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Sample records for 2nd generation bioethanol

  1. White paper on perspectives of biofuels in Denmark - with focus on 2nd generation bioethanol; Hvidbog om perspektiver for biobraendstoffer i Danmark - med fokus paa 2. generations bioethanol

    Larsen, Gy.; Foghmar, J.

    2009-11-15

    The white paper presents the perspectives - both options and barriers - for a Danish focus on production and use of biomass, including sustainable 2nd generation bioethanol, for transport. The white paper presents the current knowledge of biofuels and bioethanol and recommendations for a Danish strategy. (ln)

  2. Boosting biogas yield of anaerobic digesters by utilizing concentrated molasses from 2nd generation bioethanol plant

    Shiplu Sarker, Henrik Bjarne Møller

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated molasses (C5 molasses) from 2nd generation bioethanol plant has been investigated for enhancing productivity of manure based digesters. A batch study at mesophilic condition (35±1C) showed the maximum methane yield from molasses as 286 LCH4/kgVS which was approximately 63% of the calculated theoretical yield. In addition to the batch study, co-digestion of molasses with cattle manure in a semi-continuously stirred reactor at thermophilic temperature (50±1°C) was also performed wi...

  3. Boosting biogas yield of anaerobic digesters by utilizing concentrated molasses from 2nd generation bioethanol plant

    Sarker, Shiplu [Department of Renewable Energy, Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Agder, Grimstad-4879 (Norway); Moeller, Henrik Bjarne [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Research center Foulum, Blichers Alle, Post Box 50, Tjele-8830 (Denmark)

    2013-07-01

    Concentrated molasses (C5 molasses) from 2nd generation bioethanol plant has been investigated for enhancing productivity of manure based digesters. A batch study at mesophilic condition (35+- 1 deg C) showed the maximum methane yield from molasses as 286 LCH4/kgVS which was approximately 63% of the calculated theoretical yield. In addition to the batch study, co-digestion of molasses with cattle manure in a semi-continuously stirred reactor at thermophilic temperature (50+- 1 deg C) was also performed with a stepwise increase in molasses concentration. The results from this experiment revealed the maximum average biogas yield of 1.89 L/L/day when 23% VSmolasses was co-digested with cattle manure. However, digesters fed with more than 32% VSmolasses and with short adaptation period resulted in VFA accumulation and reduced methane productivity indicating that when using molasses as biogas booster this level should not be exceeded.

  4. Experimental Investigation of 2nd Generation Bioethanol Derived from Empty-fruit-bunch (EFB of Oil-palm on Performance and Exhaust Emission of SI Engine

    Yanuandri Putrasari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigation of 2nd generation bioethanol derived from EFB of oil-palm blended with gasoline for 10, 20, 25% by volume and pure gasoline were conducted on performance and exhaust emission tests of SI engine. A four stroke, four cylinders, programmed fuel injection (PGMFI, 16 valves variable valve timing and electronic lift control (VTEC, single overhead camshaft (SOHC, and 1,497 cm3 SI engine (Honda/L15A was used in this investigation. Engine performance test was carried out for brake torque, power, and fuel consumption. The exhaust emission was analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO and hydrocarbon (HC. The engine was operated on speed range from1,500 until 4,500 rev/min with 85% throttle opening position. The results showed that the highest brake torque of bioethanol blends achieved by 10% bioethanol content at 3,000 to 4,500 rpm, the brake power was greater than pure gasoline at 3,500 to 4,500 rpm for 10% bioethanol, and bioethanol-gasoline blends of 10 and 20% resulted greater bsfc than pure gasoline at low speed from 1,500 to 3,500 rpm. The trend of CO and HC emissions tended to decrease when the engine speed increased.

  5. Experimental Investigation of 2nd Generation Bioethanol Derived from Empty-fruit-bunch (EFB) of Oil-palm on Performance and Exhaust Emission of SI Engine

    Yanuandri Putrasari; Haznan Abimanyu; Achmad Praptijanto; Arifin Nur; Yan Irawan; Sabar Pangihutan Simanungkalit

    2014-01-01

    The experimental investigation of 2nd generation bioethanol derived from EFB of oil-palm blended with gasoline for 10, 20, 25% by volume and pure gasoline were conducted on performance and exhaust emission tests of SI engine. A four stroke, four cylinders, programmed fuel injection (PGMFI), 16 valves variable valve timing and electronic lift control (VTEC), single overhead camshaft (SOHC), and 1,497 cm3 SI engine (Honda/L15A) was used in this investigation. Engine performance test was carried...

  6. 1st or 2nd generation bioethanol-impacts of technology integration & on feed production and land use

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    production comparable to gasoline production in terms of energy loss. Utilisation of biomass in the energy sector is inevitably linked to the utilisation of land. This is a key difference between fossil and bio based energy systems. Thus evaluations of bioethanol production based on energy balances alone are...

  7. 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis

    Yde, Lars; Kjartansdóttir, Cecilia Kristin; Allebrod, Frank; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Møller, Per; Hilbert, Lisbeth R.; Nielsen, Peter Tommy; Mathiesen, Troels; Jensen, Jørgen; Andersen, Lars; Dierking, Alexander

    This report provides the results of the 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis project which was initiated in 2008. The project has been conducted from 2009-2012 by a consortium comprising Århus University Business and Social Science – Centre for Energy Technologies (CET (former HIRC)), Technical...

  8. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    Macrelli Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves, i.e. second generation (2G bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G, as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the

  9. 2nd generation biogas. BioSNG

    The substitution of natural gas by a renewable equivalent is an interesting option to reduce the use of fossil fuels and the accompanying greenhouse gas emissions, as well as from the point of view of security of supply. The renewable alternative for natural gas is green natural gas, i.e. gaseous energy carriers produced from biomass comprising both biogas and Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG). Via this route can be benefited from all the advantages of natural gas, like the existing dense infrastructure, trade and supply network, and natural gas applications. In this presentation attention is paid to the differences between first generation biogas and second generation bioSNG; the market for bioSNG: grid injection vs. transportation fuel; latest update on the lab- and pilot-scale bioSNG development at ECN; and an overview is given of ongoing bioSNG activities worldwide

  10. 2nd Generation alkaline electrolysis. Final report

    Yde, L. [Aarhus Univ. Business and Social Science - Centre for Energy Technologies (CET), Aarhus (Denmark); Kjartansdottir, C.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Allebrod, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    The overall purpose of this project has been to contribute to this load management by developing a 2{sup nd} generation of alkaline electrolysis system characterized by being compact, reliable, inexpensive and energy efficient. The specific targets for the project have been to: 1) Increase cell efficiency to more than 88% (according to the higher heating value (HHV)) at a current density of 200 mA /cm{sup 2}; 2) Increase operation temperature to more than 100 degree Celsius to make the cooling energy more valuable; 3) Obtain an operation pressure more than 30 bar hereby minimizing the need for further compression of hydrogen for storage; 4) Improve stack architecture decreasing the price of the stack with at least 50%; 5) Develop a modular design making it easy to customize plants in the size from 20 to 200 kW; 6) Demonstrating a 20 kW 2{sup nd} generation stack in H2College at the campus of Arhus University in Herning. The project has included research and development on three different technology tracks of electrodes; an electrochemical plating, an atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and finally a high temperature and pressure (HTP) track with operating temperature around 250 deg. C and pressure around 40 bar. The results show that all three electrode tracks have reached high energy efficiencies. In the electrochemical plating track a stack efficiency of 86.5% at a current density of 177mA/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 74.4 deg. C has been shown. The APS track showed cell efficiencies of 97%, however, coatings for the anode side still need to be developed. The HTP cell has reached 100 % electric efficiency operating at 1.5 V (the thermoneutral voltage) with a current density of 1. 1 A/cm{sup 2}. This track only tested small cells in an externally heated laboratory set-up, and thus the thermal loss to surroundings cannot be given. The goal set for the 2{sup nd} generation electrolyser system, has been to generate 30 bar pressure in the cell stack. An obstacle to be

  11. The 2nd Generation VLTI path to performance

    Woillez, Julien; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bonnet, Henri; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Egner, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Gonté, Frédéric; Guieu, Sylvain; Haguenauer, Pierre; Mérand, Antoine; Pettazzi, Lorenzo; Poupar, Sébastien; Schöller, Markus; Schuhler, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the VLTI infrastructure for the 2nd generation instruments is now complete with the transformation of the laboratory, and installation of star separators on both the 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) and the 8-m Unit Telescopes (UTs). The Gravity fringe tracker has had a full semester of commissioning on the ATs, and a first look at the UTs. The CIAO infrared wavefront sensor is about to demonstrate its performance relative to the visible wavefront sensor MACAO. First astrometric measurements on the ATs and astrometric qualification of the UTs are on-going. Now is a good time to revisit the performance roadmap for VLTI that was initiated in 2014, which aimed at coherently driving the developments of the interferometer, and especially its performance, in support to the new generation of instruments: Gravity and MATISSE.

  12. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  13. Yeast strains designed for 2. generation bioethanol production. Final report

    Roennow, B.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of the project was to develop a suitable fermentation organism for 2G bioethanol production that would efficiently ferment all of the sugars in lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol at a commercially viable rate (comparable to yeast based 1G ethanol production). More specifically, a yeast strain would be developed with the ability to ferment also the pentoses in lignocellulosic biomass and thereby increase the ethanol yield of the process by 30-45% with a profound positive effect on the total process economy. The project has succeeded in developing a new industrial yeast strain V1. The yeast strain can transform the difficult C5 sugars to ethanol from waste products such as straw and the like from the agricultural sector. The classic issues relating to industrial uses such as inhibitor and ethanol tolerance and high ethanol production is resolved satisfactorily. The potential of the use of the new strain for 2nd generation bioethanol production is that the ethanol yields increase by 30-45%. With the increased ethanol yield follows a marked improvement in the overall process economics. (LN)

  14. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  15. From 1st- to 2nd-Generation Biofuel Technologies: Extended Executive Summary

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report looks at the technical challenges facing 2nd-generation biofuels, evaluates their costs and examines related current policies to support their development and deployment. The potential for production of more advanced biofuels is also discussed. Although significant progress continues to be made to overcome the technical and economic challenges, 2nd-generation biofuels still face major constraints to their commercial deployment.

  16. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  17. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  18. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  19. Intergenerational Transmission and the School-to-work Transition for 2nd Generation Immigrants

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina;

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the extent of intergenerational transmission through parental capital, ethnic capital and neighbourhood effects on several aspects of the school-to-work transition of 2nd generation immigrants and young ethnic Danes. The main findings are that parental capital has strong positive effects...... on the probability of completing a qualifying education and on the entry into the labour market, but it has a much smaller impact on the duration of the first employment spell and on the wage level. Growing up in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of immigrants is associated with negative...... labour market prospects both for young natives and 2nd generation immigrants....

  20. Performance and validation of COMPUCEA 2nd generation for uranium measurements in physical inventory verifications

    Full text: In order to somewhat alleviate the kind of logistical problems encountered in the in-field measurements with the current COMPUCEA equipment (COMbined Product for Uranium Content and Enrichment Assay), and with the expected benefits of saving some time and costs for the missions in mind, ITU is presently developing a 2nd generation of the COMPUCEA device. This new development also forms a task in the support programme of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission to the IAEA. To validate the in-field performance of the newly developed 2nd generation COMPUCEA, a prototype has been tested together with the 1st generation equipment during physical inventory verification (PIV) measurements in different uranium fuel fabrication plants in Europe. In this paper we will present the prototype of COMPUCEA 2nd generation, its hardware as well as the software developed for the evaluation of the U content and 235U enrichment. We will show a comparison of the performance of the 2nd generation with the 1st generation on a larger number of uranium samples measured during the in-field PIVs. The observed excellent performance of the new COMPUCEA represents an important step in the validation of this new instrument. (author)

  1. Intergenerational Transmission and the School-to-work Transition for 2nd Generation Immigrants

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina;

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the extent of intergenerational transmission through parental capital, ethnic capital and neighbourhood effects on several aspects of the school-to-work transition of 2nd generation immigrants and young ethnic Danes. The main findings are that parental capital has strong positive effects...

  2. The 1997 Protocol and the European Union (European Union and '2nd generation' responsibility conventions)

    The issue of accession of the Eastern European Member States to the 1997 Protocol is discussed with focus on the European Union's authority and enforcement powers. Following up the article published in the preceding issue of this journal, the present contribution analyses the relations of the '2nd generation' responsibility conventions to the law of the European Union. (orig.)

  3. Bioethanol

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Abubackar, H.N.; Veiga, M.C.; Kennes, C.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioethanol from cellulosic biomass plays an important role to support energy policies. To produce cellulosic ethanol via fermentation it is required to first break the lignocellulosic complex. Numerous technologies for such pretreatment are under development or in a pilot plant stage.

  4. A ZeroDimensional Model of a 2nd Generation Planar SOFC Using Calibrated Parameters

    Brian Elmegaard; Niels Houbak; Thomas Frank Petersen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a zero-dimensional mathematical model of a planar 2nd generation coflow SOFC developed for simulation of power systems. The model accounts for the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen as well as the methane reforming reaction and the water-gas shift reaction. An important part of the paper is the electrochemical sub-model, where experimental data was used to calibrate specific parameters. The SOFC model was implemented in the DNA simulation software which is designed for ...

  5. Anaerobic digestion in combination with 2nd generation ethanol production for maximizing biofuels yield from lignocellulosic biomass – testing in an integrated pilot-scale biorefinery plant

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    was higher for mesophilic than for thermophilic operation. The effluent from the ethanol fermentation showed no signs of toxicity to the anaerobic microorganisms. Implementation of the biogas production from the fermentation effluent accounted for about 30% higher biofuels yield in the biorefinery......An integrated biorefinery concept for 2nd generation bioethanol production together with biogas production from the fermentation effluent was tested in pilot-scale. The pilot plant comprised pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, hexose and pentose fermentation into ethanol and anaerobic digestion of...... the fermentation effluent in a UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor. Operation of the 770 liter UASB reactor was tested under both mesophilic (38ºC) and thermophilic (53ºC) conditions with increasing loading rates of the liquid fraction of the effluent from ethanol fermentation. At an OLR of...

  6. Performance and validation of COMPUCEA 2nd generation for uranium measurements in physical inventory verification

    A new instrumental version of COMPUCEA has been developed with the aim to provide a simplified and more practical instrumentation for in-field use. The main design goals were to eliminate the radioactive sources and the liquid nitrogen-cooled Ge detectors used in the 1st generation of COMPUCEA. This paper describes the major technical features of the 2nd generation of equipment together with typical performance data. The performance tests carried out during first in-field measurements in the course of physical inventory verification campaigns represent an important step in the validation of this new instrument. (author)

  7. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd-generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  8. A ZeroDimensional Model of a 2nd Generation Planar SOFC Using Calibrated Parameters

    Brian Elmegaard

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a zero-dimensional mathematical model of a planar 2nd generation coflow SOFC developed for simulation of power systems. The model accounts for the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen as well as the methane reforming reaction and the water-gas shift reaction. An important part of the paper is the electrochemical sub-model, where experimental data was used to calibrate specific parameters. The SOFC model was implemented in the DNA simulation software which is designed for energy system simulation. The result is an accurate and flexible tool suitable for simulation of many different SOFC-based power systems.

  9. Effects of Thermal Cycling on Control and Irradiated EPC 2nd Generation GaN FETs

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Results of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  10. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development

  11. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  12. DSMZ 24726 for second generation bioethanol production

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, ethanol high- yielding bacterium. The invention is based on the isolation of the bacterial strain referred to herein as "DTU01", which produces ethanol as the main fermentation product, followed by acetate and lactate. The ....... The isolated organism is an extremely interesting and very promising organism for the establishment of a sustainable bioethanol production process. The invention further relates to a method for producing a fermentation product such as ethanol.......The present invention relates to a novel anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, ethanol high- yielding bacterium. The invention is based on the isolation of the bacterial strain referred to herein as "DTU01", which produces ethanol as the main fermentation product, followed by acetate and lactate...

  13. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders. PMID:26972324

  14. The Planar Optics Phase Sensor: a study for the VLTI 2nd Generation Fringe Tracker

    Blind, Nicolas; Absil, Olivier; Alamir, Mazen; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Defrère, Denis; Feautrier, Philippe; Hénault, Franois; Jocou, Laurent; Kern, Pierre; Laurent, Thomas; Malbet, Fabien; Mourard, Denis; Rousselet-Perrault, Karine; Sarlette, Alain; Surdej, Jean; Tarmoul, Nassima; Tatulli, Eric; Vincent, Lionel; 10.1117/12.857114

    2010-01-01

    In a few years, the second generation instruments of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) will routinely provide observations with 4 to 6 telescopes simultaneously. To reach their ultimate performance, they will need a fringe sensor capable to measure in real time the randomly varying optical paths differences. A collaboration between LAOG (PI institute), IAGL, OCA and GIPSA-Lab has proposed the Planar Optics Phase Sensor concept to ESO for the 2nd Generation Fringe Tracker. This concept is based on the integrated optics technologies, enabling the conception of extremely compact interferometric instruments naturally providing single-mode spatial filtering. It allows operations with 4 and 6 telescopes by measuring the fringes position thanks to a spectrally dispersed ABCD method. We present here the main analysis which led to the current concept as well as the expected on-sky performance and the proposed design.

  15. Enabling the 2nd Generation in Space: Building Blocks for Large Scale Space Endeavours

    Barnhardt, D.; Garretson, P.; Will, P.

    Today the world operates within a "first generation" space industrial enterprise, i.e. all industry is on Earth, all value from space is from bits (data essentially), and the focus is Earth-centric, with very limited parts of our population and industry participating in space. We are limited in access, manoeuvring, on-orbit servicing, in-space power, in-space manufacturing and assembly. The transition to a "Starship culture" requires the Earth to progress to a "second generation" space industrial base, which implies the need to expand the economic sphere of activity of mankind outside of an Earth-centric zone and into CIS-lunar space and beyond, with an equal ability to tap the indigenous resources in space (energy, location, materials) that will contribute to an expanding space economy. Right now, there is no comfortable place for space applications that are not discovery science, exploration, military, or established earth bound services. For the most part, space applications leave out -- or at least leave nebulous, unconsolidated, and without a critical mass -- programs and development efforts for infrastructure, industrialization, space resources (survey and process maturation), non-traditional and persistent security situational awareness, and global utilities -- all of which, to a far greater extent than a discovery and exploration program, may help determine the elements of a 2nd generation space capability. We propose a focus to seed the pre-competitive research that will enable global industry to develop the necessary competencies that we currently lack to build large scale space structures on-orbit, that in turn would lay the foundation for long duration spacecraft travel (i.e. key technologies in access, manoeuvrability, etc.). This paper will posit a vision-to-reality for a step wise approach to the types of activities the US and global space providers could embark upon to lay the foundation for the 2nd generation of Earth in space.

  16. Power plant intake quantification of wheat straw composition for 2nd generation bioethanol optimization

    Lomborg, Carina J.; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Jensen, Erik Steen;

    2010-01-01

    (glucan), hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinan), and lignin. Aiming at chemometric multivariate calibration, 44 pre-selected samples were subjected to spectroscopy and reference analysis. For glucan and xylan prediction accuracies (slope: 0.89, 0.94) and precisions (r2: 0.87) were obtained, corresponding to...

  17. The New 2nd-Generation SRF R&D Facility at Jefferson Lab: TEDF

    Reece, Charles E.; Reilly, Anthony V.

    2012-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has funded a near-complete renovation of the SRF-based accelerator research and development facilities at Jefferson Lab. The project to accomplish this, the Technical and Engineering Development Facility (TEDF) Project has completed the first of two phases. An entirely new 3,100 m{sup 2} purpose-built SRF technical work facility has been constructed and was occupied in summer of 2012. All SRF work processes with the exception of cryogenic testing have been relocated into the new building. All cavity fabrication, processing, thermal treatment, chemistry, cleaning, and assembly work is collected conveniently into a new LEED-certified building. An innovatively designed 800 m2 cleanroom/chemroom suite provides long-term flexibility for support of multiple R&D and construction projects as well as continued process evolution. The characteristics of this first 2nd-generation SRF facility are described.

  18. Use of extremophilic bacteria for second generation bioethanol production

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    . The recalcitrance of these materials and their diverse sugar composition make the industrial yeast strains currently used unsuitable for a second generation bioethanol production process. One of the alternative strategies is the use of extreme thermophilic microorganisms. Currently, selected members from the genera......The pursuit of ways to obtain viable alternatives to fossil fuels has been one of the main subjects in microbial biotechnology research in the last decade. Of all the possible fuel candidates, bioethanol is one of the most relevant, especially when considered for the transport sector. Its...... production from food crops, such as corn (starch) or sugar cane (sucrose) is already an established process, with the USA and Brazil supplying 86% of the market. The major challenge remains in the use of different waste sources – agricultural, forestry, animal and household waste - as a feedstock...

  19. Geodesign from Theory to Practice: From Metaplanning to 2nd Generation of Planning Support Systems

    Michele Campagna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the concept of Geodesign, a new approach to spatial planning and design which is grounded on extensive use of Geographic Information Science methods and tools. As a method Geodesign is intended to inform projects since their conceptualization, to analysis and diagnosis, to design of alternatives and impact simulation, and eventually the final choice. This approach appears particularly urgent and actual to many scholars from academia and practitioners from the industry and the planning practice for advances in GIScience nowadays offer unprecedented data and tools to manage territorial knowledge for decision-making support. The author argues research in Geodesign may contribute to solve major actual pitfalls in sustainable spatial planning: namely it may offer methods to help planners to inform sustainable design alternatives with environmental considerations and contextually assess their impacts; secondly, it may help to ensure more transparent, responsible, and accountable democratic decision-making processes. The argumentation is supported by the author recent research results with regards to the evolution from 1st generation Planning Support Systems (PSS, to metaplanning and 2nd generation PSS.

