoxic activity of some novel compounds containing pyrazolo[3,4-]pyrimidines nucleus

    Manal M Kandeel; Sameha M Roshdy; Eman K A Abdelall; Mohamed A Abdelgawad; Phoebe F Lamie

    2013-09-01

    Novel pyrazolo[3,4-]pyrimidines were designed and synthesized as antitumour agents against human breast cancer adenoma (MCF-7). Molecular modelling and pharmacological screening were performed against breast cancer cell line and also certain synthetic pathways were developed in order to introduce functionality onto C6 and N5 positions of pyrimidine moiety. Surprisingly, all the test compounds showed IC50 lower than that of the standard olomoucine I, especially compounds 4b, 8a, 10b, 11a and b, which showed IC50 between 0.009 and 0.004 M.

  20. Structure and lattice dynamics of PrFe3(BO3)4: Ab initio calculation

    Chernyshev, V. A.; Nikiforov, A. E.; Petrov, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structure and phonon spectrum of PrFe3(BO3)4 are ab initio calculated in the context of the density functional theory. The ion coordinates in the unit cell of a crystal and the lattice parameters are evaluated from the calculations. The types and frequencies of the fundamental vibrations, as well as the line intensities of the IR spectrum, are determined. The elastic constants of the crystal are calculated. A "seed" frequency of the vibration strongly interacting with the electron excitation on the praseodymium ion is obtained for low-frequency A 2 mode. The calculated results are in agreement with the known experimental data.

  1. Synthesis and Application of 3-(4-Hydroxyphenylimino)indolin-2-one as Corrosion Inhibitor

    A isatin Schiff base, 3-(4-hydroxyphenylimino)indolin-2-one, was synthesized and analyzed by NMR and MS. The inhibition and the mechanism of the title compound on the corrosion of high protective Q235A steel in HCl solution were screened and discussed. The results indicated that it can inhibit the corrosion with moderate inhibition efficiency in different conditions, and the inhibition mechanism of the corrosion inhibiting may be mainly contributed to the adsorption. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that extracts are mixed-type inhibitors. While the title compound was companied with hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-butyne(BOZ), the inhibition efficiency was enhanced effectively. (author)

  2. Investgation into vanadium (3,4,5) interaction with 1.10-phenanthroline

    The interaction of vanadium in the oxidation degree of three, four and five with 1.10-phenanthroline has been examined. The conditions of the complex formation of vanadium (3,4) with that ligand have been established. It has been shown that vanadium (5) does not form a coloured compounds with 1.10-phenanthroline. The composition of the compounds of vanadium (3 and 4) formed with 1.10-phenanthroline has been determined. The constants of stablity have been determined for vanadium (3) 1.10-phenanthrolinate. By the extraction method a charge of the complex compound of vanadium (4) with 1.10-phenanthroline has been established

  3. Biological studies of radiolabeled glucose analogues iodinated in positions 3, 4 or 6

    Perret, Pascale; Ghezzi, Catherine; Ogier, Lionel; Abbadi, Medhi; Morin, Christophe; Mathieu, Jean-Paul; Fagret, Daniel E-mail: DFagret@chu-grenoble.fr

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the biological behavior of new radiolabeled glucose analogues proposed as tracers of glucose uptake in vivo and iodinated in position 3, 4, or 6. Biological results obtained in vitro on adipocytes and erythrocytes and in vivo in mice were compared to those obtained with the gold-standard tracer of glucose uptake, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. None of these molecules had the same biological behavior than 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Therefore, these compounds cannot be considered as tracers of glucose uptake.

  4. Synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization of new 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    B Chandrakantha; Arun M Isloor; Reji Philip; M Mohesh; Prakash Shetty; A M Vijesh

    2011-07-01

    A new series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing 2-fluoro-4-methoxy phenyl were synthesized by refluxing mixture of acid hydrazide 3 with different aromatic carboxylic acids (a–e) in phosphorous oxychloride. These newly synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR, mass spectral, and IR spectral studies, and also by C, H, N analyses. The open-aperture z-scan experiment was employed to measure the optical nonlinearity of the samples at 532 nm, using 5 ns laser pulses. The measurements indicate that compound 4a, which contains Bromine, behaves as an optical limiter at this wavelength, with potential applications in optoelectronics.

  5. Sterically Stabilized Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Colloidal Dispersions Doped with Different Sulfonic Acids

    Tie Jun WANG; Ping CHEN; Xiu Jie HU; Shu Yun ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of sterically stabilized poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT)colloidal dispersions doped with different sulfonic acids is described. Three different sulfonic acids, i.e., p-toluenesulfonic acid, β-naphthalenesuffonic acid and D-camphor-10-sulfonic acid are used, facilitating the preparation of sterically stable PEDOT colloidal particles. The influences of the dopants and concentration of polymeric stabilizer on the yields, morphologies and electrical properties of the resultant colloidal particles were investigated. The colloidal particles with the size ranging from 172 to 334 nm have been obtained in good yields. The compressed pellet conductivity was as high as 4.5 Scm-1.

  6. Some derivatives of mesoionic 1,2,3,4-thiatriazolo-5-aminide interaction with metal ions

    Derivatives of mesoionic 1,2,3,4-thiatriazolo-5-aminides, 1 and 2, interact strongly with metal cations. The interactions with Pb(II), Fe(II), Fe(III), Cu(II) and Cd(II) were studied by means of UV-VIS spectroscopy, 1H' 113Cd NMR. The stoichiometry of the complex was determined by Job's method. Few species, being in equilibrium in the solution, are found in most cases. Some cations form insoluble materials with thiatriazoles 1 and 2. Ligand 2 interacts with cadmium acetate giving a 2:1 complex with a stability constant (4.3±0.5)x107 mol-2. (author)

  7. Performance analysis for resin trap basket in condensate polishing system, Kori 3,4 nuclear plant

    This paper presents the effect of the flow rate and the differential pressure through the resin trap basket, when the basket mesh size is changed from 50 mesh to 100 mesh in Kori 3,4 condensate polishing system. The performance of 50 mesh and 100 mesh basket was predicted by using the equation of general screen type basket and the equation developed with the plant operation data of 50 mesh basket. The result of performance prediction was verified by the field test and the performance prediction equation was finalized by correcting the coefficient

  8. Three-Photon Absorption and Upconversion Fluorescence Properties of Series 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    HUANG Wei; LU Chang-Gui; QIAN Ying; LIU Chang; WANG Zhu-Yuan; CUI Yi-Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ A newly synthesized 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been studied using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system.The series molecules present strong three-photon absorption and frequency upconversion fluorescence at wavelengths from 1205nm to 1575nm.Furthermore,there is no proportional relationship between three-photon absorption cross sections and the chemical structure transformation from monomer,dimer to trimer.Effective charge-transfer distance by π-conjugation bonds may be the contributing factor.In the experimental design,the far-field intensity distribution of femtosecond laeer beam has been taken into account.

  9. (Z-3-(1-Benzofuran-2-yl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacrylonitrile

    Sean Parkin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H17NO4, the double bond of the acrylonitrile group separating the 1-benzofuran moiety from the 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring has Z geometry. The 1-benzofuran groups are π–π stacked with inversion-related counterparts such that the furan ring centroid–centroid distance is 3.804 (5 Å. The dihedral angle between the planes of the trimethoxyphenyl ring and the acrylonitrile group is 24.2 (2°.

  10. 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-containing histone deacetylase inhibitors: anticancer activities in cancer cells.

    Valente, Sergio; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; De Luca, Teresa; Nebbioso, Angela; Labella, Donatella; Lenoci, Alessia; Bigogno, Chiara; Dondio, Giulio; Miceli, Marco; Brosch, Gerald; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Altucci, Lucia; Mai, Antonello

    2014-07-24

    We describe 1,3,4-oxadiazole-containing hydroxamates (2) and 2-aminoanilides (3) as histone deacetylase inhibitors. Among them, 2t, 2x, and 3i were the most potent and selective against HDAC1. In U937 leukemia cells, 2t was more potent than SAHA in inducing apoptosis, and 3i displayed cell differentiation with a potency similar to MS-275. In several acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, as well as in U937 cells in combination with doxorubicin, 3i showed higher antiproliferative effects than SAHA. PMID:24972008

  11. The effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activity

    Andréa Scaramal da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenanthracene is a highly toxic organic compound capable of contaminating water and soils, and biodegradation is an important tool for remediating polluted environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on the activity of the protocatechol 3,4-dioxygenase (P3,4O enzyme produced by the isolate Leifsonia sp. in cell-free and immobilized extracts. The isolate was grown in Luria Bertani broth medium (LB amended with 250 mg L-1 of phenanthrene. Various levels of pH (4.0-9.0, temperature (5-80 °C, time (0-90 min, trace elements (Cu2+, Hg2+ and Fe3+, and cations (Mg2+, Mn2+, K+ and NH4+ were tested to determine which conditions optimized enzyme activity. In general, the immobilized extract exhibited higher enzyme activity than the cell-free extract in the presence of trace elements and cations. Adding iron yielded the highest relative activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 16 and 99 %, respectively. Copper also increased enzyme activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 8 and 44 %, respectively. Enzyme activity in the phosphate buffer was high across a wide range of pH, reaching 80 % in the pH range between 6.5 and 8.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity differed for cell-free and immobilized extracts, with maximum enzyme activity observed at 35 ºC for the cell-free extract and at 55 ºC for the immobilized extract. The cell-free extract of the P3,4O enzyme exhibited high activity only during the first 3 min of incubation, when it showed 50 % relative activity, and dropped to 0 % after 60 min of incubation. By contrast, activity in the immobilized extract was maintained during 90 min of incubation. This isolate has important characteristics for phenanthrene biodegradation, producing high quantities of the P3,4O enzyme that forms part of the most important pathway for PAH biodegradation.

  12. Evaluation of Bcl-2 Family Gene Expression in Hippocampus of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine Treated Rats

    Hamed Hashemi-Nasl; Mohammad Taghi Joghataei; Alireza Samzadeh-Kermani; Seyed Behnamedin Jameie; Mansoure Soleimani; Ali Samadikuchaksaraei; Mohammad Hassan Farhadi; Kazem Mousavizadeh; Sara Soleimani Asl; Mehdi Mehdizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an illicit, recreational drug that causes cellular death and neurotoxicity. This study evaluates the effects of different doses of MDMA on the expression of apoptosis–related proteins and genes in the hippocampus of adult rats. Materials and Methods: In this expremental study,a total of 20 male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g ) were treated with MDMA (0, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg i.p. twice daily) for 7 days. Seven days after the last administration...

  13. Crystal structure of Ag2(μ-SCN)2(NH3)4

    Müller, Thomas G.; Florian Kraus

    2016-01-01

    Di-μ-thiocyanato-bis[diamminesilver(I)], [Ag2(μ-SCN)2(NH3)4], was synthesized by the reaction of AgSCN with anhydrous liquid ammonia. In the binuclear molecule, the AgI atom is coordinated by two ammine ligands and the S atom of one thiocyanate ligand. Two of these [Ag(SCN)(NH3)2] units are bridged by the S atoms of the thiocyanate anions at longer distances, leading to a dimer with point group symmetry C2. The distance between the AgI atoms in the dimer is at 3.0927 (6) Å within the range of...

  14. Antimycobacterial activity of a new rifamycin derivative, 3-(4-cinnamylpiperazinyl iminomethyl) rifamycin SV (T9).

    Reddy, V.M.; Nadadhur, G; Daneluzzi, D; Dimova, V; Gangadharam, P R

    1995-01-01

    The antimycobacterial activities of a new rifampin (RIF) derivative, 3-(4-cinnamylpiperazinyl iminomethyl) rifamycin SV (To), against 20 susceptible and multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 20 Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains were investigated. The radiometric MICs of T9 for M. tuberculosis were significantly lower than those of RIF. The MICs of T9 and RIF at which 90% of the RIF-susceptible strains were inhibited were < or = 0.25 and < or = 0.5 micrograms/ml...

  15. Conditional Generation of Monthly Precipitation

    Kim, U.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    Monthly precipitation models can be used in basin-wide modeling to develop long-term strategies for water resources planning and management and to estimate the change of water yield due to climate change. Such precipitation models are especially important for effective management of river basins in developing countries such as the upper Blue Nile River basin of Ethiopia where the water resource utilization is limited. Many studies have been previously performed to preserve historical temporal and spatial structures when generating precipitation series. The main focus of those studies was to preserve the historical statistics. Other important factors to be considered are transition and spatial correlations. A few recent studies attempted to preserve transition as well as the statistics of historical record. These studies provided satisfactory results while showing the difficulty and complexity of computations in their methods. The conditional generation method (CGM) that can preserve both historical temporal and spatial structures is presented in this study. Because the CGM is driven from the historical conditional probabilities occurring given amounts of precipitation between two successive months or two stations, it is computationally simple and reliable, i.e., parameterization, inverse matrix, or optimum band width is not required. The CGM was applied to reproducing the precipitation pattern of the upper Blue Nile River basin in Ethiopia using monthly precipitation data of 10 stations to demonstrate its applicability. Comparing to the method of inverse transformation of cumulative distribution functions of the gamma distribution and nonparametric kernel estimator with variable band width selected from the goodness-of-fit tests, the CGM showed improved performance, especially in representing the transition characteristics. The CGM also generated the historical spatial correlations between the stations with acceptable accuracy. The results suggested that the CGM

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    NONE

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Serotonergic Neurotoxic Thioether Metabolites of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”): Synthesis, Isolation and Characterization of Diastereoisomers

    Pizarro, Nieves; de la Torre, Rafael; Joglar, Jesús; Okumura, Noriko; Perfetti, Ximena; Lau, Serrine S.; Monks, Terrence J.

    2008-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a synthetic recreational drug of abuse that produces long-term toxicity associated with the degeneration of serotonergic nerve terminals. In various animal models direct administration of MDMA into the brain fails to reproduce the serotonergic neurotoxicity, implying a requirement for the systemic metabolism and bioactivation of MDMA. Catechol-thioether metabolites of MDMA, formed via oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxymetamphetamine and 3,4-dihydro...

  19. Solid-Phase Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives via Desulfurative Cyclization of Thiosemicarbazide Intermediate Resin.

    Yang, Seung-Ju; Choe, Ji-Hye; Gong, Young-Dae

    2016-08-01

    A 1,3,4-thiadiazole library was constructed by solid-phase organic synthesis. The key step of this solid-phase synthesis involves the preparation of polymer-bound 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin by the cyclization of thiosemicarbazide resin using p-TsCl as the desulfurative agent, followed by the functionalization of the resin by alkylation, acylation, alkylation/acylation, and Suzuki coupling reactions. Both the alkylation and acylation reactions chemoselectively occurred at the 2-amide position of 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin and the 5-amine position of 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin, respectively. Finally, these functionalized 1,3,4-thiadiazole resins were treated with trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane, affording diverse 1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs in high yields and purities. The 1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs show a different distribution of physicochemical and biological properties compared with our previously constructed 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole libraries in a range of orally available drug properties. PMID:27362292

  20. Photocrosslinkable Star Polymers via RAFT-Copolymerizations with N-Ethylacrylate-3,4-dimethylmaleimide

    Philipp Vana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Z-RAFT-star copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate (BA and N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm, respectively, with N-ethylacrylate-3,4-dimethylmaleimide (1.1, a monomer carrying a UV-reactive unit that undergoes photocrosslinking. Addition of 1.1 slows down the polymerization rate both for BA and for NIPAm polymerization. Double star formation due to radical attack to the 3,4-dimethylmaleimide moiety was found in the case of BA. Dead polymer formation, presumably due to aminolysis as side-reaction, was pronounced in the NIPAm system. These two effects broadened the molar mass distributions, but did not impede the formation of functional star polymers. The composition of the copolymers as well as the reactivity ratios for the applied comonomers were determined via NMR spectroscopy (BA-co-1.1 r1.1 = 2.24 rBA = 0.95; NIPAm-co-1.1 r1.1 = 0.96 rNIPAm = 0.05. In both cases, the comonomer is consumed preferably in the beginning of the polymerization, thus forming gradient copolymer stars with the UV-reactive units being located in the outer sphere.

  1. System analysis for application of operation at reduced temperature in YGN 3,4

    Primary Water Stress Corrosion Craking(PWSCC) is one of the main reason threatening the integrity of steam generator(SG). The rate of PWSCC increases logarithmically with the temperature of reactor coolant. In order to delay the replacement of SG and save the O and M cost, it is decided to apply Operation at Reduced Temperature(ORT) in YGN 3,4 which is equipped with In-600 SG tube and is operating with the highest coolant temperature in the world. In this study, the system performance of YGN 3,4 is analyzed by sensitivity analysis to decide the operating condition of ORT. The F612 deg of hot-leg coolant temperature which can maintain the 100% of reactor power without the modification of Turbine-Generator(TG) hardware is selected as the economical initial operating condition for ORT. Considering the possibility of power uprating and the experience of ORT application at Palo Verde plants, the F611 deg of hot-leg coolant temperature is decided as the analysis condition for ORT

  2. AMPTE CCE observations of Pc 3-4 pulsations at L = 2-6

    Very few spacecraft observations of magnetic Pc 3-4 pulsations at L < 4 have been reported in the past despite the fact that Pc 3-4 pulsations are a common occurrence on the ground at L < 4. In order to fill this observational gap in the magnetosphere, the authors have initiated an analysis of magnetic field data acquired by the AMPTE CCE spacecraft. A procedure has been developed to reduce the artificial modulation and noise in magnetic field measurements, with the resultant data useful for studying magnetic pulsations with amplitude less that 1 nT in the 1,000 nT (L ∼ 3) background and periods longer than 12 s. From a survey of 41 CCE passes in L = 2-6 and in the postnoon sector, they find that the most commonly observed pulsations in this region are the east-west oscillations of magnetic field with clearly L-dependent frequencies. These are identified to be the toroidal mode standing Alfven waves. From a comparison of CCE and GOES 5 magnetic field measurements there is evidence that the resonances can be excited by the same mechanism as those previously found at geostationary orbit or beyond. Abrupt changes is resonance frequency, as a function of L, are not usually seen, supporting previous reports that the mass or number density profile on the dayside does not have a steep plasmapause structure

  3. Gas Sensitivity of Poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) Prepared by a Modified LB Film Method

    ZHENG Huajing; JIANG Yadong; XU Jianhua; YANG Yajie

    2011-01-01

    An arachidic acid/poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (AA/PEDOT) multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film was prepared by a modified LB film method. The theories were utilized to explain the effects between HCl molecule and LB film. The gas sensitivity mechanism of poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) muitilayer film can be explained by the charge transfer between p system of PEDOT and oxidization HCl system. The gas sensitivity of PEDOT LB film deposited interdigital electrode to HCl was tested. The results showed that film thickness, treating temperature,deposition speed had different influence on film gas sensitivity. The AA/PEDOT film deposited device exhibited nonlinear behavior to HCl gas at lower concentration (20-60 ppm) and linear response behavior at higher gas concentration was observed. The time of the compound LB film of the AA/PEDOT responding to the 30 ppm HCl gas is about 20 seconds, which is far quicker than the time of the film to the PEDOT- PRESS film(about 80 seconds). It is not higher film press to better film. When the film press attains 45 mNs/m, the sensitivity of the AA/PEDOT film on the contrary descends.

