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Sample records for 2nd metacarpal flap

  1. First dorsal metacarpal artery islanded flap: A useful flap for reconstruction of thumb pulp defects

    Satish Chetan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thumb pulp defects are commonly due to avulsion injuries. It is very important to reconstruct these defects using sensate flaps as the thumb pulp needs to be sensate for implementing the various functions of the thumb. A very good option for coverage of these defects is the islanded first dorsal metacarpal artery flap. Our study was done over a period of 2 years and involved 9 consecutive cases of thumb pulp defects treated at our institution. The patients included 8 males and 1 female, ranging in age from 16 to 51 years old. The flap size ranged from 2 x 1.5 cm to 5 x 3 cm. We had only one complication in the form of partial flap necrosis, which fortunately healed following debridement without the need for a secondary procedure. All our cases were done under local anesthesia with tourniquet control. All the patients had good fine touch and average two-point discrimination of 6 mm, which was satisfactory. Our good results further reinforce the islanded first dorsal metacarpal artery flap as one the best flaps for sensate reconstruction of thumb pulp defects. It replaces the soft tissue loss at the thumb pulp with minimal donor site morbidity and with good return of thumb pulp sensation.

  2. Reconstruction of multiple metacarpal bone defect using segmentated free fibular bone flap: Case report

    Rahmi Evinc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this report we present a case of blast injury to hand, including multiple metacarpal bone defect. Bone defects were reconstructed using fibular flap. Structural integrity of metacarpal bones was preserved with good functional results. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 29-32

  3. Gender difference in metacarpal descent of fifth metacarpal

    To determine the difference in metacarpal descent of fifth metacarpal between men and women. Skyline of the 2nd and 3rd metacarpals were used as reference line, from which the descent of the 5th metacarpal head was measured. The position of 5th metacarpal head was documented as angle X. Metacarpal descent was defined as the difference between angle 'X' in relaxed and clenched fist position. The relaxed position was standardized by placing the forearm, wrist and palm on a shaped woodblock such that the wrist would be held in 25 - 30 degree in extension by a triangular spur, supported the 3rd metacarpal only. It was ensured that the movement of 4th and 5th metacarpals were not impaired. Analysis of variance was performed to compare the significance of means between genders at p < 0.05 level of significance. Metacarpal descent of the 5th metacarpal of both hands was significantly greater for women, with a mean of 7 degree as compared with a mean of 4 degree for the men. This decrease in angle 'X' was significant for the right 5th metacarpal relaxed and fist position and the fist position on the left. In contrast, women showed no significant differences between the various age groups for any of the variables tested.There was no relationship between metacarpal descent and hand dominance.Difference in metacarpal descent between men and women is significant and must be kept in mind when hand function is evaluated in both genders to assess the outcome of treatment and rehabilitation. (author)

  4. Clinical application of first dorsal metacarpal artery radial cutaneous branch and superficial radial nerve flap%第一掌骨背动脉桡侧皮支蒂桡神经浅支皮瓣的临床应用

    沈小芳; 芮永军; 许亚军; 糜菁熠; 赵刚

    2012-01-01

    目的 介绍应用第一掌骨背动脉桡侧皮支蒂桡神经浅支皮瓣修复拇指软组织缺损的体会.方法 2006年6月至2009年8月,对9例拇指桡侧软组织缺损患者,应用以第一掌骨背动脉桡侧皮支为轴心血管并携带桡神经浅支皮瓣进行修复,切取面积4.0 cm×2.0cm~7.0 cm× 3.5 cm.结果 术后9例皮瓣全部存活,6例获得随访,3例失访,随访时间为11~34个月.皮瓣质地良好,感觉恢复至S2~S3+,供区植皮愈合良好,轻度色素沉着,无痛性神经瘤发生.结论 第一掌骨背动脉桡侧皮支蒂桡神经浅支皮瓣血供可靠,成活率高,方法简单,可修复拇指全指腹缺损,是修复拇指软组织缺损的方法之一.%Objective To explore the clinical outcomes of applying first dorsal metacarpal artery radial cutaneous branch and superficial radial nerve flap to repair soft tissue defects of the thumb. Methods Nine cases of soft tissue defects in the thumb were treated from June 2006 to August 2009 with a flap using the first dorsal metacarpal artery radial cutaneous branch as the axial vessel and including the superficial radial nerve.The size of the raised flaps ranged from 4.0 cm× 2.0 cm to 7.0 cm× 3.5 cm. Results All the flaps survived after the surgery.Follow-up time ranged from 11 to 34 months in 6 cases.Three cases were lost to follow-up.The flaps had good texture.Protective sensation was restored from S2 to S3 +.The donor site skin graft healed well with slight pigmentation.There were on painful neuroma in these 6 cases. Conclusion First dorsal metacarpal artery radial cutaneous branch and superficial radial nerve flap has a high survival rate and reliable blood supply.It is easy to operate and can cover large defects.This flap is an ideal flap for repair of soft tissue defects in the thumb.

  5. An unusual bifid first metacarpal

    Kumar Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bifid first metacarpal is a common congenital anomaly. Here, we report an unusual case of bifid first metacarpal in a 13-year-old girl who presented with swan neck deformity of left thumb, a bony prominence on ulnar aspect of left thumb in the first web space and a bifid first metacarpal lacking its own epiphysis. The patient underwent surgery, resulting in complete functional recovery as well as cosmetic improvement of the left thumb.

  6. Experience in Reconstruction for Small Digital Defects With Free Flaps.

    Hung, Min-Hsiang; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Chao, Wai-Nang

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic injuries to the digits resulting in soft tissue or bone loss require reconstruction. Traditionally, local flaps, such as homodigital flaps, heterodigital flaps, pedicled flaps, or distant flaps, are used for digital resurfacing. However, free tissue transfers can be used in selected patients. In this study, we present the use of different free flaps including groin skin flaps, groin osteocutaneous flaps, groin chimeric flaps, second dorsal metacarpal artery flaps, and partial toe flaps for digital reconstruction. A total of 19 digits were treated with 16 free flaps in our hospital. Of the flaps used, 5 were free groin skin flaps, 4 were free partial toe flaps, 3 were free groin chimeric flaps, 2 were free groin osteocutaneous flaps, and 2 were free second dorsal metacarpal artery flaps. The average flap size was 4.7 × 2.0 cm (range, 1.5 × 1 to 5 × 4 cm), and the average operative time was 6.0 hours (range, 4-9 hours). All flaps survived without partial or total necrosis. In conclusion, the free flap is a reliable and safe alternative for digital reconstruction. Moreover, the free groin flap provides not only a chimeric pattern for multiple fingers coverage but also an osteocutaneous pattern for thumb lengthening. The free second dorsal metacarpal artery flap provides a tenocutaneous pattern for tendon reconstruction and soft tissue coverage simultaneously, and the free partial toe flap is an excellent alternative for pulp reconstruction in terms of aesthetic appearance and functional outcome. PMID:26808771

  7. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the metacarpal

    This report describes a chondromyxoid fibroma which developed in the distal part of the second metacarpal of a 12-year-old girl. The tumor is rare, perhaps the rarest of all bone tumors, and the occurrence in a metacarpal of a young female is extraordinarily uncommon. (orig.)

  8. Intraosseous schwannoma of the metacarpal

    Intraosseous schwannoma (neurilemmoma) is an extremely rare, benign neoplasm, constituting less than 0.2% of primary bone tumors. It infrequently involves the bones of the hand. We present a case of intraosseous neurilemmoma of the metacarpal. (orig.)

  9. Metacarpal proportions in Australopithecus africanus.

    Green, David J; Gordon, Adam D

    2008-05-01

    Recent work has shown that, despite being craniodentally more derived, Australopithecus africanus had more apelike limb-size proportions than A. afarensis. Here, we test whether the A. africanus hand, as judged by metacarpal shaft and articular proportions, was similarly apelike. More specifically, did A. africanus have a short and narrow first metacarpal (MC1) relative to the other metacarpals? Proportions of both MC breadth and length were considered: the geometric mean (GM) of articular and midshaft measurements of MC1 breadth was compared to those of MC2-4, and MC1 length was compared to MC3 length individually and also to the GM of MC2 and 3 lengths. To compare the extant hominoid sample with an incomplete A. africanus fossil record (11 attributed metacarpals), a resampling procedure imposed sampling constraints on the comparative groups that produced composite intrahand ratios. Resampled ratios in the extant sample are not significantly different from actual ratios based on associated elements, demonstrating the methodological appropriateness of this technique. Australopithecus africanus metacarpals do not differ significantly from the great apes in the comparison of breadth ratios but are significantly greater than chimpanzees and orangutans in both measures of relative length. Conversely, A. africanus has a significantly smaller breadth ratio than modern humans, but does not significantly differ from this group in either measure of relative length. We conclude that the first metacarpals of A. africanus are more apelike in relative breadth while also being more humanlike in relative length, a finding consistent with previous work on A. afarensis hand proportions. This configuration would have likely promoted a high degree of manipulative dexterity, but the relatively slender, apelike first metacarpal suggests that A. africanus did not place the same mechanical demands on the thumb as more recent, stone-tool-producing hominins. PMID:18191176

  10. Solitary Metacarpal Osteochondroma; an Unusual Location

    Atik, Aziz; Ozyurek, Selahattin; Kose, Ozkan; Koca, Kenan; Guler, Ferhat

    2014-01-01

    Although, osteochondroma is the most common bone tumor, metacarpal involvement is quite uncommon and usually accompanies multiple hereditary exostoses. Herein, we described a patient with solitary ostechondroma of the fourth metacarpal bone, and discussed the differential diagnosis of bony spurs that can be seen in hand.

  11. 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis

    Yde, Lars; Kjartansdóttir, Cecilia Kristin; Allebrod, Frank; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Møller, Per; Hilbert, Lisbeth R.; Nielsen, Peter Tommy; Mathiesen, Troels; Jensen, Jørgen; Andersen, Lars; Dierking, Alexander

    This report provides the results of the 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis project which was initiated in 2008. The project has been conducted from 2009-2012 by a consortium comprising Århus University Business and Social Science – Centre for Energy Technologies (CET (former HIRC)), Technical...

  12. 2nd Tourism Postdisciplinarity Conference

    2016-01-01

    Following the noted success of the 1st international conference on postdisciplinary approaches to tourism studies (held in Neuchatel, Switzerland, 19-22 June, 2013), we are happy to welcome you to the 2nd Tourism Postdisciplinarity Conference. Postdisciplinarity surpasses the boundaries of disciplinary thinking and opens up the possibility to question the established phenomena – touristic or otherwise – we take for granted. It does not claim that disciplinarity is essentially wrong, but it...

  13. 2nd Tourism Postdisciplinarity Conference

    Following the noted success of the 1st international conference on postdisciplinary approaches to tourism studies (held in Neuchatel, Switzerland, 19-22 June, 2013), we are happy to welcome you to the 2nd Tourism Postdisciplinarity Conference. Postdisciplinarity surpasses the boundaries of...... study less embedded in that system of thought. Postdisciplinarity is an epistemological endeavour that speaks of knowledge production and the ways in which the world of physical and social phenomena can be known. It is also an ontological discourse as it concerns what we call ‘tourism...

  14. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair

    2012-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects. 

  15. Metacarpal lengthening by distraction histiogenesis in adults

    Das Sakti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metacarpal lengthening in the hand is a new application for distraction neo-histiogenesis. Metacarpal lengthening with distraction helps in improvement in pinch function. Thumb lengthening is technically easy in comparison to other metacarpals. We present the operative treatment and post-operative outcome in nine patients with amputations and congenital anomalies. Materials and Methods: Nine patients underwent distraction osteogenesis for the treatment of amputations of the hand and other congenital anomalies. The dominant right hand was operated in eight cases and the left hand in one case. There were six males and three females. Improvement of function was always the aim of surgery. Age range was between 18 and 23 years. Thumb lengthening was performed in five patients and that of the index finger in four patients. Distraction started on the fifth post-operative day at the rate of 0.25 mm/day. Sensory function and bone consolidation was assessed before fixator removal. Results: The mean duration of distraction was 51 days (range, 42-60 days and the distractor was removed at a mean of 150 days (range, 140 and 160 days and the bones were lengthened by a mean of 24 mm (range, 20-28 mm There was improvement of function in all cases. Conclusion: The metacarpal lengthening by distraction histiogenesis in congenital and traumatic amputations is safe and simple method to improve pinch function of hand.

  16. Endomedullar nail of metacarpal and proximal phalanges

    Prospective study, series of cases; it included patients with diaphysis fractures and union diaphysis-neck or union diaphysis-base of metacarpal and proximal phalanges, in whom was practiced anterograde intramedullary nailing previous closed reduction of the fracture, using prevent intramedullary nail of 1.6 mm. (cem 16) for the metacarpal fractures, and two nail prevent of 1.0 mm. (cem 10) for the proximal phalangeal fractures. Indications: transverse and oblique short fractures, spiral and with comminuting bicortical. Pursuit average is 5.7 months. Frequency surgical intervened patient: 2.2 each month, using this surgical technique a total of 20 (twenty) patients have been operated, 21 (twenty one) fractures; 16 (sixteen) metacarcal fractures and 5 (five) proximal phalangeal fractures, all of them tested using clinical and radiological parameters. Results: good 82%, regular 18%, and bad 0% obtaining bony consolidation and early rehabilitation with incorporation to their habitual works

  17. Miniplating of metacarpal fractures: an outcome study

    Fallah E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Trauma to the hand is very common and consequently, metacarpal fractures are not rare entities. Some of these fractures need surgery. Considering the diversity of surgical methods available for these kinds of fractures and also the importance of achieving full function and speedy return to work for patients that are mainly young workers or athletes, this study was undertaken to investigate the outcome of treating these fractures by mini-plates."n"nMethods : Eighteen patients with open or comminuted fractures of metacarpal bones who were admitted to the emergency department of Sina Hospital between the years 2007 and 2010 underwent fixation surgery using mini-plates. Fourteen patients with 17 metacarpal fractures completed the study."n"nResults : Thirteen out of 14 patients had complete fracture union. The patient with non-union underwent revision surgery and bone graft. Four individuals developed an extensor lag of 15 degrees without functional impairment. Two patients had joint stiffness that was relieved after a period of physiotherapy and one developed wound dehiscence and discharge that improved with debridement and use of antibiotics without plate removal. Six patients had

  18. Intraosseous ganglion in the first metacarpal bone

    Intraosseous ganglia occur most frequently in the long bones of the lower limbs, particularly in the medial malleolus of the tibia. They usually appear as radiographically well circumscribed juxta-articular cystic lesions, containing myxoid fibrous tissue histologically. Intraosseous ganglia in the hand are very rare. Most reported cases have involved the carpal bones, in particular the lunate and scaphoid. To our knowledge, the present case is the third report of an intraosseous ganglion appearing in the first metacarpal bone; it arose in a patient who had been on dialysis for 25 years, mimicking amyloidosis of bone. (orig.)

  19. Thumb Reconstruction Using Foucher’s Flap

    Kola, Nardi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extensive pulp defects of the thumb, with the exposure of tendon or bone, are challenging reconstructive problems. Surgical treatment includes the use of local, regional, and free flaps. AIM: This paper is focused in Foucher’s neuro vascular flap. First DMCA or Foucher’s pedicle flap is a successful thumb reconstruction method, especially in patients not disturbed by its cosmetic appearance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The first dorsal metacarpal artery (FDMCA) arises from the radial artery in the first intermetacarpal space, just distal to the tendon of the extensor pollicis longus. Pulp area of the thumb is the area where Foucher’s flap is more utilizable. This technique has other applications such as first web reconstruction, thumb lengthening, and following resection of tumors on the dorsum of the hand. RESULTS: We have in study 7 cases with work related trauma in two years period of time, between 2012 and 2014. We had only one partial flap survival and all the other flaps survived entirely. We have also taken in consideration subjective satisfaction with a range score from 4 to 10, cold intolerance, flap area and donor site sensibility with a range score from low to medium to normal. CONCLUSION: Careful pedicle discovery, secured elevation, pedicle strangulation prevention are very important for flap survival.

  20. Abstracts: 2nd interventional MRI symposium

    Anon.

    1997-09-01

    Main topics of the 2nd interventional MRI symposium were: MR compatibility and pulse sequences; MR thermometry, biopsy, musculoskeletal system; laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy, radiofrequency ablations; intraoperative MR; vascular applications, breast, endoscopy; focused ultrasound, cryotherapy, perspectives; poster session with 34 posters described. (AJ)

  1. Abstracts: 2nd interventional MRI symposium

    Main topics of the 2nd interventional MRI symposium were: MR compatibility and pulse sequences; MR thermometry, biopsy, musculoskeletal system; laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy, radiofrequency ablations; intraoperative MR; vascular applications, breast, endoscopy; focused ultrasound, cryotherapy, perspectives; poster session with 34 posters described. (AJ)

  2. Biomechanical failure of metacarpal fracture resorbable plate fixation.

    Lionelli, Gerald T; Korentager, Richard A

    2002-08-01

    Metacarpal fractures are a relatively common hand injury that may require operative intervention to ensure adequate reduction and stabilization. The use of permanent hardware, although acceptable, may lead to complications and an increased number of surgical procedures. The use of resorbable hardware such as poly-L-lactic acid and polyglycolic acid copolymer plates and screws may circumvent some of these complications. In vitro studies have demonstrated that the biomechanical characteristics of these resorbable plates may provide the rigid fixation necessary to allow for union of metacarpal fractures in vivo. However, limited clinical data are available regarding the success of their use in this application. The authors present what they believe is the first reported case of the failure of a poly-L-lactic acid and polyglycolic acid copolymer miniplate after use in the fixation of a metacarpal shaft fracture. PMID:12187350

  3. Monoaxial distraction of ulna to second metacarpal followed by single bone forearm in massive post infective radial bone loss

    Jitendra N Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radial bone loss associated with gross manus valgus deformity can be managed by open reduction internal fixation using intervening strut bone graft, callus distraction using ring or monoaxial fixator, and achieving union by distraction histogenesis. These methods are particularly suitable when bone loss is small. Single or staged procedure is described for congenital as well as in acquired extensive bone loss of radius. Distraction through radial proximal to distal segments, to achieve reduction of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ, is also described in acquired cases. In the present series, functional results of distraction through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal is studied alongwith, functional status of hand, stability of wrist, level of patient′s satisfaction are also studied. Materials and Methods: 7 unilateral cases of radial loss (M = 5, F = 2 affecting 4 right hands of mean age 17 years (range 9 to 24 years were included in this study. They were treated by distracting through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal to achieve DRUJ alignment in first stage. Subsequently ulna was osteotomised and translated to distal stump of radius. It was then fixed to the distal radial remnant in 30° pronation in dominant and 30° supination non dominant hands. Results: Union was achieved in all cases associated with beneficial cross union of distal ulna. Hand functions improved near to normal, with fully corrected stable wrist joint, hypertrophied ulna and without recurrence. All of them had practically complete loss of forearm rotations, however patients were fully satisfied. Conclusion: This method is particularly suitable when associated with 6 cm or more radial bone loss. But when loss is small, sacrifice of one bone may not be justifiable.

  4. 2nd International Conference on Natural Fibers

    Rana, Sohel

    2016-01-01

    This book collects selected high quality articles submitted to the 2nd International Conference on Natural Fibers (ICNF2015). A wide range of topics is covered related to various aspects of natural fibres such as agriculture, extraction and processing, surface modification and functionalization, advanced structures, nano fibres, composites and nanocomposites, design and product development, applications, market potential, and environmental impact. Divided into separate sections on these various topics, the book presents the latest high quality research work addressing different approaches and techniques to improve processing, performance, functionalities and cost-effectiveness of natural fibre and natural based products, in order to promote their applications in various advanced technical sectors. This book is a useful source of information for materials scientists, teachers and students from various disciplines as well as for R& D staff in industries using natural fibre based materials. .

  5. Short Fourth Metacarpal Bone in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Mohammad Bagherzadeh; Mahmoud Parham

    2015-01-01

    A 19-year-old man referred to the emergency department with generalized extremity pain. He had past medical history of sickle cell anemia. On physical examination, body temperature was normal and short right fourth-metacarpal bone was observed, but there was no sign of genetic disorders like turner syndrome, McCune-Albright, and hypothyroidism.

  6. Radiodiagnosis of closed fractures of 2-5 metacarpal bones

    A unified method of radiodiagnosis of angular deformities in subcapital fractures of 2-5 metacarpal bones was proposed. It was based on the standardization of the wrist laying for roentgenography of the oblique view strictly at the angle of 45 deg. The projection angle of deformity of the metacarpal bone was measured on a radiogram obtained and then a true value of the angular displacement of the bone fragments to the palm was determined on a nomogram (i.e. on a chart of the ratio of values of the true and projection angles). The healthy metacarpal bone heads were inclined to the palm at the angle of 13-33 deg. It was found that in subcapital fractures of 2-5 metacarpal bones certain self-correction (varying from 10 to 15 deg) of angular deformities was possible in children and adolescents only. Owing to such radiodiagnosis and a differentiated choice of therapeutic methods (in 48.8% of the patients indications for reposition were determined) good anatomical and functional results were obtained in most of the patients (96.9%)

  7. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference

    A. Anonymous

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference was held 13-17 August 1995 on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus. The Institute of Arctic Biology and the Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit were responsible for organizing the conference with assistance from biologists with state and federal agencies and commercial organizations. David R. Klein was chair of the conference organizing committee. Over 200 people attended the conference, coming from 10 different countries. The United States, Canada, and Norway had the largest representation. The conference included invited lectures; panel discussions, and about 125 contributed papers. There were five technical sessions on Physiology and Body Condition; Habitat Relationships; Population Dynamics and Management; Behavior, Genetics and Evolution; and Reindeer and Muskox Husbandry. Three panel sessions discussed Comparative caribou management strategies; Management of introduced, reestablished, and expanding muskox populations; and Health risks in translocation of arctic ungulates. Invited lectures focused on the physiology and population dynamics of arctic ungulates; contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates and lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident; and ecosystem level relationships of the Porcupine Caribou Herd.

  8. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity.

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-05-11

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention--the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention--affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer's 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  9. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst In Metacarpal of a Child

    Pankaj Singh; Rupesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Aneurysmal bone cyst is a rare, rapidly growing, and destructive benign bone tumor that rarely involves the bones of the hand. Various treatment options for aneurysmal bone cyst have been reported in the literature, but controversy exists regarding optimal treatment. Case Report: A six year old boy presented with a history of pain and local swelling over his third metacarpal of five months’ duration. Physical and radiographic examination of the hand was consistent with aneury...

  10. Metacarpal torsion in apes, humans, and early Australopithecus: implications for manipulatory abilities

    Drapeau, Michelle S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands, when compared to that of apes, have a series of adaptations to facilitate manipulation. Numerous studies have shown that Australopithecus afarensis and Au. africanus display some of these adaptations, such as a longer thumb relative to the other fingers, asymmetric heads on the second and fifth metacarpals, and orientation of the second metacarpal joints with the trapezium and capitate away from the sagittal plane, while lacking others such as a very mobile fifth metacarpal, a st...

  11. Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus

    ... html Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus If confirmed, cases would be first instances of ... Broward County, north of Miami. Infection with the Zika virus, which in most cases is transmitted by mosquitoes, ...

  12. Sensorineural deafness, abnormal genitalia, synostosis of metacarpals and metatarsals 4 and 5, and mental retardation

    Mendioroz, Jacobo; Fernández-Toral, Joaquín; Suárez, Etelvina;

    2005-01-01

    In 1988 Pfeiffer and Kapferer reported on a patient with sensorineural deafness, psychomotor delay, hypospadias, cerebral manifestations, and bilateral synostosis of the 4th and 5th metacarpals and metatarsals. Synostosis of the 4th and 5th metacarpals and metatarsals is a very rare defect that has...

  13. Validation of a finite element model of the human metacarpal.

    Barker, D S; Netherway, D J; Krishnan, J; Hearn, T C

    2005-03-01

    Implant loosening and mechanical failure of components are frequently reported following metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint replacement. Studies of the mechanical environment of the MCP implant-bone construct are rare. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of a finite element model of the intact second human metacarpal to provide a validated baseline for further mechanical studies. A right index human metacarpal was subjected to torsion and combined axial/bending loading using strain gauge (SG) and 3D finite element (FE) analysis. Four different representations of bone material properties were considered. Regression analyses were performed comparing maximum and minimum principal surface strains taken from the SG and FE models. Regression slopes close to unity and high correlation coefficients were found when the diaphyseal cortical shell was modelled as anisotropic and cancellous bone properties were derived from quantitative computed tomography. The inclusion of anisotropy for cortical bone was strongly influential in producing high model validity whereas variation in methods of assigning stiffness to cancellous bone had only a minor influence. The validated FE model provides a tool for future investigations of current and novel MCP joint prostheses. PMID:15642506

  14. Thermoluminescent characteristics of ZrO2:Nd films

    In this work it is exposed the obtained results after analysing the photo luminescent and thermoluminescent characteristics of activated zirconium oxide with neodymium (ZrO2 :Nd) and its possible application in the UV radiation dosimetry. The realized experiments had as objective to study the characteristics such as the optimum thermal erased treatment, the influence of light on the response, the response depending on the wavelength, the fadeout of the information, the temperature effect, the response depending on the time and the recurring of the response. The results show that the ZrO2 :Nd is a promising material to be used as Tl dosemeter for the UV radiation. (Author)

  15. A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works, 2nd Edition

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…

  16. 2nd International Conference on Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics

    Fülöp, Zsolt; Somorjai, Endre; The European Physical Journal A : Volume 27, Supplement 1, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Launched in 2004, "Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics" has established itself in a successful topical conference series addressing the forefront of research in the field. This volume contains the selected and refereed papers of the 2nd conference, held in Debrecen in 2005 and reprinted from "The European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei".

  17. 2nd International Conference on Data Management Technologies and Applications

    2013-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Data Management Technologies and Applications (DATA) aims to bring together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested on databases, data warehousing, data mining, data management, data security and other aspects of information systems and technology involving advanced applications of data.

  18. The 2nd Seminar on Standardization Cooperation in Northeast Asia

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 2nd Seminar on Standardization Cooperation in Northeast Asia(2003) was held in Beijing from Oct 30th - Oct 31st, which was the succession of the first one in Korea, 2002, with the participants coming from the standardization circles in China, Japan and Korea.

  19. Reconstruction of the thumb with osteofasciocutaneous reverse flap

    Jevtović Dobrica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiences of the thumb reconstruction with osteofasciocutaneous reverse flap (OFCR flap. In the period between 1987 and 2000 the OFCR flap was used in 15 patients. The youngest of them was 18 and the oldest was 38 years of age. The average age was 25.4. All the patients had post-traumatic amputations. Defects on proximal phalangae and a part of metacarpal bone occurred in two cases. In one case there was an amputation on the base level of proximal phalanx and the metacarpophalangeal (MPH joint was preserved. In all cases of reconstruction the OFCR flap was used, which included antebrachial skin nerves that were anastomosed with digital nerve. The flap nutrition was carried out through the reverse circulation of a. radialis, and the venous drainage through the comitant vein of a. radialis. Superficial veins were not anastomosed. Secondary defects were covered with a free skin graft. All the flaps survived. The bone graft was healed in the period of eight weeks. The sensibility of this flap was regained in the period of three to six months after the surgery. The distance of two-point discrimination (TPD was increased for 30% compared to the same region on the other hand after six months. The opposition of the reconstructed thumb to the other fingers was possible, as well as abduction, adduction and normal grasp. The method of reconstruction of the amputated thumb with the OFCR flap was better than other classical methods because it allowed the reconstruction of all the structures in one surgical operation. The sensibility that was regained represented good protection from injuries. There were no functional damages on the secondary defect. The esthetic result was not good due to the lack of a fingernail.

  20. [Reconstruction of the thumb using a forearm osseofasciocutaneous reverse flap].

    Jevtović, Dobrica; Dordević, Boban; Gacević, Milomir; Sijan, Goran

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences of the thumb reconstruction with osteofasciocutaneous reverse flap (OFCR flap). In the period between 1987 and 2000 the OFCR flap was used in 15 patients. The youngest of them was 18 and the oldest was 38 years of age. The average age was 25.4. All the patients had posttraumatic amputations. Defects on proximal phalangae and a part of metacarpal bone occurred in two cases. In one case there was an amputation on the base level of proximal phalanx and the metacarpophalangeal (MPH) joint was preserved. In all cases of reconstruction the OFCR flap was used, which included antebrachial skin nervs that were anastomosed with digital nerv. The flap nutrition was carried out through the reverse circulation of a. radialis, and the venous drainage through the comitant vein of a. radialis. Superficial veins were not anastomosed. Secondary defects were covered with a free skin graft. All the flaps survived. The bone graft was healed in the period of eight weeks. The sensibility of this flap was regained in the period of three to six months after the surgery. The distance of two-point discrimination (TPD) was increased for 30% compared to the same region on the other hand after six months. The opposition of the reconstructed thumb to the other fingers was possible, as well as abduction, adduction and normal grasp. The method of reconstruction of the amputated thumb with the OFCR flap was better than other classical methods because it allowed the reconstruction of all the structures in one surgical operation. The sensibility that was regained represented good protection from injuries. There were no functional damages on the secondary defect. The esthetic result was not good due to the lack of a fingernail. PMID:12557617

  1. Metacarpal torsion in apes, humans, and early Australopithecus: implications for manipulatory abilities.

    Drapeau, Michelle S M

    2015-01-01

    Human hands, when compared to that of apes, have a series of adaptations to facilitate manipulation. Numerous studies have shown that Australopithecus afarensis and Au. africanus display some of these adaptations, such as a longer thumb relative to the other fingers, asymmetric heads on the second and fifth metacarpals, and orientation of the second metacarpal joints with the trapezium and capitate away from the sagittal plane, while lacking others such as a very mobile fifth metacarpal, a styloid process on the third, and a flatter metacarpo-trapezium articulation, suggesting some adaptation to manipulation but more limited than in humans. This paper explores variation in metacarpal torsion, a trait said to enhance manipulation, in humans, apes, early australopithecines and specimens from Swartkrans. This study shows that humans are different from large apes in torsion of the third and fourth metacarpals. Humans are also characterized by wedge-shaped bases of the third and fourth metacarpals, making the metacarpal-base row very arched mediolaterally and placing the ulnar-most metacarpals in a position that facilitate opposition to the thumb in power or cradle grips. The third and fourth metacarpals of Au. afarensis are very human-like, suggesting that the medial palm was already well adapted for these kinds of grips in that taxon. Au. africanus present a less clear human-like morphology, suggesting, perhaps, that the medial palm was less suited to human-like manipulation in that taxa than in Au. afarensis. Overall, this study supports previous studies on Au. afarensis and Au. africanus that these taxa had derived hand morphology with some adaptation to human-like power and precision grips and support the hypothesis that dexterous hands largely predated Homo. PMID:26500820

  2. Diaphyseal sequestration of the metacarpal and metatarsal bone in cattle

    Between 1990 and 1993 ten cows with diaphyseal sequestration of the metacarpal or metatarsal bone were brought to the Clinic for Food Animals and Horses, University of Bern. History, clinical and radiographic findings at admission, therapy, and clinical and radiographic short- and longterm results were evaluated retrospectively. Six animals had a history of trauma. The metatarsal bone (n = 9) was much more frequently affected than the metacarpal bone (n = 1). Lameness was slight in seven cases and intermediate in three cases. Soft tissue swelling was present in all cases, and fistula formation in eight cases. Sequestrectomy was performed in nine cases, the exuberant new bone circumferentially removed in three of these cases, and the skin primarily closed in all nine cases treated surgically. One animal with a small sequestrum, showing no fistula formation, was treated conservatively. Four to 44 months after surgery, interviews with the owners by telephone revealed that the recovery had been satisfactory in all ten cases. At the same time period, clinical and radiographic examinations of the six animals that were still alive were performed by a veterinarian additionally. Normal limb function had been restored in all six animals, although the affected limb was clearly distinctable from the unaffected contralateral limb, because of its increased diameter. From the results of this study we concluded that longterm prognosis after sequestrectomy is favourable; primary wound closure can be attempted with good success. Cosmetically promising results, however, can only be achieved, if sequestrectomy is performed early enough in the course of the disease or if the exuberant new bone is surgically removed

  3. 2nd International Conference on Green Communications and Networks 2012

    Ma, Maode; GCN 2012

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the 2nd International Conference on Green Communications and Networks 2012 (GCN 2012) is to facilitate an exchange of information on best practices for the latest research advances in the area of communications, networks and intelligence applications. These mainly involve computer science and engineering, informatics, communications and control, electrical engineering, information computing, and business intelligence and management. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Green Communications and Networks 2012 (GCN 2012) will focus on green information technology and applications, which will provide in-depth insights for engineers and scientists in academia, industry, and government. The book addresses the most innovative research developments including technical challenges, social and economic issues, and presents and discusses the authors’ ideas, experiences, findings, and current projects on all aspects of advanced green information technology and applications. Yuhang Yang is ...

  4. Propagation of a dorsal cortical fracture of the third metacarpal bone in two horses

    Seemingly, propagation of a dorsal cortical fracture in the third metacarpal bone developed after continued race performance in 2 horses. Historically, both horses had intermittent lameness that had responded to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and brief rest periods. However, lameness in both horses had increased in severity. Radiography revealed a dorsal cortical fracture of the third metacarpal bone, with propagation of the fracture plane proximally. Fractures were incomplete and healed with stall rest in both horses

  5. 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Technologies and Engineering Systems

    Chen, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Cheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    This book includes the original, peer reviewed research papers from the 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Technologies and Engineering Systems (ICITES2013), which took place on December 12-14, 2013 at Cheng Shiu University in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Topics covered include: laser technology, wireless and mobile networking, lean and agile manufacturing, speech processing, microwave dielectrics, intelligent circuits and systems, 3D graphics, communications, and structure dynamics and control.

  6. Introduction on the 2nd annual general meeting of ARCCNM

    This paper outlines general information on the 2nd annual general meeting of ARCCNM (Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine). The international symposium exchanged new development recently on basic and clinical nuclear medicine. Asian school of nuclear medicine is an educational enterprise of ARCCNM, and the objective is to organize and coordinate academic and training programs in nuclear medicine. It will promote nuclear medicine in Asia region through enhancing regional scientific activities and research collaboration

  7. 2nd Interdiciplinary Conference on Production, Logistics and Traffic 2015

    Friedrich, Hanno; Thaller, Carina; Geiger, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the selected and reviewed papers of the 2nd Interdisciplinary Conference on Production, Logistics and Traffic (ICPLT) 2015, Dortmund, Germany. The topical focus lies on economic, ecological and societal issues related to commercial transport. The authors are international experts and the paper collection presents the state-of-the-art in the field, thus making this book a valuable read for both practitioners and researchers.

  8. 2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL) Symposium

    Reviewed by Murat BARKAN

    2006-01-01

    This closing remarks prepared and presented by Prof. Dr. Murat BARKAN Anadolu University, Eskisehir, TURKEY DEAR GUESTS, As the 2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL) Symposium is now drawing to end, I would like to thank you all for your outstanding speeches, distinguished presentations, constructive roundtable and session discussions, and active participation during the last five days. I hope you all share my view that the whole symposium has been...

  9. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregrate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are ...

  10. 2nd International Conference on Electric and Electronics (EEIC 2012)

    Advances in Electric and Electronics

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains 108 full length papers presented at the 2nd International Conference on Electric and Electronics (EEIC 2012), held on April 21-22 in Sanya, China, which brings together researchers working in many different areas of education and learning to foster international collaborations and exchange of new ideas. This volume can be divided into two sections on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered: the first section deals with Electric and the second section with Electronics.

  11. Combined index finger pollicization with an anterolateral thigh flap for thumb reconstruction

    Yu Guang; Xu Hongyan; Lei Hongyu; Guo Shuang; Huang Jianhua; Li Dibin

    2014-01-01

    A severe crush injury to the hand is devastating to patients. Under conditions in which the crush force is too great, the digits are not viable candidates for replantation. We present two cases in which the patients suffered from loss of the thumb ray at the first carpometacarpal joint and skin defect at the radial side. The tendons, radial nerve and metacarpal bone of the index finger were injured, and the second metacarpal head was retained. There was a comminuted fracture of the trapezium in both patients. The treatment protocols consisted of the index finger pollicization and the free anterolateral thigh flap transfer. The procedure was performed in a single operation. The new thumb is able to provide a stable post for pinch and grip after six months follow-up. Both patients were satisfied with the function and appearance of the reconstructed thumb.

  12. Two 2nd Circuit decisions represent mixed bag on insurance.

    2000-01-21

    The 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York issued two important rulings within a week on the extent to which the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulates insurance practices. [Name removed] v. Allstate Life Insurance Co. was a plaintiff-friendly decision, finding that the insurance company illegally refused to sell life insurance to a married couple because of their mental disability, major depression. [Name removed]. v. Israel Discount Bank of New York was more defendant friendly and tackled the issue of whether the ADA permits different benefit caps for mental and physical disabilities. PMID:11367226

  13. BIPHASIC TREATMENT OF 2ND CLASS ANGLE ANOMALIES

    C. Romanec

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Our approach aims at presenting, based on clinical observations and complementary examinations, the effects of a treatment’s setting up during the mixed dentition period. The objectives include the identification of the optimal time of treatment of II/1, II/2 Angle malocclusions, as well as the therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of 2nd class Angle malocclusion during the period of mixed and permanent dentition. The study is based on data collected from 114 clinical cases (69 girls and 45 boys with an age span between 7 and 18 years.

  14. 2nd conference on Continuous Media with Microstructure

    Kuczma, Mieczysław

    2016-01-01

    This book presents research advances in the field of Continuous Media with Microstructure and considers the three complementary pillars of mechanical sciences: theory, research and computational simulation. It focuses on the following problems: thermodynamic and mathematical modeling of materials with extensions of classical constitutive laws, single and multicomponent media including modern multifunctional materials, wave propagation, multiscale and multiphysics processes, phase transformations, and porous, granular and composite materials. The book presents the proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Continuous Media with Microstructure, which was held in 2015 in Łagów, Poland, in memory of Prof. Krzysztof Wilmański. .

  15. Afs password expiration starts Feb 2nd 2004

    2004-01-01

    Due to security reasons, and in agreement with CERN management, afs/lxplus passwords will fall into line with Nice/Mail passwords on February 2nd and expire annually. As of the above date afs account holders who have not changed their passwords for over a year will have a 60 day grace period to make a change. Following this date their passwords will become invalid. What does this mean to you? If you have changed your afs password in the past 10 months the only difference is that 60 days before expiration you will receive a warning message. Similar warnings will also appear nearer the time of expiration. If you have not changed your password for more than 10 months, then, as of February 2nd you will have 60 days to change it using the command ‘kpasswd'. Help to choose a good password can be found at: http://security.web.cern.ch/security/passwords/ If you have been given a temporary password at any time by the Helpdesk or registration team this will automatically fall into the expiration category ...

  16. Pedicled perforator flaps

    Demirtas, Yener; Ozturk, Nuray; Kelahmetoglu, Osman; Demir, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Described in this study is a surgical concept that supports the "consider and use a pedicled perforator flap whenever possible and indicated" approach to reconstruct a particular skin defect. The operation is entirely free-style; the only principle is to obtain a pedicled perforator flap to...... reconstruct the defect. The perforators are marked with a hand-held Doppler probe and multiple flaps are designed. The appropriate flap is elevated after identifying the perforator(s). Dissection of the perforator(s) or complete incision of the flap margins are not mandatory if the flap is mobilized...... adequately to cover the defect. Defects measuring 3 x 3 cm up to 20 x 20 cm at diverse locations were successfully reconstructed in 20 of 21 patients with 26 flaps. Pedicled perforator flaps offer us reliable and satisfactory results of reconstruction at different anatomic territories of the body. It sounds...

  17. Ultrasound monitoring of metacarpal plane in prenatal screening for fetal severe hand deformity%超声监测掌骨平面产前筛查胎儿严重手畸形

    周雷平; 牛建梅; 曾敏; 陈瑞玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the value of ultrasound monitoring of metacarpal plane in prenatal screening for fetal severe hand deformities. Methods A total of 11 951 pregnant women underwent prenatal ultrasonography, the 2nd to 5th metacarpal plane in fetuses were observed. Results Totally 37 fetuses with severe hand deformities were diagnosed with prenatal ultrasonography (3 with absent hand, 3 with cleft hand, 7 with ectrodactyly, 11 with congenital hypoplasia or aplasia of the radius, 2 with distal upper limb and hand absence, 9 with lethal skeletal dysplasia, 2 with polydacty), while 5 fetuses were misdiagnosed. Conclusion Ultrasound monitoring of metacarpal plane plays an important role in prenatal screening for fetal severe hand deformities.%目的 探讨超声监测掌骨平面在胎儿严重手畸形中的产前筛查的价值.方法 对11 951名孕妇进行产前超声检查,观察胎儿第2~5掌骨平面.结果 产前超声共检出37胎严重手畸形(手缺如3胎、裂手畸形3胎、缺指畸形7胎、桡骨发育不全或缺如11胎、上肢远端及手缺如2胎、致死性骨发育不良9胎、多指2胎),漏诊5胎.结论 超声监测掌骨平面在胎儿严重手畸形筛查中具有重要价值.

  18. Surgical induction of metacarpal synostosis for treatment of ectrodactyly in a dog.

    Pisoni, L; Del Magno, S; Cinti, F; Dalpozzo, B; Bellei, E; Cloriti, E; Joechler, M

    2014-01-01

    Ectrodactyly is a rare developmental anomaly of the distal part of the forelimb. It is characterized by the presence of an abnormal longitudinal soft tissue and osseous separation or cleft between the digits and the metacarpal bones. It can be associated with hypoplasia, aplasia and malformation of one or more bones of the antebrachium, carpus, metacarpus and digits. Unilateral ectrodactyly and moderate lameness were diagnosed in a young female dog. The dog was treated surgically with reconstruction of soft tissues and stabilization of the metacarpal bones by two nylon cerclage sutures. After three years a mild residual lameness was present. Radiographic signs of synostosis between the metacarpal bones II, III and IV with presence of a cleft between carpal bones II and III were observed. PMID:24569849

  19. Metacarpal index by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: normative reference values and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Nielsen, S P

    2001-01-01

    Metacarpal index (MCI), the combined cortical midmetacarpal thickness divided by the outer mid-metacarpal diameter, fell into oblivion when dual photon absorptiometry was introduced a quarter of a century ago. Modern PC-based digital X-ray diameter measurements offers a unique opportunity for...

  20. 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation

    Andersen, Ole; Akay, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The book is the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation (ICNR 2014), held 24th-26th June 2014 in Aalborg, Denmark. The conference featured the latest highlights in the emerging and interdisciplinary field of neural rehabilitation engineering and identified important healthcare challenges the scientific community will be faced with in the coming years. Edited and written by leading experts in the field, the book includes keynote papers, regular conference papers, and contributions to special and innovation sessions, covering the following main topics: neuro-rehabilitation applications and solutions for restoring impaired neurological functions; cutting-edge technologies and methods in neuro-rehabilitation; and translational challenges in neuro-rehabilitation. Thanks to its highly interdisciplinary approach, the book will not only be a  highly relevant reference guide for academic researchers, engineers, neurophysiologists, neuroscientists, physicians and physiotherapists workin...

  1. 2nd international conference on advanced nanomaterials and nanotechnology

    Goswami, D; Perumal, A

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale science and technology have occupied centre stage globally in modern scientific research and discourses in the early twenty first century. The enabling nature of the technology makes it important in modern electronics, computing, materials, healthcare, energy and the environment. This volume contains selected articles presented (as Invited/Oral/Poster presentations) at the 2nd international conference on advanced materials and nanotechnology (ICANN-2011) held recently at the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, during Dec 8-10, 2011. The list of topics covered in this proceedings include: Synthesis and self assembly of nanomaterials Nanoscale characterisation Nanophotonics & Nanoelectronics Nanobiotechnology Nanocomposites  F   Nanomagnetism Nanomaterials for Enery Computational Nanotechnology Commercialization of Nanotechnology The conference was represented by around 400 participants from several countries including delegates invited from USA, Germany, Japan, UK, Taiwan, Italy, Singapor...

  2. Isotope effects on vapour phase 2nd viral coefficients

    Vapor phase 2nd virial coefficient isotope effects (VCIE's) are interpreted. A useful correlation ids developed between -Δ(B-b0)/(B-b0) = -VCIE and the reference condensed phase reduced isotopic partition function ratio [ln(fc/fg)]*. B is the second virial coefficient , b0 = 2πσ3/3, σ is the Lennard-Jones size parameter, and Δ is an isotopic difference, light-heavy. [ln(fc/fg)]* can be obtained from vapor pressure isotope effects for T/TCRITICAL p/f2g), where ln(fp/f2g) is the reduced isotopic partition function ratio describing the equilibrium between monomers and interacting pairs. At temperatures well removed from crossovers in ln(fp/f2g) or [ln(fc/fg)]*, ln(fp/f2g) = (0.4±0.2)[ln(fc/fg)]*. (author)

  3. 2nd International Congress on Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics

    Encarnação, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This book is a timely report on current neurotechnology research. It presents a snapshot of the state of the art in the field, discusses current challenges and identifies new directions. The book includes a selection of extended and revised contributions presented at the 2nd International Congress on Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics (NEUROTECHNIX 2014), held October 25-26 in Rome, Italy. The chapters are varied: some report on novel theoretical methods for studying neuronal connectivity or neural system behaviour; others report on advanced technologies developed for similar purposes; while further contributions concern new engineering methods and technological tools supporting medical diagnosis and neurorehabilitation. All in all, this book provides graduate students, researchers and practitioners dealing with different aspects of neurotechnologies with a unified view of the field, thus fostering new ideas and research collaborations among groups from different disciplines.

  4. 2nd International Afro-European Conference for Industrial Advancement

    Wegrzyn-Wolska, Katarzyna; Hassanien, Aboul; Snasel, Vaclav; Alimi, Adel

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 2nd International Afro-European Conference for Industrial Advancement -- AECIA 2015. The conference aimed at bringing together the foremost experts and excellent young researchers from Africa, Europe and the rest of the world to disseminate the latest results from various fields of engineering, information, and communication technologies. The topics, discussed at the conference, covered a broad range of domains spanning from ICT and engineering to prediction, modeling, and analysis of complex systems. The 2015 edition of AECIA featured a distinguished special track on prediction, modeling and analysis of complex systems -- Nostradamus, and special sessions on Advances in Image Processing and Colorization and Data Processing, Protocols, and Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks.

  5. 2nd CEAS Specialist Conference on Guidance, Navigation and Control

    Mulder, Bob; Choukroun, Daniel; Kampen, Erik-Jan; Visser, Coen; Looye, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    Following the successful 1st CEAS (Council of European Aerospace Societies) Specialist Conference on Guidance, Navigation and Control (CEAS EuroGNC) held in Munich, Germany in 2011, Delft University of Technology happily accepted the invitation of organizing the 2nd  CEAS EuroGNC in Delft, The Netherlands in 2013. The goal of the conference is to promote new advances in aerospace GNC theory and technologies for enhancing safety, survivability, efficiency, performance, autonomy and intelligence of aerospace systems using on-board sensing, computing and systems. A great push for new developments in GNC are the ever higher safety and sustainability requirements in aviation. Impressive progress was made in new research fields such as sensor and actuator fault detection and diagnosis, reconfigurable and fault tolerant flight control, online safe flight envelop prediction and protection, online global aerodynamic model identification, online global optimization and flight upset recovery. All of these challenges de...

  6. 2nd International Multidisciplinary Microscopy and Microanalysis Congress

    Oral, Ahmet; Ozer, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Multidisciplinary Microscopy and Microanalysis Congress & Exhibition (InterM 2014) was held on 16–19 October 2014 in Oludeniz, Fethiye/ Mugla, Turkey. The aim of the congress was to gather scientists from various branches and discuss the latest improvements in the field of microscopy. The focus of the congress has been widened in an "interdisciplinary" manner, so as to allow all scientists working on several related subjects to participate and present their work. These proceedings include 33 peer-reviewed technical papers, submitted by leading academic and research institutions from over 17 countries and representing some of the most cutting-edge research available. The papers were presented at the congress in the following sessions: ·         Applications of Microscopy in the Physical Sciences ·         Applications of Microscopy in the Biological Sciences.

  7. 2nd International Conference on Communication and Computer Engineering

    Othman, Mohd; Othman, Mohd; Rahim, Yahaya; Pee, Naim

    2016-01-01

    This book covers diverse aspects of advanced computer and communication engineering, focusing specifically on industrial and manufacturing theory and applications of electronics, communications, computing and information technology. Experts in research, industry, and academia present the latest developments in technology, describe applications involving cutting-edge communication and computer systems, and explore likely future trends. In addition, a wealth of new algorithms that assist in solving computer and communication engineering problems are presented. The book is based on presentations given at ICOCOE 2015, the 2nd International Conference on Communication and Computer Engineering. It will appeal to a wide range of professionals in the field, including telecommunication engineers, computer engineers and scientists, researchers, academics and students.

