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Sample records for 2h 3h 5h

  1. Monitoring dehydration of the organic-inorganic [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound using simultaneous thermal and Raman studies

    Hajlaoui, S.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.; Bulou, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we report the experimental studies of the structural phase transition in the [(C3H7)4N]SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Raman spectroscopic. The X-ray powder diffraction study of the [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O sample at room temperature showed that this compound is monoclinic and has P121/c1 space group. Differential scanning calorimetric disclosed two types of phase transitions in the temperature range 356-376 (T1) K and at 393 K (T2) characterized, by a loss of water molecules and probably a reconstruction of new anionic parts after T2 transition. The Raman scattering spectra recorded at various temperatures in the wavenumber range from 100 to 3800 cm- 1 covering the domains of existence of changes in the vicinity of the two phase transitions detected by DSC measurement. A detailed study of the spectral parameters (wave number, reduced intensity and the full width at half maximum) as a function of temperature of a chosen band, associated with (νs(Snsbnd O) + νs(Snsbnd Cl)), based on an order-disorder model allowed us to obtain information relative to the activation energy and correlation length.

  2. Monitoring dehydration of the organic-inorganic [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound using simultaneous thermal and Raman studies.

    Hajlaoui, S; Chaabane, I; Guidara, K; Bulou, A

    2016-07-01

    In this work we report the experimental studies of the structural phase transition in the [(C3H7)4N]SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Raman spectroscopic. The X-ray powder diffraction study of the [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O sample at room temperature showed that this compound is monoclinic and has P121/c1 space group. Differential scanning calorimetric disclosed two types of phase transitions in the temperature range 356-376 (T1) K and at 393K (T2) characterized, by a loss of water molecules and probably a reconstruction of new anionic parts after T2 transition. The Raman scattering spectra recorded at various temperatures in the wavenumber range from 100 to 3800cm(-1) covering the domains of existence of changes in the vicinity of the two phase transitions detected by DSC measurement. A detailed study of the spectral parameters (wave number, reduced intensity and the full width at half maximum) as a function of temperature of a chosen band, associated with (νs(SnO)+νs(SnCl)), based on an order-disorder model allowed us to obtain information relative to the activation energy and correlation length. PMID:27070530

  3. Structure of Eu2(PO3H)3.2,5H2O

    Dieuropium trisphosphonate 2.5-hydrate, Eu2(PO3H)3.2.5H2O, Mr=588.9, triclinic, P anti 1, a=6.608(1), b=6.899(1), c=12.977(2) A, α=82.66(1), β=80.64(1), γ=73.97(1) , V=558.9(2) A3, Z=2, Dm=3.48(1), Dx=3.500 Mg m-3, λ(Mo Kα)=0.71073 A, μ=11.60 mm-1, F(000)=542, T=293 K, R=0.0279 for 1807 independent reflections. The structure contains three independent phosphonate anions. One Eu3+ is eight-coordinated but the other is either eight-coordinated or seven-coordinated owing to the half occupancy of one water molecule. Three [EuO8] dodecahedra and one [EuO7] monocapped trigonal prism alternate so that, by sharing one edge, infinite chains are formed parallel to the [011] direction. The chains are held together by PO3H2- anions and water molecules. (orig.)

  4. Temperature dependence of third order ion molecule reactions. The reaction H+3 + 2H2 = H+5 + H2

    The rate constants k1 for Reaction (1): H+3+2H2 = H+5+H2 were measured in the temperature range 100--300 degreeK. The temperature dependence of k1 has the form k1proportionalT-/subn/, where n=2.3. Pierce and Porter have reported a much stronger negative temperature dependence with n=4.6. The difference arises from a determination of k1 at 300 degreeK obtained by Arifov and used by Porter. The present k1 (300 degreeK) =9times10-30 (cm6 molecules-2center-dotsec-1). This is more than an order of magnitude larger than the Arifov value. The temperature dependence of third body dependent association reactions like (1) is examined on the basis of the energy transfer theory and the recently proposed trimolecular complex transition state theory by Meot-Ner, Solomon, Field, and Gershinowitz. The temperature dependence of the rate constant for the reverse reaction (-1) is obtained from k1 and the previously determined temperature dependence of the equilibria (1). k/sub -//sub 1/ gives a good straight line Arrhenius plot leading to k/sub -//sub 1/ =8.7times10-6 exp(-8.4/RT) cm3 molecules-1center-dotsec-1. The activation energy is in kcal/mole. The preexponential factor is much larger than the rate constant for Langevin collisions. This is typical for pyrolysis of ions involving second order activation

  5. Synthesis of novel 2H,5H-Dihydrofuran-3-yl Ketones via ISNC reactions

    Grandbois, Matthew L.; Betsch, Kelsie J.; Buchanan, William D.; Duffy-Matzner, Jetty L.

    2009-01-01

    Unique 1-[2H,5H-dihydrofur-3-yl]ketones have been synthesized from propargylic nitroethers via intramolecular cycloadditions involving silyl nitronates. Various substituent groups were placed on the 2 and 5 positions of the dihydrofuran rings. We examined the scope of the long-range coupling in proton NMR of the oxo-dihydrofuran products. The identities of the diastereomers resulting from the Michael Addition/cycloaddition reactions were tentatively assigned for the first time. CAChe MNDO PM5 and CONFLEX programs were engaged to assist with the identification of these stereoisomers. The reaction times and conditions for these oxo-dihydrofurans were found to be different than that of the published dihydrofuranals, which led us to propose a different mechanism. PMID:20161382

  6. A Search for ^2H, ^3H, and ^3He in Large Solar Flares

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a new study of solar flare H and He isotopes imply that earlier observations have significantly overestimated the abundances of ^2H, ^3H, and ^3He in large solar flares. We find no evidence that solar flare nuclei have suffered any significant amount of fragmentation before escaping from the Sun.

  7. Study of the tau- -> 3h- 2h+ nu-tau Decay

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Elsen, E E; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Band, H R; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary measurement of the branching fraction of the tau- -> 3h-2h+nu decay (h= pi, K$) with the BaBar detector is found to be {8.52 +/- 0.09 +/- 0.40} x 10E-4, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. The data show evidence that the rho resonance plays a strong role in the decay of the tau lepton to five charged hadrons.