  20. Improved beam spot measurements in the 2nd generation proton beam writing system

    Nanosized ion beams (especially proton and helium) play a pivotal role in the field of ion beam lithography and ion beam analysis. Proton beam writing has shown lithographic details down to the 20 nm level, limited by the proton beam spot size. Introducing a smaller spot size will allow smaller lithographic features. Smaller probe sizes, will also drastically improve the spatial resolution for ion beam analysis techniques. Among many other requirements, having an ideal resolution standard, used for beam focusing and a reliable focusing method, is an important pre-requisite for sub-10 nm beam spot focusing. In this paper we present the fabrication processes of a free-standing resolution standard with reduced side-wall projection and high side-wall verticality. The resulting grid is orthogonal (90.0° ± 0.1), has smooth edges with better than 6 nm side-wall projection. The new resolution standard has been used in focusing a 2 MeV H2+ beam in the 2nd generation PBW system at Center for Ion Beam Applications, NUS. The beam size has been characterized using on- and off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) and ion induced secondary electron detection, carried out with a newly installed micro channel plate electron detector. The latter has been shown to be a realistic alternative to STIM measurements, as the drawback of PIN diode detector damage is alleviated. With these improvements we show reproducible beam focusing down to 14 nm

  1. Conceptual design study of $Nb_{3} Sn$ low-beta quadrupoles for 2nd generation LHC IRs

    Zlobin, A V; Andreev, N; Barzi, E; Bauer, P; Chichili, D R; Huang, Y; Imbasciati, L; Kashikhin, V V; Lamm, M J; Limon, P; Novitski, I; Peterson, T; Strait, J B; Yadav, S; Yamada, R

    2003-01-01

    Conceptual designs of 90-mm aperture high-gradient quadrupoles based on the Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor, are being developed at Fermilab for possible 2nd generation IRs with the similar optics as in the current low-beta insertions. Magnet designs and results of magnetic, mechanical, thermal and quench protection analysis for these magnets are presented and discussed. (10 refs).

  2. Multi-objective Optimization of a Solar Assisted 1st and 2nd Generation Sugarcane Ethanol Production Plant

    Zevenhoven, Ron; Wallerand, Anna Sophia; Queiroz Albarelli, Juliana; Viana Ensinas, Adriano; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Mian, Alberto; Maréchal, François

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol production sites utilizing sugarcane as feedstock are usually located in regions with high land availability and decent solar radiation. This offers the opportunity to cover parts of the process energy demand with concentrated solar power (CSP) and thereby increase the fuel production and carbon conversion efficiency. A plant is examined that produces 1st and 2nd generation ethanol by fermentation of sugars (from sugarcane) and enzymatic hydrolysis of the lignocellulosic residues (bag...

  3. Lignocellulosic agriculture wastes as biomass feedstocks for second-generation bioethanol production: concepts and recent developments

    Saini, Jitendra Kumar; Saini, Reetu; Tewari, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Production of liquid biofuels, such as bioethanol, has been advocated as a sustainable option to tackle the problems associated with rising crude oil prices, global warming and diminishing petroleum reserves. Second-generation bioethanol is produced from lignocellulosic feedstock by its saccharification, followed by microbial fermentation and product recovery. Agricultural residues generated as wastes during or after processing of agricultural crops are one of such renewable and lignocellulos...

  4. BMI differences in 1st and 2nd generation immigrants of Asian and European origin to Australia.

    Hauck, Katharina; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Morgan, Lawrie

    2011-01-01

    We estimate assimilation of immigrants' body mass index (BMI) to the host population of Australia over one generation, conducting separate analyses for immigrants from 7 regions of Europe and Asia. We use quantile regressions to allow for differing impact of generational status across 19 quantiles of BMI from under-weight to morbidly obese individuals. We find that 1st generation South European immigrants have higher, and South and East Asian immigrants have lower BMI than Australians, but have assimilated to the BMI of their hosts in the 2nd generation. There are no or only small BMI differences between Australians and 1st and 2nd generation immigrants from East Europe, North-West Europe, Middle East and Pacific regions. We conclude that both upward and downward assimilation in some immigrant groups is most likely caused by factors which can change over one generation (such as acculturation), and not factors which would take longer to change (such as genetics). Our results suggest that public health policies targeting the lifestyles of well educated Asian immigrants may be effective in preventing BMI increase in this subgroup. PMID:20869292

  5. Time resolved 2nd harmonic generation at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces

    Adhikari, Sanjay; Eom, Chang-Beom; Ryu, Sangwoo; Cen, Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Ultrafast spectroscopy can produce information of carrier/lattice dynamics, which is especially valuable for understanding phase transitions at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) are both associated with wide band gap, which allows deep penetration of commonly used laser wavelengths and therefore usually leads to overwhelming bulk signal background. Here we report a time resolved study of a 2nd harmonic generation (SHG) signal resulting from impulsive below-the-band-gap optical pumping. The nonlinear nature of the signal enables us to probe the interface directly. Output of a home built Ti:Sapphire laser and BBO crystal were used to generate 30fs pulses of two colors (405nm and 810nm). The 405nm pulse was used to pump the LAO/STO interfaces, while 2nd harmonics of the 810nm pulse generated at the interfaces was probed as a function of the time delay. Signals from samples with varying LAO thicknesses clearly correlates to the metal-insulator transition. Distinct time dependent signals were observed at LAO/STO interfaces grown on different substrates. Experiments performed at different optical polarization geometries, interface electric fields and temperatures allow us to paint a clearer picture of the novel oxide heterostructures under investigation.

  6. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Hou, X.

    2012-01-15

    The cost of lignocellulose-based bioethanol needs to be reduced, in order to commercialize this clean and sustainable fuel substitute for fossil fuels. A microorganism that can completely and efficiently convert all the sugars in lignocellulose into ethanol is one of the prerequisites of a cost-effective production process. In addition, the microorganisms should also have a high tolerance towards the inhibitory compounds present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate, which are formed during the pretreatment of lignocellulose. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is generally regarded as a robust microorganism and can efficiently ferment glucose. But it lacks the ability to ferment xylose which comprises 20-35% of lignocellulose. Naturally xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis is much more sensitive to inhibitors than S. cerevisiae and it requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, a novel xylose fermenting yeast Spathaspora passalidarum displayed fast cell growth and efficient xylose fermentation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under the same conditions. It is further demonstrated that S. passalidarum converts xylose by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to a balance between supply and demand of cofactor through this XR-XDH pathway. Only one other XR with NADH preference has been reported so far. Unfortunately, S. passalidarum also has a low tolerance towards inhibitors generated during pretreatment, which prevents immediate use of this yeast in industrial application. S. passalidarum is able to convert the inhibitor furfural to furfuryl alcohol in a synthetic medium when the addition of furfural is low. The enzymes

  7. Clinical evaluation of the 2nd generation radio-receptor assay for anti-thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) in Graves' disease

    Full text: Detection of autoantibodies to the TSH receptor by radioreceptorial assays (RRA) is largely requested in clinical practice for the diagnosis of Graves' disease and its differentiation from diffuse thyroid autonomy. Additionally, TRAb measurement during antithyroid drug treatment can be useful to evaluate the risk of disease's relapse alter therapy discontinuation. Nevertheless, some patients affected by Graves' disease are TRAb negative when 1st generation assay is used. Recently a new RRA method for TRAb assay was developed by using human recombinant TSH-receptor and solid-phase technique. Aim of our work was the comparison between 1st and 2nd generation TRAb assays in Graves' disease patients and, particularly, the evaluation of 2nd generation test in a sub-group of patients affected by Graves' disease but with negative 1st generation TRAb assay. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of a newly developed 2nd generation TRAb assay (DYNOtest(r) TRAK human, BRAHMS Diagnostica GmbH, Germany) in 46 patients affected by Graves' disease with negative 1st generation TRAb assay (TRAK Assay(r), BRAHMS Diagnostica GmbH, Germany) . A control groups of 50 Graves' disease patients with positive 1st generation TRAb assay, 50 patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 50 patients affected by nodular goiter were also examined. 41 out of 46 patients affected by Graves' disease with negative 1st generation TRAb assay showed a positive 2nd generation test. The overall sensitivity of the 2nd generation test was significantly improved respect the 1st generation assay in Graves' disease patients (χ2 = 22.5, p<0.0001). 1 and 3 out of 50 patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis were positive by 1st and 2nd generation TRAB assay, respectively. All these patients showed primary hypothyroidism. No differences resulted in euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis sub-group and in nodular goiter control group. The 2nd generation TRAB assay is clearly more sensitive than the 1

  8. Second generation bioethanol potential from selected Malaysia's biodiversity biomasses: A review.

    Aditiya, H B; Chong, W T; Mahlia, T M I; Sebayang, A H; Berawi, M A; Nur, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Rising global temperature, worsening air quality and drastic declining of fossil fuel reserve are the inevitable phenomena from the disorganized energy management. Bioethanol is believed to clear out the effects as being an energy-derivable product sourced from renewable organic sources. Second generation bioethanol interests many researches from its unique source of inedible biomass, and this paper presents the potential of several selected biomasses from Malaysia case. As one of countries with rich biodiversity, Malaysia holds enormous potential in second generation bioethanol production from its various agricultural and forestry biomasses, which are the source of lignocellulosic and starch compounds. This paper reviews potentials of biomasses and potential ethanol yield from oil palm, paddy (rice), pineapple, banana and durian, as the common agricultural waste in the country but uncommon to be served as bioethanol feedstock, by calculating the theoretical conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and starch components of the biomasses into bioethanol. Moreover, the potential of the biomasses as feedstock are discussed based on several reported works. PMID:26253329

  9. Large-aperture $Nb_{3}Sn$ quadrupoles for $2^{nd}$ generation LHC IRs

    Zlobin, A V; Chichili, D R; Huang Yu; Kashikhin, V V; Lamm, M J; Limon, P J; Mokhov, N V; Novitski, I; Peterson, T; Strait, J B; Yadav, S

    2002-01-01

    The 1/sup st/ generation of low-beta quadrupoles for the LHC interaction region (IR) was designed to achieve the nominal LHC luminosity of 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/. Given that the lifetime of the 1/sup st/ generation IR quadrupoles is limited by ionizing radiation to 6-7 years, the 2/sup nd/ generation of IR quadrupoles has to be developed with the goal to achieve the ultimate luminosity up to 10/sup 35/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/. The IR quadrupole parameters such as nominal gradient, dynamic aperture and physical aperture, operation margins are the main factors limiting the machine performance. Conceptual designs of 90-mm aperture high-gradient quadrupoles, suitable for use in 2/sup nd/ generation high-luminosity LHC IRs with the similar optics, are presented. The issues related to the field gradient, field quality and operation margins are discussed. (5 refs).

  10. Mobile Radio Communications: Second and Third Generation Cellular and WATM Systems: 2nd

    Steele, R; Hanzo, L

    1999-01-01

    This comprehensive all-in-one reference work covers the fundamental physical aspects of mobile communications and explains the latest techniques employed in second and third generation digital cellular mobile radio systems. Mobile radio communications technology has progressed rapidly and it is now capable of the transmission of voice, data and image signals. This new edition reflects the current state-of-the-art by featuring: * Expanded and updated sections on voice compression techniques, i...

  11. Steam reforming of technical bioethanol for hydrogen production

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Johansson, Roger; Møller, Martin Hulbek;

    2008-01-01

    Essentially all work on ethanol steam reforming so far has been carried out using simulated bioethanol feedstocks, which means pure ethanol mixed with water. However, technical bioethanol consists of a lot of different components including sugars, which cannot be easily vaporized and steam reformed....... For ethanol steam reforming to be of practical interest, it is important to avoid the energy-intensive purification steps to fuel grade ethanol. Therefore, it is imperative to analyze how technical bioethanol, with the relevant impurities, reacts during the steam reforming process. We show how three...... different distillation fractions of technical 2nd generation bioethanol, produced in a pilot plant, influence the performance of nickel- and ruthenium-based catalysts during steam reforming, and we discuss what is required to obtain high activity and long catalyst lifetime. We conclude that the use of...

  12. Market analysis of second-generation bioethanol in Vietnam : implication for business options

    Vo Trieu Le Thao, Iva

    2011-01-01

    With the country’s moonsoon weather, Vietnam has ideal conditions for agriculture such as rice, sugar cane, maize, and has long been well-known for being the second largest exporter of rice in the world. Recent achievements in second-generation bioethanol ("2-G", also known as cellulosic ethanol) open up a possiblity to utilize these huge agricultural residues of 45.6 million ton per year for bioethanol production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interconnection between m...

  13. STARS 2.0: 2nd-generation open-source archiving and query software

    Winegar, Tom

    2008-07-01

    The Subaru Telescope is in process of developing an open-source alternative to the 1st-generation software and databases (STARS 1) used for archiving and query. For STARS 2, we have chosen PHP and Python for scripting and MySQL as the database software. We have collected feedback from staff and observers, and used this feedback to significantly improve the design and functionality of our future archiving and query software. Archiving - We identified two weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS archiving software: a complex and inflexible table structure and uncoordinated system administration for our business model: taking pictures from the summit and archiving them in both Hawaii and Japan. We adopted a simplified and normalized table structure with passive keyword collection, and we are designing an archive-to-archive file transfer system that automatically reports real-time status and error conditions and permits error recovery. Query - We identified several weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS query software: inflexible query tools, poor sharing of calibration data, and no automatic file transfer mechanisms to observers. We are developing improved query tools and sharing of calibration data, and multi-protocol unassisted file transfer mechanisms for observers. In the process, we have redefined a 'query': from an invisible search result that can only transfer once in-house right now, with little status and error reporting and no error recovery - to a stored search result that can be monitored, transferred to different locations with multiple protocols, reporting status and error conditions and permitting recovery from errors.

  14. Bellman's GAP : a 2nd generation language and system for algebraic dynamic programming

    Sauthoff, Georg

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation describes the new Bellman’s GAP which is a programming system for writing dynamic programming algorithms over sequential data. It is the second generation implementation of the algebraic dynamic programming framework (ADP). The system includes the multi-paradigm language (GAP-L), its compiler (GAP-C), functional modules (GAP-M) and a web site (GAP Pages) to experiment with GAP-L programs. GAP-L includes declarative constructs, e.g. tree grammars to model the search space, and...

  15. Next generation LP system for maintenance in nuclear power reactors (2nd report)

    Laser peening is a surface enhancement process that introduces compressive residual stress on materials by irradiating laser pulses under aqueous environment. The process utilizes the impulsive effect of high-pressure plasma generated by ablative interaction of each laser pulse. Around a decade ago, the authors invented a new process of laser peening (LP) without any surface preparation, while the conventional types required coating that prevented the surface from melting. Taking advantage of the new process without surface preparation, we have applied laser peening without coating to nuclear power plants as a preventive maintenance against stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Toshiba released the first LP system in 1999, which delivered laser pulses through waterproof pipes with mirrors. In 2002, fiber-delivery was attained and significantly extended the applicability. Now, the development of a new system has been just accomplished, which is extremely simple, reliable and easy-handled. (author)

  16. Cogeneration and production of 2nd generation bio fuels using biomass gasification; Cogeneracion y produccion de biocombustibles de 2 generacion mediante gasificacion de biomasa

    Uruena Leal, A.; Diez Rodriguez, D.; Antolin Giraldo, G.

    2011-07-01

    Thermochemical decomposition process of gasification, in which a carbonaceous fuel, under certain conditions of temperature and oxygen deficiency, results in a series of reactions that will produce a series of gaseous products is now widely used for high performance energetic and versatility of these gaseous products for energy and 2nd generation bio fuels and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. (Author)

  17. Strategies for 2nd generation biofuels in EU - Co-firing to stimulate feedstock supply development and process integration to improve energy efficiency and economic competitiveness

    The present biofuel policies in the European Union primarily stimulate 1st generation biofuels that are produced based on conventional food crops. They may be a distraction from lignocellulose based 2nd generation biofuels - and also from biomass use for heat and electricity - by keeping farmers' attention and significant investments focusing on first generation biofuels and the cultivation of conventional food crops as feedstocks. This article presents two strategies that can contribute to the development of 2nd generation biofuels based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Another option, biomass co-firing with coal, generates high-efficiency biomass electricity and reduces CO2 emissions by replacing coal. It also offers a near-term market for lignocellulosic biomass, which can stimulate development of supply systems for biomass also suitable as feedstock for 2nd generation biofuels. Regardless of the long-term priorities of biomass use for energy, the stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass production by development of near term and cost-effective markets is judged to be a no-regrets strategy for Europe. Strategies that induce a relevant development and exploit existing energy infrastructures in order to reduce risk and reach lower costs, are proposed an attractive complement the present and prospective biofuel policies. (author)

  18. Strategies for 2nd generation biofuels in EU - Co-firing to stimulate feedstock supply development and process integration to improve energy efficiency and economic competitiveness

    The present biofuel policies in the European Union primarily stimulate 1st generation biofuels that are produced based on conventional food crops. They may be a distraction from lignocellulose based 2nd generation biofuels - and also from biomass use for heat and electricity - by keeping farmers' attention and significant investments focusing on first generation biofuels and the cultivation of conventional food crops as feedstocks. This article presents two strategies that can contribute to the development of 2nd generation biofuels based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Another option, biomass co-firing with coal, generates high-efficiency biomass electricity and reduces CO2 emissions by replacing coal. It also offers a near-term market for lignocellulosic biomass, which can stimulate development of supply systems for biomass also suitable as feedstock for 2nd generation biofuels. Regardless of the long-term priorities of biomass use for energy, the stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass production by development of near term and cost-effective markets is judged to be a no-regrets strategy for Europe. Strategies that induce a relevant development and exploit existing energy infrastructures in order to reduce risk and reach lower costs, are proposed an attractive complement the present and prospective biofuel policies.

  19. Role of energy policy in renewable energy accomplishment: The case of second-generation bioethanol

    Tan, Kok Tat; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2008-09-15

    Renewable energy has been in the limelight ever since the price of crude petroleum oil increases to the unprecedented height of US$96 per barrel recently. This is due to the diminishing oil reserves in the world and political instabilities in some oil-exporting countries. The advantages of renewable energy compared to fossil fuels are enormous in terms of environment and availability. Biofuels like bioethanol and biodiesel are currently being produced from agricultural products such as sugarcane and rapeseed oil, respectively. Collectively, these biofuels from food sources are known as first-generation biofuels. Although first-generation biofuels have the potential to replace fossil fuels as the main source of energy supply, its production is surrounded by certain issues like tropical forests' destruction. Instead, second-generation bioethanol, which utilizes non-edible sources such as lignocellulose biomass to produce ethanol, has been shown to be more suitable as the source of renewable energy. However, there are challenges and obstacles such as cost, technology and environmental issues that need to be overcome. Hence, the introduction of energy policy is crucial in promoting and implementing second-generation bioethanol effectively and subsequently become a major source of renewable energy. (author)

  20. Role of energy policy in renewable energy accomplishment: The case of second-generation bioethanol

    Renewable energy has been in the limelight ever since the price of crude petroleum oil increases to the unprecedented height of US$96 per barrel recently. This is due to the diminishing oil reserves in the world and political instabilities in some oil-exporting countries. The advantages of renewable energy compared to fossil fuels are enormous in terms of environment and availability. Biofuels like bioethanol and biodiesel are currently being produced from agricultural products such as sugarcane and rapeseed oil, respectively. Collectively, these biofuels from food sources are known as first-generation biofuels. Although first-generation biofuels have the potential to replace fossil fuels as the main source of energy supply, its production is surrounded by certain issues like tropical forests' destruction. Instead, second-generation bioethanol, which utilizes non-edible sources such as lignocellulose biomass to produce ethanol, has been shown to be more suitable as the source of renewable energy. However, there are challenges and obstacles such as cost, technology and environmental issues that need to be overcome. Hence, the introduction of energy policy is crucial in promoting and implementing second-generation bioethanol effectively and subsequently become a major source of renewable energy

  1. Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report 2nd Generation Implementing Architecture

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-09-14

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document.

  2. An integral analysis for second generation bioethanol production via a dynamic model-based simulation approach: stochastic nonlinear optimisation

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Anne S Meyer; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    There are different technological routes to biofuels production such as, biohydrogen, biomethane, biobutanol, among others. Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock has acquired special attention, and its feasibility has been demonstrated at laboratory, pilot and demo-plant scale[1,2,3]. Despite the reported progress and the promising results, however, at present this technology is not cost-competitive compared with first generation bioethanol production or fossil-fuels. Therefore...

  3. An integral analysis for second generation bioethanol production via a dynamic model-based simulation approach: stochastic nonlinear optimisation

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist;

    There are different technological routes to biofuels production such as, biohydrogen, biomethane, biobutanol, among others. Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock has acquired special attention, and its feasibility has been demonstrated at laboratory, pilot and demo-plant scale[1......,2,3]. Despite the reported progress and the promising results, however, at present this technology is not cost-competitive compared with first generation bioethanol production or fossil-fuels. Therefore, there is further room for optimisation of the technology and improvement of its cost......-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to perform an integral analysis for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock using a rigorous dynamic modelling approach for the whole process. The bioethanol production includes different sections such as, pre-treatment of the substrate, enzymatic hydrolysis...