  8. 2nd International Conference on Mobile and Wireless Technology

    Wattanapongsakorn, Naruemon

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a snapshot of the current state-of-the-art in the fields of mobile and wireless technology, security and applications.  The proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Mobile and Wireless Technology (ICMWT2015), it represents the outcome of a unique platform for researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to share cutting-edge developments in the field of mobile and wireless science technology, including those working on data management and mobile security.   The contributions presented here describe the latest academic and industrial research from the international mobile and wireless community.  The scope covers four major topical areas: mobile and wireless networks and applications; security in mobile and wireless technology; mobile data management and applications; and mobile software.  The book will be a valuable reference for current researchers in academia and industry, and a useful resource for graduate-level students working on mobile and wireless technology...

  9. 2nd International Conference on Harmony Search Algorithm

    Geem, Zong

    2016-01-01

    The Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) is one of the most well-known techniques in the field of soft computing, an important paradigm in the science and engineering community.  This volume, the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Harmony Search Algorithm 2015 (ICHSA 2015), brings together contributions describing the latest developments in the field of soft computing with a special focus on HSA techniques. It includes coverage of new methods that have potentially immense application in various fields. Contributed articles cover aspects of the following topics related to the Harmony Search Algorithm: analytical studies; improved, hybrid and multi-objective variants; parameter tuning; and large-scale applications.  The book also contains papers discussing recent advances on the following topics: genetic algorithms; evolutionary strategies; the firefly algorithm and cuckoo search; particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization; simulated annealing; and local search techniques.   This book ...

  10. 2nd International Conference on Construction and Building Research

    Fernández-Plazaola, Igor; Hidalgo-Delgado, Francisco; Martínez-Valenzuela, María; Medina-Ramón, Francisco; Oliver-Faubel, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Abad, Isabel; Salandin, Andrea; Sánchez-Grandia, Rafael; Tort-Ausina, Isabel; Construction and Building Research

    2014-01-01

    Many areas of knowledge converge in the building industry and therefore research in this field necessarily involves an interdisciplinary approach. Effective research requires strong relations between a broad variety of scientific and technological domains and more conventional construction or craft processes, while also considering advanced management processes, where all the main actors permanently interact. This publication takes an interdisciplinary approach grouping various studies on the building industry chosen from among the works presented for the 2nd International Conference on Construction and Building Research. The papers examine aspects of materials and building systems; construction technology; energy and sustainability; construction management; heritage, refurbishment and conservation. The information contained within these pages may be of interest to researchers and practitioners in construction and building activities from the academic sphere, as well as public and private sectors.

  11. The 2nd Generation VLTI path to performance

    Woillez, Julien; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bonnet, Henri; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Egner, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Gonté, Frédéric; Guieu, Sylvain; Haguenauer, Pierre; Mérand, Antoine; Pettazzi, Lorenzo; Poupar, Sébastien; Schöller, Markus; Schuhler, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the VLTI infrastructure for the 2nd generation instruments is now complete with the transformation of the laboratory, and installation of star separators on both the 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) and the 8-m Unit Telescopes (UTs). The Gravity fringe tracker has had a full semester of commissioning on the ATs, and a first look at the UTs. The CIAO infrared wavefront sensor is about to demonstrate its performance relative to the visible wavefront sensor MACAO. First astrometric measurements on the ATs and astrometric qualification of the UTs are on-going. Now is a good time to revisit the performance roadmap for VLTI that was initiated in 2014, which aimed at coherently driving the developments of the interferometer, and especially its performance, in support to the new generation of instruments: Gravity and MATISSE.

  12. 2nd Colombian Congress on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics

    Cristancho, Marco; Isaza, Gustavo; Pinzón, Andrés; Rodríguez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This volume compiles accepted contributions for the 2nd Edition of the Colombian Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Congress CCBCOL, after a rigorous review process in which 54 papers were accepted for publication from 119 submitted contributions. Bioinformatics and Computational Biology are areas of knowledge that have emerged due to advances that have taken place in the Biological Sciences and its integration with Information Sciences. The expansion of projects involving the study of genomes has led the way in the production of vast amounts of sequence data which needs to be organized, analyzed and stored to understand phenomena associated with living organisms related to their evolution, behavior in different ecosystems, and the development of applications that can be derived from this analysis.  .

  13. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  14. Aggressive Behavior of a Giant Cell Tumor Involving the Metacarpal Bone During Pregnancy: Case Report

    Giant cell tumors are benign osteolytic tumors with a variable degree of aggressiveness. We report a rare case of a giant cell tumor involving the metacarpal bone, which was detected during pregnancy and showed rapid progression on a follow-up examination.

  15. [The "candlestick" technique for the correction of certain types of congenital metacarpal synotosis].

    Foucher, G; Medina, J; Bollecker, V; Lorea, P

    2002-10-01

    Metacarpal synostosis is a rare congenital hand malformation requiring only occasionally a surgical correction. However in case of divergent epiphyses there is a progressive accentuation of the deformity. In the "Y" type of symmetrical synostosis, the authors propose a trapezoidal osteotomy with upside down relocation allowing realignement of the epiphyses without distant bone donor site. PMID:12491705

  16. Effects of postoperative early motion on the results of osteosynthesis with miniplates in metacarpal fractures

    İbrahim Azboy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the radiological and functional results of rigid internal fixation with mini plate osteosynthesis in the management of metacarpal fractures. Methods: In this study, 11 patients (10 males, 1 female which were treated with mini plate osteosynthesis for metacarpal fracture (n=13 were evaluated retrospectively. The average age of patients was 35 years (range 25-46 years with a mean follow-up of 1.4 years (range 1.1 to 2.2-years. Rehabilitation program was started on the postoperative second day. Range of motion was assessed according to the total active range of motion (TAROM scale. Results: Eight patients (10 metacarpal had excellent scores, two patients had good scores and one patient had moderate score at final follow-up. Time to union was found an average of 6 weeks (range 4-7 weeks. Complications did not observed such as loss of reduction, infection, circulatory disorders, neurological symptoms, osteonecrosis, sudeck atrophy. Conclusion: Rigid internal fixation with mini plate osteosynthesis could be performed in patients with metacarpal fractures with satisfactory radiological and functional results along with rehabilitation program contains passive and active joint movements initiated at early post-operative period. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 457-462

  17. Incomplete oblique sagittal fractures of the dorsal cortex of the third metacarpal bone in six horses

    To describe incomplete oblique sagittal dorsal cortical fractures of the equine third metacarpal bone, their surgical repair, and subsequent performance of the horses. Retrospective examination of medical records and racing performance. Six Thoroughbred race horses, 2 to 4 years of age. Radiographic confirmation of all fractures preceded general anesthesia and surgical correction. Three fractures were treated by intracortical compression using screws placed in lag fashion, and five fractures were treated by osteostixis. Race records were reviewed for each horse to determine performance after surgery. Fractures were best observed on palmarodorsal radiographic projections. Three horses treated by intracortical compression returned to racing, but fracture recurred in one horse and was treated by osteostixis. This horse and the other three horses treated by osteostixis raced after surgery. Horses with incomplete oblique sagittal fractures of the dorsal cortex of the third metacarpal bone can race after surgical management of the fracture by screws placed in lag fashion or osteostixis. The authors' preferred surgical procedure for managing this fracture is osteostixis. Palmarodorsal radiographic projections of the third metacarpal bone are recommended in young Thoroughbred race horses suspected of having dorsal metacarpal stress fractures

  18. Some observations on lameness associated with pain in the proximal metacarpal region

    The carpus and metacarpus of 40 horses which were free from lameness and 40 horses with lameness associated with the metacarpophalangeal joint or more distal limb were examined radiographically (Group A). The opacity of the proximal third of the third metacarpal bone was regular, with a uniform trabecular pattern. Osseous cyst-like lesions (OCLLs) were identified in the radial carpal bone (1), the ulnar carpal bone (2), the second carpal bone (15) and the fourth carpal bone (1). Thirty-one of 638 horses (4.8 percent) with forelimb lameness had pain localised to the proximal metacarpal region using local anaesthesia (Group B). All these horses were examined radiographically and an ultrasonographic examination was performed in seven. No definitive diagnosis was reached in 16 horses, seven of which had an OCLL in one of the carpal bones or the second metacarpal bone. One horse had, in addition to a poorly defined lucent area in the second carpal bone, radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease of the carpometacarpal joint and an hypoechoic lesion in the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon. One horse had an hypoechoic lesion in the proximal part of the suspensory ligament. Abnormalities of the trabecular structure of the third metacarpal bone were identified in 13 horses. In 11 of these there was a vertically orientated lucent line, usually surrounded by sclerotic bone. These lucent lines may represent fatigue fractures seen end on. In one horse an horizontal lucent line was seen. One of these 13 horses also had a lesion in the proximal part of the suspensory ligament. Ten of the 13 (77 per cent) horses with presumed fractures of the third metacarpal bone recovered completely, whereas only eight of the 16 (50 per cent) horses in which no definitive diagnosis was reached returned to their former function

  19. 2nd International technical meeting on small reactors

    The 2nd International Technical Meeting on Small Reactors was held on November 7-9, 2012 in Ottawa, Ontario. The meeting was hosted by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS). There is growing international interest and activity in the development of small nuclear reactor technology. This meeting provided participants with an opportunity to share ideas and exchange information on new developments. This Technical Meeting covered topics of interest to designers, operators, researchers and analysts involved in the design, development and deployment of small reactors for power generation and research. A special session focussed on small modular reactors (SMR) for generating electricity and process heat, particularly in small grids and remote locations. Following the success of the first Technical Meeting in November 2010, which captured numerous accomplishments of low-power critical facilities and small reactors, the second Technical Meeting was dedicated to the achievements, capabilities, and future prospects of small reactors. This meeting also celebrated the 50th Anniversary of the Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) reactor which was the first small reactor (20 MWe) to generate electricity in Canada.

  20. APTWG: 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to and discussions at the 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held in Chengdu, China, from 15 to 18 May 2012. The topics of the meeting were organized under five main headings: momentum transport, non-locality in transport, edge turbulence and L–H transition, three-dimensional effects on transport physics, and particle, momentum and heat pinches. It is found that lower hybrid wave and ion cyclotron wave induce co-current rotation while electron cyclotron wave induces counter-current rotation. A four-stage imaging for low (L) to high (H) confinement transition gradually emerges and a more detailed verification is urgently expected. The new edge-localized modes mitigation technique with supersonic molecular beam injection was approved to be effective to some extent on HL-2A and KSTAR. It is also found that low collisionality, trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient transition (or transition of higher to lower density and temperature gradients), fuelling and lithium coating are in favour of inward pinch of particles in tokamak plasmas. (paper)

  1. Book review: Psychology in a work context (2nd Ed.

    Nanette Tredoux

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Bergh, Z. & Theron, A.L. (Eds (2003 Psychology in a work context (2nd Ed.. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. This book is an overview and introduction to Industrial and Organisational Psychology. It is a work of ambitious scope, and it is clear that the contributors have invested a great deal of thought and effort in the planning and execution of the book. The current version is the second edition, and it looks set to become one of those standard textbooks that are revised every few years to keep up with changing times. It is a handsome volume, produced to a high standard of editorial care, pleasingly laid out and organised well enough to be useful as an occasional reference source. An English-Afrikaans glossary, tables of contents for every chapter as well as for the entire book, a comprehensive index and extensive bibliography make it easy to retrieve the information relating to a particular topic. Every chapter ends with a conclusion summarising the gist of the material covered. Quality illustrations lighten the tone and help to bring some of the concepts to life. Learning outcomes and self-assessment exercises and questions for every chapter will be useful to the lecturer using the book as a source for a tutored course, and for the student studying by distance learning. If sold at the suggested retail price, the book represents good value compared to imported textbooks that cover similar ground.

  2. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications"

    Calvo, Maria L.; Dolganova, Irina N.; Gevorgyan, Narine; Guzman, Angela; Papoyan, Aram; Sarkisyan, Hayk; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    The ICTP smr2633: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications" (OPTICS-2014) http://indico.ictp.it/event/a13253/ was held in Yerevan and Ashtarak, Armenia, on 1-5 September 2014. The Symposium was organized by the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) with the collaboration of the SPIE Armenian Student Chapter, the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-Pyrkal, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the BMSTU SPIE & OSA student chapters. The International Symposium OPTICS-2014 was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics. This symposium "Optics and its Applications" was the First Official ICTP Scientific Event in Armenia. The presentations at OPTICS-2014 were centered on these topics: optical properties of nanostructures; quantum optics & information; singular optics and its applications; laser spectroscopy; strong field optics; nonlinear & ultrafast optics; photonics & fiber optics; optics of liquid crystals; and mathematical methods in optics.

  3. The platysma myocutaneous flap.

    Baur, Dale A; Williams, Jonathan; Alakaily, Xena

    2014-08-01

    Reconstructing defects of the oral mucosa or skin of the lower one-third of the face can be accomplished by a variety of techniques. This article presents two versions of the platysma myocutaneous flap, which is a reliable, axial pattern, pedicled flap capable of providing excellent one-stage reconstruction of such defects. As discussed herein, the superiorly based and posteriorly based versions of the flap have wide application in the oral and facial region. Also provided is a review of other uses of this flap in head and neck surgery. PMID:24958382

  4. Propeller TAP flap

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Bille, Camilla; Wamberg, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if a propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator (TAP) flap can be used for breast reconstruction. Fifteen women were reconstructed using a propeller TAP flap, an implant, and an ADM. Preoperative colour Doppler ultrasonography was used for patient selection to...... major complications needing additional surgery. One flap was lost due to a vascular problem. Breast reconstruction can be performed by a propeller TAP flap without cutting the descending branch of the thoracodorsal vessels. However, the authors would recommend that a small cuff of muscle is left around...

  5. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Phase II 2nd Report

    Karasaki, Kenzi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gasperikova, Erika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Peterson, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cook, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tiemi, Onishi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-03-31

    This is the 2nd report on the three-year program of the 2nd phase of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. As such, this report is a compendium of the results by Kiho et al. (2011) and those by LBNL.

  6. Examples to Accompany "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books, 2nd Edition."

    Association of Coll. and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

    This book is intended to be used with "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books," 2nd edition (DCRB) as an illustrative aid to catalogers and others interested in or needing to interpret rare book cataloging. As such, it is to be used in conjunction with the rules it illustrates, both in DCRB and in "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules," 2nd edition…

  7. PREFACE: 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO 2008'

    Czuba, P.; Kolodziej, J. J.; Konior, J.; Szymonski, M.

    2009-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected papers presented at the 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO2008', that was held in Kraków, Poland, 25-28 June 2008. It was organized jointly by the Polish Chemical Society, Polish Physical Society, Polish Vacuum Society, and the Centre for Nanometer-scale Science and Advanced Materials (NANOSAM) of the Jagiellonian University. The meeting presentations were categorized into the following topics: 1. Nanomechanics and nanotribology 2. Characterization and manipulation in nanoscale 3. Quantum effects in nanostructures 4. Nanostructures on surfaces 5. Applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine 6. Nanotechnology in education 7. Industrial applications of nanotechnology, presentations of the companies 8. Nanoengineering and nanomaterials (international sessions shared with the fellows of Maria-Curie Host Fellowships within the 6th FP of the European Community Project 'Nano-Engineering for Expertise and Development, NEED') 9. Nanopowders 10. Carbon nanostructures and nanosystems 11. Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics 12. Nanomaterials in catalysis 13. Nanospintronics 14. Ethical, social, and environmental aspects of nanotechnology The Conference was attended by 334 participants. The presentations were delivered as 7 invited plenary lectures, 25 invited topical lectures, 78 oral and 108 poster contributions. Only 1/6 of the contributions presented during the Conference were submitted for publication in this Proceedings volume. From the submitted material, this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains 37 articles that were positively evaluated by independent referees. The Organizing Committee gratefully acknowledges all these contributions. We also thank all the referees of the papers submitted for the Proceedings for their timely and thorough work. We would like to thank all members of the National Program Committee for their work in the selection process of

  8. The rhombic bilobed flap, a simple, geometrically designed flap

    Yoshiaki Sakamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a combination of the common rhomboid flap and bilobed flap and provide an example of its use. The rhombic bilobed flap is simple to use and is associated with fewer complications, such as pin-cushioning and standing cone deformities, while minimizing the risk of skin necrosis and tension on the flap.

  9. Complex Dorsal Dislocation of the Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The Deep Transverse Metacarpal Ligament as a Barrier to Reduction

    DeCoster, Thomas A; McGrew, Deborah; Omer, George E.

    1988-01-01

    Dorsal dislocation of the second metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint may involve dorsal displacement of the deep transverse metacarpal ligament (DTMCL). In addition to retraction of the volar plate, reduction of the deep transverse metacarpal ligament to its normal volar position is necessary to achieve stable, complete reduction of the MCP joint. The factors associated with this pathologic condition are reviewed as well as an anatomic study of the mechanism of injury.

  10. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  11. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California

    Keeley, Jon E.; Baer-Keeley, Melanie; Fortheringham, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Interface Between Ecology and Land Development Conference was held in association with Earth Day 1997, five years after the first Interface Conference. Rapid population growth in California has intensified the inevitable conflict between land development and preservation of natural ecosystems. Sustainable development requires wise use of diminishing natural resources and, where possible, restoration of damaged landscapes. These Earth Week Celebrations brought together resource managers, scientists, politicians, environmental consultants, and concerned citizens in an effort to improve the communication necessary to maintain our natural biodiversity, ecosystem processes and general quality of life. As discussed by our keynote speaker, Michael Soule, the best predictor of habitat loss is population growth and nowhere is this better illustrated than in California. As urban perimeters expand, the interface between wildlands and urban areas increases. Few problems are more vexing than how to manage the fire prone ecosystems indigenous to California at this urban interface. Today resource managers face increasing challenges of dealing with this problem and the lead-off section of the proceedings considers both the theoretical basis for making decisions related to prescribed burning and the practical application. Habitat fragmentation is an inevitable consequence of development patterns with significant impacts on animal and plant populations. Managers must be increasingly resourceful in dealing with problems of fragmentation and the often inevitable consequences, including susceptibility to invasive oganisms. One approach to dealing with fragmentation problems is through careful landplanning. California is the national leader in the integration of conservation and economics. On Earth Day 1991, Governor Pete Wilson presented an environmental agenda that promised to create between land owners and environmentalists, agreements that would guarantee the protection of

  12. The association between metacarpal ratio, radiographic hand and knee osteoarthritis and its progression after meniscectomy

    Paradowski, P T; Lohmander, Stefan; Englund, Martin Kristian

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the ratio of the second and fourth metacarpal bone length (MC2:MC4) in subjects with prior meniscectomy of the knee is associated with radiographic hand and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and its progression. DESIGN: We assessed 219 subjects (175 men and 44 women) twice with...... a follow-up time ranging from 4 to 10 years. Participants had all undergone prior meniscectomy. The subjects were of mean (SD) 53 (11) years of age at the first radiographic examination. One observer measured the metacarpal lengths of both hands. We used the average MC2:MC4 from left and right hand...... divided into tertiles as the exposure variable, using the highest tertile, i.e., "female" pattern as reference category. Radiographic OA of both hands and knees and its progression were evaluated on subject level as our outcomes. We used logistic regression to evaluate the possible association of MC2:MC4...

  13. Florid reactive periostitis of the metacarpal and phalanx: 2 case reports.

    Gao, Zhenhua; Wang, Jifei; Wang, Zhuo; Meng, Quanfei

    2013-11-01

    Florid reactive periostitis is a rare benign fibro-osseous proliferative lesion of soft tissue and is mainly composed of fibrous connective tissue and mature bone. The lesion usually occurs in the finger and seldom in the metacarpal. The lesion mimics malignant and infectious disorders, thus often leading to inappropriate treatment. Radiography usually shows an ossified mass attached to the underlying hand bones without interruption of the cortex. We report 1 case of florid reactive periostitis with unossified mass and underlying bone marrow edema in the metacarpal of hand and 1 case with adjacent cortical destruction in the phalanx. In addition, we describe the imaging findings of computed tomography CT and magnetic resonance imaging MRI and discuss their diagnostic values compared with routine radiographic examination. PMID:24206975

  14. Sexual dimorphism of the metacarpals in contemporary Cretans: Are there differences with mainland Greeks?

    Nathena, Despoina; Gambaro, Laura; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Kranioti, Elena F

    2015-12-01

    Sex in the adult skeleton can usually be reliably determined through an assessment of features found on the pelvis and cranium. In the lack of these elements it is necessary to elaborate other methods to establish sex in skeletonised remains recovered in forensic cases. Standards for other bones (e.g. humerus, metacarpals and metatarsals) have already been established for the Greek population. The aim of this study is to determine whether the standards for metacarpals provided from a study on the Athens collection are representative of a modern Cretan population. Using a digital caliper we took 7 measurements on each one of the left and right metacarpal bones of 108 adult individuals from a modern collection from Crete. Totally twenty formulae for left and right bones created from the Athens collection were used to sex the sample of this study. The overall classification accuracy obtained for our sample was very close to the cross-validated accuracy reported by the authors. However, looking at the classification accuracy for males and females, a consistent trend for low classification rates in females was observed. New formulae were developed for the Cretan sample yielding up to 85% classification accuracy. This study clearly indicates that the standards for metacarpals developed from the Athens collection are not appropriate for application in forensic cases for the island of Crete as they do not represent the local population efficiently. This may hold true for other regions of Greece thus great caution should be taken when applying these standards. Obviously more research is needed to confirm these results. PMID:26462576

  15. Evaluation of surgical stabilization of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures of hand

    Gupta Rakesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimized functional results are difficult to achieve following hand injuries. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome after surgical stabilization of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures. Materials and Methods: Forty-five fractures of digits of hand in 31 patients were managed by surgical stabilization. Five fractures were fixed with closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation; 10 with external fixator; 26 with open reduction and Kirschner wire fixation; and four with open reduction and plate and screw or screw fixation. Results: Final evaluation of the patients was done at the end of three months. It was based on total active range of motion for digital functional assessment as suggested by the American Society for surgery of hand. Overall results were excellent to good in 87%. Better total active range of motion (excellent grade was observed in metacarpal fractures (47% versus phalanx fractures (31%; closed fractures (57% versus open fractures (27%; and single digit involvement (55% versus multiple digits (29%. Excellent total active range of motion was observed with all four plate and screw/ screw fixation technique (100% and closed reduction and percutaneous kirschner wire fixation (60%. Twenty-two complications were observed in 10 patients with finger stiffness being the most common. Conclusion: Surgical stabilization of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures of hand seems to give good functional outcome. Closed fractures and fractures with single digit involvement have shown a better grade of total active range of motion.

  16. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  17. 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic

    ... news/fullstory_159807.html 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic Scientists concerned it ... the United States who was infected with a bacteria that is resistant to an antibiotic of last ...

  18. Optimized Pump Power Ratio on 2nd Order Pumping Discrete Raman Amplifier

    Renxiang Huang; Youichi Akasaka; David L. Harris; James Pan

    2003-01-01

    By optimizing pump power ratio between 1st order backward pump and 2nd order forward pump on discrete Raman amplifier, we demonstrated over 2dB noise figure improvement without excessive non-linearity degradation.

  19. Combustion synthesis and characterization of Ba2NdSbO6 nanocrystals

    V T Kavitha; R Jose; S Ramakrishna; P R S Wariar; J Koshy

    2011-07-01

    Nanocrystalline Ba2NdSbO6, a complex cubic perovskite metal oxide, powders were synthesized by a self-sustained combustion method employing citric acid. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The as-prepared powders were single phase Ba2NdSbO6 and a mixture of polycrystalline spheroidal particles and single crystalline nanorods. The Ba2NdSbO6 sample sintered at 1500°C for 4 h has high density (∼ 95% of theoretical density). Sintered nanocrystalline Ba2NdSbO6 had a dielectric constant of ∼ 21; and dielectric loss = 8 × 10-3 at 5 MHz.

  20. 76 FR 29750 - Filing Dates for the Nevada Special Election in the 2nd Congressional District

    2011-05-23

    ... General Election on September 13, 2011, to fill the U.S. House seat in ] the 2nd Congressional District... report, the first report must cover all activity that occurred before the committee registered as...

  1. 77 FR 75161 - Filing Dates for the Illinois Special Election in the 2nd Congressional District

    2012-12-19

    ... February 26, 2013, and April 9, 2013, to fill the U.S. House seat in the 2nd Congressional District vacated... not previously filed a report, the first report must cover all activity that occurred before...

  2. File list: His.Lar.50.AllAg.2nd_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Lar.50.AllAg.2nd_instar dm3 Histone Larvae 2nd instar SRX013015,SRX013042,SRX01...3112,SRX013043,SRX013087,SRX013096 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.50.AllAg.2nd_instar.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.2nd_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.2nd_instar dm3 All antigens Larvae 2nd instar SRX013087,SRX013015,...SRX013112,SRX013042,SRX013043,SRX013096,SRX013113,SRX013016,SRX013114 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.2nd_instar.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Lar.05.AllAg.2nd_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Lar.05.AllAg.2nd_instar dm3 Histone Larvae 2nd instar SRX013087,SRX013096,SRX01...3043,SRX013015,SRX013112,SRX013042 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.05.AllAg.2nd_instar.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Lar.20.AllAg.2nd_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Lar.20.AllAg.2nd_instar dm3 Histone Larvae 2nd instar SRX013015,SRX013042,SRX01...3112,SRX013043,SRX013096,SRX013087 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.20.AllAg.2nd_instar.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.2nd_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.2nd_instar dm3 All antigens Larvae 2nd instar SRX013015,SRX013042,...SRX013112,SRX013043,SRX013016,SRX013114,SRX013096,SRX013087,SRX013113 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.2nd_instar.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.2nd_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.2nd_instar dm3 All antigens Larvae 2nd instar SRX013015,SRX013042,...SRX013112,SRX013016,SRX013114,SRX013043,SRX013087,SRX013096,SRX013113 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.2nd_instar.bed ...

  8. Flapping of Insectile Wings

    Huang, Yangyang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. Yet the effects of muscle stiffness on the performance of insect wings remain unclear. Here, we construct an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring and submerged in an oscillatory flow. The wing system is free to rotate and flap. We first explore the extent to which the flyer can withstand roll perturbations, then study its flapping behavior and performance as a function of spring stiffness. We find an optimal range of spring stiffness that results in large flapping amplitudes, high force generation and good storage of elastic energy. We conclude by conjecturing that insects may select and adjust the muscle spring stiffness to achieve desired movement. These findings may have significant implications on the design principles of wings in micro air-vehicles.

  9. From 1st- to 2nd-Generation Biofuel Technologies: Extended Executive Summary

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report looks at the technical challenges facing 2nd-generation biofuels, evaluates their costs and examines related current policies to support their development and deployment. The potential for production of more advanced biofuels is also discussed. Although significant progress continues to be made to overcome the technical and economic challenges, 2nd-generation biofuels still face major constraints to their commercial deployment.

  10. 2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL Symposium

    Reviewed by Murat BARKAN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This closing remarks prepared and presented by Prof. Dr. Murat BARKAN Anadolu University, Eskisehir, TURKEY DEAR GUESTS, As the 2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL Symposium is now drawing to end, I would like to thank you all for your outstanding speeches, distinguished presentations, constructive roundtable and session discussions, and active participation during the last five days. I hope you all share my view that the whole symposium has been a very stimulating and successful experience. Also, on behalf of all the participants, I would like to take this opportunity to thank and congratulate the symposium organization committee for their excellent job in organizing and hosting our 2nd meeting. Throughout the symposium, five workshops, six keynote speeches and 66 papers, which were prepared by more than 150 academicians and practitioners from 23 different countries, reflected remarkable and various views and approaches about open and flexible learning. Besides, all these academic endeavors, 13 educational films were displayed during the symposium. The technology exhibition, hosted by seven companies, was very effective to showcase the current level of the technology and the success of applications of theory into practice. Now I would like to go over what our scholar workshop and keynote presenters shared with us: Prof. Marina McIsaac form Arizona State University dwelled on how to determine research topics worthwhile to be examined and how to choose appropriate research design and methods. She gave us clues on how to get articles published in professional journals. Prof. Colin Latchem from Australia and Prof. Dr. Ali Ekrem Ozkul from Anadolu University pointed to the importance of strategic planning for distance and flexible learning. They highlighted the advantages of strategic planning for policy-makers, planners, managers and staff. Dr. Wolfram Laaser from Fern University of Hagen, presented different multimedia clips and

  11. Control of Flap Vortices

    Greenblatt, David

    2005-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.

  12. Perforator Flaps for Perineal Reconstructions

    Niranjan, Niri S.

    2006-01-01

    Whenever there is soft tissue loss from the perineum there are many options for reconstruction. These include allowing the wound to heal by secondary intention and the use of local random or axial pattern flaps, regional flaps, or free flaps. The axial skin flap can be defined as a flap based on known constant vessels of the subcutaneous tissue and its vena comitantes. The perforator flap on the other hand is a randomly selected perforator consisting of an artery with vena comitantes, which p...

  13. 逆行岛状皮瓣联合局部皮瓣修复示指软组织缺损%Combining reversed island flap with local flap in treatment of the index finger soft tissue defect

    吴玉家; 曹令; 张亚洁; 杨芬; 常娜; 贾赤宇

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价利用指动脉或第一掌背动脉为轴型血管的逆行岛状皮瓣修复示指软组织缺损,并利用局部皮瓣修复次生创面的术式特点.方法:根据示指创面位置,近侧指间关节以远创面利用以指动脉为轴型血管的逆行岛状皮瓣修复,近侧指间关节(含关节)以近者利用第一掌背动脉,供瓣区利用局部易位皮瓣修复.结果:临床应用15例,利用指动脉者7例,利用掌背动脉者8例,除1例轴型皮瓣术后部分坏死再次清创缝合外,余皮瓣均一期愈合.结论:灵活应用指动脉或第一掌背动脉为轴型血管的逆行岛状皮瓣修复示指软组织缺损,并利用局部皮瓣修复次生创面,这一术式有效果可靠、操作方便、手术次数少等特点.%Objective To introduce a method of repairing index finger soft tissue defect by reversed island flap and local flap. Methods According to proximal interphalangeal joints.the distal wound was repaired by reversed island flap using digital artery as axial vascular,the proximal one using dorsal metacarpal artery, the donor area of island flap was repaired by local translocation flap. Results Fifteen ere treated by this method,using digital artery in seven cases,using dorsal metacarpal artery in eight,the flap had partial necrosis in one case,the others healed by first intention. Conclusion The technique of repairing index finger soft tissue defect by reversed island flap and local flap has more advantages,such as effective,reliable and easy to operate, fewer surgical and so on.

  14. What is the real angle of deviation of metacarpal neck fractures on oblique views? A radiographic study☆

    de Góes Ribeiro, Arthur; Gonçalez, Daniel Hidalgo; Filho, João Manoel Fonseca; da Fonseca, Guilherme Marques; Costa, Antonio Carlos; Chakkour, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish an indirect, easy-to-use, predictable and safe means of obtaining the true degree of displacement of fractures of the neck of the fifth metacarpal bone, through oblique radiographic views. Methods An anatomical specimen from the fifth human metacarpal was dissected and subjected to ostectomy in the neck region. A 1-mm Kirschner wire was fixed to the base of the fifth metacarpal bone, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bone and parallel to the ground. Another six Kirschner wires of the same diameter were bent over and attached to the ostectomized bone to simulate fracture displacement. Axial rotation of the metacarpus was used to create oblique radiographic views. Radiographic images were generated with different angles and at several degrees of rotation of the bone. Results We deduced a mathematical formula that showed the true displacement of fractures of the neck of the fifth metacarpal bone by means of oblique radiographs. Conclusions Oblique radiographs at 30̊ of supination provided the best view of the bone and least variation from the real value of the displacement of fractures of the fifth metacarpal bone. The mathematical formula deduced was concordant with the experimental model used. PMID:27069882

  15. Incomplete fracture of the proximo-palmar aspect of the third metacarpal bone

    Previous descriptions of incomplete longitudinal fractures and fatigue injury of the proximopalmar aspect of the third metacarpal bone (McIII) have focused on diagnostic imaging findings, especially in racehorses. Objectives: To document the case details, clinical features, response to diagnostic analgesia, diagnostic imaging findings and follow-up data in a large group of horses with an incomplete longitudinal fracture or fatigue injury of the proximopalmar medial aspect of the McIII. Materials And Methods: Horses were included in the study if pain was localised to the proximopalmar aspect of the metacarpal region, with radiological evidence of an incomplete longitudinal fracture or generalised increased radiopacity in the proximopalmar medial aspect of the McIII, or focal increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU) in the proximopalmar aspect of the McIII. Age, breed, gender, height, bodyweight, work discipline, work history, duration of lameness, clinical signs and responses to diagnostic analgesia were recorded. Radiographic and scintigraphic images were assessed subjectively and objectively. Results: There were 55 horses representing a broad spectrum of ages and work disciplines, 73% of which had radiological abnormalities. The majority had no localising clinical signs, although 73% of horses with radiological abnormalities showed a characteristic pattern of lameness. Lameness was generally worse in straight lines than in circles. Increased radiopharmaceutical uptake ranged from mild to intense in the lame limb; 14% of nonlame limbs had mild IRU. Of horses for which long-term follow-up was available, 98% returned to full athletic function. Conclusions And Potential Relevance: Incomplete longitudinal fractures and fatigue injury of the proximopalmar medial aspect of the McIII may occur in horses of many types and sports disciplines, and are not confined to immature performance horses. They should be considered an important differential diagnosis for proximal

  16. The Evolution of Perforator Flaps

    Khan, Farah N.; Spiegel, Aldona J.

    2006-01-01

    Perforator flaps have recently become ubiquitous in the field of plastic surgery. To understand and appreciate their unique nature, it is necessary to compare and contrast them with the development of other types of flaps. A complete yet abridged version of the history of flap surgery is presented in this article. Beginning with Sushruta's Indian cheek flap method for nasal reconstruction, a trip through time and space is taken to highlight the milestones leading to the evolution of the perfo...

  17. Radiographic changes associated with digital, metacarpal and metatarsal tumors, and pododermatitis in the dog

    Fifty-two of digital, metacarpal or metatarsal canine tumors and 48 pododermatitis lesions were reviewed retrospectively. The tumors were divided into 42 malignant neoplasms, 6 benign neoplasms and 4 non-neoplastic tumor-like growths. The distribution and radiographic changes of the lesions associated with the tumors and inflammation were compared. Pododermatitis and benign processes could not be radiographically differentiated from malignant neoplasms of the foot; however, lesions exhibiting osteolysis were more likely (p < 0.05) to be associated with malignant neoplasms

  18. Monitoring North Korea Explosions: Status and Result of 1st and 2nd Tests (Invited)

    Chi, H.; Lee, H.; Shin, J.; Park, J.; Sheen, D.; Kim, G.; Che, I.; Lim, I.; Kim, T.

    2009-12-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthal full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries, and only stations with the distance of 200 to 550 Km from the test site were considered. Irrespective of azimuthal directions of stations from the test site, the conventional discrimination, Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly showed that both tests were explosion. But mb-Ms discrimination did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of 1st test, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of 1st and 2nd test data showed that 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of 1st and 2nd tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of 2nd test were much larger than that of 1st one. The ratio of 1st and 2nd P-wave amplitudes showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the estimated energy or yield were ranged from 4 to roughly 10 times. KIGAM evaluated the yield of 2nd test were 8 times in the average larger than that of 1st one.

  19. Regional Observations of North Korea Explosions: 1st and 2nd Tests

    Chi, Heon Cheol; Shin, Jin Soo; Lee, Hee-Il; Park, Jung Ho; Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Geunyoung; Kim, Tea Sung; Che, Il-Young; Lim, In-Seub

    2010-05-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthally full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of the 1st and the 2nd test data showed that the 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly discriminate these events from two nearby natural earthquakes above 4 Hz. Full moment tensor inversion also indicate the 2nd test had a very large isotropic component. But mb-Ms discrimination, which has been considered one of the most reliable discriminants for separating explosions and earthquakes, did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of the 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of both 1st and 2nd tests, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. These variations are mainly due to lateral variation of crustal structures surrounding the test site. Remarkably mb(Lg) showed very linear relationship with mb(Pn). By considering attenuation characteristics according to the propagation path, the variations could be effectively reduced. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of both tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of the 2nd test were much larger than that of the 1st one. The ratio of P-wave amplitudes of two tests showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the

  20. Intergenerational Transmission and the School-to-work Transition for 2nd Generation Immigrants

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina;

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the extent of intergenerational transmission through parental capital, ethnic capital and neighbourhood effects on several aspects of the school-to-work transition of 2nd generation immigrants and young ethnic Danes. The main findings are that parental capital has strong positive effects...... on the probability of completing a qualifying education and on the entry into the labour market, but it has a much smaller impact on the duration of the first employment spell and on the wage level. Growing up in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of immigrants is associated with negative...... labour market prospects both for young natives and 2nd generation immigrants....

  1. Advances in Sustainability: Contributions and Outcomes of the 2nd World Sustainability Forum

    Sylvie Flämig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After a successful start in 2011, the 2nd World Sustainability Forum (WSF was held on sciforum.net from 1–30 November 2012. More than 80 papers were presented and over 180 authors contributed to the multidisciplinary conference. The objective of this short report is to sum up the contributions and discussions of the 2nd World Sustainability Forum. It is organized as follows. First, some general information on the Forum is given, then a summary of the contributions to the different sections, as well as providing an overview of the discussions. A final section including an outlook to the 3rd World Sustainability Forum concludes the article.

  2. Advances in Sustainability: Contributions and Outcomes of the 2nd World Sustainability Forum

    Sylvie Flämig; Marc A. Rosen

    2013-01-01

    After a successful start in 2011, the 2nd World Sustainability Forum (WSF) was held on sciforum.net from 1–30 November 2012. More than 80 papers were presented and over 180 authors contributed to the multidisciplinary conference. The objective of this short report is to sum up the contributions and discussions of the 2nd World Sustainability Forum. It is organized as follows. First, some general information on the Forum is given, then a summary of the contributions to the different sections...

  3. Performance and validation of COMPUCEA 2nd generation for uranium measurements in physical inventory verifications

    Full text: In order to somewhat alleviate the kind of logistical problems encountered in the in-field measurements with the current COMPUCEA equipment (COMbined Product for Uranium Content and Enrichment Assay), and with the expected benefits of saving some time and costs for the missions in mind, ITU is presently developing a 2nd generation of the COMPUCEA device. This new development also forms a task in the support programme of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission to the IAEA. To validate the in-field performance of the newly developed 2nd generation COMPUCEA, a prototype has been tested together with the 1st generation equipment during physical inventory verification (PIV) measurements in different uranium fuel fabrication plants in Europe. In this paper we will present the prototype of COMPUCEA 2nd generation, its hardware as well as the software developed for the evaluation of the U content and 235U enrichment. We will show a comparison of the performance of the 2nd generation with the 1st generation on a larger number of uranium samples measured during the in-field PIVs. The observed excellent performance of the new COMPUCEA represents an important step in the validation of this new instrument. (author)

  4. The Effect of Using Computer Edutainment on Developing 2nd Primary Graders' Writing Skills

    Mohammed Abdel Raheem, Azza Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    The present study attempted to examine the effect of using computer edutainment on developing 2nd graders' writing skills. The study comprised thirty-second year primary stage enrolled in Bani Hamad primary governmental school, Minia governorate. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one…

  5. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    Maxfield, D.A. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  6. Introductory statement to the 2nd scientific forum on sustainable development: A role for nuclear power?

    In his Introductory Statement to the 2nd Scientific Forum on 'Sustainable Development - A Role for Nuclear Power?' (Vienna, 28 September 1999), the Director General of the IAEA focussed on the the main aspects concerning the development of nuclear power: safety, competitiveness, and public support

  7. Intergenerational Transmission and the School-to-work Transition for 2nd Generation Immigrants

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina;

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the extent of intergenerational transmission through parental capital, ethnic capital and neighbourhood effects on several aspects of the school-to-work transition of 2nd generation immigrants and young ethnic Danes. The main findings are that parental capital has strong positive effects...

  8. The 1997 Protocol and the European Union (European Union and '2nd generation' responsibility conventions)

    The issue of accession of the Eastern European Member States to the 1997 Protocol is discussed with focus on the European Union's authority and enforcement powers. Following up the article published in the preceding issue of this journal, the present contribution analyses the relations of the '2nd generation' responsibility conventions to the law of the European Union. (orig.)

  9. Proceedings of the 2nd Mediterranean Conference on Information Technology Applications (ITA '97)

    This is the proceedings of the 2nd Mediterranean Conference on Information Technology Applications, held in Nicosia, Cyprus, between 6-7 November, 1997. It contains 16 papers. Two of these fall within the scope of INIS and are dealing with Telemetry, Radiation Monitoring, Environment Monitoring, Radiation Accidents, Air Pollution Monitoring, Diagnosis, Computers, Radiology and Data Processing

  10. The 2nd Global Space Development Summit Held In Washington DC

    Bian Ji

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 2nd Global Space Development Summit,organized by the Center for Strategic and International Studies in partnership with the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Space Foundation and the Chinese Society of Astronautics (CSA), took place in Washington, D.C. On November 12-13.

  11. 2nd International Congress on Economics and Business – New Economic Trends and Business Opportunities

    ARIK, Nazlı

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In this study, the evaluation of The 2nd International Congress On Economics And Business: New Economic Trends and Business Opportunities held on May 30- June 3, 2016 in Sarajevo will be mentioned.Keywords. Economics, Economic Trends, Business Opportunities,  Labour Relations, Financial economics.JEL. M10, M20, O10.

  12. Stem cells and cancer immunotherapy: Arrowhead’s 2nd annual cancer immunotherapy conference

    Bot, Adrian; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Cornforth, Andrew; Brian J Czerniecki; Ferrone, Soldano; Geles, Kenneth; Greenberg, Philip D.; Hurt, Elaine; Koya, Richard C.; Masoud H Manjili; Matsui, William; Morgan, Richard A.; Palena, Claudia M; Powell Jr, Daniel J; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from academia and industry gathered on April 4 and 5, 2013, in Washington DC at the Arrowhead’s 2nd Annual Cancer Immunotherapy Conference. Two complementary concepts were discussed: cancer “stem cells” as targets and therapeutic platforms based on stem cells.

  13. Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop MUPPLE’09

    Wild, Fridolin; Kalz, Marco; Palmér, Matthias; Müller, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Wild, F., Kalz, M., Palmér, M., & Müller, D. (Eds.). (2009). Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop MUPPLE’09. September, 29, 2009, Nice, France: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, online http://sunsite.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/Publications/CEUR-WS/Vol-506/

  14. Papilla Preservation Flap as Aesthetic Consideration in Periodontal Flap Surgery

    Sandra Olivia; Natalina Natalina; Felix Hartono

    2013-01-01

    Flap surgery is treatment for periodontal disease with alveolar bone destruction. Surgical periodontal flap with conventional incision will result in gingival recession and loss of interdental papillae after treatment. Dilemma arises in areas required high aesthetic value or regions with a fixed denture. It is challenging to perform periodontal flap with good aesthetic results and minimal gingival recession. This case report aimed to inform and to explain the work procedures, clinical and rad...

  15. Metacarpal fascial spaces of the hands by computerized three-dimensional reconstruction: Applied anatomic characteristics%计算机三维重建手掌部筋膜间隙的应用解剖学特点

    刘晓伟; 白桂有; 王炳胜; 张正治; 孙华; 鲁传东

    2007-01-01

    hands were observed by fresh cadaveric anatomy. METHODS: The trial was carried out in the 251 Hospital of Chinese PLA and Central Laboratory and Department of Anatomy of the Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from May 2003 to February 2006. Based on the gross anatomy, thin cross-section anatomy, visible human and virtual human technology theory, the metacarpal fascial spaces of hand were three-D reconstructed in microcomputer.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anatomical borderline and about relation of the metacarpal fascial spaces of hand. RESULTS: Display of observation result of adjacent and dimension of the midpalmar space and the thenar space by fresh cadaveric anatomy combined with thin cross-section anatomy, computer image recognition technology, and the 3-D reconstruction technology: The anterior borderline of the MPS was the digital flexor tendons of middle finger, ring finger, little finger and the 2nd lumbrical muscle (LM), 3rd LM, 4th LM; the posterior borderline was the palmar interosseous fascia before 3rd palmar bone, 4th palmar bone, 5th palmar bone and corresponding interosseous muscles; the lateral borderline was the palmar intermediate septum; the medial borderline of the MPS was the medial intermuscular septum of palm. In addition, the distal section of the MPS which was separated into three little spaces by two septums of connective tissue, and 3rd 4th, 5th digital flexor tendon and 2nd, 3rd, 4th LM were respectively contained by the three little spaces. The proximal of this space opened to the posterior space of antebrachial flexor by the carpal canal; the distal of this space opened to 2nd, 3rd, 4th web space (WS) by 2nd, 3rd, compartment of 4th LM, and continuously the dorsal subcutaneous space and the subaponeurotic space. The anterior borderline of the TS was the 1st digital flexor tendon and the 1st LM; the posterior borderline was the fascia of abductor pollicis; the medial borderline was the palmar intermediate septum (PIMS); the lateral

  16. Flag flapping in a channel

    Alben, Silas; Shoele, Kourosh; Mittal, Rajat; Jha, Sourabh; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    We study the flapping of a flag in an inviscid channel flow. We focus especially on how quantities vary with channel spacing. As the channel walls move inwards towards the flag, heavier flags become more unstable, while light flags' stability is less affected. We use a vortex sheet model to compute large-amplitude flapping, and find that the flag undergoes a series of jumps to higher flapping modes as the channel walls are moved towards the flag. Meanwhile, the drag on the flag and the energy lost to the wake first rise as the walls become closer, then drop sharply as the flag moves to a higher flapping mode.

  17. Keystone flaps in coloured skin: Flap technology for the masses?

    Satish P Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viscoelastic properties of skin in coloured ethnic groups are less favourable compared to Caucasians for executing Keystone flaps. Keystone flaps have so far been evaluated and reported only in Caucasians. The potential of Keystone flaps in a coloured ethnic group is yet unknown. Aim: This article reviews the experience to reconstruct skin defects presenting in a coloured ethnic group, by using Keystone flaps, with a review of existing literature. Design: Uncontrolled case series. Materials and Methods: This retrospective review involves 55 consecutive Keystone flaps used from 2009 to 2012, for skin defects in various locations. Patient demographic data, medical history, co-morbidity, surgical indication, defect features, complications, and clinical outcomes are evaluated and presented. Results: In this population group with Fitzpatrick type 4 and 5 skin, the average patient age was 35.73. Though 60% of flaps (33/55 in the series involved specific risk factors, only two flaps failed. Though seven flaps had complications, sound healing was achieved by suitable intervention giving a success rate of 96.36%. Skin grafts were needed in only four cases. Conclusions: Keystone flaps achieve primary wound healing for a wide spectrum of defects with an acceptable success rate in a coloured skin population with unfavorable biophysical properties. By avoiding conventional local flaps and at times even microsurgical flaps, good aesthetic outcome is achieved without additional skin grafts or extensive operative time. All advantages seen in previous studies were verified. These benefits can be most appreciated in coloured populations, with limited resources and higher proportion of younger patients and unfavorable defects.

  18. Individual Differences In The School Performance of 2nd-Grade Children Born to Low-Income Adolescent Mothers

    Apiwattanalunggarn, Kunlakarn Lekskul; Luster, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that contribute to individual differences in the school performance of 2nd-grade children born to adolescent mothers. The sample of this study was 90 low-income adolescent mothers and their children. Data were collected from the adolescent mothers and their first-born children, now in 2nd grade,…

  19. Crystal structures and phase transformation of deuterated lithium imide, Li{sub 2}ND

    Balogh, Michael P. [Chemical and Environmental Sciences Laboratory, General Motors Research and Development Center, 30500 Mound Road, Warren, MI 48090-9055 (United States)]. E-mail: michael.p.balogh@gm.com; Jones, Camille Y. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8562, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8562 (United States); Herbst, J.F. [Materials and Processes Laboratory, General Motors Research and Development Center, 30500 Mound Road, Warren, MI 48090-9055 (United States); Hector, Louis G. [Materials and Processes Laboratory, General Motors Research and Development Center, 30500 Mound Road, Warren, MI 48090-9055 (United States); Kundrat, Matthew [Aerotek Corp., 26211 Central Park Blvd., Southfield, MI 48076 (United States)

    2006-08-31

    We have investigated the crystal structure of deuterated lithium imide, Li{sub 2}ND, by means of neutron and X-ray diffraction. An order-disorder transition occurs near 360K. Below that temperature Li{sub 2}ND can be described to the same level of accuracy as a disordered cubic (Fd3-bar m) structure with partially occupied Li 32e sites or as a fully occupied orthorhombic (Ima2 or Imm2) structure. The high temperature phase is best characterized as disordered cubic (Fm3-bar m) with D atoms randomized over the 192l sites. Density functional theory calculations complement and support the diffraction analyses. We compare our findings in detail with previous studies.