  8. Characterization Results for the 2014 HTF 3H & 2H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    Washington, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-05-11

    This report tabulates the radiochemical analysis of the 3H and 2H evaporator overhead samples for 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I to meet the requirements in the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) (rev. 6). This report identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. All data was found to be within the ETP WAC (rev. 6) specification for the Waste Water Collection Tanks (WWCT).

  9. Ab initio study of {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He, {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 4}He reactions and the tensor force

    Arai, K.; Aoyama, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Descouvemont, P.; Baye, D. [Division of General Education, Nagaoka National College of Technology, 888 Nishikatakai, Nagaoka, Niigata, 940-8532 (Japan); Center for Academic Information Service, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan and RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, C.P.229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Physique Quantique, CP165/82, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-11-12

    The {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He, and {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He reactions at low energies are studied with realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions in an ab initio approach. The obtained astrophysical S-factors are all in very good agreement with experiment. The most important channels for both transfer and radiative capture are all found to dominate thanks to the tensor force.

  10. {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reactions at sub-coulomb energies

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Typel, S.; Sparta, R.; Aliotta, M.; Kroha, V.; Hons, Z.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Mrazek, J.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L. [Universita degli Studi di Enna Kore, and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cyclotron Institute Texas A and M University - College Station, Texas (United States); Excellence Cluster Universe - Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching, Germany and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH - Theorie Darmstadt (Germany); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); School of Physics and Astronomy - University of Edinburgh, SUPA (United Kingdom); Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR - Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR - Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2012-11-20

    The {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,p{sup 3}H){sup 1}H and {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,n{sup 3}He){sup 1}H processes have been measured in quasi free kinematics to investigate for the first time the {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reactions by means of the Trojan Horse Method. The {sup 3}He+d experiment was performed at 18 MeV, corresponding the a d-d energy range from 1.5 MeV down to 2 keV. This range overlaps with the relevant region for Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis as well as with the thermal energies of future fusion reactors and deuterium burning in the Pre Main Sequence phase of stellar evolution. This is the first pioneering experiment in quasi free regime where the charged spectator is detected. Both the energy dependence and the absolute value of the bare nucleus S(E) factors have been extracted for the first time. They deviate by more than 15% from available direct data with new S(0) values of 57.4{+-}1.8 MeVb for {sup 3}H+p and 60.1{+-}1.9 MeVb for {sup 3}He+n. None of the existing fitting curves is able to provide the correct slope of the new data in the full range, thus calling for a revision of the theoretical description. This has consequences in the calculation of the reaction rates with more than a 25% increase at the temperatures of future fusion reactors.

  11. Trojan Horse particle invariance for 2H(d,p)3H reaction: a detailed study

    Pizzone R.G.; Spitaleri C.; Bertulani C.A.; Mukhamedzhanov A.M.; Blokhintsev L.; La Cognata M.; Lamia L.; Rinollo A.; Spartá R.; Tumino A.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades the Trojan Horse method has played a crucial role for the measurement of several charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary d(d,p)t reaction was therefore tested using the quasi free 2H(6Li, pt)4He and 2H(3He,pt)H reaction...

  12. On the Crystal Structure of [Cu(OH)2(H2O)2(4-C5H4NCOOH)2

    Ng Seik Weng

    2003-01-01

    The compound described as [Cu(OH)2(H2O)2(4-C5H4NCOOH)2] in Chin. J. Struct. Chem., 2001, 20: 478-480 is instead the compound [Cu(H2O)4(4-C5H4NCOO)2], whose crystal structure has already been published elsewhere.

  13. New determination of the {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction rates at astrophysical energies

    Tumino, A.; Spartà, R.; Spitaleri, C.; Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Cyclotron Institute Texas A and M University-College Station, Texas (United States); Typel, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH-Theorie Darmstadt (Germany); Tognelli, E.; Degl' Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, and INFN-Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Hons, Z.; Mrazek, J.; Piskor, S. [Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR-Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Lamia, L., E-mail: tumino@lns.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-04-20

    The cross sections of the {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reactions have been measured via the Trojan Horse method applied to the quasi-free {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,p {sup 3}H){sup 1}H and {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,n {sup 3}He){sup 1}H processes at 18 MeV off the proton in {sup 3}He. For the first time, the bare nucleus S(E) factors have been determined from 1.5 MeV, across the relevant region for standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis, down to the thermal energies of deuterium burning in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase of stellar evolution, as well as of future fusion reactors. Both the energy dependence and the absolute value of the S(E) factors deviate by more than 15% from the available direct data and existing fitting curves, with substantial variations in the electron screening by more than 50%. As a consequence, the reaction rates for astrophysics experience relevant changes, with a maximum increase of up to 20% at the temperatures of the PMS phase. From a recent primordial abundance sensitivity study, it turns out that the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction is quite influential on {sup 7}Li, and the present change in the reaction rate leads to a decrease in its abundance by up to 10%. The present reaction rates have also been included in an updated version of the FRANEC evolutionary code to analyze their influence on the central deuterium abundance in PMS stars with different masses. The largest variation of about 10%-15% pertains to young stars (≤1 Myr) with masses ≥1 M {sub ☉}.

  14. The enthalpies of formation of nesquehonite, MgCO3 * 3H2O, and hydromagnesite, 5MgO * 4CO2 * 5H2O

    Hemingway, Bruce S.; Robie, Richard A.

    1973-01-01

    The enthalpies of formation, ΔH°f, of nesquehonite, MgCO3 * 3H2O, and hydromagnesite, 5MgO * 4CO2 * 5H2O, have been determined by HCl solution calorimetry. For the reaction MgO(c) + CO2(g) + 3H2O(l) = MgCO2 * 3H2O(c), the enthalpy change at 298.15 K is -29,781*40 cal mor' . For the reaction 5MgO(c) + 4CO2 + 5H2O = 5MgO * 4CO2 * 5H2O, the enthalpy change at 298.15 K is -120,310±120 cal. For MgCO3 * 3H2O the standard molar enthalpy and standard Gibbs free energy of formation, ΔH°f,298 and ΔG°f,298 are -472,576+110 and 412,040±120 cal. ΔH°f,298 and ΔG°f,298 for 5MgO * 4CO2 * 5H2O are -1,557,090±250 and -1,401,71 0±250 cal.