  4. Sustainability of bioethanol production from wheat with recycled residues as evaluated by Emergy assessment

    Coppola, F.; Bastianoni, S.; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    An Emergy assessment study of 24 bioethanol production scenarios was carried out for the comparison of bioethanol production using winter wheat grains and/or straw as feedstock and conversion technologies based on starch (1st generation) and/or lignocellulose (2nd generation). An integrated biomass......, were considered. Material and energy flows were assessed to evaluate the bioethanol yield, the production efficiency in terms of Emergy used compared to energy produced (transformity), and the environmental load (ELR) in terms of use of non-renewable resources. These three indicators varied among...... the four feedstock production scenarios to the same extent as among the three different industrial production scenarios and in each case the efficiency was lower and the use of non-renewables higher for the non-recycling system. The system most efficient for production of bioethanol (lowest transformity...

  5. Simulation of integrated first and second generation bioethanol production from sugarcane: comparison between different biomass pretreatment methods.

    Dias, Marina O S; da Cunha, Marcelo Pereira; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V

    2011-08-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is used as a fuel in conventional bioethanol production, providing heat and power for the plant; therefore, the amount of surplus bagasse available for use as raw material for second generation bioethanol production is related to the energy consumption of the bioethanol production process. Pentoses and lignin, byproducts of the second generation bioethanol production process, may be used as fuels, increasing the amount of surplus bagasse. In this work, simulations of the integrated bioethanol production process from sugarcane, surplus bagasse and trash were carried out. Selected pre-treatment methods followed, or not, by a delignification step were evaluated. The amount of lignocellulosic materials available for hydrolysis in each configuration was calculated assuming that 50% of sugarcane trash is recovered from the field. An economic risk analysis was carried out; the best results for the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process were obtained for steam explosion pretreatment, high solids loading for hydrolysis and 24-48 h hydrolysis. The second generation ethanol production process must be improved (e.g., decreasing required investment, improving yields and developing pentose fermentation to ethanol) in order for the integrated process to be more economically competitive. PMID:20838849

  6. Effects of bioethanol ultrasonic generated aerosols application on diesel engine performances

    Mariasiu Florin; Burnete Nicolae V.; Moldovanu Dan; Varga Bogdan O.; Iclodean Calin; Kocsis Levente

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the effects of an experimental bioethanol fumigation application using an experimental ultrasound device on performance and emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine have been experimentally investigated. Engine performance and pollutant emissions variations were considered for three different types of fuels (biodiesel, biodiesel-bioethanol blend and biodiesel and fumigated bioethanol). Reductions in brake specific fuel consumption and NOx ...

  7. Effects of bioethanol ultrasonic generated aerosols application on diesel engine performances

    Mariasiu Florin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effects of an experimental bioethanol fumigation application using an experimental ultrasound device on performance and emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine have been experimentally investigated. Engine performance and pollutant emissions variations were considered for three different types of fuels (biodiesel, biodiesel-bioethanol blend and biodiesel and fumigated bioethanol. Reductions in brake specific fuel consumption and NOx pollutant emissions are correlated with the use of ultrasonic fumigation of bioethanol fuel, comparative to use of biodiesel-bioethanol blend. Considering the fuel consumption as diesel engine’s main performance parameter, the proposed bioethanol’s fumigation method, offers the possibility to use more efficient renewable biofuels (bioethanol, with immediate effects on environmental protection.

  8. Methodology for measuring the impact of mobile technology change from 2nd to 3th generation percerved by users of smes in Barranquilla

    Jairo Polo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research project undertaken to obtain a Masters inBusiness Administration from the Business School at the Universidad del Norte, whosepurpose was to identify and test a methodology to measure the impact exerted by thechange from 2nd to 3rd generation mobile tech, based on the perception of users belongingto Barranquilla SME, motivated by the influence of technological changes in behavior andthe knowledge creation among society members, and the importance it has taken to thesurvival of organizations the adoption of applications for process automation, web-basedapplications, voice, data and video that allow the development of competitive advantages,based on information and creativity for new and better products or services.

  9. Build Your Own Second-Generation Bioethanol Plant in the Classroom!

    Seters, van J.R.; Sijbers, J.P.J.; Denis, M.; Tramper, J.

    2011-01-01

    The production of bioethanol from cellulosic waste is described. The experiment is suitable for students in secondary school classroom settings and leads to bioethanol in a concentration high enough to burn the liquid. The experiment consists of three steps: (i) the cellulose of the waste material i

  10. Build Your Own Second-Generation Bioethanol Plant in the Classroom!

    van Seters, Janneke R.; Sijbers, Jeroen P. J.; Denis, Misha; Tramper, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The production of bioethanol from cellulosic waste is described. The experiment is suitable for students in secondary school classroom settings and leads to bioethanol in a concentration high enough to burn the liquid. The experiment consists of three steps: (i) the cellulose of the waste material is converted to glucose by cellulase enzymes, (ii)…

  11. Efficient 2(nd) and 4(th) harmonic generation of a single-frequency, continuous-wave fiber amplifier.

    Sudmeyer, Thomas; Imai, Yutaka; Masuda, Hisashi; Eguchi, Naoya; Saito, Masaki; Kubota, Shigeo

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate efficient cavity-enhanced second and fourth harmonic generation of an air-cooled, continuous-wave (cw), single-frequency 1064 nm fiber-amplifier system. The second harmonic generator achieves up to 88% total external conversion efficiency, generating more than 20-W power at 532 nm wavelength in a diffraction-limited beam (M(2) crystal operated at 25 degrees C. The fourth harmonic generator is based on an AR-coated, Czochralski-grown beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal optimized for low loss and high damage threshold. Up to 12.2 W of 266-nm deep-UV (DUV) output is obtained using a 6-mm long critically phase-matched BBO operated at 40 degrees C. This power level is more than two times higher than previously reported for cw 266-nm generation. The total external conversion efficiency from the fundamental at 1064 nm to the fourth harmonic at 266 nm is >50%. PMID:18542230

  12. Lignocellulosic ethanol in Brazil : technical assessment of 1st and 2nd generation sugarcane ethanol in a Brazilian setting

    Stojanovic, M.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is currently the largest ethanol-biofuel producer worldwide. Ethanol is produced by fermenting the sucrose part of the sugarcane that contains only one third of the sugarcane energy. The rest of the plant is burned to produce energy to run the process and to generate electricity that is sold

  13. Lignocellulosic ethanol in Brazil : technical assessment of 1st and 2nd generation sugarcane ethanol in a Brazilian setting

    Stojanovic, M.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is currently the largest ethanol-biofuel producer worldwide. Ethanol is produced by fermenting the sucrose part of the sugarcane that contains only one third of the sugarcane energy. The rest of the plant is burned to produce energy to run the process and to generate electricity that is sold to the public grid, making the process a net energy producer. This paper evaluates current technology from an energy efficiency point of view and quantifies additional benefits from extra energy ge...

  14. Advances with the new AIMS fab 193 2nd generation: a system for the 65 nm node including immersion

    Zibold, Axel M.; Poortinga, E.; Doornmalen, H. v.; Schmid, R.; Scherubl, T.; Harnisch, W.

    2005-06-01

    The Aerial Image Measurement System, AIMS, for 193nm lithography emulation is established as a standard for the rapid prediction of wafer printability for critical structures including dense patterns and defects or repairs on masks. The main benefit of AIMS is to save expensive image qualification consisting of test wafer exposures followed by wafer CD-SEM resist or wafer analysis. By adjustment of numerical aperture (NA), illumination type and partial coherence (σ) to match any given stepper/ scanner, AIMS predicts the printability of 193nm reticles such as binary with, or without OPC and phase shifting. A new AIMS fab 193 second generation system with a maximum NA of 0.93 is now available. Improvements in field uniformity, stability over time, measurement automation and higher throughput meet the challenging requirements of the 65nm node. A new function, "Global CD Map" can be applied to automatically measure and analyse the global CD uniformity of repeating structures across a reticle. With the options of extended depth-of-focus (EDOF) software and the upcoming linear polarisation capability in the illumination the new AIMS fab 193 second generation system is able to cover both dry and immersion requirements for NA performed to study the effects of polarisation for imaging by comparing the aerial image of the AIMS to the resist image of the scanner.

  15. Advances with the new AIMS fab 193 2nd generation: a system for the 65 nm node including immersion

    Zibold, Axel M.; Poortinga, E.; Doornmalen, H. v.; Schmid, R.; Scherubl, T.; Harnisch, W.

    2005-06-01

    The Aerial Image Measurement System, AIMS, for 193nm lithography emulation is established as a standard for the rapid prediction of wafer printability for critical structures including dense patterns and defects or repairs on masks. The main benefit of AIMS is to save expensive image qualification consisting of test wafer exposures followed by wafer CD-SEM resist or wafer analysis. By adjustment of numerical aperture (NA), illumination type and partial coherence (σ) to match any given stepper/ scanner, AIMS predicts the printability of 193nm reticles such as binary with, or without OPC and phase shifting. A new AIMS fab 193 second generation system with a maximum NA of 0.93 is now available. Improvements in field uniformity, stability over time, measurement automation and higher throughput meet the challenging requirements of the 65nm node. A new function, "Global CD Map" can be applied to automatically measure and analyse the global CD uniformity of repeating structures across a reticle. With the options of extended depth-of-focus (EDOF) software and the upcoming linear polarisation capability in the illumination the new AIMS fab 193 second generation system is able to cover both dry and immersion requirements for NA < 1. Rigorous simulations have been performed to study the effects of polarisation for imaging by comparing the aerial image of the AIMS to the resist image of the scanner.

  16. Perennial grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for second-generation bioethanol production in Mediterranean environment

    Danilo Scordia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the suitability of three perennial, herbaceous, lignocellulosic grasses (Arundo donax, Saccharum spontaneous spp. aegyptiacum and Miscanthus x giganteus for the production of second-generation bioethanol in semi-arid Mediterranean environment was studied. Crops were established in spring 2002, supplying irrigation and nitrogen fertilization up to 2004/2005 growing season. Subsequently, crops were grown without any agronomic input and harvested annually. Data reported in this paper refers to 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 growing seasons. Aboveground dry matter (DM yield was higher in Arundo (35.4±2.1 Mg ha–1 in 2009 and 32.2±1.9 Mg ha–1 in 2010 harvest than in Saccharum (27.3±2.0 and 23.9±1.9 Mg ha–1, respectively and Miscanthus (19.6±2.8 and 17.2±1.6 Mg ha–1, respectively. Structural polysaccharides of the raw material were higher in Miscanthus (63.4% w/w followed by Saccharum (61.5% w/w and Arundo (57.6% w/w. The same trend was identified for the cellulose content (41.0%, 36.8% and 34.6%, respectively. The highest values in the total hemicellulose complex were observed in Saccharum (24.7%, followed by Arundo (23.1% and Miscanthus (22.4%. The composition of structural polysaccharides leads to a higher theoretical ethanol yield (TEY from one dry ton of Miscanthus feedstock (kg DM Mg–1, followed by Saccharum and Arundo. On the other hand, the TEY per unit surface (Mg ha–1 was greater in Arundo than in Saccharum and Miscanthus. When compared to other lignocellulosic sources used in the second-generation bioethanol technology, such as agricultural residues, woody species and other herbaceous perennial crops, Arundo, Saccharum and Miscanthus showed a great potential in terms of TEY ha–1. Given the high levels of biomass yield and composition of structural polysaccharides, the three species might be introduced into the Mediterranean cropping systems to supply lignocellulosic biomass for second-generation industrial plants

  17. FT-IR Investigation of Hoveyda-Grubbs'2nd Generation Catalyst in Self-Healing Epoxy Mixtures

    The development of smart composites capable of self-repair on aeronautical structures is still at the planning stage owing to complex issues to overcome. A very important issue to solve concerns the components' stability of the proposed composites which are compromised at the cure temperatures necessary for good performance of the composite. In this work we analyzed the possibility to apply Hoveyda Grubbs' second generation catalyst (HG2) to develop self-healing systems. Our experimental results have shown critical issues in the use of epoxy precursors in conjunction with Hoveyda-Grubbs II metathesis catalyst. However, an appropriate curing cycle of the self-healing mixture permits to overcome the critical issues making possible high temperatures for the curing process without deactivating self-repair activity.

  18. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    Usov, Igor O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arendt, Paul N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holesinger, Terry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foltyn, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Depaula, Raymond F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  19. Control system for the 2nd generation Berkeley automounters (BAM2) at GM/CA-CAT macromolecular crystallography beamlines

    GM/CA-CAT at Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is an NIH funded facility for crystallographic structure determination of biological macromolecules by X-ray diffraction. A second-generation Berkeley automounter is being integrated into the beamline control system at the 23BM experimental station. This new device replaces the previous all-pneumatic gripper motions with a combination of pneumatics and XYZ motorized linear stages. The latter adds a higher degree of flexibility to the robot including auto-alignment capability, accommodation of a larger capacity sample Dewar of arbitrary shape, and support for advanced operations such as crystal washing, while preserving the overall simplicity and efficiency of the Berkeley automounter design.

  20. New approaches for improving the production of the 1st and 2nd generation ethanol by yeast.

    Kurylenko, Olena; Semkiv, Marta; Ruchala, Justyna; Hryniv, Orest; Kshanovska, Barbara; Abbas, Charles; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Sibirny, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Increase in the production of 1st generation ethanol from glucose is possible by the reduction in the production of ethanol co-products, especially biomass. We have developed a method to reduce biomass accumulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the manipulation of the intracellular ATP level due to overexpression of genes of alkaline phosphatase, apyrase or enzymes involved in futile cycles. The strains constructed accumulated up to 10% more ethanol on a cornmeal hydrolysate medium. Similar increase in ethanol accumulation was observed in the mutants resistant to the toxic inhibitors of glycolysis like 3-bromopyruvate and others. Substantial increase in fuel ethanol production will be obtained by the development of new strains of yeasts that ferment sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic feedstocks, especially xylose, a pentose sugar. We have found that xylose can be fermented under elevated temperatures by the thermotolerant yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. We combined protein engineering of the gene coding for xylose reductase (XYL1) along with overexpression of the other two genes responsible for xylose metabolism in yeast (XYL2, XYL3) and the deletion of the global transcriptional activator CAT8, with the selection of mutants defective in utilizing ethanol as a carbon source using the anticancer drug, 3-bromopyruvate. Resulted strains accumulated 20-25 times more ethanol from xylose at the elevated temperature of 45°C with up to 12.5 g L(-1) produced. Increase in ethanol yield and productivity from xylose was also achieved by overexpression of genes coding for the peroxisomal enzymes: transketolase (DAS1) and transaldolase (TAL2), and deletion of the ATG13 gene. PMID:26619255

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of second generation bioethanol produced from low-input dedicated crops of Arundo donax L.

    Zucaro, Amalia; Forte, Annachiara; Basosi, Riccardo; Fagnano, Massimo; Fierro, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    This work presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of bioethanol (EtOH) from perennial Arundo donax L. feedstock. A "cradle-to-wheel" approach was applied considering primary data for the cultivation of dedicated crops on hilly marginal lands and innovative "second generation technologies" for feedstock conversion into EtOH. The goals of the study were to: (i) quantify impacts of lignocellulosic EtOH production/use chain, (ii) identify hotspots and (iii) compare the environmental performance of different bioethanol-gasoline vehicles, E10 (10% EtOH and 90% gasoline) and E85 (85% EtOH and 15% gasoline), with a conventional gasoline passenger car. Results for E85 underlined that the feedstock production and the use phase were the prevailing contributors, whilst for E10 the gasoline production phase shared the largest part of impacts. The comparison showed that vehicles using lignocellulosic bioethanol have potentially significant benefits on global warming, ozone depletion, photochemical oxidant formation and fossil depletion in respect to conventional passenger car. PMID:27543950

  2. Production of 2nd generation Bioethanol from Lucerne - Optimization of Hydrothermal Pretreatment

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Jensen, Morten; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Lucerne (Medicago sativa) has many qualities associated with sustainable agriculture such as nitrogen fixation and high biomass yield. Therefore, there is interest in whether lucerne is a suitable biomass substrate for bioethanol production, and if hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT) of lucerne impro...

  3. Quantification of left and right ventricular function and myocardial mass: Comparison of low-radiation dose 2nd generation dual-source CT and cardiac MRI

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of left and right ventricular function and myocardial mass measurements based on a dual-step, low radiation dose protocol with prospectively ECG-triggered 2nd generation dual-source CT (DSCT), using cardiac MRI (cMRI) as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Twenty patients underwent 1.5 T cMRI and prospectively ECG-triggered dual-step pulsing cardiac DSCT. This image acquisition mode performs low-radiation (20% tube current) imaging over the majority of the cardiac cycle and applies full radiation only during a single adjustable phase. Full-radiation-phase images were used to assess cardiac morphology, while low-radiation-phase images were used to measure left and right ventricular function and mass. Quantitative CT measurements based on contiguous multiphase short-axis reconstructions from the axial CT data were compared with short-axis SSFP cardiac cine MRI. Contours were manually traced around the ventricular borders for calculation of left and right ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, ejection fraction and myocardial mass for both modalities. Statistical methods included independent t-tests, the Mann–Whitney U test, Pearson correlation statistics, and Bland–Altman analysis. Results: All CT measurements of left and right ventricular function and mass correlated well with those from cMRI: for left/right end-diastolic volume r = 0.885/0.801, left/right end-systolic volume r = 0.947/0.879, left/right stroke volume r = 0.620/0.697, left/right ejection fraction r = 0.869/0.751, and left/right myocardial mass r = 0.959/0.702. Mean radiation dose was 6.2 ± 1.8 mSv. Conclusions: Prospectively ECG-triggered, dual-step pulsing cardiac DSCT accurately quantifies left and right ventricular function and myocardial mass in comparison with cMRI with substantially lower radiation exposure than reported for traditional retrospective ECG-gating.

  4. Technology Evaluation of Process Configurations for Second Generation Bioethanol Production using Dynamic Model-based Simulations

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist;

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of a number of different process flowsheets for bioethanol production was performed using dynamic model-based simulations. The evaluation employed diverse operational scenarios such as, fed-batch, continuous and continuous with recycle configurations. Each configuration was evaluated...... in continuous mode with a recycle of the SSCF reactor effluent, results in the best productivity of bioethanol among the proposed process configurations, with a yield of 0.18 kg ethanol /kg dry-biomass....... against the following benchmark criteria, yield (kg ethanol/kg dry-biomass), final product concentration and number of unit operations required in the different process configurations. The results has shown the process configuration for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) operating...

  5. Bioethanol: industrial world perspectives

    An overview of the production of bioethanol from biomass is presented, and the future for bioethanol in the transport, cogeneration, domestic appliances, and chemicals markets are examined. Bioethanol economics are considered, and yields and estimated prices for bioethanol produced from different crops are tabulated. Specific uses of bioethanol in the different markets are highlighted including the blending of ethanol with petrol in the transport market, the use of bioethanol for cooking in the domestic market, and the production of chemicals from bioethanol

  6. Agricultural residue valorization using a hydrothermal process for second generation bioethanol and oligosaccharides production.

    Vargas, Fátima; Domínguez, Elena; Vila, Carlos; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Garrote, Gil

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, the hydrothermal valorization of an abundant agricultural residue has been studied in order to look for high added value applications by means of hydrothermal pretreatment followed by fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, to obtain oligomers and sugars from autohydrolysis liquors and bioethanol from the solid phase. Non-isothermal autohydrolysis was applied to barley straw, leading to a solid phase with about a 90% of glucan and lignin and a liquid phase with up to 168 g kg(-1) raw material valuable hemicellulose-derived compounds. The solid phase showed a high enzymatic susceptibility (up to 95%). It was employed in the optimization study of the fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, carried out at high solids loading, led up to 52 g ethanol/L (6.5% v/v). PMID:26000836

  7. 2nd Tourism Postdisciplinarity Conference

    2016-01-01

    Following the noted success of the 1st international conference on postdisciplinary approaches to tourism studies (held in Neuchatel, Switzerland, 19-22 June, 2013), we are happy to welcome you to the 2nd Tourism Postdisciplinarity Conference. Postdisciplinarity surpasses the boundaries of disciplinary thinking and opens up the possibility to question the established phenomena – touristic or otherwise – we take for granted. It does not claim that disciplinarity is essentially wrong, but it...

  8. 2nd Tourism Postdisciplinarity Conference

    Following the noted success of the 1st international conference on postdisciplinary approaches to tourism studies (held in Neuchatel, Switzerland, 19-22 June, 2013), we are happy to welcome you to the 2nd Tourism Postdisciplinarity Conference. Postdisciplinarity surpasses the boundaries of...... study less embedded in that system of thought. Postdisciplinarity is an epistemological endeavour that speaks of knowledge production and the ways in which the world of physical and social phenomena can be known. It is also an ontological discourse as it concerns what we call ‘tourism...