  20. Crystal structures and phase transformation of deuterated lithium imide, Li2ND

    We have investigated the crystal structure of deuterated lithium imide, Li2ND, by means of neutron and X-ray diffraction. An order-disorder transition occurs near 360K. Below that temperature Li2ND can be described to the same level of accuracy as a disordered cubic (Fd3-bar m) structure with partially occupied Li 32e sites or as a fully occupied orthorhombic (Ima2 or Imm2) structure. The high temperature phase is best characterized as disordered cubic (Fm3-bar m) with D atoms randomized over the 192l sites. Density functional theory calculations complement and support the diffraction analyses. We compare our findings in detail with previous studies

  1. Revised data for 2nd version of nuclear criticality safety handbook/data collection

    This paper outlines the data prepared for the 2nd version of Data Collection of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook. These data are discussed in the order of its preliminary table of contents. The nuclear characteristic parameters (k∞, M2, D) were derived, and subcriticality judgment graphs were drawn for eleven kinds of fuels which were often encountered in criticality safety evaluation of fuel cycle facilities. For calculation of criticality data, benchmark calculations using the combination of the continuous energy Monte Carlo criticality code MVP and the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library JENDL-3.2 were made. The calculation errors were evaluated for this combination. The implementation of the experimental results obtained by using NUCEF facilities into the 2nd version of the Data Collection is under discussion. Therefore, related data were just mentioned. A database is being prepared to retrieve revised data easily. (author)

  2. Analysis of plume oxidation during the air pollution episode of September 2nd 1998

    Harrison, R.M.; Baggot, S.

    2001-08-01

    This study was commissioned by the Environment Agency in order to provide further investigation into the air pollution episode of September 2nd, 1998 which afflicted parts of the Midlands and South Yorkshire. A report by the Environment Agency based upon numerical modelling by the Meteorological Office indicated a number of major industrial facilities as the source of the emissions responsible for the episode. In this report an investigation is made of likely chemical changes during airmass transport and its impact on air composition at ground-level and downwind receptor locations. It is concluded that the measurements of air quality at Nottingham Centre, Stoke on Trent and Birmingham Centre on 2nd September 1998 are consistent with emissions from the sources identified in the Environment Agency report on this episode when allowance is made for oxidation of sulphur and nitrogen oxides within the plume. 3 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Simultaneous Repair of Cleft Hard Palate by Vomer Flap along with Cleft Lip in Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip and Palate Patients

    Ferdous, Kazi Md. Noor-ul; Saif Ullah, M.; Shajahan, M.; Mitul, M. Ashrarur Rahman; Islam, M. Kabirul; Das, Kiorsh Kumar; M. A. Mannan; Rahman, M. Junaed; Biswas, Sanjoy; Salek, A. J. M.; Das, Bijoy Krishna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to see the short-term outcome of simultaneous repair of cleft lip and cleft hard palate with vomer flap against cleft lip repair alone in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP). A prospective observational study was carried out in 35 patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate who under-went cleft lip and cleft hard palate repair with vomer flaps simultaneously. After 3 months, cleft soft palate was repaired. During 1st and 2nd op...

  4. Caries correction factors applied to a Punic (6th - 2nd BC) population from Ibiza (Spain)

    Márquez-Grant, N

    2009-01-01

    Caries correction factors were applied to a Punic (6th-2nd century BC) rural sample from the island of Ibiza (Spain). Data obtained on dental caries and ante-mortem tooth loss provided a corrected rate of 12.8% of teeth with caries. This result, in conjunction with other sources of information such as stable isotope analysis and documentary evidence, indicated a diet based on terrestrial protein (mainly carbohydrates) and a low component of marine protein. The paper suggests further research ...

  5. 2006: 2nd Jameson - D.I.T Faculty of Tourism and Food Cocktail Competition

    Murphy, James Peter

    2006-01-01

    The 2nd Jameson - D.I.T Faculty of Tourism and Food Cocktail Competition took place on Thursday November 30th 2006, this initiative between the Faculty of Tourism and Food and Jameson offered over 60 hospitality and bartending students currently studying and working in the hospitality and licensed trade industries the opportunity to improve their skills in creative drinks mixing, in direct response to the growing demand for new cocktails and exciting new drinks to suit every season. Overall p...

  6. Protection of Architectural Heritage in Latvia, the 2nd Half of the 19th Century - 1940

    Mintaurs, Mārtiņš

    2008-01-01

    ANNOTATION The dissertation “Protection of Architectural Heritage in Latvia, the 2nd Half of the 19th Century – 1940” created at the University of Latvia, Department of Archaeology and Ancillary Historical Disciplines of the Faculty of History and Philosophy in 2007 by Martins Mintaurs under the guidance of associated professor Aleksandrs Gavrilins, Dr. hist. The dissertation includes introduction, examination of sources and bibliography, three chapters, conclusion, index of...

  7. Production of artificial ionospheric layers by frequency sweeping near the 2nd gyroharmonic

    Pedersen, T.; M. McCarrick; Reinisch, B.; Watkins, B.; Hamel, R.; Paznukhov, V.

    2011-01-01

    Artificial ionospheric plasmas descending from the background F-region have been observed on multiple occasions at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility since it reached full 3.6 MW power. Proximity of the transmitter frequency to the 2nd harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency (2fce) has been noted as a requirement for their occurrence, and their disappearance after only a few minutes has been attributed to the increasing...

  8. Group field theory as the 2nd quantization of Loop Quantum Gravity

    Oriti, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    We construct a 2nd quantized reformulation of canonical Loop Quantum Gravity at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the Group Field Theory formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specifi...

  9. Study on self-medication among 2nd year medical students

    K. Jagadeesh; K. N. Chidananda; Sreenivas P. Revankar; Nagaraja S. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-medication is use of medicines by individuals to treat self-recognized symptoms and illness. Self-medication is a common type of self-care behavior in the general public, but medical students differ in such practice, as they have knowledge about drugs and diseases. Methods: The present study involved 100 2nd year final term medical students in and ldquo;Shivamogga Institute of Medical Sciences, and rdquo; Shivamogga, Karnataka. Study was questionnaire based, and the resul...

  10. Standardization and Innovation The 2nd Shenzhen Hi-tech Standardization Forum Held

    Huang Manxue; Huang Li

    2006-01-01

    @@ "The 2nd Shenzhen Hi-tech Standardization Forum"was fulfilled in Shenzhen Civil Center on November 25th,2005. The forum lasted for two days. There were around 400 delegates from enterprises and standardization organizations participating in this forum. Nine experts from standardization, intellectual property organizations and enterprises made their excellent speeches focusing on the topic "Standardardization and Innovation". All participates agreed that standardization improves innovation efficiently.

  11. Archaeometric study of glass beads from the 2nd century BC cemetery of Numantia

    García Heras, Manuel; Rincoón López, Jesús M.; Alfredo JIMENO MARTÍNEZ; Villegas Broncano, María Angeles

    2003-01-01

    Recent archaeologícalf ieldwork undertaken in the Celtiberian cremation necropolis of Numantia (Soria, Spain) has provided a group of glass beads from the 2nd century BC. Such glass beads were part, together with other metallic and ceramic items, of the offerings deposited with the dead. They are ring-shaped in typology and deep-blue, amber, or semitransparent white in colour. This paper reports results derived from the chemical and microstructural characterization carried out on a representa...

  12. City look package: the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games : Nanjing 2014

    2016-01-01

    The City Look Package of the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games (hereinafter referred to as "Nanjing 2014") is the package of designs developed to decorate the host city during Games time, comprised of usage guidelines for combinations of fundamental elements inside the city, including core graphics, emblem, slogan and so on. As a result, it is the most important guiding document in design and implementation of the city Look. In order to protect the authenticity, integrity and consistency of the ...

  13. A ZeroDimensional Model of a 2nd Generation Planar SOFC Using Calibrated Parameters

    Brian Elmegaard; Niels Houbak; Thomas Frank Petersen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a zero-dimensional mathematical model of a planar 2nd generation coflow SOFC developed for simulation of power systems. The model accounts for the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen as well as the methane reforming reaction and the water-gas shift reaction. An important part of the paper is the electrochemical sub-model, where experimental data was used to calibrate specific parameters. The SOFC model was implemented in the DNA simulation software which is designed for ...

  14. A Communications Guide for Sustainable Development: How Interested Parties Become Partners, 2nd Edition

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Hund, Gretchen; Engel-Cox, Jill A.

    2016-03-06

    The 2nd edition is an updated version plus an e-book. This book was developed to assist organizations in designing and managing their communication and stakeholder involvement programs. The guidebook describes a step-by-step approach, provides case studies, and presents tools to consider. The book uses a scenario approach to outline changes an organization may confront, and provides a menu of communication and engagement activities that support organizational decision making.

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  16. Application research on enhancing near-infrared micro-imaging quality by 2nd derivative

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Zhao, Liu; Wang, Bei-hong; Han, Ping; Pan, Li-gang; Wang, Ji-hua

    2013-08-01

    Near-infrared micro-imaging will not only provide the sample's spatial distribution information, but also the spectroscopic information of each pixel. In this thesis, it took the artificial sample of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate distribution given for example to research the data processing method for enhancing the quality of near-infrared micro-imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopic feature of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate being studied on, compare correlation imaging and 2nd derivative imaging were applied in the imaging processing of the near-infrared micro-image of the artificial sample. Furthermore, the two methods were combined, i.e. 2nd derivative compare correlation imaging was acquired. The result indicated that the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two substances, i.e. wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate, and the reference spectrum has been increased from 0.001 in compare correlation image to 0.796 in 2nd derivative compare correlation image respectively, which enhances the imaging quality efficiently. This study will, to some extent, be of important reference significance to near-infrared micro-imaging method research of agricultural products and foods.

  17. Functional results of osteosynthesis with mini-plate and screws in metacarpal fractures

    Hakan Başar; Betül Başar; Abdullah Kırbız

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To evaluate the radiological and functional results of osteosynthesis with mini-plate and screws in metacarpal fractures. Methods:In our study43 patients who were operated between2009 and2012 were included. The patients were followed-up for(19.76±5.61) months.The mean age of patients was(31.11±7.81) years(7 females,36 males).The fracture types were oblique for19 patients, spiral for15 patients and transverse for9 patients.The patients were operated after a mean of3.4 d(range3 h-6 d) after the fracture had occurred.Patients were immobilized for2 weeks with a splint after surgery. Passive joint movements were started on the third days, and active joint movements were started in the second week.Rehabilitation of all patients was done in the same center with supervision of the same physiotherapist.The patients were assessed by total joint range of movement of the finger, grasping strength andQuick-DASH scores. Results:No significant differences were detected between fingers of the operated hand with same finger of the healthy hand according to total joint range of movement.Total joint range of movement values were measured perfect for38 patients, good for4 patients and medium for 1 patient.There were no significant differences with the corresponding finger on the opposite healthy side according to grasping strength.Soiling in the wound dressing was observed in1 patient but there was no active drainage.Soiling of the wound dressing disappeared after3-5 d of treatment with antimicrobial agent.Bone union was observed in all patients in a mean of6 weeks (range5-7 weeks).The time to return to work was(31.6±8.9) d after the surgical treatment of the fracture. Conclusions:Mini-plate and screws fixation of unstable metacarpal fractures produces anatomical reduction of fractures with stabilization that is rigid enough to allow early mobilization, thereby preventing stiffness and hence good functional results.

  18. Wavelength and oscillator strength of dipole transition 1s22p-1s2nd for Mn22+ ion

    WANG ZhiWen; WANG YaNan; HU MuHong; LI XinRu; LIU Ying

    2008-01-01

    The transition energies, wavelengths and dipole oscillator strengths of 1s22p-1s2nd (3≤n≤9) for Mn22+. ion are calculated. The fine structure splittings of 1s2nd (n ≤9) states for this ion are also evaluated. In calculating energy, the higher-order relativistic contribution is estimated under a hydrogenic approximation. The quantum defect of Rydberg series 1s2nd is determined according to the quantum defect theory. The results obtained in this paper excellently agree with the experi-mental data available in literatures.

  19. Alterations in metacarpal characteristics in steers and heifers sequentially implanted with Synovex from 45 days of birth.

    Hardt, P F; Greene, L W; Lunt, D K

    1995-01-01

    Forty-two heifers and 38 steers sired by either Charolais (n = 47) or Salers (n = 33) from Bos indicus x Hereford dams were used to determine the effects of an anabolic agent on metacarpal characteristics and accompanying weight gain and carcass characteristics. Calves were blocked by sex and sire breed and either not implanted or implanted with Synovex-C within 45 d of birth, and with Synovex-S or -H at weaning and 84 and 169 d postweaning. Calves grazed oat pastures immediately after weaning for 169 d, after which calves received a feedlot diet for 124 d and were slaughtered. Live weight and hip height were recorded at initial implanting, weaning, d 84 and d 169 postweaning, and at approximately 28-d intervals during the feedlot period. Metacarpal and carcass characteristics were determined after slaughter. Metacarpals from implanted calves had greater medio-lateral axis (P grade and tended (P yield grade in heifers, but not in steers. Implanted calves tended (P < .08) to have a lower marbling score.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7601754

  20. Surgical Fixation of Fourth and Fifth Metacarpal Shaft Fractures with Flexible Intramedullary Absorbable Rods: Early Clinical Outcomes and Implications

    Ge Xiong; Zi-Run Xiao; Shi-Gong Guo; Wei Zheng; Lu-Fei Dai

    2015-01-01

    Background:To avoid the irritation of tendons and soft tissues as well as hardware-related problems,we designed an intramedullary fixation with bioabsorbable rods for the treatment of the metacarpal shaft fractures.Methods:Five patients with nine shaft fractures of the fourth and fifth metacarpi were treated with intramedullary absorbable implants and followed up with an average of 4.2 months postoperatively.Results:At final follow-up,all patients achieved fracture union with no signs of inflammatory or subcutaneous effusion.There was no shortening,angulatory,or rotatory deformity.There was almost full active extension range of motion (ROM) of the metacarpophalangeal joints while the active flexion ROM of these joints was 80.7 ± 9.6°.Compared with the contralateral hand,the grip strength of the injured hand was 94.0 ± 9.6%.X-rays showed that the arch of the second to fifth metacarpal heads was smooth.There were no intramedullary lytic changes and soft tissue swellings.Conclusion:The intramedullary absorbable implants are a safe,simple,and practical treatment for fourth and fifth metacarpal fractures with good early clinical outcomes and no significant complications.

  1. Active Control of Long Bridges Using Flaps

    Hansen, H. I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    The main problem in designing ultra-long span suspension bridges is flutter. A solution to this problem might be to introduce an active flap control system to increase the flutter wind velocity. The investigated flap control system consists of flaps integrated in the bridge girder so each flap is...... different flap configurations for a bridge section model by using aerodynamic derivatives for a flat plate. The example shows that different flap configurations can either increase or decrease the flutter wind velocity. for optimal flap configurations flutter will not occur....

  2. Flap Edge Noise Reduction Fins

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhan, Meelan M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A flap of the type that is movably connected to an aircraft wing to provide control of an aircraft in flight includes opposite ends, wherein at least a first opposite end includes a plurality of substantially rigid, laterally extending protrusions that are spaced apart to form a plurality of fluidly interconnected passageways. The passageways have openings adjacent to upper and lower sides of the flap, and the passageways include a plurality of bends such that high pressure fluid flows from a high pressure region to a low pressure region to provide a boundary condition that inhibits noise resulting from airflow around the end of the flap.

  3. Pathology of the distal condyles of the third metacarpal and third metatarsal bones of the horse

    This study examined material from Thoroughbred horses, the majority of which had been in race training, for evidence of pathology in the third metacarpal (McIII) and third metatarsal (MtIII) bones which might be related to the occurrence of distal condylar fractures. Whole bone samples were studied and documented by macrophotography prior to macroradiography and computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Microradiographs were made from 100 microm thick mediolateral sections cut perpendicular to the dorsal and palmar/plantar articular surfaces of distal condylar regions of McIII and MtIII. Blocks were prepared for morphological imaging using the backscattered electron mode of scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM). Linear defects in mineralised articular cartilage and subchondral bone were found in the palmar/plantar aspects of the condylar grooves adjacent to the sagittal ridge. These were closely related to the pattern of densification of the subchondral bone and were associated with intense focal remodelling of the immediately adjacent and subjacent bone. Parasagittal fractures of the condyles originated in similar defects. A unifying hypothesis for the aetiopathogenesis of these fractures is presented

  4. Comparison of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices in children and reference data from the First Zurich Longitudinal Study

    A number of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices are in use, some of which have been adapted for children. The purpose of this study was to compare four known indices - bone mineral density (BMD), relative cortical area, Exton-Smith index, bending breaking resistance index - and the more recently defined pediatric bone index (PBI) according to the two criteria of minimum height dependence and minimum variability in children of equal bone age. A total of 3,121 left-hand radiographs from 231 healthy Caucasian children ranging in age from 3 to 19 years old were analysed using BoneXpert registered, a programme for automatic analysis of hand radiographs and assessment of bone age. Dependence on height for chronological age or bone age and the mean relative standard deviation were lowest in the PBI for both genders pooled. The differences in height dependence were statistically significant and are shown to be clinically relevant. Reference data for PBI are presented. PBI may be a better indicator than BMD for bone health in children; however, verification in a clinical group is needed. (orig.)

  5. Incomplete longitudinal fracture of the proximal palmar cortex of the third metacarpal bone in horses

    Seven horses, 2 to 4 years of age, were examined because of moderate-to-severe forelimb lameness, mild effusion of the middle carpal joint (3 horses), and pain on palpation of the origin of the suspensory ligament (4 horses). The lameness was abolished by anesthetic infiltration of the middle carpal joint in six horses. In four of them, a high palmar nerve block also abolished the lameness. A linear radiolucency in the proximal end of the third metacarpal bone (McIII) was interpreted as an incomplete longitudinal fracture. In one horse, distinct intramedullary sclerosis limited to the palmar cortex was indicative of an incomplete fracture confined to the palmar cortex. No osteoproliferative lesions were identified on the dorsal cortex of any of the horses. Surgical treatment with cortical screws in lag fashion accompanied by a rest period was successful in one horse. In four horses, rest for at least 3 months resulted in clinical soundness. In two horses, a shorter rest period resulted in recurrence of the lameness even though the horses were sound when put back into training. Careful clinical and radiographic examinations helped differentiate incomplete longitudinal fractures from lesions involving the carpus and proximal aspect of the suspensory ligament

  6. Nuclear scintigraphic evaluation of third metacarpal and metatarsal bone fractures in three horses

    Nuclear scintigraphy was used to evaluate healing of third metacarpal bone (MC III) fractures in 2 horses (horses 1 and 2) and a third metatarsal bone fracture in 1 horse (horse 3) after stabilization of each fracture with 2 broad dynamic compression plates. In horse 1, the fracture had uniform uptake of 99mTc methylene diphosphonate on days 1, 15, and 30 after surgery. The fracture healed, and the horse was discharged from the clinic on day 52. In horse 2, a 6-cm photopenic region (ie, area of low radioactivity) was seen over the diaphysis of MC III on day 3. The region persisted and became more distinct by day 32. The diaphysis of MC III sequestered, and horse 2 was euthanatized on day 44. In horse 3, vascularity was seen bridging the fracture on day 5, with a 3-cm photopenic region over the dorsal diaphysis of the third metatarsal bone. By days 18 and 32, uptake of 99mTc methylene diphosphonate in the region had increased, indicating vascularization of the site. the fracture healed, and horse 3 was discharged from the clinic on day 47. Our findings indicated that serial nuclear scintigraphy can be used to evaluate fracture vascularization after surgery in horses

  7. Estructura cristalina del nuevo óxido tipo perovskita compleja Ba2NdZrO5,5

    D.A. Landínez Téllez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new complex perovskite material Ba2NdZrO5;5has been synthesized for the first time by a conventional solid state reaction process. X–raydiffraction (XRD measurements and Rietveld analysis revealed an ordered complex cubic structure characteristic of A2BB0O6crystallinestructure with a lattice constanta= 8;40ß0;01̊A. Energy Dispersive X–ray (EDX analysis shows that Ba2NdZrO5;5is free of impuritytraces. Preliminary studies reveal that at820±C temperature Ba2NdZrO5;5does not react with YBa2Cu3O7°±. These favorable characteristicsof Ba2NdZrO5;5show that it can be used as a potential substrate material for fabrication of superconducting films.

  8. Transition energy and dipole oscillator strength for 1s22p-1s2nd of Cr21+ ion

    Wang Zhi-Wen; Liu Ying; Hu Mu-Hong; Li Xin-Ru; Wang Ya-Nan

    2008-01-01

    The transition energies, wavelengths and dipole oscillator strengths of 1s22p-1s2nd (3 ≤ n ≤ 9) for Cr21+ ion are calculated. The fine structure splittings of 1s2nd (n ≤ 9) states for this ion are also calculated. In calculating energy, we have estimated the higher-order relativistic contribution under a hydrogenic approximation. The quantum defect of Rydberg series 1s2nd is determined according to the quantum defect theory. The results obtained in this paper excellently agree with the experimental data available in the literature. Combining the quantum defect theory with the discrete oscillator strengths, the discrete oscillator strengths for the transitions from initial state 1s22p to highly excited 1s2nd states (n ≥ 10) and the oscillator strength density corresponding to the bound-free transitions are obtained.

  9. Application to non-destructive assay of 2nd layer tail cylinder at Rokkasho Enrichment plant

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards criteria 93+2 requirement stipulates that depleted uranium under the single C/S (Metal or Camera) is re-verified with 10% coverage (β=0.9) once a year, normally during physical inventory verification. In order to maintain the continuity of knowledge, the entire depleted uranium cylinders transferred from the processing area are sealed by inspectorates (the state and the IAEA) after sufficient verification with 50% coverage (β=0.5). At Rokkasho Enrichment plant, the depleted uranium cylinder (0.2∼0.3% enrichment of tail cylinder centrifuged by cascade) separated at the processing area is stored in the cylinder storage. The 2nd layer tail cylinder pile-up has been adopted for efficient-use of the storage; one block is comprised of four cylinders on the lower, three on the upper. The capacity of the specific cylinder crane is limited to as low as height of the upper cylinder. Current lifter with germanium detector is applied to the lower cylinder. However, it is highly possible that inspectorate selects random for the upper tail cylinder at the physical inventory verification. Therefore, at the verification, the operators corporate to lift down the 2nd layer tail cylinder to ground floor so that inspectorate is able to verify it. The Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) has designed and manufactured the specific detector lifter capable of the 2nd layer measurement and the potable detector's collimator. Afterwards, we conducted a site test in the plant and inspection efficiency and reduced operator's burden. (author)

  10. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  11. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd-generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  12. The 2nd to 4th Digit Length Difference and Ratio as Predictors of Hyperandrogenism and Metabolic Syndrome in Females

    Pınar Yıldız1; Mustafa Yıldız; Ali Cihat Yıldırım3; et al, ...

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study we evaluated the usefulness of 2nd to 4th (2nd:4th) digit length difference and ratio in determining hyperandrogenism in females and the relationship with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We designed a cross-sectional clinical study and examined 150 females who visited our clinic; 137 completed the study. We measured blood pressure and anthropometric values. Biochemical parameters associated with metabolic syndrome were also measured. Results: The mean age of our p...

  13. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 2 includes best papers from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into six sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Mathematical Modeling, Analysis and Computation, Control Engineering, Reliable Networks Design, Vehicular Communications and Networking, Automation and Mechatronics.

  14. [Infected chorionic hematoma as a cause of infection in the 2nd trimester].

    Weigel, M; Friese, K; Schmitt, W; Strittmatter, H J; Melchert, F

    1992-12-01

    Superinfected subchorionic haematomas are a rare septic focus in the 2nd trimenon. Symptoms being unspecific, the diagnosis has to be made by exclusion, in most cases. As the changes of a successful treatment of the manifest infection is poor, antibiotic prophylaxis as well as close laboratory controls and early antibiotic therapy should be discussed after sonographic diagnosis of an intrauterine haematoma. Two of our three patients reported on having suffered a miscarriage; only one pregnancy could be maintained after spontaneous depletion of the infected haemorrhage. PMID:1490559

  15. 2nd EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS APPLIED TO THE CONSERVATION OF ARTWORKS

    Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa; DOMENECH CARBO, ANTONIO

    2014-01-01

    This book is issued at the occasion of the 2nd European Conference on electrochemical methods applied to the conservation of artworks, held in Valencia, on 23th September, 2014. This Conference has been hosted by the Instituto Universitario de Restauración del Patrimonio of the Universitat Politècnica de València and has been organized under the auspices of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, the Universitat Politécnica de València, the Universitat de València and the Universisad de Grana...

  16. 2nd ISPRA nuclear electronics symposium, Stresa, Italy May 20-23, 1975

    Two round tables were annexed to the 2nd Ispra Nuclear Electronics Symposium. The first one was concerned with software support for the implementation of microprocessors, MOS and bipolar microporcessors, environmental data systems, and the use of microprocessors and minicomputers in nuclear, biomedical and environmental fields. Nuclear electronics future, and its diversification, gravitational waves and electronics, the environmental measurements of air and water quality were discussed during the second round table, and relevant feelings brought out during the discussion on the extension of nuclear electronics techniques to other fields

  17. 1st and 2nd Trimester Headsize in Fetuses with Congenital Heart Disease: A Cohort Study

    Lauridsen, Mette Høj; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Vestergaard, Else Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with neuro-developmental disorders. The influence of CHD on the brain may be present in the fetus. We hypothesize that fetal cerebral growth is impaired as early as 2nd trimester. Aim: To investigate if fetal cerebral growth is associated...... and screening for fetal malformations is carried out. Our cohort includes all fetuses in Western Denmark (2.9 million inhabitants) screened in between January 1st 2012 and December 31st 2013, diagnosed with any structural, non-syndromic congenital heart disease either during pregnancy or up to 6...

  18. Boosting biogas yield of anaerobic digesters by utilizing concentrated molasses from 2nd generation bioethanol plant

    Shiplu Sarker, Henrik Bjarne Møller

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated molasses (C5 molasses) from 2nd generation bioethanol plant has been investigated for enhancing productivity of manure based digesters. A batch study at mesophilic condition (35±1C) showed the maximum methane yield from molasses as 286 LCH4/kgVS which was approximately 63% of the calculated theoretical yield. In addition to the batch study, co-digestion of molasses with cattle manure in a semi-continuously stirred reactor at thermophilic temperature (50±1°C) was also performed wi...

  19. Effects of Thermal Cycling on Control and Irradiated EPC 2nd Generation GaN FETs

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Results of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  20. Construction of the 2nd 500kV DC gun at KEK

    The 2nd 500 kV DC photocathode electron gun for a ERL injector was constructed at KEK. The gun has some functions such as a insulated anode electrode for using dark current monitor, a repeller electrode for decreasing backward ions, extreme high vacuum pumps and so on. A high voltage conditioning is just begun from this summer. In addition, a new cathode preparation system has been developed. It can prepare three cathodes simultaneously and storage many cathodes in a good vacuum condition. The detail design was finished and the construction of all in-vacuum components is progressing. (author)

  1. TF insert experiment log book. 2nd Experiment of CS model coil

    The cool down of CS model coil and TF insert was started on August 20, 2001. It took almost one month and immediately started coil charge since September 17, 2001. The charge test of TF insert and CS model coil was completed on October 19, 2001. In this campaign, total shot numbers were 88 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was about 4 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. This is an experiment logbook for 2nd experiment of CS model coil and TF insert for charge test. (author)

  2. Mapping and industrial IT project to a 2nd semester design-build project

    Nyborg, Mads; Høgh, Stig

    2010-01-01

    CDIO means bringing the engineer's daily life and working practice into the educational system. In our opinion this is best done by selecting an appropriate project from industry. In this paper we describe how we have mapped an industrial IT project to a 2nd semester design-build project in the Diploma IT program at the Technical University of Denmark. The system in question is a weighing system operating in a LAN environment. The system is used in the medical industry for producing tablets. ...

  3. The 2nd International Association of Neurorestoratology Annual Conference(IANAC)Summary

    Lin CHEN; Da-Qian HUANG; Di CHEN; Hong-Yun HUANG

    2009-01-01

    The 2nd International Association of Neurorestoratology Annual Conference(IANAC)was successfully held in Beijing, China,from April 24 to 26,2009.More than 200 representatives from 30 countries and regions attended the meeting and carried out extensive academic communications and reached important consensus on many issues in neuroregeneration,neural structural repair,neural replacement,neuroprotection,neuromodulation,neurorehabilitation,neuroplasticity and other areas in the field of neurorestoratology.The general assembly adopted"Beijing Declaration of International Association of Neurorestoratology"(Beijing Declaration)that was proposed by 32 scientists from 18 countries.

  4. 2nd International Conference on Multiscale Computational Methods for Solids and Fluids

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains the best papers presented at the 2nd ECCOMAS International Conference on Multiscale Computations for Solids and Fluids, held June 10-12, 2015. Topics dealt with include multiscale strategy for efficient development of scientific software for large-scale computations, coupled probability-nonlinear-mechanics problems and solution methods, and modern mathematical and computational setting for multi-phase flows and fluid-structure interaction. The papers consist of contributions by six experts who taught short courses prior to the conference, along with several selected articles from other participants dealing with complementary issues, covering both solid mechanics and applied mathematics. .

  5. Performance and validation of COMPUCEA 2nd generation for uranium measurements in physical inventory verification

    A new instrumental version of COMPUCEA has been developed with the aim to provide a simplified and more practical instrumentation for in-field use. The main design goals were to eliminate the radioactive sources and the liquid nitrogen-cooled Ge detectors used in the 1st generation of COMPUCEA. This paper describes the major technical features of the 2nd generation of equipment together with typical performance data. The performance tests carried out during first in-field measurements in the course of physical inventory verification campaigns represent an important step in the validation of this new instrument. (author)

  6. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition?

    Manning, J T; Bundred, P E

    2000-05-01

    The ratio between the length of the 2nd and 4th digits is: (a) fixed in utero; (b) lower in men than in women; (c) negatively related to testosterone and sperm counts; and (d) positively related to oestrogen concentrations. Prenatal levels of testosterone and oestrogen have been implicated in infertility, autism, dyslexia, migraine, stammering, immune dysfunction, myocardial infarction and breast cancer. We suggest that 2D:4D ratio is predictive of these diseases and may be used in diagnosis, prognosis and in early life-style interventions which may delay the onset of disease or facilitate its early detection. PMID:10859702

  7. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development

  8. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  9. DRS // CUMULUS Oslo 2013. The 2nd International Conference for Design Education Researchers

    Liv Merete Nielsen

    2013-01-01

    14-17 May 2013, Oslo, NorwayWe have received more than 200 full papers for the 2nd International Conference for Design Education Researchers in Oslo.This international conference is a springboard for sharing ideas and concepts about contemporary design education research. Contributors are invited to submit research that deals with different facets of contemporary approaches to design education research. All papers will be double-blind peer-reviewed. This conference is open to research in any ...

  10. Collection of documents in the 2nd information exchange meeting on radioactive waste disposal research network

    The 2nd meeting on 'Radioactive Waste Disposal Research Network' was held at the Nagoya University Museum on March 30, 2007. The 'Radioactive Waste Disposal Research Network' was established in Interorganization Atomic Energy Research Program under academic collaborative agreement between Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the University of Tokyo. The objective is to develop both research infrastructures and human expertise in Japan to an adequate performance level, thereby contributing to the development of the fundamental research in the field of radioactive waste disposal. This material is a collection of presentations and discussions during the information exchange meeting. (author)

  11. PREFACE: 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.

    2013-11-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology, 2nd IMRMPT, which was held from February 27 to March 2, 2013 at the Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga-UPB and Santander and Industrial - UIS Universities, Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by research groups from GINTEP-UPB, FITEK-UIS. The IMRMPT, was the second version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The three-day scientific program of the 2nd IMRMPT consisted in 14 Magisterial Conferences, 42 Oral Presentations and 48 Poster Presentations, with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, Mexico, United States, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish scientific cooperation in the field of materials science and plasma technology; introduce new techniques of surface treatment of materials to improve properties of metals in terms of the deterioration due to corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, abrasion, hardness, among others; and establish cooperation agreements between universities and industry. The topics covered in the 2nd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Characterization of Materials, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion / Oxidation, Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Biomedical Coatings and Surface Treatments, Non Destructive Evaluation and Online Process Control, Surface Modification (Ion Implantation, Ion Nitriding, PVD, CVD). The editors hope that those interested in the are of materials science and plasma technology, enjoy the reading that reflect a wide range of topics. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors and all the participants and contributors for

  12. Proceedings 2nd Workshop on Formal Methods in the Development of Software

    Andrés, César; Llana, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 2nd WorkShop on Formal Methods in the Development of Software (WS-FMDS 2012). The workshop was held in Paris, France on August 30th, 2012 as a satellite event to the 18th International Symposium on Formal Methods (FM-2012). The aim of WS-FMDS 2012 is to provide a forum for researchers who are interested in the application of formal methods on systems which are being developing with a software methodology. In particular, this workshop is intended to ...

  13. A ZeroDimensional Model of a 2nd Generation Planar SOFC Using Calibrated Parameters

    Brian Elmegaard

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a zero-dimensional mathematical model of a planar 2nd generation coflow SOFC developed for simulation of power systems. The model accounts for the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen as well as the methane reforming reaction and the water-gas shift reaction. An important part of the paper is the electrochemical sub-model, where experimental data was used to calibrate specific parameters. The SOFC model was implemented in the DNA simulation software which is designed for energy system simulation. The result is an accurate and flexible tool suitable for simulation of many different SOFC-based power systems.

  14. Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Larsen, Thomas;

    effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i...... control. After 5 and 11 weeks, data on populations, plants and soil organic matter decomposition were evaluated. Natural abundances of stable isotopes, 13C and 15N, of animals, soil, plants and added organic matter (crushed maize leaves) were used to describe the soil food web structure....

  15. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively. PMID:27426066

  16. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 1 includes best papers selected from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into five sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Identification and Control, Navigation, Guidance and Sensor, Simulation Technology, Future Telecommunications and Control

  17. The freestyle pedicle perforator flap

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Jackson, Ian T; Westvik, Tormod S; Thomsen, Jorn Bo

    2015-01-01

    not widely performed by the general plastic surgeons. The aim of this paper is to present the simplicity of pedicled perforator flap reconstruction of moderate-sized defects of the extremities and torso. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 34 patients reconstructed using 34 freestyle...... aspects in the context of current literature. RESULTS: The reconstructive goals were achieved in all cases without any total flap loss or major complications. Minor complications occurred in 7/34 (21 %) cases consisting of venous congestion leading to distal tip necrosis or epidermolysis; partial flap...... loss was significant in 4 cases, however never more than 10 % of the total flap size. Reconstruction was performed on the lower limb in 13 cases, upper limb in 12, and 9 cases were on the truncus. The angle of rotation was 90° in 21 cases and 180° in 13 cases. The most common indication was...

  18. Modified osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flaps transplantation.

    Liu, Jun; Song, Dajiang; Li, Jinsong; Xu, Jian; Lv, Hongbin

    2015-04-01

    The paper aims to improve the operative technique of osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flap harvesting, further minimise morbidity of donor site, and improve the effect of recipient site reconstruction. From March 2005 to March 2011, 55 cases of osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flap harvested by different methods were performed to reconstruct the defects of the extremities. Twenty-nine cases were reconstructed with a traditional deep circumflex iliac artery osteomusculocutaneous flap. Twenty-six cases were repaired with modified osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flaps. In 29 cases with a traditional DCIA osteomusculocutaneous flap, two cases showed the injured lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Flapnecrosis was significant in two cases. Arterial compromise occurred in one case 5 days after operation completion and led to flap failure. Three flaps developed postoperative venous congestion, but only one flap received re-exploration. In the other two cases, some stitches were removed for decompression. All three flaps survived. In two cases, marginal flap necrosis occurred, but no secondary skin grafting was required. In 26 cases with modified flap transplantation, one case showed the injured lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. All flaps survived totally. Osseous integration was achieved in all 55 cases in 3 ∼ 9 months after operation. The modified osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flap technique enhances flap safety, provides the additional advantages of reducing donor-site morbidity, and improves the recipient-site contour. PMID:25001367

  19. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities.

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policy makers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  20. A novel 2nd-order bandpass MFSS filter with miniaturized structure

    C. Y. Fang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively obtain a miniaturized structure and good filtering properties, we propose a novel 2nd-order bandpass metamaterial frequency selective surface (MFSS filter which contains two capacitive layers and one inductive layer, where there are multi-loop metallic patches as shunt capacitor C and planar wire grids as series inductor L respectively. Unlike the traditional operation way—the tuned elements used in resonant surface approximately equal to one wavelength in circumference and the structure thickness with a spacing of a quarter wavelength apart, by changing the value of L and C and matching multilayer dielectric to adjust the LC coupling resonance and the resonance impedance respectively, the proposed MFSS filter can achieves a miniatured structure with ideal bandpass properties. Measurement results of the fabricated prototype of the bandpass filter (BPF indicate that the dimension of the tuned element on resonant surface is approximately 0.025 wavelength, i.e., 0.025λ. At the same time, the filter has the stable center frequency of f0 = 1.53GHz and the transmittance of T ⩾ 96.3% and high Q-value for the TE/TM wave polarization at various incidence angles. The novel 2nd-order bandpass MFSS filter with miniaturized structure not only can decrease structure dimension, but also has a wide range of applications to microwave and infrared band.

  1. Proceedings of the 2nd technical meeting on high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    From the point of view for establishing and upgrading the technology basis of HTGRs, the 2nd Technical Meeting on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) was held on March 11 and 12, 1992, in Tokai Research Establishment in order to review the present status and the results of Research and Development (R and D) of HTGRs, to discuss on the items of R and D which should be promoted more positively in the future and then, to help in determining the strategy of development of high temperature engineering and examination in JAERI. At the 2nd Technical Meeting, which followed the 1st Technical Meeting held in February 1990 in Tokai Research Establishment, expectations to the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), possible contributions of the HTGRs to the preservation of the global environment and the prospect of HTGRs were especially discussed, focusing on the R and D of Safety, high temperature components and process heat utilization by the experts from JAERI as well as universities, national institutes, industries and so on. This proceedings summarizes the papers presented in the oral sessions and materials exhibited in the poster session at the meeting and will be variable as key materials for promoting the R and D on HTGRs from now on. (author)

  2. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    Wan, Xing; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-Jian; Yang, Shuo; Hu, Wei-Kun; He, Heng; Ma, Si-Qi; Zhang, Ge; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-Wen; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to one eye and then followed for 9 months. Ophthalmologic examinations of visual acuity, visual field, and optical coherence tomography were performed. Physical examinations included routine blood and urine. The visual acuity of the injected eyes of six patients improved by at least 0.3 log MAR after 9 months of follow-up. In these six patients, the visual field was enlarged but the retinal nerve fibre layer remained relatively stable. No other outcome measure was significantly changed. None of the nine patients had local or systemic adverse events related to the vector during the 9-month follow-up period. These findings support the feasible use of gene therapy for LHON. PMID:26892229

  3. Scoping analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor using SN2ND

    Wolters, E.; Smith, M. (NE NEAMS PROGRAM); ( SC)

    2012-07-26

    A detailed set of calculations was carried out for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) using the SN2ND solver of the UNIC code which is part of the SHARP multi-physics code being developed under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program in DOE-NE. The primary motivation of this work is to assess whether high fidelity deterministic transport codes can tackle coupled dynamics simulations of the ATR. The successful use of such codes in a coupled dynamics simulation can impact what experiments are performed and what power levels are permitted during those experiments at the ATR. The advantages of the SN2ND solver over comparable neutronics tools are its superior parallel performance and demonstrated accuracy on large scale homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor geometries. However, it should be noted that virtually no effort from this project was spent constructing a proper cross section generation methodology for the ATR usable in the SN2ND solver. While attempts were made to use cross section data derived from SCALE, the minimal number of compositional cross section sets were generated to be consistent with the reference Monte Carlo input specification. The accuracy of any deterministic transport solver is impacted by such an approach and clearly it causes substantial errors in this work. The reasoning behind this decision is justified given the overall funding dedicated to the task (two months) and the real focus of the work: can modern deterministic tools actually treat complex facilities like the ATR with heterogeneous geometry modeling. SN2ND has been demonstrated to solve problems with upwards of one trillion degrees of freedom which translates to tens of millions of finite elements, hundreds of angles, and hundreds of energy groups, resulting in a very high-fidelity model of the system unachievable by most deterministic transport codes today. A space-angle convergence study was conducted to determine the meshing and angular cubature

  4. Scoping analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor using SN2ND

    A detailed set of calculations was carried out for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) using the SN2ND solver of the UNIC code which is part of the SHARP multi-physics code being developed under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program in DOE-NE. The primary motivation of this work is to assess whether high fidelity deterministic transport codes can tackle coupled dynamics simulations of the ATR. The successful use of such codes in a coupled dynamics simulation can impact what experiments are performed and what power levels are permitted during those experiments at the ATR. The advantages of the SN2ND solver over comparable neutronics tools are its superior parallel performance and demonstrated accuracy on large scale homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor geometries. However, it should be noted that virtually no effort from this project was spent constructing a proper cross section generation methodology for the ATR usable in the SN2ND solver. While attempts were made to use cross section data derived from SCALE, the minimal number of compositional cross section sets were generated to be consistent with the reference Monte Carlo input specification. The accuracy of any deterministic transport solver is impacted by such an approach and clearly it causes substantial errors in this work. The reasoning behind this decision is justified given the overall funding dedicated to the task (two months) and the real focus of the work: can modern deterministic tools actually treat complex facilities like the ATR with heterogeneous geometry modeling. SN2ND has been demonstrated to solve problems with upwards of one trillion degrees of freedom which translates to tens of millions of finite elements, hundreds of angles, and hundreds of energy groups, resulting in a very high-fidelity model of the system unachievable by most deterministic transport codes today. A space-angle convergence study was conducted to determine the meshing and angular cubature

  5. Experimental Study of Wake / Flap Interaction Noise and the Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Plassman, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the interaction of a wake with a half-span flap on radiated noise are examined. The incident wake is generated by bars of various widths and lengths or by a simplified landing gear model. Single microphone and phased array measurements are used to isolate the effects of the wake interaction on the noise radiating from the flap side edge and flap cove regions. The effects on noise of the wake generator's geometry and relative placement with respect to the flap are assessed. Placement of the wake generators upstream of the flap side edge is shown to lead to the reduction of flap side edge noise by introducing a velocity deficit and likely altering the instabilities in the flap side edge vortex system. Significant reduction in flap side edge noise is achieved with a bar positioned directly upstream of the flap side edge. The noise reduction benefit is seen to improve with increased bar width, length and proximity to the flap edge. Positioning of the landing gear model upstream of the flap side edge also leads to decreased flap side edge noise. In addition, flap cove noise levels are significantly lower than when the landing gear is positioned upstream of the flap mid-span. The impact of the local flow velocity on the noise radiating directly from the landing gear is discussed. The effects of the landing gear side-braces on flap side edge, flap cove and landing gear noise are shown.

  6. Free thin paraumbilical perforator-based flaps.

    Koshima, I; Moriguchi, T; Soeda, S; Tanaka, H; Umeda, N

    1992-07-01

    A free paraumbilical perforator-based flap fed by a muscle perforator from the inferior deep epigastric artery and with no muscle was used in 13 patients. Among them, a free thin paraumbilical perforator-based flap with a thin layer of fat, to protect the subdermal plexus of the vessels, was used in seven patients. The dominant pedicle perforator of this thin flap is usually located around the umbilicus and a large flap can be obtained. Its critical length-to-breath ratio is considered to be 4:3. The advantages of this flap are a long and large vascular pedicle, rare postoperative abdominal herniation, little bulkiness of the flap, and a relatively large skin territory. The disadvantages are technical difficulties in dissection of the perforator and anatomical variation in the location of the perforator. We believe this flap largely overcomes the problems of the conventional rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. PMID:1386718

  7. The Planar Optics Phase Sensor: a study for the VLTI 2nd Generation Fringe Tracker

    Blind, Nicolas; Absil, Olivier; Alamir, Mazen; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Defrère, Denis; Feautrier, Philippe; Hénault, Franois; Jocou, Laurent; Kern, Pierre; Laurent, Thomas; Malbet, Fabien; Mourard, Denis; Rousselet-Perrault, Karine; Sarlette, Alain; Surdej, Jean; Tarmoul, Nassima; Tatulli, Eric; Vincent, Lionel; 10.1117/12.857114

    2010-01-01

    In a few years, the second generation instruments of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) will routinely provide observations with 4 to 6 telescopes simultaneously. To reach their ultimate performance, they will need a fringe sensor capable to measure in real time the randomly varying optical paths differences. A collaboration between LAOG (PI institute), IAGL, OCA and GIPSA-Lab has proposed the Planar Optics Phase Sensor concept to ESO for the 2nd Generation Fringe Tracker. This concept is based on the integrated optics technologies, enabling the conception of extremely compact interferometric instruments naturally providing single-mode spatial filtering. It allows operations with 4 and 6 telescopes by measuring the fringes position thanks to a spectrally dispersed ABCD method. We present here the main analysis which led to the current concept as well as the expected on-sky performance and the proposed design.

  8. Tetragonal ZrO2:Nd3+ nanosphere: Combustion synthesis, luminescence and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Chandrasekhar, D.; Kadam, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Nanocrystalline ZrO2:Nd3+ was synthesised using gel-combustion method and characterized systematically using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Through this route we can stabilize metastable tetragonal phase at 500 °C through addition of 1 mol % Nd3+ which is technologically more important. Optical characterization of the sample was done using photoluminescence (PL) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). PL studies shows an intense and optimum stimulated emission cross section of 1065 nm peak corresponding to 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 which and thus it can be a probable laser material. PAS is used to investigate electronic absorption of Nd3 in zirconia. Various covalency parameters like nephelauxetic ratio (β), covalency factor (b1/2) and Sinha parameter (δ) were evaluated for pure oxide powder and as well as for Nd3+ doped zirconia.

  9. Book Review: The Communicating Leader: The key to strategic alignment (2nd Ed

    X. C. Birkenbach

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Title: The Communicating Leader: The key to strategic alignment (2nd Ed Author: Gustav Puth Publisher: Van Schaik Publishers Reviewer: XC Birkenbach The aim of the book according to the author, is "meant to be a usable tool, an instrument in the toolbox of the real leader and leadership student". The book is written in conversational style (as intended by the author and the 219 pages of the 10 chapters are logically packaged into three parts. While the main emphasis is naturally on leadership and communication, the coverage includes topics typically encountered in Organisational Behaviour or Management texts, e.g., organizational culture, managing change, motivation, conflict management and strategic management.

  10. 2nd International Conference on Education and Educational Technology (EET 2011)

    Education and Educational Technology

    2012-01-01

    This volume includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 2011 2nd International Conference on Education and Educational Technology (EET 2011) held in Chengdu, China, October 1-2, 2011. The mission of EET 2011 Volume 1 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of education and educational technology to disseminate their latest research results and exchange views on the future research directions of these fields. 130 related topic papers were selected into this volume. All the papers were reviewed by 2 program committee members and selected by the volume editor Prof. Yuanzhi Wang, from Intelligent Information Technology Application Research Association, Hong Kong. The conference will bring together leading researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest. We hope every participant can have a good opportunity to exchange their research ideas and results and to discuss the state of the art in th...

  11. Proceedings of the 2nd seminar of R and D on advanced ORIENT

    The 2nd Seminar of R and D on advanced ORIENT was held at Ricotte, on November 7th, 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The first meeting of this seminar was held on Oarai, Ibaraki on May, 2008, and more than fifty participants including related researchers and general public people were attended to this seminar. The second seminar has headed by Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, JAEA on Tokai, Ibaraki with 63 participants. Spent nuclear fuel should be recognized not only mass of radioactive elements but also potentially useful materials including platinum metals and rare earth elements. Taking the cooperation with universities related companies and research institutes, into consideration, we aimed at expanding and progressing the basic researches. This report records abstracts and figures submitted from the oral speakers in this seminar. (author)

  12. Preliminary GPS orbit combination results of the IGS 2nd reprocessing campaign

    Choi, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    International GNSS Service (IGS) has contributed to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame by reprocessing historic GPS network data and submitting Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions and Earth Rotation Parameters. For the 2nd reprocessing campaign, Analysis Centers (ACs) used up to 21 years of GPS observation data with daily integrations. IERS2010 conventions are applied to model the physical effects of the Earth. Total eight ACs have participated (7 Global solutions, and 2 Tide Gauge solutions) by reprocessing entire time series in a consistent way using the latest models and methodology. IGS combined daily SINEX TRF and EOP combinations have already been submitted to the IERS for ITRF2013. This presentation mainly focuses on the preliminary quality assessment of the reprocessed AC orbits. Quality of the orbit products are examined by examining the repeatability between daily AC satellite ephemeris. Power spectral analysis shows the background noise characteristics of each AC products, and its periodic behaviors.