  4. Preparation of 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate with phase transfer catalysis method%相转移催化法制备3,4-环氧基环己基甲酸-3',4'-环氧基环己基甲酯

    储进昌; 李乐; 章亚东

    2009-01-01

    采用磷钨杂多酸季铵盐为相转移催化剂,以过氧化氢为氧源,由3-环己烯甲酸-3'-环己烯甲酯(简称A)环氧化反应合成3,4-环氧基环己基甲酸-3',4'-环氧基环己基甲酯(简称AOO).考察了溶剂的种类、催化剂用量(质量)、反应物料比、反应温度、反应时间等因素对反应的影响.得到了适宜的合成反应条件,即以60 mmol A计,1,2-二氯乙烷30 mL,nA ∶nH2O2=1∶2.5,催化剂质量1.4 g,温度65℃,时间60 min.在该反应条件下,A的平均转化率在99%以上,产品AOO的平均产率为93.5%.产物经红外光谱、质谱分析证实为目标产物.

  5. Crystal structure of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase of riboflavin biosynthesis

    Liao, D.-I.; Calabrese, J.C.; Wawrzak, Z.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B. (DuPont); (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    3,4-Dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase catalyzes a commitment step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin. On the enzyme, ribulose 5-phosphate is converted to 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate and formate in steps involving enolization, ketonization, dehydration, skeleton rearrangement, and formate elimination. The enzyme is absent in humans and an attractive target for the discovery of antimicrobials for pathogens incapable of acquiring sufficient riboflavin from their hosts. The homodimer of 23 kDa subunits requires Mg{sup 2+} for activity. The first three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined at 1.4 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method on Escherichia coli protein crystals containing gold. The protein consists of an {alpha} + {beta} fold having a complex linkage of {beta} strands. Intersubunit contacts are mediated by numerous hydrophobic interactions and three hydrogen bond networks. A proposed active site was identified on the basis of amino acid residues that are conserved among the enzyme from 19 species. There are two well-separated active sites per dimer, each of which comprise residues from both subunits. In addition to three arginines and two threonines, which may be used for recognizing the phosphate group of the substrate, the active site consists of three glutamates, two aspartates, two histidines, and a cysteine which may provide the means for general acid and base catalysis and for coordinating the Mg{sup 2+} cofactor within the active site.

  6. A common origin for 3/4- and 2/3-power rules in metabolic scaling

    Zhao, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    A central debate in biology has been the allometric scaling of metabolic rate. Kleiber's observation that animals' basal metabolic rate scales to the 3/4-power of body mass (Kleiber's rule) has been the prevailing hypothesis in the last eight decades. Increasingly, more evidences are supporting the alternative 2/3-power scaling rule, especially for smaller animals. The 2/3-rule dates back to before Kleiber's time and was thought to originate from the surface to volume relationship in Euclidean geometry. In this study, we show that both the 3/4- and 2/3-scaling rules have in fact one common origin. They are governed by animals' nutrient supply networks-their vascular systems that obey Murray's law. Murray's law describes the branching pattern of energy optimized vascular network under laminar flow. It is generally regarded as being closely followed by blood vessels. Our analysis agrees with experimental observations and recent numerical analyses that showed a curvature in metabolic scaling. When applied to met...

  7. Validation of RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD3.4 for research reactor applications

    The RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD3.4 code, designed to predict the behavior of reactor systems during normal and accident conditions, is being developed as part of the international SCDAP Development and Training Program (SDTP). RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD3.4 uses publicly available RELAP/MOD3.3 and SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 models, developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in combination with (a) new models for fission product transport and deposition, fuel assembly behavior, and in-vessel melt retention, (b) advanced programming and numerical techniques, and (c) integrated graphics displays. The RELAP5 and SCDAP models have been validated for a wide range of accident conditions using a variety of experiments and plant data. However, the validation of the models for research reactor applications has been much more limited. As a result, a group within SDTP, including the Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic), National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, China Institute of Atomic Energy, and Bangladesh Atomic Energy Research Establishment, has started work to validate the code for a variety of research reactor designs including TRIGA and other unique research reactors. This paper describes the reactor designs currently being considered in the study, the development and qualification of input models for the facilities, and the transients being analyzed as part of this effort. (authors)

  8. Structurally-driven Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin Films

    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Portale, Giuseppe; Kuropatwa, Bryan A.; Dilhaire, Stefan; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-07-01

    Due to the rising need for clean energy, thermoelectricity has raised as a potential alternative to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Specifically, thermoelectric devices based on polymers could offer an efficient path for near-room temperature energy harvesters. Thus, control over thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers is crucial and, herein, the structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films doped with p-toluenesulfonate (Tos) molecules were investigated with regards to thin film processing. PEDOT:Tos thin films were prepared by in-situ polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) monomers in presence of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate with different co-solvents in order to tune the film structure. While the Seebeck coefficient remained constant, a large improvement in the electrical conductivity was observed for thin films processed with high boiling point additives. The increase of electrical conductivity was found to be solely in-plane mobility-driven. Probing the thin film structure by Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering has shown that this behavior is dictated by the structural properties of the PEDOT:Tos films; specifically by the thin film crystallinity combined to the preferential edge-on orientation of the PEDOT crystallites. Consequentially enhancement of the power factor from 25 to 78.5 μW/mK2 has been readily obtained for PEDOT:Tos thin films following this methodology.

  9. The acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress in rat brain

    Simić Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress and oxygen free radicals are thought to play an important role in acute effects of a number of neurotoxic processes. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, a ring substituted amphetamine derivate, has attracted a great deal of media attention in recent years due to its widespread abuse as recreational drug by the young generation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress parameters (index of lipid peroxidation - ILP, superoxide radicals O2-, superoxide dismutase - SOD and glutathione - GSH in frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus in Wistar rats. Materials and methods The study included 40 male Wistar rats (200-250 g, housed 4 per cage having free access to food and water. MDMA was dissolved in distillated water and administered peroraly at 5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg. 8 hours following MDMA, the rats were killed by decapitation, their brains were rapidly removed and the brain structures were dissected out on ice and analyzed biochemically. Results Acute peroral administration of a single dose (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg resulted in increase of ILP, O2-, SOD and decrease of GSH. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study suggest that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and that the mechanism of MDMA neurotoxycity may vary between brain regions.

  10. 5-(4-Bromophenyl-2-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran

    Hong Dae Choi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H15BrO3S, crystallizes with four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The 4-bromophenyl rings are rotated out of the benzofuran planes, with dihedral angles for the four molecules of 20.8 (2, 17.8 (2, 23.5 (4 and 23.9 (4°. The dihedral angles between the 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl ring and the benzofuran plane are 13.5 (2, 7.1 (2, 18.6 (3 and 14.2 (3° in the four molecules. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak nonclassical intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure also exhibits intermolecular aromatic π–π interactions between the benzene and furan rings and between the 4-bromophenyl and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl rings from molecules of the same type; the centroid–centroid distances are 3.92 (1 and 3.79 (1, 3.91 (1, 3.77 (1 and 3.77 (1, and 3.79 (1 and 3.75 (1Å in the four molecules.

  11. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of Drosophila 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Decarboxylase

    Han, Q.; Ding, H; Robinson, H; Christensen, B; Li, J

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC), also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses. In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82 and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine. The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins.

  12. Spontaneous and stimulated emission in Sm3+-doped YAl3(BO3)4 single crystal

    Single crystals of YAl3(BO3)4 doped with trivalent samarium were grown by the top-seeded high temperature solution method and their absorption and emission spectra were investigated. Optical pumping into prominent absorption band around 405 nm feeds the 4G5/2 metastable level giving rise to intense visible luminescence distributed in several spectral lines with the most intense line around 600 nm characterized by a branching ratio of 0.42 and peak emission cross section of 0.25×10−20 cm2. Optical amplification at 600 nm with a gain coefficient of 2.9 cm−1 was achieved during a pump-and-probe experiment. - Highlights: • YAB:Sm crystal grown by the top-seeded high temperature solution method. • Spectroscopic qualities relevant for visible laser operation. • YAB:Sm single crystal used in a pump-and-probe experiment. • Optical amplification properties of samarium doped YAl3(BO3)4

  13. Green-emitting nanoscaled borate phosphors Sr3RE2(BO3)4:Tb3+

    Three Tb3+ doped mixed strontium – rare earths borate phosphors of general formula Sr3RE2(BO3)4:Tb3+ (RE = Y, La or Gd) of 25–40 nm particle size were obtained by the Pechini sol–gel method, using citric acid and ethylene glycol as gel-forming agents. The structures of prepared materials were confirmed and characterized using X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Photoluminescence properties, such as emission and excitation spectra and luminescence lifetimes of the phosphors, were measured. Excitation of the phosphors using different wavelengths in the UV range is possible. Lifetimes measured for the phosphors ranged from 2.2 to 2.7 ms. All of the Tb3+-doped phosphors show excellent luminescent properties, with a bright emission of green light under UV excitation. The color coordinates of emitted light on CIE1931 chromaticity diagram are close to those of National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) standard of green. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Mixed strontium-rare earths borate Tb3+-doped nanoluminophors were obtained for the first time. • Optimal conditions for the synthesis of Sr3RE2(BO3)4:Tb3+ were found. • Photoluminescence properties of well-emitting products are discussed. • The color CIE coordinates of the nanosized (40 nm) particles were determined

  14. Studies on the sulphation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) and related compounds by rat tissues

    Jenner, William N.; Rose, Frederick A.

    1973-01-01

    The formation of sulpho-conjugates of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) and related compounds was examined in preparations of rat tissues. Liver high-speed-supernatant preparations readily transferred sulphate from adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphato-phosphate to dopamine under standard conditions. The main product was identified as the 3-O-sulphate. The preparation also sulphated the 3- and 4-methoxy derivatives but to a lesser extent (44% and 95% respectively) relative to dopamine. Brain preparations possessed only half the activity of liver but formed both the 3- and 4-O-sulphates in the molar ratio of 1.7:1. l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) in both tissue preparations did not yield any significant amount of sulpho-conjugate when the dopa decarboxylase present was inhibited. The sulphotransferase activity of preparations was doubled in the presence of dithiothreitol and it was concluded that l-tyrosine methyl ester sulphotransferase was the enzyme involved. A method for the preparation of authentic dopamine 3-O-sulphate and 4-O-sulphate was developed. PMID:4798178

  15. Crystal structure of mixed cerium and potassium polyphosphate KCe(PO3)4

    Polyphosphate, KCl(PO3)4 has been synthesized. Its complete X-ray diffraction analysis was conducted (Syntex P21 diffractometer, lambda Mo Ksub(α), 2190 reflections, LSM in an anisotropic approximation, R=0.044). Parameters of monoclinic lattice are: a=7.236(1), b=13.168(4), c=9.990(3)A, β=90.46(2) deg, z=4, space group P2sub(1/n). Cerium atoms are coordinated by eight oxygen atoms according to a distorted Archimedes antiprism, Ce-O=2.418(6)-2.532(6)A. In the polyphosphate chain P-Osub(brid)=1.575(7)-1.600(6)A, P-Osub(term)=1.478(7)-1.492(7)A, angles P-O-P=132.3(4)-139.4(5) deg. In a K-polyhedron six oxygen atoms form a distorted octahedron, K=02.384(8)-2.Z43(8)A, while three more distant oxygen atoms from ''caps'' over three octahedron facets, K-O=3.041(8)-3.181(8)A. Polyhedrons of K and Ce form two-dimensional lattices, parallel to plane (010) which are joined by polyphosphate chains

  16. Structurally-driven Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin Films

    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Portale, Giuseppe; Kuropatwa, Bryan A.; Dilhaire, Stefan; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rising need for clean energy, thermoelectricity has raised as a potential alternative to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Specifically, thermoelectric devices based on polymers could offer an efficient path for near-room temperature energy harvesters. Thus, control over thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers is crucial and, herein, the structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films doped with p-toluenesulfonate (Tos) molecules were investigated with regards to thin film processing. PEDOT:Tos thin films were prepared by in-situ polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) monomers in presence of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate with different co-solvents in order to tune the film structure. While the Seebeck coefficient remained constant, a large improvement in the electrical conductivity was observed for thin films processed with high boiling point additives. The increase of electrical conductivity was found to be solely in-plane mobility-driven. Probing the thin film structure by Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering has shown that this behavior is dictated by the structural properties of the PEDOT:Tos films; specifically by the thin film crystallinity combined to the preferential edge-on orientation of the PEDOT crystallites. Consequentially enhancement of the power factor from 25 to 78.5 μW/mK2 has been readily obtained for PEDOT:Tos thin films following this methodology. PMID:27470637

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives

    Asma Agrebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several new pyrazolopyrimidine compounds were achieved from aminocyanopyarazole 1. The starting material 1 was initially coupled with orthoester at refluxed with various primary amines, ammonia, hydrazines and hydroxylamine to furnish a series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines. The reaction of imidate 2a-b with hydrazide derivatives led to the formation of pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]pyrimidines. Some of the synthesized compounds 3a and 4c were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and nociceptive activities. We start by studing the toxicity of these two molecules by measuring the corresponding DL50. The DL50 of 3a and 4c are estimated to 1333.2mg / kg and 1593.5mg / kg respectively. Pharmacological evaluation showed that compounds 3a and 4c at doses (5.5-22.2 mg / Kg, i.p exhibited anti-inflammatory activities compared to Ibuprofen (150 mg / Kg, i.p, used as a refer ence drug. Further, our study showed that the injection of derived pyrazolopyrimidines on hyperthermic animal leads to a decrease in temperature after 1 hours of treatment compared to paracetamol used as reference. In addition, the injection of derived pyrazolopyrimidines at different doses contains a potent nociceptive activity. This effect is dose-dependent compared to aspirin.

  18. Improving the Thermoelectric Properties of Polyaniline by Introducing Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    Wang, Xiao Yang; Liu, Cheng Yan; Miao, Lei; Gao, Jie; Chen, Yu

    2016-03-01

    By using the parent monomers, 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene and aniline, a series of nanocomposites consisting of different mass ratios of polyaniline (PANI) to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have been successfully prepared in hydrochloric acid solution through oxidative polymerization, then redoped with p-toluenesulfonic acid ( p-TSA). Firstly, PEDOT nanoparticles were fabricated via chemical oxidation polymerization in reverse (water-in-oil) microemulsions. Then, PANI-doped PEDOT nanoparticles were formed by oxidative polymerization of aniline to form PANI/PEDOT nanofibers. The resulting nanostructured components were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a series of spectroscopic methods. The presence of PEDOT increased the room-temperature electrical conductivity of the PANI/PEDOT nanocomposites by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with the parent PANI. Moreover, the PANI/PEDOT nanocomposites showed better thermoelectric properties than PANI. Different concentrations of p-TSA also affected the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the nanocomposites. With increasing temperature, both the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient increased.

  19. Resistance Analyses of HCV NS3/4A Protease and NS5B Polymerase from Clinical Studies of Deleobuvir and Faldaprevir

    Berger, Kristi L.; Sarrazin, Christoph; Nelson, David R.; Scherer, Joseph; Sha, Nanshi; Marquis, Martin; Côté-Martin, Alexandra; Vinisko, Richard; Stern, Jerry O.; Mensa, Federico J.; Kukolj, George

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim The resistance profile of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents used in combination is important to guide optimal treatment regimens. We evaluated baseline and treatment-emergent NS3/4A and NS5B amino-acid variants among HCV genotype (GT)-1a and -1b-infected patients treated with faldaprevir (HCV protease inhibitor), deleobuvir (HCV polymerase non-nucleoside inhibitor), and ribavirin in multiple clinical studies. Methods HCV NS3/4A and NS5B population sequencing (Sanger method) was performed on all baseline plasma samples (n = 1425 NS3; n = 1556 NS5B) and on post-baseline plasma samples from patients with virologic failure (n = 113 GT-1a; n = 221 GT-1b). Persistence and time to loss of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) was estimated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results Faldaprevir RAVs (NS3 R155 and D168) and deleobuvir RAVs (NS5B 495 and 496) were rare (90%). Virologic relapse was associated with RAVs in both NS3 and NS5B (53% GT-1b; 52% GT-1b); some virologic relapses had NS3 RAVs only (47% GT-1a; 17% GT-1b). Median time to loss of GT-1b NS5B P495 RAVs post-treatment (5 months) was less than that of GT-1b NS3 D168 (8.5 months) and GT-1a R155 RAVs (11.5 months). Conclusion Faldaprevir and deleobuvir RAVs are more prevalent among virologic failures than at baseline. Treatment response was not compromised by common NS3 polymorphisms; however, alanine at NS5B amino acid 499 at baseline (wild-type in GT-1a, polymorphism in GT-1b) may reduce response to this deleobuvir-based regimen. PMID:27494410

  20. Conformal Postoperative Radiotherapy in Patients With Positive Resection Margins and/or pT3-4 Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    Bellavita, Rita, E-mail: ritabellavita@libero.it [Institute of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Massetti, Michela [Institute of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Abraha, Iosief [Regional Health Authority of Umbria, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Lupattelli, Marco [Institute of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Mearini, Luigi [Urology Department, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Falcinelli, Lorenzo; Farneti, Alessia; Palumbo, Isabella [Institute of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Porena, Massimo [Urology Department, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Aristei, Cynthia [Institute of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome and toxicity of high-dose conformal radiotherapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Between August 1998 and December 2007, 182 consecutive patients with positive resection margins and/or pT3-4, node-negative prostate adenocarcinoma underwent postoperative conformal RT. The prescribed median dose to the prostate/seminal vesicle bed was 66.6 Gy (range 50-70). Hormone therapy (a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue and/or antiandrogen) was administered to 110/182 (60.5%) patients with high-risk features. Biochemical relapse was defined as an increase of more than 0.2 ng/mL over the lowest postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value measured on 3 occasions, each at least 2 weeks apart. Results: Median follow-up was 55.6 months (range 7.6-141.9 months). The 3- and 5-year probability of biochemical relapse-free survival were 87% and 81%, respectively. In univariate analysis, more advanced T stages, preoperative PSA values {>=}10 ng/mL, and RT doses <70 Gy were significant factors for biochemical relapse. Pre-RT PSA values >0.2 ng/mL were significant for distant metastases. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for biochemical relapse were higher preoperative and pre-RT PSA values, hormone therapy for under 402 days and RT doses of <70 Gy. Higher pre-RT PSA values were the only independent predictor of distant metastases. Acute genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities occurred in 72 (39.6%) and 91 (50%) patients, respectively. There were 2 cases of Grade III GI toxicity but no cases of Grade IV. Late GU and GI toxicities occurred in 28 (15.4%) and 14 (7.7%) patients, respectively: 11 cases of Grade III toxicity: 1 GI (anal stenosis) and 10 GU, all urethral strictures requiring endoscopic urethrotomy. Conclusions: Postoperative high-dose conformal RT in patients with high-risk features was associated with a low risk of biochemical relapse as well as minimal morbidity.