  9. 家族企业代际传承及二代推动战略转型的绩效研究%Performance Study of Intergenerational Succession and Strategic Transformation Driven by the 2nd Generation of Family Business

    汪祥耀; 金一禾

    2015-01-01

    本文将家族企业代际传承分为参与管理、共同管理和接收管理三个阶段,探究了处于不同阶段家族企业的绩效情况以及二代推动的家族企业战略转型对企业绩效的影响。利用2010-2012年我国A股主板上市公司中家族企业的样本展开实证研究,得出如下结论:二代进入家族企业高管,参与家族企业的日常经营和战略决策,或者与一代共同管理家族企业,对企业业绩产生正面影响;由于样本数量较少的客观原因,接收管理后企业绩效的经济后果关系未能得到证实;二代推动的战略转型对共同管理和企业绩效的关系起反向调节作用,在代际传承的共同管理阶段实施战略转型会降低原有真实绩效。%This paper divides the intergeneration succession of family business into three phases, including Involvement Management, Co-management, and Takeover Management, then researches the performance of intergenerational succession and strategic transformation driven by the 2nd generation.The empirical study of the listed family firms in China's A-share main market in the years of 2010-2012 finds that the family firms with the 2nd generation involvement management and co-management have a better performance, that there is no proof of relationship between takeover management and firm perform-ance due to the lack of enough samples.Besides, the strategic transformation driven by the 2nd generation has a reverse effect on the relationship between the co-management and firm performance, and the strategic transformation will reduce the o-riginal real performance in the co-management phase.

  10. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass in China: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Lili Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass-based ethanol is categorized as 2nd generation bioethanol in the advanced biofuel portfolio. To make sound incentive policy proposals for the Chinese government and to develop guidance for research and development and industrialization of the technology, the paper reports careful techno-economic and sensitivity analyses performed to estimate the current competitiveness of the bioethanol and identify key components which have the greatest impact on its plant-gate price (PGP. Two models were developed for the research, including the Bioethanol PGP Assessment Model (BPAM and the Feedstock Cost Estimation Model (FCEM. Results show that the PGP of the bioethanol ranges $4.68–$6.05/gal (9,550–12,356 yuan/t. The key components that contribute most to bioethanol PGP include the conversion rate of cellulose to glucose, the ratio of five-carbon sugars converted to ethanol, feedstock cost, and enzyme loading, etc. Lignocellulosic ethanol is currently unable to compete with fossil gasoline, therefore incentive policies are necessary to promote its development. It is suggested that the consumption tax be exempted, the value added tax (VAT be refunded upon collection, and feed-in tariff for excess electricity (byproduct be implemented to facilitate the industrialization of the technology. A minimum direct subsidy of $1.20/gal EtOH (2,500 yuan/t EtOH is also proposed for consideration.

  11. A visionary and conceptual macroalgae-based third-generation bioethanol (TGB) biorefinery in Sabah, Malaysia as an underlay for renewable and sustainable development

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Lee, Keat Teong [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    Several biofuel candidates were proposed to displace fossil fuels in order to eliminate the vulnerability of energy sector. Biodiesel and bioethanol produced from terrestrial plants have attracted the attention of the world as potential substitute. However, due to food vs. fuel competition as well as land consumption of these biofuel, they have brought much controversy and debate on their sustainability. In this respect, cultivation of macroalgae such as seaweed at sea water which does not expend arable land and fertilizers provides a possible solution for this energy issue. Carbohydrates derived from seaweeds contain hexose sugars which are suitable materials for fermentation to produce ethanol. Therefore, it is possible to produce fuel ethanol from seaweeds. The potential and prospective of seaweeds to play the role as a sustainable energy provider are demonstrated in this paper. This study offers a conceivable picture of macroalgae-based third-generation bioethanol biorefinery to stimulate the initiation of the exploration in the related field. (author)

  12. "Me-A Different 2nd Generation of the Wealthy"%"我——就是不一样的富二代"

    Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ In recent years,phrases like "G2 of the Wealthy"are frequently mentioned by people,and discussions on the second generation of wealthy Chinese are a hot topic.However,people still have the impression that"G2 of the" Wealthy"is a generation which lacds nothing but significance and pursuit,a generation without responsibility and lnly meaningless individuality.

  13. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: II. Air quality

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management on air quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health using a second generation of Environmentally Superior Technology. The second generation system combines solid-liquid sep...

  14. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair

    2012-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects. 

  15. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: I. Water quality

    New legislation in North Carolina promotes the replacement of old lagoon technology with new Environmentally Superior Technology. Scientists at ARS Florence Center and industry cooperators completed design and demonstration of a second generation treatment system for swine waste that can achieve hig...

  16. A two-stage process for the anaerobic digestion of sludge generated during the production of bioethanol from sweet sorghum

    Stamatelatou, K.; Dravillas, K.; Lyberatos, G.

    2003-07-01

    Sweet sorghum is an energy crop, often cultivated to recover energy in the form of ethanol, hydrogen etc by applying biological processes. These processes, however, produce a significant amount of sludge (bagasse) which contains the recalcitrant unconverted portion of sorghum, the non-hydrolyzed portion of the plant biomass as well as microbial biomass. In this work, the sludge from the alcoholic fermentation of sweet sorghum following a distillation step (to remove the generated bioethanol) was subjected to anaerobic digestion for further biodegradation and energy production (methane). A two-stage configuration for the anaerobic digestion of this type of industrial sludge was conceived and compared with a single stage anaerobic digestion of bagasse. For the two-stage process, the sludge was separated into one solid and one liquid stream. The solid portion of the sludge (9%) contributed mainly to the total organic load, although there was a significant organic load dissolved in the liquid portion too (28.73{+-}11.01 g/l). In the two stage system the solid and liquid phases of the sludge were separately treated under different operating conditions in two separate reactors: the solid phase in a thermophilic hydrolyzing reactor and the liquid phase in a mesophilic high-rate digester. The overall yield of the continuous two-stage process was 16 l methane/l wastewater at a hydraulic retention time of almost 20 days, while the maximum methane yield that could be achieved in batch experiments (duration 40d) was 30 l/l wastewater. (author)

  17. Combustion parameters of spark ignition engine using waste potato bioethanol and gasoline blended fuels

    Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Abasian, M.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the combustion parameters of a SI engine operating on bioethanol-gasoline blends (E0-E20: 20% bioethanol and 80% gasoline by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for bioethanol production from potato wastes. The results showed that increasing the bioethanol content in the blend fuel will decrease the heating value of the blended fuel and increase the octane number. Combustion parameters were evaluated and analyzed at different engine speeds and loads (1000-5000 rpm). The results revealed that using bioethanol-gasoline blended fuels will increase the cylinder pressure and its 1st and 2nd derivatives (P(θ), P•(θ) and P••(θ)). Moreover, using bioethanol- gasoline blends will increase the heat release (Q•(θ)) and worked of the cycle. This improvement was due to the high oxygen percentage in the ethanol.

  18. [Implications of TCGA Network Data on 2nd Generation Immunotherapy Concepts Based on PD-L1 and PD-1 Target Structures].

    Peters, I; Tezval, H; Kramer, M W; Wolters, M; Grünwald, V; Kuczyk, M A; Serth, J

    2015-11-01

    The era of cytokines, given to patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) as part of an unspecific immunomodulatory treatment concept, seems to have ended with the introduction of targeted therapies. However, preliminary data from studies on treatment with checkpoint inhibitors (e. g. anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1) may point the way to second-generation immunotherapy. The rationale of such immunomodulatory treatment is to stop or interrupt the tumour from "escaping" the body's immune defence. Thompson et al. report that increased protein expression of PD-L1 (CD274/ B7-H1) in tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating immune cells (TILs; lymphocytes and histiocytes) is associated with unfavourable clinical pathological parameters as well as poor survival. In small pilot groups of mRCC patients it was found that increased PD-L1 protein expression in tumours and TILs may be correlated with the objective response to anti-PD-1 treatment. Sometimes, however, a very wide variety of response rates was observed, which raises the question if this can be explained by individual expression levels of PD-L1 (CD 274) or PD-1 (PDCD1).Recently published data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC) Network now provide a genome-wide data base that allows us to review or validate the molecular results obtained in clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) to date.In this study, we analysed the TCGA KIRC mRNA expression data for PD-L1 and PD-1 for a possible association with clinical pathological parameters and the survival of 417 ccRCC patients.The mRNA expression of PD-L1 in primary nephrectomy specimens revealed no significant association with unfavourable clinical parameters. Interestingly, though, a positive correlation with patient survival was found (HR=0,59, p=0,006).These results, which partly contradict the concept applied to date, point out the necessity to ascertain the characteristics of PD-L1 and PD-1 expression at mRNA and protein

  19. A 2nd generation cosmic axion experiment

    Hagmann, C; Stoeffl, W.; Van Bibber, K.; Daw, E.; Kinion, D.; Rosenberg, L; Sikivie, P.; Sullivan, N.; D. Tanner; Moltz, D.; Nezrick, F.; Turner, M; Golubev, N.; Kravchuk, L.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment is described to detect dark matter axions trapped in the halo of our galaxy. Galactic axions are converted into microwave photons via the Primakoff effect in a static background field provided by a superconducting magnet. The photons are collected in a high Q microwave cavity and detected by a low noise receiver. The axion mass range accessible by this experiment is 1.3-13 micro-eV. The expected sensitivity will be roughly 50 times greater than achieved by previous experiments i...

  20. A 2nd generation cosmic axion experiment

    Hagmann, C A; Van Bibber, K; Daw, E J; Kinion, D S; Rosenberg, L J; Sikivie, P; Sullivan, N; Tanner, D B; Moltz, D M; Nezrick, F A; Turner, M; Golubev, N A; Kravchuk, L V

    1995-01-01

    An experiment is described to detect dark matter axions trapped in the halo of our galaxy. Galactic axions are converted into microwave photons via the Primakoff effect in a static background field provided by a superconducting magnet. The photons are collected in a high Q microwave cavity and detected by a low noise receiver. The axion mass range accessible by this experiment is 1.3-13 micro-eV. The expected sensitivity will be roughly 50 times greater than achieved by previous experiments in this mass range. The assembly of the detector is well under way at LLNL and data taking will start in mid-1995.

  1. Sistema especialista de 2ª geração para diagnose técnica: modelo e procedimento 2nd generation expert system for technical diagnosis: a model and a procedure

    Néocles Alves Pereira

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata da diagnose em equipamentos industriais através do uso de Sistemas Especialistas. Com o objetivo de desenvolver procedimentos que contribuam na construção de Sistemas Especialistas para diagnose em Manutenção Industrial, consideramos os chamados Sistemas Especialistas de 2ª Geração. Propomos um modelo modificado e um procedimento de diagnose. Na estratégia de diagnose utilizamos uma busca "top-down best-first", que combina dois tipos de tratamento de incerteza: (i entropia, para decidir pelo melhor caminho nas estruturas de conhecimento, e (ii crença nos sintomas, para validar os diagnósticos obtidos. Esta proposta traz as seguintes vantagens: base de conhecimento mais completa, melhores explicação e apresentação de diagnósticos finais. Desenvolvemos um protótipo com base em informações reais sobre bombas centrífugas.This paper deals with the diagnosis of industrial equipments through the use of Expert Systems. Intending to develop procedures that result in diagnosis knowledge bases for Industrial Maintenance, we have considered 2nd Generation Expert Systems. We have proposed a modified model and a diagnosis procedure. We used for the diagnosis strategy a "top-down best-first search", that combines two types of uncertainty treatment: (i entropy, to find the best way in the search throughout knowledge structures, (ii belief in the symptoms, to validate the resultant diagnostics. This proposal has the following advantages: a more complete knowledge base, a better explanation and presentation of the resultant diagnostics. We have developed a prototype considering real informations about centrifugal pumps.

  2. Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities

    Qian Kang; Lise Appels; Tianwei Tan; Raf Dewil

    2014-01-01

    “Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and t...

  3. Experimental Stochatics (2nd edition)

    Otto Moeschlin and his co-authors have written a book about simulation of stochastic systems. The book comes with a CD-ROM that contains the experiments discussed in the book, and the text from the book is repeated on the CD-ROM. According to the authors, the aim of the book is to give a quick introduction to stochastic simulation for 'all persons interested in experimental stochastics'. To please this diverse audience, the authors offer a book that has four parts. Part 1, called 'Artificial Randomness', is the longest of the four parts. It gives an overview of the generation, testing and basic usage of pseudo random numbers in simulation. Although algorithms for generating sequences of random numbers are fundamental to simulation, it is a slightly unusual choice to give it such weight in comparison to other algorithmic topics. The remaining three parts consist of simulation case studies. Part 2, 'Stochastic Models', treats four problems - Buffon's needle, a queuing system, and two problems related to the kinetic theory of gases. Part 3 is called 'Stochastic Processes' and discusses the simulation of discrete time Markov chains, birth-death processes, Brownian motion and diffusions. The last section of Part 3 is about simulation as a tool to understand the traffic flow in a system controlled by stoplights, an area of research for the authors. Part 4 is called 'Evaluation of Statistical Procedures'. This section contains examples where simulation is used to test the performance of statistical methods. It covers four examples: the Neymann-Pearson lemma, the Wald sequential test, Bayesian point estimation and Hartigan procedures. The CD-ROM contains an easy-to-install software package that runs under Microsoft Windows. The software contains the text and simulations from the book. What I found most enjoyable about this book is the number of topics covered in the case studies. The highly individual selection of applications, which may serve as a source of inspiration

  4. Association mapping in Scandinavian winter wheat for yield, plant height and traits important for second-generation bioethanol production

    Andrea eBellucci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 100 wheat varieties representing more than 100 years of wheat-breeding history in Scandinavia was established in order to identify marker-trait associations for plant height, grain yield and biomass potential for bioethanol production. The field-grown material showed variations in plant height from 54 to 122 cm and in grain yield from 2 to 6.61 t ha-1. The release of monomeric sugars was determined by high-throughput enzymatic treatment of ligno-cellulosic material and varied between 0.169 and 0.312 g/g dm for glucose and 0.146 and 0.283 g/g dm for xylose. As expected, plant height and grain yield showed to be highly influenced by genetic factors with repeatability (R equal to 0.75 and 0.53 respectively, while this was reduced for glucose and xylose (R=0.09 for both . The study of trait correlations showed how old, low-yielding, tall varieties released higher amounts of monomeric sugars after straw enzymatic hydrolysis, showing reduced recalcitrance to bioconversion compared to modern varieties. 93 lines from the collection were genotyped with the DArTseq® genotypic platform and 5525 markers were used for genome-wide association mapping. Six QTLs for grain yield, plant height and glucose released from straw were mapped. One QTL for plant height was previously reported, while the remaining QTLs constituted new genomic regions linked to trait variation. This paper is one of the first studies in wheat to identify QTLs that are important for bioethanol production based on a genome-wide association approach.

  5. Abstracts: 2nd interventional MRI symposium

    Main topics of the 2nd interventional MRI symposium were: MR compatibility and pulse sequences; MR thermometry, biopsy, musculoskeletal system; laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy, radiofrequency ablations; intraoperative MR; vascular applications, breast, endoscopy; focused ultrasound, cryotherapy, perspectives; poster session with 34 posters described. (AJ)

  6. Abstracts: 2nd interventional MRI symposium

    Anon.

    1997-09-01

    Main topics of the 2nd interventional MRI symposium were: MR compatibility and pulse sequences; MR thermometry, biopsy, musculoskeletal system; laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy, radiofrequency ablations; intraoperative MR; vascular applications, breast, endoscopy; focused ultrasound, cryotherapy, perspectives; poster session with 34 posters described. (AJ)

  7. Bioethanol: fuel or feedstock?

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Falsig, Hanne; Jørgensen, Betina;

    2007-01-01

    Increasing amounts of bioethanol are being produced from fermentation of biomass, mainly to counteract the continuing depletion of fossil resources and the consequential escalation of oil prices. Today, bioethanol is mainly utilized as a fuel or fuel additive in motor vehicles, but it could also be...... used as a versatile feedstock in the chemical industry. Currently the production of carbon-containing commodity chemicals is dependent on fossil resources, and more than 95% of these chemicals are produced from non-renewable carbon resources. The question is: what will be the optimal use of bioethanol...

  8. Advances in bioethanol

    Bajpai, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an updated and detailed overview on advances in bioethanol. It looks at the historical perspectives, chemistry, sources and production of ethanol and discusses biotechnology breakthroughs and promising developments. The book also provides the details regarding the uses, advantages, problems, environmental effects and characteristics of bioethanol as a fuel. In addition, it presents information about ethanol in different parts of the world and also highlights the challenges and future of ethanol.

  9. BIOCONVERSION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE INTO SECOND GENERATION BIOETHANOL AFTER ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS WITH IN-HOUSE PRODUCED CELLULASES FROM Aspergillus sp. S4B2F

    Sanjeev Kumar Soni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach was studied for in-house cellulase production, pretreatment, and enzymatic conversion of sugarcane bagasse into glucose followed by the production of second generation bioethanol. Solid state cultures of Aspergillus sp. S4B2F produced significant levels of cellulase complex on wheat bran, supplemented with 1% (w/w soyabean meal, moistened with 1.5 parts of distilled water after 96 h of incubation at 30oC. The highest productivities of endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase were 66, 60, and 26 IU/g of fermented dry bran, respectively. The enzyme components had a temperature and pH optima at 50oC and 4.0, respectively and revealed high thermostability at 50oC, retaining 66, 54, and 84% residual activities after 72 h. Pretreatment with 2% alkali in combination with steam was the most efficient pre-hydrolysis method for enzymatic bioconversion and fermentation of cellulosic residue of sugarcane bagasse, which produced the highest cellulose conversion (67%, with glucose and alcohol yields of 323 mg and 175 l respectively per dry gram of bagasse.

  10. 2nd International Conference on Natural Fibers

    Rana, Sohel

    2016-01-01

    This book collects selected high quality articles submitted to the 2nd International Conference on Natural Fibers (ICNF2015). A wide range of topics is covered related to various aspects of natural fibres such as agriculture, extraction and processing, surface modification and functionalization, advanced structures, nano fibres, composites and nanocomposites, design and product development, applications, market potential, and environmental impact. Divided into separate sections on these various topics, the book presents the latest high quality research work addressing different approaches and techniques to improve processing, performance, functionalities and cost-effectiveness of natural fibre and natural based products, in order to promote their applications in various advanced technical sectors. This book is a useful source of information for materials scientists, teachers and students from various disciplines as well as for R& D staff in industries using natural fibre based materials. .

  11. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, todefinedesign/retro...

  12. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil

    Amorim, Henrique V.; Lopes, Mario Lucio [Fermentec, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Buckeridge, Marcos S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-09-15

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO{sub 2} by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. (orig.)

  13. The Bioethanol Industry in Sub-Saharan Africa: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Evanie Devi Deenanath; Sunny Iyuke; Karl Rumbold

    2012-01-01

    Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation fee...

  14. Socio-economic well-to-wheel analysis of biofuels. Scenarios for rapeseed diesel (RME) and 1. and 2. generation bioethanol; Samfundsoekonomisk well-to-wheel-analyse af biobraendstoffer. Scenarieberegninger for rapsdiesel (RME) og 1.- og 2.-generations bioethanol

    Slentoe, E.; Moeller, F.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2010-10-15

    The report examines in an integrated form, the energy, emissions and welfare economic implications of introducing Danish produced biodiesel, i.e. rapeseed diesel (RME) and the first and second generation wheat ethanol in two scenarios with low and high rate of blending with fossil fuel based automotive fuels. Within this project's, analytical framework and assumptions the welfare economic analysis shows, that it would be beneficial for society to realize the biofuel scenarios to some extent by oil prices above $ 100 a barrel, while it will cause losses by oil prices at $ 65. In all cases, the fossil fuel consumption and the emissions CO2eq emissions are reduced, the effect of which is priced and included in the welfare economic analysis. The implementation of biofuels in Denmark will be dependent on market price. As it stands now, it is not favorable in terms of biofuels. The RME is currently produced in Denmark is exported to other European countries where there are state subsidies. Subsidies would also be a significant factor in Denmark to achieve objectives for biofuel blending. (ln)

  15. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference

    A. Anonymous

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference was held 13-17 August 1995 on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus. The Institute of Arctic Biology and the Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit were responsible for organizing the conference with assistance from biologists with state and federal agencies and commercial organizations. David R. Klein was chair of the conference organizing committee. Over 200 people attended the conference, coming from 10 different countries. The United States, Canada, and Norway had the largest representation. The conference included invited lectures; panel discussions, and about 125 contributed papers. There were five technical sessions on Physiology and Body Condition; Habitat Relationships; Population Dynamics and Management; Behavior, Genetics and Evolution; and Reindeer and Muskox Husbandry. Three panel sessions discussed Comparative caribou management strategies; Management of introduced, reestablished, and expanding muskox populations; and Health risks in translocation of arctic ungulates. Invited lectures focused on the physiology and population dynamics of arctic ungulates; contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates and lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident; and ecosystem level relationships of the Porcupine Caribou Herd.

  16. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity.

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-05-11

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention--the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention--affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer's 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  17. The Bioethanol Industry in Sub-Saharan Africa: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Evanie Devi Deenanath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock, lignocellulose (second generation feedstock, or algae (third generation feedstock feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production.

  18. The bioethanol industry in sub-Saharan Africa: history, challenges, and prospects.

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Iyuke, Sunny; Rumbold, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock), lignocellulose (second generation feedstock), or algae (third generation feedstock) feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production. PMID:22536020

  19. Exploring grape marc as trove for new thermotolerant and inhibitor-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for second-generation bioethanol production

    Favaro, Lorenzo; Basaglia, Marina; Trento, Alberto; van Rensburg, Eugéne; García-Aparicio, Maria; van Zyl, Willem H; Casella, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Background Robust yeasts with high inhibitor, temperature, and osmotic tolerance remain a crucial requirement for the sustainable production of lignocellulosic bioethanol. These stress factors are known to severely hinder culture growth and fermentation performance. Results Grape marc was selected as an extreme environment to search for innately robust yeasts because of its limited nutrients, exposure to solar radiation, temperature fluctuations, weak acid and ethanol content. Forty newly iso...