  13. Summary of the 2nd workshop on ion beam-applied biology

    Induction of novel plant resources by ion beam-irradiation has been investigated in JAERI. To share the knowledge of the present status of the field, and to find out future plants, 1st Workshop on ion beam-applied biology was held last year titled as ''Development of breeding technique for ion beams''. To further improve the research cooperation and to exchange useful information in the field, researchers inside JAERI and also with researchers outside, such as those from agricultural experiment stations, companies, and Universities met each other at the 2nd workshop on ion beam-applied biology titled as ''Future development of breeding technique for ion beams''. People from RIKEN, Institute of Radiation Breeding, Wakasa wan Energy Research Center, National Institute of Radiological Science also participated in this workshop. The 12 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  14. 2nd Canada-China joint workshop on supercritical-water-cooled reactors (CCSC-2010)

    The 2nd Canada-China Joint Workshop on Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors (CCSC-2010) was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on April 25-25, 2010. This joint workshop aimed at providing a forum for discussion of advancements and issues, sharing information and technology transfer, and establishing future collaborations on research and developments for supercritical water-cooled reactors (SCWR) between Canadian and Chinese research organizations. Participants were those involved in research and development of SCWR core design, materials, chemistry, corrosion, thermalhydraulics, and safety analysis at organizations in Canada and China. Papers related to the following topics were of interest to the workshop: reactor core and fuel designs; materials, chemistry and corrosion; thermalhydraulics and safety analysis; balance of plant; and other applications.

  15. 2nd International Conference on Electrical Systems, Technology and Information 2015

    Tanoto, Yusak; Lim, Resmana; Santoso, Murtiyanto; Pah, Nemuel

    2016-01-01

    This book includes the original, peer-reviewed research papers from the 2nd International Conference on Electrical Systems, Technology and Information (ICESTI 2015), held in September 2015 at Patra Jasa Resort & Villas Bali, Indonesia. Topics covered include: Mechatronics and Robotics, Circuits and Systems, Power and Energy Systems, Control and Industrial Automation, and Information Theory.    It explores emerging technologies and their application in a broad range of engineering disciplines, including communication technologies and smart grids. It examines hybrid intelligent and knowledge-based control, embedded systems, and machine learning. It also presents emerging research and recent application in green energy system and storage. It discusses the role of electrical engineering in biomedical, industrial and mechanical systems, as well as multimedia systems and applications, computer vision and image and signal processing. The primary objective of this series is to provide references for disseminat...

  16. 2nd International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology 2015

    Sulaiman, Norasrudin; Adnan, Rahmat

    2016-01-01

    The proceeding is a collection of research papers presented at the 2nd International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology (ICoSSEET2015), a conference dedicated to address the challenges in the areas of sports science, exercise, sports engineering and technology including other areas of sports, thereby presenting a consolidated view to the interested researchers in the aforesaid fields. The goal of this conference was to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on the scope of the conference and establishing new collaborations in these areas. The topics of interest are in mainly (1) Sports and Exercise Science (2) Sports Engineering and Technology Application (3) Sports Industry and Management.

  17. 2nd Symposium on Fluid-Structure-Sound Interactions and Control

    Liu, Yang; Huang, Lixi; Hodges, Dewey

    2014-01-01

    With rapid economic and industrial development in China, India and elsewhere, fluid-related structural vibration and noise problems are widely encountered in many fields, just as they are in the more developed parts of the world, causing increasingly grievous concerns. Turbulence clearly has a significant impact on many such problems. On the other hand, new opportunities are emerging with the advent of various new technologies, such as signal processing, flow visualization and diagnostics, new functional materials, sensors and actuators, etc. These have revitalized interdisciplinary research activities, and it is in this context that the 2nd symposium on fluid-structure-sound interactions and control (FSSIC) was organized. Held in Hong Kong (May 20-21, 2013) and Macau (May 22-23, 2013), the meeting brought together scientists and engineers working in all related branches from both East and West and provided them with a forum to exchange and share the latest progress, ideas and advances and to chart the fronti...

  18. The New 2nd-Generation SRF R&D Facility at Jefferson Lab: TEDF

    Reece, Charles E.; Reilly, Anthony V.

    2012-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has funded a near-complete renovation of the SRF-based accelerator research and development facilities at Jefferson Lab. The project to accomplish this, the Technical and Engineering Development Facility (TEDF) Project has completed the first of two phases. An entirely new 3,100 m{sup 2} purpose-built SRF technical work facility has been constructed and was occupied in summer of 2012. All SRF work processes with the exception of cryogenic testing have been relocated into the new building. All cavity fabrication, processing, thermal treatment, chemistry, cleaning, and assembly work is collected conveniently into a new LEED-certified building. An innovatively designed 800 m2 cleanroom/chemroom suite provides long-term flexibility for support of multiple R&D and construction projects as well as continued process evolution. The characteristics of this first 2nd-generation SRF facility are described.

  19. 2nd International Conference on Education and Educational Technology (EET 2011)

    Education Management, Education Theory and Education Application

    2012-01-01

    This volume includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 2011 2nd International Conference on Education and Educational Technology (EET 2011) held in Chengdu, China, October 1-2, 2011. The mission of EET 2011 Volume 2 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of education management, education theory and education application to disseminate their latest research results and exchange views on the future research directions of these fields. 133 related topic papers were selected into this volume. All the papers were reviewed by 2 program committee members and selected by the volume editor Prof. Yuanzhi Wang, from Intelligent Information Technology Application Research Association, Hong Kong. The conference will bring together leading researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest. We hope every participant can have a good opportunity to exchange their research ideas and results and to discus...

  20. analysis and implementation of reactor protection system circuits - case study Egypt's 2 nd research reactor-

    this work presents a way to design and implement the trip unit of a reactor protection system (RPS) using a field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). instead of the traditional embedded microprocessor based interface design method, a proposed tailor made FPGA based circuit is built to substitute the trip unit (TU), which is used in Egypt's 2 nd research reactor ETRR-2. the existing embedded system is built around the STD32 field computer bus which is used in industrial and process control applications. it is modular, rugged, reliable, and easy-to-use and is able to support a large mix of I/O cards and to easily change its configuration in the future. therefore, the same bus is still used in the proposed design. the state machine of this bus is designed based around its timing diagrams and implemented in VHDL to interface the designed TU circuit

  1. Proceedings of the 2nd joint seminar on atomic collisions and heavy ion induced nuclear reactions

    The meeting of the 2nd joint seminar on atomic collisions and heavy ion induced nuclear reactions was held at the University of Tokyo, May 13 and 14, 1982. The aim of this seminar has been not only to recognize the common problems lying between above two research fields, but also to obtain an overview of the theoretical and experimental approaches to clear the current problems. In the seminar, more than 50 participants gathered and presented 16 papers. These are two general reviews and fourteen comprehensive surveys on topical subjects which have been developed very intensively in recent years. The editors would like to thank all participants for their assistance and cooperation in making possible a publication of these proceedings. (author)

  2. A Perpendicular Biased 2nd Harmonic Cavity for the Fermilab Booster

    Tan, C. Y.; Dey, J. [Fermilab; Madrak, R. L. [Fermilab; Pellico, W. [Fermilab; Romanov, G. [Fermilab; Sun, D. [Fermilab; Terechkine, I. [Fermilab

    2015-07-13

    A perpendicular biased 2nd harmonic cavity is currently being designed for the Fermilab Booster. Its purpose cavity is to flatten the bucket at injection and thus change the longitudinal beam distribution so that space charge effects are decreased. It can also with transition crossing. The reason for the choice of perpendicular biasing over parallel biasing is that the Q of the cavity is much higher and thus allows the accelerating voltage to be a factor of two higher than a similar parallel biased cavity. This cavity will also provide a higher accelerating voltage per meter than the present folded transmission line cavity. However, this type of cavity presents technical challenges that need to be addressed. The two major issues are cooling of the garnet material from the effects of the RF and the cavity itself from eddy current heating because of the 15 Hz bias field ramp. This paper will address the technical challenge of preventing the garnet from overheating.

  3. Proceedings of the 2nd annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2003 Tsukuba

    This is the program and the proceedings of the 2nd annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management held from December 3rd through the 5th of 2003. The sessions held were: (1) Research on Low-level Waste, (2) Topics related to Detector, Measurement, and Instrument, (3) Dose Level and Imaging Plate, (4) Radiation, (5) Safety Education and Safety Evaluation. The poster sessions held were: (1) Safety Education, Safety Evaluation, Shielding, and so on, (2) Control System and Control Technology, (3) Detector and Radiation Measurement, (4) Topics Related to Imaging Plate, (5) Environment and Radiation Measurement, and (6) Radiation Control. Symposia held were: (1) 'Regarding Basic Concept to Incorporate International Exemption Level in Regulation' as the keynote lecture and (2) 'Regarding Correspondence Associated with Legal Revision and Radiation Safety Regulation'. Regarding these topics, after the explanation from each area, panel discussions were held. (S.K.)

  4. 2nd International Conference on Computer Science, Applied Mathematics and Applications

    Thi, Hoai; Nguyen, Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings consists of 30 papers which have been selected and invited from the submissions to the 2nd International Conference on Computer Science, Applied Mathematics and Applications (ICCSAMA 2014) held on 8-9 May, 2014 in Budapest, Hungary. The conference is organized into 7 sessions: Advanced Optimization Methods and Their Applications, Queueing Models and Performance Evaluation, Software Development and Testing, Computational Methods for Mobile and Wireless Networks, Computational Methods for Knowledge Engineering, Logic Based Methods for Decision Making and Data Mining, and Nonlinear Systems and Applications, respectively. All chapters in the book discuss theoretical and practical issues connected with computational methods and optimization methods for knowledge engineering. The editors hope that this volume can be useful for graduate and Ph.D. students and researchers in Computer Science and Applied Mathematics. It is the hope of the editors that readers of this volume can find many inspiring idea...

  5. Belief Functions: Theory and Applications - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Belief Functions

    Masson, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The theory of belief functions, also known as evidence theory or Dempster-Shafer theory, was first introduced by Arthur P. Dempster in the context of statistical inference, and was later developed by Glenn Shafer as a general framework for modeling epistemic uncertainty. These early contributions have been the starting points of many important developments, including the Transferable Belief Model and the Theory of Hints. The theory of belief functions is now well established as a general framework for reasoning with uncertainty, and has well understood connections to other frameworks such as probability, possibility and imprecise probability theories.   This volume contains the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Belief Functions that was held in Compiègne, France on 9-11 May 2012. It gathers 51 contributions describing recent developments both on theoretical issues (including approximation methods, combination rules, continuous belief functions, graphical models and independence concepts) an...

  6. Boosting biogas yield of anaerobic digesters by utilizing concentrated molasses from 2nd generation bioethanol plant

    Sarker, Shiplu [Department of Renewable Energy, Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Agder, Grimstad-4879 (Norway); Moeller, Henrik Bjarne [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Research center Foulum, Blichers Alle, Post Box 50, Tjele-8830 (Denmark)

    2013-07-01

    Concentrated molasses (C5 molasses) from 2nd generation bioethanol plant has been investigated for enhancing productivity of manure based digesters. A batch study at mesophilic condition (35+- 1 deg C) showed the maximum methane yield from molasses as 286 LCH4/kgVS which was approximately 63% of the calculated theoretical yield. In addition to the batch study, co-digestion of molasses with cattle manure in a semi-continuously stirred reactor at thermophilic temperature (50+- 1 deg C) was also performed with a stepwise increase in molasses concentration. The results from this experiment revealed the maximum average biogas yield of 1.89 L/L/day when 23% VSmolasses was co-digested with cattle manure. However, digesters fed with more than 32% VSmolasses and with short adaptation period resulted in VFA accumulation and reduced methane productivity indicating that when using molasses as biogas booster this level should not be exceeded.

  7. Nonlinear Dynamics of Memristor Based 2nd and 3rd Order Oscillators

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz

    2011-05-01

    Exceptional behaviours of Memristor are illustrated in Memristor based second order (Wien oscillator) and third order (phase shift oscillator) oscillator systems in this Thesis. Conventional concepts about sustained oscillation have been argued by demonstrating the possibility of sustained oscillation with oscillating resistance and dynamic poles. Mathematical models are also proposed for analysis and simulations have been presented to support the surprising characteristics of the Memristor based oscillator systems. This thesis also describes a comparative study among the Wien family oscillators with one Memristor. In case of phase shift oscillator, one Memristor and three Memristors systems are illustrated and compared to generalize the nonlinear dynamics observed for both 2nd order and 3rd order system. Detail explanations are provided with analytical models to simplify the unconventional properties of Memristor based oscillatory systems.

  8. 2nd FP7 Conference and International Summer School Nanotechnology : From Fundamental Research to Innovations

    Yatsenko, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    This book presents some of the latest achievements in nanotechnology and nanomaterials from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond. It features contributions from participants in the 2nd International Summer School “Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Research to Innovations” and International Research and Practice Conference “Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials”, NANO-2013, which were held in Bukovel, Ukraine on August 25-September 1, 2013. These events took place within the framework of the European Commission FP7 project Nanotwinning, and were organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, University of Tartu (Estonia), University of Turin (Italy), and Pierre and Marie Curie University (France). Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results on topics ranging from nanooptics, nanoplasmonics, and interface studies to energy storage and biomedical applications. Pr...

  9. 2nd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented at the 2nd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning, which took place in Sorrento, Italy, June 17-19, 2015. It contains a total of 45 peer-reviewed book chapters that are grouped into several parts: Part 1 - Smart Education, Part 2 – Smart Educational Technology, Part 3 – Smart e-Learning, Part 4 – Smart Professional Training and Teachers’ Education, and Part 5 – Smart Teaching and Training related Topics.  This book can be a useful source of research data and valuable information for faculty, scholars, Ph.D. students, administrators, and practitioners  - those who are interested in innovative areas of smart education and smart e-learning.  .

  10. Enabling the 2nd Generation in Space: Building Blocks for Large Scale Space Endeavours

    Barnhardt, D.; Garretson, P.; Will, P.

    Today the world operates within a "first generation" space industrial enterprise, i.e. all industry is on Earth, all value from space is from bits (data essentially), and the focus is Earth-centric, with very limited parts of our population and industry participating in space. We are limited in access, manoeuvring, on-orbit servicing, in-space power, in-space manufacturing and assembly. The transition to a "Starship culture" requires the Earth to progress to a "second generation" space industrial base, which implies the need to expand the economic sphere of activity of mankind outside of an Earth-centric zone and into CIS-lunar space and beyond, with an equal ability to tap the indigenous resources in space (energy, location, materials) that will contribute to an expanding space economy. Right now, there is no comfortable place for space applications that are not discovery science, exploration, military, or established earth bound services. For the most part, space applications leave out -- or at least leave nebulous, unconsolidated, and without a critical mass -- programs and development efforts for infrastructure, industrialization, space resources (survey and process maturation), non-traditional and persistent security situational awareness, and global utilities -- all of which, to a far greater extent than a discovery and exploration program, may help determine the elements of a 2nd generation space capability. We propose a focus to seed the pre-competitive research that will enable global industry to develop the necessary competencies that we currently lack to build large scale space structures on-orbit, that in turn would lay the foundation for long duration spacecraft travel (i.e. key technologies in access, manoeuvrability, etc.). This paper will posit a vision-to-reality for a step wise approach to the types of activities the US and global space providers could embark upon to lay the foundation for the 2nd generation of Earth in space.

  11. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    Strang, Karl Axel

    In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for

  12. A Novel Adhesion Index for Verifying the Extent of Adhesion for the Extensor Digitorum Communis in Patients with Metacarpal Fractures

    Lai, Ting-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-I; Shih, Cho-Chiang; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Huang, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine if the relative displacement between the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon and its surrounding tissues can be used as an adhesion index (AI) for assessing adhesion in metacarpal fractures by comparing two clinical measures, namely single-digit-force and extensor lag (i.e., the difference between passive extension and full active extension). The Fisher–Tippett block-matching method and a Kalman-filter algorithm were used to determine the relative displacements in 39 healthy subjects and 8 patients with metacarpal fractures. A goniometer was used to measure the extensor lag, and a force sensor was used to measure the single-digit-force. Measurements were obtained twice for each patient to evaluate the performance of the AI in assessing the progress of rehabilitation. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the various correlations between the AI, extensor lag, and single-digit-force. The results showed strong correlations between the AI and the extensor lag, the AI and the single-digit-force, and the extensor lag and the single-digit-force (r = 0.718, −0.849, and −0.741; P = 0.002, P AI in the patients gradually decreased after continuous rehabilitation, but remained higher than that of healthy participants. PMID:27492808

  13. Bone morphometry and mineral contents of the distal part of the fractured third metacarpal bone in thoroughbred racehorses

    Most of the bone fractures in racehorses occur in the fore limb, especially in the metacarpal joint during the racing and training. The longitudinal fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc III) often occurs in the osteosclerotic and/or necrotic lesions in the distal part of the bone. To elucidate the endogenous factors of its fracture, soft radiograms of 4 fractured and 4 non-fractured control cases have been investigated morphometrically by a image analyzer. In addition, to analyze the quality of these bones, 20 elements of mineral contents in the crashed bones have been measured using a fluorescent X-ray analyzer. As the results, the osteosclerotic change was observed in both groups in the plantar side of the distal part of Mc III, however, no significant differences were found in the bone morphometry. No significant differences in the 19 elements of bone mineral were found except Fe. From these findings, the mechanism of the occurrence of the longitudinal fracture in the Mc III remains to be elucidated. In future, further work needs to be done with regard to the mechanical intensity and collagen disposition of the distal part of the Mc III

  14. Geochemical evidence of paleogeography and paleoclimate during deposition of the 2nd Member of Kongdian Formation in Kongnan area

    2007-01-01

    The 2nd Member of Kongdian Formation has been made up of a large number of oil shale and mudstone in the Kongnan aera of Huanghua depression around the Bohai Bay. In the Kongnan area, the lake basins were very large and deep during the deposition of the 2nd Member of Kongdian Formation. During that period,the lakes were sealed, uncommunieated with the sea water and the paleoclimate was very warm and wet in Kongnan area. Analyzing the content of the trace element and the rare earth element, carbon and oxygen isotope in the disquisition, The authors prove the two views correct.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    Xing Wan; Han Pei; Min-jian Zhao; Shuo Yang; Wei-kun Hu; Heng He; Si-qi Ma; Ge Zhang; Xiao-yan Dong; Chen Chen; Dao-wen Wang; Bin Li,

    2016-01-01

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to o...

  16. Curriculum on the Edge of Survival: How Schools Fail to Prepare Students for Membership in a Democracy. 2nd Edition

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Typically, school curriculum has been viewed through the lens of preparation for the workplace or higher education, both worthy objectives. However, this is not the only lens, and perhaps not even the most powerful one to use, if the goal is to optimize the educational system. "Curriculum on the Edge of Survival, 2nd Edition," attempts to define…

  17. VALOIR 2012 2nd Workshop on Managing the Client Value Creation Process in Agile Projects: Message from the Chairs

    Pérez, Jennifer; Buglione, Luigi; Daneva, Maya; Dieste, Oscar; Jedlitschka, Andreas; Juristo, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the 2nd Workshop on Managing the Client Value Creation Process in Agile Projects (VALOIR) at the PROFES 2012 conference! The overall goal of VALOIR is to make the knowledge on value creation and management explicit, encouraging the discussion on the use of measurement and estimation appro

  18. Report from the 2nd Summer School in Computational Biology organized by the Queen's University of Belfast

    Frank Emmert-Streib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a meeting report for the 2nd Summer School in Computational Biology organized by the Queen's University of Belfast. We describe the organization of the summer school, its underlying concept and student feedback we received after the completion of the summer school.

  19. Official report of the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games: Nanjing 2014 : Share the Games, share our dreams

    2015-01-01

    The official report of the 2nd Youth Olympic Games is composed of one volume, published in English and available only in electronic form. However, the Nanjing Youth Olympic Games Organising Committee (NYOCOG) has also published a Chinese version, available in print only.

  20. Transition Energy and Oscillator Strength of 1s22p——1s2nd for Fe23+ ion

    WANG Zhi-Wen; LI Xin-Ru; HU Mu-Hong; LIU Ying; WANG Ya-Nan

    2008-01-01

    Transition energies, wavelengths and dipole oscillator strengths of 1s22p - 1s2nd (3 ≤ n ≤ 9) for Fe23+ ion are calculated. The fine structure splittings of 1s2nd (n ≤ 9) states for this ion are also evaluated. The higher-order relativistic contribution to the energy is estimated under a hydrogenic approximation. The quantum defect of Rydberg series 1s2nd is determined according to the quantum defect theory. The energies of any highly excited states with (n ≥ 10) for this series can be reliably predicted using these quantum defects as input. The results in this paper excellently agree with the experimental data available in the literature. Combining the quantum defect theory with the discrete oscillator strengths, the discrete oscillator strengths for the transitions from same given initial state 1s22p to highly excited 1s2nd states (n ≥ 10) and the oscillator strength density corresponding to the bound-free transitions is obtained.

  1. The Influence of Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Phoneme Awareness in 2nd and 4th Grades

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics--neighborhood density and word frequency--interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods: Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation…

  2. The Hyphen as a Syllabification Cue in Reading Bisyllabic and Multisyllabic Words among Finnish 1st and 2nd Graders

    Häikiö, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Finnish ABC books present words with hyphens inserted at syllable boundaries. Syllabification by hyphens is abandoned in the 2nd grade for bisyllabic words, but continues for words with three or more syllables. The current eye movement study investigated how and to what extent syllable hyphens in bisyllabic ("kah-vi" "cof-fee")…

  3. Conceptual design study of $Nb_{3} Sn$ low-beta quadrupoles for 2nd generation LHC IRs

    Zlobin, A V; Andreev, N; Barzi, E; Bauer, P; Chichili, D R; Huang, Y; Imbasciati, L; Kashikhin, V V; Lamm, M J; Limon, P; Novitski, I; Peterson, T; Strait, J B; Yadav, S; Yamada, R

    2003-01-01

    Conceptual designs of 90-mm aperture high-gradient quadrupoles based on the Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor, are being developed at Fermilab for possible 2nd generation IRs with the similar optics as in the current low-beta insertions. Magnet designs and results of magnetic, mechanical, thermal and quench protection analysis for these magnets are presented and discussed. (10 refs).

  4. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required

  5. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    Baytinger, V. F.; Kurochkina, O. S.; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  6. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    Baytinger, V. F., E-mail: baitinger@mail.tomsknet.ru; Kurochkina, O. S., E-mail: kurochkinaos@yandex.ru; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V. [Research Institute of Microsurgery, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Dzyuman, A. N. [Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  7. Severe weather phenomena: SQUALL LINES The case of July 2nd 2009

    Paraschivescu, Mihnea; Tanase, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    The wind intensity plays an important role, among the dangerous meteorological phenomena, to produce negative effects on the economy and the social activities, particularly when the wind is about to turn into a storm. During the past years one can notice an increase of wind frequency and intensity due to climate changes and, consequently, as a result of the extreme meteorological phenomena not only on a planetary level but also on a regional one. Although dangerous meteorological phenomena cannot be avoided, since they are natural, nevertheless they can be anticipated and decision making institutions and mass media can be informed. This is the reason why, in this paper, we set out to identify the synoptic conditions that led to the occurrence of the severe storm case in Bucharest on July 2nd, 2009, as well as the matrices that generate such cases. At the same time we sought to identify some indications evidence especially from radar data so as to lead to the improvement of the time interval between the nowcasting warning and the actual occurrence of the phenomenon.

  8. Geodesign from Theory to Practice: From Metaplanning to 2nd Generation of Planning Support Systems

    Michele Campagna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the concept of Geodesign, a new approach to spatial planning and design which is grounded on extensive use of Geographic Information Science methods and tools. As a method Geodesign is intended to inform projects since their conceptualization, to analysis and diagnosis, to design of alternatives and impact simulation, and eventually the final choice. This approach appears particularly urgent and actual to many scholars from academia and practitioners from the industry and the planning practice for advances in GIScience nowadays offer unprecedented data and tools to manage territorial knowledge for decision-making support. The author argues research in Geodesign may contribute to solve major actual pitfalls in sustainable spatial planning: namely it may offer methods to help planners to inform sustainable design alternatives with environmental considerations and contextually assess their impacts; secondly, it may help to ensure more transparent, responsible, and accountable democratic decision-making processes. The argumentation is supported by the author recent research results with regards to the evolution from 1st generation Planning Support Systems (PSS, to metaplanning and 2nd generation PSS.

  9. Production of artificial ionospheric layers by frequency sweeping near the 2nd gyroharmonic

    T. Pedersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial ionospheric plasmas descending from the background F-region have been observed on multiple occasions at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP facility since it reached full 3.6 MW power. Proximity of the transmitter frequency to the 2nd harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency (2fce has been noted as a requirement for their occurrence, and their disappearance after only a few minutes has been attributed to the increasing frequency mismatch at lower altitudes. We report new experiments employing frequency sweeps to match 2fce in the artificial plasmas as they descend. In addition to revealing the dependence on the 2fce resonance, this technique reliably produces descending plasmas in multiple transmitter beam positions and appears to increase their stability and lifetime. High-speed ionosonde measurements are used to monitor the altitude and density of the artificial plasmas during both the formation and decay stages.

  10. CELEBRATED APRIL 2nd – INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PERSONS WITH AUTISM

    Manuela KRCHANOSKA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On April 2nd, the Macedonian Scientific Society for Autism, for the fourth time organized an event on the occasion of the International Day of Persons with Autism. The event with cultural and artistic character was held at the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle under the motto “They are not alone, we are with them”. The huge number of citizens only confirmed the motto. It seemed that the hall of the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle is too small for the warm hearts of the audience. More than 300 guests were present in the hall, among which there were children with autism and their families, prominent professors, doctors, special educators and rehabilitators, psychologists, students and other citizens with glad heart and will who decided to enrich the event with their presence. The event was opened by the violinist Plamenka Trajkovska, which performed one song. After her, the President of the Macedonian Scientific Society for Autism, PhD. Vladimir Trajkovski delivered his speech. The professor told the parents of autistic children, who were present in large number, not to lose hope, to fight for their children, and that the Macedonian Scientific Society for Autism will provide tremendous support and assistance in this struggle.

  11. Deaf-mute teaching during the Spanish 2nd Republic period. A historical view

    Alfredo ALCINA MADUEÑO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Deaf-mute teaching during the Spanish 2nd Republic period is an issue which has never been studied in depth consideration and some of its aspects have been not even touched by any research. We could say that deaf-mute education is granted with the characteristics found in general education, at least regarding this specific stage, mainly: economic and budget thoughtful following effort by the governments, methodological renovation, modernization of the educative system, spreading of the school-net, teachers’ formation, etcetera. However it is true that we can fin a very strict-stated idiosyncrasy, which sometimes turns out to be even controversial, not only due to the opposition of different political parties in power during different 2-years periods (31/37 and 34/35, but also because of the republican-socialist governments decisions regarding educative policy. The Republican legacy consists actually much more in documentary facts than in actual realisations, and will have much more application within that political regime that follows and annihilates the Republic than within the period of the Republic itself. The consideration of primary sources (both legal and documental is the base that supports the final conclusions that are provided by means of this exposition.

  12. Proceedings of the 2nd CSNI Specialist Meeting on Simulators and Plant Analysers

    The safe utilisation of nuclear power plants requires the availability of different computerised tools for analysing the plant behaviour and training the plant personnel. These can be grouped into three categories: accident analysis codes, plant analysers and training simulators. The safety analysis of nuclear power plants has traditionally been limited to the worst accident cases expected for the specific plant design. Many accident analysis codes have been developed for different plant types. The scope of the analyses has continuously expanded. The plant analysers are now emerging tools intended for extensive analysis of the plant behaviour using a best estimate model for the whole plant including the reactor and full thermodynamic process, both combined with automation and electrical systems. The comprehensive model is also supported by good visualisation tools. Training simulators with real time plant model are tools for training the plant operators to run the plant. Modern training simulators have also features supporting visualisation of the important phenomena occurring in the plant during transients. The 2nd CSNI Specialist Meeting on Simulators and Plant Analysers in Espoo attracted some 90 participants from 17 countries. A total of 49 invited papers were presented in the meeting in addition to 7 simulator system demonstrations. Ample time was reserved for the presentations and informal discussions during the four meeting days. (orig.)

  13. Academic Training - 2nd Term: 08.01.2007 - 31.03.2007

    2006-01-01

    2006 - 2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME 2nd Term : 08.01.2007 - 31.03.2007 LECTURE SERIES Applied Superconductivity by V. Palmieri, INFN, Padova, It. 17, 18, 19 January 11:00 -1200 - Auditorium, Bldg 500 String Theory for Pedestrians by B. Zwiebach, M.I.T. Cambridge, USA 29, 30, 31 January 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, Bldg 500 on 29, 30 January TH Auditorium on 31 January Introduction to Supersymmetry by D. Kaplan, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA 12, 13, 14, 15 February 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, Bldg 500 The Hunt for the Higgs Particle by F. Zwirner, University of Padova, It 27, 28 February, 1st March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, Bldg 500 From Evolution Theory to Parallel and Distributed Genetic by F. Fernandez de Vega 15, 16, March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, Bldg 500 The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstract of the lectures, as well as any change to the above information (title, dates, time, place etc.) will be published in the CERN bulletin, the WWW, an...

  14. Academic Training - 2nd Term: 08.01.2007 - 31.03.2007

    2006-01-01

    2006 - 2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME 2nd Term : 08.01.2007 - 31.03.2007 LECTURE SERIES Applied Superconductivity by V. Palmieri, INFN, Padova, It. 17, 18, 19 January 11:00 -1200 - Auditorium, bldg. 500 String Theory for Pedestrians by B. Zwiebach, M.I.T. Cambridge, USA 29, 30, 31 January 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 29, 30 January TH Auditorium on 31 January Introduction to Supersymmetry by D. Kaplan, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA 12, 13, 14, 15 February 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg. 500 The Hunt for the Higgs Particle by F. Zwirner, University of Padova, It 27, 28 February, 1st March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg. 500 From Evolution Theory to Parallel and Distributed Genetic Programming by F. Fernandez de Vega 15, 16, March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg. 500 The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstract of the lectures, as well as any change to the above information (title, dates, time, place etc.) will be published in the WWW, and ...

  15. DRS // CUMULUS Oslo 2013. The 2nd International Conference for Design Education Researchers

    Liv Merete Nielsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 14-17 May 2013, Oslo, NorwayWe have received more than 200 full papers for the 2nd International Conference for Design Education Researchers in Oslo.This international conference is a springboard for sharing ideas and concepts about contemporary design education research. Contributors are invited to submit research that deals with different facets of contemporary approaches to design education research. All papers will be double-blind peer-reviewed. This conference is open to research in any aspect and discipline of design educationConference themeDesign Learning for Tomorrow - Design Education from Kindergarten to PhDDesigned artefacts and solutions influence our lives and values, both from a personal and societal perspective. Designers, decision makers, investors and consumers hold different positions in the design process, but they all make choices that will influence our future visual and material culture. To promote sustainability and meet global challenges for the future, professional designers are dependent on critical consumers and a design literate general public.  For this purpose design education is important for all. We propose that design education in general education represents both a foundation for professional design education and a vital requirement for developing the general public’s competence for informed decision making.REGISTRATION AT http://www.hioa.no/DRScumulus

  16. Improved beam spot measurements in the 2nd generation proton beam writing system

    Nanosized ion beams (especially proton and helium) play a pivotal role in the field of ion beam lithography and ion beam analysis. Proton beam writing has shown lithographic details down to the 20 nm level, limited by the proton beam spot size. Introducing a smaller spot size will allow smaller lithographic features. Smaller probe sizes, will also drastically improve the spatial resolution for ion beam analysis techniques. Among many other requirements, having an ideal resolution standard, used for beam focusing and a reliable focusing method, is an important pre-requisite for sub-10 nm beam spot focusing. In this paper we present the fabrication processes of a free-standing resolution standard with reduced side-wall projection and high side-wall verticality. The resulting grid is orthogonal (90.0° ± 0.1), has smooth edges with better than 6 nm side-wall projection. The new resolution standard has been used in focusing a 2 MeV H2+ beam in the 2nd generation PBW system at Center for Ion Beam Applications, NUS. The beam size has been characterized using on- and off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) and ion induced secondary electron detection, carried out with a newly installed micro channel plate electron detector. The latter has been shown to be a realistic alternative to STIM measurements, as the drawback of PIN diode detector damage is alleviated. With these improvements we show reproducible beam focusing down to 14 nm

  17. Boundary value problems for the 2nd-order Seiberg-Witten equations

    Celso Melchiades Doria

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the nonhomogeneous Dirichlet and Neuman problems for the 2nd-order Seiberg-Witten equation on a compact 4-manifold X admit a regular solution once the nonhomogeneous Palais-Smale condition ℋ is satisfied. The approach consists in applying the elliptic techniques to the variational setting of the Seiberg-Witten equation. The gauge invariance of the functional allows to restrict the problem to the Coulomb subspace 𝒞αℭ of configuration space. The coercivity of the 𝒮𝒲α-functional, when restricted into the Coulomb subspace, imply the existence of a weak solution. The regularity then follows from the boundedness of L∞-norms of spinor solutions and the gauge fixing lemma.

  18. Study of Application for Excursion Observation Method in Primary School 2nd Grade Social Studies

    Ahmet Ali GAZEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how field trips are conducted at 2nd grade of primary schools as a part of social studies course. Data for this research is compiled from 143 permanent Social Studies teachers working throughout 2011–2012 Education Year in the primary schools of central Kütahya and its districts. Data is compiled by using descriptive search model. In the research, after taking expert opinions, a measuring tool developed by the researcher is used. Data obtained from the research were transferred to computer, and analyses were made. In the analysis of the data, frequency and percentage values have been used to determine the distribution. Also a single factor variance analysis and t-test for independent samples have been used to determine the significance of difference between the variables. As a result of the research, it has been realized that insufficient importance is given to field trip method in Social Studies lessons. Most of the teachers using this method apply it in spring months. Teachers usually make use of field trips independent from unit/topic to increase the students’ motivation, and they generally use verbal expression in the class after tours. The biggest difficulty teachers encounter while using tour-observation method is the students’ undisciplined behavior.

  19. The 2nd and 3rd lower molars development of in utero gamma irradiated mouse fetus and neonates

    Pregnant mothers were irradiated by a single dose of gamma rays (0, 2, 4, 6 Gy cobalt 60) in the days 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 of pregnancy. The heads of the embryos, and those of the neonates were taken at consecutive intervals of irradiation, starting from 16 days of pregnancy till 3rd day after delivery. The effect of irradiation was investigated in the development of the 2nd and 3rd lower molars on serial tissue sections, within consecutive periods of their organogenesis. Irradiation led to growth-deficiency in the 2nd and 3rd molars, and causes delay in their development. This was observed in various degree depending on the dose, time of irradiation, and time after irradiation. This belated development was manifested in morphogenesis, histogenesis, and odontoblasts and ameloblastis cyto and functional differentiations. The study showed that the delay in the development-stages of the 2nd lower molar, under control, if compared with the same process, to which is exposed, the 1st lower molar - within two days difference - dose not diminish the later irradiation effect on the 2nd molar, when compared with the immediate irradiation effect in the 1st molar (demonstrated in a previous study by Osman and Al-Achkar, 2001). On the contrary, the present study showed that the 2nd lower molar is more radiosensitive to various doses than the 1st lower molar. Also it showed the irradiation with two doses 4 and 6 Gy leads to a delay in the formation of the 3rd lower molar's bud, and it does not go deeper beyond the lower molar. (Author)

  20. SrAl2O4∶Eu2+, Nd3+ and Dy3+ Long Afterglow Phosphor

    何大伟; 吕菁华; 崔兴龙

    2003-01-01

    The SrAl2O4∶Eu2+, Nd3+ and SrAl2O4∶Eu2+, Dy3+ long afterglow phosphor were synthesized. Their excitation and emission spectra at different excitation and afterglow characteristics were analyzed after the excitation power was taken off. The effects of Eu2+, Dy3+, Nd3+ mole concentrations on phosphorescence characteristics were also discussed. It is crucial to have trapping levels located at a suitable depth related to the thermal release rate at room temperature. The incorporation of Nd3+ ions as an auxiliary activator into the SrAl2O4∶Eu2+ system causes very intense and long phosphorescence. The response time of SrAl2O4∶Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors is quicker than that of SrAl2O4∶Eu2+, Nd3+. Phosphorescence characteristics of SrAl2O4∶Eu2+, Nd3+ is much better than those of SrAl2O4∶Eu2+, Dy3+. The integrate area of the excitation spectrum of SrAl2O4∶Eu2+, Nd3+ phosphor is larger than that of SrAl2O4∶Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor within the range of 250~360 nm. For phosphorescence characteristics to the system of SrAl2O4∶Eu2+, Nd3+ phosphor, the optimum concentration of Nd3+ trivalent rare earth ions is 0.05 mol.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of chondrodysplasia punctata tibia-metacarpal type using multidetector CT and three-dimensional reconstruction

    Miyazaki, Osamu [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sago, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Noriyoshi; Ebina, Shunsuke [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Perinatal Medicine and Maternal Care, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    We report a case of chondrodysplasia punctata tibia-metacarpal type (CDP-TM) that was diagnosed prenatally using multidetector CT (MDCT) with three-dimensional (3-D) CT reconstructions. Prenatal US had shown severe thoracic hypoplasia and rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, raising the suspicion of thanatophoric dysplasia. However, MDCT showed punctate calcifications in the epiphyseal cartilage of the humeri and femora, carpal bones, and paravertebral region. On 3-D CT, the tibiae were much shorter than the fibulae, the humeri were very short and bowed, and severe platyspondyly was evident. These findings led to the diagnosis of CDP-TM. The diagnosis was confirmed on postnatal radiographs. Prenatal MDCT with 3-D images may make a useful contribution to prenatal diagnosis in selected fetuses with severe skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  2. Adjoint-based optimization of flapping plates hinged with a trailing-edge flap

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the impact of wing-morphing on aerodynamic performance in the study of flapping-wing flight of birds and insects. We use a flapping plate hinged with a trailing-edge flap as a simplified model for flexible/morphing wings in hovering. The trailing-edge flapping motion is optimized by an adjoint-based approach. The optimized configuration suggests that the trailing-edge flap can substantially enhance the overall lift. Further analysis indicates that the lift enhancement by the trailing-edge flapping is from the change of circulation in two ways: the local circulation change by the rotational motion of the flap, and the modification of vortex shedding process by the relative location between the trailing-edge flap and leading-edge main plate.

  3. The correlation between metacarpal bone mineral content and bone mineral density of the jawbone in implant patients

    This study estimated the relationship between metacarpal bone mineral content and jawbone density. The subjects were 141 patients who desired implant treatment and had undergone a thorough pre-operative CT examination. In the maxilla, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the cancellous bone between the nasal cavity and the maxillary sinus. In the mandible, BMD was measured at the cancellous bone beneath the mental foramen. The CT numbers were corrected by the quantitative computer tomography (QCT) method. Furthermore, the cortical indices of the mandible, i.e. C-PMI (Central-Panoramic Mandibular Index), and MCW (Mandibular Cortical Width) were measured and calculated from panoramic radiographs. The bone mineral content of the total body was obtained by ΣGS/D and MCI through Microdensitometry. The following results were obtained. Between the maxillary BMD and ΣGS/D and between the mandibular BMD and ΣGS/D, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. Between the maxillary BMD and MCI, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. However, in the mandibular BMD and MCI there was no correlation in females and males. Between C-PMI and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between C-PMI and MCI there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and MCI there was a correlation in females, but no correlation in males. From the above results, it was concluded that the maxillary BMD and the cortical index of the mandible reflected changes in the metacarpal bone mineral content, while mandibular BMD did not. (author)

  4. The Influence of Instructional Climates on Time Spent in Management Tasks and Physical Activity of 2nd-Grade Students during Physical Education

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two physical education (PE) instructional climates (mastery, performance) on the percentage of time students spent in a) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and b) management tasks during PE in 2nd-grade students. Forty-eight 2nd graders (mastery, n = 23; performance, n = 25)…

  5. Davis flap: the glory still present

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Upper third defects of the ear are too large to be closed primarily without distorting the auricle. Full thickness defects can be reconstructed with local flaps. In this article, Davis flap was used to fill the upper third defects of the ear with some modifications. Patients and methods: Eight patients underwent reconstruction of full thickness auricular defects with Davis flaps from July 2012 to December 2014. The posterior surface of the flap and the raw area of conchal area were covered by full thickness graft taken from posterior surface of ear. Results: All flaps survived. No congestion was noted. The donor sites and skin grafts healed uneventfully. Conclusion: Davis flap is a simple and reproducible tool for reconstruction of upper third of ear. PMID:27274439

  6. Mechanosensitivity of the 2nd Kind: TGF-β Mechanism of Cell Sensing the Substrate Stiffness

    Cockerill, Max; Rigozzi, Michelle K.; Terentjev, Eugene M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells can sense forces applied to them, but also the stiffness of their environment. These are two different phenomena, and here we investigate the mechanosensitivity of the 2nd kind: how the cell can measure an elastic modulus at a single point of adhesion—and how the cell can receive and interpret the chemical signal released from the sensor. Our model uses the example of large latent complex of TGF-β as a sensor. Stochastic theory gives the rate of breaking of latent complex, which initiates the signaling feedback loop after the active TGF-β release and leads to a change of cell phenotype driven by the α-smooth muscle actin. We investigate the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of the model, comparing them with experiments. In particular, we analyse the timescale of approach to the steady state, the stability of the non-linear dynamical system, and how the steady-state concentrations of the key markers vary depending on the elasticity of the substrate. We discover a crossover region for values of substrate elasticity closely corresponding to that of the fibroblast to myofibroblast transition. We suggest that the cell could actively vary the parameters of its dynamic feedback loop to ‘choose’ the position of the transition region and the range of substrate elasticity that it can detect. In this way, the theory offers the unifying mechanism for a variety of phenomena, such as the myofibroblast conversion in fibrosis of wounds and lungs and smooth muscle cell dysfunction in cardiac disease. PMID:26448620

  7. 2nd international expert meeting straw power; 2. Internationale Fachtagung Strohenergie

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    Within the 2nd Guelzow expert discussions at 29th to 30th March, 2012 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Promotion of the utilisation of straw in Germany (A. Schuette); (2) The significance of straw in the heat and power generation in EU-27 member states in 2020 and in 2030 under consideration of the costs and sustainability criteria (C. Panoutsou); (3) State of he art of the energetic utilization of hay goods in Europe (D. Thraen); (4) Incineration technological characterisation of straw based on analysis data as well as measured data of large-scale installations (I. Obernberger); (5) Energetic utilization of hay goods in Germany (T. Hering); (6) Actual state of the art towards establishing the first German straw thermal power station (R. Knieper); (7) Straw thermal power plants at agricultural sow farms and poultry farms (H. Heilmann); (8) Country report power from straw in Denmark (A. Evald); (9) Country report power from straw in Poland (J. Antonowicz); (10) Country report power from straw in China (J. Zhang); (11) Energetic utilisation of straw in Czechia (D. Andert); (12) Mobile pelletization of straw (S. Auth); (13) Experiences with the straw thermal power plant from Vattenfall (N. Kirkegaard); (14) Available straw potentials in Germany (potential, straw provision costs) (C. Weiser); (15) Standardization of hay good and test fuels - Classification and development of product standards (M. Englisch); (16) Measures of reduction of emissions at hay good incinerators (V. Lenz); (17) Fermentation of straw - State of the art and perspectives (G. Reinhold); (18) Cellulosis - Ethanol from agricultural residues - Sustainable biofuels (A. Hartmair); (19) Syngas by fermentation of straw (N. Dahmen); (20) Construction using straw (D. Scharmer).

  8. Re-fighting the 2nd Anglo-Boer War: historians in the trenches

    Ian Van der Waag

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Some one hundred years ago, South Africa was tom apart by the 2nd Anglo- Boer War (1899-1902. The war was a colossal psychological experience fought at great expense: It cost Britain twenty-two thousand men and £223 million. The social, economic and political cost to South Africa was greater than the statistics immediately indicate: at least ten thousand fighting men in addition to the camp deaths, where a combination of indifference and incompetence resulted in the deaths of 27 927 Boers and at least 14 154 Black South Africans. Yet these numbers belie the consequences. It was easy for the British to 'forget' the pain of the war, which seemed so insignificant after the losses sustained in 1914-18. With a long history of far-off battles and foreign wars, the British casualties of the Anglo-Boer War became increasingly insignificant as opposed to the lesser numbers held in the collective Afrikaner mind. This impact may be stated somewhat more candidly in terms of the war participation ratio for the belligerent populations. After all, not all South Africans fought in uniform. For the Australian colonies these varied between 4½per thousand (New South Wales to 42.3 per thousand (Tasmania. New Zealand 8 per thousand, Britain 8½ per thousand: and Canada 12.3 per thousand; while in parts of South Africa this was perhaps as high as 900 per thousand. The deaths and high South African participation ratio, together with the unjustness of the war in the eyes of most Afrikaners, introduced bitterness, if not a hatred, which has cast long shadows upon twentieth-century South Africa.

  9. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  10. Experimental skin flaps and nitric oxide

    Gribbe, Örjan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Surgical flaps are used in plastic surgery to reconstruct tissue defects due to trauma or cancer removal. Occasionally flaps are subjected to ischemia and reperfusion injury leading to flap failure. Nitric oxide (NO), a small gaseous molecule, has vast physiological importance as it participates in the regulation of blood pressure, blood flow, neurotransmission and immune response. NO is synthesized by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS), which exists in both constitutiv...

  11. Wing flapping with minimum energy

    Jones, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    A technique employed by Prandtl and Munk is adapted for the case of a wing in flapping motion to determine its lift distribution. The problem may be reduced to one of minimizing induced drag for a specified and periodically varying bending moment at the wing root. It is concluded that two wings in close tandem arrangement, moving in opposite phase, would eliminate the induced aerodynamic losses calculated

  12. The 2nd CAAP Convention & International Symposium on Modern and Contemporary English Literatures (June 8 -9, 2013 )%The 2nd CAAP Convention & International Symposium on Modern and Contemporary English Literatures (June 8 -9, 2013 )

    2012-01-01

    In order to further promote literary scholarship and international academic exchange, the University of Pennsylvania-based Chinese/American Association for Poetry and Poetics (CAAP) will collaborate with the School of Foreign Languages and School of Humanities of Central China Normal University, Foreign Literature Studies, and Forum for World Literature Studies in hosting "The 2nd CAAP Convention and International Symposium on Literatures in English" (June 8 -9, 2013) in Wuhan, China. Scholars and writers all over the world are welcome.

  13. Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows

    Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds numbers, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propulsion mechanism valid across the whole range of Reynolds numbers. (paper)

  14. Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows

    Was, Loic

    2014-01-01

    Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds number, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propul...

  15. Inferior Gluteal Perforator Flaps for Breast Reconstruction

    Allen, Robert J.; LoTempio, Maria M.; Granzow, Jay W.

    2006-01-01

    Perforator flaps represent the latest in the evolution of soft tissue flaps. They allow the transfer of the patient's own skin and fat in a reliable manner with minimal donor-site morbidity. The powerful perforator flap concept allows transfer of tissue from numerous, well-described donor sites to almost any distant site with suitable recipient vessels. The inferior gluteal artery perforator (I-GAP) flap is one option that allows a large volume of tissue to be used for breast reconstruction w...

  16. Basic Perforator Flap Hemodynamic Mathematical Model

    Tao, Youlun; Ding, Maochao; Wang, Aiguo; Zhuang, Yuehong; Chang, Shi-Min; Mei, Jin; Hallock, Geoffrey G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A mathematical model to help explain the hemodynamic characteristics of perforator flaps based on blood flow resistance systems within the flap will serve as a theoretical guide for the future study and clinical applications of these flaps. Methods: There are 3 major blood flow resistance network systems of a perforator flap. These were defined as the blood flow resistance of an anastomosis between artery and artery of adjacent perforasomes, between artery and vein within a perforasome, and then between vein and vein corresponding to the outflow of that perforasome. From this, a calculation could be made of the number of such blood flow resistance network systems that must be crossed for all perforasomes within a perforator flap to predict whether that arrangement would be viable. Results: The summation of blood flow resistance networks from each perforasome in a given perforator flap could predict which portions would likely survive. This mathematical model shows how this is directly dependent on the location of the vascular pedicle to the flap and whether supercharging or superdrainage maneuvers have been added. These configurations will give an estimate of the hemodynamic characteristics for the given flap design. Conclusions: This basic mathematical model can (1) conveniently determine the degree of difficulty for each perforasome within a perforator flap to survive; (2) semiquantitatively allow the calculation of basic hemodynamic parameters; and (3) allow the assessment of the pros and cons expected for each pattern of perforasomes encountered clinically based on predictable hemodynamic observations.

  17. Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows.