  15. On the formation of cyclopentadiene in the C3H5˙ + C2H2 reaction

    Bouwman, J.; Bodi, A.; Oomens, J.; Hemberger, P.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction between the allyl radical (C3H5˙) and acetylene (C2H2) in a heated microtubular reactor has been studied at the VUV beamline of the Swiss Light Source. The reaction products are sampled from the reactor and identified by their photoion mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectra (ms-TPES) by means of imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy. Cyclopentadiene is identified as the sole reaction product by comparison of the measured photoelectron spectrum with that o...

  16. Regioselective synthesis of (E)-2-[2H or 3H]-5-succinimido-4-oxo-pent-2-enoic acid

    The synthesis of highly enriched C-2 deuteriated and tritiated (E)-5-succinimido-4-oxo-pent-2-enoic acid for use in enzymatic reduction is described. The starting materials 3-methoxycarbonyl-[3-2H]propionyl chloride and 3-methoxycarbonyl-[3-3H]propionyl chloride were prepared in high yield by regioselective deuteriation or tritiation of monomethyl succinate. The synthetic route involved regioselective bromination of 5-succinimidolaevulinic acid followed by dehydrobromination. (author)

  17. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    Huang He

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum.

  18. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    He, Huang; Ke, Hu; Keting, Han; Qiaoyan, Xiang; Silan, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH) gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum. PMID:24250783

  19. Trojan Horse particle invariance for 2H(d,p3H reaction: a detailed study

    Pizzone R.G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the Trojan Horse method has played a crucial role for the measurement of several charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary d(d,pt reaction was therefore tested using the quasi free 2H(6Li, pt4He and 2H(3He,ptH reactions after 6Li and 3He break-up, respectively. The astrophysical S(E-factor for the d(d,pt binary process was then extracted in the framework of the Plane Wave Approximation applied to the two different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nucleus also for the present case.

  20. Trojan Horse particle invariance for 2H(d,p)3H reaction: a detailed study

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Rinollo, A.; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.

    2014-03-01

    In the last decades the Trojan Horse method has played a crucial role for the measurement of several charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary d(d,p)t reaction was therefore tested using the quasi free 2H(6Li, pt)4He and 2H(3He,pt)H reactions after 6Li and 3He break-up, respectively. The astrophysical S(E)-factor for the d(d,p)t binary process was then extracted in the framework of the Plane Wave Approximation applied to the two different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nucleus also for the present case.

  1. Measurement of the 2H(d ,p ) 3H reaction at astrophysical energies via the Trojan-horse method

    Li, Chengbo; Wen, Qungang; Fu, Yuanyong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Shuhua; Meng, Qiuying; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.; Pizzone, R. G.; Lamia, L.

    2015-08-01

    The study of the 2H(d ,p ) 3H reaction is very important for the nucleosynthesis in both the standard Big Bang and stellar evolution, as well as for the future fusion reactor's planning of energy production. The 2H(d ,p ) 3H bare nucleus astrophysical S (E ) factor has been measured indirectly at energies from about 400 keV down to several keV by means of the Trojan-horse method applied to the quasifree process 2H(6Li ,p t ) 4He induced at a lithium beam energy of 9.5 MeV, which is closer to the zero-quasifree-energy point. An accurate analysis leads to the determination of the Sbare(0 ) =56.7 ±2.0 keV b and of the corresponding electron screening potential Ue=13.2 ±4.3 eV. In addition, this work gives an updated test for the Trojan-horse nucleus invariance by comparing with previous indirect investigations using the 3He=(d +p ) breakup.

  2. Crystal structure of the binary complex of cobalt and zinc chlorides with carbamide [Co(OCN2H4)5(H2O)][ZnCl4

    Mixed single crystals of [Co(OCN2H4)5(H2O)][ZnCl4] were grown by the isothermal evaporation of an aqueous solution. The crystal structure of this complex was established by X-ray diffraction (R = 0.052 based on 7003 reflections). The crystals consist of [Co(OCN2H4)5(H2O)]2+ cations containing Co atoms in an octahedral coordination and [ZnCl4]2-] anions containing Zn atoms in a tetrahedral coordination. The carbamide molecules are involved in both intramolecular and interionic hydrogen bonds. The H2O molecule forms hydrogen bonds with the anions.

  3. First results of the isotopic study (18O, 2H, 3H) of the Douala Quaternary aquifer (Cameroon)

    The Quaternary sandy aquifer of the Douala sedimentary basin generally shows homogeneous isotopic abundances (18O, 2H, 3H) of water sampled at different depths.The large majority of these samples indicated a direct and fast infiltration of precipitation, without significant evaporation. This homogeneity can moreover be accentuated under the pumping effects, connecting various levels of the multilayer aquifer. These results show that pollution from the surface can quickly reach the deeper layers, and seems to corroborate those obtained on the basis of field measurements and chemical analyses. (author)

  4. First results of the isotopic study (18O, 2H, 3H) of the Douala Quaternary aquifer (Cameroon)

    The quaternary sandy aquifer of the Douala sedimentary basin generally indicates homogeneity in isotopic abundance (18O, 2H, 3H) of water sampled at different depths. The large majority of these samples indicated a direct and fast infiltration of the precipitations, without significant evaporation. This homogeneity can moreover be accentuated under the pumping effects, putting in communication various levels of the multilayer aquifer. These results show that pollution from the surface can quickly reach the deeper layers, and seems to corroborate those obtained on the basis of field measurements and chemical analyses. (author)

  5. Experimental studies of collisions of excited Li(4p) atoms with C2H4, C2H6, C3H8 and theoretical interpretation of the Li-C2H4 system

    Collisions of excited Li(4p) states with C2H4, C2H6 and C3H8 are studied experimentally using far-wing scattering state spectroscopy techniques. High-level ab initio quantum mechanical studies of the Li-C2H4 system are conducted to explain the results of the experiment for this system. The recent and present works indicate that knowledge of the internal structure of the perturber (C2H4, C2H6 and C3H8) is essential to fully understand the interaction between the metal and the hydrocarbon molecules. The ab initio calculation shows that the Li(4d) (with little probability under the experimental conditions) and the Li(4p) can be formed directly through the laser pumping. It also shows that the Li(4s) and Li(3d) states can be formed through an electronic diabatic coupling involving a radiationless process. However, the Li(3p), Li(3s) and Li(2p) states can only be formed through a secondary diabatic coupling which is a much less probable process than the primary one. The calculation limited to two C2v sections of the potential energy surfaces (PESs) shows peculiar multi-state crossings that we have never seen in other lithium complexes we studied

  6. Background considerations for the 2H(7Be,3H)6Be experimental data II: Three-body continuum

    Chae, K. Y.; Guimarães, V.