  1. 1, 3-Dipolar cycloaddition reactions: Synthesis of 5-benzyl-1-(2',4'-dibromophenyl)-3-(4"-substituted phenyl)-3a,4,6,6a-tetrahydro-1, 5-pyrrolo[3,4-]pyrazole-4,6-dione derivatives

    Manpreet Kaur; Baldev Singh; Baljit Singh

    2013-11-01

    1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of nitrilimines 3 with -benzyl maleimide 4 has provided 5-benzyl-1-(2',4'-dibromophenyl)-3-(4"-substituted phenyl)-3a,4,6,6a-tetrahydro-1,5-pyrrolo[3,4-]pyrazole-4,6-dione derivatives 5 in excellent yield as the only isomer through a concerted pathway.

  2. The mechanism of unexpected reduction of dimethyl pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrofuro[3,4-b]-pyridin-5(7H)-one with sodium borohydride

    Yan Bo Tang; Qing Jian Zhang; De Quan Yu

    2012-01-01

    An unexpected reduction of dimethyl pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrofuro[3,4-b]pyridin-5(7H)-one with sodium borohydride in ethanol and tetrahydrofuran,respectively,is described,a hypothetic mechanism for the unusual reductive product is proposed.

  3. Nd3(SeO3)4OH: the first rare earth hydroxide selenite with the Gd3(SeO3)4F-type structure

    Monocrystals of a new neodymium hydroxide selenite Nd3(SeO3)4OH are prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and studied by X-ray diffraction. The compound is found to crystallize in space group P63mc with the unit cell parameters: a = 10.547(1) A, c = 7.134(1) A, Z = 2. The Nd3(SeO3)4OH structure contains a three-dimensional framework of chains consisting of NdO9 polyhedra. Selenium(IV) atoms, whose environment includes three oxygen atoms each, are arranged along voids of the framework. The Nd3(SeO3)4OH structure is isotypical to Gd3(SeO3)4F. The hydroxide oxygen atom in the new structure plays the role of the F atom in Gd3(SeO3)4F

  4. 胚胎干细胞分化的重要分子开关:Oct-3/4%The Important Molecular Switches of the Embryonic Stem Cells: Oct-3/4

    许丹; 潘增祥; 王锋

    2005-01-01

    POU(Pit-Oct-Unc)域转录因子Oct-3/4已成为小鼠、人、猕猴等哺乳动物体内多能性胚胎干细胞的标志物.在小鼠胚胎发育过程中,Oct-3/4基因只在全能和多能细胞中表达.研究Oct-3/4表达部位及作用机制已成为研究胚胎形成过程及细胞分化过程的必要手段.本文综述了Oct-3/4的表达特性及人、牛、猪、小鼠之间Oct-3/4的结构差异,并详细的描述了其作用机制.

  5. The Feasibility of Predicting Nino 3.4 Index Using a Sparse Approximation Algorithm

    Peng, X.; Li, T.; Gu, Y.; Zhang, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) is one of the principle factors that have significant influence on global climate variability. Due to large mass and great thermal capacity of the oceans, oceanic conditions change relatively slowly and dominant patterns are thus easy to detect. Most of the current research on SSTA make use of PCA methods like EOF or SVD. Though such methods are effective in reducing dimensions, it is always hard to give a physical interpretation of the results and difficult to distinguish the minor eigenvectors from noises. Instead of finding patterns, we put forward a framework for the direct prediction of SSTAs, using a sparse approximation method, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), to reduce the noises in global SST observation. Global SSTA time series in 5°×5° resolution were used to fit each target SSTA vector and the lasso method was utilized to avoid over-fitting. Taking the Nino 3.4 Index as an example, the predictability of the lasso model was studied and the results showed a relatively satisfying prediction skill in terms of correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error compared with the results obtained from LDEO 5. Moreover, by taking other climate variables into consideration, we discovered a stable relation between the Nino 3.4 Index and the sea-ice extent anomaly in South Pole at a lead time of around 2 years. In addition, the bootstrapping method was used to resample the coefficients in the sparse regression model so that we could study their statistical property. 14 regressors were reserved suggesting 10 potential indices which have relatively strong relations with the Nino 3.4 Index. Some of the potential indices corresponded well to known climate indices while the rest indicated an undiscovered index in tropical oceans of eastern South America. In conclusion, the lasso method approved its feasibility in climate prediction at a relatively low computation cost, and

  6. 3&4D Geomodeling Applied to Mineral Resources Exploration - A New Tool for Targeting Deposits.

    Royer, Jean-Jacques; Mejia, Pablo; Caumon, Guillaume; Collon-Drouaillet, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    3 & 4D geomodeling, a computer method for reconstituting the past deformation history of geological formations, has been used in oil and gas exploration for more than a decade for reconstituting fluid migration. It begins nowadays to be applied for exploring with new eyes old mature mining fields and new prospects. We describe shortly the 3&4D geomodeling basic notions, concepts, and methodology when applied to mineral resources assessment and modeling ore deposits, pointing out the advantages, recommendations and limitations, together with new challenges they rise. Several 3D GeoModels of mining explorations selected across Europe will be presented as illustrative case studies which have been achieved during the EU FP7 ProMine research project. It includes: (i) the Cu-Au porphyry deposits in the Hellenic Belt (Greece); (ii) the VMS in the Iberian Pyrite Belt including the Neves Corvo deposit (Portugal) and (iii) the sediment-hosted polymetallic Cu-Ag (Au, PGE) Kupferschiefer ore deposit in the Foresudetic Belt (Poland). In each case full 3D models using surfaces and regular grid (Sgrid) were built from all dataset available from exploration and exploitation including geological primary maps, 2D seismic cross-sections, and boreholes. The level of knowledge may differ from one site to another however those 3D resulting models were used to pilot additional field and exploration works. In the case of the Kupferschiefer, a sequential restoration-decompaction (4D geomodeling) from the Upper Permian to Cenozoic was conducted in the Lubin- Sieroszowice district of Poland. The results help in better understanding the various superimposed mineralization events which occurred through time in this copper deposit. A hydro-fracturing index was then calculated from the estimated overpressures during a Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene up-lifting, and seems to correlate with the copper content distribution in the ore-series. These results are in agreement with an Early Paleocene

  7. Monthly Energy Review, February 1998

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Energy production during November 1997 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 0.3-percent decrease from the level of production during November 1996. Natural gas production increased 2.8 percent, production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.7 percent, and coal production decreased 1.6 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 1.1 percent from the level of production during November 1996. Energy consumption during November 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 0.1 percent above the level of consumption during November 1996. Consumption of natural gas increased 1.5 percent, consumption of coal fell 0.3 percent, while consumption of petroleum products decreased 0.2 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 0.8 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during November 1997 totaled 1.7 quadrillion Btu, 8.6 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 6.3 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 1.2 percent. Net exports of coal fell 17.8 percent from the level in November 1996.

  8. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. LHC News : The 39th and final repaired dipole magnet was lowered into Sector 3-4 and installed

    CERN Multimedia Productions

    2009-01-01

    The 39th and final repaired dipole magnet was lowered into Sector 3-4 and installed on Thursday 16 April. This is the last of the LHC’s easily recognizable 15-metre-long blue superconducting dipoles required for the 3-4 repair. Interviews with Hervé Prin, Member of the LHC reconstruction team, Caterina Bertone, Magnet transport leader

  12. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 2,5-Bisubstituted Derivatives of 1,3,4-Thiadiazol-2,5-dithiol

    Zhivotova, T. S.; Bakirova, R. E.; Fazylov, S. D.; S. K. Kabieva; Kryazheva, T. V.

    2013-01-01

    By reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazol-2,5-dithiol with different organohalogens, chlorides of carboxylic acids, acrylic acid derivatives, alkaloids, and secondary amines, various derivatives of 2,5-bi-substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazole were synthesized, and biological properties of some of them were studied.

  13. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 2,5-Bisubstituted Derivatives of 1,3,4-Thiadiazol-2,5-dithiol

    T. S. Zhivotova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazol-2,5-dithiol with different organohalogens, chlorides of carboxylic acids, acrylic acid derivatives, alkaloids, and secondary amines, various derivatives of 2,5-bi-substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazole were synthesized, and biological properties of some of them were studied.

  14. New Paradigms for Developing Peta-scalable Codes Workshop - May 3-4, 2004

    Michael Levine

    2005-04-30

    On May 3 & 4, 2004, sixty-two of North America's finest computational scientists gathered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to discuss the future of high-performance computing. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the Hewlett-Packard Corporation, New Methods for Developing Peta-scalable Codes introduced the tools and techniques that will be required to efficiently exploit the next generation of supercomputers. This workshop provided an opportunity for computational scientists to consider parallel programming methods other than the currently prevalent one in which they explicitly and directly manage all parallelism via MPI. Specifically, the question is how best to program the upcoming generation of computer systems that will use massive parallelism and complex memory hierarchies to reach from the terascale into the petascale regime over the next five years. The presentations, by leading computer scientists, focused on languages, runtimes and libraries, tool collections and I/O methods.

  15. Metabolism and distribution of 3,4-epithiobutanenitrile in the rat

    Brocker, E.R.; Benn, M.H.; Luethy, J.; von Daeniken, A.

    1984-03-01

    The metabolism and distribution of (2-/sup 14/C)- and /sup 35/S-labelled 3,4-epithiobutanenitrile (4ETN), a thiirane occurring naturally in cruciferous vegetables, was studied in the rat. A dose of c. 11 mg 4ETN/kg body weight was rapidly transformed into water-soluble compounds and was mainly excreted in the urine, irrespective of the route of administration (oral or ip). The main metabolite in the urine was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a mercapturic acid derivative. Low residual radioactivity demonstrated in organs 72 hr after administration was consistent with an earlier report that the thiirane may function as a weak biological alkylating agent.

  16. Multi-Physics Simulation of Wood Drying in COMSOL Multiphysics 3.4.

    Sandoval-Torres Sadoth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the numerical simulation of drying of Pinus pesudostrobus wood is presented by using a phenomenological model. The model is developed by considering the heat and mass balance in the representative elementary volume (REV, which involves the solid, liquid and gas phases. We obtained a system of partial differential equations which was solved by numerical factorization by using COMSOL multiphysics 3.4. Three primary variables were solved: the moisture content, the temperature, and the dry-air mass. The numerical results were compared against experimental data and the semi-empirical model. Our results are satisfactory; we describe the drying kinetics, the moisture distribution within the wood, the dry-air mass evolution and the temperature profiles.

  17. Synthesis and pharmacological activities of some new 5-substituted-2-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Shobha R Desai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, various 5-β-[(N-benzenesulphony/tosyl-4-(un substituted anilino]ethyl-2-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazole (4a-f, with sulphonamide moiety at the side chain have been synthesised. The structures of the newly synthesised compounds have been established on the basis of their spectral data and elemental analysis. All the compounds were screened for antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cirroflagellosus, Aspergillus niger. Colletotrichum capsici and antituberclosis activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Only two compounds 4b (73% and 4e (54%, have shown moderate antituberculosis activity. All the compounds have shown moderate antiinflamatory activity and least ulcerogenecity. Most of the compounds have shown significant analgesic activity (64.20-120.72% in comparison with the standard, Aspirin (49.39% In the MES method, however only compound 4a, exhibited a protection of 33.33%, and others failed to protect.

  18. Molecular and Crystal Structure of 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)- 3- (4-Nitrophenyl)- 1-Triazene

    张德纯; 费正皓; 张艳秋; 郁开北

    2000-01-01

    The title compound, 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-(4-Nitrophenyl)-1-Tri-azene, crystallized in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbca, with a= 13. 793(2), b=10. 843(2), c=16. 851(2)A , V=2520. 2(7) A Dc=1. 458g/cma, Z=8,C12H9ClN4O2, Mr= 276.68, μ(MoKa) = 0. 306mm-1, F(000) = 1136. The structure was refined to R=0. 0372, wR=0. 0786 for 1216 reflections (I>2σ(I)). The title molecule has trans geometry about the central triazenyl linkage. The dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings is only 5.8(2)°. They are also nearly coplanar with the triand form the zigzag chains. The polar molecular chains are antiparallelly stacked throughπ …π interactions. The interstack int eraction is mainly van der Waals force.

  19. Thermal Degradation Behaviour of Ni(II Complex of 3,4-Methylenedioxaphenylaminoglyoxime

    Emin Karapınar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal degradation behaviour of the Ni(II complex of 3,4-methylenedioxaphenylaminoglyoxime was investigated by TG, DTA, and DTG at a heating rate of 10°C min−1 under dinitrogen. The acquired experimental data shows that the complex is thermally stable up to 541 K. The pyrolytic decomposition process occurs by melting metal complex and metal oxide remains as final product. The energies of the reactions involved and the mechanism of decomposition at each stage have been examined. The values of kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E, preexponential factor (A and thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH, entropy (ΔS, and Gibbs free energy (ΔG are also evaluated.

  20. Flexible electrochromic device based on poly (3,4-(2,2-dimethylpropylenedioxy)thiophene)

    Ma Chao; Taya, Minoru [Center of Intelligent Materials and Systems, University of Washington, Box 352600, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Xu Chunye [Center of Intelligent Materials and Systems, University of Washington, Box 352600, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)], E-mail: Chunye@u.washington.edu

    2008-12-30

    In this study, the design, fabrication and characterization of a flexible electrochromic device based on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic is discussed. The working electrochromic material film was poly (3,4-(2,2-dimethylpropylenedioxy)thiophene) (PProDOT-Me{sub 2}), while the counter layer of the device was vanadium oxide titanium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2}) composite film, which serves as an ion storage layer. A solution type electrolyte was used as the ionic transport layer and was sandwiched between the working and counter layers. The device exhibited tuneable light transmittance between transparent and deep blue color, with a maximum contrast ratio at 580 nm wavelength. Other important properties, such as switching speed, life time, and coloration efficiency have been improved.

  1. Developing and validating severe accident management guidelines using SAMPSON-RELAP/SCDAPSIM.MOD3.4

    The development and validation of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs) must consider complex thermal-hydraulic and severe accident phenomena. Yet, many of the simplified integral Severe Accident codes, that have been used widely to develop SAMGs in Europe, Asia, and the United States, cannot accurately predict many of these complex interactions. By contrast, detailed codes such as SAMPSON-RELAP/SCDAPSIM have shown, through comparison with the TMI-2 accident and experiments, that they can predict such complex behavior. This paper describes the merger of SAMPSON with RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD3.4, reviews the severe accident phenomena important for Severe Accident Management, and then describes the potential impact of using SAMPSON-RELAP/SCDAPSIM on the development and validation of SAMGs. A companion paper, being presented at this conference provides an example of the application of SAMPSON-RELAP/SCDAPSIM for the development and validation of a SAMG for a Nuclear Power Plant. (authors)

  2. AMPTE CCE observations of Pc 3-4 pulsations at L = 2-6

    Takahashi, Kazue; Anderson, Brian J.; Strangeway, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic field data acquired by the AMPTE CCE satellite from L = 2-6 are analyzed. A procedure was specially developed to reduce the artificial modulation and noise in magnetic field measurements, making it possible to detect Pc 3-4 pulsations with amplitudes only 1 nT or less, even for L values less than 3. A survey of 41 CCE passes in L = 2-6 and in the postnoon sector showed that the most commonly observed pulsations in this region were the east-west oscillations of magnetic field with clearly L-dependent frequencies; these are identified as the toroidal mode standing Alfven waves. A relationship was found between the pulsation frequency and plasma density, showing that the pulsation data can be used to estimate the plasma mass density in the inner magnetosphere.

  3. Lattice and magnetic excitations in NdFe3(BO3)4

    Lobo, Ricardo

    We measured the temperature dependent polarized infrared spectra of multiferroic NdFe3(BO3)4. The spectra is mostly temperature independent except for the lowest energy phonon in the hexagonal plane. This phonon splits into two at around 60 K, a temperature sensibly larger than the system Néel temperature of 31 K. X-ray scattering indicates that the lattice parameters have an anomaly at the same temperature that the phonon splits. Using inelastic neutron scattering we looked for magnetic excitations that could explain be coupled to phonons. Momentum and energy dispersion curves around the magnetic Bragg peaks show magnetic excitations at energies comparable to the split phonon. We will discuss these results in terms of magnetic fluctuations and activation of Brillouin zone boundary modes.

  4. Development of Thermal Performance Analysis Computer Program on Turbine Cycle of Yoggwang 3,4 Units

    Hong, S.Y.; Choi, K.H.; Jee, M.H.; Chung, S.I. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of the study ''Development of Thermal Performance Analysis Computer Program on Turbine Cycle of Yonggwang 3,4 Units'' is to utilize computerized program to the performance test of the turbine cycle or the analysis of the operational status of the thermal plants. In addition, the result can be applicable to the analysis of the thermal output at the abnormal status and be a powerful tool to find out the main problems for such cases. As a results, the output of this study can supply the way to confirm the technical capability to operate the plants efficiently and to obtain the economic gains remarkably. (author). 27 refs., 73 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Antibacterial and Enzyme Inhibition Study of Hydrazone Derivatives Bearing 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole

    S. Rasool

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and lipoxygenase enzyme inhibition activities of two series of compounds have been investigated in the presented work. The 4-methyl/hydroxy benzoic acids (1a & 1b were used as starting materials to prepare corresponding esters (2a & 2b, hydrazides (3a & 3b, 5-(4-methylphenyl/4-hydroxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-thiols (4a & 4b, S-substituted esters (5a & 5b and acetohydrazides (6a & 6b. The acetohydrazones, 8a-i & 9a-i, were synthesized by stirring 6a & 6b with mono(disubstituted phenylcarboxaldehydes (7a-i in methanol. The data of IR, 1H-NMR and EIMS spectral techniques well confirmed the structural formulae of synthesized compounds. The molecules of 4-methyl series rendered the better results than those of 4-hydroxy series.

  6. Cholest-5-en-3β-yl 3-(4-ethoxyphenylprop-2-enoate

    Bernhard Bugenhagen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C38H56O3, there are two symmetry-independent molecules that differ in the rotation angle along the C—O bond between the 3-(4-ethoxyphenylprop-2-enoate and cholest-5-en-3β-yl groups by 169.3 (3°. In both molecules, steroid ring B adopts a half-chair conformation, rings A and C adopt a chair conformation and ring D exists in an envelope form. The two symmetry-independent molecules pack in the crystal into separate layers parallel to (-102 with their long axis parallel to the [201] direction. Short intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...π contacts are observed.