    Was, Loïc; Lauga, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds numbers, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propulsion mechanism valid across the whole range of Reynolds numbers. PMID:24343130

  18. Proceedings of 2nd Korea-China Congress of Nuclear Medicine and the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine Spring Meeting 2000

    This proceedings contains articles of 2nd Korea-China Congress of Nuclear Medicine and 2000 spring meeting of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine. It was held on May 17-19, 2000 in Seoul, Korean. This proceedings is comprised of 6 sessions. The subject titles of session are as follows: general nuclear medicine, neurology, oncology, radiopharmacy and biology, nuclear cardiology, nuclear cardiology: physics and instrumentation and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  19. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  20. Multi-objective Optimization of a Solar Assisted 1st and 2nd Generation Sugarcane Ethanol Production Plant

    Zevenhoven, Ron; Wallerand, Anna Sophia; Queiroz Albarelli, Juliana; Viana Ensinas, Adriano; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Mian, Alberto; Maréchal, François

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol production sites utilizing sugarcane as feedstock are usually located in regions with high land availability and decent solar radiation. This offers the opportunity to cover parts of the process energy demand with concentrated solar power (CSP) and thereby increase the fuel production and carbon conversion efficiency. A plant is examined that produces 1st and 2nd generation ethanol by fermentation of sugars (from sugarcane) and enzymatic hydrolysis of the lignocellulosic residues (bag...

  1. Evolution of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa - from Nkruma to Mutharika The 2nd: Case Study Of South Africa

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Since Sub-Saharan Africa's first independence in Ghana, the region has experienced massive and costly political and bureaucratic corruption within public service and administration. The causes of the corruption, its nature and form are wide and intertwined. In Sub-Saharan Africa, efforts to curb corruption have failed to discard it. The paper focused on the period from Nkruma in Ghana to Mutharika the 2nd in Malawi. This paper reviewed existing literature on political and bureaucratic corrupt...

  2. 2nd Joint GOSUD/SAMOS Workshop, U.S.Coast Guard Base, Seattle, Washington, 10-12 June 2008.

    2008-01-01

    On 10-12 June 2008, the NOAA Climate Observation Division sponsored the 2nd Joint Global Ocean Surface Underway Data (GOSUD)/Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) Workshop in Seattle, WA, USA. The workshop focused on the ongoing collaboration between GOSUD and SAMOS and addressing the needs of the research and operational community for highquality underway oceanographic and meteorological observations from ships. The SAMOS initiative is working to improve access ...

  3. An Inquiry into Perceived Autonomy Support of Iranian EFL Learners: 2nd, 3rd and 4th Grade University Students

    Husain Abdulhay

    2015-01-01

    Gaining an insight into Iranian EFL learning environment is increasingly felt, consonant with dissociation from the traditional and spoon-feeding rituals of Iranian indigenous teaching. To that end, the study tried to scour the grade level differences of 202 students in their perceived autonomy support in the context of Iranian universities. Exposures to autonomy supportive environment were examined in 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade-levels through the administration of Learning Climate Questionnaire ...

  4. CPAPD Held the 9th Joint Conference of Member Organizations and The 2nd Conference of the Board of Directors

    2014-01-01

    <正>On April 4,2014,the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)held the 9th Joint Conference of Member Organizations and the 2nd Conference of the Board of Directors in Beijing.Yan Junqi,Vice-Chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress(NPC):Han Qide,Vice-Chairman of the National Committee of the

  5. 2nd Nordic NJF Seminar on Reindeer Husbandry Research "Reindeer herding and land use management - Nordic perspectives"

    Päivi Soppela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2nd NJF Seminar on Reindeer Husbandry Research was held at the Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland from 19 to 21 October 2014. The seminar was organised under the framework of Reindeer Husbandry Research Section of NJF (Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists, established in 2012. Over 100 Nordic and international delegates including researchers, managers, educators, students and reindeer herders participated in the seminar.

  6. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders. PMID:26972324

  7. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    Sindelar, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Louthan, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); PNNL, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  8. Public Health Genomics European Network: Report from the 2nd Network Meeting in Rome

    Nicole Rosenkötter

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Dear Sirs,

    The Public Health Genomics European Network (PHGEN is a mapping exercise for the responsible and effective integration of genome-based knowledge and technologies into public policy and health services for the benefit of population health. In 2005, the European Commission called for a “networking exercise…to lead to an inventory report on genetic determinants relevant for public health”[1], this lead to the funding of a PHGEN three year project (EC project 2005313.This project started in early 2006 with a kick-off meeting in Bielefeld / Germany.The project work is comprised of, according to the public health trias, three one year periods of assessment, policy development and assurance.At the end of the assessment phase a network meeting was held in Rome from January, 31st to February 2nd 2007 with over 90 network members and network observers in attendance. The participants represented different organisations throughout the European Union with expertise in areas such as human genetics and other medical disciplines,epidemiology,public health, law, ethics, political and social sciences. The aim of the meeting was to wrap up the last year’s assessment period and to herald the policy development phase.The assessment period of PHGEN was characterised by several activities: - Contact and cooperation with other European and internationally funded networks and projects on public health genomics or related issues (e.g. EuroGenetest, EUnetHTA, Orphanet, IPTS, PHOEBE, GRaPHInt, P3G - Identification of key experts in public health genomics in the European members states, applicant countries and EFTA/EEA countries from different disciplines (e.g. human genetics and other medical disciplines, public health, law, philosophy, epidemiology, political and social sciences - Building up national task forces on public health genomics in the above mentioned countries - Establishing and work in three working groups: public health genomics

  9. PREFACE: 1st-2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome - Proceedings

    YRMR Organizing Committee; Cannuccia, E.; Mazzaferro, L.; Migliaccio, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Stellato, F.; Veneziani, M.

    2011-03-01

    Students in science, particularly in physics, face a fascinating and challenging future. Scientists have proposed very interesting theories, which describe the microscopic and macroscopic world fairly well, trying to match the quantum regime with cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena in all their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. More and more accurate and complex experiments have been devised and these are now going to test the paradigms of physics. Notable experiments include: the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC), which is going to shed light on the physics of the Standard Model of Particles and its extensions; the Planck-Herschel satellites, which target a very precise measurement of the properties of our Universe; and the Free Electron Lasers facilities, which produce high-brilliance, ultrafast X-ray pulses, allowing the investigation of the fundamental processes of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. These projects are the result of huge collaborations spread across the world, involving scientists belonging to different and complementary research fields: physicists, chemists, biologists and others, keen to make the best of these extraordinary laboratories. Even though each branch of science is experiencing a process of growing specialization, it is very important to keep an eye on the global picture, remaining aware of the deep interconnections between inherent fields. This is even more crucial for students who are beginning their research careers. These considerations motivated PhD students and young post-docs connected to the Roman scientific research area to organize a conference, to establish the background and the network for interactions and collaborations. This resulted in the 1st and 2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome (http://ryrm.roma2.infn.it), one day conferences aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics in Italy

  10. Archaeometric study of glass beads from the 2nd century BC cemetery of Numantia

    García Heras, Manuel

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent archaeologícalf ieldwork undertaken in the Celtiberian cremation necropolis of Numantia (Soria, Spain has provided a group of glass beads from the 2nd century BC. Such glass beads were part, together with other metallic and ceramic items, of the offerings deposited with the dead. They are ring-shaped in typology and deep-blue, amber, or semitransparent white in colour. This paper reports results derived from the chemical and microstructural characterization carried out on a representative sample set of this group of beads. The main goal of the research was to find out about their production technology to explore their probable provenance. In addítion, corrosion mechanisms were also assessed to determine the influence of crematíon on the beads' structure. The resulting data suggest that these blue and amber beads were made using soda-lime silicate glass, whereas semi-transparent white ones were manufactured from alumino-silicate glass. It has also determined that some transition metal oxides were used as chromophores, as well as lead oxide for decoration.

    La reciente excavación de la necrópolis celtibérica de Numancia (Garray, Soria ha permitido recuperar un conjunto de cuentas de vidrio del siglo II a.C. Las cuentas, junto con otros objetos de metaly cerámica, formaban parte de las ofrendas depositadas con el difunto, siendo de tipología anular y coloreadas en azul oscuro, ambar y blanco semitransparente. Este trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos en la caracterización química y microestructural de una muestra representativa de este conjunto. El objetivo principal de la investigación consistió en recabar información sobre su tecnología de manufactura y evaluar su posible procedencia. Asimismo, también se investigaron sus mecanismos de corrosión para determinar si la cremación había inducido cambios en su estructura. Los resultados indican que las cuentas azules y ámbar se realizaron con vidrio de silicato s

  11. [The super extended sub-mental flap or combo sub-mental flap].

    Martin, D

    2014-08-01

    The author presents a technical variation of the sub-mental flap including in a conventional pedicled flap both sub-mental axes and their anastomoses on the midline. The assessment of the first flaps raised according to this method confirms the improvement of the distal blood supply. It allows the possibility to harvest "super extended" flaps reaching the contralateral auricular lobula. This variation can be considered as an axial flap which only the tip, located beyond the mandibular angle, is at random. The evolution of the sub-mental flap from its original description to this variation called "combo sub-mental flap" is then presented. Its reliability and the technical simplification it provides will have to be assessed in the future. PMID:24840945

  12. Secondary onlay free flap reconstruction of glossectomy defects following initial successful flap restoration.

    Rihani, Jordan; Lee, Thomas; Ducic, Yadranko

    2013-08-01

    Patients who undergo tongue reconstruction over time may develop gradual worsening of dysarthria and dysphagia secondary to flap atrophy. At our institution, these patients undergo a secondary flap onlay procedure for augmentation of the neotongue. We review a total of 11 patients with total glossectomy defect who underwent secondary tongue augmentation with secondary onlay free flap consisting of radial forearm free flap (n = 6) and rectus free flap (n = 5). There was improvement in swallowing in 7 of 11 patients. Five (45.4%) patients achieved gastric tube independence. Seven (63.6%) patients achieved a varying degree of oral intake. All patients achieved tracheostomy independence. Dysarthria was improved in all patients. There were no flap failures. Therefore, a secondary onlay flap technique is feasible and may improve dysphagia and dysarthria to achieve gastric tube and tracheostomy independence in total glossectomy patients with delayed tongue atrophy. PMID:23625797

  13. Analysis of tail effects in flapping flight

    Tay, W.B.; Bijl, H.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed to examine the interference effects between an upstream flapping airfoil and a downstream stationary airfoil in a tandem configuration at a Reynolds number of 1000, which is around the regime of small flapping micro aerial vehicles. The object

  14. Blood flow autoregulation in pedicled flaps

    Bonde, Christian T; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Elberg, Jens J

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clinical work on the blood perfusion in skin and muscle flaps has suggested that some degree of blood flow autoregulation exists in such flaps. An autoregulatory mechanism would enable the flap to protect itself from changes in the perfusion pressure. The purpose of the present study...... was to evaluate if, and to what extent, a tissue flap could compensate a reduction in blood flow due to an acute constriction of the feed artery. Further, we wanted to examine the possible role of smooth muscle L-type calcium channels in the autoregulatory mechanism by pharmacological intervention...... with the L-type calcium channel blocker nimodipine and the vasodilator papaverine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pedicled flaps were raised in pigs. Flow in the pedicle was reduced by constriction of the feed artery (n=34). A transit time flow probe measured the effect on blood flow continuously. Following...

  15. Fasciocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction

    A skin and fascia flap from the medial thigh is proposed for vaginal and perineal reconstruction. Dissection, vascular injection, and radiographs of 20 fresh cadaver limbs uniformly demonstrated the presence of a communicating suprafascial vascular plexus in the medial thigh. Three to four nonaxial vessels were consistently found to enter the proximal plexus from within 5 cm of the perineum. Preservation of these vessels permitted reliable elevation of a 9 X 20 cm fasciocutaneous flap without using the gracilis muscle as a vascular carrier. Fifteen flaps in 13 patients were used for vaginal replacement and coverage of vulvectomy, groin, and ischial defects. Depending on the magnitude of the defect, simultaneous and independent elevation of the gracilis muscle provided additional vascularized coverage as needed. Our experience indicates that the medial thigh fasciocutaneous flap is a durable, less bulky, and potentially sensate alternative to the gracilis musculocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction

  16. Fasciocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction

    Wang, T.N.; Whetzel, T.; Mathes, S.J.; Vasconez, L.O.

    1987-07-01

    A skin and fascia flap from the medial thigh is proposed for vaginal and perineal reconstruction. Dissection, vascular injection, and radiographs of 20 fresh cadaver limbs uniformly demonstrated the presence of a communicating suprafascial vascular plexus in the medial thigh. Three to four nonaxial vessels were consistently found to enter the proximal plexus from within 5 cm of the perineum. Preservation of these vessels permitted reliable elevation of a 9 X 20 cm fasciocutaneous flap without using the gracilis muscle as a vascular carrier. Fifteen flaps in 13 patients were used for vaginal replacement and coverage of vulvectomy, groin, and ischial defects. Depending on the magnitude of the defect, simultaneous and independent elevation of the gracilis muscle provided additional vascularized coverage as needed. Our experience indicates that the medial thigh fasciocutaneous flap is a durable, less bulky, and potentially sensate alternative to the gracilis musculocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction.

  17. The clinical application of anterolateral thigh flap.

    Lee, Yao-Chou; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Shieh, Shyh-Jou

    2011-01-01

    The anterolateral thigh flap can provide a large skin paddle nourished by a long and large-caliber pedicle and can be harvested by two-team work. Most importantly, the donor-site morbidity is minimal. However, the anatomic variations decreased its popularity. By adapting free-style flap concepts, such as preoperative mapping of the perforators and being familiar with retrograde perforator dissection, this disadvantage had been overcome gradually. Furthermore, several modifications widen its clinical applications: the fascia lata can be included for sling or tendon reconstruction, the bulkiness could be created by including vastus lateralis muscle or deepithelization of skin flap, the pliability could be increased by suprafascial dissection or primary thinning, the pedicle length could be lengthening by proximally eccentric placement of the perforator, and so forth. Combined with these technical and conceptual advancements, the anterolateral thigh flap has become the workhorse flap for soft-tissue reconstructions from head to toe. PMID:22567234

  18. Facial artery flaps in facial oncoplastic reconstruction.

    Fabrizio, Tommaso

    2013-10-01

    The face is one of the common sites for cutaneous cancer localization. It is well known that the face is the localization of more than 50% of skin cancers. Nowadays, the principles of modern "oncoplasty" recommend the complete excision of the cancer and the reconstruction with respect to cosmetic features of the face in terms of good color, good softness, and good texture of the flaps, utilized in cancer repair. The oncological and cosmetic results of facial reconstruction are strictly linked and the modern plastic and reconstructive surgeon must respect both oncological and cosmetic aspects. For that reason the best solution in facial cancer repair is the utilization of locoregional flaps based on the tributary vessels of the facial artery. In consideration of the dimension of recipient area to repair, the retroangular flap (RAF) or the submental flap could be used. This article is voted to illustrate a very large and long-term casuistry dedicated to these flaps. PMID:24037925

  19. Potential sources of quantification error when retrospectively assessing metacarpal bone loss from historical radiographs by using digital X-ray radiogrammetry : an experimental study

    Kälvesten, Johan; Brismar, Torkel B.; Persson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 yr, digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) has been used to measure metacarpal bone mineral density (BMD). BMD is often measured in existing cohorts where X-ray images were not acquired in accordance with the DXR imaging protocol (DIP). The purpose of the present study was to analyze how deviations from DIP in historical radiographs may affect the reproducibility of DXR-BMD measurements. Cadaver hand phantoms were used to conduct repeat measurements of deviations from DIP with ...

  20. The mechanical consequences of load bearing in the equine third metacarpal across speed and gait: the nonuniform distributions of normal strain, shear strain, and strain energy density

    Rubin, Clinton T.; Seeherman, Howard; Qin, Yi-Xian; Gross, Ted S.

    2013-01-01

    Distributions of normal strain, shear strain, and strain energy density (SED) were determined across the midshaft of the third metacarpal (MCIII, or cannon bone) of 3 adult thoroughbred horses as a function of speed and gait. A complete characterization of the mechanical demands of the bone made through the stride and from mild through the extremes of locomotion was possible by using three 3-element rosette strain gauges bonded at the diaphyseal midshaft of the MCIII and evaluating the strain...

  1. Exotic wakes of flapping fins

    Schnipper, Teis

    downstream neighbour. When this neighbour is a second flag close by, they synchronise in frequency and the leader experiences a reduced drag compared to that on the lone flag. In case the follower is replaced by a flapping plate, upstream synchronisation and drag reduction is again found over a wide range of...... frequencies. Drag reductions up to a factor 3 are measured. Many results presented are obtained through flow visualisations. A great effort is made to produce visualisations of primarily high scientific quality, but often also with a certain aesthetic appeal....

  2. Laser resurfacing of skin flaps: an experimental comparison

    Srdan Babovic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The influence of Coherent Ultrapulse, TruPulse and Erbium: YAG laser skin resurfacing on survival of the skin flaps when performed simultaneously was evaluated. Material and methods. We used twelve female Yucatan minipigs in the study. Skin flaps including paniculus carnosus were raised on the animals’ back. The flaps were sutured into the defect under tension. We designed 4 experimental groups: Control-Flaps only, Group 2-Flaps + 4 immediate TruPulse laser passes, Group 3-Flaps + 2 immediate Coherent UltraPulse laser passes, Group 4-Flaps – immediate 50J/cm2 total fluence with Erbium: YAG laser. Results. Flap survival in Control group was 98.8%. There was no flap in Group 2 with complete survival. Survival of the flaps in Group 2 (Tru-Pulse ranged from 75-90%, with average flap survival area of 85.2%. In Group 3 (UltraPulse all 24 flaps had some area of necrosis. Flap survival in Group 3 ranged from 75-95%, with an average of 85.6%. In Group 4 (Erbium: YAG flap survival area ranged from 70-95%, with all 24 flaps with some area of necrosis, with average flap survival area of 87.3%. There is a significant statistical difference in flap survival area between groups 2, 3 and 4 versus Control (p<0.001. Conclusion. The results of our study suggest that laser resurfacing of skin flaps sutured under tension in the same operative session is detrimental for skin flap survival. We also found no significant difference in flap survival area between TruPulse, Coherent UltraPulse and Erbium: YAG laser treated flaps.

  3. 2nd Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean (RADIO 2014)

    2014-10-01

    It was an honor and a great pleasure for all those involved in its organization to welcome the participants to the ''Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean'' (RADIO 2014) international conference that was held from 7th to 10th April 2014 at the Sugar Beach Resort, Wolmar, Flic-en-Flac, Mauritius. RADIO 2014 is the second of a series of conferences organized in the Indian Ocean region. The aim of the conference is to discuss recent developments, theories and practical applications covering the whole scope of radio-frequency engineering, including radio waves, antennas, propagation, and electromagnetic compatibility. The RADIO international conference emerged following discussions with engineers and scientists from the countries of the Indian Ocean as well as from other parts of the world and a need was felt for the organization of such an event in this region. Following numerous requests, the Island of Mauritius, worldwide known for its white sandy beaches and pleasant tropical atmosphere, was again chosen for the organization of the 2nd RADIO international conference. The conference was organized by the Radio Society, Mauritius and the Local Organizing Committee consisted of scientists from SUPELEC, France, the University of Mauritius, and the University of Technology, Mauritius. We would like to take the opportunity to thank all people, institutions and companies that made the event such a success. We are grateful to our gold sponsors CST and FEKO as well as URSI for their generous support which enabled us to partially support one PhD student and two scientists to attend the conference. We would also like to thank IEEE-APS and URSI for providing technical co-sponsorship. More than hundred and thirty abstracts were submitted to the conference. They were peer-reviewed by an international scientific committee and, based on the reviews, either accepted, eventually after revision, or rejected. RADIO 2014 brought together participants from twenty countries spanning

  4. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones -- Phase I, 2nd Report

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Black, Bill; Biraud, Sebastien

    2009-03-31

    This is the year-end report of the 2nd year of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix 3. Literature survey of published information on the relationship between geologic and hydrologic characteristics of faults was conducted. The survey concluded that it may be possible to classify faults by indicators based on various geometric and geologic attributes that may indirectly relate to the hydrologic property of faults. Analysis of existing information on the Wildcat Fault and its surrounding geology was performed. The Wildcat Fault is thought to be a strike-slip fault with a thrust component that runs along the eastern boundary of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is believed to be part of the Hayward Fault system but is considered inactive. Three trenches were excavated at carefully selected locations mainly based on the information from the past investigative work inside the LBNL property. At least one fault was encountered in all three trenches. Detailed trench mapping was conducted by CRIEPI (Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industries) and LBNL scientists. Some intriguing and puzzling discoveries were made that may contradict with the published work in the past. Predictions are made regarding the hydrologic property of the Wildcat Fault based on the analysis of fault structure. Preliminary conceptual models of the Wildcat Fault were proposed. The Wildcat Fault appears to have multiple splays and some low angled faults may be part of the flower structure. In parallel, surface geophysical investigations were conducted using electrical resistivity survey and seismic reflection profiling along three lines on the north and south of the LBNL site. Because of the steep terrain, it was difficult to find optimum locations for survey lines as it is desirable for them to be as

  5. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones: Phase I, 2nd Report

    This is the year-end report of the 2nd year of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix 3. Literature survey of published information on the relationship between geologic and hydrologic characteristics of faults was conducted. The survey concluded that it may be possible to classify faults by indicators based on various geometric and geologic attributes that may indirectly relate to the hydrologic property of faults. Analysis of existing information on the Wildcat Fault and its surrounding geology was performed. The Wildcat Fault is thought to be a strike-slip fault with a thrust component that runs along the eastern boundary of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is believed to be part of the Hayward Fault system but is considered inactive. Three trenches were excavated at carefully selected locations mainly based on the information from the past investigative work inside the LBNL property. At least one fault was encountered in all three trenches. Detailed trench mapping was conducted by CRIEPI (Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industries) and LBNL scientists. Some intriguing and puzzling discoveries were made that may contradict with the published work in the past. Predictions are made regarding the hydrologic property of the Wildcat Fault based on the analysis of fault structure. Preliminary conceptual models of the Wildcat Fault were proposed. The Wildcat Fault appears to have multiple splays and some low angled faults may be part of the flower structure. In parallel, surface geophysical investigations were conducted using electrical resistivity survey and seismic reflection profiling along three lines on the north and south of the LBNL site. Because of the steep terrain, it was difficult to find optimum locations for survey lines as it is desirable for them to be as

  6. Pudendal thigh flap for repair of rectovaginal fistula.

    Sathappan, S; Rica, M A I

    2006-08-01

    The pudendal thigh flap or the Singapore flap is a versatile flap that can be used in the repair of recto-vaginal fistulae. Apart from the potential problem of hair growth, this neurovascular flap proves to be surprisingly simple in technique, robust and has a high potential for normal or near-normal function. PMID:17240589

  7. Total endoscopic free flap harvest of a serratus anterior fascia flap for microsurgical lower leg reconstruction

    Erdmann, Alfons

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: A tremendous number of free flaps have been developed in the past. As the surgical result depends not only on a successful flap transfer but also on the harvest, this paper details the procedures for undertaking the first total endoscopic harvest of a serratus fascia flap for free flap transplantation to the lower leg. Patient and methods: In September 2012 we performed the first total endoscopic serratus anterior fascia free flap harvest. The incision of 2.5 cm length was made 10 cm in front of anterior muscle border of the latissimus dorsi at level with the midthorax. After insertion of a flexible laparoscopic single port system we started CO gas insufflation. We used this setting to meticulously prepare a neo cavity between atissimus dorsi and M. serratus anterior. The vessels were dissected and the thoraco-dorsal nerve was separated. With a second auxiliary incision we used a clamp to support the raising of the fascia flap from the underlying muscle. Finally we clipped the vessels to the latissimus dorsi muscle and the flap vessels at the Arteria and Vena axillaris. The flap was extracted via the 2.5 cm incision.Results: We were able to perform a total endoscopic harvest of a serratus fascia flap for free flap reconstruction of soft tissues. With this new operative technique we were able to avoid a long skin incision, which in our view lowers the morbidity at the harvest area.Conclusion: We describe a new method for the total endoscopic harvest of the serratus fascia flap for free flap transfer. The flap was harvested within reasonable time and following surgery leaves the patient with minimal donor site morbidity compared to the open technique.

  8. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-10-01

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing-wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in a group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. These results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups.

  9. Structural variation of the distal condyles of the third metacarpal and third metatarsal bones in the horse

    This study examined 3-dimensional (3D) distribution of sectors with contrasting density in the equine third metacarpal (McIII) and third metatarsal (MtIII) bones with a view to explaining the aetiology of distal condylar fractures. Macroradiography and computed tomographic (CT) imaging were used in the nondestructive study of bones obtained from horses, most of which were Thoroughbreds in race training. Distal condylar regions of McIII and MtIII were also studied in microradiographs of 100 mu m thick mediolateral sections cut perpendicular to the dorsal and palmar/plantar articular surfaces. Qualitative and quantitative results from all methods used (radiography, CTand microradiographic stereology) demonstrated densification (sclerosis) of subchondral bone located in the palmar/plantar regions of the medial and lateral condyles of both McIII and MtIII, Substantial density gradients between the denser condyles and the subchondral bone of the sagittal groove were shown to equate with anatomical differences in loading intensity during locomotion. It is hypothesised that such differences in bone density results in stress concentration at the palmar/plantar aspect of the condylar grooves, which may predispose to fracture

  10. Fibrin glue for Gundersen flap surgery

    Chung HW

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hsi-Wei Chung,1 Jodhbir S Mehta1–31Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 2Tissue Engineering and Stem Cell Group, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore; 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, SingaporePurpose: To evaluate the feasibility of fibrin glue in Gundersen flap surgery.Design: Prospective case series.Study subjects: Seven eyes of seven subjects who had undergone Gundersen flap surgery from 2009 to 2011 at the Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.Methods: Review of case records for outcomes after Gundersen flap surgery.Main outcome measures: Surgical success was defined as achieving a stable ocular surface. Complications to be noted included flap retraction or exposure of underlying corneal surface.Results: Surgical success was achieved in all eyes with significant reduction in ocular surface inflammation. No retractions were noted and recovery was uncomplicated.Conclusion: Fibrin glue application is a viable alternative to sutures in Gundersen flap surgery. It reduces surgical downtime, gives faster ocular surface rehabilitation, and offers similar outcomes to conventional conjunctival flap surgery.Keywords: Gundersen, conjunctival flap, fibrin glue

  11. Use of Martius flap in the complex female urethral surgery

    Kasyan, George; Tupikina, Nataliya; Pushkar, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Objectives were to evaluate safety and patient reported perception of the Martius fibroadipose flap for complex female urethra reconstruction. Material and methods Patients operated with a Martius flap were contacted again via telephone to rate their self–perception on cosmetic appearance, pain or numbness of the flap harvest site. Results 37 women (mean age of 46.8 yrs.) were operated with Martius flaps. Complications were limited to bleeding from the flap bed in 19% (7/37); hem...

  12. Noise Characteristics of 64-channel 2nd-order DROS Gradiometer System inside a Poorly Magnetically-shielded Room

    Kim, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Yu, K. K.; Kim, K.; Kwon, H.; Park, Y. K. [Biosignal Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sasada, Ichiro [Dept. of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Ktushu University, Fukuoka (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    We have developed a second-order double relaxation oscillation SQUID(DROS) gradiometer with a baseline of 35 mm, and constructed a poorly magnetically-shielded room(MSR) with an aluminum layer and permalloy layers for magnetocardiography(MCG). The 2nd-order DROS gradiometer has a noise level of 20 fT/Hz at 1 Hz and 8 fT/Hz at 200 Hz inside the heavily-shielded MSR with a shielding factor of10{sup 3}at 1 Hz and 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} at 100 Hz. The poorly-shielded MSR, built of a 12-mm-thick aluminum layer and 4-6 permalloy layers of 0.35 mm thickness, is 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 2.4 m in size, and has a shielding factor of 40 at 1 Hz, 10{sup 4} at 100 Hz. Our 64-channel second-order gradiometer MCG system consists of 64 2nd-order DROS gradiometers, flux-locked loop electronics, and analog signal processors. With the 2nd-order DROS gradiometers and flux-locked loop electronics installed inside the poorly-shielded MSR, and with the analog signal processor installed outside it, the noise level was measured to be 20 fT/Hz at 1 Hz and 8 fT/Hz at 200 Hz on the average even though the MSR door is open. This result leads to a low noise level, low enough to obtain a human MCG at the same level as that measured in the heavily-shielded MSR. However, filters or active shielding is needed fur clear MCG when there is large low-frequency noise from heavy air conditioning or large ac power consumption near the poorly-shielded MSR.

  13. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by 2nd High School of Eleftherio–Kordelio in Thessaloniki

    2013-01-01

    Our school is the 2nd High School of Eleftherio – Kordelio. It is located at the west suburbs of Thessaloniki in Greece and our students are between 15-17 years old. Thessaloniki is the second largest city in Greece with a port of a major role in trading at the area of South Balkans. During this period of time our students have heard so much about CERN and the great discoveries which have taken place there and they are really keen on visiting and learning many things about it.

  14. Order and disorder in Ca2ND0.90H0.10-A structural and thermal study

    The structure of calcium nitride hydride and its deuterided form has been re-examined at room temperature and studied at high temperature using neutron powder diffraction and thermal analysis. When synthesised at 600 deg. C, a mixture of both ordered and disordered Ca2ND0.90H0.10 phases results. The disordered phase is the minor component and has a primitive rocksalt structure (spacegroup Fm3m) with no ordering of D/N on the anion sites and the ordered phase is best described using the rhombohedral spacegroup R-3m with D and N arranged in alternate layers in (111) planes. This mixture of ordered and disordered phases exists up to 580 deg. C, at which the loss of deuterium yields Ca2ND0.85 with the disappearance of the disordered phase. In the new ordered phase there exists a similar content of vacancies on both anion sites; to achieve this balance, a little N transfers onto the D site, whereas there is no indication of D transferring onto the N-sites. These observations are thought to indicate that the D/N ordering is difficult to achieve with fully occupied anion sites. It has previously been reported that Ca2ND has an ordered cubic cell with alternating D and N sites in the [100] directions ; however, for the samples studied herein, there were clearly two coexisting phases with apparent broadening/splitting of the primitive peaks but not for the ordered peaks. The rhombohedral phase was in fact metrically cubic; however, all the observed peaks were consistent with the rhombohedral unit cell with no peaks requiring the larger ordered cubic unit cell to be utilised. Furthermore this rhombohedral cell displays the same form of N-D ordering as the Sr and Ba analogues, which are metrically rhombohedral. - Graphical abstract: Ca2ND0.90H0.10 forms a mixture of ordered and disordered phases when synthesised at 600 deg. C. The ordered phase disappears at high temperature upon release of structural deuterium/hydrogen, leaving a single, partially disordered phase. Research

  15. The plane problem of the flapping wing

    Birnbaum, Walter

    1954-01-01

    In connection with an earlier report on the lifting vortex sheet which forms the basis of the following investigations this will show how the methods developed there are also suitable for dealing with the air forces for a wing with a circulation variable with time. The theory of a propulsive wing flapping up and down periodically in the manner of a bird's wing is developed. This study shows how the lift and its moment result as a function of the flapping motion, what thrust is attainable, and how high is the degree of efficiency of this flapping propulsion unit if the air friction is disregarded.

  16. Neural Anatomy of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    Luenam, Suriya; Prugsawan, Krit; Kosiyatrakul, Arkaphat; Chotanaphuti, Thanainit; Sriya, Piyanee

    2015-01-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is one of the commonly used sensate flaps for intra-oral, hand, and foot reconstruction. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic location of the sensory nerves supplying the ALT flap in relation to the surface landmarks and with the vascular pedicles. The dissections were carried out in 28 embalmed specimens. An axial line from the anterior superior iliac spine to the superolateral border of the patella and two circles with radii of 5 and 10...

  17. Dynamic response of a piezoelectric flapping wing

    Kumar, Alok; Khandwekar, Gaurang; Venkatesh, S.; Mahapatra, D. R.; Dutta, S.

    2015-03-01

    Piezo-composite membranes have advantages over motorized flapping where frequencies are high and certain coupling between bending and twisting is useful to generate lift and forward flight. We draw examples of fruit fly and bumble bee. Wings with Piezo ceramic PZT coating are realized. The passive mechanical response of the wing is characterized experimentally and validated using finite element simulation. Piezoelectric actuation with uniform electrode coating is characterized and optimal frequencies for flapping are identified. The experimental data are used in an empirical model and advanced ratio for a flapping insect like condition for various angular orientations is estimated.

  18. Blended Cutout Flap for Reduction of Jet-Flap Interaction Noise

    Czech, Michael J (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft system includes a wing and a trailing edge device coupled to the wing. The trailing edge device is movable relative to the wing, and includes a leading edge and a trailing edge having a center flap portion and a plurality of outer edge portions integrally combined with the center flap portion such that the center flap portion is shorter in width than that of outer edge portions.

  19. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, (NCMIP 2012). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 15 May 2012, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The first edition of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finance. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition

  20. Sustainable development - a role for nuclear power? 2nd scientific forum

    The 2nd Scientific Forum of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was held during the 43rd General Conference. This paper summarizes the deliberations of the two-day Forum. The definition of 'sustainable development' of the 1987 Bruntland Commission - 'development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs' - provided the background for the Forum's debate whether and how nuclear power could contribute to sustainable energy development. The framework for this debate comprises different perspectives on economic, energy, environmental, and political considerations. Nuclear power, along with all energy generating systems, should be judged on these considerations using a common set of criteria (e.g., emission levels, economics, public safety, wastes, and risks). First and foremost, there is a growing political concern over the possible adverse impact of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. However, there is debate as to whether this would have any material impact on the predominantly economic criteria currently used to make investment decisions on energy production. According to the views expressed, the level of safety of existing nuclear power plants is no longer a major concern - a view not yet fully shared by the general public. The need to maintain the highest standards of safety in operation remains, especially under the mounting pressure of competitiveness in deregulated and liberalized energy markets. The industry must continuously reinforce a strong safety culture among reactor designers, builders, and operators. Furthermore, a convincing case for safety will have to be made for any new reactor designs. Of greater concern to the public and politicians are the issues of radioactive waste and proliferation of nuclear weapons. There is a consensus among technical experts that radioactive wastes from nuclear power can be disposed of safely and

  1. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS brain at constant temperature, we can solve the minimum of Helmholtz free energy (H = E - TS) by computing BSS, and then their pairwise-entropy source correlation function. (i) Although the entropy itself is not the information per se, but the concurrence of the entropy sources is the information flow as a functional-EEG, sketched in this 2nd BOD report. Area #(2) applying EEG bio-feedback will improve collective decision making (TBD). Approach to #2: We introduce a novel performance quality metrics, in terms of the throughput rate of faster (Δt) & more accurate (ΔA) decision making, which applies to individual, as well as team brain dynamics. Following Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahnmen's novel "Thinking fast and slow", through the brainwave biofeedback we can first identify an individual's "anchored cognitive bias sources". This is done in order to remove the biases by means of individually tailored pre-processing. Then the training effectiveness can be maximized by the collective product Δt *

  2. Propeller Flap Reconstruction in Post Oncological Thigh Defect: "The Move in Flap".

    Nambi, G I; Salunke, Abhijeet Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the limb after tumor resection is challenging question for oncosurgeons. The management differs from reconstruction of post traumatic defects due to the complexity of the primary surgery and subsequent radiation. The conventional propeller flap is based on a perforator which is located close to the defect; but in present case the perforator was located far away from the defect. So we describe it as "Move in flap" as the flap rotated a large volume of soft tissue lying between the defect and the perforator. We present a case of post oncological thigh defect with reconstruction using a propeller flap based on distal anteromedial perforator. PMID:26405422

  3. Proceedings of the 2nd JAERI symposium on HTGR technologies October 21 ∼ 23, 1992, Oarai, Japan

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) held the 2nd JAERI Symposium on HTGR Technologies on October 21 to 23, 1992, at Oarai Park Hotel at Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken, Japan, with support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Science and Technology Agency of Japan and the Atomic Energy Society of Japan on the occasion that the construction of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), which is the first high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in Japan, is now being proceeded smoothly. In this symposium, the worldwide present status of research and development (R and D) of the HTGRs and the future perspectives of the HTGR development were discussed with 47 papers including 3 invited lectures, focusing on the present status of HTGR projects and perspectives of HTGR Development, Safety, Operation Experience, Fuel and Heat Utilization. A panel discussion was also organized on how the HTGRs can contribute to the preservation of global environment. About 280 participants attended the symposium from Japan, Bangladesh, Germany, France, Indonesia, People's Republic of China, Poland, Russia, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, Venezuela and the IAEA. This paper was edited as the proceedings of the 2nd JAERI Symposium on HTGR Technologies, collecting the 47 papers presented in the oral and poster sessions along with 11 panel exhibitions on the results of research and development associated to the HTTR. (author)

  4. Surface-emitting quantum cascade laser with 2nd-order metal-semiconductor gratings for single-lobe emission

    Boyle, C.; Sigler, C.; Kirch, J. D.; Lindberg, D.; Earles, T.; Botez, D.; Mawst, L. J.

    2016-03-01

    Grating-coupled, surface-emitting (GCSE) quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are demonstrated with high-power, single-lobe surface emission. A 2nd-order Au-semiconductor distributed-feedback (DFB)/ distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) grating is used for feedback and out-coupling. The DFB and DBR grating regions are 2.55 mm- and 1.28 mm-long, respectively, for a total grating length of 5.1 mm. The lasers are designed to operate in a symmetric longitudinal mode by causing resonant coupling of the guided optical mode to the antisymmetric surface-plasmon modes of the 2nd-order metal/semiconductor grating. In turn, the antisymmetric longitudinal modes are strongly absorbed by the metal in the grating, causing the symmetric longitudinal mode to be favored to lase, which produces a single lobe beam over a grating duty-cycle range of 36-41 %. Simulations indicate that the symmetric mode is always favored to lase, independent of the random phase of residual reflections from the device's cleaved ends. Peak pulsed output powers of ~ 0.4 W were measured with single-lobe, single-mode operation near 4.75 μm.

  5. Synthetic CO, H2 and HI surveys of the Galactic 2nd Quadrant, and the properties of molecular gas

    Duarte-Cabral, A; Dobbs, C L; Mottram, J C; Gibson, S J; Brunt, C M; Douglas, K A

    2014-01-01

    We present CO, H2, HI and HISA distributions from a set of simulations of grand design spirals including stellar feedback, self-gravity, heating and cooling. We replicate the emission of the 2nd Galactic Quadrant by placing the observer inside the modelled galaxies and post process the simulations using a radiative transfer code, so as to create synthetic observations. We compare the synthetic datacubes to observations of the 2nd Quadrant of the Milky Way to test the ability of the current models to reproduce the basic chemistry of the Galactic ISM, as well as to test how sensitive such galaxy models are to different recipes of chemistry and/or feedback. We find that models which include feedback and self-gravity can reproduce the production of CO with respect to H2 as observed in our Galaxy, as well as the distribution of the material perpendicular to the Galactic plane. While changes in the chemistry/feedback recipes do not have a huge impact on the statistical properties of the chemistry in the simulated g...

  6. Numerical stability of 2nd order Runge-Kutta integration algorithms for use in particle-in-cell codes

    An essential ingredient of particle-in-cell (PIC) codes is a numerically accurate and stable integration scheme for the particle equations of motion. Such a scheme is the well known time-centered leapfrog (LF) method accurate to 2nd order with respect to the timestep Δt. However, this scheme can only be used for forces independent of velocity unless a simple enough implicit implementation is possible. The LF scheme is therefore inapplicable in Monte-Carlo treatments of particle collisions and/or interactions with radio-frequency fields. We examine here the suitability of the 2nd order Runge-Kutta (RK) method. We find that the basic RK scheme is numerically unstable, but that conditional stability can be attained by an implementation which preserves phase space area. Examples are presented to illustrate the performance of the RK schemes. We compare analytic and computed electron orbits in a traveling nonlinear wave and also show self-consistent PIC simulations describing plasma flow in the vicinity of a lower hybrid antenna. (author)

  7. Time resolved 2nd harmonic generation at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces

    Adhikari, Sanjay; Eom, Chang-Beom; Ryu, Sangwoo; Cen, Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Ultrafast spectroscopy can produce information of carrier/lattice dynamics, which is especially valuable for understanding phase transitions at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) are both associated with wide band gap, which allows deep penetration of commonly used laser wavelengths and therefore usually leads to overwhelming bulk signal background. Here we report a time resolved study of a 2nd harmonic generation (SHG) signal resulting from impulsive below-the-band-gap optical pumping. The nonlinear nature of the signal enables us to probe the interface directly. Output of a home built Ti:Sapphire laser and BBO crystal were used to generate 30fs pulses of two colors (405nm and 810nm). The 405nm pulse was used to pump the LAO/STO interfaces, while 2nd harmonics of the 810nm pulse generated at the interfaces was probed as a function of the time delay. Signals from samples with varying LAO thicknesses clearly correlates to the metal-insulator transition. Distinct time dependent signals were observed at LAO/STO interfaces grown on different substrates. Experiments performed at different optical polarization geometries, interface electric fields and temperatures allow us to paint a clearer picture of the novel oxide heterostructures under investigation.

  8. BMI differences in 1st and 2nd generation immigrants of Asian and European origin to Australia.

    Hauck, Katharina; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Morgan, Lawrie

    2011-01-01

    We estimate assimilation of immigrants' body mass index (BMI) to the host population of Australia over one generation, conducting separate analyses for immigrants from 7 regions of Europe and Asia. We use quantile regressions to allow for differing impact of generational status across 19 quantiles of BMI from under-weight to morbidly obese individuals. We find that 1st generation South European immigrants have higher, and South and East Asian immigrants have lower BMI than Australians, but have assimilated to the BMI of their hosts in the 2nd generation. There are no or only small BMI differences between Australians and 1st and 2nd generation immigrants from East Europe, North-West Europe, Middle East and Pacific regions. We conclude that both upward and downward assimilation in some immigrant groups is most likely caused by factors which can change over one generation (such as acculturation), and not factors which would take longer to change (such as genetics). Our results suggest that public health policies targeting the lifestyles of well educated Asian immigrants may be effective in preventing BMI increase in this subgroup. PMID:20869292

  9. Periodic and Chaotic Flapping of Insectile Wings

    Huang, Yangyang

    2015-01-01

    Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. The maximum power output of these flight muscles is insufficient to maintain such wing oscillations unless there is good elastic storage of energy in the insect flight system. Here, we explore the intrinsic self-oscillatory behavior of an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring. We study the wings behavior as a function of the total energy and spring stiffness. Three types of behavior are identified: end-over-end rotation, chaotic motion, and periodic flapping. Interestingly, the region of periodic flapping decreases as energy increases but is favored as stiffness increases. These findings are consistent with the fact that insect wings and flight muscles are stiff. They further imply that, by adjusting their muscle stiffness to the desired energy level, insects can maintain periodic flapping mechanically for a range of operating condit...

  10. Postirradiation flap infection about the oral cavity

    Postirradiation alteration of oral flora is well documented in the literature. Infection as a complication leading to partial or complete loss of a flap used to reconstruct a defect in the oral cavity is a worrisome outcome. We describe how a flap that was judged clinically to be viable became overwhelmingly infected with the Klebsiella oxytoca, an oral cavity pathogen encountered in this patient following irradiation. Local and systemic changes led to detachment of the flap. This complication may be explained, in view of the absence of venous congestion or arterial ischemia both clinically and pathologically, by the proven contamination of the flap by the Klebsiella pathogen. Local factors resulted in lower resistance and subsequent overwhelming infection. Discussion of the case, review of pertinent literature, and proposed solutions are presented

  11. A dynamical system for interacting flapping swimmers

    Oza, Anand; Ramananarivo, Sophie; Ristroph, Leif; Shelley, Michael

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation into the dynamics of interacting flapping swimmers. Our study is motivated by the recent experiments of Becker et al., who studied a one-dimensional array of self-propelled flapping wings that swim within each other's wakes in a water tank. They discovered that the system adopts certain ``schooling modes'' characterized by specific spatial phase relationships between swimmers. To rationalize these phenomena, we develop a discrete dynamical system in which the swimmers are modeled as heaving airfoils that shed point vortices during each flapping cycle. We then apply our model to recent experiments in the Applied Math Lab, in which two tandem flapping airfoils are free to choose both their speed and relative positions. We expect that our model may be used to understand how schooling behavior is influenced by hydrodynamics in more general contexts. Thanks to the NSF for its support.

  12. Behind the performance of flapping flyers

    Ramananarivo, Sophie; Thiria, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Saving energy and enhancing performance are secular preoccupations shared by both nature and human beings. In animal locomotion, flapping flyers or swimmers rely on the flexibility of their wings or body to passively increase their efficiency using an appropriate cycle of storing and releasing elastic energy. Despite the convergence of many observations pointing out this feature, the underlying mechanisms explaining how the elastic nature of the wings is related to propulsive efficiency remain unclear. Here we use an experiment with a self-propelled simplified insect model allowing to show how wing compliance governs the performance of flapping flyers. Reducing the description of the flapping wing to a forced oscillator model, we pinpoint different nonlinear effects that can account for the observed behavior ---in particular a set of cubic nonlinearities coming from the clamped-free beam equation used to model the wing and a quadratic damping term representing the fluid drag associated to the fast flapping mo...

  13. Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (2nd edn) and Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology: An Introduction

    Trimble, Virginia [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Las Cumbres Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2007-05-07

    a while to find the bits you want. The index lists neither lambda nor the cosmological constant, and inflation is said to appear on pp 307-412. The chapters are of equal length, in traditional textbook fashion. Neither volume has much to say about issues that are currently 'hot'-the importance of extra dimensions, fine tuning of cosmological parameters, possible evidence for cosmic geometry different from the simplest. Discussions of such things will, of course, date a textbook quickly. On the other hand, they are often the items that physics (etc) students will have heard about in colloquia and would like to have clarified. Names appear only as eponyms, from Altarelli Parisi evolution (which is not on the page to which B and G's index refers you) to the Zeeman effect, which is where PS's index says it is. Can I imagine using either of these as texts? Definitely yes for PS, since it is a possible fit to an astrophysics course that UCI offers as a 'vocabulary builder' for students coming out of mainstream physics (and for which we have yet to find an entirely suitable text). We are contemplating a faculty hire or two in astro-particle physics, in which case B and G might well be a good fit to a seminar for students beginning work in that area. If I were asked to teach the course, however, I would probably want an instructor's solution manual for the text problems. One may well exist, though the book does not mention it. Using PS, you will have to make up your own problems (which you can then reasonably be expected to be able to work without help). (Book review of Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (2nd edn), Lars Bergstroem and Ariel Goobar, 2006 Berlin: Springer and Worthing: Praxis, ISBN 978-3-540-33174-2 and Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology: An Introduction, Peter Schneider, 2006 Berlin: Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-33174-2)

  14. Mandibular reconstruction in irradiated patients utilizing myosseous-cutaneous flaps

    Myosseous-cutaneous flaps were used for mandibular reconstruction in 16 irradiated patients. Three of six sternomastoid-clavicle flaps failed (all in conjunction with a neck dissection), as did one of 10 pectoralis major-anterior-fifth rib flaps. One trapezius-scapular flap was used and it succeeded. We found the blood supply of the sternomastoid-clavicle flap too tenuous for use in conjunction with a neck dissection. The trapezius-scapular flap had too short an arc of rotation to be used for defects other than those in the horizontal ramus. In addition, this flap required a change of position and created an undesirable functional deformity. The pectoralis major-fifth rib flap, in contrast, could be used for a variety of defects, in conjunction with a neck dissection, and did not require a change of position during operation. We found it to be the most versatile and dependable of the flaps employed in this series

  15. The Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate on Flap Viability of Rat Perforator Abdominal Flaps.

    Aksakal, İbrahim Alper; Küçüker, İsmail; Önger, Mehmet Emin; Engin, Murat Sinan; Keleş, Musa Kemal; Demir, Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Background Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a substance abundant in green tea. In this study, the effects of EGCG on perforator flap viability were investigated. Methods A total of 40 rats were assigned to four groups of 10 each. In each subject, a 4 × 6 cm abdominal skin flap was raised and adapted back onto its place. In the control group, no further procedures were taken. In the flap group, 40 mg/kg/d EGCG was injected into the flap. In the gavage group, 100 mg/kg/d EGCG was given through a feeding tube. In the intraperitoneal group, 50 mg/kg/d EGCG was injected intraperitoneally. On the 7th postoperative day, flaps were photographed and the viable areas were measured and compared via a one-way analysis of variance. Results The ratios of viable and contracted flap area were 9.15/12.01, 4.59/16.46, 11.56/11.20, and 11.65/10.77 cm(2) for the control, flap group, gavage group, and intraperitoneal group, respectively. While the flap group yielded the worst results in the sense of flap contraction and viability (p < 0.001), the gavage and intraperitoneal groups were significantly better than those of the control group (p = 0.03). Histologically, epidermal, papillary dermal, and capillary tissue volumes were evaluated. In comparison to the control group, the flap group yielded significantly increased epidermal and dermal volumes (p = 0.03), however, these values were significantly decreased (p = 0.04) in the gavage and intraperitoneal groups. Capillary volumes were significantly decreased in EGCG treatment groups (p < 0.01). Conclusion Our experiment has shown that oral and intraperitoneal administration of EGCG increases the perforator flap viability when compared with controls, while direct injection decreases the viability. PMID:26919381

  16. ANALYSIS OF AN ELECTROSTRICTIVE STACK ACTUATORFOR ACTIVE TRAILING EDGE FLAPS

    2000-01-01

    the source.  Compared with the HHC and IBC concept, the smart rotor is promising in reducing energy consumption and simplifying the control system[3]. However, in order to satisfy the requirements of vibratory load control, the flaps have to be controlled both quickly and precisely (frequency response up to 4ω, amplitude of pitch angle between 6° to 8°[4,5]. Currently, many experimental studies are being taken to develop ATEF systems using integrated actuator technology in smart structure, and to satisfy both the compact and high efficiency requirements.   The integrated actuators are made of functional materials, producing displacement under external voltage. Electrostrictive material is a kind of ferroelectric ceramic, the strain is approximately of the 2nd order relationship with actuating electric field, and can be used in the development of a solid actuator in smart rotor systems. However, since the displacement of the actuator not only depends on its structure, but also relies on external force and voltage, a mathematical model is needed to predict its output characteristics in design.  In this paper, a dynamic model of the stack actuator is derived using the principle of force equivalence, which is based on the constitutive equation of ferroelectric material and the equation of motion. Theoretical analysis is made on the factors involved in the design of stack actuators. At the end of the paper, a stack actuator is designed according to theoretical analysis. Experiments of an adaptive trailing edge flap model are introduced to verify the feasibility of the model.