    2015-11-01

    The present article reports second background considerations for the experimentally obtained 2H(7Be,3H)6Be differential cross sections. The one-neutron transfer reaction was measured in inverse kinematics by using radioactive 7Be ( t 1/2 = 53.2 days) beams at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 in order to search for the resonances in the unbound 6Be nucleus. Resonances in this nucleus would affect the 3He(3He,2 p)4He reaction rate of the proton-proton chain occurring in stars such as our sun. The result shows, however, that the direct transfer to 6Be resonances is not particularly strong compared to other reaction channels that can produce tritons in the exit channels. The goals of the present work is to better understand the cross section data from transfer reaction measurements by adopting background considerations using the three-body continuum.

  7. Geostatistical Analysis of Spatial Isotope (δ18O, δ2H and 3H) Variability of Groundwater Across Morocco

    Environmental isotopes are increasingly being used for a variety of applications in the fields of the Earth's water cycle and climate change. This paper reports the first national level survey of δ18O, δ2H, 3H and 14C in groundwater across Morocco, including the analysis of the spatial distribution of stable (δ18O and δ2H) and radioactive (tritium and carbon-14) isotopes used to assess eleven groundwater basins distributed across Morocco. The interpolations were carried out using ESRI ArcGIS 9.2 with spatial analyst extension. The methods used are ordinary kriging inverse distance weighting (IDW). The maps showing the spatial variability of tritium and radiocarbon in the basins are used to visualize the presence of modern and old groundwater, while the stable isotope maps show that the age of groundwater, the type (shallow or deep groundwater), the distance of the basin from the sea (Atlantic and Mediterranean) and the altitude are the main factors influencing the isotopic composition of groundwater. Those thematic maps will provide a valuable contribution for sustainable groundwater management of resources for drinking water supplies, agriculture and industry, which is a prime concern in countries dominated by arid and semiarid climates such as Morocco. (author)

  8. {sup 18}O, {sup 2}H and {sup 3}H isotopic composition of precipitation and shallow groundwater in Olkiluoto

    Hendriksson, N. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Karhu, J.; Niinikoski, P. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    The isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in local precipitation is a key parameter in the modelling of local water circulation. This study was initiated in order to provide systematic monthly records of the isotope content of atmospheric precipitation in the Olkiluoto area and to establish the relation between local rainfall and newly formed groundwater. During January 2005 - December 2012, a total of 85 cumulative monthly rainfall samples and 68 shallow groundwater samples were collected and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen was recorded for all those samples. Tritium values are available for 79 precipitation and 65 groundwater samples. Based on the 8-year monitoring, the long-term weighted annual mean isotope values of precipitation and the mean values of shallow groundwater are -11.59 per mille and -11.27 per mille for δ{sup 18}O, - 82.3 per mille and -80.3 per mille for δ{sup 2}H and 9.8 and 9.1 TU for tritium, respectively. Based on these data, the mean stable isotope ratios of groundwater represent the long-term mean annual isotopic composition of local precipitation. The precipitation data were used to establish the local meteoric water line (LMWL) for the Olkiluoto area. The line is formulated as: δ{sup 2}H = 7.45 star δ{sup 18}O + 3.82. The isotope time series reveal a change in time. The increasing trend for the δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H values may be related to climatic variability while the gradual decline observed in the {sup 3}H data is attributed to the still continuing decrease in atmospheric {sup 3}H activity in the northern hemisphere. The systematic seasonal and long-term tritium trends suggest that any potential ground-level tritium release from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plants is insignificant. The d-excess values of Olkiluoto precipitation during the summer period indicated that a notable amount of re-cycled Baltic Sea water may have contributed to precipitation in the Finnish southern coast. Preliminary estimates

  9. 2H,3H-decafluoropentane-based nanodroplets: new perspectives for oxygen delivery to hypoxic cutaneous tissues.

    Mauro Prato

    Full Text Available Perfluoropentane (PFP-based oxygen-loaded nanobubbles (OLNBs were previously proposed as adjuvant therapeutic tools for pathologies of different etiology sharing hypoxia as a common feature, including cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. Here we introduce a new platform of oxygen nanocarriers, based on 2H,3H-decafluoropentane (DFP as core fluorocarbon. These new nanocarriers have been named oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNDs since DFP is liquid at body temperature, unlike gaseous PFP. Dextran-shelled OLNDs, available either in liquid or gel formulations, display spherical morphology, ~600 nm diameters, anionic charge, good oxygen carrying capacity, and no toxic effects on human keratinocytes after cell internalization. In vitro OLNDs result more effective in releasing oxygen to hypoxic environments than former OLNBs, as demonstrated by analysis through oxymetry. In vivo, OLNDs effectively enhance oxy-hemoglobin levels, as emerged from investigation by photoacoustic imaging. Interestingly, ultrasound (US treatment further improves transdermal oxygen release from OLNDs. Taken together, these data suggest that US-activated, DFP-based OLNDs might be innovative, suitable and cost-effective devices to topically treat hypoxia-associated pathologies of the cutaneous tissues.

  10. 2H,3H-decafluoropentane-based nanodroplets: new perspectives for oxygen delivery to hypoxic cutaneous tissues.