  20. Performance indicators of bioethanol distillation

    The increase of biofuels demand accelerates the construction of new production plants and technological improvements in the process so the development of versatile tools for evaluating alternatives becomes an undeniable challenge. It was established through heuristic rules, thermodynamic analysis and simulation computer the energy consumption and performance indicators that govern, from fermented mash (ethanol 8.5 % v/v), the distillation of various capacities for bioethanol production: 20, 60, 100 and 150 KLD (kiloliters / day) through Aspen PlusTM simulator. It was found that the distillation demand nearly 30% of heat that would be obtained by burning alcohol fuel produced thus it is necessary the use of raw materials that generate enough biomass to produce the steam required. In addition, correlations were found to allow for easy diameters of distillation columns in terms of production capacity.

  1. 2nd International technical meeting on small reactors

    The 2nd International Technical Meeting on Small Reactors was held on November 7-9, 2012 in Ottawa, Ontario. The meeting was hosted by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS). There is growing international interest and activity in the development of small nuclear reactor technology. This meeting provided participants with an opportunity to share ideas and exchange information on new developments. This Technical Meeting covered topics of interest to designers, operators, researchers and analysts involved in the design, development and deployment of small reactors for power generation and research. A special session focussed on small modular reactors (SMR) for generating electricity and process heat, particularly in small grids and remote locations. Following the success of the first Technical Meeting in November 2010, which captured numerous accomplishments of low-power critical facilities and small reactors, the second Technical Meeting was dedicated to the achievements, capabilities, and future prospects of small reactors. This meeting also celebrated the 50th Anniversary of the Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) reactor which was the first small reactor (20 MWe) to generate electricity in Canada.

  2. Improvement of bioethanol yield by pervaporation

    Nongauza, Sinethemba Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    Due to the depletion of petroleum reserves and environmental concerns, bioethanol has been identified as an alternative fuel to petrol. Bioethanol is a fuel of bio-origin derived from renewable biomass. Starch and sugar containing materials are the primary sources of carbon for bioethanol production. Starch is firstly hydrolysed into simple sugars which are later fermented to bioethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). The fermentation of sugars to bioethanol is however limited...

  3. Bio-ethanol steam reforming and autothermal reforming in 3- m channels coated with RhPd/CeO2 for hydrogen generation

    Divins, N.J.; López, Eduardo; Rodríguez Martínez, Ángel; Vega, Didac; Llorca Piqué, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    A silicon micromonolith of 7 mm diameter and 0.2 mm length containing 1.5 million regular channels with a diameter of 3.3 μm was used for obtaining hydrogen through ethanol or bio-ethanol steam reforming (ESR) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR). The microchannels were coated with RhPd/CeO2 catalyst by a two-step method. First a CeO2 layer of ca. 100 nm thickness was deposited from cerium methoxyethoxide over a SiO2 layer, which was previously grown over the silicon microchannels by oxidation...

  4. Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus

    ... html Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus If confirmed, cases would be first instances of ... Broward County, north of Miami. Infection with the Zika virus, which in most cases is transmitted by mosquitoes, ...

  5. Bioethanol: State and perspectives

    Tasić Marija B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes of bioethanol production currently applied all over the world are reviewed in this paper. Attention is focused on potentially cheap biomass sources, as well as the most important operating factors controlling the progress and result of saccharification and fermentation reactions and affecting the yield of fermentable sugars and ethanol, respectively, such as: the type and concentration of acid, the type of enzyme, the type of working microorganism, operating temperature, duration time and pH. The hydrolysis conditions, namely duration time, temperature and sulfuric acid concentration, were combined in a single parameter, known as the "combined severity" (CS, in order to estimate the efficiency of bioethanol production from biomass. When the CS increases, the yield of fermentable sugars also increases. The decrease in the yield of monosaccharides coincides with the maximum concentrations of by-products, such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which are well-known as yeast inhibitors. The highest ethanol yields has been obtained using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With low oil prices and political reluctance to implement carbon taxes, fuel-ethanol production will remain uncompetitive unless some other form of cost reduction can be made, such as feedstock preparation costs.

  6. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process...

  7. Competitiveness Model of Bioethanol Industry

    Muzakar Isa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for energy is increasing every year. More than 80% of energy needs met by fossil fuels derived from petroleum and natural gas. To anticipate, the Government issued Presidential Regulation No. 5 of 2006 on the national energy. In this regulation, the government took steps to saving energy and looking for new sources of energy that are renewable and environmentally friendly. One is bioethanol. This study aims to analyze the competitiveness of bioethanol industry in Bekonang Sukoharjo. This study used mixed methods, namely the incorporation of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study. The measurement of competitiveness is using Porter's Diamond Model. The results show the competitiveness of bioethanol industry is influenced by business strategy, potential buyers, working capital and innovation. Currently, bioethanol industry competitiveness is low.

  8. Recent trends in bioethanol production

    Semenčenko Valentina V.; Mojović Ljiljana V.; Petrović Slobodan D.; Ocić Ozren

    2011-01-01

    The rapid depletion of the world petroleum supply and the increasing problem of greenhouse gas effects have strenghtened the worldwide interest in alternative, nonpetroleum sources of energy. Bioethanol accounts for the majority of biofuel use worldwide, either as a fuel or a gasoline enhancer. Utilization of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. The production of this fuel is increasing over the years, and has reached the level of 73.9 b...

  9. 2nd European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop

    Assmann, Ralph; Grebenyuk, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop has the mission to discuss and foster methods of beam acceleration with gradients beyond state of the art in operational facilities. The most cost effective and compact methods for generating high energy particle beams shall be reviewed and assessed. This includes diagnostics methods, timing technology, special need for injectors, beam matching, beam dynamics with advanced accelerators and development of adequate simulations. This workshop is organized in the context of the EU-funded European Network for Novel Accelerators (EuroNNAc2), that includes 52 Research Institutes and universities.

  10. Spartina argentinensis as feedstock for bioethanol

    Emiliano Jozami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-five percent of the energy consumed in the world comes from non-renewable sources. The transportation sector, highly dependent on oil, is responsible for 20-27% of the world primary energy consumption and for 13-28% of Greenhouse Gases (GHG emissions. The main renewable energy sources that can supply this sector are bioethanol and biodiesel. Production of these biofuels is rapidly expanding mainly through food raw materials such as corn, sugar cane, soybean and rapeseed, decreasing their availability as food in the market, thereby raising their price. These food-derived biofuels are called “first generation biofuels”. There are other renewable sources that can be used to produce bioethanol, called second-generation biofuels, which have the great advantage of using lignocellulosic materials, thereafter they do not compete with food crops for fertile land. This paper describes the possibility of producing bioethanol and/or electricity using pellets from natural rangelands in the Bajos Submeridionales (Submeridional Lowlands of the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, where the dominant species is Spartina argentinensis, a C4 perennial grass with high photosynthetic rate, which tolerates the conditions of alkalinity and the recurrent droughts and floods that shape the region. According to our estimates, enough ethanol could be produced in this region to satisfy the energy demand of vehicles with Otto combustion cycle in several Argentine provinces. Pellets production would allow electricity generation via syngas and power turbines. This would allow the production of liquid fuel and/or electricity with sustainability criteria, reducing the emission of GHG and generating jobs, economical growth and development in a depopulated region.

  11. Thermoluminescent characteristics of ZrO2:Nd films

    In this work it is exposed the obtained results after analysing the photo luminescent and thermoluminescent characteristics of activated zirconium oxide with neodymium (ZrO2 :Nd) and its possible application in the UV radiation dosimetry. The realized experiments had as objective to study the characteristics such as the optimum thermal erased treatment, the influence of light on the response, the response depending on the wavelength, the fadeout of the information, the temperature effect, the response depending on the time and the recurring of the response. The results show that the ZrO2 :Nd is a promising material to be used as Tl dosemeter for the UV radiation. (Author)

  12. 2nd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014

    Gregory, L.

    2014-07-30

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet (ft3) generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  13. Visions for Danish bio-ethanol; Visioner for dansk bioethanol

    Ahring, B.K. [BioCentrum-DTU (Denmark); Felby, C. [Det Biovidenskabelige Fakultet -KU (Denmark); Jensen, Arne [Syddansk Univ., Ledelsessekretariatet (Denmark); Nielsen, Charles [DONG Energy (Denmark); Skytte, K. [Risoe National Lab., System Analysis Dept. - DTU (Denmark); Wormslev, E.C. [NIRAS A/S (Denmark); Zinck, A.M. [Dansk Landbrug (DK)] (eds.)

    2007-02-15

    In 2006 the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences set up a working group to prepare a brief and factual presentation of visions for Danish bioenergy targeted at political actors in that area. This report presents the working group's conclusions and recommendations with focus on bioethanol. Denmark has powerful actors and good opportunities to develop and commercialize this particular type of biofuel. Bioethanol has the potential to create large gains for Denmark within supply, environment and export, and the working group considers bioethanol to be the only alternative to petrol for the transport sector in the short term. However, in order to establish Denmark as a strong and relevant partner in international development, it is crucial for the Danish actors to concentrate on a joint effort. (BA)

  14. A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works, 2nd Edition

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…

  15. 2nd International Conference on Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics

    Fülöp, Zsolt; Somorjai, Endre; The European Physical Journal A : Volume 27, Supplement 1, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Launched in 2004, "Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics" has established itself in a successful topical conference series addressing the forefront of research in the field. This volume contains the selected and refereed papers of the 2nd conference, held in Debrecen in 2005 and reprinted from "The European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei".

  16. 2nd International Conference on Data Management Technologies and Applications

    2013-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Data Management Technologies and Applications (DATA) aims to bring together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested on databases, data warehousing, data mining, data management, data security and other aspects of information systems and technology involving advanced applications of data.

  17. The 2nd Seminar on Standardization Cooperation in Northeast Asia

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 2nd Seminar on Standardization Cooperation in Northeast Asia(2003) was held in Beijing from Oct 30th - Oct 31st, which was the succession of the first one in Korea, 2002, with the participants coming from the standardization circles in China, Japan and Korea.

  18. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    Tomás, Ana Faria

    Second-generation bioethanol is produced from residual biomass such as industrial and municipal waste or agricultural and forestry residues. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the microorganism currently used in industrial first-generation bioethanol production, is not capable of converting all...... of the carbohydrates present in these complex substrates into ethanol. This is in particular true for pentose sugars such as xylose, generally the second major sugar present in lignocellulosic biomass. The transition of second-generation bioethanol production from pilot to industrial scale is hindered...... by the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass, and by the lack of a microorganism capable of converting this feedstock to bioethanol with high yield, efficiency and productivity. In this study, a new extreme thermophilic ethanologenic bacterium was isolated from household waste. When assessed for ethanol...

  19. 2nd International Conference on Green Communications and Networks 2012

    Ma, Maode; GCN 2012

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the 2nd International Conference on Green Communications and Networks 2012 (GCN 2012) is to facilitate an exchange of information on best practices for the latest research advances in the area of communications, networks and intelligence applications. These mainly involve computer science and engineering, informatics, communications and control, electrical engineering, information computing, and business intelligence and management. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Green Communications and Networks 2012 (GCN 2012) will focus on green information technology and applications, which will provide in-depth insights for engineers and scientists in academia, industry, and government. The book addresses the most innovative research developments including technical challenges, social and economic issues, and presents and discusses the authors’ ideas, experiences, findings, and current projects on all aspects of advanced green information technology and applications. Yuhang Yang is ...

  20. 2nd Interdiciplinary Conference on Production, Logistics and Traffic 2015

    Friedrich, Hanno; Thaller, Carina; Geiger, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the selected and reviewed papers of the 2nd Interdisciplinary Conference on Production, Logistics and Traffic (ICPLT) 2015, Dortmund, Germany. The topical focus lies on economic, ecological and societal issues related to commercial transport. The authors are international experts and the paper collection presents the state-of-the-art in the field, thus making this book a valuable read for both practitioners and researchers.

  1. 2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL) Symposium

    Reviewed by Murat BARKAN

    2006-01-01

    This closing remarks prepared and presented by Prof. Dr. Murat BARKAN Anadolu University, Eskisehir, TURKEY DEAR GUESTS, As the 2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL) Symposium is now drawing to end, I would like to thank you all for your outstanding speeches, distinguished presentations, constructive roundtable and session discussions, and active participation during the last five days. I hope you all share my view that the whole symposium has been...

  2. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregrate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are ...

  3. 2nd International Conference on Electric and Electronics (EEIC 2012)

    Advances in Electric and Electronics

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains 108 full length papers presented at the 2nd International Conference on Electric and Electronics (EEIC 2012), held on April 21-22 in Sanya, China, which brings together researchers working in many different areas of education and learning to foster international collaborations and exchange of new ideas. This volume can be divided into two sections on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered: the first section deals with Electric and the second section with Electronics.

  4. 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Technologies and Engineering Systems

    Chen, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Cheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    This book includes the original, peer reviewed research papers from the 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Technologies and Engineering Systems (ICITES2013), which took place on December 12-14, 2013 at Cheng Shiu University in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Topics covered include: laser technology, wireless and mobile networking, lean and agile manufacturing, speech processing, microwave dielectrics, intelligent circuits and systems, 3D graphics, communications, and structure dynamics and control.

  5. Introduction on the 2nd annual general meeting of ARCCNM

    This paper outlines general information on the 2nd annual general meeting of ARCCNM (Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine). The international symposium exchanged new development recently on basic and clinical nuclear medicine. Asian school of nuclear medicine is an educational enterprise of ARCCNM, and the objective is to organize and coordinate academic and training programs in nuclear medicine. It will promote nuclear medicine in Asia region through enhancing regional scientific activities and research collaboration

  6. Exergy and CO2 Analyses as Key Tools for the Evaluation of Bio-Ethanol Production

    Qian Kang; Tianwei Tan

    2016-01-01

    The background of bioethanol as an alternative to conventional fuels is analyzed with the aim of examining the efficiency of bioethanol production by first (sugar-based) and second (cellulose-based) generation processes. Energy integration is of paramount importance for a complete recovery of the processes’ exergy potential. Based upon literature data and our own findings, exergy analysis is shown to be an important tool in analyzing integrated ethanol production from an efficiency and cost p...

  7. Susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibitors and impact on bioethanol production yield

    Fosso-Kankeu, Elvis; Marx, Sanette; Meyer, Anton

    2014-01-01

    There have been increasing concerns in developing countries over the competition between food and energy resulting from the production of bioethanol from edible biomass. Second generation lignocellulose feedstock is an attractive alternative, as bioethanol can be produced from non-edible materials. However, the pretreatment required for hydrolysis of lignocellulose into pentose and hexose sugars often results in the production of inhibitors likely to impede the activity of Saccharomyces cerev...

  8. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  9. SIMULATION OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS TO OBTAIN BIOETHANOL FROM RICE RESIDUES

    Verónica Capdevila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper presents a simulation model of the fermentation/separation process of bioethanol from hydrolyzed pretreated rice husk, using Aspen HYSYS simulator. Sensitivity studies performed on the developed model indicated levels for selected variables: biomass/water ratio of 1:2,89 ; biomass flow of 50 t/h and inlet temperature separator of 30°C, leading to maximize the yield of bioethanol. From these variables, a bioethanol production of 8,81 t/h with a purity of 65,51% w/w is obtained, corresponding to a flow of hydrolyzed treated biomass of 50 t/h. This work represents an advance in the development of the simulation model of the complete process to obtain second generation of bioethanol from rice husks.

  10. Feasibility of bioethanol production from microalgal biomass

    Anjos, Mariana; A.A. Vicente; Teixeira, J. A.; Dragone, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of microalgal biomass as a feedstock for bioethanol production has attracted great attention in recent years. Bioethanol from microalgae can be produced through two distinct pathways: direct dark fermentation or fermentation of saccharified biomass by yeast. The main objective of this work was to assess the influence of increasing glucose concentration derived from hydrolysed microalgal biomass on bioethanol production. The green microalga C. vulgaris (strain P12) was cultiv...

  11. The energetic potential of bioethanol in Hungary

    The basis of the bioethanol production is the agriculture, mostly the corn and wheat growing. With the analysis of their domestic harvest results, the process of the starch formation and the chemical-thermodynamical processes of the alcohol's fermentation, we calculate the annual amount of the producible bioethanol on average and its energy. We determine the specific values of the CO2 cycle. We examine the energetic possibilities of total substitution of the 2 billion litres of domestic petrol consumption with bioethanol. (authors)

  12. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  13. Two 2nd Circuit decisions represent mixed bag on insurance.

    2000-01-21

    The 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York issued two important rulings within a week on the extent to which the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulates insurance practices. [Name removed] v. Allstate Life Insurance Co. was a plaintiff-friendly decision, finding that the insurance company illegally refused to sell life insurance to a married couple because of their mental disability, major depression. [Name removed]. v. Israel Discount Bank of New York was more defendant friendly and tackled the issue of whether the ADA permits different benefit caps for mental and physical disabilities. PMID:11367226

  14. BIPHASIC TREATMENT OF 2ND CLASS ANGLE ANOMALIES

    C. Romanec

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Our approach aims at presenting, based on clinical observations and complementary examinations, the effects of a treatment’s setting up during the mixed dentition period. The objectives include the identification of the optimal time of treatment of II/1, II/2 Angle malocclusions, as well as the therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of 2nd class Angle malocclusion during the period of mixed and permanent dentition. The study is based on data collected from 114 clinical cases (69 girls and 45 boys with an age span between 7 and 18 years.

  15. 2nd conference on Continuous Media with Microstructure

    Kuczma, Mieczysław

    2016-01-01

    This book presents research advances in the field of Continuous Media with Microstructure and considers the three complementary pillars of mechanical sciences: theory, research and computational simulation. It focuses on the following problems: thermodynamic and mathematical modeling of materials with extensions of classical constitutive laws, single and multicomponent media including modern multifunctional materials, wave propagation, multiscale and multiphysics processes, phase transformations, and porous, granular and composite materials. The book presents the proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Continuous Media with Microstructure, which was held in 2015 in Łagów, Poland, in memory of Prof. Krzysztof Wilmański. .

  16. Bioethanol production from agricultural wastes

    Duarte, José Cardoso; Sàágua, M. C.; Baeta-Hall, Lina; Correia, Anabela; Ribeiro, Belina; Lourenço, V.; Pereira, J.; Paixão, Susana M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been screened for the ability of bioethanol production. Yeasts were grown in synthetic liquid medium containing two different substrates: sucrose at different concentrations (10 to 400g/l) and cane molasses (120g/l of sucrose). The screening was made in batch regime and the growth rates, ethanol and biomass productions were determined. The results indicate a flocculent yeast strain – F as the more suitable microorganism to prod...

  17. Bioethanol production from Asphodelus aestivus

    Polycarpou, Polycarpos [Agricultural Research Institute, Soils Science Department, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Lefkosia (Cyprus)

    2009-12-15

    The increase on the price of fossil fuels and the need to protect the environment from greenhouse gases urge the investigation of the possibility of using biofuels to replace them. Cyprus is faced with severe water shortage and unavailability of agricultural land that limit the cultivation of energy crops that supply the feedstock for biofuel production. A possibility would be to use Asphodelus aestivus L. that is encountered in Cyprus and other Mediterranean countries, growing wild in pastures. Its tubers contain starch that was measured to be 10.1%. The bioethanol is produced by fermentation of the mash produced by crashing the tubers of the plant. The first stage of the process was cooking the mash at a temperature of 95 C, combined by liquefaction and saccharification of the starch using enzymes, like alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. The process was followed by fermentation of the mash for three days and finally distillation of bioethanol. The alcohol yield per kilogram tubers was 49.52 ml/kg, compared to the theoretical value of 83.72 ml/kg, mainly due to the incomplete fermentation of the sugars. The plant seems to be a potential energy plant for bioethanol production in arid regions cultivated on degraded land. (author)

  18. Afs password expiration starts Feb 2nd 2004

    2004-01-01

    Due to security reasons, and in agreement with CERN management, afs/lxplus passwords will fall into line with Nice/Mail passwords on February 2nd and expire annually. As of the above date afs account holders who have not changed their passwords for over a year will have a 60 day grace period to make a change. Following this date their passwords will become invalid. What does this mean to you? If you have changed your afs password in the past 10 months the only difference is that 60 days before expiration you will receive a warning message. Similar warnings will also appear nearer the time of expiration. If you have not changed your password for more than 10 months, then, as of February 2nd you will have 60 days to change it using the command ‘kpasswd'. Help to choose a good password can be found at: http://security.web.cern.ch/security/passwords/ If you have been given a temporary password at any time by the Helpdesk or registration team this will automatically fall into the expiration category ...

  19. Efficient Bioethanol Production From Oil Palm Frond Petiole

    Sharifah Soplah Binti Syed Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in bioenergy and particularly in second generation bioethanol (SGB) is a great challenge as the development of lignocellulose-related technologies are not very well established in the world. Another major constraint is the relatively higher cost of SGB, both in terms of investment costs and final energy costs. This causes the commercialization of research findings on SGB faces stiff competition from fossil fuels. Hence, this study was aimed to produce SGB but using a stra...