  17. Introduction of an alternative standardized radiographic measurement method to evaluate volar angulation in subcapital fractures of the 5th metacarpal

    Hoffelner, Thomas; Resch, Herbert; Moroder, Philipp; Korn, Gundobert; Steinhauer, Felix [University of Salzburg, Department of Traumatology and Sports Injuries, Salzburg (Austria); Atzwanger, Joerg [University of Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Minnich, Bernd [University of Salzburg, Department of Organismic Biology, Salzburg (Austria); Tauber, Mark [Shoulder and Elbow Surgery ATOS Clinic Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the intra- and interobserver reliability of two different measurement methods for volar angulation of the 5th metacarpal (MC) in an attempt to establish a new standard measurement method to reduce interobserver discrepancies for therapeutic decisions. Twenty patients with subcapital fractures of the 5th MC were radiologically investigated. Imaging consisted of a radiographs in antero-posterior and precise lateral view in addition to a CT scan of the 5th MC. Measurement of volar angulation was accomplished using the conventional and the shaft articular surface (SAS) method. The measurements of five investigators were exported to a spreadsheet for statistical analysis to evaluate the intra-and interobserver reliability. The conventional technique showed large differences among the investigators and poor interobserver reliability (W = 0.328 and 0.307) both at injury (p = 0.001) and at follow-up (p = 0.189). The intraobserver concordance of all investigators showed better results with the SAS than with the conventional technique. With the SAS technique, no statistically significant difference among the investigators could be detected at either the time of injury (p = 0.418) or at follow-up (p = 0.526) with excellent interobserver reliability (W = 0.051 and W = 0.041). Evaluation of volar angulation at follow-up using CT scans did not show any statistically significant difference between the techniques with better correlation among the observers with the SAS technique (p = 0.838). The interobserver correlation of volar angulation with lateral radiographs using the conventional technique was insufficient. Therefore, we recommend the use of the novel SAS technique as standardized measurement method which showed higher accuracy and interobserver reliability in order to facilitate the choice of adequate treatment option. (orig.)

  18. Introduction of an alternative standardized radiographic measurement method to evaluate volar angulation in subcapital fractures of the 5th metacarpal

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the intra- and interobserver reliability of two different measurement methods for volar angulation of the 5th metacarpal (MC) in an attempt to establish a new standard measurement method to reduce interobserver discrepancies for therapeutic decisions. Twenty patients with subcapital fractures of the 5th MC were radiologically investigated. Imaging consisted of a radiographs in antero-posterior and precise lateral view in addition to a CT scan of the 5th MC. Measurement of volar angulation was accomplished using the conventional and the shaft articular surface (SAS) method. The measurements of five investigators were exported to a spreadsheet for statistical analysis to evaluate the intra-and interobserver reliability. The conventional technique showed large differences among the investigators and poor interobserver reliability (W = 0.328 and 0.307) both at injury (p = 0.001) and at follow-up (p = 0.189). The intraobserver concordance of all investigators showed better results with the SAS than with the conventional technique. With the SAS technique, no statistically significant difference among the investigators could be detected at either the time of injury (p = 0.418) or at follow-up (p = 0.526) with excellent interobserver reliability (W = 0.051 and W = 0.041). Evaluation of volar angulation at follow-up using CT scans did not show any statistically significant difference between the techniques with better correlation among the observers with the SAS technique (p = 0.838). The interobserver correlation of volar angulation with lateral radiographs using the conventional technique was insufficient. Therefore, we recommend the use of the novel SAS technique as standardized measurement method which showed higher accuracy and interobserver reliability in order to facilitate the choice of adequate treatment option. (orig.)

  19. Incomplete palmar fracture of the proximal extremity of the third metacarpal bone in horses: ten cases (1981-1986)

    In 4 adult horses, simple, non displaced, incomplete fracture of the proximal extremity of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) was identified radiographically only on the dorsopalmar projection. Lameness was slight to moderate. Although nerve blocks of the foot and fetlock did not alter the lameness, high palmar regional nerve block improved the gait in 1 of the 2 horses on which it was performed. Pain on palpation or swollen distal accessory (inferior check) ligament, flexor tendons, and suspensory ligament were not found in any horse. The fracture was localized to the palmar surface of the proximal extremity of the MC3 on the basis of the intense uptake of radiopharmaceutical (99MTc-labeled sodium medronate) observed in that area during the soft tissue and delayed bone phases of a nuclear scintigraphic examination (nuclear scan) performed concurrently with radiography. Of 4 horses evaluated 6 months after the initial diagnosis, 3 had medullary sclerosis without radiographic evidence of fracture; results of follow-up nuclear scintigraphy performed in one of these horses at the same time were normal. Incomplete fracture also was suspected in another 6 adult horses with clinical lameness referable to the proximal extremity of the MC3. Although a fracture line could not be seen radiographically, trabecular hypertrophy and/or medullary sclerosis of the proximal extremity of the MC3 were detected on the dorsopalmar projection. Further, during nuclear scintigraphy, an intense uptake of the radiopharmaceutical was observed on the palmar aspect of the proximal extremity of the MC3 in all 6 horses

  20. The dog-ear flap as an alternative for breast reconstruction in patients who have already undergone a DIEAP flap.

    Colebunders, Britt; Depypere, Bernard; Van Landuyt, Koenraad

    2016-05-01

    Breast reconstruction in patients who have previously undergone deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap (DIEAP) reconstruction or abdominoplasty is often challenging. Depending on patients' body habitus, several second-choice flaps have been described such as the transverse upper gracilis (TUG) flap, profundus femoris artery perforator (PFAP) flap, superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flap, and lumbar artery perforator (LAP) flap. Patients who have undergone a DIEAP flap reconstruction or abdominoplasty occasionally present with dog ears on both sides of the abdominal scar. The adipose tissue and skin of these dog ears are supplied by perforators of the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA). The DCIA flap was first described in 1979 by Taylor. We introduce this abdominal "dog-ear" flap for autologous breast reconstruction. PMID:26951847

  1. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille;

    2003-01-01

    serratus fascia flap, the connective tissue over the serratus muscle, for dorsal hand coverage. The flap consists of thin and well-vascularized pliable tissue, with gliding properties excellent for covering exposed tendons. It is based on the branches of the thoracodorsal artery, which are raised in the...... flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  2. Maxillofacial reconstruction with nasolabial and facial artery musculomucosal flaps.

    Braasch, Daniel Cameron; Lam, Din; Oh, Esther S

    2014-08-01

    The nasolabial and facial artery musculomucosal (FAMM) flaps are predictable methods to reconstruct perioral and intraoral defects with vascularized tissue. The nasolabial flap can be harvested as an axial or random patterned flap, whereas the FAMM flap is truly an axial patterned flap, with either a superior or an inferior base. Both flaps have been widely used to provide predictable results, with low morbidity. Future studies are needed to further prove their use in compromised patients, including patients with a history of head and neck radiation and neck dissections. PMID:25086694

  3. The Internal Pudendal Artery Perforator Thigh Flap: A New Freestyle Pedicle Flap for the Ischial Region

    Ichiro Hashimoto, MD

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: The perforator vessels of the internal pudendal artery are very close to the ischial tuberosity. Blood flow to the flap is reliable when careful debridement of the pressure sore is performed. The iPap thigh flap is a new option for soft-tissue defects in the ischial region, including ischial pressure sores.

  4. Rescue of Primary Incomplete Microkeratome Flap with Secondary Femtosecond Laser Flap in LASIK

    E. A. Razgulyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK retreatments with a previous unsuccessful mechanical microkeratome-assisted surgery, some surgical protocols have been described as feasible, such as relifting of the flap or the creation of a new flap and even the change to a surface ablation procedure (photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. This case shows the use of femtosecond technology for the creation of a secondary flap to perform LASIK in a cornea with a primary incomplete flap obtained with a mechanical microkeratome. As we were unable to characterize the interface of the first partial lamellar cut, a thick flap was planned and created using a femtosecond laser platform. As the primary cut was very thick in the nasal quadrant, a piece of loose corneal tissue appeared during flap lifting which was fitted in its position and not removed. Despite this condition and considering the regularity of the new femtosecond laser cut, the treatment was uneventful. This case report shows the relevance of a detailed corneal analysis with an advanced imaging technique before performing a secondary flap in a cornea with a primary incomplete flap. The femtosecond laser technology seems to be an excellent tool to manage such cases successfully.

  5. Lower Extremity Reconstruction Using Vastus Lateralis Myocutaneous Flap versus Anterolateral Thigh Fasciocutaneous Flap

    Min Jae Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The anterolateral thigh (ALT perforator flap has become a popular option fortreating soft tissue defects of lower extremity reconstruction and can be combined witha segment of the vastus lateralis muscle. We present a comparison of the use of the ALTfasciocutaneous (ALT-FC and myocutaneous flaps.Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients in whom free-tissue transfer was performedbetween 2005 and 2011 for the reconstruction of lower extremity soft-tissue defects. Twentyfourpatients were divided into two groups: reconstruction using an ALT-FC flap (12 cases andreconstruction using a vastus lateralis myocutaneous (VL-MC flap (12 cases. Postoperativecomplications, functional results, cosmetic results, and donor-site morbidities were studied.Results Complete flap survival was 100% in both groups. A flap complication was noted inone case (marginal dehiscence of the ALT-FC group, and no complications were noted in theVL-MC group. In both groups, one case of partial skin graft loss occurred at the donor site,and debulking surgeries were needed for two cases. There were no significant differences inthe mean scores for either functional or cosmetic outcomes in either group.Conclusions The VL-MC flap is able to fill occasional dead space and has comparable survivalrates to ALT-FC with minimal donor-site morbidity. Additionally, the VL-MC flap is easily elevatedwithout myocutaneous perforator injury.

  6. Design and experimental results for a turbine with jet flap stator and jet flap

    Bettner, J. L.; Blessing, J. O.

    1973-01-01

    The overall performance and detailed stator performance of a negative hub reaction turbine design featuring a moderately low solidity jet flap stator and a jet flap rotor were determined. Testing was conducted over a range of turbine expansion ratios at design speed. At each expansion ratio, the stator jet flow and rotor jet flow ranged up to about 7 and 8 percent, respectively, of the turbine inlet flow. The performance of the jet flap stator/jet flap rotor turbine was compared with that of a turbine which used the same jet flap rotor and a conventional, high solidity plan stator. The effect on performance of increased axial spacing between the jet stator and rotor was also investigated.

  7. Early prediction for necessity of 2nd I-131 ablation therapy with serum thyroglobulin levels in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the predictive value of serum thyroglobulin levels, measured at preoperative status and just before 1st I-131 ablation therapy with high serum TSH, for necessity of 2nd I-131 ablation therapy in differentiated thyroid cancer patients. 111 patients with DTC who underwent total or near total thyroidectomy followed by immediate I-131 ablation therapy, were enrolled in this study. TSH, Tg and anti-Tg autoantibody were measured before thyroidectomy (TSHpreop, Tgpreop and Anti-Tgpreop) and just before 1st I-131 ablation therapy (TSHabl, Tgabl and Anti-Tgabl). All TSHabl levels were above 30mU/liter, ATg [(Tgpreop-Tgabl)X100/(Tgpreop)] was calculated. 29 patients(26.1%, 29/111) had to receive 2nd I-131 ablation therapy. Of 70 patients whose Tgabl were under 10 ng/ml, only 11 patients had received 2nd I-131 ablation therapy (15.7%). Patients with Tgabl greater than or equal to 10 ng/ml had received 2nd I-131 ablation therapy (18/41, 43.9%) than patients with lower Tgabl level. There was a disparity of necessity of 2nd I-131 ablation therapy between two groups(Tgabl <10 ng/ml and Tgabl =10 ng/ml, two by two /2 test p=0.0016). Of 41 patients with Tgabl greater than or equal to 10 ng/ml, 19 patients showed increased Tg levels (ATg<0). Patients with negative ATg and Tgabl greater than or equal to 10 ng/ml showed a strikingly high necessity of 2nd I-131 ablation therapy (11/19, 57.9%). There was also a significant disparity of necessity of 2nd I-131 ablation therapy between two groups(ATg<0 + Tgabl =10 ng/ml and the others, two by two /2 test, p=0.0012). These results suggest that high Tgabl level just before 1st I-131 ablation therapy can forecast the necessity of 2nd I-131 ablation therapy. Moreover, Difference of Tg level between preoperative status and just before 1st I-131 ablation therapy could also suggest necessity of 2nd I-131 ablation therapy at early period of DTC patients surveillance

  8. Extended thoracodorsal artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction.

    Angrigiani, Claudio; Rancati, Alberto; Escudero, Ezequiel; Artero, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    A total of 45 patients underwent partial or total autologous breast reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy, skin-reducing mastectomy, and quadrantectomy using a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap. The detailed surgical technique with its variations is explained in this report. The propeller, flip-over, conventional perforator, and muscle-sparing flaps have been described and evaluated. The flaps were partially or completely de-epithelialized. The conventional TDAP can be enlarged or "extended" as the traditional latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous (LD-MC) flap by incorporating the superior and inferior fat compartments. It can be referred to as the "extended TDAP flap". This technique augments the flap volume. In addition, this flap can serve as a scaffold for lipofilling to obtain autologous breast reconstruction in medium to large cases. There were two complete failures due to technical errors during flap elevation. Distal partial tissue suffering was observed in four flaps. These flaps were longer than usual; they reached the midline of the back. It is advisable to discard the distal medial quarter of the flap when it is designed up to the midline to avoid steatonecrosis or fibrosis. A retrospective analysis of the 39 flaps that survived completely revealed a satisfactory result in 82% of the cases. The main disadvantage of this procedure is the final scar. The TDAP flap is a reliable and safe method for partial or total breast autologous reconstruction. PMID:26645006

  9. A summary of the 2nd workshop on Human Resources Development (HRD) in the nuclear field in Asia. FY2000

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The Human Resources Development (HRD) Project was added in 1999 as a Cooperation Activity of 'the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA)' which is organized by Nuclear Committee. The HRD Project supports to solidify the foundation of nuclear development utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. The principal activity of the HRD Project is to hold the Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field in Asia once a year. The objective of the Workshop is to clarify problems and needs of the human resources development of each country and to support it mutually by exchanging information etc. The report consists of a summary of the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field in Asia held on November 27 and 28, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. (author)

  10. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 → 1)-β-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories. PMID:26298195

  11. A summary of the 2nd workshop on Human Resources Development (HRD) in the nuclear field in Asia. FY2000

    The Human Resources Development (HRD) Project was added in 1999 as a Cooperation Activity of 'the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA)' which is organized by Nuclear Committee. The HRD Project supports to solidify the foundation of nuclear development utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. The principal activity of the HRD Project is to hold the Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field in Asia once a year. The objective of the Workshop is to clarify problems and needs of the human resources development of each country and to support it mutually by exchanging information etc. The report consists of a summary of the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field in Asia held on November 27 and 28, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. (author)

  12. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 217 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah (MS00097)

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1985 and 1986, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 217 South 2nd East Street, Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Anatomy of a 2nd-order unconformity: stratigraphy and facies of the Bakken formation during basin realignment

    Skinner, Orion; Canter, Lyn; Sonnenfeld, Mark; Williams, Mark [Whiting Oil and Gas Corp., Denver, CO (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Because classic Laramide compressional structures are relatively rare, the Williston Basin is often considered as structurally simple, but because of the presence of numerous sub-basins, simplistic lithofacies generalization is impossible, and detailed facies mapping is necessary to unravel Middle Bakken paleogeography. The unconformity above the Devonian Three Forks is explained by the infilling and destruction of the Devonian Elk Point basin, prepares the Bakken system, and introduces a Mississippian Williston Basin with a very different configuration. Black shales are too often considered as deposits that can only be found in deep water, but to a very different conclusion must be drawn after a review of stratigraphic geometry and facies successions. The whole Bakken is a 2nd-order lowstand to transgressive systems tract lying below the basal Lodgepole, which represents an interval of maximal flooding. This lowstand to transgressive stratigraphic context explains why the sedimentary process and provenance shows high aerial variability.

  14. 2nd International Symposium "Atomic Cluster Collisions : Structure and Dynamics from the Nuclear to the Biological Scale"

    Solov'yov, Andrey; ISACC 2007; Latest advances in atomic cluster collisions

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a 'snapshot' of the most recent and significant advances in the field of cluster physics. It is a comprehensive review based on contributions by the participants of the 2nd International Symposium on Atomic Cluster Collisions (ISACC 2007) held in July 19-23, 2007 at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. The purpose of the Symposium is to promote the growth and exchange of scientific information on the structure and properties of nuclear, atomic, molecular, biological and complex cluster systems studied by means of photonic, electronic, heavy particle and atomic collisions. Particular attention is devoted to dynamic phenomena, many-body effects taking place in cluster systems of a different nature - these include problems of fusion and fission, fragmentation, collective electron excitations, phase transitions, etc.Both the experimental and theoretical aspects of cluster physics, uniquely placed between nuclear physics on the one hand and atomic, molecular and solid state physics on the other, are discuss...

  15. Modified cup flap for volar oblique fingertip amputations

    Ahmadli, A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a modified volar “V-Y cup” flap for volar fingertip defects that do not exceed more than half of the distal phalanx for better aesthetic and functional outcome. In seven cases out of eight, the flap was elevated with a subdermal pedicle, whereas in one case, the flap was elevated as an island on the bilateral neurovascular bundle. The fingertips have been evaluated for sensibility using standard tests, hook nail deformity and patient satisfaction. Seven flaps have survived completely. The flap with skeletonized bilateral digital neurovascular bundle has shown signs of venous insufficiency on the 5 postoperative day with consecutive necrosis. Suturing the distal edges of the flap in a “cupping” fashion provided a normal pulp contour. The modified flap can be used for defects as mentioned above. Subdermally dissected pedicle-based flap is safe and easy to elevate. The aesthetic and functional outcomes have been reported to be satisfactory.

  16. The forked flap repair for hypospadias

    Anil Chadha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Despite the abundance of techniques for the repair of Hypospadias, its problems still persist and a satisfactory design to correct the penile curvature with the formation of neourethra from the native urethral tissue or genital or extragenital tissues, with minimal postoperative complications has yet to evolve. Aim: Persisting with such an endeavor, a new technique for the repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias is described. Materials and Methods: The study has been done in 70 cases over the past 11 years. The "Forked-Flap" repair is a single stage method for the repair of such Hypospadias with chordee. It takes advantage of the rich vascular communication at the corona and capitalizes on the established reliability of the meatal based flip-flap. The repair achieves straightening of the curvature of the penis by complete excision of chordee tissue from the ventral surface of the penis beneath the urethral plate. The urethra is reconstructed using the native plate with forked flap extensions and genital tissue relying on the concept of meatal based flaps. Water proofing by dartos tissue and reinforcement by Nesbit′s prepucial tissue transfer completes the one stage procedure. Statistical Analysis: An analysis of 70 cases of this single stage technique of repair of penile hypospadias with chordee, operated at 3 to 5 years of age over the past 11 years is presented. Results and Conclusion: The Forked Flap gives comparable and replicable results; except for a urethrocutaneous fistula rate of 4% no other complications were observed.

  17. Deltopectoral Flap in the Era of Microsurgery

    R. C. L. Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our study aimed to review the role of deltopectoral (DP flap as a reconstructive option for defects in the head and neck region in the microvascular era. Methods. All patients who received DP flap reconstruction surgery at the Department of Surgery, Queen Mary Hospital, between 1999 and 2011 were recruited. Demographic data, indications for surgery, defect for reconstruction, and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results. Fifty-four patients were included. All but two patients were operated for reconstruction after tumour resection. The remaining two patients were operated for necrotizing fasciitis and osteoradionecrosis. The majority of DP flaps were used to cover neck skin defect (63.0%. Other reconstructed defects included posterior pharyngeal wall (22.2%, facial skin defect (11.1%, and tracheal wall (3.7%. All donor sites were covered with partial thickness skin graft. Two patients developed partial flap necrosis at the tip and were managed conservatively. The overall flap survival rate was 96.3%. Conclusions. Albeit the technical advancements in microvascular surgery, DP still possesses multiple advantages (technical simplicity, reliable axial blood supply, large size, thinness, and pliability which allows it to remain as a useful, reliable, and versatile surgical option for head and neck reconstruction.

  18. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  19. Pharyngo oesophageal strictures and its reconstruction by delto pectoral flaps

    Guha, Goutam; S Gupta; Chakraborty, S

    2005-01-01

    Delto pectoral flap is a thin and pliable cutaneous axial flap suitable for the reconstruction of pharynx and upper oesophagus. Corrosive stricture of the pharyngo oesophageal area can very well be reconstructed by deltopectoral flap. Oesophageal reconstruction by viscera like stomach or colon often produces anastomic stricture at the upper anastomic site with hypopharynx or upper oesophagus. Delto pectoral flap can also be used to reconstruct this anastomotic stricture. Postoperative swallow...

  20. The Use of the Juri Temporo-Parieto-Occipital Flap

    Juri, Jose; Valotta, Marìa Fernanda

    2005-01-01

    The temporo-parieto-occipital flap, introduced in 1969, was the first large monopedicled flap performed in the scalp for reconstructive and aesthetic purposes. Its versatility for correction of many areas of the scalp relies on its wide arch of rotation, based in the flap's pedicle, which is the superficial temporal artery and vein. The axial pattern of the flap is explained by the unique kind of vascularization present in the scalp, based on a profuse intraparietal blood flow with multiple a...

  1. The submental island flap for reconstruction of facial defects.

    Prabhune K; Patni S; Gomes D.; Bhathena H; Kavarana N

    1998-01-01

    The procedure of facial resurfacing dictates that there should be an excellent colour and texture match between the facial and the transposed skin. Cervical flaps e.g. platysma flap are commonly used for reconstruction of facial defects but, with disadvantages like limited mobility, unacceptable donor site and unpredictable outcomes. The submental island flap is a new addition to the armamentorium of the Plastic Surgeon. It is an axial pattern flap based on the submental branch of facial arte...

  2. Perforator plus flaps: Optimizing results while preserving function and esthesis

    Mehrotra Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tenuous blood supply of traditional flaps for wound cover combined with collateral damage by sacrifice of functional muscle, truncal vessels, or nerves has been the bane of reconstructive procedures. The concept of perforator plus flaps employs dual vascular supply to flaps. By safeguarding perforators along with supply from its base, robust flaps can be raised in diverse situations. This is achieved while limiting collateral damage and preserving nerves, vessels, and functioning muscle with better function and aesthesis. Materials and Methods: The perforator plus concept was applied in seven different clinical situations. Functional muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps were employed in five and adipofascial flaps in two cases, primarily involving lower extremity defects and back. Adipofascial perforator plus flaps were employed to provide cover for tibial fracture in one patients and chronic venous ulcer in another. Results: All flaps survived without any loss and provided long-term stable cover, both over soft tissue and bone. Functional preservation was achieved in all cases where muscle flaps were employed with no clinical evidence of loss of power. There was no sensory loss or significant oedema in or distal to the flap in both cases where neurovascular continuity was preserved during flap elevation. Fracture union and consolidation were satisfactory. One patient had minimal graft loss over fascia which required application of stored grafts with subsequent take. No patient required re-operation. Conclusions: Perforator plus concept is holistic and applicable to most flap types in varied situations. It permits the exercise of many locoregional flap options while limiting collateral functional damage. Aesthetic considerations are also addressed while raising adipofascial flaps because of no appreciable donor defects. With quick operating times and low failure risk, these flaps can be a better substitute to traditional flaps and at

  3. The aerodynamic and structural study of flapping wing vehicles

    Zhou, Liangchen

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports on the aerodynamic and structural study carried out on flapping wings and flapping vehicles. Theoretical and experimental investigation of aerodynamic forces acting on flapping wings in simple harmonic oscillations is undertaken in order to help conduct and optimize the aerodynamic and structural design of flapping wing vehicles. The research is focused on the large scale ornithopter design of similar size and configuration to a hang glider. By means of Theodorsen’s th...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it...

  5. Peroperative evaluation of vascularity of various flaps by fluorescein technique

    Bhattacharya V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The viability of any pedicled flap depends upon its vascularity. When a flap is dissected it becomes relatively ischaemic. Ultimately, the viability of the flap depends on the vessels incorporated in the pedicle and their perfusion capacity. There are different techniques to evaluate the blood supply of a flap. Aims: This study deals with experimental and clinical efficiency of fluorescein dye technique to evaluate the vascularity of flaps of various compositions. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was conducted on rats to standardize the technique. Thereafter clinical evaluation was conducted for different flaps namely fasciocutaneous, skeletonized perforator based fasciocutaneous, adipofascial, fasciocutaneous flap with adipofascial extension, fasciocutaneous flap with fascial extension and fasciocutaneous flap with split fascial extension. Conclusions: The paper deals in detail with the technique and method of documentation of a fluorescein study on flaps both experimentally and clinically. The appearance of fluorescein on both the surfaces and distal margin of the flap confirmed the adequacy of vascularity soon after dissection of the flaps. It was found to be an easy, safe and reliable objective method.

  6. Fibula free flap splitting for mandible reconstruction: A technical note

    López-Arcas, José María; M. Burgueño; Del Castillo, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Conformation of the fibula flap to passively adapt to the remaining mandible may be indeed challenging. A review of the ‘axial splitting’ technique for fibula free flaps is presented with a novel method of osteosynthesis. Adequate mandibular angle shape is achieved by performing this type of osteotomy with a minimal use of titanium hardware for flap insetting.

  7. Unilateral Breast Reconstruction Using Bilateral Inferior Gluteal Artery Perforator Flaps

    Toshihiko Satake, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Use of bilateral IGAP flaps for breast reconstruction helps to avoid asymmetry of the inferior buttock volume and shape. Bilateral flaps provide sufficient tissue volume and allow for reconstruction of a breast comparable to the unaffected side. In patients with moderate-to-high projection breast whose abdominal tissue cannot be used for reconstruction, IGAP flaps may be a suitable alternative.

  8. Prospective evaluation of outcome measures in free-flap surgery.

    Kelly, John L

    2004-08-01

    Free-flap failure is usually caused by venous or arterial thrombosis. In many cases, lack of experience and surgical delay also contribute to flap loss. The authors prospectively analyzed the outcome of 57 free flaps over a 28-month period (January, 1999 to April, 2001). The setting was a university hospital tertiary referral center. Anastomotic technique, ischemia time, choice of anticoagulant, and the grade of surgeon were recorded. The type of flap, medications, and co-morbidities, including preoperative radiotherapy, were also documented. Ten flaps were re-explored (17 percent). There were four cases of complete flap failure (6.7 percent) and five cases of partial failure (8.5 percent). In patients who received perioperative systemic heparin or dextran, there was no evidence of flap failure (p = .08). The mean ischemia time was similar in flaps that failed (95 +\\/- 29 min) and in those that survived (92 +\\/- 34 min). Also, the number of anastomoses performed by trainees in flaps that failed (22 percent), was similar to the number in flaps that survived (28 percent). Nine patients received preoperative radiotherapy, and there was complete flap survival in each case. This study reveals that closely supervised anastomoses performed by trainees may have a similar outcome to those performed by more senior surgeons. There was no adverse effect from radiotherapy or increased ischemia time on flap survival.

  9. The stages of development a healthy way of life of senior pupils in native pedagogy (2nd part of XX century)

    Iermakova T.S.

    2010-01-01

    The stages of formation and development the problem of healthy way of life of senior pupils were defined in native pedagogy of 2nd part of XX century. The peculiarities of forming healthy way of life of senior pupils at every stage were analysed and disclosed. The contribution of native scientific and pedagogues of the 2nd part of XX century in solution of the problem of forming healthy way of life of senior pupils were determined. On the investigated stages were defined the imperfections tha...

  10. The Effects of Star Strategy of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Lessons on the Achievement and Problem Solving Skills in 2nd Grade Courses

    İPEK, Jale; Hatice Malaş

    2013-01-01

    The aim of research is to determine the effect of STAR strategy on 2nd grade students’ academic achievement and problem solving skills in the computer assisted mathematics instruction. 30 students who attend to 2nd grade course in a primary school in Aydın in 2010-2011 education year join the study group. The research has been taken place in 7 week. 3 types of tests have been used as means of data collecting tool, “Academic Achievement Test”, “Problem Solving Achievement Test” and “The Evalua...

  11. Clinical evaluation of the 2nd generation radio-receptor assay for anti-thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) in Graves' disease

    Full text: Detection of autoantibodies to the TSH receptor by radioreceptorial assays (RRA) is largely requested in clinical practice for the diagnosis of Graves' disease and its differentiation from diffuse thyroid autonomy. Additionally, TRAb measurement during antithyroid drug treatment can be useful to evaluate the risk of disease's relapse alter therapy discontinuation. Nevertheless, some patients affected by Graves' disease are TRAb negative when 1st generation assay is used. Recently a new RRA method for TRAb assay was developed by using human recombinant TSH-receptor and solid-phase technique. Aim of our work was the comparison between 1st and 2nd generation TRAb assays in Graves' disease patients and, particularly, the evaluation of 2nd generation test in a sub-group of patients affected by Graves' disease but with negative 1st generation TRAb assay. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of a newly developed 2nd generation TRAb assay (DYNOtest(r) TRAK human, BRAHMS Diagnostica GmbH, Germany) in 46 patients affected by Graves' disease with negative 1st generation TRAb assay (TRAK Assay(r), BRAHMS Diagnostica GmbH, Germany) . A control groups of 50 Graves' disease patients with positive 1st generation TRAb assay, 50 patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 50 patients affected by nodular goiter were also examined. 41 out of 46 patients affected by Graves' disease with negative 1st generation TRAb assay showed a positive 2nd generation test. The overall sensitivity of the 2nd generation test was significantly improved respect the 1st generation assay in Graves' disease patients (χ2 = 22.5, p<0.0001). 1 and 3 out of 50 patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis were positive by 1st and 2nd generation TRAB assay, respectively. All these patients showed primary hypothyroidism. No differences resulted in euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis sub-group and in nodular goiter control group. The 2nd generation TRAB assay is clearly more sensitive than the 1

  12. Double papilla flap technique for dual purpose

    P Mohan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marginal tissue recession exposes the anatomic root on the teeth, which gives rise to -common patient complaints. It is associated with sensitivity, tissue irritation, cervical abrasions, and esthetic concerns. Various types of soft tissue grafts may be performed when recession is deep and marginal tissue health cannot be maintained. Double papilla flap is an alternative technique to cover isolated recessions and correct gingival defects in areas of insufficient attached gingiva, not suitable for a lateral sliding flap. This technique offers the advantages of dual blood supply and denudation of interdental bone only, which is less susceptible to permanent damage after surgical exposure. It also offers the advantage of quicker healing in the donor site and reduces the risk of facial bone height loss. This case report presents the advantages of double papilla flap in enhancing esthetic and functional outcome of the patient.

  13. Collective Flow Enhancement by Tandem Flapping Wings

    Gravish, Nick; Peters, Jacob M.; Combes, Stacey A.; Wood, Robert J.

    2015-10-01

    We examine the fluid-mechanical interactions that occur between arrays of flapping wings when operating in close proximity at a moderate Reynolds number (Re ≈100 - 1000 ). Pairs of flapping wings are oscillated sinusoidally at frequency f , amplitude θM, phase offset ϕ , and wing separation distance D*, and outflow speed v* is measured. At a fixed separation distance, v* is sensitive to both f and ϕ , and we observe both constructive and destructive interference in airspeed. v* is maximized at an optimum phase offset, ϕmax, which varies with wing separation distance, D*. We propose a model of collective flow interactions between flapping wings based on vortex advection, which reproduces our experimental data.

  14. Numerical linearized MHD model of flapping oscillations

    Korovinskiy, D. B.; Ivanov, I. B.; Semenov, V. S.; Erkaev, N. V.; Kiehas, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Kink-like magnetotail flapping oscillations in a Harris-like current sheet with earthward growing normal magnetic field component Bz are studied by means of time-dependent 2D linearized MHD numerical simulations. The dispersion relation and two-dimensional eigenfunctions are obtained. The results are compared with analytical estimates of the double-gradient model, which are found to be reliable for configurations with small Bz up to values ˜ 0.05 of the lobe magnetic field. Coupled with previous results, present simulations confirm that the earthward/tailward growth direction of the Bz component acts as a switch between stable/unstable regimes of the flapping mode, while the mode dispersion curve is the same in both cases. It is confirmed that flapping oscillations may be triggered by a simple Gaussian initial perturbation of the Vz velocity.

  15. Dorso-palmar triangular finger flap-A new advancement flap for cover of finger amputations-A preliminary report

    Mishra Satyanarayan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A triangular V-Y type advancement flap on the finger has been designed, which advances skin from over the whole circumference of the finger, which includes both palmar and dorsal skin. The flap is sensate too. It is indicated for finger and thumb amputations proximal to the body of the nail. Six flaps were raised with five successes and one partial necrosis. This is a preliminary report on a new flap.

  16. The transversely split gracilis twin free flaps

    Upadhyaya Divya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gracilis muscle is a Class II muscle that is often used in free tissue transfer. The muscle has multiple secondary pedicles, of which the first one is the most consistent in terms of position and calibre. Each pedicle can support a segment of the muscle thus yielding multiple small flaps from a single, long muscle. Although it has often been split longitudinally along the fascicles of its nerve for functional transfer, it has rarely been split transversely to yield multiple muscle flaps that can be used to cover multiple wounds in one patient without subjecting him/her to the morbidity of multiple donor areas .

  17. Flap-edge aeroacoustic measurements and predictions

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M.

    2003-03-01

    An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a small aperture directional array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady-surface-pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that the prediction models capture much of the physics. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. The complexity of the directivity results demonstrate the strong role of edge source geometry and frequency in

  18. Flap Edge Aeroacoustic Measurements and Predictions

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a Small Aperture Directional Array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady surface pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that much of the physics is captured by the prediction models. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. Significantly, for each edge configuration, the spectra for different flow speeds, flap angles, and

  19. Salvage of Intraoperative Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Venous Congestion with Augmentation of Venous Outflow: Flap Morbidity and Review of the Literature

    Oscar Ochoa, MD

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions: Arterial and venous anatomies play unique roles in flap reliability. DIEP flap venous congestion must be treated expeditiously with venous augmentation to relieve venous congestion and mitigate flap morbidity.

  20. [The gracilis muscle as musculocutaneous flap. Evaluation of 20 cases].

    Gholam, D; Trevidic, P; Kleimann, P; Hautefeuille, P; Nicoletis, C

    1991-01-01

    The use of gracilis as muscular or myocutaneous flap is very well-known. The authors report 20 cases of gracilis flap including 13 reconstructions of the vaginal cavity following extended abdomino-perineal resection. Some technical points concerning the localization of the cutaneous part of the flap and the pedicle dissection are discussed. The use of gracilis flap is still limited in surgical teams following extended abdomino-perineal resection, nevertheless it is a very useful flap because of its low morbidity, the shortening of patient hospitalization and the very satisfying aesthetic result of the neo-vaginal cavity. PMID:1726389

  1. Roles of doping ions in afterglow properties of blue CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphors

    Eu2+ doped and Nd3+ co-doped calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+) phosphor was prepared by a urea-nitrate solution combustion method at furnace temperatures as low as 500 °C. The produced CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ powder was investigated in terms of phase composition, morphology and luminescence by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Photoluminescence (PL) techniques respectively. XRD analysis depicts a dominant monoclinic phase that indicates no change in the crystalline structure of the phosphor with varying concentration of Eu2+ and Nd3+. SEM results show agglomerates with non-uniform shapes and sizes with a number of irregular network structures having lots of voids and pores. The Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and (FTIR) spectra confirm the expected chemical components of the phosphor. PL measurements indicated one broadband excitation spectra from 200 to 300 nm centered around 240 nm corresponding to the crystal field splitting of the Eu2+ d-orbital and an emission spectrum in the blue region with a maximum on 440 nm. This is a strong indication that there was dominantly one luminescence center, Eu2+ which represents emission from transitions between the 4f7 ground state and the 4f6–5d1 excited state configuration. High concentrations of Eu2+ and Nd3+ generally reduce both intensity and lifetime of the phosphor powders. The optimized content of Eu2+ is 1 mol% and for Nd3+ is 1 mol% for the obtained phosphors with excellent optical properties. The phosphor also emits visible light at around 587 and 616 nm. Such emissions can be ascribed to the 5D0–7F1 and 5D0–7F2 intrinsic transition of Eu3+ respectively. The decay characteristics exhibit a significant rise in initial intensity with increasing Eu2+ doping concentration while the decay time increased with Nd3+ co-doping. The observed afterglow can be ascribed to the generation of suitable traps due to the presence of the Nd

  2. Propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction

    Angrigiani, Claudio; Escudero, Ezequiel; Artero, Guillermo; Gercovich, Gustavo; Deza, Ernesto Gil

    2014-01-01

    Background The thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap has been described for breast reconstruction. This flap requires intramuscular dissection of the pedicle. A modification of the conventional TDAP surgical technique for breast reconstruction is described, utilizing instead a propeller TDAP flap. The authors present their clinical experience with the propeller TDAP flap in breast reconstruction alone or in combination with expanders or permanent implants. Methods From January 2009 to February 2013, sixteen patients had breast reconstruction utilizing a propeller TDAP flap. Retrospective analysis of patient characteristics, clinical indications, procedure and outcomes were performed. The follow-up period ranged from 4 to 48 months. Results Sixteen patients had breast reconstruction using a TDAP flap with or without simultaneous insertion of an expander or implant. All flaps survived, while two cases required minimal resection due to distal flap necrosis, healing by second intention. There were not donor-site seromas, while minimal wound dehiscence was detected in two cases. Conclusions The propeller TDAP flap appears to be safe and effective for breast reconstruction, resulting in minimal donor site morbidity. The use of this propeller flap emerges as a true alternative to the traditional TDAP flap. PMID:25207210

  3. The 2008—2013 crisis as metastasis : a preview of the 2nd edition of The cancer stage of capitalism by Pluto Press

    John McMurtry

    2013-01-01

    By means of selection of relevant excerpts, a preview is offered hereby of the 2nd edition of John McMurtry's prophetic 1999 book "The Cancer Stage of Capitalism", published by Pluto Press, and entitled "The Cancer Stage of Capitalism and Its Cure"

  4. The 2008—2013 Crisis as Metastasis. A Preview of the 2nd edition of The Cancer Stage of Capitalism by Pluto Press

    John McMurtry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of selection of relevant excerpts, a preview is offered hereby of the 2nd edition of John McMurtry's prophetic 1999 book "The Cancer Stage of Capitalism", published by Pluto Press, and entitled "The Cancer Stage of Capitalism and Its Cure"

  5. Design of control system for the 2nd and 3rd charge exchange system in J-PARC 3GeV RCS

    J-PARC 3GeV Synchrotron Accelerator is using method of charge exchange injection using three carbon foils. In order to achieve this injection, three charge exchange devices installed in this facility. These devices are controlled by one control system. The 2nd and 3rd charge exchange devices are upgrading to increase maintainability and exhaust ability of the vacuum unit, and the control system has reconsidered. Basic policy of redesigning the control system is separated from centralized control system of the three devices, and we reconstruct the control system that independent from the centralized control system. On this condition, we are upgrading of the 2nd and 3rd charge exchange device. It is necessary to redesign the interlock unit about safety, because of being stand-alone control. Now, the error signal of the charge exchange unit consolidates the error signal of three devices, and it operates the Machine Protection System (MPS). Therefore, we needed long time to search occasion why the error happened. However, the MPS will be operated by the error signal on each unit, we hope it makes a difference to search occasion easily. The 2nd and 3rd charge exchange units adopt a simple control system using Yokogawa electric PLC FA-M3. We are designing of the control system with safety that fuses the drive unit and the vacuum unit. This report is about design of the 2nd and 3rd charge exchange unit control system that reconstructed the hardware of their unit. (author)

  6. Cogeneration and production of 2nd generation bio fuels using biomass gasification; Cogeneracion y produccion de biocombustibles de 2 generacion mediante gasificacion de biomasa

    Uruena Leal, A.; Diez Rodriguez, D.; Antolin Giraldo, G.

    2011-07-01

    Thermochemical decomposition process of gasification, in which a carbonaceous fuel, under certain conditions of temperature and oxygen deficiency, results in a series of reactions that will produce a series of gaseous products is now widely used for high performance energetic and versatility of these gaseous products for energy and 2nd generation bio fuels and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. (Author)

  7. Dielectric properties of [Ca1-x(Li1/2Nd1/2)x]1-yZnyTiO3 ceramics at microwave frequencies

    Dielectric properties of Ca1-x(Li1/2Nd1/2)xTiO3 (0.0≤x≤0.6, CLNT) and [Ca0.6(Li1/2Nd1/2)0.4]1-yZnyTiO3 (0.5≤y≤1.0, CLNZT) ceramics were investigated at 4-10 GHz. For the CLNT system, a single perovskite phase was detected in the entire composition range. The dielectric constants (K), and the temperature coefficients of the resonant frequency (TCF) were dependent on the B-site bond valence. Qf value decreases with the increase in (Li1/2Nd1/2)TiO3 content (x) due to a decrease in grain size. For the CLNZT system, Qf value and TCF were improved with Zn content (y) due to the formation of Zn2TiO4. Typically, K of 47, Qf of 13000 GHz, TCF of 14 ppm per deg. C were obtained for [Ca0.6(Li1/2Nd1/2)0.4]0.4Zn0.6TiO3 sintered at 1150 deg. C for 4 h

  8. Growth, structure, and optical properties of a self-activated crystal: Na2Nd2O(BO3)2

    Shan, Faxian; Zhang, Guochun; Yao, Jiyong; Xu, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xinyuan; Fu, Ying; Wu, Yicheng

    2015-08-01

    A self-activated crystal Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 has been grown from the Na2O-Nd2O3-B2O3-NaF system. Its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and verified by infrared spectrum and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, space group P21/c with unit-cell parameters a = 10.804 Å, b = 6.421 Å, c = 10.450 Å, β = 117.95°, Z = 4, and V = 640.4 Å3. Its absorption and emission spectra were measured at room temperature. Based on the absorption spectrum, the spontaneous transition probabilities, fluorescence branch ratio, and the radiation lifetime of 4F3/2 state were calculated. The emission properties under the 355 nm excitation were also evaluated. The electronic structure of Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 was calculated by the first-principles method. The obtained results show that Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 may be a promising microchip laser material.

  9. White paper on perspectives of biofuels in Denmark - with focus on 2nd generation bioethanol; Hvidbog om perspektiver for biobraendstoffer i Danmark - med fokus paa 2. generations bioethanol

    Larsen, Gy.; Foghmar, J.

    2009-11-15

    The white paper presents the perspectives - both options and barriers - for a Danish focus on production and use of biomass, including sustainable 2nd generation bioethanol, for transport. The white paper presents the current knowledge of biofuels and bioethanol and recommendations for a Danish strategy. (ln)

  10. Short rare hTERT-VNTR2-2nd alleles are associated with prostate cancer susceptibility and influence gene expression

    The hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) gene contains five variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and previous studies have described polymorphisms for hTERT-VNTR2-2nd. We investigated how allelic variation in hTERT-VNTR2-2nd may affect susceptibility to prostate cancer. A case-control study was performed using DNA from 421 cancer-free male controls and 329 patients with prostate cancer. In addition, to determine whether the VNTR polymorphisms have a functional consequence, we examined the transcriptional levels of a reporter gene linked to these VNTRs and driven by the hTERT promoter in cell lines. Three new rare alleles were detected from this study, two of which were identified only in cancer subjects. A statistically significant association between rare hTERT-VNTR2-2nd alleles and risk of prostate cancer was observed [OR, 5.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-24.43; P = 0.021]. Furthermore, the results indicated that these VNTRs inserted in the enhancer region could influence the expression of hTERT in prostate cancer cell lines. This is the first study to report that rare hTERT VNTRs are associated with prostate cancer predisposition and that the VNTRs can induce enhanced levels of hTERT promoter activity in prostate cancer cell lines. Thus, the hTERT-VNTR2-2nd locus may function as a modifier of prostate cancer risk by affecting gene expression

  11. The double opposing myomucosal cheek flap in hard palate reconstruction.

    Pabiszczak, Maciej; Banaszewski, Jacek; Pastusiak, Tomasz; Buczkowska, Agata; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Limited defects in the oral cavity can be treated with local and pedicled cheek flaps. It allows to preserve the functions of the resected organ. Large defects in the midline of the hard palate can be reconstructed with double opposing myomucosal cheek flaps. The aim of this study was to discuss the methodology of the flap harvest and to show our experiences of treatment in a group of 15 patients with oral cavity cancer. In 1 patient the double opposing myomucosal cheek flap was harvested due to the wider local defect. The small size of the flap with ability to use the double opposing cheek flap in more extended defects as well as short duration of the surgery procedure can lead to reduced risk of postoperative complications. Finally, cheek flaps form an effective method of treatment of defects in the oral cavity. PMID:26388355

  12. The "open book" flap: a heterodigital cross-finger skin flap and adipofascial flap for coverage of a circumferential soft tissue defect of a digit.

    Tadiparthi, S; Akali, A; Felberg, L

    2009-02-01

    A case of circumferential digital skin loss with exposed tendons from the proximal phalanx to the distal interphalangeal joint is presented. This was treated with a two-layer heterodigital cross-finger ("open book") flap from the adjacent digit, utilising a skin-only cross-finger flap to cover the palmar defect and an adipofascial flap to cover the dorsal defect. PMID:19129359

  13. Clinical application of free omental flap transfer

    Harii, K.

    1978-04-01

    In the field of reconstruction surgery, the greater omentum has been used as a transposed flap for the treatment of chronic lymphedema, radionecrosis, and so forth. Its transferable range was limited by the length of its pedicle. Microvascular anastomosis allows for free transplantation of this organ and has vastly expanded its usefulness.

  14. Neural Anatomy of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap.

    Luenam, Suriya; Prugsawan, Krit; Kosiyatrakul, Arkaphat; Chotanaphuti, Thanainit; Sriya, Piyanee

    2015-06-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is one of the commonly used sensate flaps for intra-oral, hand, and foot reconstruction. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic location of the sensory nerves supplying the ALT flap in relation to the surface landmarks and with the vascular pedicles. The dissections were carried out in 28 embalmed specimens. An axial line from the anterior superior iliac spine to the superolateral border of the patella and two circles with radii of 5 and 10 cm centered on the midpoint of the former line were used for the surface landmarks. At the intersection point of the axial line and the 10-cm circle, the main lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) and its anterior branch were located within 1 and 2.4 cm, respectively. At the intersection point of the axial line and the 5-cm circle, the anterior branch of the LFCN was located within 2.8 cm. The anterior branch of the LFCN can be detected within 3 cm from the central perforator pedicle in all specimens. The posterior branch of the LFCN, superior perforator nerve, and median perforator nerve were found in more variable locations. The findings from our study provide additional information for clinical use in the planning of sensate ALT flap harvest. PMID:26078503

  15. Aerohydrodynamics of flapping-wing propulsors

    Rozhdestvensky, K.V.; Ryzhov, V.A. [Saint-Petersburg State Marine Technical University (Russian Federation). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Mathematical Modeling

    2003-11-01

    It is the objective of this survey to review research and development results of flapping-wing propulsors and of vehicles equipped with them. Given the complex and multi-disciplinary character of the problem, a wide range of questions is considered in order to provide a general idea of the state-of-the-art. The main attention is directed at the aerohydrodynamics of flapping-wing propulsors. The major relevant mathematical models and the corresponding numerical results are presented together with the experimental data obtained up to the present time. Also, the physical and the design factors are discussed, which affect the aerohydrodynamic characteristics of flapping wings and that therefore have to be accounted for in the modem mathematical models. Experimental data and numerical modeling results are compared to determine domains of validity of the latter for the aerohydrodynamic design of full-scale air and marine vehicles. Also, existing engineering solutions for vehicles with flapping-wing propulsors are presented and prospective directions for future investigations are outlined. (author)

  16. Late complication of Boari bladder flap

    Berzeg, Semin; Beyersdorff, Dirk; Kopka, Lars [Department of Radiology, Charite Campus Mitte, Schumannstrasse 20/21, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Baumgart, Egbert; Lenk, Severin [Department of Urology, Charite Campus Mitte, Schumannstrasse 20/21, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    A very rare late complication of Boari bladder flap repair with development of pseudodiverticulum and recurrent genitourinary tract infection secondary to vesicoureteral reflux is presented. Radiologic evaluation of the patient comprised intravenous pyelography (IVP), micturating cystourethrogram, cystoscopy, and multislice computed tomography (MSCT). (orig.)