    Prato, Mauro; Magnetto, Chiara; Jose, Jithin; Khadjavi, Amina; Cavallo, Federica; Quaglino, Elena; Panariti, Alice; Rivolta, Ilaria; Benintende, Emilio; Varetto, Gianfranco; Argenziano, Monica; Troia, Adriano; Cavalli, Roberta; Guiot, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoropentane (PFP)-based oxygen-loaded nanobubbles (OLNBs) were previously proposed as adjuvant therapeutic tools for pathologies of different etiology sharing hypoxia as a common feature, including cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. Here we introduce a new platform of oxygen nanocarriers, based on 2H,3H-decafluoropentane (DFP) as core fluorocarbon. These new nanocarriers have been named oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNDs) since DFP is liquid at body temperature, unlike gaseous PFP. Dextran-shelled OLNDs, available either in liquid or gel formulations, display spherical morphology, ~600 nm diameters, anionic charge, good oxygen carrying capacity, and no toxic effects on human keratinocytes after cell internalization. In vitro OLNDs result more effective in releasing oxygen to hypoxic environments than former OLNBs, as demonstrated by analysis through oxymetry. In vivo, OLNDs effectively enhance oxy-hemoglobin levels, as emerged from investigation by photoacoustic imaging. Interestingly, ultrasound (US) treatment further improves transdermal oxygen release from OLNDs. Taken together, these data suggest that US-activated, DFP-based OLNDs might be innovative, suitable and cost-effective devices to topically treat hypoxia-associated pathologies of the cutaneous tissues. PMID:25781463

  11. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4315_H)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4315_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  12. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5134_V)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5134_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  13. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5137_V)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5137_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  14. Synthesis and structure of [UO2(SeO4)(C2H4N4)2] · 0.5H2O

    The synthesis and monocrystal X-ray diffraction analysis of [UO2(SeO4)(C2H4N4)2] · 0.5H2O (I) are performed. The crystals are monoclinic: space group C2/c, Z=8, a=19.035(2), b=7.1326(8), c=21.477(2) A, β=109.683(4) deg. The main structural units of the crystal are chains of [UO2(SeO4)(C2H4N4)2]. Compound I belongs to the crystal-chemical group AT3M21 (A=UO22+, T3=SeO42-, M1 is a cyanoguanidine molecule) of the uranyl complexes. The chains are united into three-dimensional framework through hydrogen bonds involving the oxygen atoms of the selenate and uranyl groups, the nitrogen atoms of cyanoguanidine, and the hydrogen atoms of the cyanoguanidine or water molecules

  15. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a 1-D Chain Coordination Complex {[Mn2(HCAM)3(H2bipy)]·5H2O}n

    SUN Ya-Guang; RONG Shu-Ting; WU Yong-Li; YU Wan; WANG Chuan-Sheng; ZHANO Wan-Zhong; GAO En-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The 1-D chain coordination complex of {[Mn2(HCAM)3(H2bipy)]·5H2O}n (H3CAM = 4-hydroxypyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine) has been synthesized by the reaction of 4-hydroxypyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-bipyridine and manganese carbonate under hydrothermal conditions, and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The crystal belongs to the monoclinie system, space group P21/n with a = 10.110(2), b = 20.159(4), c = 17.861(4) A, β = 99.67(3)°, V= 3.5884(12) nm3, Mr= 901.47, Z = 4, Dc= 1.669 g·cm-3, μ= 0.798 mm-1, F(000) = 1840, the final R = 0.0713 and wR = 0.1853. The complex forms a 1-D chain bridged by HCAM, protonated 4,4-bipyridines link the 1-D chains to construct 2-D networks via N-H…O hydrogen bonds, and networks are further extended via π-π stacking and hydrogen bonds into 3-D supramolecular framework.

  16. Observation of H-bond mediated 3hJH2H3coupling constants across Watson-Crick AU base pairs in RNA

    3hJH2H3trans-hydrogen bond scalar coupling constants have been observed for the first time in Watson-Crick AU base pairs in uniformly 15N-labeled RNA oligonucleotides using a new 2hJNN-HNN-E. COSY experiment. The experiment utilizes adenosine H2 (AH2) for original polarization and detection, while employing 2hJNNcouplings for coherence transfer across the hydrogen bonds (H-bonds). The H3 protons of uracil bases are unperturbed throughout the experiment so that these protons appear as passive spins in E. COSY patterns. 3hJH2H3coupling constants can therefore be accurately measured in the acquisition dimension from the displacement of the E. COSY multiplet components, which are separated by the relatively large 1JH3N3coupling constants in the indirect dimension of the two-dimensional experiment. The 3hJH2H3scalar coupling constants determined for AU base pairs in the two RNA hairpins examined here have been found to be positive and range in magnitude up to 1.8 Hz. Using a molecular fragment representation of an AU base pair, density functional theory/finite field perturbation theory (DFT/FPT) methods have been applied to attempt to predict the relative contributions of H-bond length and angular geometry to the magnitude of 3hJH2H3coupling constants. Although the DFT/FPT calculations did not reproduce the full range of magnitude observed experimentally for the 3hJH2H3coupling constants, the calculations do predict the correct sign and general trends in variation in size of these coupling constants. The calculations suggest that the magnitude of the coupling constants depends largely on H-bond length, but can also vary with differences in base pair geometry. The dependency of the 3hJH2H3coupling constant on H-bond strength and geometry makes it a new probe for defining base pairs in NMR studies of nucleic acids

  17. Updated evidences of the Trojan Horse particle invariance for $^2$H(d,p)$^3$H reaction

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.(Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia, Univ. di Catania, via S. Sofia, Catania, Italy); Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L.; M. La Cognata; Lamia, L; Rinollo, A.; Spartá, R.; A. Tumino

    2012-01-01

    The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary d(d,p)t reaction was tested using the quasi free $^2$H($^6$Li, pt)$^4$He and $^2$H($^3$He,pt)H reactions after $^6$Li and $^3$He break-up, respectively. The astrophysical S(E)-factor for the d(d,p)t binary process was then extracted in the framework of the Plane Wave Approximation applied to the two different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good ag...

  18. Study of Leachate Contamination in Bantar Gebang Landfill to Its Shallow Groundwater using Natural Isotope Tracers of 18O, 2H and 3H

    E.R. Pujiindiyati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaching from Bantar Gebang landfill, Jakarta’s main municipal landfill, especially from its two waste water treatment plants (plant A in zone-3 and plant B in Sumur Batu to underlying aquifer has been studied using isotope techniques. The study was based on the abundances of the heavier isotopes in water molocules namely 18O, 2H (deuterium and 3H (tritium. Because both water in the waste-water treatment plants and groundwater have undergone different independent physical processes, it was assumed that each water source has its own typical finger-print in term of the abundances of 18O, 2H (deuterium and 3H (tritium. Leachate from the two waste water treatment plants have higher 2H, 3H activities, and physical parameters (EC, TDS, and pH values than those of groundwater samples. Because of the age and size of the two waste water treatment plants are significantly different, it was also observed that the isotope contents of plant B, younger age and smaller size, was relatively lower in 2H values and 3H activities compared to those of plant A. These phenomena have been used to identify the leaching from waste-water treatment plants of Bantar Gebang landfill to the underlying aquifer. During the dry season, it was observed that 2H values in leachate were generally higher than those in rainy season. This result might be due to the extensive methane production in the treatment plants. Conversely, 18O-shifting in leachate from local meteoric line indicated that the leachate had experienced evaporation. Buried luminescent paints in the landfill were most likely the source of high tritium activity in leachate. Based on the samples collected from the study area (mostly from dug or bore wells, it was found that the underlying aquifer especially shallow groundwater has been contaminated up to as high as 33% with leachate