  7. Stellarator fields with 2-wire lines wound round the torus (L=3.4 systems)

    In this paper calculations are extended to the models of new stellarator-type magnetic systems subsequently referred to as YAMATOR, where the poloidal magnetic field components are formed with the help of 2-wire lines wound round the torus.The winding is made in such an manner that the wires of the lines lie on the nested tori of the same major radius Ro and different minor radii a1 and a2=a1+h,h being the distance between the wires of the line.The number of 2-wire lines forming the YAMATOR magnetic system determines its polarity l.Here we outline some the results concerning the l=3.4 YAMATOR systems

  8. Electrical conduction mechanism of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofiber bundles at low temperature

    Chutia, P.; Kumar, A.

    2015-09-01

    The nature of charge transport mechanism in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofiber bundles has been studied as a function of temperature, magnetic field and AC electric field. High-resolution transmission electron micrographs show the formation of nanofibers with an average diameter of 14 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis depicts the enhancement of polymer chains ordering with increasing dopant concentration. Analysis of the temperature dependence of resistivity reveals a three-dimensional variable range hopping electrical conduction mechanism in the synthesized nanofibers system. A large positive magnetoresistance has been observed at low temperature, which shows a decreasing trend with increasing temperature as well as dopant concentration. The high value of positive magnetoresistance at low temperature has been explained by the wave function shrinkage model. The decrease in frequency exponent s with increasing temperature suggests that the AC conduction takes place through correlated barrier hopping mechanism.

  9. Pyrazolo[3,4-h]quinolines promising photosensitizing agents in the treatment of cancer.

    Spanò, Virginia; Parrino, Barbara; Carbone, Anna; Montalbano, Alessandra; Salvador, Alessia; Brun, Paola; Vedaldi, Daniela; Diana, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Barraja, Paola

    2015-09-18

    A new series of pyrazolo[3,4-h]quinolines, heteroanalogues of angelicin was conveniently prepared with a broad substitution pattern. A large number of derivatives was obtained and the cellular photocytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against 5 different human tumor cell lines with GI50 values reaching the nanomolar level (14.52-0.04 μM). Selected compounds were able to photoinduce a massive cell death with the involvement of mitochondria. Their photodamage cellular targets were proteins and lipids and they did not cause any kind of DNA photodamage. This latter event is of considerable importance in the modulation of long term side effects, generally associated with the use of classical furocoumarins. PMID:26295175

  10. Poly[(μ5-5-carboxylatotetrahydrofuran-2,3,4-tricarboxylic acidsodium

    Jie Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The search for the novel metal-organic frameworks (MOFs materials using tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA as a versatile multi-carboxyl ligand, lead to the synthesis and the structure determination of the title compound, [Na(H3THFTCA] or [Na(C8H7O9]n, which was obtained by a solution reaction at room temperature. The ligand is mono-deprotonated, coordinating five sodium ions through one furan oxygen atom and six carboxyl oxygen atoms. The sodium ion exhibits a distorted pentagonal-bipyramidal NaO7 geometry consisting of seven O atoms derived from five surrounding ligands. Two adjacent pentagonal bipyramids share an O—O edge, forming a dinuclear sodium cluster. Finally, these clusters are effectively linked by the carboxyl groups of THFTCA ligands, forming a firm metal organic framework and O—H...O hydrogen bonds contribute to the crystal packing.

  11. Electroluminescence and electron transport characteristics of aromatic polyimides containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety

    Single and double layer polymer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by using 2,5-bis(4-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (BAO)-based aromatic polyimides (APIs). All the resultant APIs have high glass transition temperatures (T g > 250 deg. C) and high thermal decomposition temperatures (T d > 510 deg. C). The APIs exhibit broad fluorescent characteristic, and the fluorescent intensity is related to the intermolecular chain's orientation. BAO-3,3'-oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA) and BAO-4,4'-(hexafluoro-iso-propylidene) diphthalic anhydride show electroluminescent property in single layer LED devices. By inserting BAO-ODPA in the poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-poly(vinylalcohol) LED device to form a double layer device, the EL efficiency can be improved by two orders of magnitude

  12. Bent Shaped 1,3,4-Oxadiazole/Thiadiazole heterocyclic rings containing liquid crystals

    Chinnaiyan Selvarasu; Palaninathan Kannan

    2015-10-01

    Two series of bent shaped 1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole heterocyclic ring containing liquid crystalline (LC) compounds were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H, 13C-NMR and ESI-Mass spectro-scopic techniques. Liquid crystal properties were investigated by polarized optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. All the compounds exhibited mesophases such as nematic, smectic A and smectic C phases. The liquid crystalline effects were ascertained by changing the central atom in the heterocyclic ring and by increasing the length of the terminal alkyloxy chains which bring considerable improvements on the mesomorphic properties. The absorption and emission spectral studies of all the compounds were investigated and confirmed.

  13. Silica-gel Catalyzed Facile Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidinones

    We have developed a mild and highly effective procedure for the one-pot synthesis of substituted dihydropyrimidinones in high yields using silica gel as a green, highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst. Our approach can be applied to the preparation of a wide range of synthetic analogues for structure-activity studies. Investigations in this direction are ongoing. The pyrimidinone ring is a basic substructure of numerous biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical products. These cores are regarded as one of the most important groups of drug-like scaffolds. 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones above are known to exhibit variety of pharmacological activity such as calcium channel modulation, mitotic kinesin Eg5 inhibition, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity, etc

  14. U of T to proceed with installation of $3.4-m Flu-Ace system

    Anon.

    1997-09-05

    The University of Toronto has awarded Thermal Energy a contract to install a $3.4-million Flu-Ace air pollution control and heat recovery system into its district heating plant. The new system will transform the heating plant into the most energy efficient and technologically advanced combined power plant and district heating plant of its size. The system is unique in that it combines heat recovery and air pollution control. It recovers up to 90 per cent of the heat normally lost in hot chimney flue gases. This reduces emissions of greenhouse gases, acid gases, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons and particulates. The U of T project will be the thirteenth and the largest system built by Thermal Energy.

  15. (Z-3-(1H-Indol-3-yl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacrylonitrile

    Sean Parkin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H18N2O3, the C=C bond of the acrylonitrile group that links the indole and the 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl rings has Z geometry, with dihedral angles between the plane of the acrylonitrile unit and the planes of the benzene and indole ring systems of 21.96 (5 and 38.94 (7°, respectively. The acrylonitrile group is planar (r.m.s. deviation from planarity = 0.037 Å. Molecules are linked into head-to-tail chains that propagate along the b-axis direction by bifurcated N—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds, which form an R12(5 motif between the indole NH group and the two methoxy O atoms furthest from the nitrile group.

  16. Structure and spectral properties of triphenylamine dye functionalized with 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene

    Minaev, B. F.; Baryshnikov, G. V.; Slepets, A. A.

    2012-06-01

    Based on the density functional theory with the B3LYP, BMK, and PBE1PBE hybrid functionals and 6-31G( d) atomic-orbital basis set, the structure and electronic-spectral properties of a triphenylamine dye sensitizer for photoelectric converters that is functionalized with 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene have been studied. The nature of an intense color of the sensitizer is elucidated. The relation of the orbital structure of the first excited state to the mechanism by which the intensity and polarization of the visible absorption band are formed, as well as the electron injection efficiency into the conduction band of titanium oxide, are explained. In terms of the Bader theory, a complete analysis of the electron density distribution in the dye molecule under study has been performed and the role played by nonvalent interactions in its stabilization has been determined.

  17. Anisotropic laser properties of Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 disordered crystal

    Wang, Lisha; Xu, Honghao; Pan, Zhongben; Han, Wenjuan; Chen, Xiaowen; Liu, Junhai; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin

    2016-08-01

    A study is carried out experimentally on the anisotropy in the laser action of Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 disordered crystal, demonstrated with the output coupling changed over a wide range from 0.5% to 40%. Complex polarization state variation with output coupling and evolution with pump power are observed in the laser operation achieved with a- and c-cut crystal samples. A maximum output power of 8.2 W is produced at wavelengths around 1043 nm, with an incident pump power of 24.9 W, the optical-to-optical efficiency being 33%. The polarized absorption and emission cross section spectra are also presented.

  18. Mini hydro electric power stations Lukar 1,2,3,4: Public enterprise (JP) Komunalec

    The role of the Public enterprises in improving entire living conditions of the citizens, not only by its services towards the citizenship such as: water supplying and public hygiene but the opportunity to produce the electric power by the Mini hydro electric-power stations built on the main city water supply pipes. The paper presents experiences of building the mini hydro electric power stations Lukar 1,2,3,4. The successful completion of this project should be a motivation for building more electric power stations because there are great water potential in the Republic of Macedonia i.e. there have been recorded more than a hundred places suitable for construction of power electric stations. This will contribute not only for clean ecological energy but will have a direct influence on the total economic development of the Republic of Macedonia. (Author)

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Dopamine graft compound N-methacryloyl 3,4-dihydroxyl-phenylamine

    In order to obtain adhesive biomaterials inspired by mussels, the intermediate derivatives of dopamine, N-methacryloyl 3,4-dihydroxyl-phenylamine (dopamine methacryla-mide DMA), was synthesized by grafting methacrylate anhydride to dopamine. The structure of the compound was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The thermal stability of DMA was also characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimeters techniques. The surface morphology of DMA crystal was analysed by scanning electron microscope analyses. The present result showed that the synthesis of new monomers was successfully fulfilled and the new compounds retain the hydroxyl functional groups. The surface morphologies and thermal stability of DMA crystal were also altered by grafting reaction.

  20. Crystal structure of tetraethylammonium chloride 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene

    Jasmine Viger-Gravel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Equimolar quantities of tetraethylammonium chloride (Et4NCl and 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene (o-DITFB or o-C6F4I2 have been co-crystallized in a solution of dichloromethane yielding a pure halogen-bonded compound, 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene–tetraethyl ammonium chloride (2/1, Et4N+·Cl−·2C6F4I2, in the form of translucent needles. [(Et4NCl(o-C6F4I22] packs in the C2/c space group. The asymmetric unit includes one molecule of DITFB, one Et4N+ cation located on a twofold rotation axis, and one chloride anion also located on a twofold rotation symmetry axis. This compound has an interesting halogen-bonding environment surrounding the halide. Here, the chloride anion acts as a tetradentate halogen bond acceptor and forms a distorted square-pyramidal geometry, with I...Cl−...I angles of 80.891 (6 and 78.811 (11°, where two crystallographically distinct iodine atoms form halogen bonds with the chloride anion. Resulting from that square-pyramidal geometry are short contacts between some of the adjacent F atoms. Along the b axis, the halogen-bonding interaction results in a polymeric network, producing a sheet in which the two closest chloride ions are 7.8931 (6 Å apart. The Et4N+ cation alternates in columns with the halide ion. The expected short contacts (shorter than the sum of their van der Waals radii are observed for the halogen bonds [3.2191 (2 and 3.2968 (2 Å], as well as almost linear angles [170.953 (6 and 173.529 (6°].

  1. Preconditioning with ethyl 3,4-dihydroxy benzoate augments aerobic respiration in rat skeletal muscle

    Nimker C

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Charu Nimker, Deependra Pratap Singh, Deepika Saraswat, Anju Bansal Experimental Biology Division, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Defense Research and Development Organisation, Timarpur, Delhi, India Abstract: Muscle respiratory capacity decides the amount of exertion one's skeletal muscle can undergo, and endurance exercise is believed to increase it. There are also certain preconditioning methods by which muscle respiratory and exercise performance can be enhanced. In this study, preconditioning with ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB, a prolyl hydroxylase domain enzyme inhibitor, has been investigated to determine its effect on aerobic metabolism and bioenergetics in skeletal muscle, thus facilitating boost in physical performance in a rat model. We observed that EDHB supplementation increases aerobic metabolism via upregulation of HIF-mediated GLUT1 and GLUT4, thus enhancing glucose uptake in muscles. There was also a twofold rise in the activity of enzymes of tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and glycolysis, ie, hexokinase and phosphofructokinase. There was an increase in citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activity, resulting in the rise in the levels of ATP due to enhanced Krebs cycle activity as substantiated by enhanced acetyl-CoA levels in EDHB-treated rats as compared to control group. Increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, reduced expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1, and increase in monocarboxylate transporter 4 suggest transport of lactate from muscle to blood. There was a concomitant decrease in plasma lactate, which might be due to enhanced transport of lactate from blood to the liver. This was further supported by the rise in liver pyruvate levels and liver glycogen levels in EDHB-supplemented rats as compared to control rats. These results suggest that EDHB supplementation leads to improved physical performance due to the escalation of aerobic respiration quotient, ie, enhanced muscle

  2. Novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles as anti-inflammatory drugs

    Ega Durgashivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring is a versatile moiety with a wide range of pharmacological properties. The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of two novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (OSD and OPD. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was employed as an acute model of inflammation. For evaluating sub-acute anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat air pouch was employed. Complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats was used as a model of chronic inflammation. To evaluate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used. Results: OSD (100 mg/kg reduced carrageen-induced paw edema by 60%, and OPD (100 mg/kg produced a modest 32.5% reduction. OSD also reduced leukocyte influx and myeloperoxidase in carrageenan-induced rat air pouch model. In complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis model, both OSD and OPD (200 mg/kg for 14 days reduced paw edema and NO levels. In LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, OSD and OPD inhibited formation of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, with OPD showing a better activity in comparison to OSD. Conclusions: OSD was the better of the two compounds in in vivo models of inflammation. The o-phenol substitution at position 2 of oxadiazole ring in OSD may be responsible for its better in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The ability of the compounds to inhibit LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediator release suggests an anti-inflammatory mechanism targeting LPS-TLR4-NF-κB signalling pathway, which needs to be explored in detail. The disparate efficacy in vitro and in vivo also requires in-depth evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of these novel oxadiazoles.

  3. Stark effect in the J = 3 4 microwave line of tert-butyl chloride molecule

    Gierszal, S.; Mis-Kuzminska, E.; Stankowski, J.; Galica, J.

    1984-03-01

    Stark effect in the J = 3 - 4 transition spectrum of the tert-butyl chloride has been investigated. The perturbation of the rotational levels by combined effect of the quadrupole and an intermediate electric fields was calculated and used for identify the Stark components. The rotational spectrum of tert-butyl chloride /CH 3/ 3CCl is characterised by the rotational constants A = 4518.70 MHz[1] and B = 3017.85 MHz, dipole moment U= 2.12 D, and quadrupole interaction constant eqQ = -67.58 MHz [2,3]. The energy of rotational states of the tert-butyl chloride molecule is described by the Hamiltonian ? where H 0 is the unperturbed rotational energy, H Q that of interaction of the angular momentum and quadrupole moment of the chlorine nucleus, and H E the Stark energy. Since H Q ˜ H E for the electric field strengths applied during the present investigation, we are dealing with the case of intermediate fields. To solve the problem theoretically we had recourse to the representation in F-space and calculated the energy for the perturbation H Q + H E as done by Low and Townes [4]. The theoretical distances of the Stark components from the absorption line of tert-butyl chloride for various electric field strengths at J = 3 - 4 and ΔM F = 0 is shown in Fig. 1a and 1b. We applied the theoretically calculated distances of the Stark components from the absorption line of /CH 3/ 3CCl as function of the electric field strength as well as the relative intensities of the components in order to interpret our experimental results concerning the Stark effect.

  4. Bacterial Sugar 3,4-Ketoisomerases: Structural Insight into Product Stereochemistry.

    Thoden, James B; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Gilbert, Michel; Salinger, Ari J; Holden, Hazel M

    2015-07-28

    3-Acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose (Fuc3NAc) and 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (Qui3NAc) are unusual sugars found on the lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria and on the S-layers of Gram-positive bacteria. The 3,4-ketoisomerases, referred to as FdtA and QdtA, catalyze the third steps in the respective biosynthetic pathways for these sugars. Whereas both enzymes utilize the same substrate, the stereochemistries of their products are different. Specifically, the hydroxyl groups at the hexose C-4' positions assume the "galactose" and "glucose" configurations in the FdtA and QdtA products, respectively. In 2007 we reported the structure of the apoform of FdtA from Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus, which was followed in 2014 by the X-ray analysis of QdtA from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum as a binary complex. Both of these enzymes belong to the cupin superfamily. Here we report a combined structural and enzymological study to explore the manner in which these enzymes control the stereochemistry of their products. Various site-directed mutant proteins of each enzyme were constructed, and their dTDP-sugar products were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the kinetic parameters for these protein variants were measured, and the structure of one, namely, the QdtA Y17R/R97H double mutant form, was determined to 2.3-Å resolution. Finally, in an attempt to obtain a model of FdtA with a bound dTDP-linked sugar, the 3,4-ketoisomerase domain of a bifunctional enzyme from Shewanella denitrificans was cloned, purified, and crystallized in the presence of a dTDP-linked sugar analogue. Taken together, the results from this investigation demonstrate that it is possible to convert a "galacto" enzyme into a "gluco" enzyme and vice versa. PMID:26125548

  5. Effects of 3, 4-Dihydroxyacetophenone on Cytosolic Calcium in Pulmonary Artery Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells during Acute Hypoxia

    Farmanullah Wazir; WANG Dixun(王迪浔); HU Qinghua(胡清华)

    2004-01-01

    The effects of 3, 4-Dihydroxyacetophenone (3, 4-DHAP) on cytosolic free calcium[Ca2+ ]i in pulmonary artery endothelia (PAECs) and smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) during acute hypoxia were studied. Porcine pulmonary artery endothelial and smooth muscle cells (PASMCs)were cultured primarily, and they were divided into 4 groups: groups incubated under normoxia or hypoxia and those with or without treatment with 3, 4-DHAP. The [Ca2+ ]i of both PAECs and PASMCs was measured by determining the fluorescence of fura 2 AM on spetrofluorometer. Our results showed that hypoxia caused significant elevation of [Ca2+ ]i, in both PAECs and PASMCs,3, 4-DHAP could attenuate the hypoxic elevation of [Ca2+ ]i only in PASMCs but not in PAECs. It is concluded that 3, 4-DHAP decreases the hypoxic elevation of [Ca2+ ]i in PASMCs. This might contribute to its inhibitory effect on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  6. Grignard Metathesis Polymerization and Properties of 1,1-Disubstituted-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsiloles

    Grignard metathesis polymerizations of 1,1-disubstituted-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsiloles such as 1,1-dimethyl-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsilole, 1,1-diethyl-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsilole, 1,1-diisopropyl-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsilole, and 1,1-dihexyl-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsilole were performed to yield poly(1,1-disubstituted-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole)s containing fluorescent aromatic chromophore groups such as phenyl and silole in the polymer main chain: poly(1,1-dimethyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole), poly(1,1-diethyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole), poly(1,1-diisopropyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole), and poly(1,1-dihexyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole), respectively. The obtained materials are highly soluble in common organic solvents such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran. Fourier-transform infrared spectra of all the polymers have characteristic C=C stretching frequencies at 1620-1628 cm-1. The prepared organosilicon polymers exhibit strong absorption maximum peaks at 273-293 nm in the tetrahydrofuran solution, showing a red- shift of 18-34 nm relative to those of the monomer, strong excitation maximum peaks at 276-303 nm, and strong fluorescence emission maximum bands at 350-440 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that most of the polymers are stable up to 200 .deg. C with a weight loss of 6-16% in nitrogen

  7. Hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibits complement activation by cleaving complement component 4.

    Seiichi Mawatari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is mediated in part by viral proteins that abrogate the host immune response, including the complement system, but the precise mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated whether HCV proteins are involved in the fragmentation of complement component 4 (C4, composed of subunits C4α, C4β, and C4γ, and the role of HCV proteins in complement activation. METHODS: Human C4 was incubated with HCV nonstructural (NS 3/4A protease, core, or NS5. Samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then subjected to peptide sequencing. The activity of the classical complement pathway was examined using an erythrocyte hemolysis assay. The cleavage pattern of C4 in NS3/4A-expressing and HCV-infected cells, respectively, was also examined. RESULTS: HCV NS3/4A protease cleaved C4γ in a concentration-dependent manner, but viral core and NS5 did not. A specific inhibitor of NS3/4A protease reduced C4γ cleavage. NS3/4A protease-mediated cleavage of C4 inhibited classical pathway activation, which was abrogated by a NS3/4A protease inhibitor. In addition, co-transfection of cells with C4 and wild-type NS3/4A, but not a catalytic-site mutant of NS3/4A, produced cleaved C4γ fragments. Such C4 processing, with a concomitant reduction in levels of full-length C4γ, was also observed in HCV-infected cells expressing C4. CONCLUSIONS: C4 is a novel cellular substrate of the HCV NS3/4A protease. Understanding disturbances in the complement system mediated by NS3/4A protease may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying persistent HCV infection.