  17. Late complication of Boari bladder flap

    A very rare late complication of Boari bladder flap repair with development of pseudodiverticulum and recurrent genitourinary tract infection secondary to vesicoureteral reflux is presented. Radiologic evaluation of the patient comprised intravenous pyelography (IVP), micturating cystourethrogram, cystoscopy, and multislice computed tomography (MSCT). (orig.)

  18. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. PMID:27030773

  19. Periodic and chaotic flapping of insectile wings

    Huang, Y.; Kanso, E.

    2015-11-01

    Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. The maximum power output of these flight muscles is insufficient to maintain such wing oscillations unless there is good elastic storage of energy in the insect flight system. Here, we explore the intrinsic self-oscillatory behavior of an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring. We study the wings behavior as a function of the total energy and spring stiffness. Three types of behavior are identified: end-over-end rotation, chaotic motion, and periodic flapping. Interestingly, the region of periodic flapping decreases as energy increases but is favored as stiffness increases. These findings are consistent with the fact that insect wings and flight muscles are stiff. They further imply that, by adjusting their muscle stiffness to the energy level at which they are operating, insects can maintain periodic flapping mechanically for a range of operating conditions.

  20. Evolution of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa - from Nkruma To Mutharika The 2nd: Case Study Of South Africa

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since Sub-Saharan Africa's first independence in Ghana, the region has experienced massive and costly political and bureaucratic corruption within public service and administration. The causes of the corruption, its nature and form are wide and intertwined. In Sub-Saharan Africa, efforts to curb corruption have failed to discard it. The paper focused on the period from Nkruma in Ghana to Mutharika the 2nd in Malawi. This paper reviewed existing literature on political and bureaucratic corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa while on the other hand the paper employed key informant interviews to gather the required data to investigate, analyse and profile the genesis and evolution of corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa. The key informant interviews were employed to solicit public views and opinion from nineteen key informant participants (n=19 selected from 11 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper found that corruption is legendary; has entrenched itself to becoming some sort of culture in the region, and has become the most difficult socio-economic challenge to resolve in the region despite the various anti-corruption efforts employed by stakeholders to curb it. It emerged through the study that law-enforcement efforts against corruption need some reinforcement in order to be effective and eficient in uprooting corruption in the region. If Sub-Saharan Africa fails to address its corruption challenge, its development prospects would seriously curtailed.

  1. Near infrared emission and energy transfer in Eu2+ - Nd3+ co-doped Ca2BO3Cl

    Talewar, R. A.; Joshi, C. P.; Moharil, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Novel near infrared (NIR) emitting phosphor, Ca2BO3Cl:Eu2+, Nd3+ was synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction and characterized with X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence emission, photoluminescence excitation spectra and fluorescence decay measurements. When excited with 400 nm, the phosphor gives broadband emission at 560 nm, which corresponds to the allowed 5d → 4f transition of Eu2+ and an intense NIR emissions in the range 800-1400 nm, which are assigned to the characteristic 4I9/2,11/2,13/2 transitions of Nd3+ ions. The dependence of visible and NIR emissions, decay lifetime and the energy transfer efficiency (ηETE) were investigated in detail. The luminescence spectra, both in visible (VIS) and NIR regions, and decay lifetime curves of Eu2+ have been measured to prove energy transfer (ET) from Eu2+ to Nd3+. These results demonstrate the possibility for enhancing the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of silicon solar cell by modifying the absorption and utilizing the UV to blue part of the solar spectrum where the efficiency of c-Silicon solar cell is low.

  2. Inelastic neutron scattering studies on the 3d-4f heterometallic single-molecule magnet Mn2Nd2

    The discovery of slow relaxation and quantum tunneling of the magnetization in Mn12ac more than 15 years ago has inspired both physicists and chemists alike. This class of molecules, now called single-molecule magnets (SMMs), has very recently been expanded to heterometallic clusters incorporating transition metal and rare earth ions. The 4f ions were chosen because of their large angular momentum and magnetic anisotropy. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments were performed on the time-of-flight disk-chopper spectrometer IN5 at ILL on the SMM Mn2Nd2. A magnetic model was developed which perfectly describes all data, including the magnetic data. It was found that neither the large anisotropy nor the large angular momentum of the NdIII ions is the main reason for the SMM behavior in this molecule. Our analysis of the data indicates that it is the weak coupling of the NdIII ions to the MnIII ions, usually considered as a drawback of rare earth ions, which enhances the relaxation time and therefore leads to SMM behavior.

  3. A Miniature Controllable Flapping Wing Robot

    Arabagi, Veaceslav Gheorghe

    The agility and miniature size of nature's flapping wing fliers has long baffled researchers, inspiring biological studies, aerodynamic simulations, and attempts to engineer their robotic replicas. Flapping wing flight is characterized by complex reciprocating wing kinematics, transient aerodynamic effects, and very small body lengths. These characteristics render robotic flapping wing aerial vehicles ideal for surveillance and defense applications, search and rescue missions, and environment monitoring, where their ability to hover and high maneuverability is immensely beneficial. One of the many difficulties in creating flapping wing based miniature robotic aerial vehicles lies in generating a proper wing trajectory that would result in sufficient lift forces for hovering and maneuvering. Since design of a flapping wing system is a balance between overall weight and the number of actuated inputs, we take the approach of having minimal controlled inputs, allowing passive behavior wherever possible. Hence, we propose a completely passive wing pitch reversal design that relies on wing inertial dynamics, an elastic energy storage mechanism, and low Reynolds number aerodynamic effects. Theoretical models, compiling previous research on piezoelectric actuators, four-bar transmissions, and aerodynamics effects, are developed and used as basis for a complete numerical simulation. Limitations of the model are discussed in comparison to experimental results obtained from a working prototype of the proposed passive pitch reversal flapping wing mechanism. Given that the mechanism is under-actuated, methods to control lift force generation by actively varying system parameters are proposed, discussed, and tested experimentally. A dual wing aerial platform is developed based on the passive pitch reversal wing concept. Design considerations are presented, favoring controllability and structural rigidity of the final platform. Finite element analysis and experimental

  4. The Retrograde Ulnar Dorsal Flap: Surgical Technique and Experience as Island Flap in Coverage of Hand Defects.

    Vergara-Amador, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    Flaps from the forearm are often used to reconstruct soft-tissue defects in the hand. The retrograde ulnar dorsal flap has the advantage that it does not sacrifice a major vascular axis. The anatomic bases of this flap are the proximal and distal branch of the ulnar dorsal artery. The distal branch is partially accompanied with the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve, and arrives under the abductor digiti quinti muscle making anastomoses with the deep branch of the ulnar artery. The proximal branch reaching the proximal third of the forearm, and anastomose with perforating branches of the ulnar artery. I used this island flap in 12 patients with coverage defects on the hand. The biggest flap was 13×6 cm. Only 1 flap had partial necrosis which did not lead to problems. The retrograde ulnar dorsal flap is a flap designed with reverse flow from the distal branch of the ulnar dorsal artery, and which does not sacrifice the ulnar artery. The donor defect on the forearm ulnar side had a greater esthetic acceptance. Knowing other distal anastomoses, described by other authors later, dorsal at the base of the fourth interdigital space grant greater security to the retrograde ulnar dorsal flap. It is worth highlighting the importance of preserving the adipofascial tissue around the pedicle. Experience with this flap permits us to state that it is a safe and reproducible flap to cover any defect on the dorsal of the hand as well as the first web space. PMID:26079665

  5. Assessing safety of negative-pressure wound therapy over pedicled muscle flaps: A retrospective review of gastrocnemius muscle flap.

    Lance, Samuel; Harrison, Lindsey; Orbay, Hakan; Boudreault, David; Pereira, Gavin; Sahar, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for management of open wounds and immobilization of split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) over wounds has been well described. However, there is a concern for potential compromise of flap viability when NPWT is used for skin grafts over pedicled muscle flaps. We have used NPWT to immobilize STSGs in eight patients who underwent a pedicled gastrocnemius muscle flap operation in our department. We applied a negative pressure of -75 mmHg on the muscle flaps for 5 days postoperatively. All wounds healed successfully, with a 97.5 ± 5.5% mean STSG uptake. No flap necrosis was observed. In our series, the use of NPWT for fixation of STSGs over pedicled gastrocnemius muscle flap was effective and had no negative impact on flap viability. PMID:26732293

  6. 2nd ISAAC Congress

    Gilbert, Robert; Kajiwara, Joji

    2000-01-01

    This book is the Proceedings of the Second ISAAC Congress. ISAAC is the acronym of the International Society for Analysis, its Applications and Computation. The president of ISAAC is Professor Robert P. Gilbert, the second named editor of this book, e-mail: gilbert@math.udel.edu. The Congress is world-wide valued so highly that an application for a grant has been selected and this project has been executed with Grant No. 11-56 from *the Commemorative Association for the Japan World Exposition (1970). The finance of the publication of this book is exclusively the said Grant No. 11-56 from *. Thus, a pair of each one copy of two volumes of this book will be sent to all contributors, who registered at the Second ISAAC Congress in Fukuoka, free of charge by the Kluwer Academic Publishers. Analysis is understood here in the broad sense of the word, includ­ ing differential equations, integral equations, functional analysis, and function theory. It is the purpose of ISAAC to promote analysis, its applications, and...

  7. 2nd Abel Symposium

    Nunno, Giulia; Lindstrøm, Tom; Øksendal, Bernt; Zhang, Tusheng

    2007-01-01

    Kiyosi Ito, the founder of stochastic calculus, is one of the few central figures of the twentieth century mathematics who reshaped the mathematical world. Today stochastic calculus is a central research field with applications in several other mathematical disciplines, for example physics, engineering, biology, economics and finance. The Abel Symposium 2005 was organized as a tribute to the work of Kiyosi Ito on the occasion of his 90th birthday. Distinguished researchers from all over the world were invited to present the newest developments within the exciting and fast growing field of stochastic analysis. The present volume combines both papers from the invited speakers and contributions by the presenting lecturers. A special feature is the Memoirs that Kiyoshi Ito wrote for this occasion. These are valuable pages for both young and established researchers in the field.

  8. 2nd SUMO Conference

    Weber, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the conference proceedings of the Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) conference 2014, Berlin. The included research papers cover a wide range of topics in traffic planning and simulation, including open data, vehicular communication, e-mobility, urban mobility, multimodal traffic as well as usage approaches. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.  

  9. 2nd INTERA Conference

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the latest scientific research related to the field of Robotics. It involves different topics such as biomedicine, energy efficiency and home automation and robotics.  The book is written by technical experts and researchers from academia and industry working on robotics applications.The book could be used as supplementary material for courses related to Robotics and Domotics.

  10. 2nd Bozeman Conference

    Lund, John

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of papers delivered by the partici­ pants at the second Conference on Computation and Control held at Mon­ tana State University in Bozeman, Montana from August 1-7, 1990. The conference, as well as this proceedings, attests to the vitality and cohesion between the control theorist and the numerical analyst that was adver­ tised by the first Conference on Computation and Control in 1988. The proceedings of that initial conference was published by Birkhiiuser Boston as the first volume of this same series entitled Computation and Control, Proceedings of the Bozeman Conference, Bozeman, Montana, 1988. Control theory and numerical analysis are both, by their very nature, interdisciplinary subjects as evidenced by their interaction with other fields of mathematics and engineering. While it is clear that new control or es­ timation algorithms and new feedback design methodologies will need to be implemented computationally, it is likewise clear that new problems in computation...

  11. Recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp treated with serial free flaps

    Ikander, Peder; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2015-01-01

    dorsi flaps and one anterolateral thigh flap. No total flap loss was seen, but partial flap necrosis called for secondarily reconstruction. The final result was cosmetically acceptable and the patient is of good health. In conclusion, serial free microvascular flaps may be used with good results when...

  12. Scintigraphic appearance of stress-induced trauma of the dorsal cortex of the third metacarpal bone in racing Thoroughbred horses: 121 cases (1978-1986)

    Review of 121 bone scintigrams obtained on racing Thoroughbred horses with clinical histories indicative of forelimb lameness revealed 3 scintigraphic patterns of stress-induced trauma to the dorsal cortex of the third metacarpal bone: (1) focal, intense uptake associated with recent stress fracture; (2) regional uptake of varying intensity or a mixed pattern of uptake associated with chronic stress fracture; and (3) diffuse, mild to moderate uptake associated with periostitis (bucked shins). The latter scintigraphic pattern appeared to be an exaggerated manifestation of the normal remodeling process evident in immature horses (2 to 3 years old). Scintigraphy was most helpful in identifying radiographically occult stress fractures, determining the extent of cortical involvement before surgical intervention in cases of chronic stress fractures, and monitoring the fracture healing process

  13. Pedicle versus free flap reconstruction in patients receiving intraoperative brachytherapy.

    Geiger, Erik J; Basques, Bryce A; Chang, Christopher C; Son, Yung; Sasaki, Clarence T; McGregor, Andrew; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak

    2016-08-01

    Introduction This study compared complication rates between pedicle flaps and free flaps used for resurfacing of intraoperative brachytherapy (IOBT) implants placed following head and neck tumour extirpation to help clarify the ideal reconstructive procedure for this scenario. Patients and methods A retrospective review of reconstructions with IOBT at our institution was conducted. Patient and treatment details were recorded, as were the number and type of flap complications, including re-operations. Logistic regressions compared complications between flap groups. Results Fifty free flaps and 55 pedicle flaps were included. On multivariate analysis, free flap reconstruction with IOBT was significantly associated with both an increased risk of having any flap complication (OR = 2.9, p = 0.037) and with need for operative revision (OR = 3.5, p = 0.048) compared to pedicle flap reconstruction. Conclusions In the setting of IOBT, free flaps are associated with an increased risk of having complications and requiring operative revisions. PMID:26983038

  14. STUDY OF VARIOUS MODIFICATIONS OF REVERSE SURAL ARTERY FLAP

    Jainath

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A BS T R ACT : Soft tissue reconstruction of distal third leg, heel and ankle reg ion is a challenging problem because of poor vascularity and limited mobility of skin. The reverse sural artery with ideal flap thickness, minimal donor site morbidity, lack of functional muscle loss, short recovery time, wide arc of rotation and safe vasc ularity makes it a preferable flap for covering such defects. AIMS A N D OBJECTIVES : To study various modifications of distally based reverse sural artery flap to suit the defects and for better survival of flaps. RESULTS : It is a retrospective study conduct ed in our institute to cover the distal leg and foot defects.60 cases of distal leg defects exposing vital structure who underwent reverse sural artery flap coverage were included in the study .5 of the 60 flaps had complete flap necrosis and another11 fla ps had partial necrosis.73.4% of the flaps survived during the follow up period of 1 years with good functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS : Reverse sural artery flap with its modifications is a good flap for the defects of distal leg, heel and ankle defects

  15. Robot-Assisted Free Flap in Head and Neck Reconstruction

    Han Gyeol Song

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background  Robots have allowed head and neck surgeons to extirpate oropharyngealtumors safely without the need for lip-split incision or mandibulotomy. Using robots inoropharyngealreconstruction is newbut essentialfor oropharyngeal defectsthatresultfromrobotic tumor excision. We report our experience with robotic free-flap reconstruction ofhead and neck defectsto exemplify the necessity forrobotic reconstruction.Methods  We investigated head and neck cancer patients who underwent ablation surgeryand free-flap reconstruction by robot. Between July 1, 2011 andMarch 31, 2012, 5 caseswereperformed and patient demographics, location of tumor, pathologic stage, reconstructionmethods, flap size, recipient vessel, necessary pedicle length, and operation time wereinvestigated.Results  Among five free-flap reconstructions, four were radial forearm free flaps and onewas an anterolateral thigh free-flap. Four flaps used the superior thyroid artery and oneflap used a facial artery as the recipient vessel. The average pedicle length was 8.8 cm. Flapinsetting and microanastomosis were achieved using a specially manufactured roboticinstrument. The total operation timewas 1,041.0 minutes(range, 814 to 1,132 minutes, andcomplicationsincluding flap necrosis, hematoma, andwound dehiscence did not occur.Conclusions  Thisstudy demonstratesthe clinically applicable use ofrobotsin oropharyngealreconstruction, especially using a free flap. A robot can assist the operator in insettingthe flap at a deep portion of the oropharynx without the need to perform a traditionalmandibulotomy. Robot-assisted reconstruction may substitute for existing surgical methodsand is accepted asthemost up-to-datemethod.

  16. Effect of flapping trajectories on the dragonfly aerodynamics

    2006-01-01

    The effects of translational, figure-eight and double-figure-eight flapping trajectories on the dragonfly aerodynamics were numerically studied by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. There is a common characteristic regarding the lift/drag force coefficients that the downstroke flapping provides the lift forces while the upstroke flapping creates the thrust forces for different flapping trajectories. The maximum lift force coefficient exceeds five for the translational trajectory. It is greater than six for the figure-eight and double-figure-eight flapping trajectories, which is sufficiently larger than unity under the steady state flight condition. The ellipse and double-figure-eight flapping trajectories yield the decrease of the lift force, while the figure-eight flapping trajectory yields higher lift force as well as the thrust force than the translational flapping one. During the insect flight, the wing flapping status should be changed instantaneously to satisfy various requirements. Study of the flapping trajectories on the insect aerodynamics is helpful for the design of the Micro-air-vehicles (MAVs).

  17. Reconstruction of the Lower Extremity Using Free Flaps

    Min Jo Kang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of lower-extremity reconstruction has focused on wound coverage andfunctional recovery. However, there are limitations in the use of a local flap in cases of extensivedefects of the lower-extremities. Therefore, free flap is a useful option in lower-extremityreconstruction.Methods We performed a retrospective review of 49 patients (52 cases who underwentlower-extremity reconstruction at our institution during a 10-year period. In these patients,we evaluated causes and sites of defects, types of flaps, recipient vessels, types of anastomosis,survival rate, and complications.Results There were 42 men and 10 women with a mean age of 32.7 years (range, 3-72years. The sites of defects included the dorsum of the foot (19, pretibial area (17, ankle(7, heel (5 and other sites (4. The types of free flap included latissimus dorsi muscle flap(10, scapular fascial flap (6, anterolateral thigh flap (6, and other flaps (30. There werefour cases of vascular complications, out of which two flaps survived after intervention. Theoverall survival of the flaps was 96.2% (50/52. There were 19 cases of other complications atrecipient sites such as partial graft loss (8, partial flap necrosis (6 and infection (5. However,these complications were not notable and were resolved with skin grafts.Conclusions The free flap is an effective method of lower-extremity reconstruction. Goodoutcomes can be achieved with complete debridement and the selection of appropriaterecipient vessels and flaps according to the recipient site.

  18. Computer-aided joint space analysis of the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint: normative age-related and gender-specific data

    Pfeil, Alexander; Boettcher, Joachim; Seidl, Bettina E.; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Petrovitch, Alexander; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Eidner, Torsten; Wolf, Gunter; Hein, Gert [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Rheumatology and Osteology, Clinic of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of the study was to provide reference data for computer-aided joint space analysis based on a semi-automated and computer-aided diagnostic system for the measurement of metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint widths; additionally, the determination of sex differences and the investigation of changes in joint width with age were evaluated. Eighty hundred and sixty-nine patients (351 female and 518 male) received radiographs of the hand for trauma and were screened for a host of conditions known to affect the joint spaces. All participants underwent measurements of joint space distances at the metacarpal-phalangeal articulation (JSD-MCP) from the thumb to the small finger and at the proximal-interphalangeal articulation (JSD-PIP) from the index finger to the small finger using computer-aided diagnosis technology with semi-automated edge detection. The study revealed an annual narrowing of the JSD of 0.6% for the JSD-MCP and for the JSD-PIP. Furthermore, the data demonstrated a notable age-related decrease in JSD, including an accentuated age-related joint space narrowing in women for both articulations. Additionally, males showed a significantly wider JSD-MCP (+11.1%) and JSD-PIP (+15.4%) compared with the female cohort in all age groups. Our data presented gender-specific and age-related normative reference values for computer-aided joint space analysis of the JSD-MCP and JSD-PIP that could be used to identify disease-related joint space narrowing, particularly in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis commonly involving the peripheral small hand joints. (orig.)

  19. Aerodynamic flight performance in flap-gliding birds and bats.

    Muijres, Florian T; Henningsson, Per; Stuiver, Melanie; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-08-01

    Many birds use a flight mode called undulating or flap-gliding flight, where they alternate between flapping and gliding phases, while only a few bats make use of such a flight mode. Among birds, flap-gliding is commonly used by medium to large species, where it is regarded to have a lower energetic cost than continuously flapping flight. Here, we introduce a novel model for estimating the energetic flight economy of flap-gliding animals, by determining the lift-to-drag ratio for flap-gliding based on empirical lift-to-drag ratio estimates for continuous flapping flight and for continuous gliding flight, respectively. We apply the model to flight performance data of the common swift (Apus apus) and of the lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae). The common swift is a typical flap-glider while-to the best of our knowledge-the lesser long-nosed bat does not use flap-gliding. The results show that, according to the model, the flap-gliding common swift saves up to 15% energy compared to a continuous flapping swift, and that this is primarily due to the exceptionally high lift-to-drag ratio in gliding flight relative to that in flapping flight for common swifts. The lesser long-nosed bat, on the other hand, seems not to be able to reduce energetic costs by flap-gliding. The difference in relative costs of flap-gliding flight between the common swift and the lesser long-nosed bat can be explained by differences in morphology, flight style and wake dynamics. The model presented here proves to be a valuable tool for estimating energetic flight economy in flap-gliding animals. The results show that flap-gliding flight that is naturally used by common swifts is indeed the most economic one of the two flight modes, while this is not the case for the non-flap-gliding lesser long-nosed bat. PMID:22726811

  20. Temporal-based pericranial flaps for orbitofrontal Dural repair: A technical note and Review of the literature

    Esther Dupépé

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: A temporal-based pericranial flap represents an alternative vascularized pedicle flap to the classic frontal-based pericranial flap used in orbitofrontal dural repair. In certain clinical settings, the temporal-based flap may be preferable.

  1. Treatment of lumbosacral decubitus ulcers by Lymberg flap

    The lymberg flap was used for the treatment of lumbosacral decubitus and irradiation-induced ulcer successfully in 6 lesion of 5 cases. The results were evaluated, and characteristics and indication of the method were discussed. The procedure of the method: A rhomboid flap with a side lenghth, equal to that of the lesion and with an angle of 600, was cut out, and transplanted to cover the lesion. The wound of a donor was sutured by extending the surrounding area. Of characteristics of this method, a flap can be produced in a desired shape; tension lies little on the flap; and a small area is needed for the flap. However, in recurrence, the first wound may cause circulation disturbance in a flap. Large wounds of donors sometimes cannont be closed. Therefore, a fresh case with relatively small lesions is an indication to this method. (Ueda, J.)

  2. Pumping by flapping in a viscoelastic fluid

    Pak, On Shun

    2010-01-01

    In a world without inertia, Purcell's scallop theorem states that in a Newtonian fluid a time-reversible motion cannot produce any net force or net flow. Here we consider the extent to which the nonlinear rheological behavior of viscoelastic fluids can be exploited to break the constraints of the scallop theorem in the context of fluid pumping. By building on previous work focusing on force generation, we consider a simple, biologically-inspired geometrical example of a flapper in a polymeric (Oldroyd-B) fluid, and calculate asymptotically the time-average net fluid flow produced by the reciprocal flapping motion. The net flow occurs at fourth order in the flapping amplitude, and suggests the possibility of transporting polymeric fluids using reciprocal motion in simple geometries even in the absence of inertia. The induced flow field and pumping performance are characterized and optimized analytically. Our results may be useful in the design of micro-pumps handling complex fluids.

  3. Dynamics of Flapping Flag in Axial Flow

    Abderrahmane, Hamid Ait; Fayed, Mohamed; Gunter, Amy-Lee; Paidoussis, Michael P.; Ng, Hoi Dick

    2010-11-01

    We investigate experimentally the phenomenon of the flapping of a flag, placed within a low turbulent axial flow inside a small scale wind tunnel test section. Flags of different sizes and flexural rigidities were used. Image processing technique was used and the time series of a given point on the edge of the flag was analyzed. The stability condition of the flag was obtained and compared to the recent theoretical models and numerical simulations. Afterwards, the nonlinear dynamics of the flapping was investigated using nonlinear time series method. The nonlinear dynamics is depicted in phase space and the correlation dimension of the attractors is determined. On the basis of observations made in this study, some conclusions on the existing models were drawn.

  4. CATERPILLAR ADVANCEMENT FOR PARTIALLY NECROSED DELTOPECTORAL FLAP

    Anand Narayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of electric lamp by Thomas Elva Edison had significant impact on human civilization. With increasing production of electrical energy to meet ongoing demands of increased frequency of electrical injuries. Despite increased awareness of potential dangers, elect ricity is responsible for many fatalities all over the world. Electrical burn accounts for ~3% of all burn related injuries. Estimated 3, 000 annual admittions to burn units. Electrical burn have bimodal distribution ~1/3 children <6 yrs ( E lectric cords & wall outlets ~2/3 miners, construction, & electrical workers. Our case is one that of a 12 year old male child having electrical injury over face and neck with exposed angle of mandible which was covered by Deltopectoral flap with caterpillar advancement of flap.

  5. Stability investigation of an airfoil section with active flap control

    Bergami, Leonardo; Gaunaa, Mac

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a method to determine flutter and divergence instability limits for a two-dimensional (2-D) airfoil section fitted with an actively controlled trailing edge flap. This flap consists of a deformable trailing edge, which deformation is governed by control algorithms based on measurements of either heave displacement, local angle of attack or aerodynamic pressure difference measured over the airfoil. The purpose of the controlled deformable flap is to reduce fluctuations in th...

  6. USB noise reduction by nozzle and flap modifications

    Hayden, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The development of concepts for reducing upper surface blown flap noise at the source through flap modifications and special nozzles is reviewed. In particular, recent results obtained on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of flaps with porous surfaces near the trailing edge and multi-slotted nozzles are reviewed. Considerable reduction (6-10 db) of the characteristic low frequency peak is shown. The aerodynamic performance is compared with conventional systems, and prospects for future improvements are discussed.

  7. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The s...

  8. Fenestration of bone flap during decompressive craniotomy for subdural hematoma

    Ha Son Nguyen; Ninh Doan; Christopher Wolfla; Glen Pollock

    2016-01-01

    Background: Persistent/recurrent extra-axial hemorrhage may occur after decompression of a subdural hematoma (SDH) followed by an immediate replacement of bone flap. A fenestration of the bone flap may encourage extra-axial fluid absorption; however, the literature has not explored this technique. Methods: Forty-four consecutive patients who underwent surgical decompression of SDH with immediate replacement of bone flap were divided into two groups: Fenestration (F), n = 33, and no fenest...

  9. Design of Insect-Scale Flapping Wing Vehicles

    Ahmed Nabawy, Mostafa Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the state of the art in integrated design of insect-scale piezoelectric actuated flapping wing vehicles through the development of novel theoretical models for flapping wing aerodynamics and piezoelectric actuator dynamics, and integration of these models into a closed form design process.A comprehensive literature review of available engineered designs of miniature rotary and flapping wing vehicles is provided. A novel taxonomy based on wing and actuator kinematics...

  10. Absorption spectra of CsNd(MoO4)2 and CsGd(MoO4)2-Nd3+ crystals in strong magnetic fields

    The comparison of the electronic structure of Nd3+ in CsNd(MoO4)2 and CsGd(MoO4)2 - Nd3+ crystals is made. It is established that in these crystals the activator centers, mainly, of the certain type with the symmetry of the local environment C2 are formed. The absorption spectra of self-activated CsNd(MoO4)2 crystal differ from spectra of CsGd(MoO4)2 - Nd3+ by the presence of the vibrating structure. The Stark splittings of energy levels of Nd3+ in the investigated crystalline matrices are more sensitive to the environment effect than the Zeeman ones. The ground state of Nd3+ ion in CsNd(MoO4)2 and CsGd(MoO4)2 molybdates is characterized by the similar values of g-factors

  11. Comparative analysis of effectiveness of treatment with anti-TB drugs of the 1st and 2nd lines for children and adolescents with multidrug resistant tuberculosis

    Tleukhan Abildaev

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows results of study on comparative treatment effectiveness in children and adolescents with from multi drug resistant tuberculosis MDR TB (2000-2008 treated with anti-TB drugs of the 2nd line (80 patients and 1st line (80 patients in the Kazakhstan. It was stated in patients with MDR TB that outcomes of treatment were successful in 91.2%, but relapse development of TB disease occurred in 12.7% of cases, and 5 (6.2% patients died (P ≤0.05. Thus, patients with MDR TB need to be treated with anti-TB drugs of the 2nd line accordingly to their DST.

  12. Locomotion of a flapping flexible plate

    Hua, Ru-Nan; Zhu, Luoding; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2013-12-01

    The locomotion of a flapping flexible plate in a viscous incompressible stationary fluid is numerically studied by an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method for the fluid and a finite element method for the plate. When the leading-edge of the flexible plate is forced to heave sinusoidally, the entire plate starts to move freely as a result of the fluid-structure interaction. Mechanisms underlying the dynamics of the plate are elucidated. Three distinct states of the plate motion are identified and can be described as forward, backward, and irregular. Which state to occur depends mainly on the heaving amplitude and the bending rigidity of the plate. In the forward motion regime, analysis of the dynamic behaviors of the flapping flexible plate indicates that a suitable degree of flexibility can improve the propulsive performance. Moreover, there exist two kinds of vortex streets in the downstream of the plate which are normal and deflected wake. Further the forward motion is compared with the flapping-based locomotion of swimming and flying animals. The results obtained in the present study are found to be consistent with the relevant observations and measurements and can provide some physical insights into the understanding of the propulsive mechanisms of swimming and flying animals.

  13. Managing Flap Vortices via Separation Control

    Greenblatt, David

    2006-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted on a flapped semi-span model to investigate the concept and viability of near-wake vortex management by means of boundary layer separation control. Passive control was achieved using a simple fairing and active control was achieved via zero mass-flux blowing slots. Vortex sheet strength, estimated by integrating surface pressures, was used to predict vortex characteristics based on inviscid rollup relations and vortices trailing the flaps were mapped using a seven-hole probe. Separation control was found to have a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size over a wide range of angles of attack and control conditions. In general, the vortex trends were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations. Manipulation of the separated flow near the flap edges exerted significant control over either outboard or inboard edge vortices while producing small lift and moment excursions. Unsteady surface pressures indicated that dynamic separation and attachment control can be exploited to perturb vortices at wavelengths shorter than a typical wingspan. In summary, separation control has the potential for application to time-independent or time-dependent wake alleviation schemes, where the latter can be deployed to minimize adverse effects on ride-quality and dynamic structural loading.

  14. Acetylcysteine in random skin flap in rats

    Abla Luiz Eduardo Felipe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Analyze the ability of Acetylcysteine to reduce distal necrosis in a random skin flap, in the rat. METHODS: The present study utilized 28 adult male Wistar-EPM rats distributed, at random, in two groups of 14 animals. Control group rats (CG received distilled water and Acetylcysteine group animals (NACG received NAC (300 mg/kg by oral infusion, 15 minutes before flap elevation. On the seventh postoperative day, percentage of distal necrosis was determined and skin samples collected in order to allow determination of MDA levels. RESULTS: The mean necrotic area in CG group (control was 66 % and in NACG group (Acetylcysteine 52 %, a statistically significant difference according to the Mann-Whitney test (U calc = 25; U crit = 45. MDA levels were lower in the CG flap skin samples than in the NACG samples (U calc = 24; U crit = 45, the oposite being true in the normal skin samples (U calc = 10; U crit = 45. CONCLUSION: Acetylcysteine was effective, according to the model used, reducing the percentage of distal necrosis in NACG rats.

  15. Pedicled and free TRAM flaps in breast reconstructions : a comparative study

    Edsander-Nord, Åsa

    2000-01-01

    The transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap is frequently used when autologous tissue is desired for breast reconstruction, and it can be transferred pedicled or free. The pedicled TRAM flap is elevated as a lower transverse abdominal flap with the rectus abdominis muscle attached in the epigastric area, by which means the deep superior epigastric vessels nourish the flap. The flap is tunneled to its new position on the thoracic wall. The free TRAM flap c...

  16. Propeller Perforator Flaps in Distal Lower Leg:Evolution and Clinical Applications

    Georgescu, Alexandru V.

    2012-01-01

    Simple or complex defects in the lower leg, and especially in its distal third, continue to be a challenging task for reconstructive surgeons. A variety of flaps were used in the attempt to achieve excellence in form and function. After a long evolution of the reconstructive methods, including random pattern flaps, axial pattern flaps, musculocutaneous flaps and fasciocutaneous flaps, the reappraisal of the works of Manchot and Salmon by Taylor and Palmer opened the era of perforator flaps. T...

  17. Design, Fabrication and Testing Of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    K. P. Preethi Manohari Sai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flapping flight has the potential to revolutionize micro air vehicles (MAVs due to increased aerodynamic performance, improved maneuverability and hover capabilities. The purpose of this project is to design and fabrication of flapping wing micro air vehicle. The designed MAV will have a wing span of 40cm. The drive mechanism will be a gear mechanism to drive the flapping wing MAV, along with one actuator. Initially, a preliminary design of flapping wing MAV is drawn and necessary calculation for the lift calculation has been done. Later a CAD model is drawn in CATIA V5 software. Finally we tested by Flying.

  18. Thoracodorsal artery perforator flap for upper limb reconstruction

    Thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP) is a feasible option to reconstruct defects in upper limb where only skin and subcutaneous tissue is required. Methods: This case series was carried out at department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi. A total of 5 patients with upper limb defects were reconstructed with thoracodorsal artery musculocutaneous perforator flaps. Among them, 3 were pedicled and two free TAP flaps. All flaps except one pedicled flap were raised on a single perforator pedicle. Recipient sites were one axilla, two shoulder regions and two hands. The soft tissue defects in the patients had resulted from burns, trauma, wide local excision of synovial sarcoma and surgery for hidradenitis suppurativa. Preoperative hand held Doppler ultrasound was used to locate and mark the perforator. Results: All flaps survived without significant complications. All flaps were hyperemic in the immediate postoperative period. We designed and raised all the five flaps on eccentrically placed perforators. All the raised perforators originated from the descending branch of the thoracodorsal artery. The donor sites were closed primarily with linear scars in all cases except one, in which partial closure was accomplished with split thickness skin grafting (STSG). Conclusion: The thoracodorsal artery perforator flap has great potential for reconstructing large, relatively shallow, defects of upper limb because of its suitable skin quality, texture and appropriate thickness, as well as hidden donor site, a reliable pedicle and sparing of muscle unit. (author)

  19. Effects of primary rotor parameters on flapping dynamics

    Chen, R. T. N.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of flapping dynamics of four main rotor design features that influence the agility, stability, and operational safety of helicopters are studied. The parameters include flapping hinge offset, flapping hinge restraint, pitch-flap coupling, and blade lock number. First, the flapping equations of motion are derived that explicitly contain the design parameters. The dynamic equations are then developed for the tip-path plane, and the influence of individual and combined variations in the design parameters determined. The steady state flapping response is examined with respect to control input and aircraft angular rate which leads to a feedforward control law for control decoupling through cross feed, and a feedback control law to decouple the steady state flapping response. The condition for achieving perfect decoupling of the flapping response due to aircraft pitch and roll rates without using feedback control is also found for the hover case. It is indicated that the frequency of the regressing flapping mode of the rotor system can become low enough to require consideration in the assessment of handling characteristics.

  20. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The skin redundancy below the gluteal fold allows a primary closure of the donor defect. It can also be used in combination with biceps femoris muscle flap.

  1. Monocortical Deep Circumflex Iliac Artery Flap in Jaw Reconstruction.

    Moon, Seong-Yong

    2015-06-01

    Conventionally deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap had been harvested as bicortical form. However, several complications and adverse effects occurred such as abnormal hip contour, hernia, severe bleeding tendency, gait disturbance, and hypoesthesia. All the 9 patients required reconstruction of the jaw with microvascular free flaps after radical resection. Monocortical bone segment was harvested from the anterior iliac crest, and the amount of bone harvested was from 47 to 90 mm (mean, 63 ± 14.6). Monocortical deep circumflex iliac artery flap has sufficient advantages in donor-site morbidity, which is one of the factors to choose flap. PMID:26080179

  2. Cervicopectoral flap in head and neck cancer surgery

    Sivrioglu Nazan S

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstruction of the head and neck after adequate resection of primary tumor and neck dissection is a challenge. It should be performed at one sitting in advanced tumors. Defects caused by the resection should be closed with flaps which match in color, texture and hair bearing characteristics with the face. Cervicopectoral flap is a one such flap from chest and neck skin mainly used to cover the cheek defects. Methods This study included twelve patients presenting with cancer of the head and neck to Izmir Ataturk Training Hospital and Adnan Menderes University Hospital. Tumor resection and neck dissection was performed in one session by the same surgeon. A single incision was made and a medially based cervicopectoral fascio-cutaneous flap was used for surgical exposure in neck dissection and for closure of defects after tumor resection. Results There was no major complication. Two flaps had partial superficial epidermolysis at the suture line. Good aesthetic and functional results were achieved. Conclusion The cervicopectoral flap is an excellent alternative for the reconstruction of head and neck. Harvesting and application of the flap is rapid and safe. Only a single incision is sufficient for dissection and flap elevation. This flap achieves perfect surgical exposure, makes neck dissection easy and allows one to perform both tumor resection and neck dissection in one session.

  3. Oropharyngeal reconstruction with a pedicled submandibular gland flap.

    Mashrah, Mubarak A; Zhou, Shang-Hui; Abdelrehem, Ahmed; Ma, Chunyue; Xu, Liqun; He, Yue; Zhang, Chen-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Locoregional flaps are widely used for reconstruction of small and medium defects in the oral cavity. The submandibular gland flap is a pedicled flap, which derives its blood supply from the facial artery, based on the submandibular gland. We describe the use of the flap in 20 patients who required oropharyngeal reconstruction with a pedicled submandibular gland flap after resection of a tumour between July 2012 and October 2014. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma were excluded. All flaps were pedicled on the facial vessels (inferiorly in 17 patients and superiorly in 3). The indications were: reconstruction of intraoral mucosal defects (n=13), filling the parapharyngeal dead space (n=6), and obliteration of the mastoid (n=1). All the flaps atrophied, but with no clinical effect. One patient developed partial loss of the flap, and one early leakage. There were no cases of xerostomia, and no signs of recurrence during the postoperative follow-up period of 3-26 months. The flap is useful, as it is simple and reliable for reconstruction of small to medium oropharyngeal defects in carefully selected cases, and gives good cosmetic and functional results. PMID:26388070

  4. Angiographic findings before and after transplantation of split myocutaneous flaps

    Prerequisite for successful split-skin flap transplants of myocutaneous flaps is the presence of adequate adjacent afferent and efferent vessels, thus making an arteriography of the receiving region mandatory during surgery preparation. In 20 or 29 patients in whom a split myocutaneous flap was transplanted to the lower leg, angiography revealed 22 pathological or other therapy-relevant findings. Besides the afferent vessels it is basically necessary to visualise the peripheral efferent pathways in order to prevent that vascular anastomosis to the split-skin flap obstructs the blood supply of the leg. (orig.)

  5. Correlations of organic chemistry study of the 2nd year “Pharmacy” faculty students of specialty “Technology of perfume-cosmetic preparations”

    Antypenko, L. M.; Kandybey, K. I.; Kovalenko, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    In order to analyze the organic chemistry study for 2nd year students of specialty “Technology of perfume-cosmetic preparations” in Zaporizhzhya State Medical University, correlations between preparation time for the theoretical part of the classes, for computer testing and its percentage, the impact of the organic chemistry at school to university mark, and in general for all disciplines attestation, using Pearson and Spearman correlations, Kolmogorov-Smirn...

  6. An intensive Post Event Campaign (IPEC) on the extreme flash flood which affected the Starzel river (Germany) on the 2nd of June 2008

    Gaume, Eric

    2009-01-01

    On the 2nd of June 2008 in the evening, the Zollernabkreis region, located 50 kilometers South from Stuttgart (Germany), was affected by extreme thunderstorms which induced large flash floods. The most severely affected area appeared to be the upper Starzel river catchment (130 km2) where the extraordinary flood caused large damages in two towns (Hechingen and Jungingen) and killed 3 people. The data collected immediately after the flood event are impressive : 75 mm of rainfall accumulated wi...

  7. A Soliton Hierarchy Associated with a Spectral Problem of 2nd Degree in a Spectral Parameter and Its Bi-Hamiltonian Structure

    Yuqin Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Associated with so~(3,R, a new matrix spectral problem of 2nd degree in a spectral parameter is proposed and its corresponding soliton hierarchy is generated within the zero curvature formulation. Bi-Hamiltonian structures of the presented soliton hierarchy are furnished by using the trace identity, and thus, all presented equations possess infinitely commuting many symmetries and conservation laws, which implies their Liouville integrability.

  8. Development of a morphing flap using shape memory alloy actuators: the aerodynamic characteristics of a morphing flap

    The discontinuous contour of a wing with conventional flaps diminishes the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft. A wing with a continuous contour does not experience extreme flow stream fluctuations during flight, and consequently has good aerodynamic characteristics. In this study, a morphing flap using shape memory alloy actuators is proposed, designed and fabricated, and its aerodynamic characteristics are investigated using aerodynamic analyses and wind tunnel tests. The ribs of the morphing flap are designed and fabricated with multiple elements joined together in a way that allows relative rotations of adjacent elements and forms a smooth contour of the morphing flap. The aerodynamic analyses of this multiple-element morphing-flap wing are performed using XFLR pro; its aerodynamic performance is compared with that of a mechanical-flap wing, and is measured through wind-tunnel tests. (papers)

  9. Repair of finger soft tissue defects using axial pattern flaps%轴型皮瓣修复手指软组织缺损

    梁钢; 徐宝成; 李大为

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察应用不同轴型皮瓣修复手指软组织缺损的临床效果并探讨其可行性.方法 2005-2010年,对浙江绍兴第二医院收治的30例手指软组织缺损患者,分别应用5种轴型皮瓣进行修复,其中拇指背侧皮神经营养血管远端蒂皮瓣4例、游离足拇趾腓侧皮瓣6例、改良掌背动脉逆行皮瓣8例、游离骨间后动脉桡背侧肌间隔穿支皮瓣6例以及携带长段骨间后动脉的游离骨间后动脉皮瓣6例.皮瓣切取面积2.5 cm ×2.0 cm ~8.0 cm×3.0 cm.供瓣区创面直接缝合或移植皮片修复.观察患者术后皮瓣成活情况,随访患手局部感觉、功能及外形变化. 结果 本组患者中27例术后切口无感染、皮瓣成活良好;2例皮瓣远端部分坏死、1例发生静脉危象,经处理创面愈合.18例患者获得1 ~12个月的随访,皮瓣色泽、质地较好,厚薄适中.大多数患者受区拇指或掌指的外形及功能恢复达预期目的,两点辨别觉为5 ~9 mm;供瓣区外形和功能基本不受影响. 结论 根据手指软组织缺损的具体情况,结合不同轴型皮瓣特点进行优化选择,多能获得预期效果.%Objective To investigate the feasibility and effect of different types of axial pattern flaps in repairing soft tissue defects of the fingers. Methods Five types of axial pattern flaps were used to repair soft tissue defects of the fingers of 30 patients admitted to the Second Hospital of Shaoxing Municipality from 2005 to 2010,including distally-based dorsal thumb neurocutaneous vascular flaps in 4 cases,free flaps from the fibular side of the great toe in 6 cases,modified retrograde dorsal metacarpal artery flaps in 8 cases,free flaps based on the radiodorsal septomuscular perforator of the posterior interosseous artery in 6 cases,and free posterior interosseous artery flaps carrying a long segment of the posterior interosseous artery in 6 cases.The flap size ranged from 2.5 cm × 2.0 cm to 8.0 cm × 3.0 cm

  10. Strategies for 2nd generation biofuels in EU - Co-firing to stimulate feedstock supply development and process integration to improve energy efficiency and economic competitiveness

    The present biofuel policies in the European Union primarily stimulate 1st generation biofuels that are produced based on conventional food crops. They may be a distraction from lignocellulose based 2nd generation biofuels - and also from biomass use for heat and electricity - by keeping farmers' attention and significant investments focusing on first generation biofuels and the cultivation of conventional food crops as feedstocks. This article presents two strategies that can contribute to the development of 2nd generation biofuels based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Another option, biomass co-firing with coal, generates high-efficiency biomass electricity and reduces CO2 emissions by replacing coal. It also offers a near-term market for lignocellulosic biomass, which can stimulate development of supply systems for biomass also suitable as feedstock for 2nd generation biofuels. Regardless of the long-term priorities of biomass use for energy, the stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass production by development of near term and cost-effective markets is judged to be a no-regrets strategy for Europe. Strategies that induce a relevant development and exploit existing energy infrastructures in order to reduce risk and reach lower costs, are proposed an attractive complement the present and prospective biofuel policies. (author)

  11. Strategies for 2nd generation biofuels in EU - Co-firing to stimulate feedstock supply development and process integration to improve energy efficiency and economic competitiveness

    The present biofuel policies in the European Union primarily stimulate 1st generation biofuels that are produced based on conventional food crops. They may be a distraction from lignocellulose based 2nd generation biofuels - and also from biomass use for heat and electricity - by keeping farmers' attention and significant investments focusing on first generation biofuels and the cultivation of conventional food crops as feedstocks. This article presents two strategies that can contribute to the development of 2nd generation biofuels based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Another option, biomass co-firing with coal, generates high-efficiency biomass electricity and reduces CO2 emissions by replacing coal. It also offers a near-term market for lignocellulosic biomass, which can stimulate development of supply systems for biomass also suitable as feedstock for 2nd generation biofuels. Regardless of the long-term priorities of biomass use for energy, the stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass production by development of near term and cost-effective markets is judged to be a no-regrets strategy for Europe. Strategies that induce a relevant development and exploit existing energy infrastructures in order to reduce risk and reach lower costs, are proposed an attractive complement the present and prospective biofuel policies.

  12. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  13. Thematic network on the analysis of thorium and its isotopes in workplace materials. Report on the 2nd intercomparison exercise

    Work Package 2 (WP 2) of the EC Thematic Network on ''The analysis of thorium and its isotopes in workplace materials'' is concerned with ''Examination and comparison of analytical techniques for the determination of thorium and its progeny in bulk materials and the development of standards, both for the calibration of associated metrological facilities, and for routine quality control purposes''. The primary objective of WP 2 is ''To evaluate appropriate techniques and determine best practice for analysis of 232Th at workplace levels and environments'', and is to be achieved through a series of intercomparison exercises. Following the results of the 1st intercomparison exercise, a 2nd intercomparison exercise was designed to evaluate the capability of the analytical methods currently being used by European laboratories to determine thorium at very low levels in the presence of a complex inorganic matrix. The intercomparison exercise involved the analysis of three samples of thorium in solution, prepared by the United Kingdom National Physical Laboratory. One sample was the equilibrium solution, analysed in the 1st intercomparison exercise. The other two samples were prepared by dilution of a non-equilibrium thorium solution, one of which was spiked with impurity elements. (i) The results showed a further improvement in the accuracy of measurements in the equilibrium solution, when compared with the results from the 1st intercomparison study. There was an overall drop in u-test values and the number of u-test values above the upper limit of significance fell from 6 to 3. (ii) Overall, participating laboratories also performed well in the analysis of the low level non-equilibrium solutions. However, several laboratories using y-spectrometry had insufficient sensitivity for measurement of low level non-equilibrium sample solutions and did not report results. (iii) There was little evidence that the presence of impurities had a detrimental effect on measurements made

  14. Free combined composite flaps using the lateral circumflex femoral system for repair of massive defects of the head and neck regions: an introduction to the chimeric flap principle.