  19. Study of leachate contamination in Bantar Gebang landfill to its shallow groundwater using natural isotope tracers of 18O, 2H and 3H

    Leaching from Bantar Gebang landfill, Jakarta’s main municipal landfill, especially from its two waste water treatment plants (plant A in zone-3 and plant B in Sumur Batu) to underlying aquifer has been studied using isotope techniques. The study was based on the abundances of the heavier isotopes in water molecules namely 18O, 2H (deuterium) and 3H (tritium). Because both water in the waste-water treatment plants and groundwater have undergone different independent physical processes, it was assumed that each water source has its own typical finger-print in term of the abundances of 18O, 2H (deuterium) and 3H (tritium). Leachate from the two waste water treatment plants have higher 2H, 3H activities, and physical parameters (EC, TDS, and pH) values than those of groundwater samples. Because of the age and size of the two waste water treatment plants are significantly different, it was also observed that the isotope contents of plant B, younger age and smaller size, was relatively lower in 2H values and 3H activities compared to those of plant A. These phenomena have been used to identify the leaching from waste-water treatment plants of Bantar Gebang landfill to the underlying aquifer. During the dry season, it was observed that 2H values in leachate were generally higher than those in rainy season. This result might be due to the extensive methane production in the treatment plants. Conversely, 18O-shifting in leachate from local meteoric line indicated that the leachate had experienced evaporation. Buried luminescent paints in the landfill were most likely the source of high tritium activity in leachate. Based on the samples collected from the study area (mostly from dug or bore wells), it was found that the underlying aquifer especially shallow groundwater has been contaminated up to as high as 33% with leachate. (author)

  20. Updated evidence of the Trojan horse particle invariance for the 2H(d,p)3H reaction

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Rinollo, A.; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.

    2013-02-01

    The Trojan horse nucleus invariance for the binary d(d,p)t reaction was tested by means of an experiment using the quasifree 2H(6Li,pt)4He and 2H(3He,pt)H reactions after 6Li and 3He breakup, respectively. The astrophysical S(E) factor for the d(d,p)t binary process was extracted from the present data in the framework of the plane wave approximation applied to the two different breakup schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation and suggests the independence of the binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan horse nucleus also for the present case.

  1. Updated evidences of the Trojan Horse particle invariance for $^2$H(d,p)$^3$H reaction

    Pizzone, R G; Bertulani, C A; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Blokhintsev, L; La Cognata, M; Lamia, L; Rinollo, A; Spartá, R; Tumino, A

    2012-01-01

    The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary d(d,p)t reaction was tested using the quasi free $^2$H($^6$Li, pt)$^4$He and $^2$H($^3$He,pt)H reactions after $^6$Li and $^3$He break-up, respectively. The astrophysical S(E)-factor for the d(d,p)t binary process was then extracted in the framework of the Plane Wave Approximation applied to the two different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement confirms the applicability of the Plane Wave Approximation and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nucleus also for the present case.

  2. Study of Leachate Contamination in Bantar Gebang Landfill to Its Shallow Groundwater using Natural Isotope Tracers of 18O, 2H and 3H

    E.R. Pujiindiyati; P. Sidauruk

    2015-01-01

    Leaching from Bantar Gebang landfill, Jakarta’s main municipal landfill, especially from its two waste water treatment plants (plant A in zone-3 and plant B in Sumur Batu) to underlying aquifer has been studied using isotope techniques. The study was based on the abundances of the heavier isotopes in water molocules namely 18O, 2H (deuterium) and 3H (tritium). Because both water in the waste-water treatment plants and groundwater have undergone different independent physical processes, it was...

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Structure of the Dimmer Complex [Ni(TSSB)(phen)H2O]·C2H5OH·0.5H2O

    ZHANG Shu-Hua; JIANG Yi-Min; MA Wei; ZHOU Zhong-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The title complex [Ni(TSSB)(phen)H2O](C2H5OH(0.5H2O (C23H26N3NiO6.5S, TSSB = taurine salicylaldehyde Schiff base, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) has been synthesized by the reaction of taurine salicylaldehyde Schiff base (TSSB), 1,10-phenanthroline and nickel acetate in water-ethanol. Its single-crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The crystal belongs to triclinic, space group P with a = 1.0562(2), b = 1.1604(2), c = 2.1170(3) nm, α = 103.257(3), β = 96.958(4), γ = 105.179(3)°, Mr = 539.24, V = 2.3917(6) nm3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.498 g/cm3, μ = 0.945 mm-1 and F(000) = 1124. The compound is a one-dimensional network, infinitely extending with hydrogen bonds. The Ni(Ⅱ) is 6-coordinated by one nitrogen and two oxygen atoms from taurine salicylaldehyde Schiff base, two nitrogen from 1,10-phenanthroline and one oxygen from water to form a distorted octahedronal coordination geometry.

  4. Integration of the barley genetic and seed proteome maps for chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H and 7H

    Finnie, Christine; Bagge, Merethe; Steenholdt, Torben; Østergaard, Ole; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Backes, Gunter; Jensen, Anais; Giese, Nanna Henriette; Larsen, Jørgen; Roepstorff, Peter; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    variation, including peroxidases, serpins and proteins with unknown functions. Cultivars were clustered based on the spot variation matrix. Cultivars with superior malting quality grouped together, indicating malting quality to be more closely correlated with seed proteomes than with SSR profiles. Mass...... spectrometry showed that some spot variations were caused by amino acid differences encoded by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Coding SNPs were validated by mass spectrometry, expressed sequence tag and 2D gel data. Coding SNPs can alter function of affected proteins and may thus represent a link...... between cultivar traits, proteome and genome. Proteome analysis of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between a malting (Scarlett) and a feed cultivar (Meltan) enabled genetic localisation of protein phenotypes represented by 48 spot variations, involving e.g. peroxidases, serpins, alpha...