  8. Grignard Metathesis Polymerization and Properties of 1,1-Disubstituted-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsiloles

    Park, Young Tae [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Grignard metathesis polymerizations of 1,1-disubstituted-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsiloles such as 1,1-dimethyl-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsilole, 1,1-diethyl-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsilole, 1,1-diisopropyl-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsilole, and 1,1-dihexyl-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsilole were performed to yield poly(1,1-disubstituted-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole)s containing fluorescent aromatic chromophore groups such as phenyl and silole in the polymer main chain: poly(1,1-dimethyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole), poly(1,1-diethyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole), poly(1,1-diisopropyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole), and poly(1,1-dihexyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole), respectively. The obtained materials are highly soluble in common organic solvents such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran. Fourier-transform infrared spectra of all the polymers have characteristic C=C stretching frequencies at 1620-1628 cm{sup -1}. The prepared organosilicon polymers exhibit strong absorption maximum peaks at 273-293 nm in the tetrahydrofuran solution, showing a red- shift of 18-34 nm relative to those of the monomer, strong excitation maximum peaks at 276-303 nm, and strong fluorescence emission maximum bands at 350-440 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that most of the polymers are stable up to 200 .deg. C with a weight loss of 6-16% in nitrogen.

  9. Infrared study of lattice dynamics and spin-phonon and electron-phonon interactions in multiferroic TbF e3(BO3) 4 and GdF e3(BO3) 4

    Klimin, S. A.; Kuzmenko, A. B.; Kashchenko, M. A.; Popova, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    We present a comparative far-infrared reflection spectroscopy study of phonons, phase transitions, spin-phonon, and electron-phonon interactions in isostructural multiferroic iron borates of gadolinium and terbium. The behavior of phonon modes registered in a wide temperature range is consistent with a weak first-order structural phase transition [Ts=143 for GdF e3(BO3) 4 and 200 K for TbF e3(BO3) 4 ] from a high-symmetry high-temperature R 32 structure into a low-symmetry low-temperature P 3121 one. The temperature dependences of frequencies, oscillator strengths, and damping constants of some low-frequency modes reveal an appreciable lattice anharmonicity. Peculiarities in the phonon mode behavior in both compounds at the temperature of an antiferromagnetic ordering [TN=32 K for GdF e3(BO3) 4 and 40 K for TbF e3(BO3) 4 ] evidence the spin-phonon interaction. In the energy range of phonons, GdF e3(BO3) 4 has no electronic levels, but TbF e3(BO3) 4 possesses several. We observe an onset of new bands in the excitation spectrum of TbF e3(BO3) 4 due to a resonance interaction between a lattice phonon and 4 f electronic crystal-field (CF) excitations of T b3 + . This interaction causes delocalization of the CF excitations, their Davydov splitting, and formation of coupled electron-phonon modes.

  10. Synthesis and in vitro study of [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2yl-3,3a,5,6-tetrahydro-2H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]thiazoles as antimicrobial agents

    Nareshvarma Seelam; Shrivastava, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of 3,5-diphenyl-6-(5-p-toly1-[1,3,4] thiadiazol-2yl)-3,3a,5,6 tetrahydro-2H pyrazolo[3,4-d]thiazole 6ag were synthesized by the reaction of chalcone derivatives of [1,3,4] thiadiazol-2-yl)-thiazolidin-4-one 5a–g with hydrazine hydrate. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by IR, NMR (1H & 13C) and mass spectral studies. Synthesized compounds 6a–g were evaluated for their antimicrobial and anti-tubercular activities. Some of the compounds exhibited well antimicro...

  11. 18-24 Months: Your Child's Development

    ... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 18–24 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 This is a ... home language in the same sentence. Downloads Your Child's Development: 18–24 Months PDF 464 KB Read more ...

  12. Virginia Tech celebrates Jewish Awareness Month

    Williams, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    The Virginia Tech community will celebrate its third annual Jewish Awareness Month. Throughout the month of March and beyond, Jewish Awareness Month will offer the Virginia Tech community an opportunity to learn more about the Jewish religion and its people. The theme for this year's Jewish Awareness Month is, "The Power of Our Stories: Judaism Past, Present, and Future." All events are free and open the public, unless otherwise noted.

  13. AGR-3/4 Irradiation Test Train Disassembly and Component Metrology First Look Report

    Stempien, John Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Francine Joyce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The AGR-3/4 experiment was designed to study fission product transport within graphitic matrix material and nuclear-grade graphite. To this end, this experiment consisted of 12 capsules, each fueled with 4 compacts containing UCO TRISO particles as driver fuel and 20 UCO designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles in each compact. The DTF fuel was fabricated with a thin pyrocarbon layer which was intended to fail during irradiation and provide a source of fission products. These fission products could then migrate through the compact and into the surrounding concentric rings of graphitic matrix material and/or nuclear graphite. Through post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the rings (including physical sampling and gamma scanning) fission product concentration profiles within the rings can be determined. These data can be used to elucidate fission product transport parameters (e.g. diffusion coefficients within the test materials) which will be used to inform and refine models of fission product transport. After irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) had been completed in April 2014, the AGR-3/4 experiment was shipped to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for inspection, disassembly, and metrology. The AGR-3/4 test train was received at MFC in two separate shipments between February and April 2015. Visual examinations of the test train exterior did not indicate dimensional distortion, and only two small discolored areas were observed at the bottom of Capsules 8 and 9. No corresponding discoloration was found on the inside of these capsules, however. Prior to disassembly, the two test train sections were subject to analysis via the Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS), which did not indicate that any gross fuel relocation had occurred. A series of specialized tools (including clamps, cutters, and drills) had been designed and fabricated in order to carry out test train disassembly and recovery of capsule components (graphite

  14. In situ FTIR studies on the electrochemical hydrodechlorination of 3,4,5,6-tetrachloropicolinic acid on Ag cathode

    The electrochemical hydrodechlorination reaction from starting material 3,4,5,6-tetrachloropicolinic acid (3,4,5,6-TCP) to the end product 3,6-dichloropicolinic acid (3,6-DCP) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FTIR). Compared with copper and glassy carbon, Ag cathode showed a high electrocatalytic activity for the irreversible reduction process of 3,4,5,6-TCP in NaOH aqueous solution. In situ FTIR results suggested that electrochemical hydrodechlorination took place in the 4- or 5-position of 3,4,5,6-TCP on Ag cathode after receiving an electron to get mixed trichloropicolinic acid free radical, which could receive another electron and give 3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (3,5,6-TCP) and 3,4,6-trichloropicolinic acid (3,4,6-TCP) at the potential more positive than -1000 mV afterwards. Finally, 3,5,6-TCP and 3,4,6-TCP were further dechlorinated to produce 3,6-dichloropicolinic acid (3,6-DCP) at the potential more negative than -1000 mV. Further studies of preparative electrolysis experiments by constant current electrolysis were carried out. The results were in good agreement with those from in situ FTIR investigations.

  15. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors prevent 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced 5-HT deficits in the rat.

    Puerta, Elena; Hervias, Isabel; Goñi-Allo, Beatriz; Lasheras, Berta; Jordan, Joaquin; Aguirre, Norberto

    2009-02-01

    Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are often used in combination with club drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy). We investigated the consequences of such combination in the serotonergic system of the rat. Oral administration of sildenafil citrate (1.5 or 8 mg/kg) increased brain cGMP levels and protected in a dose-dependent manner against 5-hydroxytryptamine depletions caused by MDMA (3 x 5 mg/kg, i.p., every 2 h) in the striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus without altering the acute hyperthermic response to MDMA. Intrastriatal administration of the protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor, KT5823 [(9S, 10R, 12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-Hexahydro-10-methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3',2',1'-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i][1,6]benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid, methyl ester)], suppressed sildenafil-mediated protection. By contrast, the cell permeable cGMP analogue, 8-bromoguanosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate, mimicked sildenafil effects further suggesting the involvement of the PKG pathway in mediating sildenafil protection. Because mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels are a target for PKG, we next administered the specific mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker, 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, 30 min before sildenafil. 5-hydroxydecanoic acid completely reversed the protection afforded by sildenafil, thereby implicating the involvement of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Sildenafil also increased Akt phosphorylation, and so the possible involvement of the Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/sGC signalling pathway was analysed. Neither the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, nor the selective eNOS inhibitor, L-N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine dihydrochloride, reversed the protection afforded by sildenafil, suggesting that Akt/eNOS/sGC cascade does not participate in the protective mechanisms. Our data also show that the protective effect of sildenafil can be extended to vardenafil, another PDE5

  16. Oct3/4 directly regulates expression of E2F3a in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Kanai, Dai; Ueda, Atsushi; Akagi, Tadayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Koide, Hiroshi, E-mail: hkoide@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2015-04-10

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have a characteristic cell cycle with truncated G1 and G2 phases. Recent findings that suppression of Oct3/4 expression results in a reduced proliferation rate of ES cells suggest the involvement of Oct3/4 in the regulation of ES cell growth, although the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified E2F3a as a direct target gene of Oct3/4 in ES cells. Oct3/4 directly bound to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene and positively regulated expression of E2F3a in mouse ES cells. Suppression of E2F3a activity by E2F6 overexpression led to the reduced proliferation in ES cells, which was relieved by co-expression of E2F3a. Furthermore, cell growth retardation caused by loss of Oct3/4 was rescued by E2F3a expression. These results suggest that Oct3/4 upregulates E2F3a expression to promote ES cell growth. - Highlights: • Oct3/4 positively regulates E2F3a expression in ES cells. • Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene. • Overexpression of E2F6, an inhibitor of E2F3a, reduces ES cell growth. • E2F3a recovers growth retardation of ES cells caused by Oct3/4 reduction.

  17. Oct3/4 directly regulates expression of E2F3a in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have a characteristic cell cycle with truncated G1 and G2 phases. Recent findings that suppression of Oct3/4 expression results in a reduced proliferation rate of ES cells suggest the involvement of Oct3/4 in the regulation of ES cell growth, although the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified E2F3a as a direct target gene of Oct3/4 in ES cells. Oct3/4 directly bound to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene and positively regulated expression of E2F3a in mouse ES cells. Suppression of E2F3a activity by E2F6 overexpression led to the reduced proliferation in ES cells, which was relieved by co-expression of E2F3a. Furthermore, cell growth retardation caused by loss of Oct3/4 was rescued by E2F3a expression. These results suggest that Oct3/4 upregulates E2F3a expression to promote ES cell growth. - Highlights: • Oct3/4 positively regulates E2F3a expression in ES cells. • Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene. • Overexpression of E2F6, an inhibitor of E2F3a, reduces ES cell growth. • E2F3a recovers growth retardation of ES cells caused by Oct3/4 reduction

  18. The mixed waste management facility. Monthly report, September 1995

    A continuing concern over the last few months was resolved with the approval of the Environmental Assessment (EA) and signing of the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This was completed in time to allow approval of the DWTF Phase 1 KD-3 and subsequent award of the construction contract for this phase (site preparation). The Project continues to make progress toward the Project Preliminary Design Review (PDR), scheduled for November 15-16, 1995. We completed the conventional feed preparation and solid feed preparation demonstration technologies (telerobotic sorting) and conducted a prereview of the Analytical Services element. Molten Salt is scheduled for October 3-4, with Water Treatment and Analytical Services completing the reviews by October 12. While a number of design issues have been raised and are being tracked, the general level of engineering progress is consistent with completing the PDR on schedule. No show-stoppers have been identified, and all items requiring resolution before PDR will be competed

  19. Ag nanostructures on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) film prepared with electrochemical route: A controllable roughened SERS substrate with high repeatability and stability

    A simple, reliable and reproducible one-step electrochemical method for the preparation of surface-enhanced Raman-active polymer-mediated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on planar indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates was reported. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) film was used as a support material for dispersing nanostructured silver nanostructures on the surface homogeneously, since 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) monomer polymerizes regioregularly. The optical properties and morphologies of the silver substrates have been investigated by ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The UV–vis and FE-SEM results revealed that the Ag nanostructures separately appeared on the PEDOT coated ITO after reduction. The effect of the thickness of PEDOT polymer film, reduction potential of silver, the concentration of silver ion solution and the amount of silver particle on the polymer film on the SERS response were studied as well as repeatability and temporal stability of prepared substrates. Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) has been used as Raman probes to evaluate the properties of the new SERS substrates. Signals collected over multiple spots within the same substrate resulted in a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 9.34%, while an RSD of 11.05% was measured in signals collected from different substrates. The SERS-active substrates were robust and stable which lost only 5.71% of initial intensity after 1 month.

  20. Ferroelastic phase transitions by 14N NMR spectra in [N(CH3)4]2CoCl4 and [N(CH3)4]2ZnCl4 single crystals

    Lim, Ae Ran

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the structural geometry of [N(CH3)4]2BCl4 (B=Co and Zn) crystals near the phase transition temperatures were studied by analyzing the 14N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. Two physically inequivalent a-N(1)(CH3)4 and b-N(2)(CH3)4 groups were observed in these spectra. Abrupt changes in the resonance frequency and splitting of 14N NMR signals near the phase transition temperatures were attributed to structural phase transitions, and the primary mechanism of these phase transitions exhibited ferroelastic characteristics. In addition, ferroelasticity of [N(CH3)4]2BCl4 was identified at low temperatures using optical polarizing microscopy.

  1. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 1-(3-fluorophenyl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)thiourea

    Aamer Saeed; Uzma Shaheen; Michael Bolte

    2011-01-01

    The title thiourea was synthesized by reaction of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl isothiocyante with 3-fluoroaniline. The 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl isothiocyante was produced in situ by reaction of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl chloride with ammonium thiocyanate in dry acetonitrile. The structure was confirmed by the spectroscopic, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction data. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with unit cell dimensions a = 13.0966(9), b = 16.6460(13), c = 7....

  2. Synthesis of spiro[pyrazolo[3,4-] pyridine-4,3'-indoline] and spiro [benzo[ℎ]pyrazolo[3,4-]quinoline-4,3'-indoline] derivatives using wet cyanuric chloride under solvent-free conditions

    Zhikui Yin; Limin Yang; Liqiang Wu

    2013-05-01

    A simple and efficient synthesis of spiro[pyrazolo[3,4-]pyridine-4,3'-indoline] and spiro[benzo[ℎ] pyrazolo[3,4-]quinoline-4,3'-indoline] derivatives has been accomplished by the one-pot condensation of isatins, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1-pyrazol-5- amine and Meldrum’s acid or 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in the presence of wet cyanuric chloride as a catalyst under solvent-free conditions.

  3. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(4-styrenesulfonate): Correlation between colloidal particles and thin films

    We deal with correlation between sizes of colloidal particles and minimum thickness of spin-coated thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) studied by a dynamic light scattering (DLS), a scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDX), C60-sputtering X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and an atomic force microscopy. Based on the various measurements, it was pointed out that, PEDOT/PSS colloidal dispersion contained majority of primary nanoparticles with mean diameter of 41 nm and 16 nm for BAYTRON P AG (denote P grade) or BAYTRON PH500 (denote PH grade) solutions, respectively, and small amount of clusters aggregated by the primary particles, based on the DLS measurement and STEM observation. On the other hand, PEDOT/PSS thin films with thickness of 44 nm and 16 nm were easily prepared by spin-coating on silicon wafers from the P and PH grade solutions, respectively. Results of STEM-EDX, DLS, and XPS measurements suggested that the PEDOT/PSS thin films consist of the randomly packed primary nanoparticle-'monolayer'.

  4. Involvement of autophagy upregulation in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy')-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity.

    Li, I-Hsun; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Lin, Yang-Yi; Weng, Shao-Ju; Yen, Ting-Yin; Chen, Lih-Chi; Huang, Yuahn-Sieh

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that autophagy plays pathogenetic roles in cerebral ischemia, brain trauma, and neurodegenerative disorders. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is an illicit drug that causes long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity in the brain. Apoptosis and necrosis have been implicated in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, but the role of autophagy in MDMA-elicited serotonergic toxicity has not been investigated. The present study aimed to examine the contribution of autophagy to neurotoxicity in serotonergic neurons in in vitro and in vivo animal models challenged with MDMA. Here, we demonstrated that in cultured rat serotonergic neurons, MDMA exposure induced LC3B-densely stained autophagosome formation, accompanying by a decrease in neurite outgrowth. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly attenuated MDMA-induced autophagosome accumulation, and ameliorated MDMA-triggered serotonergic neurite damage and neuron death. In contrast, enhanced autophagy flux by rapamycin or impaired autophagosome clearance by bafilomycin A1 led to more autophagosome accumulation in serotonergic neurons and aggravated neurite degeneration. In addition, MDMA-induced autophagy activation in cultured serotonergic neurons might be mediated by serotonin transporter (SERT). In an in vivo animal model administered MDMA, neuroimaging showed that 3-MA protected the serotonin system against MDMA-induced downregulation of SERT evaluated by animal-PET with 4-[(18)F]-ADAM, a SERT radioligand. Taken together, our results demonstrated that MDMA triggers upregulation of autophagy in serotonergic neurons, which appears to be detrimental to neuronal growth. PMID:26610922

  5. 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine upregulates p75 neurotrophin receptor protein expression in the rat brain

    Chaomin Wang; Zugui Peng; Weihong Kuang; Hanyu Zheng; Jiang Long; Xue Wang

    2012-01-01

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, facilitates apoptosis during development and following central nervous system injury. Previous stu-dies have shown that programmed cell death is likely involved in the neurotoxic effects of 3, 4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), because MDMA induces apoptosis of immor-talized neurons through regulation of proteins belonging to the Bcl-2 family. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of different doses of MDMA (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg) induced significant behavioral changes, such as increased excitability, increased activity, and irritability in rats. Moreover, changes exhibited dose-dependent adaptation. Following MDMA injection in rat brain tissue, the number of apoptotic cells dose-dependently increased and p75 neurotrophin receptor expression significantly increased in the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus. These findings confirmed that MDMA induced neuronal apoptosis, and results suggested that this effect was related by upregulated protein expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor.