  20. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles and intercropping strategies

    Thomsen, M.H.; Haugaard-Nielsen, H.; Petersson, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jensen, E.S. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    Ethanol produced from pretreatment and microbial fermentation of biomass has great potential to become a sustainable transportation fuel in the near future. First generation biofuel focus on starch (from grain) fermentation, but in the present study that is regarded as a too important food source. In recent years 2nd generation technologies are developed utilizing bulk residues like wheat straw, woody materials, and corn stover. However, there is a need for integrating the biomass starting point into the energy manufacturing steps to secure that bioenergy is produced from local adapted raw materials with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Produced crops can be transformed into a number of useful products using the concept of biorefining, where no waste streams are produced. An advantage of intercropping is that the intercrop components composition can be designed to produce a medium (for microbial fermentation) containing all essential nutrients. Thereby addition of e.g. urea and other fermentation nutrients produced from fossil fuels can be avoided. Intercropping, defined as the growing of two or more species simultaneously on the same area of land, is a cropping strategy based on the manipulation of plant interactions in time and space to maximize growth and productivity. Cereal-legume intercropping data from field trials show the possibility to improve the use of nitrogen resources, because the non fixing species (e.g. wheat) efficiently exploits soil mineral N sources while at the same time atmospheric N from the N{sub 2}-fixing species (e.g. pea) enter the cropping system reducing the need for N fertilizer application. Nitrogen fertilization is responsible for more than 85 % of the greenhouse gas emissions from wheat grain production in Denmark. Increase of fertilizer N supply promotes the growth of wheat and results in a decreased pea N accumulation and a different proportion of intercrop components. Intercropping introduce a dynamic change of plant

  1. Scoping analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor using SN2ND

    Wolters, E.; Smith, M. (NE NEAMS PROGRAM); ( SC)

    2012-07-26

    A detailed set of calculations was carried out for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) using the SN2ND solver of the UNIC code which is part of the SHARP multi-physics code being developed under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program in DOE-NE. The primary motivation of this work is to assess whether high fidelity deterministic transport codes can tackle coupled dynamics simulations of the ATR. The successful use of such codes in a coupled dynamics simulation can impact what experiments are performed and what power levels are permitted during those experiments at the ATR. The advantages of the SN2ND solver over comparable neutronics tools are its superior parallel performance and demonstrated accuracy on large scale homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor geometries. However, it should be noted that virtually no effort from this project was spent constructing a proper cross section generation methodology for the ATR usable in the SN2ND solver. While attempts were made to use cross section data derived from SCALE, the minimal number of compositional cross section sets were generated to be consistent with the reference Monte Carlo input specification. The accuracy of any deterministic transport solver is impacted by such an approach and clearly it causes substantial errors in this work. The reasoning behind this decision is justified given the overall funding dedicated to the task (two months) and the real focus of the work: can modern deterministic tools actually treat complex facilities like the ATR with heterogeneous geometry modeling. SN2ND has been demonstrated to solve problems with upwards of one trillion degrees of freedom which translates to tens of millions of finite elements, hundreds of angles, and hundreds of energy groups, resulting in a very high-fidelity model of the system unachievable by most deterministic transport codes today. A space-angle convergence study was conducted to determine the meshing and angular cubature

  2. Scoping analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor using SN2ND

    A detailed set of calculations was carried out for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) using the SN2ND solver of the UNIC code which is part of the SHARP multi-physics code being developed under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program in DOE-NE. The primary motivation of this work is to assess whether high fidelity deterministic transport codes can tackle coupled dynamics simulations of the ATR. The successful use of such codes in a coupled dynamics simulation can impact what experiments are performed and what power levels are permitted during those experiments at the ATR. The advantages of the SN2ND solver over comparable neutronics tools are its superior parallel performance and demonstrated accuracy on large scale homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor geometries. However, it should be noted that virtually no effort from this project was spent constructing a proper cross section generation methodology for the ATR usable in the SN2ND solver. While attempts were made to use cross section data derived from SCALE, the minimal number of compositional cross section sets were generated to be consistent with the reference Monte Carlo input specification. The accuracy of any deterministic transport solver is impacted by such an approach and clearly it causes substantial errors in this work. The reasoning behind this decision is justified given the overall funding dedicated to the task (two months) and the real focus of the work: can modern deterministic tools actually treat complex facilities like the ATR with heterogeneous geometry modeling. SN2ND has been demonstrated to solve problems with upwards of one trillion degrees of freedom which translates to tens of millions of finite elements, hundreds of angles, and hundreds of energy groups, resulting in a very high-fidelity model of the system unachievable by most deterministic transport codes today. A space-angle convergence study was conducted to determine the meshing and angular cubature

  3. 2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL Symposium

    Reviewed by Murat BARKAN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This closing remarks prepared and presented by Prof. Dr. Murat BARKAN Anadolu University, Eskisehir, TURKEY DEAR GUESTS, As the 2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL Symposium is now drawing to end, I would like to thank you all for your outstanding speeches, distinguished presentations, constructive roundtable and session discussions, and active participation during the last five days. I hope you all share my view that the whole symposium has been a very stimulating and successful experience. Also, on behalf of all the participants, I would like to take this opportunity to thank and congratulate the symposium organization committee for their excellent job in organizing and hosting our 2nd meeting. Throughout the symposium, five workshops, six keynote speeches and 66 papers, which were prepared by more than 150 academicians and practitioners from 23 different countries, reflected remarkable and various views and approaches about open and flexible learning. Besides, all these academic endeavors, 13 educational films were displayed during the symposium. The technology exhibition, hosted by seven companies, was very effective to showcase the current level of the technology and the success of applications of theory into practice. Now I would like to go over what our scholar workshop and keynote presenters shared with us: Prof. Marina McIsaac form Arizona State University dwelled on how to determine research topics worthwhile to be examined and how to choose appropriate research design and methods. She gave us clues on how to get articles published in professional journals. Prof. Colin Latchem from Australia and Prof. Dr. Ali Ekrem Ozkul from Anadolu University pointed to the importance of strategic planning for distance and flexible learning. They highlighted the advantages of strategic planning for policy-makers, planners, managers and staff. Dr. Wolfram Laaser from Fern University of Hagen, presented different multimedia clips and

  4. 2nd international conference on advanced nanomaterials and nanotechnology

    Goswami, D; Perumal, A

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale science and technology have occupied centre stage globally in modern scientific research and discourses in the early twenty first century. The enabling nature of the technology makes it important in modern electronics, computing, materials, healthcare, energy and the environment. This volume contains selected articles presented (as Invited/Oral/Poster presentations) at the 2nd international conference on advanced materials and nanotechnology (ICANN-2011) held recently at the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, during Dec 8-10, 2011. The list of topics covered in this proceedings include: Synthesis and self assembly of nanomaterials Nanoscale characterisation Nanophotonics & Nanoelectronics Nanobiotechnology Nanocomposites  F   Nanomagnetism Nanomaterials for Enery Computational Nanotechnology Commercialization of Nanotechnology The conference was represented by around 400 participants from several countries including delegates invited from USA, Germany, Japan, UK, Taiwan, Italy, Singapor...

  5. Isotope effects on vapour phase 2nd viral coefficients

    Vapor phase 2nd virial coefficient isotope effects (VCIE's) are interpreted. A useful correlation ids developed between -Δ(B-b0)/(B-b0) = -VCIE and the reference condensed phase reduced isotopic partition function ratio [ln(fc/fg)]*. B is the second virial coefficient , b0 = 2πσ3/3, σ is the Lennard-Jones size parameter, and Δ is an isotopic difference, light-heavy. [ln(fc/fg)]* can be obtained from vapor pressure isotope effects for T/TCRITICAL p/f2g), where ln(fp/f2g) is the reduced isotopic partition function ratio describing the equilibrium between monomers and interacting pairs. At temperatures well removed from crossovers in ln(fp/f2g) or [ln(fc/fg)]*, ln(fp/f2g) = (0.4±0.2)[ln(fc/fg)]*. (author)

  6. 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation

    Andersen, Ole; Akay, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The book is the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation (ICNR 2014), held 24th-26th June 2014 in Aalborg, Denmark. The conference featured the latest highlights in the emerging and interdisciplinary field of neural rehabilitation engineering and identified important healthcare challenges the scientific community will be faced with in the coming years. Edited and written by leading experts in the field, the book includes keynote papers, regular conference papers, and contributions to special and innovation sessions, covering the following main topics: neuro-rehabilitation applications and solutions for restoring impaired neurological functions; cutting-edge technologies and methods in neuro-rehabilitation; and translational challenges in neuro-rehabilitation. Thanks to its highly interdisciplinary approach, the book will not only be a  highly relevant reference guide for academic researchers, engineers, neurophysiologists, neuroscientists, physicians and physiotherapists workin...

  7. 2nd Colombian Congress on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics

    Cristancho, Marco; Isaza, Gustavo; Pinzón, Andrés; Rodríguez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This volume compiles accepted contributions for the 2nd Edition of the Colombian Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Congress CCBCOL, after a rigorous review process in which 54 papers were accepted for publication from 119 submitted contributions. Bioinformatics and Computational Biology are areas of knowledge that have emerged due to advances that have taken place in the Biological Sciences and its integration with Information Sciences. The expansion of projects involving the study of genomes has led the way in the production of vast amounts of sequence data which needs to be organized, analyzed and stored to understand phenomena associated with living organisms related to their evolution, behavior in different ecosystems, and the development of applications that can be derived from this analysis.  .

  8. 2nd International Afro-European Conference for Industrial Advancement

    Wegrzyn-Wolska, Katarzyna; Hassanien, Aboul; Snasel, Vaclav; Alimi, Adel

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 2nd International Afro-European Conference for Industrial Advancement -- AECIA 2015. The conference aimed at bringing together the foremost experts and excellent young researchers from Africa, Europe and the rest of the world to disseminate the latest results from various fields of engineering, information, and communication technologies. The topics, discussed at the conference, covered a broad range of domains spanning from ICT and engineering to prediction, modeling, and analysis of complex systems. The 2015 edition of AECIA featured a distinguished special track on prediction, modeling and analysis of complex systems -- Nostradamus, and special sessions on Advances in Image Processing and Colorization and Data Processing, Protocols, and Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks.

  9. 2nd CEAS Specialist Conference on Guidance, Navigation and Control

    Mulder, Bob; Choukroun, Daniel; Kampen, Erik-Jan; Visser, Coen; Looye, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    Following the successful 1st CEAS (Council of European Aerospace Societies) Specialist Conference on Guidance, Navigation and Control (CEAS EuroGNC) held in Munich, Germany in 2011, Delft University of Technology happily accepted the invitation of organizing the 2nd  CEAS EuroGNC in Delft, The Netherlands in 2013. The goal of the conference is to promote new advances in aerospace GNC theory and technologies for enhancing safety, survivability, efficiency, performance, autonomy and intelligence of aerospace systems using on-board sensing, computing and systems. A great push for new developments in GNC are the ever higher safety and sustainability requirements in aviation. Impressive progress was made in new research fields such as sensor and actuator fault detection and diagnosis, reconfigurable and fault tolerant flight control, online safe flight envelop prediction and protection, online global aerodynamic model identification, online global optimization and flight upset recovery. All of these challenges de...

  10. 2nd International Multidisciplinary Microscopy and Microanalysis Congress

    Oral, Ahmet; Ozer, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Multidisciplinary Microscopy and Microanalysis Congress & Exhibition (InterM 2014) was held on 16–19 October 2014 in Oludeniz, Fethiye/ Mugla, Turkey. The aim of the congress was to gather scientists from various branches and discuss the latest improvements in the field of microscopy. The focus of the congress has been widened in an "interdisciplinary" manner, so as to allow all scientists working on several related subjects to participate and present their work. These proceedings include 33 peer-reviewed technical papers, submitted by leading academic and research institutions from over 17 countries and representing some of the most cutting-edge research available. The papers were presented at the congress in the following sessions: ·         Applications of Microscopy in the Physical Sciences ·         Applications of Microscopy in the Biological Sciences.

  11. 2nd International Conference on Communication and Computer Engineering

    Othman, Mohd; Othman, Mohd; Rahim, Yahaya; Pee, Naim

    2016-01-01

    This book covers diverse aspects of advanced computer and communication engineering, focusing specifically on industrial and manufacturing theory and applications of electronics, communications, computing and information technology. Experts in research, industry, and academia present the latest developments in technology, describe applications involving cutting-edge communication and computer systems, and explore likely future trends. In addition, a wealth of new algorithms that assist in solving computer and communication engineering problems are presented. The book is based on presentations given at ICOCOE 2015, the 2nd International Conference on Communication and Computer Engineering. It will appeal to a wide range of professionals in the field, including telecommunication engineers, computer engineers and scientists, researchers, academics and students.

  12. 2nd International Conference on Harmony Search Algorithm

    Geem, Zong

    2016-01-01

    The Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) is one of the most well-known techniques in the field of soft computing, an important paradigm in the science and engineering community.  This volume, the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Harmony Search Algorithm 2015 (ICHSA 2015), brings together contributions describing the latest developments in the field of soft computing with a special focus on HSA techniques. It includes coverage of new methods that have potentially immense application in various fields. Contributed articles cover aspects of the following topics related to the Harmony Search Algorithm: analytical studies; improved, hybrid and multi-objective variants; parameter tuning; and large-scale applications.  The book also contains papers discussing recent advances on the following topics: genetic algorithms; evolutionary strategies; the firefly algorithm and cuckoo search; particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization; simulated annealing; and local search techniques.   This book ...

  13. 2nd International Conference on Construction and Building Research

    Fernández-Plazaola, Igor; Hidalgo-Delgado, Francisco; Martínez-Valenzuela, María; Medina-Ramón, Francisco; Oliver-Faubel, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Abad, Isabel; Salandin, Andrea; Sánchez-Grandia, Rafael; Tort-Ausina, Isabel; Construction and Building Research

    2014-01-01

    Many areas of knowledge converge in the building industry and therefore research in this field necessarily involves an interdisciplinary approach. Effective research requires strong relations between a broad variety of scientific and technological domains and more conventional construction or craft processes, while also considering advanced management processes, where all the main actors permanently interact. This publication takes an interdisciplinary approach grouping various studies on the building industry chosen from among the works presented for the 2nd International Conference on Construction and Building Research. The papers examine aspects of materials and building systems; construction technology; energy and sustainability; construction management; heritage, refurbishment and conservation. The information contained within these pages may be of interest to researchers and practitioners in construction and building activities from the academic sphere, as well as public and private sectors.

  14. 2nd International Congress on Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics

    Encarnação, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This book is a timely report on current neurotechnology research. It presents a snapshot of the state of the art in the field, discusses current challenges and identifies new directions. The book includes a selection of extended and revised contributions presented at the 2nd International Congress on Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics (NEUROTECHNIX 2014), held October 25-26 in Rome, Italy. The chapters are varied: some report on novel theoretical methods for studying neuronal connectivity or neural system behaviour; others report on advanced technologies developed for similar purposes; while further contributions concern new engineering methods and technological tools supporting medical diagnosis and neurorehabilitation. All in all, this book provides graduate students, researchers and practitioners dealing with different aspects of neurotechnologies with a unified view of the field, thus fostering new ideas and research collaborations among groups from different disciplines.

  15. 2nd International Conference on Mobile and Wireless Technology

    Wattanapongsakorn, Naruemon

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a snapshot of the current state-of-the-art in the fields of mobile and wireless technology, security and applications.  The proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Mobile and Wireless Technology (ICMWT2015), it represents the outcome of a unique platform for researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to share cutting-edge developments in the field of mobile and wireless science technology, including those working on data management and mobile security.   The contributions presented here describe the latest academic and industrial research from the international mobile and wireless community.  The scope covers four major topical areas: mobile and wireless networks and applications; security in mobile and wireless technology; mobile data management and applications; and mobile software.  The book will be a valuable reference for current researchers in academia and industry, and a useful resource for graduate-level students working on mobile and wireless technology...

  16. Supply Portfolio of Bioethanol in the Republic of Korea

    Jeong Hwan Bae

    2014-01-01

    Despite the co-benefits of bioethanol, such as energy security, environmental improvement, CO2 emission reduction and development of associated industry, bioethanolblended gasoline without subsidy is more expensive than pure gasoline in Korea. The renewable fuel standard (RFS) can contribute to the development of a bioethanol market. However, without controlling the portions of domestic bioethanol, it is highly plausible that a new bioethanol market will be filled with imported bioethanol. If...

  17. Challenges for the production of bioethanol from biomass using recombinant yeasts.

    Kricka, William; Fitzpatrick, James; Bond, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulose biomass, one of the most abundant renewable resources on the planet, is an alternative sustainable energy source for the production of second-generation biofuels. Energy in the form of simple or complex carbohydrates can be extracted from lignocellulose biomass and fermented by microorganisms to produce bioethanol. Despite 40 years of active and cutting-edge research invested into the development of technologies to produce bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, the process remains commercially unviable. This review describes the achievements that have been made in generating microorganisms capable of utilizing both simple and complex sugars from lignocellulose biomass and the fermentation of these sugars into ethanol. We also provide a discussion on the current "roadblocks" standing in the way of making second-generation bioethanol a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuels. PMID:26003934

  18. Energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem based on life cycle analysis.

    Wang, Mingxin; Chen, Yahui; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-07-01

    Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37 MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem. PMID:24787319

  19. Book review: Psychology in a work context (2nd Ed.

    Nanette Tredoux

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Bergh, Z. & Theron, A.L. (Eds (2003 Psychology in a work context (2nd Ed.. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. This book is an overview and introduction to Industrial and Organisational Psychology. It is a work of ambitious scope, and it is clear that the contributors have invested a great deal of thought and effort in the planning and execution of the book. The current version is the second edition, and it looks set to become one of those standard textbooks that are revised every few years to keep up with changing times. It is a handsome volume, produced to a high standard of editorial care, pleasingly laid out and organised well enough to be useful as an occasional reference source. An English-Afrikaans glossary, tables of contents for every chapter as well as for the entire book, a comprehensive index and extensive bibliography make it easy to retrieve the information relating to a particular topic. Every chapter ends with a conclusion summarising the gist of the material covered. Quality illustrations lighten the tone and help to bring some of the concepts to life. Learning outcomes and self-assessment exercises and questions for every chapter will be useful to the lecturer using the book as a source for a tutored course, and for the student studying by distance learning. If sold at the suggested retail price, the book represents good value compared to imported textbooks that cover similar ground.

  20. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications"

    Calvo, Maria L.; Dolganova, Irina N.; Gevorgyan, Narine; Guzman, Angela; Papoyan, Aram; Sarkisyan, Hayk; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    The ICTP smr2633: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications" (OPTICS-2014) http://indico.ictp.it/event/a13253/ was held in Yerevan and Ashtarak, Armenia, on 1-5 September 2014. The Symposium was organized by the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) with the collaboration of the SPIE Armenian Student Chapter, the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-Pyrkal, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the BMSTU SPIE & OSA student chapters. The International Symposium OPTICS-2014 was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics. This symposium "Optics and its Applications" was the First Official ICTP Scientific Event in Armenia. The presentations at OPTICS-2014 were centered on these topics: optical properties of nanostructures; quantum optics & information; singular optics and its applications; laser spectroscopy; strong field optics; nonlinear & ultrafast optics; photonics & fiber optics; optics of liquid crystals; and mathematical methods in optics.

  1. APTWG: 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to and discussions at the 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held in Chengdu, China, from 15 to 18 May 2012. The topics of the meeting were organized under five main headings: momentum transport, non-locality in transport, edge turbulence and L–H transition, three-dimensional effects on transport physics, and particle, momentum and heat pinches. It is found that lower hybrid wave and ion cyclotron wave induce co-current rotation while electron cyclotron wave induces counter-current rotation. A four-stage imaging for low (L) to high (H) confinement transition gradually emerges and a more detailed verification is urgently expected. The new edge-localized modes mitigation technique with supersonic molecular beam injection was approved to be effective to some extent on HL-2A and KSTAR. It is also found that low collisionality, trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient transition (or transition of higher to lower density and temperature gradients), fuelling and lithium coating are in favour of inward pinch of particles in tokamak plasmas. (paper)

  2. Resolution 519/012. It is allowed to R DEL SUR S.A company to generate a wind electricity source by a generating power plant placed in Maldonado province 2nd and 4th Catastral section, as well as the connection to the Interconnected National System

    The Resolution 519 is according to the Electric Wholesale Market regulation and it authorizes the power generation using the wind as the primary source. The company who presented this project was R DEL SUR S.A with the aim to instal a wind power plant in Maldonado province.

  3. Pretreatments of lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production

    Predojević Zlatica J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (biofuels), either as a component in the conventional fossil fuels, gasoline and diesel, or as a pure biofuel, contributes to energy saving and decrease of total CO2 emission. The use of bioethanol mixed with gasoline significantly decreases gasoline consumption and contributes to environment protection. One of the problems in the production of bioethanol is the availability of sugar and starch based feedstock used for its production. However, lignocellulos...

  4. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  5. Bioethanol fermentation as alternative valorization route of agricultural digestate according to a biorefinery approach.