  5. Synthesis and crystal structures of new complexes of Np(V) glycolate with 2,2'-bipyridine, [NpO2(C10H8N2)(OOC2H2OH)].1.5H2O and [NpO2(C10H8N2)(OOC2H2OH)].2.5H2O

    Single crystals were prepared, and the structures of two complexes of Np(V) glycolate with 2,2'-bipyridine of the compositions [NpO2(C10H8N2)(OOC2H2OH)].1.5H2O (I) and [NpO2(C10H8N2)(OOC2H2OH)]2.5H2O (II) were studied. The structures of the compounds are based on neptunyl-glycolate chains in which the glycolate anion manifests its complexation ability in different manner. In structure I, the bidentate-bridging anion links the adjacent NpO2- cations through the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group. The neptunyl-glycolate chains of I exhibits the mutual coordination of the NpO2- cations acting toward each other simultaneously as ligands and coordinating centers. In compound II, the glycolate anion is bidentately coordinated to one neptunium atom to form a planar five-membered metallocycle [NpOCCO]. The O atom external with respect to the metallocycle is in the coordination environment of the adjacent neptunyl. The nitrogen-containing molecular ligand Bipy is included into the coordination environment of Np. The coordination polyhedron of the Np atoms in both structures is a pentagonal bipyramid in which the average Np-N bond length is 2.666 Aa (I) and 2.596 Aa (II). (orig.)

  6. Water - Isotope - Map (δ 18O, δ 2H, 3H) of Austria: Applications, Extremes and Trends

    Wyhlidal, Stefan; Kralik, Martin; Benischke, Ralf; Leis, Albrecht; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    The isotopic ratios of oxygen and hydrogen in water (2H/1H and 18O/16O) are important tools to characterise waters and their cycles. This starts in the atmosphere as rain or snow and continues in surface water and ends in shallow groundwater as well as in deep groundwater. Tritium formed by natural cosmic radiation in the upper atmosphere and in the last century by tests of thermonuclear bombs in the atmosphere, is characterised by its radioactive decay with a half-life of 12.32 years and is an ideal age-marker during the last 60 years. To determine the origin and mean age of waters in many projects concerning water supply, engineering and scientific projects in the last 45 years on more than 1,350 sites, more than 40,000 isotope measurements were performed in Austria. The median value of all sites of oxygen-18 is δ 18O -10.7 ‰ and for hydrogen-2 δ 2H -75 ‰. As the fractionation is mainly temperature dependent the lowest negative values are observed in winter precipitation (oxygen-18 as low as δ 18O -23 ‰) and in springs in the mountain regions (δ 18O -15.1 ‰). In contrast the highest values were observed in summer precipitation (up to δ 18O - 0.5 ‰) and in shallow lakes in the Seewinkel (up to δ 18O + 5 ‰). The isotopic ratios of the Austrian waters are also influenced by the origin of the evaporated water masses. Therefore the precipitation in the region south of the main Alpine crest (East-Tyrol, Carinthia and South-East Styria) is approximately 1 ‰ higher in δ 18O-values than sites at the same altitude in the northern part. This is most probably caused by the stronger influence of precipitation from the mediterranean area. The median value of all 1,120 sampling sites of decay corrected (2015) tritium measurements is 6.2 tritium units (TU). This is somewhat smaller than the median value of all precipitation stations with 7.2 TU. This can be explained by the fact that in most cases in groundwater the median value has been reduced by decay

  7. Underestimation of glucose turnover measured with [6-3H]- and [6,6-2H]- but not [6-14C]glucose during hyperinsulinemia in humans

    Recent studies indicate that hydrogen-labeled glucose tracers underestimate glucose turnover in humans under conditions of high flux. The cause of this underestimation is unknown. To determine whether the error is time-, pool-, model-, or insulin-dependent, glucose turnover was measured simultaneously with [6-3H]-, [6,6-2H2]-, and [6-14C]glucose during a 7-h infusion of either insulin (1 mU.kg-1.min-1) or saline. During the insulin infusion, steady-state glucose turnover measured with both [6-3H]glucose (8.0 +/- 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1) and [6,6-2H2]glucose (7.6 +/- 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1) was lower (P less than .01) than either the glucose infusion rate required to maintain euglycemia (9.8 +/- 0.7 mg.kg-1.min-1) or glucose turnover determined with [6-14C]glucose and corrected for Cori cycle activity (9.8 +/- 0.7 mg.kg-1.min-1). Consequently negative glucose production rates (P less than .01) were obtained with either [6-3H]- or [6,6-2H2]- but not [6-14C]glucose. The difference between turnover estimated with [6-3H]glucose and actual glucose disposal (or 14C glucose flux) did not decrease with time and was not dependent on duration of isotope infusion. During saline infusion, estimates of glucose turnover were similar regardless of the glucose tracer used. High-performance liquid chromatography of the radioactive glucose tracer and plasma revealed the presence of a tritiated nonglucose contaminant. Although the contaminant represented only 1.5% of the radioactivity in the [6-3H]glucose infusate, its clearance was 10-fold less (P less than .001) than that of [6-3H]glucose. This resulted in accumulation in plasma, with the contaminant accounting for 16.6 +/- 2.09 and 10.8 +/- 0.9% of what customarily is assumed to be plasma glucose radioactivity during the insulin or saline infusion, respectively (P less than .01)

  8. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Ethanol C2H6O + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1121, LB4328_H)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'heat of Mixing and Solution of Ethanol C2H6O + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1121, LB4328_H)' providing data from direct calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant pressure and temperature.