  6. Contractile effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on the human internal mammary artery.

    Silva, Sónia; Carvalho, Félix; Fernandes, Eduarda; Antunes, Manuel J; Cotrim, Maria Dulce

    2016-08-01

    Since the late 1980s numerous reports have detailed adverse reactions to the use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) associated with cardiovascular collapse and sudden death, following ventricular tachycardia and hypertension. For a better understanding of the effects of MDMA on the cardiovascular system, it is critical to determine their effects at the vasculature level, including the transporter or neurotransmitter systems that are most affected at the whole range of drug doses. With this purpose in mind, the aim of our study was to evaluate the contractile effect of MDMA in the human internal mammary artery, the contribution of SERT for this effect and the responsiveness of this artery to 5-HT in the presence of MDMA. We have also studied the possible involvement of 5-HT2 receptors on the MDMA contractile effect in this human blood vessel using ketanserin. Our results showed that MDMA contracted the studied human's internal mammary artery in a SERT-independent form, through activation of 5-HT2A receptors. Considering the high plasma concentrations achieved in heavy users or in situations of acute exposure to drugs, this effect is probably involved in the cardiovascular risk profile of this psychostimulant, especially in subjects with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. PMID:27079619

  7. Effects of (± 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA on Sleep and Circadian Rhythms

    Una D. McCann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of stimulant drugs invariably leads to a disruption in sleep-wake patterns by virtue of the arousing and sleep-preventing effects of these drugs. Certain stimulants, such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, may also have the potential to produce persistent alterations in circadian regulation and sleep because they can be neurotoxic toward brain monoaminergic neurons involved in normal sleep regulation. In particular, MDMA has been found to damage brain serotonin (5-HT neurons in a variety of animal species, including nonhuman primates, with growing evidence that humans are also susceptible to MDMA-induced brain 5-HT neurotoxicity. 5-HT is an important modulator of sleep and circadian rhythms and, therefore, individuals who sustain MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity may be at risk for developing chronic abnormalities in sleep and circadian patterns. In turn, such abnormalities could play a significant role in other alterations reported in abstinent in MDMA users (e.g., memory disturbance. This paper will review preclinical and clinical studies that have explored the effects of prior MDMA exposure on sleep, circadian activity, and the circadian pacemaker, and will highlight current gaps in knowledge and suggest areas for future research.

  8. Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Patient Utterances in a Psychotherapeutic Setting.

    Corey, Vicka Rael; Pisano, Vincent D; Halpern, John H

    2016-07-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) administered as an adjunct to talk therapy influences patient speech content and increases improvement in treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data came from the recordings of Mithoefer et al. (2011). In the third therapeutic session studied, patients were assigned, double blind, to an MDMA or a placebo group. Condition-blind scorers listened to therapy recordings and scored utterances where patients initiated topics that were empathic (regarding others' emotions), entactic (requesting or appreciating physical touch), or ensuic (describing a change in their sense of themselves). Patients who received MDMA produced high levels of ensuic, empathic, and entactic utterances compared with those who received the placebo. Interrater discourse scoring was reliable. The relationship between the number of scored utterances and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale scores measuring PTSD severity after the treatment was significant, and reanalysis grouped bimodally into "many" or "few" such utterances remained significant. MDMA assisted these patients in having meaningful and disorder-resolving thoughts and discourse in talk therapy. PMID:26998697

  9. The PVM 3.4 tracing facility and XPVM 1.1

    Kohl, J.A.; Geist, G.A.

    1996-08-01

    One problem in developing a parallel program is monitoring its behavior for debugging and performance tuning. This paper discusses an enhanced tracing facility and tool for PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine), a message passing library for parallel processing in a heterogeneous environment. PVM supports mixed collections of workstation clusters, shared-memory multiprocessors, and massively parallel processors. The upcoming release of PVM, Version 3.4, contains a new, improved tracing facility which provides flexible, efficient access to run-time program information. This new tracing system supports a buffering mechanism to reduce perturbation of user applications caused by tracing, and a more flexible trace event definition scheme based on a self-defining data format. The new scheme expedites collection of program execution histories and allows for integration of user-defined custom trace events. Tracing instrumentation is built into the PVM library and allows on-the-fly adjustments to each task`s trace event mask, for control over the level of tracing detail. The graphical console and monitor XPVM have also been updated for better access to the new tracing functionality. Several new views have been implemented to utilize the additional tracing information now possible, including user-defined events. XPVM system has also been optimized for better real-time monitoring.

  10. 3,4-Disubstituted Polyalkylthiophenes for High-Performance Thin-Film Transistors and Photovoltaics

    Ko, Sangwon

    2011-10-26

    We demonstrate that poly(3,4-dialkylterthiophenes) (P34ATs) have comparable transistor mobilities (0.17 cm2 V-1 s-1) and greater environmental stability (less degradation of on/off ratio) than regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophenes) (P3ATs). Unlike poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), P34ATs do not show a strong and distinct π-π stacking in X-ray diffraction. This suggests that a strong π-π stacking is not always necessary for high charge-carrier mobility and that other potential polymer packing motifs in addition to the edge-on structure (π-π stacking direction parallel to the substrate) can lead to a high carrier mobility. The high charge-carrier mobilities of the hexyl and octyl-substituted P34AT produce power conversion efficiencies of 4.2% in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices. An enhanced open-circuit voltage (0.716-0.771 eV) in P34AT solar cells relative to P3HT due to increased ionization potentials was observed. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Growth and Characteristics of Nd3+: GdAl3(BO3)4 Crystal

    TU Chao-Yang(涂朝阳); ZHU Zhao-Jie(朱昭捷); LI Jian-Fu(李坚富); WU Bai-Chang(吴柏昌); BRENIER Alain

    2003-01-01

    Nd3+:GdAl3(BO3)4 (NGAB) crystal with the size of 30 mm was grown from the solvent system of K2O-Gd2O3-MoO3-B2O3 by combining accelerated seed rotation technology with medium seeded solution growth (MSSG) method, and its crystal structure has been determined by X-ray powder diffraction. It crystallizes in the trigonal system, space group R32 with a = 9.2734(2),c = 7.2438(1) A, V = 538 A3, Z = 3 and Dc = 4.379 g/cm3. The absorption and emission spectra of NGAB in the function of σ and π polarizations at room temperature have been measured. UV generation tuneable in 378~382 nm, green (531 nm) generation and blue generation tuneable in 436~443 nm as well as red (669 nm) generation by self-frequency changing were obtained with the output of 105, 119.5, 445 and 19μJ/pulse, respectively, when the crystal was pumped by a dye laser.

  12. Honeycomb-structured porous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite layers on a gold electrode

    Three microstructured electrodes modified with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were obtained. One electrode was modified with PEDOT doped with poly(4-lithium styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSLi), the second one with a PEDOT + polyacrylic acid composite doped with PSSLi, and the third one with a PEDOT + anthranilic acid composite doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid). The three electrodes were prepared using templates of polystyrene latex spheres (PS). The templates were deposited on the electrode using our dip-coating-like technique that we developed by optimizing key parameters, such as PS and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration, angle of inclination, and decantation rate. The structure of the templates was verified by optical microscopy. A conducting polymer layer was obtained by electropolymerization from appropriate monomer solutions. In the final stage, the template was dissolved in toluene and the morphology of the resulting honeycomb-structure was examined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were tested by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. - Highlights: • We developed microstructured electrodes based on conducting composites. • We obtained three composites with PEDOT, polyacrylic acid and anthranilic acid. • All structures were obtained on a polystyrene template via electropolymerization. • SDS surfactant plays a key role during template deposition process

  13. Honeycomb-structured porous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite layers on a gold electrode

    Krzyczmonik, Paweł, E-mail: pawel@chemia.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Team of Electroanalysis and Electrochemistry, University of Lodz, Tamka 12, 91-403 Lodz (Poland); Socha, Ewelina; Skrzypek, Sławomira [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Team of Electroanalysis and Electrochemistry, University of Lodz, Tamka 12, 91-403 Lodz (Poland); Soliwoda, Katarzyna; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jarosław [Department of Materials Technology and Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2014-08-28

    Three microstructured electrodes modified with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were obtained. One electrode was modified with PEDOT doped with poly(4-lithium styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSLi), the second one with a PEDOT + polyacrylic acid composite doped with PSSLi, and the third one with a PEDOT + anthranilic acid composite doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid). The three electrodes were prepared using templates of polystyrene latex spheres (PS). The templates were deposited on the electrode using our dip-coating-like technique that we developed by optimizing key parameters, such as PS and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration, angle of inclination, and decantation rate. The structure of the templates was verified by optical microscopy. A conducting polymer layer was obtained by electropolymerization from appropriate monomer solutions. In the final stage, the template was dissolved in toluene and the morphology of the resulting honeycomb-structure was examined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were tested by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. - Highlights: • We developed microstructured electrodes based on conducting composites. • We obtained three composites with PEDOT, polyacrylic acid and anthranilic acid. • All structures were obtained on a polystyrene template via electropolymerization. • SDS surfactant plays a key role during template deposition process.

  14. Transcriptomic configuration of mouse brain induced by adolescent exposure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    The amphetamine derivative (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is a synthetic amphetamine analogue used recreationally to obtain an enhanced affiliative emotional response. MDMA is a potent monoaminergic neurotoxin with the potential to damage brain serotonin and/or dopamine neurons. As the majority of MDMA users are young adults, the risk that users may expose the fetus to MDMA is a concern. However, the majority of studies on MDMA have investigated the effects on adult animals. Here, we investigated whether long-term exposure to MDMA, especially in adolescence, could induce comprehensive transcriptional changes in mouse brain. Transcriptomic analysis of mouse brain regions demonstrated significant gene expression changes in the cerebral cortex. Supervised analysis identified 1028 genes that were chronically dysregulated by long-term exposure to MDMA in adolescent mice. Functional categories most represented by this MDMA characteristic signature are intracellular molecular signaling pathways of neurotoxicity, such as, the MAPK signaling pathway, the Wnt signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, long-term potentiation, and the long-term depression signaling pathway. Although these resultant large-scale molecular changes remain to be studied associated with functional brain damage caused by MDMA, our observations delineate the possible neurotoxic effects of MDMA on brain function, and have therapeutic implications concerning neuro-pathological conditions associated with MDMA abuse.

  15. Unraveling the Order and Disorder in Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Poly(styrenesulfonate) Nanofilms

    Zhou, Jian

    2015-08-03

    Conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) exhibits a tunable conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 4380 S·cm–1 under different doping and/or dedoping strategies. However, the dependence of macroscopic electrical properties on the evolution of the microstructure is not clearly understood. This is the first study that systematically investigated the spatial arrangement of the ordered and disordered phases in PEDOT/PSS nanofilms by bright-field (BF), high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and element-thickness mapping. Our observations clarify how amorphous PSS hinders electrical transport at various length scales in the PEDOT/PSS films. Moreover, the mechanism for an enhancement in 3 orders of magnitude in electrical conductivity was proved by TEM investigation, which is mainly due to a more uniform dispersion by dedoping that opens PEDOT nanoparticle clusters in PEDOT/PSS films. Our microstructural and electrical studies show that the change in spatial arrangement and interaction of small PEDOT domains plays a considerable role in the final electron transport.

  16. Autotoxicity and allelopathy of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone isolated from Picea schrenkiana needles.

    Ruan, Xiao; Li, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Cun-De; Jiang, De-An; Wang, G Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the diethyl ether fraction of a water extract of Picea schrenkiana needles led to the isolation of the phenolic compound 3,4-dihydroxy- acetophenone (DHAP). The allelopathic effects of DHAP were evaluated under laboratory conditions on P. schrenkiana, rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.). DHAP significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of P. schrenkiana at concentrations of 2.5 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). Soil analysis revealed that P. schrenkiana forest soils contained exceptionally high DHAP concentrations (mean = 0.51 ± 0.03 mg/g dry soil), sufficient to inhibit natural P. schrenkiana recruitment. DHAP also exhibited strong allelopathic potential. It significantly inhibited wheat and lettuce seed germination at concentrations of 1 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). The active compound also completely inhibited root growth of the six test species at high concentrations. Our results suggest a dual role of DHAP, both as an allelochemical and as an autotoxicant. The potential for a single plant needle-leached compound to influence both inter- and intra-specific interactions emphasized the complex effects that plant secondary metabolites might have on plant population and community structure. PMID:22024957

  17. Interaction of alkali metals with perylene-3,4,9,10- tetracarboxylic-dianhydride thin films

    n doping of the molecular organic semiconductor perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) is often achieved by use of alkali metals as dopants. This doping process is commonly performed in two steps. In the first the dopant is evaporated onto the surface of the PTCDA film. As it has been believed that the dopant shows an inhomogeneous diffusion profile through the layer with most of the dopant accumulated in the first few layers, a subsequent annealing step has been performed in order to reach a homogeneous distribution of the dopant in the whole layer. In this paper experimental results concerning chemical composition ((angle resolved) X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), electronic structure (ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy), as well as electrical properties (conductivity, Seebeck coefficient) are shown before and after doping and before and after annealing. These results suggest that the deposited dopant is redistributed and partially removed during the annealing step. A model for the dopant distribution is suggested

  18. A positron emission tomograph designed for 3/4 mm resolution

    Two factors of the design for a positron tomograph affect the magnitude of the tomograph spatial resolution: the gamma ray detector width and the analogue measurement of the scintillator location. In the tomograph design reported here the analogue measurement is eliminated and the detector transaxial width factor is reduced to 3/4 mm. The analogue measurement is eliminated by transmitting the scintillation light from each individual scintillator through optical fibers to four photo-multipliers (PMT's); the identities of the PMT's then provide a digital address for the scintillation location. Plastic scintillators are used to provide enough scintillation light for transmission through the optical fibers. Bonuses from the use of plastic scintillators are first, the reduction of the scintillator dead time to about 10 nsec, second, a large reduction of cross-talk between neighboring scintillators, third, the reduction of resolution loss from off-axis gamma rays and, fourth, the ability to sample the axial image at one-eighth the axial resolution distance of 2.5 mm. The designed tomograph incorporates 20 rings. Two of the 32 tomograph 20-ring modules have been constructed to measure the resolution and other characteristics of the tomographs

  19. Evaluation of Bcl-2 Family Gene Expression in Hippocampus of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine Treated Rats

    Hamed Hashemi-Nasl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is an illicit, recreational drugthat causes cellular death and neurotoxicity. This study evaluates the effects of differentdoses of MDMA on the expression of apoptosis–related proteins and genes in the hippocampusof adult rats.Materials and Methods: In this expremental study,a total of 20 male Sprague Dawley rats(200-250 g were treated with MDMA (0, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg i.p. twice daily for 7 days. Sevendays after the last administration of MDMA, the rats were killed. Bax and Bcl-2 genesin addition to protein expressions were detected by western blot and reverse transcriptionpolymerasechain reaction (RT-PCR.Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA andp≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Our results showed that MDMA caused dose dependent up-regulation of Baxand down-regulation of Bcl-2 in the hippocampus. There was a significant alteration inbcl-2 and bax genes density.Conclusion: Changes in apoptosis-related proteins and respective genes relating to Baxand Bcl-2 might be involved in the molecular mechanism of MDMA-induced apoptosis.

  20. Synthesis and Evaluation of New 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives as Antinociceptive Agents.

    Altıntop, Mehlika Dilek; Can, Özgür Devrim; Demir Özkay, Ümide; Kaplancıklı, Zafer Asım

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, new 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized and investigated for their antinociceptive effects on nociceptive pathways of nervous system. The effects of these compounds against mechanical, thermal and chemical stimuli were evaluated by tail-clip, hot-plate and acetic acid-induced writhing tests, respectively. In addition, activity cage was performed to assess the locomotor activity of animals. The obtained data indicated that compounds 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3g and 3h increased the reaction times of mice both in the hot-plate and tail-clip tests, indicating the centrally mediated antinociceptive activity of these compounds. Additionally, the number of writhing behavior was significantly decreased by the administration of compounds 3a, 3c, 3e and 3f, which pointed out the peripherally mediated antinociceptive activity induced by these four compounds. According to the activity cage tests, compounds 3a, 3c and 3f significantly decreased both horizontal and vertical locomotor activity of mice. Antinociceptive behavior of these three compounds may be non-specific and caused by possible sedative effect or motor impairments. PMID:27490523

  1. 3,4-Phenylenedioxythiophene (PheDOT) Based Hole-Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Bai-Xue; Zhang, Fang-Shuai; Yu, Hui-Juan; Ma, Shuang; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Shao, Guang; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-04-01

    Two new electron-rich molecules based on 3,4-phenylenedioxythiophene (PheDOT) were synthesized and successfully adopted as hole-transporting materials (HTMs) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). X-ray diffraction, absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical properties, thermal stabilities, hole mobilities, conductivities, and photovoltaic parameters of PSCs based on these two HTMs were compared with each other. By introducing methoxy substituents into the main skeleton, the energy levels of PheDOT-core HTM were tuned to match with the perovskite, and its hole mobility was also improved (1.33×10(-4)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) , being higher than that of spiro-OMeTAD, 2.34×10(-5)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) ). The PSC based on MeO-PheDOT as HTM exhibits a short-circuit current density (Jsc ) of 18.31 mA cm(-2) , an open-circuit potential (Voc ) of 0.914 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.636, yielding an encouraging power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.64 % under AM 1.5G illumination. These results give some insight into how the molecular structures of HTMs affect their performances and pave the way for developing high-efficiency and low-cost HTMs for PSCs. PMID:26840766

  2. Raman scattering in multiferroic SmFe3(BO3)4

    Peschanskii, A. V.; Fomin, V. I.; Gudim, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    Raman spectrum of single-crystal SmFe3(BO3)4 was studied in the frequency range from 3 to 1500 cm-1 at temperatures 10-300 K. All the A1 and E phonon modes predicted by the group theory for a given symmetry of the crystal were observed. The magnitudes of splitting between the LO and TO components of polar E phonons were determined. It was found that under the transition to a magnetically ordered phase, the behavior of the intensity of the line corresponding to the A1 vibrational mode is anomalous. It was shown that at low temperatures the spectrum of two-magnon excitations has a complex shape and is observed with both nondiagonal and diagonal components of the scattering tensor. This complex shape reflects the features in the density of states of the magnetic branches. An estimate of the magnon energy Em at the Brillouin zone boundary gave ˜47 cm-1. The structure of the ground multiplet 6H5/2 of a Sm+3 ion in paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic states as well as the effect of the magnetic phase transition on it were studied. Electron-phonon interaction for the electronic excitation at 225 cm-1 was revealed.