    Sambusiti, C; Monlau, F; Barakat, A

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of producing bioethanol from solid digestate after a mechanical fractionation (i.e. centrifugal milling), in order to improve the energy recovery from agricultural wastes and the sustainability of anaerobic digestion plants. A bioethanol yield of 37gkg(-1)TS was evaluated for the solid digestate fraction. Mass and energetic balances were performed and compared between two scenarios: (A) one-stage bioethanol fermentation and (B) two-stage anaerobic digestion-bioethanol fermentation, in order to evaluate the feasibility and the advantages of the two-stage process. Results revealed that, compared to the one-stage process, the dual anaerobic digestion-bioethanol process permitted: (i) to diversify biofuels production; (ii) to provide the thermal energy sufficient for drying digestate (13,351kWhthday(-1)), for the subsequent milling step; (iii) to reduce the electric energy requirement for the milling step (from 23,880 to 3580kWhelday(-1)); (iv) to produce extra electrical energy of 8483kWhelday(-1); (v) to improve the reduction of waste streams generated (from 13% to 54% of organic matter removal). PMID:27115615

  6. Examples to Accompany "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books, 2nd Edition."

    Association of Coll. and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

    This book is intended to be used with "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books," 2nd edition (DCRB) as an illustrative aid to catalogers and others interested in or needing to interpret rare book cataloging. As such, it is to be used in conjunction with the rules it illustrates, both in DCRB and in "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules," 2nd edition…

  7. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Phase II 2nd Report

    Karasaki, Kenzi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gasperikova, Erika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Peterson, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cook, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tiemi, Onishi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-03-31

    This is the 2nd report on the three-year program of the 2nd phase of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. As such, this report is a compendium of the results by Kiho et al. (2011) and those by LBNL.

  8. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of α-amylase, β-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  9. PREFACE: 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO 2008'

    Czuba, P.; Kolodziej, J. J.; Konior, J.; Szymonski, M.

    2009-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected papers presented at the 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO2008', that was held in Kraków, Poland, 25-28 June 2008. It was organized jointly by the Polish Chemical Society, Polish Physical Society, Polish Vacuum Society, and the Centre for Nanometer-scale Science and Advanced Materials (NANOSAM) of the Jagiellonian University. The meeting presentations were categorized into the following topics: 1. Nanomechanics and nanotribology 2. Characterization and manipulation in nanoscale 3. Quantum effects in nanostructures 4. Nanostructures on surfaces 5. Applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine 6. Nanotechnology in education 7. Industrial applications of nanotechnology, presentations of the companies 8. Nanoengineering and nanomaterials (international sessions shared with the fellows of Maria-Curie Host Fellowships within the 6th FP of the European Community Project 'Nano-Engineering for Expertise and Development, NEED') 9. Nanopowders 10. Carbon nanostructures and nanosystems 11. Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics 12. Nanomaterials in catalysis 13. Nanospintronics 14. Ethical, social, and environmental aspects of nanotechnology The Conference was attended by 334 participants. The presentations were delivered as 7 invited plenary lectures, 25 invited topical lectures, 78 oral and 108 poster contributions. Only 1/6 of the contributions presented during the Conference were submitted for publication in this Proceedings volume. From the submitted material, this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains 37 articles that were positively evaluated by independent referees. The Organizing Committee gratefully acknowledges all these contributions. We also thank all the referees of the papers submitted for the Proceedings for their timely and thorough work. We would like to thank all members of the National Program Committee for their work in the selection process of

  10. Synthesis Gas generation from Bio-Ethanol

    High-voltage discharge (called GlidArc) is used to assist the partial oxidation of 50 to 90 Ethanol/water solutions using air. The feed conversion is total and the produced synthesis gas does not contain soot, coke or tars. The output reformate gas reaches presently 22 kW power at only 1% of electric power necessary to assist such reforming process. Up to 46 vol.% of H2+CO SynGas mixture is produced (the balance being mostly the N2) in long runs. A 75% thermal efficiency of the process is obtained but a large part of remaining heat can be further reused. (authors)

  11. Synthesis Gas generation from Bio-Ethanol

    High-voltage discharge (called GlidArc) is used to assist the partial oxidation of 50 C to 90 C Ethanol/water solutions using air. The feed conversion is total and the produced synthesis gas does not contain soot, coke or tars. The output re-formate gas reaches presently 22 kW power at only 1% of electric power necessary to assist such reforming process. Up to 46 vol.% of H2+CO SynGas mixture is produced (the balance being mostly the N2) in long runs. A 75% thermal efficiency of the process is obtained but a large part of remaining heat can be further reused. (author)

  12. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. The 2nd year Research scope includes: 1) Optimization of pre-treatment conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and 2) Demonstration of enzymatic hydrolysis by recombinant enzymes. To optimize the pretreatment, we applied two processes: a wet process (wet milling + popping), and dry process (popping + dry milling). Out of these, the wet process presented the best glucose yield with a 93.1% conversion, while the dry process yielded 69.6%, and the unpretreated process yielded <20%. The recombinant cellulolytic enzymes showed very high specific activity, about 80-1000 times on CMC and 13-70 times on filter paper at pH 3.5 and 55 .deg. C

  13. Environmental sustainability of bioethanol produced from sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land.

    Wang, Mingxin; Pan, Xinxing; Xia, Xunfeng; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of a bioethanol production system that uses sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land as feedstock. The system comprises a plant cultivation unit, a feedstock transport unit, and a bioethanol conversion unit, with 1000L of bioethanol as a functional unit. The net energy ratio is 3.84, and the net energy gain is 17.21MJ/L. Agrochemical production consumes 76.58% of the life cycle fossil energy. The category with the most significant impact on the environment is eutrophication, followed by acidification, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, human toxicity, and global warming. Allocation method, waste recycling approach, and soil salinity significantly influence the results. Using vinasse to produce pellet fuel for steam generation significantly improves energy efficiency and decreases negative environmental impacts. Promoting reasonable management practices to alleviate saline stress and increasing agrochemical utilization efficiency can further improve environmental sustainability. PMID:25846180

  14. Feasibility of bioethanol production from tubers of Dioscorea sansibarensis and Pyrenacantha kaurabassana.

    Moshi, Anselm P; Nyandele, Jane P; Ndossi, Humphrey P; Eva, Sosovele M; Hosea, Ken M

    2015-11-01

    Inedible tubers from Dioscorea sansibarensis (DS) and Pyrenacantha kaurabassana (PK) were found to be suitable feedstock for bioethanol production. Important composition parameters for bioethanol production for DS and PK are dry matter (% fresh tubers) ca. 20 and 6, total carbohydrates % dry weight base (db) ca. 68 and 47 and total protein (% db) ca. 16 and 10, respectively. DS and PK were found to contain inulin and galactomannan as principal polysaccharides (% of total carbohydrate) ca. 90 and 70, respectively. Diluted acid hydrolysis yielded ca. 100% of total reducing sugars. Ethanol yield ca. 56 and 35g/L was obtained at high efficiency through batch fermentation of acid hydrolysate (25% w/v) of DS and PK, respectively. A simple technique of recording and monitoring ethanol through CO2 generated during fermentation correlated strongly with HPLC measurement R(2)=0.99. Thus, tubers from these plants are potential feedstocks for bioethanol production with no competing uses. PMID:26298406

  15. EFFICIENT RECOVERY OF BIOETHANOL USING NOVEL PERVAPORATION-DEPHLEGMATION PROCESS

    Bioethanol is the most important liquid fuel made in the U.S. from domestically produced renewable resources. Traditional production of bioethanol involves batch fermation of biomass followed by ethanol recovery from the fermentation broths using distillation. The distillation st...

  16. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California

    Keeley, Jon E.; Baer-Keeley, Melanie; Fortheringham, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Interface Between Ecology and Land Development Conference was held in association with Earth Day 1997, five years after the first Interface Conference. Rapid population growth in California has intensified the inevitable conflict between land development and preservation of natural ecosystems. Sustainable development requires wise use of diminishing natural resources and, where possible, restoration of damaged landscapes. These Earth Week Celebrations brought together resource managers, scientists, politicians, environmental consultants, and concerned citizens in an effort to improve the communication necessary to maintain our natural biodiversity, ecosystem processes and general quality of life. As discussed by our keynote speaker, Michael Soule, the best predictor of habitat loss is population growth and nowhere is this better illustrated than in California. As urban perimeters expand, the interface between wildlands and urban areas increases. Few problems are more vexing than how to manage the fire prone ecosystems indigenous to California at this urban interface. Today resource managers face increasing challenges of dealing with this problem and the lead-off section of the proceedings considers both the theoretical basis for making decisions related to prescribed burning and the practical application. Habitat fragmentation is an inevitable consequence of development patterns with significant impacts on animal and plant populations. Managers must be increasingly resourceful in dealing with problems of fragmentation and the often inevitable consequences, including susceptibility to invasive oganisms. One approach to dealing with fragmentation problems is through careful landplanning. California is the national leader in the integration of conservation and economics. On Earth Day 1991, Governor Pete Wilson presented an environmental agenda that promised to create between land owners and environmentalists, agreements that would guarantee the protection of

  17. A Model-Based Methodology for Simultaneous Design and Control of a Bioethanol Production Process

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan;

    2010-01-01

    . The PGC methodology is used to generate more efficient separation designs in terms of energy consumption by targeting the separation task at the largest DF. Both methodologies are highlighted through the application of two case studies, a bioethanol production process and a succinic acid production...

  18. Lignocellulosic bioethanol production with revalorization of low-cost agroindustrial by-products as nutritional supplements

    Kelbert, Maikon; Romaní, Aloia; Coelho, Eduardo; Pereira, Francisco B.; Teixeira, J.A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-01-01

    During the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for second generation bioethanol production, fermentation inhibitors are released. To overcome this, the use of a robust industrial strain together with agro-industrial by-products as nutritional supplementation was proposed to increase ethanol productivity and yields. Two factorial experimental designs were carried out to optimize fermentation of hydrolysate from autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus. The mostinfluential variable...

  19. Recent trends in bioethanol production

    Semenčenko Valentina V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid depletion of the world petroleum supply and the increasing problem of greenhouse gas effects have strenghtened the worldwide interest in alternative, nonpetroleum sources of energy. Bioethanol accounts for the majority of biofuel use worldwide, either as a fuel or a gasoline enhancer. Utilization of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. The production of this fuel is increasing over the years, and has reached the level of 73.9 billion liters during the year 2009. Even though ethanol production for decades mainly depended on energy crops containing starch and sugar (corn, sugar cane etc., new technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol are under development today. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, such as agricultural residues, forest and municipial waste, for the production of biofuels will be unavoidable if liquid fossil fuels are to be replaced by renewable and sustainable alternatives. For biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass, pretreatment plays a central role affecting all unit operations in the process and is also an important cost deterrent to the comercial viability of the process. The key obstacles are: pretreatment selection and optimization; decreasing the cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis; maximizing the conversion of sugars (including pentoses to ethanol; process scale-up and integration to minimize energy and water demand; characterization and evaluation of the lignin co-product; and lastly, the use of the representative and reliable data for cost estimation, and the determination of environmental and socio-economic impacts. Currently, not all pretreatments are capable of producing biomass that can be converted to sugars in high enough yield and concentration, while being economically viable. For the three main types of feedstocks, the developement of effective continuous fermentation technologies with near to 100% yields and elevated

  20. The impact of a growing bioethanol industry on food production in Brazil

    Gauder, Martin; Graeff-Hoenninger, S.; Claupein, W. [Department of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The Brazilian production of major food commodities increased fivefold between 1961 and 2008. In the same time, the area cropped with sugar cane increased with high growth rates, currently covering 3% of the area dedicated to agricultural production in Brazil. In order to assess a possible competition between biofuel and food production, the development of agricultural productivity and area expansion in the past was analysed. Furthermore, the future situation of land resources for agricultural production was illustrated. The findings of this study indicated that area resources of more than 20 million hectare would be available for agricultural production in the upcoming years. A current constraint of food production throughout land dedicated to biofuels was not found. Three scenarios were investigated, simulating possibilities of future changes in Brazilian agriculture. The results demonstrated that primary food production could be enhanced by 1.5 times while bioethanol production was enhanced simultaneously by 1.8 times over the years 2007/2008 and 2020. The generated bioethanol volumes would meet 38% of the total energy demand in Brazilian transport sector, applied to the year 2007. The second scenario evaluated an agricultural development with a higher focus on biofuels. It was projected that the production of bioethanol could be increased by 3.0 times to 76.7 million m{sup 3} of bioethanol, while increasing at the same time primary food production with the factor 1.4 aligned to the projected population growth. This bioethanol volume represents 67% of the total energy demand in Brazilian transport sector in the year 2007. A third scenario demonstrated that food production could be increased even with no area expansion higher than the projected population growth, due to a continued increase of productivity. At the same time bioethanol production would rise to 32 million m{sup 3} without occupying more area. (author)

  1. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  2. 76 FR 29750 - Filing Dates for the Nevada Special Election in the 2nd Congressional District

    2011-05-23

    ... General Election on September 13, 2011, to fill the U.S. House seat in ] the 2nd Congressional District... report, the first report must cover all activity that occurred before the committee registered as...

  3. 77 FR 75161 - Filing Dates for the Illinois Special Election in the 2nd Congressional District

    2012-12-19

    ... February 26, 2013, and April 9, 2013, to fill the U.S. House seat in the 2nd Congressional District vacated... not previously filed a report, the first report must cover all activity that occurred before...

  4. 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic

    ... news/fullstory_159807.html 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic Scientists concerned it ... the United States who was infected with a bacteria that is resistant to an antibiotic of last ...

  5. Optimized Pump Power Ratio on 2nd Order Pumping Discrete Raman Amplifier

    Renxiang Huang; Youichi Akasaka; David L. Harris; James Pan

    2003-01-01

    By optimizing pump power ratio between 1st order backward pump and 2nd order forward pump on discrete Raman amplifier, we demonstrated over 2dB noise figure improvement without excessive non-linearity degradation.

  6. Combustion synthesis and characterization of Ba2NdSbO6 nanocrystals

    V T Kavitha; R Jose; S Ramakrishna; P R S Wariar; J Koshy

    2011-07-01

    Nanocrystalline Ba2NdSbO6, a complex cubic perovskite metal oxide, powders were synthesized by a self-sustained combustion method employing citric acid. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The as-prepared powders were single phase Ba2NdSbO6 and a mixture of polycrystalline spheroidal particles and single crystalline nanorods. The Ba2NdSbO6 sample sintered at 1500°C for 4 h has high density (∼ 95% of theoretical density). Sintered nanocrystalline Ba2NdSbO6 had a dielectric constant of ∼ 21; and dielectric loss = 8 × 10-3 at 5 MHz.

  7. File list: His.Lar.50.AllAg.2nd_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Lar.50.AllAg.2nd_instar dm3 Histone Larvae 2nd instar SRX013015,SRX013042,SRX01...3112,SRX013043,SRX013087,SRX013096 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.50.AllAg.2nd_instar.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.2nd_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.2nd_instar dm3 All antigens Larvae 2nd instar SRX013087,SRX013015,...SRX013112,SRX013042,SRX013043,SRX013096,SRX013113,SRX013016,SRX013114 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.2nd_instar.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Lar.05.AllAg.2nd_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Lar.05.AllAg.2nd_instar dm3 Histone Larvae 2nd instar SRX013087,SRX013096,SRX01...3043,SRX013015,SRX013112,SRX013042 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.05.AllAg.2nd_instar.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Lar.20.AllAg.2nd_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Lar.20.AllAg.2nd_instar dm3 Histone Larvae 2nd instar SRX013015,SRX013042,SRX01...3112,SRX013043,SRX013096,SRX013087 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.20.AllAg.2nd_instar.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.2nd_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.2nd_instar dm3 All antigens Larvae 2nd instar SRX013015,SRX013042,...SRX013112,SRX013043,SRX013016,SRX013114,SRX013096,SRX013087,SRX013113 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.2nd_instar.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.2nd_instar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.2nd_instar dm3 All antigens Larvae 2nd instar SRX013015,SRX013042,...SRX013112,SRX013016,SRX013114,SRX013043,SRX013087,SRX013096,SRX013113 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.2nd_instar.bed ...

  13. Bioethanol production from crops - recent developments

    The author notes much higher rates of ethanol production in Brazil and the United States of America than in the European Economic Community. While bioethanol from arable crops makes environmental sense there is, at present, a sizeable difference between the value of fuel ethanol (Pound 100-130/t) and the cost of producing it (Pound 236-Pound 450/t). This gap could be remedied using excise duty. Farmers would like to change crop production but await a political initiative. The technology for bioethanol production still needs some fine tuning, with ETBE (an ether produced from reacting isobutylene with ethanol) being preferred to other methods. (UK)

  14. Severe weather phenomena: SQUALL LINES The case of July 2nd 2009

    Paraschivescu, Mihnea; Tanase, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    The wind intensity plays an important role, among the dangerous meteorological phenomena, to produce negative effects on the economy and the social activities, particularly when the wind is about to turn into a storm. During the past years one can notice an increase of wind frequency and intensity due to climate changes and, consequently, as a result of the extreme meteorological phenomena not only on a planetary level but also on a regional one. Although dangerous meteorological phenomena cannot be avoided, since they are natural, nevertheless they can be anticipated and decision making institutions and mass media can be informed. This is the reason why, in this paper, we set out to identify the synoptic conditions that led to the occurrence of the severe storm case in Bucharest on July 2nd, 2009, as well as the matrices that generate such cases. At the same time we sought to identify some indications evidence especially from radar data so as to lead to the improvement of the time interval between the nowcasting warning and the actual occurrence of the phenomenon.

  15. Bioethanol from different Finnish agricultural carbon sources

    Kautola, H.; Kymaelaeinen, M.; Tokeensuu, L.; Alatalo, T. (HAMK University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haemeenlinna (Finland)); Caerdenas, R. (Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad Ciencias Quimicas, Escuela de Quimica, Av. America. Ciudadela Universitaria, Quito (Ecuador)); Siukola, K.; Naesi, J. (Suomen Biojalostus Oy, Renko (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Bioethanol in fuel and its domestic production has become a great issue in Finland during the last few years. There has been discussion about what kind of raw materials should be used and are there any local priorities. In the years 2004-2007 local farmers in Haem e , in southern part of Finland, started to find alternative use for sugar beet due to drastic reduction of domestic sugar production in the near future. This was also the start of the experimental studies on bi oethanol production. The aim of the study was to find out how the change of carbon source will effect on bi oethanol yield. The bioethanol production was studied in laboratory scale using carbon sources of saccharose, glucose, sugar beet juice, sugar beet mash and barley hydrolysates pretreated with amylases, (beta-glucanase and xylanase). The yeast used was Saccharomyces sp. The pre experiments were performed in 250 mL flasks to optimize carbon, nitrogen and salts contents in production medium, also comparing different carbon sources and mixtures. The production was then studied in a 30 liter fermenter running for 36 hours. The preliminary studies showed that barley hydrolysate gave the best result 2,4% in bioethanol concentration during the performed fermentations, and saccharose was the best substrate in shake flask fermentations with a 9,6% bioethanol concentration. (orig.)

  16. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO2 emissions

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia;

    2016-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment...... except the treated yard waste which significantly increased by 54 % in glucose over the untreated waste. The most promising waste fractions were FW, CYPPW and mixed paper wastes. Careful selection of these fractions in feedstock for biofuel production would reduce generation of the waste, improve...

  18. A Soliton Hierarchy Associated with a Spectral Problem of 2nd Degree in a Spectral Parameter and Its Bi-Hamiltonian Structure

    Yuqin Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Associated with so~(3,R, a new matrix spectral problem of 2nd degree in a spectral parameter is proposed and its corresponding soliton hierarchy is generated within the zero curvature formulation. Bi-Hamiltonian structures of the presented soliton hierarchy are furnished by using the trace identity, and thus, all presented equations possess infinitely commuting many symmetries and conservation laws, which implies their Liouville integrability.

  19. Influence of Yeast and Enzyme Variation on Bioethanol Yield

    Liu, Guifang

    2012-01-01

    This is a study concerning the procedures of bio-ethanol production from the wood based biomass hydrolysates’ fermentation process. Required process conditions are analyzed and experimental data include raw material properties; bio-ethanol productivity and its impacts are evaluated to illustrate how the bio-ethanol production potential relates with the variation of the yeasts types. Theoretical background and experimental based research are majorly applied to achieve two targets that ...

  20. Power system economics : the Nordic electricity market. 2nd ed.

    This book written as a textbook for students of engineering is designed for the Norwegian Power Markets course which is part of the Energy and Environment Master's Program and the recently established international MSc program in Electric Power Engineering. As the title indicates, the book deals with both power system economics in general and the practical implementation and experience from the Nordic market. Areas of coverage include: -- Restructuring/deregulation of the power supply system -- Grid access including tariffs and congestion management -- Generation planning -- Market modeling -- Ancillary services -- Regulation of grid monopolies. Although Power Systems Economics is written primarily as a textbook for students, other readers will also find the book interesting. It deals with problems that have been subject of considerable attention in the power sector for some years and it addresses issues that are still relevant and important. (au)

  1. 2nd International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    Matson, Eric; Myung, Hyun; Xu, Peter; Karray, Fakhri

    2014-01-01

    We are facing a new technological challenge on how to store and retrieve knowledge and manipulate intelligence for autonomous services by intelligent systems which should be capable of carrying out real world tasks autonomously. To address this issue, robot researchers have been developing intelligence technology (InT) for “robots that think” which is in the focus of this book. The book covers all aspects of intelligence from perception at sensor level and reasoning at cognitive level to behavior planning at execution level for each low level segment of the machine. It also presents the technologies for cognitive reasoning, social interaction with humans, behavior generation, ability to cooperate with other robots, ambience awareness, and an artificial genome that can be passed on to other robots. These technologies are to materialize cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, collective intelligence, ambient intelligence and genetic intelligence. The book aims at serving resear...