    Koshima, I; Yamamoto, H; Hosoda, M; Moriguchi, T; Orita, Y; Nagayama, H

    1993-09-01

    Chimeric composite flaps combined using microanastomoses consist of two or more flaps or tissues, each with an isolated pedicle and a single vascular source. Free combined chimeric flaps using the lateral circumflex femoral system were used to treat massive composite defects of the head and neck in 10 cases. A combined anterolateral thigh flap and vascularized iliac bone graft based on the lateral circumflex femoral system and the deep circumflex iliac system was the most commonly used combination. An anteromedial thigh flap and a paraumbilical perforator-based flap were also combined with this principal combination. The advantages of this chimeric flap over other osteocutaneous flaps are: (1) The flap is relatively thin and the pedicle vessels are up to 10 cm longer and are wider than those of other flaps for easier harvesting of the flap. (2) It is unnecessary to reposition the patient. (3) The vascular pedicle to the skin can be separated from that of the bone. (4) The donor site is not close to the recipient site. (5) The donor scar is in an unexposed area. (6) The skin territory of this flap is extremely wide. (7) A combined anterolateral and anteromedial thigh flap and vascularized iliac bone graft can be easily obtained as an extended combined osteocutaneous flap. (8) Other neighboring skin flaps, such as a groin flap, a paraumbilical perforator-based flap, or a medial thigh flap, can be combined with this chimeric flap because several major muscle branches to be anastomosed derive from the lateral circumflex femoral system. Chimeric composite flaps using the lateral circumflex femoral system are considered suitable for the repair of massive composite defects of the head and neck. PMID:8341739

  15. Identification of Flap Motion Parameters for Vibration Reduction in Helicopter Rotors with Multiple Active Trailing Edge Flaps

    Uğbreve;ur Dalli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An active control method utilizing the multiple trailing edge flap configuration for rotorcraft vibration suppression and blade loads control is presented. A comprehensive model for rotor blade with active trailing edge flaps is used to calculate the vibration characteristics, natural frequencies and mode shapes of any complex composite helicopter rotor blade. A computer program is developed to calculate the system response, rotor blade root forces and moments under aerodynamic forcing conditions. Rotor blade system response is calculated using the proposed solution method and the developed program depending on any structural and aerodynamic properties of rotor blades, structural properties of trailing edge flaps and properties of trailing edge flap actuator inputs. Rotor blade loads are determined first on a nominal rotor blade without multiple active trailing edge flaps and then the effects of the active flap motions on the existing rotor blade loads are investigated. Multiple active trailing edge flaps are controlled by using open loop controllers to identify the effects of the actuator signal output properties such as frequency, amplitude and phase on the system response. Effects of using multiple trailing edge flaps on controlling rotor blade vibrations are investigated and some design criteria are determined for the design of trailing edge flap controller that will provide actuator signal outputs to minimize the rotor blade root loads. It is calculated that using the developed active trailing edge rotor blade model, helicopter rotor blade vibrations can be reduced up to 36% of the nominal rotor blade vibrations.

  16. Comparative study of visual acuity and aberrations after intralase femtosecond LASIK: small corneal flap versus big corneal flap

    Ya-Li; Zhang; Lei; Liu; Chang-Xia; Cui; Ming; Hu; Zhao-Na; Li; Li-Jun; Cao; Xiu-Hua; Jing; Guo-Ying; Mu

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To study the effects of different flap sizes on visual acuity, refractive outcomes, and aberrations after femtosecond laser for laser keratomileusis (LASIK). ·METHODS: In each of the forty patients enrolled, 1 eye was randomly assigned to receive treatment with a 8.1mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the small flap, while the other eye was treated with a 8.6mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the big flap. Refractive errors, visual acuity, and higher -order aberrations were compared between the two groups at week 1, month 1 and 3 postoperatively. · RESULTS: The postoperative refractive errors and visual acuity all conformed to the intended goal. Postoperative higher -order aberrations were increased, especially in spherical aberration (Z12) and vertical coma (Z7). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of postoperative refractive errors, visual acuity, root mean square of total HOAs (HO -RMS), trefoil 30° (Z6), vertical coma (Z7), horizontal coma (Z8), trefoil 0° (Z9), and spherical aberration (Z12) at any point during the postoperative follow-up. ·CONCLUSION: Both the small and big flaps are safe and effective procedures to correct myopia, provided the exposure stroma meets the excimer laser ablations. The personalized size corneal flap is feasible, as we can design the size of corneal flap based on the principle that the corneal flap diameter should be equal to or greater than the sum of the maximum ablation diameter and apparatus error.

  17. A propeller flap for single-stage nose reconstruction in selected patients: supratrochlear artery axial propeller flap.

    Cordova, Adriana; D'Arpa, Salvatore; Massimiliano, Tripoli; Toia, Francesca; Moschella, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    The paramedian forehead flap is the gold standard technique for nose reconstruction. It requires two different surgical operations which prolonged the postoperative dressing and care. We present our 5-year experience with a propeller flap based on the supratrochlear artery, which allows one-stage transfer of the forehead skin to the nose without the need for pedicle division. This technique is indicated in a selected group of patients who are not suitable for multiple-stage reconstructions because they have concurrent medical conditions, reduced mobility, or live far away from specialized medical centers. We have renamed this procedure as supratrochlear artery axial propeller flap, from the acronym STAAP flap, to stress the axial, well known and constant, vascularization of the flap. In the past 5 years, we have been performing 25 STAAP flaps; full-thickness nasal reconstruction was performed in 11 cases. The patients were 16 males and 9 females, with a mean age of 79.5 years. All patients had multiple comorbidities. Complete flap survival was observed in 23 cases and healing was complete in 7 days. In two cases, there was a partial distal necrosis of the flap treated conservatively. Cosmetic results were good and the patient's satisfaction was significant. These results indicate that the STAAP flap is a reliable and useful technique in selected cases, as old or noncompliant patients who benefit from a one-stage technique of nose reconstruction. PMID:24918712

  18. Elbow Reconstruction Using Island Flap for Burn Patients

    Gi Yeun Hur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Deep burns of the elbow lead to soft tissue necrosis and infection, with exposureof deep structures. Adequate wound coverage of this area requires thin, pliable, and durabletissue, while optimal functional recovery requires early coverage and functional rehabilitation.We have found 3 types of island flaps that provide reliable coverage for the elbow.Methods A retrospective study was performed on all patients who underwent flap coverageof an elbow defect at our hospital. The patients’ data including age, sex, cause of injury, wounddimensions, timing of flap coverage, postoperative elbow motion, and complications wereinvestigated.Results Between 2001 and 2012, 16 patients were treated at our hospital. The mean agewas 53.3 years. Three kinds of flaps were performed: 9 latissimus dorsi flaps, 4 lateral armflaps, and 4 radial forearm flaps. The average defect size was 183.5 cm2 (range, 28 to 670cm2. Wound coverage was performed at mean duration of 45.9 days (range, 14 to 91 days.The mean postoperative active elbow flexion was 98° (range, 85° to 115°. Partial flap failureoccurred in 1 latissimus dorsi flap. Minor complications included partial flap loss (11.8%,hematoma (23.5%, seroma (35.3%, and wound infection (5.9%.Conclusions Flap selection for elbow reconstruction is determined by the defect size andthe extent of the adjacent tissue injury. Elbow reconstruction using an island flap is a singlestaged,reliable, and relatively simple procedure that permits initiation of early rehabilitation,thereby improving a patient’s functional outcome.

  19. Folding in and out: passive morphing in flapping wings.

    Stowers, Amanda K; Lentink, David

    2015-04-01

    We present a new mechanism for passive wing morphing of flapping wings inspired by bat and bird wing morphology. The mechanism consists of an unactuated hand wing connected to the arm wing with a wrist joint. Flapping motion generates centrifugal accelerations in the hand wing, forcing it to unfold passively. Using a robotic model in hover, we made kinematic measurements of unfolding kinematics as functions of the non-dimensional wingspan fold ratio (2-2.5) and flapping frequency (5-17 Hz) using stereo high-speed cameras. We find that the wings unfold passively within one to two flaps and remain unfolded with only small amplitude oscillations. To better understand the passive dynamics, we constructed a computer model of the unfolding process based on rigid body dynamics, contact models, and aerodynamic correlations. This model predicts the measured passive unfolding within about one flap and shows that unfolding is driven by centrifugal acceleration induced by flapping. The simulations also predict that relative unfolding time only weakly depends on flapping frequency and can be reduced to less than half a wingbeat by increasing flapping amplitude. Subsequent dimensional analysis shows that the time required to unfold passively is of the same order of magnitude as the flapping period. This suggests that centrifugal acceleration can drive passive unfolding within approximately one wingbeat in small and large wings. Finally, we show experimentally that passive unfolding wings can withstand impact with a branch, by first folding and then unfolding passively. This mechanism enables flapping robots to squeeze through clutter without sophisticated control. Passive unfolding also provides a new avenue in morphing wing design that makes future flapping morphing wings possibly more energy efficient and light-weight. Simultaneously these results point to possible inertia driven, and therefore metabolically efficient, control strategies in bats and birds to morph or recover

  20. Quantifying Blood Flow in the DIEP Flap: An Ultrasonographic Study

    Pennington, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The maximum weight of tissue that a single perforator can perfuse remains an important question in reconstructive microsurgery. An empirically based equation, known as the flap viability index (FVI), has been established to determine what weight of tissue will survive on one or more perforators. The equation is FVI = Sum d(n)^4/W, where d is the internal diameter of each perforator and W is the final weight of the flap. It has been shown that if FVI exceeds 10, total flap survival is likely, but if under 10, partial flap necrosis is probable. The aim of this study was to measure absolute flow rates in deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap pedicles and assess correlation with the determinants of the FVI, perforator diameter and flap weight. Methods: Color Doppler ultrasound was used to quantify arterial flow in 10 consecutive DIEP flap pedicles 24 hours after anastomosis. Results: In single-perforator DIEP flaps, flow rate was highly correlated with perforator diameter (r = 0.82, P = 0.01). Mean arterial flow rate was significantly reduced in DIEP flaps with 2 or more perforators (6 vs 38 cm3/min; P perforator size is a critical factor in optimizing blood flow in perforator-based free tissue transfer. Further research is required to understand the flow dynamics of perforator flaps based on multiple perforators. However, surgeons should be cognizant that a single large perforator may have substantially higher flow rates than multiple small perforators. Routine FVI calculation is recommended to ensure complete flap survival. PMID:25426345

  1. The application of island myocutaneous flap for challenging wounds on cervico-thoracic region

    XING Xin; XUE Chun-yu; LI Li; HUAN Jing-ning; GUO En-tan

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To introduce the experiences in the application of island myocutaneous flap for challenging wound on cervico-thoracic region. Methods: Different myocutaneous flaps were selected according to the location, peculiarity and etiological factor of wound. There were 28 cases of island pectoralis major island myocutanuous flaps, 34 cases of latissimus dorsi island myocutaneous flaps, 19 cases of trapizius island myocutaneous flaps and 17 cases of rectus abdominis island myocutaneous flaps in this report. Results: All 98 patients with challenging wound on cervico-thoracic region were successfully treated with this method without complications, and obtained functional and cosmetic effectiveness. Conclusion:Challenging wounds in cervico-nuchal region can be repaired with pertoralis major island myocutaneous flap, latissimus dorsi island myocutaneous flap and trapizius island myocutaneous flap, while challenging wounds in thoracic region can be repaired with latissimus dorsi island myocutaneous flap and rectus abdominis island myocutaneous flap. Satisfactory functional and cosmetic results can be obtained.

  2. Computed Tomographic Imaging of Subchondral Fatigue Cracks in the Distal End of the Third Metacarpal Bone in the Thoroughbred Racehorse Can Predict Crack Micromotion in an Ex-Vivo Model

    Dubois, Marie-Soleil; Morello, Samantha; Rayment, Kelsey; Markel, Mark D.; Vanderby, Ray; Kalscheur, Vicki L.; Hao, Zhengling; McCabe, Ronald P.; Marquis, Patricia; Muir, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Articular stress fracture arising from the distal end of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) is a common serious injury in Thoroughbred racehorses. Currently, there is no method for predicting fracture risk clinically. We describe an ex-vivo biomechanical model in which we measured subchondral crack micromotion under compressive loading that modeled high speed running. Using this model, we determined the relationship between subchondral crack dimensions measured using computed tomography (CT) and...

  3. [Free rectus abdominis muscle perforating artery flaps for reconstruction of the head and neck defects].

    Koshima, I; Handa, T; Satoh, Y; Akisada, K; Orita, Y; Yamamoto, H

    1995-01-01

    During the past eight years, tissue defects of the head and neck region in a total of 45 patients were repaired with free rectus abdominis muscle perforating artery flaps. These flaps are subclassified into (1) reduced musculocutaneous flaps, (2) thin reduced musculocutaneous flaps, (3) paraumbilical perforator-based flaps, and (4) thin paraumbilical perforator-based flaps. The advantages of these flaps are as follows. Since the flaps involve no or only a small portion of the rectus abdominis muscle, (1) the muscle can be left intact on the abdominal wall, and (2) a thin flap can be easily created by simple defatting of the flap. These flaps overcome the major disadvantages of the conventional rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, i.e., bulkiness of the flap and frequent postoperative abdominal herniation. The territory of the thin flaps is within 10 cm around the perforator. These flaps are suitable for defects in the head and neck region, because simultaneous flap elevation is possible at the time of tumor resection. Paraumbilical perforator-based flaps are suitable for young females and elderly patients. PMID:7897566

  4. Response of rat skin flaps to sinusoidal electromagnetic fields

    Electrical stimulation to heal bone fractures has been used clinically since the early 1970s. As a result of treatment with either direct current or electromagnetic fields, there was an indication that the electrical signals enhanced the ingrowth of blood vessels into the treated area. This possibility was one of the reasons for the initial studies on the influence of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on healing of skin flaps. These investigations reported a decrease in the amount of necrosis of a skin flap after PEMF treatment. The skin flap model was chosen in these studies, as it is generally accepted for the investigation of the influence of different treatments on wound healing. The skin flap is a partially detached portion of the skin which retains part of its blood supply. However, if the flap is too long for its width, part of it will die after the transfer. Flap necrosis, therefore, represents a difficult clinical problem, especially in classes where a large area has to be covered. In the present study the authors address whether enhanced skin flap survival after treatment with PEMF is signal specific, that is , whether one could obtain similar results using various sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs). Specifically, they investigated the influence on skin flap survival of SEMFs with different frequencies but the same maximum of dB/dt

  5. Clinical study of dorsal ulnar artery flap in hand reconstruction

    Khan Manal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue defects of hand with exposed tendons, joints, nerves and bone represent a challenge to plastic surgeons. Such defects necessitate early flap coverage to protect underlying vital structures, preserve hand functions and to allow for early rehabilitation. Becker and Gilbert described flap based on the dorsal branch of the ulnar artery for defects around the wrist. We evaluated the use of a dorsal ulnar artery island flap in patients with soft tissue defects of hand. Twelve patients of soft tissue defects of hand underwent dorsal ulnar artery island flap between August 2006 and May 2008. In 10 male and 2 female patients this flap was used to reconstruct defects of the palm, dorsum of hand and first web space. Ten flaps survived completely. Marginal necrosis occurred in two flaps. In one patient suturing was required after debridement and in other patient wound healed by secondary intention. The final outcome was satisfactory. Donor areas which were skin grafted, healed with acceptable cosmetic results. The dorsal ulnar artery island flap is convenient, reliable, and easy to manage and is a single-stage technique for reconstructing soft tissue defects of the palm, dorsum of hand and first web space. Donor site morbidity is minimal, either closed primarily or covered with split thickness skin graft.

  6. Pectoralis myocutaneous flap for salvage of necrotic wounds

    Price, J.C.; Davis, R.K.; Koltai, P.J.

    1985-02-01

    The authors have utilized six pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps in attempts to salvage extensive necrotic wounds of the pharynx and neck. The flap was employed in the following situations: massive necrosis of the entire neck skin with both carotid artery systems exposed, radiation necrosis of the neck skin with exposure of carotid artery, dehiscence of gastric pull-up from pharynx with resultant carotid exposure, failed trapezius flap in a radionecrotic oral cavity, and two cases of pharyngocutaneous fistula with extensive soft tissue necrosis. These flaps achieved healing in all cases. One death occurred 3 weeks following complete cutaneous healing secondary to a ruptured carotid pseudoaneurysm. One flap underwent total skin loss but the entirety of the muscle survived and the fistula was successfully closed with the back of the muscle being subsequently skin grafted. One case of dehiscence of the flap from oral mucosa resulted in a minor exposure of mandible with limited osteoradionecrosis controlled by topical means. This flap has performed extremely well in these precarious and difficult situations that previously may not have been salvageable. It has also been effective in abbreviating the required hospitalization and wound care. The authors conclude that the pectoralis myocutaneous flap should be the primary choice for the management of extensive postsurgical wound necrosis.

  7. Dorsalis pedis arterialized venous flap for hand and foot reconstruction

    YU Guang; LEI Hong-yu; GUO Shuang; HUANG Jian-hua; YU Hao

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To report the results of repair of skin defects in the extremities with arterialized venous flap harvested from the lateral aspect of the dorsum of the foot.Methods:Six cases of skin and soft tissue defects over the foot and hands were resurfaced by free arterialized venous flaps,including five patients with skin defects of the hands,and one with defects at the dorsum of the foot.The flaps were harvested from the lateral aspect of the dorsum of the foot with the sizes ranging from 2 cm×5.5 cm to 6 cm×11 cm.Two veins at the proximal margin of the flap were retained,one of which was anastomosed to a recipient bed artery to provide arterial inflow and the other was anastomosed to a recipient bed vein for venous outflow.Results:All flaps demonstrated mild edema and survived completely.Blisters appeared on four flaps.Using this technique,we achieved good functional and cosmetic results in this series.Conclusions:Dorsalis pedis arterialized venous flap with rich vascular communications could enhance peripheral perfusion and decrease congestion of venous flaps,thereby improves reliability and utility for extremity reconstruction.

  8. Tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap for abdominal wall reconstruction

    We report a case of abdominal wall reconstruction following excision of irradiated skin and a ventral hernia. A very large tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap was used with good results. The anatomical features of this flap make it an excellent method of abdominal wall reconstruction

  9. Pectoralis myocutaneous flap for salvage of necrotic wounds

    The authors have utilized six pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps in attempts to salvage extensive necrotic wounds of the pharynx and neck. The flap was employed in the following situations: massive necrosis of the entire neck skin with both carotid artery systems exposed, radiation necrosis of the neck skin with exposure of carotid artery, dehiscence of gastric pull-up from pharynx with resultant carotid exposure, failed trapezius flap in a radionecrotic oral cavity, and two cases of pharyngocutaneous fistula with extensive soft tissue necrosis. These flaps achieved healing in all cases. One death occurred 3 weeks following complete cutaneous healing secondary to a ruptured carotid pseudoaneurysm. One flap underwent total skin loss but the entirety of the muscle survived and the fistula was successfully closed with the back of the muscle being subsequently skin grafted. One case of dehiscence of the flap from oral mucosa resulted in a minor exposure of mandible with limited osteoradionecrosis controlled by topical means. This flap has performed extremely well in these precarious and difficult situations that previously may not have been salvageable. It has also been effective in abbreviating the required hospitalization and wound care. The authors conclude that the pectoralis myocutaneous flap should be the primary choice for the management of extensive postsurgical wound necrosis

  10. Fenestration of bone flap during interval autologous cranioplasty

    Ha Son Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Presumably, fenestrations augment surface area for extra-axial fluid absorption through the bone flap. Our results, regarding MLS and postoperative volume, provide support for this concept. Accordingly, bone flap fenestration has the potential to reduce extra-axial fluid accumulation.

  11. Perforator propeller flaps for sacral and ischial soft tissue reconstruction

    Korambayil Pradeoth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The perforator-based flaps in the sacral and ischial region is designed according to the localization of perforators that penetrate the gluteus maximus muscle, reach the intra-fascial and supra-fascial planes with the overlying skin forming a rich vascular plexus. The perforator-based flaps described in this article are highly vascularized, have minimal donor site morbidity, and do not require the sacrifice of the gluteus maximus muscle. In a period between April 2008 and March 2009, six patients with sacral pressure sore were reconstructed with propeller flap method based on superior gluteal and parasacral artery perforators. One flap loss was noted. Three cases of ischial pressure sore were reconstructed with longitudinal propeller flap cover, based on inferior gluteal artery perforator. One flap suffered wound infection and dehiscence. Two cases of pilonidal sinus were reconstructed with propeller flap based on parasacral perforators. Both the flaps survived without any complications. Donor sites were closed primarily. In the light of this, they can be considered among the first surgical choices to re-surface soft tissue defects of the sacral and ischial regions. In the series of 11 patients, two patients (18% suffered complications.

  12. Perforator propeller flaps for sacral and ischial soft tissue reconstruction

    Korambayil, Pradeoth M.; Allalasundaram, KV; Balakrishnan, TM

    2010-01-01

    The perforator-based flaps in the sacral and ischial region is designed according to the localization of perforators that penetrate the gluteus maximus muscle, reach the intra-fascial and supra-fascial planes with the overlying skin forming a rich vascular plexus. The perforator-based flaps described in this article are highly vascularized, have minimal donor site morbidity, and do not require the sacrifice of the gluteus maximus muscle. In a period between April 2008 and March 2009, six patients with sacral pressure sore were reconstructed with propeller flap method based on superior gluteal and parasacral artery perforators. One flap loss was noted. Three cases of ischial pressure sore were reconstructed with longitudinal propeller flap cover, based on inferior gluteal artery perforator. One flap suffered wound infection and dehiscence. Two cases of pilonidal sinus were reconstructed with propeller flap based on parasacral perforators. Both the flaps survived without any complications. Donor sites were closed primarily. In the light of this, they can be considered among the first surgical choices to re-surface soft tissue defects of the sacral and ischial regions. In the series of 11 patients, two patients (18%) suffered complications. PMID:21217972

  13. Cross-leg flap: Its role in limb salvage

    Agarwal Pawan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pedicled cross-extremity flaps for lower limb wound coverage have been replaced by free tissue transfer in the last two decades. However, there are certain difficult situations where the free flap cannot be employed and alternative methods are needed. We describe our experience with cross-leg flap in 18 patients for the reconstruction of difficult leg defects in which no suitable recipient vessels were available for microvascular anastomosis in the vicinity of the defect. Materials and Methods: 18 patients (17 men and 1 woman with mean range 31.5 yrs(range 18-70 yrs grade III B tibial fractures were included in the study. fasciocuteneous cross leg flap was employed and extremities were immobilized by external Fixator. Results: Fifteen flaps were completely available with two had marginal necrosis and one supsficial epidermal necrosis.No complications were related to the donor site, flap, or by immobilization are noted. Each patient resumed essentially normal gait and activity without any stiffness of joints related with the flap or external fixator. Conclusion: The addition of external fixator stabilization aids greatly in wound care, as well as for general ease of the patient mobility and positioning. Cross-leg flap offers the possibility of salvaging limbs that are otherwise nonreconstructable.

  14. Works on theory of flapping wing. [considering boundary layer

    Golubev, V. V.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown mathematically that taking account of the boundary layer is the only way to develop a theory of flapping wings without violating the basic observations and mathematics of hydromechanics. A theory of thrust generation by flapping wings can be developed if the conventional downstream velocity discontinuity surface is replaced with the observed Karman type vortex streets behind a flapping wing. Experiments show that the direction of such vortices is the reverse of that of conventional Karman streets. The streets form by breakdown of the boundary layer. Detailed analysis of the movements of certain birds and insects during flight 'in place' is fully consistent with this theory of the lift, thrust and drag of flapping wings. Further directions for research into flight with flapping wings are indicated.

  15. Propeller Flaps: A Review of Indications, Technique, and Results

    D'Arpa, Salvatore; Toia, Francesca; Pirrello, Roberto; Moschella, Francesco; Cordova, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, propeller flaps have become an appealing option for coverage of a large range of defects. Besides having a more reliable vascular pedicle than traditional flap, propeller flaps allow for great freedom in design and for wide mobilization that extend the possibility of reconstructing difficult wounds with local tissues and minimal donor-site morbidity. They also allow one-stage reconstruction of defects that usually require multiple procedures. Harvesting of a propeller flap requires accurate patient selection, preoperative planning, and dissection technique. Complication rate can be kept low, provided that potential problems are prevented, promptly recognized, and adequately treated. This paper reviews current knowledge on propeller flaps. Definition, classification, and indications in the different body regions are discussed based on a review of the literature and on the authors' experience. Details about surgical technique are provided, together with tips to avoid and manage complications. PMID:24971367

  16. Propeller Flaps: A Review of Indications, Technique, and Results

    Salvatore D'Arpa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, propeller flaps have become an appealing option for coverage of a large range of defects. Besides having a more reliable vascular pedicle than traditional flap, propeller flaps allow for great freedom in design and for wide mobilization that extend the possibility of reconstructing difficult wounds with local tissues and minimal donor-site morbidity. They also allow one-stage reconstruction of defects that usually require multiple procedures. Harvesting of a propeller flap requires accurate patient selection, preoperative planning, and dissection technique. Complication rate can be kept low, provided that potential problems are prevented, promptly recognized, and adequately treated. This paper reviews current knowledge on propeller flaps. Definition, classification, and indications in the different body regions are discussed based on a review of the literature and on the authors’ experience. Details about surgical technique are provided, together with tips to avoid and manage complications.

  17. Experimental investigation of a flapping wing model

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Tropea, Cameron

    The main objective of this research study was to investigate the aerodynamic forces of an avian flapping wing model system. The model size and the flow conditions were chosen to approximate the flight of a goose. Direct force measurements, using a three-component balance, and PIV flow field measurements parallel and perpendicular to the oncoming flow, were performed in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 28,000 and 141,000 (3-15 m/s), throughout a range of reduced frequencies between 0.04 and 0.20. The appropriateness of quasi-steady assumptions used to compare 2D, time-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the wake with direct force measurements was evaluated. The vertical force coefficient for flapping wings was typically significantly higher than the maximum coefficient of the fixed wing, implying the influence of unsteady effects, such as delayed stall, even at low reduced frequencies. This puts the validity of the quasi-steady assumption into question. The (local) change in circulation over the wing beat cycle and the circulation distribution along the wingspan were obtained from the measurements in the tip and transverse vortex planes. Flow separation could be observed in the distribution of the circulation, and while the circulation derived from the wake measurements failed to agree exactly with the absolute value of the circulation, the change in circulation over the wing beat cycle was in excellent agreement for low and moderate reduced frequencies. The comparison between the PIV measurements in the two perpendicular planes and the direct force balance measurements, show that within certain limitations the wake visualization is a powerful tool to gain insight into force generation and the flow behavior on flapping wings over the wing beat cycle.

  18. Experimental investigation of a flapping wing model

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Tropea, Cameron [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Fachgebiet Stroemungslehre und Aerodynamik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The main objective of this research study was to investigate the aerodynamic forces of an avian flapping wing model system. The model size and the flow conditions were chosen to approximate the flight of a goose. Direct force measurements, using a three-component balance, and PIV flow field measurements parallel and perpendicular to the oncoming flow, were performed in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 28,000 and 141,000 (3-15 m/s), throughout a range of reduced frequencies between 0.04 and 0.20. The appropriateness of quasi-steady assumptions used to compare 2D, time-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the wake with direct force measurements was evaluated. The vertical force coefficient for flapping wings was typically significantly higher than the maximum coefficient of the fixed wing, implying the influence of unsteady effects, such as delayed stall, even at low reduced frequencies. This puts the validity of the quasi-steady assumption into question. The (local) change in circulation over the wing beat cycle and the circulation distribution along the wingspan were obtained from the measurements in the tip and transverse vortex planes. Flow separation could be observed in the distribution of the circulation, and while the circulation derived from the wake measurements failed to agree exactly with the absolute value of the circulation, the change in circulation over the wing beat cycle was in excellent agreement for low and moderate reduced frequencies. The comparison between the PIV measurements in the two perpendicular planes and the direct force balance measurements, show that within certain limitations the wake visualization is a powerful tool to gain insight into force generation and the flow behavior on flapping wings over the wing beat cycle. (orig.)

  19. Tensor fascia lata flap versus tensor fascia lata perforator-based island flap for the coverage of extensive trochanteric pressure sores.

    Kim, Youn Hwan; Kim, Sang Wha; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Chang Yeon

    2013-06-01

    Tensor fascia lata (TFL) musculocutaneous flaps often require a donor site graft when harvesting a large flap. However, a major drawback is that it also sacrifices the muscle. To overcome this disadvantage, we designed a TFL perforator-based island flap that was harvested from a site near the defect and involved transposition within 90 degrees without full isolation of the pedicles. We performed procedures on 17 musculocutaneous flaps and 23 perforator-based island flaps, and compared the outcomes of these surgeries. The overall complication rate was 27.5% (11 regions). There were 7 complications related to the musculocutaneous flaps and 4 complications related to the perforator flaps. Although there were no statistical differences between those groups, lower complication rates were associated with procedures involving perforator flaps. The TFL perforator procedure is a simple and fast operation that avoids sacrificing muscle. This decreases complication rates compared to true perforator flap techniques that require dissection around the perforator or pedicle. PMID:23392259

  20. Reconstructive Surgery for Severe Penile Inadequacy: Phalloplasty with a Free Radial Forearm Flap or a Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    N. Lumen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Severe penile inadequacy in adolescents is rare. Phallic reconstruction to treat this devastating condition is a major challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Phallic reconstruction using the free radial forearm flap (RFF or the pedicled anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF has been routinely used in female-to-male transsexuals. Recently we started to use these techniques in the treatment of severe penile inadequacy. Methods. Eleven males (age 15 to 42 years were treated with a phallic reconstruction. The RFF is our method of choice; the ALTF is an alternative when a free flap is contraindicated or less desired by the patient. The RFF was used in 7 patients, the ALTF in 4 patients. Mean followup was 25 months (range: 4–49 months. Aesthetic and functional results were evaluated. Results. There were no complications related to the flap. Aesthetic results were judged as “good” in 9 patients and “moderate” in 2 patients. Sensitivity in the RFF was superior compared to the ALTF. Four patients developed urinary complications (stricture and/or fistula. Six patients underwent erectile implant surgery. In 2 patients the erectile implant had to be removed due to infection or erosion. Conclusion. In case of severe penile inadequacy due to whatever condition, a phalloplasty is the preferred treatment nowadays. The free radial forearm flap is still the method of choice. The anterolateral thigh flap can be a good alternative, especially when free flaps are contraindicated, but sensitivity is markedly inferior in these flaps.

  1. Tensor fascia latae perforator flap: An alternative reconstructive choice for anterolateral thigh flap when no sizable skin perforator is available

    Federico Contedini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The anterolateral thigh flap (ALT is a versatile flap and very useful for the reconstruction of different anatomical districts. The main disadvantage of this flap is the anatomical variability in number and location of perforators. In general, absence of perforators is extremely rare. In literature, it is reported to be from 0.89% to 5.4%. If no sizable perforators are found, an alternative reconstructive strategy must be considered. Tensor fascia lata (TFL perforator flap can be a good alternative in these cases: Perforator vessels are always present, the anatomy is more constant and it is possible to harvest it through the same surgical access. The skin island of the flap can be very large and can be thinned removing a large part of the muscle allowing its use for almost the same indications of the ALT flap. Materials and Methods: We report 11 cases of reconstruction firstly planned with the ALT flap, then converted into TFL perforator flap. Results and Conclusion: The result was always satisfactory in terms of the donor site morbidity and reconstructive outcome.

  2. Second free radial forearm flap for urethral reconstruction after partial flap necrosis of tube-in-tube phalloplasty with radial forearm flap: a report of two cases.

    Tchang, Laurent A H; Largo, René D; Babst, Doris; Wettstein, Reto; Haug, Martin D; Kalbermatten, Daniel F; Schaefer, Dirk J

    2014-01-01

    We present a salvage procedure to reconstruct the neo-urethra after partial flap necrosis occurring in free radial forearm flap (RFF) phalloplasty for sex reassignment surgery. Two cases of tube-in-tube phalloplasty using a free sensate RFF are described in which partial flap necrosis occurred involving the complete length of the neo-urethra and a strip of the outer lining of the neo-phallus. Neo-urethra-reconstruction was performed with a second RFF from the contralateral side providing well-vascularized tissue. No flap-related complications were observed. Twelve months postoperatively, both patients were able to void while standing. A satisfactory aesthetic appearance of the neo-phallus could be preserved with an excellent tactile and erogenous sensitivity. Using this technique, we successfully salvaged the neo-urethra and reconstructed the outer lining of the neo-phallus PMID:24038531

  3. Application of skin flaps transplantation in burn surgery in China%皮瓣移植在我国烧伤外科中的应用

    黄晓元

    2008-01-01

    The history and application of surgical flap transplantation in burn wound were briefly reviewed. We outlined skin flap, muscuiocutaneous flap, fascia flap and neurocutaneous vascular flap in this paper and recommended repair deep wounds with flap. All in all, in this review, we hope to provide a meaningful option for clinical application of surgical flap in the future.

  4. Fixação externa em fratura completa de metacarpo em potros External fixation in complete metacarpal fracture in foals

    Marcelo Jorge Cavalcanti de Sá

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A regeneração de fraturas nos membros de eqüinos é complexa pelas características da espécie. Baseado em estudo biomecânico prévio, dez potros com fratura iatrogênica experimental do metacarpo tiveram redução pelo método de transfixação óssea. Cada animal foi avaliado mediante exames clínico, laboratorial e radiográfico até a recuperação. As complicações não foram significativas, exceto em um potro que requereu eutanásia. O método mostrou-se adequado e oferece estabilidade suficiente para cicatrização.The fracture healing in equine legs is a complex process due to species characteristics. Based in previous biomechanical study ten horses had iatrogenic metacarpal fractures reduced by external bone fixation. Each animal was evaluated by clinical, laboratorial and radiografic examination till complete recovery. No significant complication were observed, except one animal which was submitted to euthanasia. The method offers appropriate stability for bone healing.

  5. The comparison of salivary level of estrogen and progesterone in 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd trimester in pregnant women with and without geographic tongue

    Parichehr Ghalayani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographic tongue (GT was first reported as a wandering rash of the tongue in 1831; however, its etiopathogenesis remains unclear. Increased prevalence of GT has been documented in the pregnancy. The aim of this study was to compare the level of salivary estrogen and progesterone in pregnant women with and without GT. Materials and Methods: This analytical-descriptive study consisted of 26 pregnant women (13 with GT, 13 without GT with an age range between 18 years and 45 years. The estrogen and progesterone level was measured during 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd trimester of pregnancy. Saliva sampling was performed to determine the level of sex hormones. The samples were stored at -80°C and determined by Eliza method. The results were analyzed by t-test and repeated measure ANOVA (α = 0.05. Results: The mean level of estrogen for control and case group was 49.4and 52.33 in the 1 st , 71.05 and 74.12 in the 2 nd and 109.1 and 112.16 in the 3 rd trimester respectively. The mean level of progesterone was 0.72 and 0.72 in the 1 st , 1.14 and 1.21 in the 2 nd and 1.3 and 1.28 in the 3 rd trimester of pregnancy for the control and case groups respectively. Even though, there was no significant difference regarding the level of sex hormones between case and control groups (P > 0.05, but the difference between the level of these hormones during 3 trimesters of pregnancy was significant in each group (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The level of sex hormones is not the only etiologic factor of GT in pregnant women, but other factors such as genetic potential, human leukocyte antigen marker and stress may aggravate the incidence of this lesion.

  6. Characterization of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands of NADPH oxidase 5 by fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroism

    Wei Chin-Chuan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Superoxide generated by non-phagocytic NADPH oxidases (NOXs is of growing importance for physiology and pathobiology. The calcium binding domain (CaBD of NOX5 contains four EF-hands, each binding one calcium ion. To better understand the metal binding properties of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands, we characterized the N-terminal half of CaBD (NCaBD and its calcium-binding knockout mutants. Results The isothermal titration calorimetry measurement for NCaBD reveals that the calcium binding of two EF-hands are loosely associated with each other and can be treated as independent binding events. However, the Ca2+ binding studies on NCaBD(E31Q and NCaBD(E63Q showed their binding constants to be 6.5 × 105 and 5.0 × 102 M-1 with ΔHs of -14 and -4 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that intrinsic calcium binding for the 1st non-canonical EF-hand is largely enhanced by the binding of Ca2+ to the 2nd canonical EF-hand. The fluorescence quenching and CD spectra support a conformational change upon Ca2+ binding, which changes Trp residues toward a more non-polar and exposed environment and also increases its α-helix secondary structure content. All measurements exclude Mg2+-binding in NCaBD. Conclusions We demonstrated that the 1st non-canonical EF-hand of NOX5 has very weak Ca2+ binding affinity compared with the 2nd canonical EF-hand. Both EF-hands interact with each other in a cooperative manner to enhance their Ca2+ binding affinity. Our characterization reveals that the two EF-hands in the N-terminal NOX5 are Ca2+ specific. Graphical abstract

  7. Expanded retroauricular skin and fascial flap in congenital microtia reconstruction.

    Zhang, Qingguo; Quan, Yuzhu; Su, Yuanda; Shi, Lei; Xie, Yangchun; Liu, Xinhai

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this article is to report the application of expanding retroauricular skin fascia flap, and autogenous costal cartilage for congenital microtia reconstruction. Microtia reconstruction was generally completed in 3 surgical stages. In the first surgical stage, a 50 or 80 mL kidney-shaped tissue expander was inserted subcutaneously in the retroauricular mastoid region. Inflation of saline volume increased up to 60 to 80 mL, and skin flap was expanded for 2 to 3 months postoperatively. In the second surgical stage, removal of tissue expander, formation of retroauricular skin flap, elevation of retroauricular fascia flap, and pedicles of both flaps in remnant ear side were performed. Costal cartilage was harvested from ipsilateral side chest to the ear for reconstruction. The 3D ear framework was sculpted with stabilization of structure, contour and erection. Simultaneously, intermediate full thickness skin graft of 4 x 8 cm was obtained from previous incision site from where costal cartilage was harvested. Cartilage ear framework was anchored between skin flap and fascia flap, and fixed it symmetrically to the opposite normal ear, inferior portion of the ear framework was wrapped by remnant ear lobule, expanded skin flap covered the anterior portion of the framework, fascial flap was draped to the posterior side of framework and helical rim, then fascial flap was surfaced by intermediate full thickness skin graft. Suction drain was inserted and coated between skin flap and framework, drain was removed fifth postoperative day. Tragus construction and conchal excavation with skin graft was performed in the third stage of microtia reconstruction. Between October 2000 and October 2007, 426 cases were diagnosed as unilateral microtia patients and 22 cases were bilateral microtia patients. Therefore, 448 microtia ears were treated with tissue expander and autogenous costal cartilage. In 262 cases, structure of the helix, tragus, conchal excavation

  8. Uncertainty Analysis for a Jet Flap Airfoil

    Green, Lawrence L.; Cruz, Josue

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed to quantify the potential uncertainties of lift and pitching moment coefficient calculations from a computational fluid dynamics code, relative to an experiment, for a jet flap airfoil configuration. Uncertainties due to a number of factors including grid density, angle of attack and jet flap blowing coefficient were examined. The ANOVA software produced a numerical model of the input coefficient data, as functions of the selected factors, to a user-specified order (linear, 2-factor interference, quadratic, or cubic). Residuals between the model and actual data were also produced at each of the input conditions, and uncertainty confidence intervals (in the form of Least Significant Differences or LSD) for experimental, computational, and combined experimental / computational data sets were computed. The LSD bars indicate the smallest resolvable differences in the functional values (lift or pitching moment coefficient) attributable solely to changes in independent variable, given just the input data points from selected data sets. The software also provided a collection of diagnostics which evaluate the suitability of the input data set for use within the ANOVA process, and which examine the behavior of the resultant data, possibly suggesting transformations which should be applied to the data to reduce the LSD. The results illustrate some of the key features of, and results from, the uncertainty analysis studies, including the use of both numerical (continuous) and categorical (discrete) factors, the effects of the number and range of the input data points, and the effects of the number of factors considered simultaneously.

  9. Flapping propulsion with tip pitch control

    Huera-Huarte, Francisco; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    The effect of flexibility in the propulsion performance and efficiency of oscillating pitching foils has received a large amount of attention in the past years. Scientists have used simplified robotic models that mimic the kinematics of flying and swimming animals, in order to get inspiration to build more efficient engineering systems. Compliance is one of the aspects that has received more attention, as it seems to be a common feature in nature's flyers and swimmers. Active or passive control elements are also common in nature. We will show how thrust generation in a pitching fin, can be greatly affected by controlling the tip pitch motion dynamically and independently of the fin itself. This is in fact a controlled local change of curvature of the end of the fin. A robotic system has been designed in a way that not only flapping amplitudes and frequencies can be controlled, but also the amplitudes and frequencies of the tip and the phase difference between the tip and the fin. We measured thrust forces and the vortex dynamics in the near wake of the system, by using planar DPIV (Digital Particle Image Velocimetry) in a wide variety of flapping situations with tip control. Funding from Spanish Ministry of Science through Grant DPI2012-37904 is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Experimental Investigation of 2nd Generation Bioethanol Derived from Empty-fruit-bunch (EFB) of Oil-palm on Performance and Exhaust Emission of SI Engine

    Yanuandri Putrasari; Haznan Abimanyu; Achmad Praptijanto; Arifin Nur; Yan Irawan; Sabar Pangihutan Simanungkalit

    2014-01-01

    The experimental investigation of 2nd generation bioethanol derived from EFB of oil-palm blended with gasoline for 10, 20, 25% by volume and pure gasoline were conducted on performance and exhaust emission tests of SI engine. A four stroke, four cylinders, programmed fuel injection (PGMFI), 16 valves variable valve timing and electronic lift control (VTEC), single overhead camshaft (SOHC), and 1,497 cm3 SI engine (Honda/L15A) was used in this investigation. Engine performance test was carried...

  11. 2nd (final) IAEA research co-ordination meeting on 'plasma-material interaction data for mixed plasma facing materials in fusion reactors'. Summary report

    The proceedings and conclusions of the 2nd Research Co-ordination Meeting on 'Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Mixed Plasma Facing Materials in Fusion Reactors', held on October 16 and 17, 2000 at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, are briefly described. This report includes a summary of the presentations made by the meeting participants and a review of the accomplishments of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). In addition, short summaries from the participants are included indicating the specific research completed in support of this CRP. (author)

  12. Proceedings of the 2nd NUCEF international symposium NUCEF'98. Safety research and development of base technology on nuclear fuel cycle

    This volume contains 68 papers presented at the 2nd NUCEF International Symposium NUCEF'98 held on 16-17 November 1998, in Hitachinaka, Japan, following the 1st symposium NUCEF'95 (Proceeding: JAERI-Conf 96-003). The theme of this symposium was 'Safety Research and Development of Base Technology on Nuclear Fuel Cycle'. The papers were presented in oral and poster sessions on following research fields: (1) Criticality Safety, (2) Reprocessing and Partitioning, (3) Radioactive Waste Management. The 68 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Developments in vision care optics and clinical optometry: [abstracts’ book of the] 2nd International Summer School on Advances in Ophthalmic Optics and Optometry (OOPT’2013)

    Manuel F. M. Costa; Baptista, António M. G., ed. lit.; International Summer School Recent Advances in Ophthalmic Optics and Optometry, 2, Braga, 2013; OOPT’2012

    2013-01-01

    2nd International Summer School on Advances in Ophthalmic Optics and Optometry”. Na sequência da primeira edição da OOPT quedecorreu em Aveiro, em Setembro do ano transacto, com elevado sucesso, este evento é o reflexo do extraordinário desenvolvimento recente que a Optometria tem tido no nosso país (sendo de destacar a calendarização do projecto lei que visa a regulamentação da Optometria) e que resulta da profícua colaboração entre a Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Opto...

  14. 2nd IAEA research coordination meeting on collection and evaluation of reference data for thermo-mechanical properties of fusion reactor plasma facing materials. Summary report

    The proceedings and results of the 2nd IAEA Research Coordination Meeting on ''Collection and Evaluation of Reference Data for Thermo-mechanical Properties of Fusion Reactor Plasma Facing Materials'' held on March 25, 26 and 27, 1996 at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna are briefly described. This report includes a summary of presentations made by the meeting participants, the results of discussions amongst the participants regarding the status of data, publication of a multi-author review paper and recommendations regarding future work. (author). 1 tab

  15. 2nd (final) IAEA research co-ordination meeting on 'charge exchange cross section data for fusion plasma studies'. Summary report

    The proceedings and conclusions of the 2nd Research Co-ordination Meeting on 'Charge Exchange Cross Section Data for Fusion Plasma Studies', held on September 25 and 26, 2000 at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, are briefly described. This report includes a summary of the presentations made by the meeting participants and a review of the accomplishments of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). In addition, short summaries from the participants are included indicating the specific research completed in support of this CRP. (author)

  16. Proceedings of the 2nd NUCEF international symposium NUCEF`98. Safety research and development of base technology on nuclear fuel cycle

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This volume contains 68 papers presented at the 2nd NUCEF International Symposium NUCEF`98 held on 16-17 November 1998, in Hitachinaka, Japan, following the 1st symposium NUCEF`95 (Proceeding: JAERI-Conf 96-003). The theme of this symposium was `Safety Research and Development of Base Technology on Nuclear Fuel Cycle`. The papers were presented in oral and poster sessions on following research fields: (1) Criticality Safety, (2) Reprocessing and Partitioning, (3) Radioactive Waste Management. The 68 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Sr2(Nd, Ce)2MCu2O9, M=Al, Co, Ga. A new layered copper oxide structure type

    A new layered copper oxide structure type is reported based on the ordered interleaving of AlO4, CoO4 or GaO4 tetrahedra between the apices of copper oxides pyramids, and an (Nd, Ce)2O2 fluorite layer between the bases of the pyramids. Despite the structural similarities to the recently reported Sr2(Y,Ca)GaCu2O7 and Sr2(Nd,Ce)2NbCu2O10 superconducting structure types, we have not been able to find conditions which produce superconductivity in the present materials. (orig.)

  18. [Influence of hypocaloric diet with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex on status of patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees].

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Sokol'nikov, A A; Kaganov, B S

    2011-01-01

    Addition of a vitamin-mineral complex (VMC) to a standard hypocaloric diet leads to a positive dynamics of antropometric characteristics in patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees which is comparable to effectiveness of standard dietotherapy (dietary treatment) traditionally used in complex treatment of obesity. Addition of 1,8 mg of vitamin B2 as part of VMC to a hypocaloric diet is shown to be inadequate in eradication of marginal provision of riboflavin when using diets reduced in calories. PMID:22232885

  19. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Particle Physics in memoriam Engin Arık and her Colleagues

    Çetin, Serkant Ali; Jenni, Peter; Erkcan Özcan, Veysi; Nefer Şenoğuz, Vedat

    2012-02-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Particle Physics in memoriam Engin Arık and her Colleagues: Fatma Şenel Boydağ, İskender Hikmet, Mustafa Fidan, Berkol Doğan and Engin Abat was held at Doğuş University, İstanbul, Turkey on 20-25 June 2011. The conference was organized jointly by the Doğuş and Boğaziçi Universities, with support from CERN and the Turkish Academy of Sciences. This was the second International Conference on Particle Physics (ICPP) organized in memory of Engin Arık and her Colleagues who lost their lives in the tragic plane accident on November 30 2007, on their way to the workshop of the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. The first of this conference series was held on 27-31 October 2008 at Boğaziçi University, İstanbul, Turkey. The conference is intended to be repeated every two years in Istanbul as a Conference Series under the name 'ICPP-Istanbul'. Professor Engin Arık had a pioneering role in experimental particle physics in Turkey, and was an inspiring teacher to many colleagues. She led the Turkish participation in experiments at CERN such as CHARMII, SMC, CHORUS, ATLAS and CAST. One of her latest involvements was in the national project to design the Turkish Accelerator Center with the collaboration of 10 Turkish universities including Doğuş and Boğaziçi. Our dear colleagues not only participated in the TAC project but also collaborated on the ATLAS (E Arık, E Abat and B Doğan) and CAST (E Arık, F Şenel Boydağ, İ Hikmet and B Doğan) experiments. We believe that the ICPP-Istanbul conference series has been, and will always be, a way to commemorate them in a most appropriate context. The topics covered in ICPP-Istanbul-II were 'LHC Physics and Tevatron Results', 'Neutrinos and Dark Matter', 'Particle Factories' and 'Accelerator Physics and Future TeV Scale Colliders'. The main emphasis was on the recent experimental results in high-energy physics with discussions on expectations from existing or future

  20. Buccinator-based myomucosal flaps in intraoral reconstruction: A review and new classification

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2013-01-01

    The buccinator-based myomucosal flaps are axial pattern flaps that are suitable in reconstruction of medium sized oral soft tissue defects; they are rich in blood supply, have appropriate thickness and considerable mucosal paddle, and they can secrete saliva. The present study describes surgical anatomy and blood supply of these flaps and demonstrates all possible modifications of these flaps (9 modifications). Many terms (> 10) have been used to refer to buccinator-based myomucosal flaps in ...