  3. Photophysical properties and semiempirical calculations of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetramethylester (PTME).

    El-Daly, Samy A; Awad, Mohamed K; Abdel-Halim, Shakir T; Dowidar, Dina A

    2008-12-01

    The spectral behavior and fluorescence quantum yield of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetramethylester (PTME) have been measured in different solvents. Both electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are not sensitive to medium polarity. The dye exhibits high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostable. Crystalline solid of PTME gives excimer-like emission at 530 nm. The laser activity of PTME has been investigated. The dye solution in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) gives laser emission around 480 nm upon excitation by 337.1 nm nitrogen laser pulse. The excitation energy transfer from 7-dimethylamino-4-methylcoumarine (DMC) to PTME has also has been studied and the value of energy transfer rate constant, k(ET), and critical transfer distance, R(0) indicate a Förster-type mechanism. The photodecomposition of PTME in chloromethane solvents has been also studied. We applied semiempirical MO calculations using (PM3 and ZINDO-CI) calculations to explain the geometric and electronic behaviors of the PTME molecule in both ground and excited states and make a correlation with the experimental observations. PMID:18436473

  4. 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine upregulates p75 neurotrophin receptor protein expression in the rat brain.

    Wang, Chaomin; Peng, Zugui; Kuang, Weihong; Zheng, Hanyu; Long, Jiang; Wang, Xue

    2012-04-25

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, facilitates apoptosis during development and following central nervous system injury. Previous studies have shown that programmed cell death is likely involved in the neurotoxic effects of 3, 4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), because MDMA induces apoptosis of immortalized neurons through regulation of proteins belonging to the Bcl-2 family. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of different doses of MDMA (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg) induced significant behavioral changes, such as increased excitability, increased activity, and irritability in rats. Moreover, changes exhibited dose-dependent adaptation. Following MDMA injection in rat brain tissue, the number of apoptotic cells dose-dependently increased and p75 neurotrophin receptor expression significantly increased in the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus. These findings confirmed that MDMA induced neuronal apoptosis, and results suggested that this effect was related by upregulated protein expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor. PMID:25722682

  5. Graphene Nanosheets/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanotubes Composite Materials for Electrochemical Biosensing Applications

    Highlights: • Novel composite materials contain 2D rGO nanosheets and 1D PEDOT nanotubes. • 3D nanocomposite film effectively improved the sensitivity for analyte detection. • The rGO/PEDOT NTs film shows good catalytic activities toward hydrazine and H2O2. • The rGO/PEDOT NTs film also exhibits high selectivity from the interference test. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: In this study, we developed the novel composite materials containing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanotubes (PEDOT NTs) for electrochemical biosensing applications. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy suggested that the rGO nanosheets cover the substrate uniformly, and the PEDOT NTs act as a conducting bridge to connect the rGO sheets. By combining the two materials, it's expected to enhance the conductivity of the film and improve the surface coverage. We applied the rGO/PEDOT NTs composite for electrochemical detection of hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide; noticeable improvements in electrochemical activity and reactivity were observed compared to those of the pristine rGO and PEDOT NTs electrodes. This may be attributed to the better surface coverage of the rGO/PEDOT NTs modified electrode with superior conductivity. Furthermore, interference tests indicate that the rGO/PEDOT NTs composite film exhibits high selectivity toward the analyte. The rGO/PEDOT NTs composite thus provides a potential platform for biosensing applications

  6. Ambient temperature impact on hepatocellular liver damage in rats following intake of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    Marinković Nadica S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy is a psycho-stimulating agent. It is usualy taken orally in the form of tablets. It is absorbed throught the gastrointestinal mucous membrane. Hyperthermia is the most prominent clinical sign of MDMA intake. The most prominent forensic finding of lethal MDMA poisoning is myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular bleeding. However, liver and kidney damage: have also been described. The aim of this research was to determine if ambient temperatures affect liver damage in the experimental rats. Methods. The experiment was conducted for 8 h and 24 h, at temperatures of 12°C, 22°C and 32°C. Both biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, AP, gamma GT and LDH and pathohistological changes of the liver were monitored. Results. Our reserch demonstrated that the most serious lever damage occurred at 32°C. Liver damage was manifested as portal inflammation, periportal necrosis, lobular necrosis, stasis, intralobular hemorrhage and incerease of liver enzymes serum activity. Conclusion. Liver damage after MDMA intake rises with the increase of ambient temperature, and it is most pronounced at the temperature of 32°C.

  7. Presentations from 'The Bolund Experiment: Workshop' 3-4th December 2009

    Bechmann, A.

    2010-08-15

    The Bolund experiment is a measuring campaign from a complex terrain performed in 2007 and 2008 where high frequency data from 35 anemometers provides a unique database designed to validate micro-scale flow models. Since no systematic comparison of micro-scale models existed it was decided to challenge micro-scale modelers to simulate the wind over Bolund and compare the results systematically. Since the Bolund measurements had not been published the comparison could be made blindly, i.e. the participants would not have prior knowledge of the measurement results. To broaden the types of models participating, modelers were invited worldwide from research institutes, universities and industry. More than 40 groups participated in the blind comparison with well over 50 model predictions and the blind comparison therefore gives an overview of the accuracy of micro-scale models anno 2010. On the 3-4 December 2009, 80 specialists in modeling of wind over complex terrain met at a Risoe DTU workshop where the model predictions and the Bolund measurements were revealed. During the workshop, interesting presentations were given about different flow modeling approaches. This report contains copies of the slide presentations given at the workshop. (LN)

  8. Improving the performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) for brain-machine interface applications.

    Mandal, Himadri S; Knaack, Gretchen L; Charkhkar, Hamid; McHail, Daniel G; Kastee, Jemika S; Dumas, Theodore C; Peixoto, Nathalia; Rubinson, Judith F; Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2014-06-01

    Conducting polymers, especially poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) based materials, are important for developing highly sensitive and microscale neural probes. In the present work, we show that the conductivity and stability of PEDOT can be significantly increased by switching the widely used counter anion poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) to the smaller tetrafluoroborate (TFB) anion during the electrodeposition of the polymer. Time-dependent impedance measurements of polymer modified implantable microwires were conducted in physiological buffer solutions under accelerated aging conditions and the relative stability of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:TFB modified microwires was compared over time. This study was also extended to carbon nanotube (CNT) incorporated PEDOT:PSS which, according to some reports, is claimed to enhance the stability and electrical performance of the polymer. However, no noticeable difference was observed between PEDOT:PSS and CNT:PEDOT:PSS in our measurements. At the biologically relevant frequency of 1kHz, PEDOT:TFB modified microwires exhibit approximately one order of magnitude higher conductivity and demonstrate enhanced stability over both PEDOT:PSS and CNT:PEDOT:PSS modified microwires. In addition, PEDOT:TFB is not neurotoxic and we show the proof-of-concept for both in vitro and in vivo neuronal recordings using PEDOT:TFB modified microelectrode arrays and chronic electrodes, respectively. Our findings suggest that PEDOT:TFB is a promising conductive polymer coating for the recording of neural activities. PMID:24576579

  9. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-(diethoxyphosphoryl-2-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenylacetate

    Moritz Schubert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H27O8P, was prepared by Michaelis–Arbuzov reaction of ethyl 2-bromo-2-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenylacetate and triethyl phosphite. Such compounds rarely crystallize, but single crystals were recovered after the initial oil was left for approximately 10 years. The bond angle of the sp3-hybridized C atom connecting the benzene derivative with the phospho unit is widened marginally [112.5 (2°]. The terminal P—O bond length of 1.464 (2 Å clearly indicates a double bond, whereas the two O atoms of the ethoxy groups connected to the phosphorous atom have bond lengths of 1.580 (2 Å and 1.581 (3 Å. The three methoxy groups emerge out of the benzene-ring plane due to steric hindrance [C—C—O—C torsion angles = −179.9 (3°, −52.9 (4° and 115.3 (4°]. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C—H...O=P hydrogen bonds generate R22(14 loops. The chosen crystal was modelled as a non-merohedral twin.

  10. Flammable gas production in Land 2 and Land 3/4 radioactive waste repositories

    Geological, radiolytic and microbiological sources of gas are considered in relation to Land 2 and Land 3/4 type radioactive waste repositories. Geological sources are potentially the most troublesome and it is concluded that site investigation work should be designed to detect gas trap structures, reservoir lithologies or source rocks. Known source and reservoir lithologies should not be considered as suitable for the siting of waste repositories. Radiolytic and microbiological sources will depend on waste characteristics. A detailed review of the literature on radiolytic gas generation is presented and conclusions from this work indicate that water in waste and matrix should be kept to a minimum. Similarly, the level of radioactivity stored in each waste container should be kept to the minimum compatible with the storage design. Microbiological gas sources will be reduced by maintaining the cellulose content of the waste at a minimum. It is suggested that the removal of organics from the waste stream would be beneficial in terms of potential gas production. (author)

  11. 1-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl-2-[(E-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene]hydrazine

    Suchada Chantrapromma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecules of the title compound, C16H16N4O7, are not planar with a dihedral angle of 5.50 (11° between the substituted benzene rings. The two meta-methoxy groups of the 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzene moiety lie in the plane of the attached ring [Cmethyl–O–C–C torsion angles −0.1 (4° and −3.7 (3°] while the para-methoxy substituent lies out of the plane [Cmethyl—O—C—C, −86.0 (3°]. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond involving the 2-nitro substituent generates an S(6 ring motif. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O interactions into screw chains, that are arranged into a sheet parallel to the bc plane. These sheets are connected by π–π stacking interactions between the nitro and methoxy substituted aromatic rings with a centroid–centroid separation of 3.9420 (13 Å. C—H...π contacts further stabilize the two-dimensional network.

  12. Reactions of organyl and silyl alanes with 1,3,4,5,6-pentamethyl-2-aminoborazine.

    Fan, Maomin; Duesler, Eileen N; Nöth, Heinrich; Paine, Robert T

    2010-03-15

    The reactions of (Me(3)Si)(3)Al, Me(3)Al, Et(3)Al, and i-Bu(3)Al with 1,3,4,5,6-pentamethyl-2-aminoborazine have been examined. An amine alane adduct (Me(3)Si)(3)Al.NH(2)B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3) (1) and several elimination products [(Me(3)Si)(2)AlN(H)B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (2), [(Me(3)SiAl)(4)(Me(3)SiN)(3)NH] (3), [Me(2)AlN(H) B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (4), [Et(2)AlN(H) B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (5), and [i-Bu(2)AlN(H) B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (6) have been isolated. Compounds 1, 2, 4-6 have been spectroscopically characterized, and single crystal X-ray diffraction structure determinations have been completed for 1-4 and 6. The molecular chemistry provides insight into the reaction of Me(3)Al and 1,3,5-N-trimethyl-2,4,6-B-triaminoborazine that, upon pyrolysis, produces AlN/BN composite ceramic materials. PMID:20158196

  13. Structural and Theoretical Investigation of Anhydrous 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic Acid.

    Paulo S Carvalho

    Full Text Available A comprehensive investigation of anhydrous form of 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic acid (TABA is reported. Single crystal X-ray diffraction, Thermal analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and DFT calculations were applied for TABA characterization. This anhydrous phase crystallizes in the triclinic [Formula: see text] space group (Z' = 1 and its packing shows a supramolecular motif in a classical [Formula: see text] ring formed by acid-acid groups association. The phase stability is accounted in terms of supramolecular architecture and its thermal behaviour. Conformation search at B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p level of theory shows the existence of three stable conformers and the most stable conformation was found experimentally. The reactivity of TABA was investigated using the molecular orbital theory and molecular electrostatic potential. The calculation results were used to simulate the infrared spectrum. There is a good agreement between calculated and experimental IR spectrum, which allowed the assignment of the normal vibrational modes.

  14. QSAR Studies on the COX-2 Inhibition by 3,4-Diarylcycloxazolones Based on MEDV Descriptor

    刘树深; 崔世海; 尹大强; 施蕴渝; 王连生

    2003-01-01

    Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) might avoid the side effects of current available nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs while retaining their therapeutic efficacy. A novel variable selection and modeling method based on prediction is developed to construct the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) between the molecular electronegativity distance vector (MEDV) based on 13 atomic types and the biological activities of a set of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory molecules, 3,4-diarylcycloxazolones (DAA) plus indomethacin,naproxen, and celecoxib. Using multiple linear regression, a 5-variable linear model is developed with the calibrated correlation coefficient of 0.9271 and root mean square error of 0.17 in modeling stage and the validated correlation coefficient of 0.9030 and root mean square error of 0.20 in leave-one-out validation step, respectively. To further test the predictive ability of the model, 20 DAA compounds are picked up to construct a training set which is used to build a QSAR model and then the model is employed to predict the biological activities of the balance compounds. The predicted correlation coefficient and root mean square error are 0.9332 and 0.19, respectively.

  15. Discovery of a new supernova remnant G150.3+4.5

    Gao, X Y

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale radio continuum surveys have good potential for discovering new Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). Surveys of the Galactic plane are often limited in the Galactic latitude of |b| ~ 5 degree. SNRs at high latitudes, such as the Cygnus Loop or CTA~1, cannot be detected by surveys in such limited latitudes. Using the available Urumqi 6 cm Galactic plane survey data, together with the maps from the extended ongoing 6 cm medium latitude survey, we wish to discover new SNRs in a large sky area. We searched for shell-like structures and calculated radio spectra using the Urumqi 6 cm, Effelsberg 11 cm, and 21 cm survey data. Radio polarized emission and evidence in other wavelengths are also examined for the characteristics of SNRs. We discover an enclosed oval-shaped object G150.3+4.5 in the 6 cm survey map. It is about 2.5 degree wide and 3 degree high. Parts of the shell structures can be identified well in the 11 cm, 21 cm, and 73.5 cm observations. The Effelsberg 21 cm total intensity image resemble...

  16. Caffeine enhances astroglia and microglia reactivity induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy') in mouse brain.

    Khairnar, Amit; Plumitallo, Antonio; Frau, Lucia; Schintu, Nicoletta; Morelli, Micaela

    2010-05-01

    Several reports suggest that 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induces neurotoxic effects and gliosis. Since recreational use of MDMA is often associated with caffeinated beverages, we investigated whether caffeine interferes with MDMA-induced astroglia and microglia activation, thus facilitating its neurotoxicity. MDMA (4 x 20 mg/kg) was acutely administered to mice alone or in combination with caffeine (10 mg/kg). CD11b and GFAP immunoreactivity were evaluated as markers of microglia and astroglia activation in the substantia nigra pars-compacta (SNc) and striatum. MDMA was associated with significantly higher CD11b and GFAP immunoreactivity in striatum, whereas only CD11b was significantly higher than vehicle in SNc. Caffeine potentiated the increase in CD11b and GFAP in the striatum but not in the SNc of MDMA-treated mice. The abuse of MDMA is a growing worldwide problem; the results of this study suggest that combination of MDMA plus caffeine by increasing glial activation might have harmful health consequences. PMID:19882200

  17. Structural changes during the overoxidation of electrochemically deposited poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene films

    Maria Ujvari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical, mechanical and morphological properties of thin poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene (PEDOT films deposited on gold were investigated in aqueous sulfuric acid and sodium sulphate solutions. At sufficiently positive electrode potentials overoxidation of the polymer took place and resulted in morphological changes and structure evolution. These effects were monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction. Significant changes in the film stress caused by overoxidation were detected by using the electrochemical bending beam method. Results of the EIS measurements proved that the charge transfer process at the metal/film interface is more hindered in case of the degraded film. According to SEM images the overoxidation/degradation of PEDOT films can result in random-like but quite well-ordered arrays of islands and trench-like structures. The diffraction peaks of PEDOT became sharper and more intensive during the subsequent oxidation cycles indicating an increase in the degree of crystallinity of the polymer.

  18. Facile Synthetic Method and Crystal Structure of 2, 3, 3', 4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride

    YI Shi-xu; GAO Guo-wei; YANG Mei-jia; CHEN Hua; WU Di-feng; MEN Jian

    2012-01-01

    A facile method for the synthesis of 2,3,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride(a-BPDA)was reported,which comprises the steps of the dehalogenative coupling of dimethyl 4-chlorophthalate(4-DMCP)and dimethyl3-chlorophthalate(3-DMCP)catalyzed by low-cost(Ph3P)2NiCl2,the hydrolysis of tetra-ester and the dehydration of tetra-acid.In contrast to the conventional methods,this method has the advantage of low cost,convenient manipulation,available condition,high purity and good overall yield.Moreover,the single crystal structure of a-BPDA was analyzed by X-ray diffraction method.The X-ray data suggest that a-BPDA is a rigid,non-coplanar and non-linear structure.It contains three crystallographically independent molecules,in which the dihedral angles of the two linked phenyl rings are 44.75(4)°,46.37(3)° and 42.32(3)°,respectively.The title molecule is governed by a stronger intermolecular interaction in contrast to van der Waals interaction because of the special positions of anhydride groups.

  19. Preparation and characterization of electropolymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin films with different dopant anions

    Deguchi, Toshiaki; Tomeoku, Hiroya; Takashiri, Masayuki

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the structural and thermoelectric properties poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films with several dopants (counter ions, ClO4, PF6, and BF4), synthesised by electropolymerization. We first performed cyclic voltammetry analysis to determine the optimum synthesis conditions of the PEDOT thin films. We found that the surface morphology of the PEDOT thin films was dependent on the type of the dopant. The PF6-doped PEDOT (PEDOT:PF6) thin films showed a dense structure, and the PEDOT:ClO4 thin films showed a highly porous microstructure. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed that all the PEDOT thin films showed similar chemical structures and the p-type state. Regarding their thermoelectric properties, the electrical conductivity of the all the doped PEDOT thin films increased as the dopant concentration increased, with the PEDOT:PF6 thin films showing the highest value. On the other hand, the Seebeck coefficient of the PEDOT thin films with all the dopants decreased as the dopant concentration increased, with the PEDOT:BF4 thin films achieving the highest value. As a result, the PEDOT:BF4 thin films exhibited the highest power factor of 0.75 µW/(m·K2) at a dopant concentration of 1.0 M. We think that the PEDOT microstructure produced using the different types of dopant may affect the thermoelectric properties.