  2. Monitoring North Korea Explosions: Status and Result of 1st and 2nd Tests (Invited)

    Chi, H.; Lee, H.; Shin, J.; Park, J.; Sheen, D.; Kim, G.; Che, I.; Lim, I.; Kim, T.

    2009-12-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthal full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries, and only stations with the distance of 200 to 550 Km from the test site were considered. Irrespective of azimuthal directions of stations from the test site, the conventional discrimination, Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly showed that both tests were explosion. But mb-Ms discrimination did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of 1st test, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of 1st and 2nd test data showed that 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of 1st and 2nd tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of 2nd test were much larger than that of 1st one. The ratio of 1st and 2nd P-wave amplitudes showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the estimated energy or yield were ranged from 4 to roughly 10 times. KIGAM evaluated the yield of 2nd test were 8 times in the average larger than that of 1st one.

  3. Regional Observations of North Korea Explosions: 1st and 2nd Tests

    Chi, Heon Cheol; Shin, Jin Soo; Lee, Hee-Il; Park, Jung Ho; Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Geunyoung; Kim, Tea Sung; Che, Il-Young; Lim, In-Seub

    2010-05-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthally full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of the 1st and the 2nd test data showed that the 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly discriminate these events from two nearby natural earthquakes above 4 Hz. Full moment tensor inversion also indicate the 2nd test had a very large isotropic component. But mb-Ms discrimination, which has been considered one of the most reliable discriminants for separating explosions and earthquakes, did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of the 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of both 1st and 2nd tests, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. These variations are mainly due to lateral variation of crustal structures surrounding the test site. Remarkably mb(Lg) showed very linear relationship with mb(Pn). By considering attenuation characteristics according to the propagation path, the variations could be effectively reduced. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of both tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of the 2nd test were much larger than that of the 1st one. The ratio of P-wave amplitudes of two tests showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the

  4. Advances in Sustainability: Contributions and Outcomes of the 2nd World Sustainability Forum

    Sylvie Flämig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After a successful start in 2011, the 2nd World Sustainability Forum (WSF was held on sciforum.net from 1–30 November 2012. More than 80 papers were presented and over 180 authors contributed to the multidisciplinary conference. The objective of this short report is to sum up the contributions and discussions of the 2nd World Sustainability Forum. It is organized as follows. First, some general information on the Forum is given, then a summary of the contributions to the different sections, as well as providing an overview of the discussions. A final section including an outlook to the 3rd World Sustainability Forum concludes the article.

  5. Advances in Sustainability: Contributions and Outcomes of the 2nd World Sustainability Forum

    Sylvie Flämig; Marc A. Rosen

    2013-01-01

    After a successful start in 2011, the 2nd World Sustainability Forum (WSF) was held on sciforum.net from 1–30 November 2012. More than 80 papers were presented and over 180 authors contributed to the multidisciplinary conference. The objective of this short report is to sum up the contributions and discussions of the 2nd World Sustainability Forum. It is organized as follows. First, some general information on the Forum is given, then a summary of the contributions to the different sections...

  6. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  7. Proceedings of the 2nd KUR symposium on hyperfine interactions

    Hyperfine interactions between a nuclear spin and an electronic spin discovered from hyperfine splitting in atomic optical spectra have been utilized not only for the determination of nuclear parameters in nuclear physics but also for novel experimental techniques in many fields such as solid state physics, chemistry, biology, mineralogy and for diagnostic methods in medical science. Experimental techniques based on hyperfine interactions yield information about microscopic states of matter so that they are important in material science. Probes for material research using hyperfine interactions have been nuclei in the ground state and radioactive isotopes prepared with nuclear reactors or particle accelerators. But utilization of muons generated from accelerators is recently growing. Such wide spread application of hyperfine interaction techniques gives rise to some difficulty in collaboration among various research fields. In these circumstances, the present workshop was planned after four years since the last KUR symposium on the same subject. This report summarizes the contributions to the workshop in order to be available for the studies of hyperfine interactions. (J.P.N.)

  8. Evaluation of thermostable enzymes for bioethanol processing

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia

    of fermentable sugars (glucose) as cellulose is tightly linked to hemicellulose and lignin. Lignocellulose is disrupted during pretreatment, but to degrade cellulose to single sugars, lignocellulolytic enzymes such as cellulases and hemicellulases are needed. Lignocellulolytic enzymes are costly for...... the ioethanol production, but the expenses can be reduced by using thermostable enzymes, which are known for their increased stability and inhibitor olerance. However, the advantage of using thermostable enzymes has not been studied thoroughly and more knowledge is needed for development of bioethanol...... processes. Enzymes are added to the bioethanol process after pretreatment. For an efficient sugar and ethanol yield, the solids content of biomass is normally increased, which results in highly viscous slurries that are difficult to mix. Therefore, the first enzymatic challenge is to ensure rapid reduction...

  9. DOE performance indicators for 2nd quarter CY 1993

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a Department-wide Performance Indicator (PI) Program for trending and analysis of operational data as directed by DOE Order 5480.26. The PI Program was established to provide a means for monitoring the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) performance of the DOE at the Secretary and other management levels. This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports generated for the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) by EG&G Idaho, Inc. to meet the requirements of the PI Program as directed by the DOE Standard (DOE-STD-1048-92). The information in this tenth quarterly report, while contributing to a historical database for supporting future trending analysis, does not at this time provide a sound basis for developing trend-related conclusions. In the future, it is expected that trending and analysis of operational data will enhance the safety culture in both DOE and contractor organizations by providing an early warning of deteriorating environment, safety, and health conditions. DOE-STD-1048-92 identifies four general areas of PIs. They are: Personnel Safety, Operational Incidents, Environment, and Management. These four areas have been subdivided into 26 performance indicators. Approximately 115 performance indicator control and distribution charts comprise the body of this report. A brief summary of PIs contained in each of these general areas is provided. The four EG&G facilities whose performance is charted herein are as follows: (1) The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), (2) The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), (3) The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), and (4) The Test Reactor Area (TRA) Hot Cells.

  10. Biorefinery of corn cob for microbial lipid and bio-ethanol production: An environmental friendly process.

    Cai, Di; Dong, Zhongshi; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    Microbial lipid and bio-ethanol were co-generated by an integrated process using corn cob bagasse as raw material. After pretreatment, the acid hydrolysate was used as substrate for microbial lipid fermentation, while the solid residue was further enzymatic hydrolysis for bio-ethanol production. The effect of acid loading and pretreatment time on microbial lipid and ethanol production were evaluated. Under the optimized condition for ethanol production, ∼131.3g of ethanol and ∼11.5g of microbial lipid were co-generated from 1kg raw material. On this condition, ∼71.6% of the overall fermentable sugars in corn cob bagasse could be converted into valuable products. At the same time, at least 33% of the initial COD in the acid hydrolysate was depredated. PMID:27060242

  11. 2nd international expert meeting straw power; 2. Internationale Fachtagung Strohenergie

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    Within the 2nd Guelzow expert discussions at 29th to 30th March, 2012 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Promotion of the utilisation of straw in Germany (A. Schuette); (2) The significance of straw in the heat and power generation in EU-27 member states in 2020 and in 2030 under consideration of the costs and sustainability criteria (C. Panoutsou); (3) State of he art of the energetic utilization of hay goods in Europe (D. Thraen); (4) Incineration technological characterisation of straw based on analysis data as well as measured data of large-scale installations (I. Obernberger); (5) Energetic utilization of hay goods in Germany (T. Hering); (6) Actual state of the art towards establishing the first German straw thermal power station (R. Knieper); (7) Straw thermal power plants at agricultural sow farms and poultry farms (H. Heilmann); (8) Country report power from straw in Denmark (A. Evald); (9) Country report power from straw in Poland (J. Antonowicz); (10) Country report power from straw in China (J. Zhang); (11) Energetic utilisation of straw in Czechia (D. Andert); (12) Mobile pelletization of straw (S. Auth); (13) Experiences with the straw thermal power plant from Vattenfall (N. Kirkegaard); (14) Available straw potentials in Germany (potential, straw provision costs) (C. Weiser); (15) Standardization of hay good and test fuels - Classification and development of product standards (M. Englisch); (16) Measures of reduction of emissions at hay good incinerators (V. Lenz); (17) Fermentation of straw - State of the art and perspectives (G. Reinhold); (18) Cellulosis - Ethanol from agricultural residues - Sustainable biofuels (A. Hartmair); (19) Syngas by fermentation of straw (N. Dahmen); (20) Construction using straw (D. Scharmer).

  12. Highlights of the 2nd session of the General Conference

    The debates of the Conference were based on the 'First Annual Report to the General Conference' (GC(n)/39) covering the period 23 October 1957 to 30 June 1958, the 'Programme and Budget for 1959' (GC(H)/36) both submitted by the Board of Governors and on the statement made by the Director General on 22 September 1958 (GC(II)OR. 14) which brought the survey of the Agency's activities up-to-date. Delegates appraised the first year's achievements and many speakers emphasized the importance of close international co-operation in the field of atomic energy and dealt with the role the IAEA was called upon to play. Referring to the offers of various and in particular fissionable materials several delegates supported the statement made by the Director General in his opening address that some preferential treatment must be given the Agency by the offering countries thereby providing some inducement for governments to utilize the channels of true international co-operation. Issues concerning safeguards and reactors were discussed. The Conference finally recommended that the Board of Governors should give earnest and early consideration to initiating action for a survey to be made of the needs of the less developed countries in the matter of nuclear power generation plants, and to the adoption of measures for continuing study regarding the development of technology and economics of small and medium scale nuclear power reactors best suited for less developed countries, and assisting them in planning and implementing their training programmes in that connection. The Conference, finally, voted in favour of the appropriations necessary for the setting up of laboratory facilities. Practically all delegates agreed, although with varying emphasis, on the importance of technical assistance and other activities of the IAEA which would soonest benefit the less advanced countries. The General Conference finally approved by 59 votes, none against and one abstention the Board of Governors

  13. Progress in the production of bioethanol on starch-based feedstocks

    Dragiša Savić; Maja Vukašinović; Svetlana Nikolić; Jelena Pejin; Marica Rakin; Siniša Markov; Dušanka Pejin; Ljiljana Mojović; Olgica Grujić

    2009-01-01

    Bioethanol produced from renewable biomass, such as sugar, starch, or lignocellulosic materials, is one of the alternative energy resources, which is both renewable and environmentally friendly. Although, the priority in global future ethanol production is put on lignocellulosic processing, which is considered as one of the most promising second-generation biofuel technologies, the utilizetion of lignocellulosic material for fuel ethanol is still under improvement. Sugar- based (molasses, sug...

  14. Engineering of core Pentose Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Bio-ethanol Production

    Pereira, Filipa Alexandra Barroso

    2013-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências (Especialidade em Biologia) Renewable fuels that do not contribute to atmospheric carbon dioxide have gained increased attention due to peak oil and the possibility of carbon dioxide induced climate change. Bioethanol is the currently largest biofuel in terms of annual production and is mainly produce by fermentation of hexose sugars in sucrose or starch from sugarcane or corn by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Second generation biofuel is ...

  15. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    Möllers, K. Benedikt; Canella, D.; Jørgensen, Henning; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Microbial bioconversion of photosynthetic biomass is a promising approach to the generation of biofuels and other bioproducts. However, rapid, high-yield, and simple processes are essential for successful applications. Here, biomass from the rapidly growing photosynthetic marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results: The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated und...

  16. Bioconversion of biodegradable municipal solid waste (BMSW) to glucose for bio-ethanol production.

    Li, A

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW), as an emerging biomass source, presents a unique opportunity for large-scale second-generation bioethanol production. Feedstock supply is reliable and in sufficient quantity, making it a promising biomass source but the conversion yield is currently too low to make it financially attractive. This work presented in this thesis provides a better understanding of bioconversion systems, in particular of pre-treatment and hydrolysis processes which contribute to more t...

  17. Integrated bioethanol and biomanure production from potato waste.

    Chintagunta, Anjani Devi; Jacob, Samuel; Banerjee, Rintu

    2016-03-01

    Disposal of potato processing waste and the problem of pollution associated with it is a vital issue that is being faced by the potato processing plants. The conventional peeling methods presently followed in the processing plants for removing the potato peel, also result in the loss of some portion of the mash which is rich in starch. Indiscriminate discharge of the waste causes detrimental effects in the environment, so this problem can be resolved by successful utilization of the waste for the generation of value added products. Hence, the present work focuses on integrated production of bioethanol and biomanure to utilize the waste completely leading to zero waste generation. The first part of the work describes a comparative study of ethanol production from potato peel and mash wastes by employing co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at various incubation time (24-120 h) instead of application of enzymes. The solid state fermentation of potato peel and mash inoculated with co-culture, resulted in bioethanol production of 6.18% (v/v) and 9.30% (v/v) respectively. In the second part of the work, the residue obtained after ethanol production was inoculated with seven different microorganisms (Nostoc muscorum, Fischerella muscicola, Anabaena variabilis, Aulosira fertilissima, Cylindrospermum muscicola, Azospirillium lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum) and mixture of all the organisms in equal ratio for nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) enrichment. Among them, A. variabilis was found to enrich N, P and K content of the residue by nearly 7.66, 21.66 and 15 fold than that of the initial content, ultimately leading to improved N:P:K ratio of approximately 2:1:1. The application of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for the conversion of potato waste to ethanol and enrichment of residue obtained after ethanol production with microorganisms to be used as manure envisages environmental sustainability. PMID:26316099

  18. Generation of controller of an underwater robot for constant altitude cruising by self-training. 2nd Report. ; Modification of forward model and adaptation process. Jiko kunren ni yoru kaichu robot no teikodo koko. 2. ; Forward model to controller no chosei hoho no kairyo

    Suto, T.; Ura, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)

    1993-12-01

    As a guidance system to be applied to constant altitude cruising of the self-controlling underwater robot, improvement of the SONCS (composed from controller network and forward model network) proposed in the previous paper by the author's laboratory is reported. The forward model network was divided into three modules respectively holding a function representing dynamics of the robot and deriving the quantity of state at a next time-step, a function of deriving the data of distance measurement at the next step, and a function of calculating the altitude from the data of distance measurement. A difference type network which represents the output with the increment from the input and a learning method which generates temporary instruction data train from the signals reversely propagating the forward network and thereby adjusts the controller network were introduced. Effectiveness of these three technical improvements was demonstrated based on numerical simulation. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop MUPPLE’09

    Wild, Fridolin; Kalz, Marco; Palmér, Matthias; Müller, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Wild, F., Kalz, M., Palmér, M., & Müller, D. (Eds.). (2009). Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop MUPPLE’09. September, 29, 2009, Nice, France: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, online http://sunsite.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/Publications/CEUR-WS/Vol-506/

  20. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    Maxfield, D.A. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. Introductory statement to the 2nd scientific forum on sustainable development: A role for nuclear power?

    In his Introductory Statement to the 2nd Scientific Forum on 'Sustainable Development - A Role for Nuclear Power?' (Vienna, 28 September 1999), the Director General of the IAEA focussed on the the main aspects concerning the development of nuclear power: safety, competitiveness, and public support

  2. Proceedings of the 2nd Mediterranean Conference on Information Technology Applications (ITA '97)

    This is the proceedings of the 2nd Mediterranean Conference on Information Technology Applications, held in Nicosia, Cyprus, between 6-7 November, 1997. It contains 16 papers. Two of these fall within the scope of INIS and are dealing with Telemetry, Radiation Monitoring, Environment Monitoring, Radiation Accidents, Air Pollution Monitoring, Diagnosis, Computers, Radiology and Data Processing

  3. The 2nd Global Space Development Summit Held In Washington DC

    Bian Ji

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 2nd Global Space Development Summit,organized by the Center for Strategic and International Studies in partnership with the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Space Foundation and the Chinese Society of Astronautics (CSA), took place in Washington, D.C. On November 12-13.

  4. The Effect of Using Computer Edutainment on Developing 2nd Primary Graders' Writing Skills

    Mohammed Abdel Raheem, Azza Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    The present study attempted to examine the effect of using computer edutainment on developing 2nd graders' writing skills. The study comprised thirty-second year primary stage enrolled in Bani Hamad primary governmental school, Minia governorate. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one…

  5. Stem cells and cancer immunotherapy: Arrowhead’s 2nd annual cancer immunotherapy conference

    Bot, Adrian; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Cornforth, Andrew; Brian J Czerniecki; Ferrone, Soldano; Geles, Kenneth; Greenberg, Philip D.; Hurt, Elaine; Koya, Richard C.; Masoud H Manjili; Matsui, William; Morgan, Richard A.; Palena, Claudia M; Powell Jr, Daniel J; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from academia and industry gathered on April 4 and 5, 2013, in Washington DC at the Arrowhead’s 2nd Annual Cancer Immunotherapy Conference. Two complementary concepts were discussed: cancer “stem cells” as targets and therapeutic platforms based on stem cells.

  6. 2nd International Congress on Economics and Business – New Economic Trends and Business Opportunities

    ARIK, Nazlı

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In this study, the evaluation of The 2nd International Congress On Economics And Business: New Economic Trends and Business Opportunities held on May 30- June 3, 2016 in Sarajevo will be mentioned.Keywords. Economics, Economic Trends, Business Opportunities,  Labour Relations, Financial economics.JEL. M10, M20, O10.

  7. Environmental sustainability analysis of UK whole-wheat bioethanol and CHP systems

    The UK whole-wheat bioethanol and straw and DDGS-based combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems were assessed for environmental sustainability using a range of impact categories or characterisations (IC): cumulative primary fossil energy (CPE), land use, life cycle global warming potential over 100 years (GWP100), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and abiotic resources use (ARU). The European Union (EU) Renewable Energy Directive's target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving of 60% in comparison to an equivalent fossil-based system by 2020 seems to be very challenging for stand-alone wheat bioethanol system. However, the whole-wheat integrated system, wherein the CHP from the excess straw grown in the same season and from the same land is utilised in the wheat bioethanol plant, can be demonstrated for potential sustainability improvement, achieving 85% emission reduction and 97% CPE saving compared to reference fossil systems. The net bioenergy from this system and from 172,370 ha of grade 3 land is 12.1 PJ y−1 providing land to energy yield of 70 GJ ha−1 y−1. The use of DDGS as an animal feed replacing soy meal incurs environmental emission credit, whilst its use in heat or CHP generation saves CPE. The hot spots in whole system identified under each impact category are as follows: bioethanol plant and wheat cultivation for CPE (50% and 48%), as well as for ARU (46% and 52%). EP and GWP100 are distributed among wheat cultivation (49% and 37%), CHP plant (26% and 30%) and bioethanol plant (25%, and 33%), respectively. -- Highlights: ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 85% GHG emission reduction. ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 97% primary energy saving. ► The land to energy yield of the UK whole-wheat system is 70 GJ ha−1 y−1. ► Fertiliser production is the hotspot. ► DDGS and straw-based CHP system integration to wheat bioethanol is feasible

  8. Production of Bioethanol From Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    Georgieva, Tania I.

    2006-01-01

    xylose conversion, effective glucose/xylose co-fermentation, and ethanol productivity of 1 g/l/h required for an economically viable bioethanol process. Furthermore, the fermentation of two undetoxified feed streams of industrial interest (acid hydrolyzed corn stover and wet-exploded wheat straw...... hydrolysates indicate the great potential of the tested strain as a realistic candidate for industrial scale bioethanol production from lignocellulose. The study shows that the use of fluidized bed reactor technology might be a viable approach in a commercial lignocellulose-based bioethanol process using......Bioethanol (ethanol produced from biomass) as a motor fuel is an attractive renewable fully sustainable energy sources as a means of lowering dependence on fossil fuels and air pollution towards greenhouse gasses, particularly CO2. Bioethanol, unlike gasoline, is an oxygenated fuel, which burns...

  9. Thermotolerant Yeasts for Bioethanol Production Using Lignocellulosic Substrates

    Pasha, Chand; Rao, L. Venkateswar

    No other sustainable option for production of transportation fuels can match ethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass with respect to its dramatic environmental, economic, strategic and infrastructure advantages. Substantial progress has been made in advancing biomass ethanol (bioethanol) production technology to the point that it now has commercial potential, and several firms are engaged in the demanding task of introducing first-of-a-kind technology into the marketplace to make bioethanol a reality in existing fuel-blending markets. In order to lower pollution India has a long-term goal to use biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel). Ethanol may be used either in pure form, or as a blend in petrol in different proportions. Since the cost of raw materials, which can account up to 50 % of the total production cost, is one of the most significant factors affecting the economy of alcohol, nowadays efforts are more concentrated on using cheap and abundant raw materials. Several forms of biomass resources exist (starch or sugar crops, weeds, oil plants, agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes) but of all biomass cellulosic resources represent the most abundant global source. The lignocellulosic materials include agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes (MSW), pulp mill refuse, switchgrass and lawn, garden wastes. Lignocellulosic materials contain two types of polysaccharides, cellulose and hemicellulose, bound together by a third component lignin. The principal elements of the lignocellulosic research include: i) evaluation and characterization of the waste feedstock; ii) pretreatment including initial clean up or dewatering of the feedstock; and iii) development of effective direct conversion bioprocessing to generate ethanol as an end product. Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials is a step in which some of the hemicellulose dissolves in water, either as monomeric sugars or as oligomers and polymers. The cellulose cannot be enzymatically hydrolyzed to

  10. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones. PMID:26247310