  20. Micro-structured electrochromic device based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    Recent developments in consumer electronics, e.g. smartphones, tablet PCs or compact cameras, demand the development of very compact, active, optical microsystems. Because of their low power consumption, low operation voltage and cheap fabrication, voltage-controlled electrochromic devices (ECDs) based on polymer materials are promising candidates. However, the broad application of ECDs is still hindered by crucial technological obstacles. In this paper, we address two main issues: the structuring of the electrochromic material (ECM) and its underlying transparent conductive electrode on a microscale and additionally, the assembly of the ECD as an electrochemical cell with the challenges of airtight sealing, appropriate chemical stability, electrical insulation and the necessity of defining a compartment to hold the liquid electrolyte inside the cell. We first introduce a technological sequence consisting of batch processes (UV lithography and dry and wet etching) to render the microscale structuring of the ECM possible. Furthermore, we exploit the outstanding properties of the thick film dry photoresist Ordyl SY 300 to complete the assembly of ECDs with single-layer technology. As a proof of principle, we present the first results of an ECD device based on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) material that works as an aperture stop with three coaxial segments, each individually controlled by an external voltage. (paper)

  1. Formation mechanisms of 3,4-dinitrofuroxan via nitration reaction of furoxan

    Peng, Yajing; Ye, Yuqing; Liu, Jianyong; Lai, Weipeng

    2016-03-01

    A systematic investigations on the nitration of furoxan by two typical nitration reagents nitronium tetrafluoroborate (BF4NO2) and dilute nitric acid (HNO3) in chloroform (CHCl3) solvent using density functional theory (DFT) method to reveal the formation mechanism of 3,4-dinitrofuroxan (DNFO) and explore new synthesis routes. The geometry optimizations of the minima and transition states involved in the two nitration reactions are performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G** basis set level. The CCSD single-point energy corrections at the same level are carried out on top of the optimized geometries to obtain the accurate energy. Calculated results demonstrate that the electrophilic substitutions of nitronium ions from the nitration reagents and the abstractions of protons in the complex intermediates are the main formation mechanism of DNFO. BF4- is shown to be a better proton abstracter than HNO3 and H2O due to its no barrier combination with H+. The abstraction of proton by HNO3 is predicted to be more feasible than H2O because it can supply the nitration attacker (NO2+) and release more heat. Chloroform is a feasible solvent and heating properly is necessary for the two reactions due to the relatively high barrier of 37 kcal/mol. These conclusions provide some significant indications on the new experimental synthesis of DNFO.

  2. The prosocial effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): Controlled studies in humans and laboratory animals.

    Kamilar-Britt, Philip; Bedi, Gillinder

    2015-10-01

    Users of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') report prosocial effects such as sociability and empathy. Supporting these apparently unique social effects, data from controlled laboratory studies indicate that MDMA alters social feelings, information processing, and behavior in humans, and social behavior in rodents. Here, we review this growing body of evidence. In rodents, MDMA increases passive prosocial behavior (adjacent lying) and social reward while decreasing aggression, effects that may involve serotonin 1A receptor mediated oxytocin release interacting with vasopressin receptor 1A. In humans, MDMA increases plasma oxytocin and produces feelings of social affiliation. It decreases identification of negative facial expressions (cognitive empathy) and blunts responses to social rejection, while enhancing responses to others' positive emotions (emotional empathy) and increasing social approach. Thus, consistent with drug folklore, laboratory administration of MDMA robustly alters social processing in humans and increases social approach in humans and animals. Effects are consistent with increased sociability, with mixed evidence about enhanced empathy. These neurobiologically-complex prosocial effects likely motivate recreational ecstasy use. PMID:26408071

  3. 1,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-2-N-(trifluoroacetyl-β-l-fucose

    David C. McCutcheon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H18F3NO8, was produced through conjugation of 1,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-2-azidodeoxy-α,β-l-fucose with trifluoroacetyl chloride in the presence of bis(diphenylphosphinoethane in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature. The X-ray crystal structure reveals that the β-anomer of the product mixture crystallizes from ethyl acetate/hexanes. The compound exists in a typical chair conformation with the maximum possible number of substituents, four out of five, located in the sterically preferred equatorial positions. The major directional force facilitating packing of the molecules are N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the amide moieties of neighboring molecules, which connect molecules stacked along the a-axis direction into infinite strands with a C11(4 graph-set motif. Formation of the strands is assisted by a number of weaker C—H...O interactions involving the methine and methyl H atoms. These strands are connected through further C—H...O and C—H...F interactions into a three dimensional network

  4. Autotoxicity and Allelopathy of 3,4-Dihydroxyacetophenone Isolated from Picea schrenkiana Needles

    Zhao-Hui Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of the diethyl ether fraction of a water extract of Picea schrenkiana needles led to the isolation of the phenolic compound 3,4-dihydroxy- acetophenone (DHAP. The allelopathic effects of DHAP were evaluated under laboratory conditions on P. schrenkiana, rice (Oryza sativa L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L., radish (Raphanus sativus L., lettuce (Latuca sativa L., cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. and mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.. DHAP significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of P. schrenkiana at concentrations of 2.5 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05. Soil analysis revealed that P. schrenkiana forest soils contained exceptionally high DHAP concentrations (mean = 0.51 ± 0.03 mg/g dry soil, sufficient to inhibit natural P. schrenkiana recruitment. DHAP also exhibited strong allelopathic potential. It significantly inhibited wheat and lettuce seed germination at concentrations of 1 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05. The active compound also completely inhibited root growth of the six test species at high concentrations. Our results suggest a dual role of DHAP, both as an allelochemical and as an autotoxicant. The potential for a single plant needle-leached compound to influence both inter- and intra-specific interactions emphasized the complex effects that plant secondary metabolites might have on plant population and community structure.

  5. Theoretical study on molecular packing and electronic structure of bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    Wang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    The molecular aggregation structure of 5,5′-bis(naphthalen-2-yl)-2,2′-bi(1,3,4-oxadiazole) (BOXD-NP) was studied by computing the intermolecular interaction potential energy surface (PES) at density functional theory level based on a dimer model. All B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and M062x functionals can yield a reliable isolated molecular geometry. The conformation of BOXD-NP obtained with all methods is perfectly planar, indicating good conjugation ability between oxadiazole and naphthalene rings. The vibrational frequencies of BOXD-NP were also calculated using the B3LYP/6-311+G∗∗ method, which showed great consistency with the experimental observations and makes the assignments of the IR spectra more solid. It was revealed that the lowest excited state of BOXD-NP should be assigned as a highly allowed π-π∗ state by TD-DFT calculation. Considering the non-covalent interactions in molecular aggregates, the M062x functional was applied in the construction of the PES. Besides the packing structure found in the crystals, PES also predicted several stable structures, indicating that PES has great ability in guiding molecular self-assembly. Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT) analysis on these energy-minimum molecular stacking structures revealed that London dispersion forces are the strongest attractive component in the binding. This journal is

  6. CalcHEP 3.4 for collider physics within and beyond the Standard Model

    Belyaev, Alexander; Pukhov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We present version 3.4 of the CalcHEP software package which is designed for effective evaluation and simulation of high energy physics collider processes at parton level. The main features of CalcHEP are the computation of Feynman diagrams, integration over multi-particle phase space and event simulation at parton level. The principle attractive key-points along these lines are that it has: a) an easy startup even for those who are not familiar with CalcHEP; b) a friendly and convenient graphical user interface; c) the option for a user to easily modify a model or introduce a new model by either using the graphical interface or by using an external package with the possibility of cross checking the results in different gauges; d) a batch interface which allows to perform very complicated and tedious calculations connecting production and decay modes for processes with many particles in the final state. With this features set, CalcHEP can efficiently perform calculations with a high level of automation from a...

  7. Canadian petroleum industry: 1991 monitoring report. First six months

    This report describes the financial performance of the oil and gas industry in Canada during the first 6 months of 1991. The report is based on data from 145 companies accounting for ca 90% of total revenues of the petroleum industry. The report lists noteworthy happenings in the industry, gives highlights of the 6-month period, then details financial performance, sources and uses of funds, comparative performance with other industries, international flows of funds compared to the previous year, capital structures compared to the previous year, and gives income tax-related data for the current and previous years. New chapters on employment levels within the upstream part of the industry for the period 1985 to 1990 and on selected financial results of the petroleum industry for the third quarter and the first nine months of 1991 have been included. Compared to the first 6 months of 1990, industry cash flow dropped 15% to $3.4 billion and net income fell $1.1 billion from a profit of $815 million to a loss of $260 million. Both upstream and downstream segments of the industry recorded lower net income and cash flow. Higher operating costs in the upstream segment and significantly lower downstream margins were major causes of the poor financial performance of the petroleum industry. As a result, the rate of return on average shareholder's equity was an annualized negative 1.2%. The industry increased overall capital expenditures by 19% to $4.6 billion, largely on the strength of commitments to major projects such as the Caroline gas field development, Hibernia, Cohasset/Panuke and the Bi-Provincial Upgrader. This increase, together with the drop in cash flow, resulted in a reinvestment rate of 134%. 24 figs., 66 tabs

  8. cis–trans-Amide isomerism of the 3,4-dehydroproline residue, the ‘unpuckered’ proline

    2016-01-01

    Summary Proline (Pro) is an outstanding amino acid in various biochemical and physicochemical perspectives, especially when considering the cis–trans isomerism of the peptidyl-Pro amide bond. Elucidation of the roles of Pro in chemical or biological systems and engineering of its features can be addressed with various Pro analogues. Here we report an experimental work investigating the basic physicochemical properties of two Pro analogues which possess a 3,4-double bond: 3,4-dehydroproline and 4-trifluoromethyl-3,4-dehydroproline. Both indicate a flat pyrroline ring in their crystal structures, in agreement with previous theoretical calculations. In solution, the peptide mimics exhibit an almost unchanged equilibrium of the trans/cis ratios compared to that of Pro and 4-trifluoromethylproline derivatives. Finally we demonstrate that the 3,4-double bond in the investigated structures leads to an increase of the amide rotational barriers, presumably due to an interplay with the transition state.

  9. [Correction of psychophysical development of preschool children 3-4 year old with movement disorders by means of Bobath therapy

    Bukhovets, B. O.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the definition of efficiency application means Bobath therapy as main correction psychophysical development method of preschool age 3 -4 years children, who have movement disorders.

  10. Atomic and electronic structure of the SrNbO3/SrNbO3.4 interface

    We have determined the atomic-scale structure of the SrNbO3/SrNbO3.4 interface and related it to the electronic structure. Experimentally, transmission electron microscopy observations reveal that SrNbO3 and SrNbO3.4 show orientation relationships [1¯10]SrNbO3 // [010]SrNbO3.4 and (110)SrNbO3 // (001)SrNbO3.4, and that their interface is coherent and atomically abrupt. Theoretically, this interface is found to be strongly anisotropic in electronic structure, and takes on quasi-one-dimensional nature. We also find that the interface impacts greatly the electron occupation of Nb d orbitals, particularly dz2 orbital. The combined study represents a relevant advance in atomically bridging structures to properties of heterointerfaces

  11. Grignard Addition to Quinoxalinium Salt: Synthesis of 1, 2-Dihydroquinoxaline and 1, 2, 3, 4-Tetrahydroquinoxaline Derivatives

    Lian You ZHENG; Xu BAI

    2006-01-01

    Grignard additions to a quinoxalinium salt were studied. Depending on the ratio of the reagents and reaction temperature, 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydroquinoxaline and 1, 2-dihydroquinoxaline derivatives could be resulted selectively.

  12. Neuroprotective effects of (E)-3,4-diacetoxystyryl sulfone and sulfoxide derivatives in vitro models of Parkinson's disease.

    Ning, Xianling; Yuan, Mengmeng; Guo, Ying; Tian, Chao; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhili; Liu, Junyi

    2016-06-01

    (E)-3,4-dihydroxystyryl aralkyl sulfones and sulfoxides have been reported as novel multifunctional neuroprotective agents in previous studies, which as phenolic compounds display antioxidative and antineuroinflammatory properties. To further enhance the neuroprotective effects and study structure-activity relationship of the derivatives, we synthesized their acetylated derivatives, (E)-3,4-diacetoxystyryl sulfones and sulfoxides, and examined their neuroprotective effects in vitro models of Parkinson's disease. The results indicate that (E)-3,4-diacetoxystyryl sulfones and sulfoxides can significantly inhibit kinds of neuron cell injury induced by toxicities, including 6-OHDA, NO, and H2O2. More important, they show higher antineuroinflammatory properties and similar antioxidative properties to corresponding un-acetylated compounds. Thus, we suggest that (E)-3,4-diacetoxystyryl sulfones and sulfoxides may have potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, especially Parkinson's disease. PMID:26176683

  13. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS POTENTIAL ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS

    Palak K. Parikh; Hiren M. Marvaniya; Dhrubo Jyoti Sen

    2011-01-01

    1,3,4 oxadiazole derivatives are the heterocyclic compounds with very important biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, analgesic, antimycobacterial, antidepressant and antiamoebic. 1, 3, 4 oxadiazole was synthesized by condensation reaction between 2- hydroxybenzohydrazine and carbon disulfide. This derivative on treatment with different aromatic halides produced the desired final products. The in-vitro antibacterial activity of synthesized comp...

  14. Solvent‐free synthesis, spectral correlations and antimicrobial activities of some 3,4‐ dimethoxy chalcones

    V. Mala; K. Sathiyamoorthi; SP Sakthinathan; D. Kamalakkannan; Suresh, R.; Vanangamudi, G.; G. Thirunarayanan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to synthesise some substituted styryl 3,4-dimethoxy phenyl ketones using solvent-free SiO2-H2SO4 catalyzed aldol condensation between 3,4- dimethoxy acetophenone and substituted benzaldehydes under microwave irradiation. Then to characterize them by their analytical, physical and spectroscopic data, and also to study their the spectral correlation and antimicrobial activities.

  15. Multicomponent Dipolar Cycloaddition Strategy: Combinatorial Synthesis of Novel Spiro-Tethered Pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline Hybrid Heterocycles.

    Sumesh, Remani Vasudevan; Muthu, Muthumani; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; Suresh Kumar, Raju; Arumugam, Natarajan; Athimoolam, S; Jeya Yasmi Prabha, E Arockia; Kumar, Raju Ranjith

    2016-05-01

    The stereoselective syntheses of a library of novel spiro-tethered pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole/indolizine-oxindole/acenaphthene hybrid heterocycles have been achieved through the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides generated in situ from α-amino acids and 1,2-diketones to dipolarophiles derived from pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivatives. PMID:27027478

  16. Syntheses of 1,3,4-Thia(oxa)diazole-substituted Pyrazole Derivatives and Their Fungicidal Activities

    WANG Wen-yan; ZHAO Wei-guang; LI Zheng-ming

    2004-01-01

    A series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole or 1,3,4-thiadiazole-substituted pyrazole derivatives were synthesized from 4-pyrazole formhydrazide; their biological activities were studied. The structures of all the new compounds were confirmed by means of spectroscopic methods and mieroanalyses. The preliminary bioassay results indicate that some compounds of them have a good fungicidal activity against Phoma asparagi and Physalospora piricola Nose.

  17. Solvent‐free synthesis, spectral correlations and antimicrobial activities of some 3,4‐ dimethoxy chalcones

    V. Mala

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to synthesise some substituted styryl 3,4-dimethoxy phenyl ketones using solvent-free SiO2-H2SO4 catalyzed aldol condensation between 3,4- dimethoxy acetophenone and substituted benzaldehydes under microwave irradiation. Then to characterize them by their analytical, physical and spectroscopic data, and also to study their the spectral correlation and antimicrobial activities.

  18. Procedimiento de purificación de 3,4-dihidroxifenilglicol (DHFG) a partir de productos vegetales

    Rodríguez Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Jiménez Araujo, Ana; Rodríguez Arcos, Rocío; Lama Muñoz, Antonio; Fernández-Bolaños Guzmán, Juan; Guillén Bejarano, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Procedimiento de purificación de 3,4-dihidroxifenilglicol (DHFG) a partir de productos vegetales. Procedimiento de purificación de 3,4-dihidroxifenilglicol (DHFG) a partir de cualquier parte de la planta, productos o subproductos derivados del olivo o cualquier otro producto vegetal de la familia Oleaceae, Orobanchaceae, Plantaginaceae, Compositae, Lamiaceae, Acanthaceae y/o Scrophulariaceae, y que comprende 1 o más etapas en las que se introduce el producto inicial en...

  19. Design of acid-responsive polymeric nanoparticles for 7,3',4'-trihydroxyisoflavone topical administration

    Huang PH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pao-Hsien Huang,1,* Stephen Chu-Sung Hu,2,3,* Chiang-Wen Lee,4,5 An-Chi Yeh,6 Chih-Hua Tseng,7 Feng-Lin Yen1,8,9 1Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 3Department of Dermatology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, 4Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kweishan, Taoyuan, 5Department of Nursing, Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chia-Yi, 6Department of Cosmetics and Fashion Styling, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 8Lipid Science and Aging Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 9Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: 7,3',4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone (734THIF is a secondary metabolite of daidzein and has been recently found to possess antioxidant, melanin inhibition, and skin cancer chemopreventive activities. However, the poor water solubility of 734THIF impedes its absorption and skin penetration and, therefore, limits its pharmacological effects when applied topically to the skin. We seek to use the nanoprecipitation method to prepare optimal eudragit E100 (EE–polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-loaded 734THIF nanoparticles (734N to improve its physicochemical properties and thereby increase its water solubility, skin penetration, and biological activities. EE–PVA-loaded 734THIF nanoparticles (734N were prepared, and their morphology and particle size were evaluated using a particle size analyzer and by electron microscopy. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiencies and in vitro solubility were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrogen

  20. Material Property Correlations: Comparisons between FRAPCON-3.4, FRAPTRAN 1.4, and MATPRO

    Luscher, Walter G.; Geelhood, Kenneth J.

    2010-08-01

    Sections 3 and 4, respectively. In addition to describing the material property correlations used in the subroutines of FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN, this report also provides a variety of comparisons between material property correlations and data. Although they are frequently identical, comparisons are made between the material property correlations used in the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN codes. Comparisons are also made between the material property correlations used in MATPRO, a compilation of fuel and cladding material property correlations with an extensive history of used with various fuel performance and severe accident codes. For a number of reasons, consistency between the material property correlations in FRAPCON-3, FRAPTRAN, and MATPRO has never been complete. However, the current versions of FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN use a relatively consistent set of correlations for the properties that are used by both codes. The material property correlations in the most recent version of MATPRO are documented in Volume 4 of NUREG/CR-6150. In addition to comparison of the various correlations, correlation-to-data comparisons are also made with FRAPCON-3, FRAPTRAN, and MATPRO. All comparisons made in this report are based on the material property correlations used in the most recent version of the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN codes, FRAPCON-3.4 and FRAPTRAN 1.4. The source code for each material property correlation discussed will be provided for FRAPCON-3.4 and FRAPTRAN 1.4 (see appendix) as well as a range of applicability and an estimate of uncertainty where possible.