  9. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4314_H)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4314_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5136_V)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5136_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5133_V)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5133_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  12. Crystal and molecular structure of Sr2(Edta) . 5H2O, Sr2(H2Edta)(HCO3)2 . 4H2O, and Sr2(H2Edta)Cl2 . 5H2O strontium ethylenediaminetetraacetates

    Three Sr2+ compounds with the Edta4- and H2Edta2- ligands-Sr2(Edta) . 5H2O (I), Sr2(H2Edta)(HCO3)2 . 4H2O (II), and Sr2(H2Edta)Cl2 . 5H2O (III)-are synthesized, and their crystal structures are studied. In I, the Sr(1) atom is coordinated by the hexadentate Edta4- ligand following the 2N + 4O pattern and by two O atoms of the neighboring ligands, which affords the formation of zigzag chains. The Sr(2) atom forms bonds with O atoms of five water molecules and attaches itself to a chain via bonds with three O atoms of the Edta4- ligands. The Sr(1)-O and Sr(2)-O bond lengths fall in the ranges 2.520(2)-2.656(3) and 2.527(3)-2.683(2) A, respectively. The Sr(1)-N bonds are 2.702(3) and 2.743(3) A long. In II and III, the H2Edta2- anions have a centrosymmetric structure with the trans configuration of the planar ethylenediamine fragment. The N atoms are blocked by acid protons. In II, the environment of the Sr atom is formed by six O atoms of three H2Edta ligands, two O atoms of water molecules, and an O atom of the bicarbonate ion, which is disordered over two positions. In III, the environment of the Sr atom includes six O atoms of four H2Edta2- ligands and three O atoms of water molecules. The coordination number of the Sr atoms is equal to 8 + 1. In II and III, the main bonds fall in the ranges 2.534(3)-2.732(2) and 2.482(2)-2.746(3) A, whereas the ninth bond is elongated to 2.937(3) and 3.055(3) A, respectively. In II, all the structural elements are linked into wavy layers. The O-H-O interactions contribute to the stabilization of the layer and link neighboring layers. In III, hydrated Sr2+ cations and H2Edta- anions form a three-dimensional [Sr2(H2Edta)(H2O)3]n2n+ framework. The Cl- anions are fixed in channels of the framework by hydrogen bonds with four water molecules. In II and III, the N-H groups form four-center N-H-O3 hydrogen bonds, which include one intermolecular and two intramolecular components. PACS numbers: 61.66.Hq

  13. Formation of new double salt NaCl · CdSO4 · 5H2O in 2NaCl + CdSO4 = Na2SO4 + CdCl2 - H2O system

    When studying solubility diagram of 2NaCl + CdSO4 Na2SO4 + CdCl2 - H2O system the earlier unknown compound NaCl · CdSO4 · 5H2O is isolated and identified. Some of its properies (solubility product, thermodynamic properties, refractive index) are studied

  14. Crystal structure and phase transitions in dipropylammonium hexachloroantimonate(V): [N(C 3H 7) 2H 2][SbCl 6

    Kulicka, B.; Jakubas, R.; Bednarska-Bolek, B.; Bator, G.; Ciunik, Z.

    2006-07-01

    The crystal structure of dipropylammonium hexachloroantimonate(V), [N(C 3H 7) 2H 2][SbCl 6] (DPACA) has been determined by means of X-ray diffraction at 290 K. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group: P21/ n. The crystal undergoes three structural phase transitions: two first-order type at 388/376 K (heating-cooling) from phase (I) to (II) and at 157/144 K from phase (III) to (IV), and one second-order type at 210 K from phase (II) to (III). The dielectric relaxation process has been found to appear in a kilohertz frequency region over the phases (II) and (III) with the activation energy ca. 28 kJ mol -1. A polydispersive character of the dielectric dispersion indicates a presence of complex molecular motions of dipolar groups in the crystal. The mechanism of the phase transitions in DPACA is proposed.

  15. Thermodynamic properties of two zinc borates: 3ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O and 6ZnO·5B2O3·3H2O

    Highlights: • Two zinc borates 3ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O and 6ZnO·5B2O3·3H2O have been synthesized and characterized. • Enthalpies of solution of both zinc borates were measured by microcalorimeter. • Enthalpies of solution of ZnO were also measured by microcalorimeter. • ΔfHmθ for both zinc borates were obtained by thermochemical cycles. - Abstract: Two pure zinc borates with microporous structure 3ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O and 6ZnO·5B2O3·3H2O have been synthesized and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TG techniques and chemical analysis. The molar enthalpies of solution of 3ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O(s) and 6ZnO·5B2O3·3H2O(s) in 1 mol · dm−3 HCl(aq) were measured by microcalorimeter at T = 298.15 K, respectively. The molar enthalpies of solution of ZnO(s) in the mixture solvent of 2.00 cm3 of 1 mol · dm−3 HCl(aq) in which 5.30 mg of H3BO3 were added were also measured. With the incorporation of the previously determined enthalpy of solution of H3BO3(s) in 1 mol · dm−3 HCl(aq), together with the use of the standard molar enthalpies of formation for ZnO(s), H3BO3(s), and H2O(l), the standard molar enthalpies of formation of −(6115.3 ± 5.0) kJ · mol−1 for 3ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O and −(9606.6 ± 8.5) kJ · mol−1 for 6ZnO·5B2O3·3H2O at T = 298.15 K were obtained on the basis of the appropriate thermochemical cycles

  16. SMALL CARBONACEOUS MOLECULES, ETHYLENE OXIDE (c-C2H4O) AND CYCLOPROPENYLIDENE (c-C3H2): SOURCES OF THE UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED BANDS?

    We suggest that small carbonaceous molecules (SCMs) may be the sources of the unidentified infrared bands (UIRs) and the underlying continuum. We show that the IR spectroscopy of ethylene oxide (EO, c-C2H4O) and cyclopropenylidene (CP, c-C3H2) closely correlates with the major UIR bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 μm, the often seen strong bands at 12.7 and 16.4 μm, as well as many minor features. The differences in band locations and shapes between laboratory EO absorption spectra and astrophysical UIR emission spectra are attributed to vibrational anharmonicity, Fermi resonance splitting of nearly degenerate vibration levels, and rotational envelope narrowing due to the low temperatures in space. The excitation mechanism is absorption of UV radiation, primarily Lyα, by SCMs. Photon trapping for this very optically thick transition enhances the absorption by several orders of magnitude. Our abundance analysis for NGC 7027 reveals that the SCM abundance, relative to H2, is ∼3 x 10-9 which compares well to radio measurements of the CP abundance range of ∼10-9-10-7. The origin of the UIR continuum is discussed in terms of emission from vibrationally and rotationally hot SCM UV photodissociation products and UV excitation of rotationally hot SCM species. Radio lines of CP have been seen in numerous astronomical objects, most displaying the UIR bands. EO is also seen, but in fewer objects, none displaying the UIR bands. We theorize that in UIR objects, EO is formed on, and primarily resides on, carbonaceous grains, precluding radio detection of rotational lines. We suggest laboratory experiments, astronomical observations, and theoretical investigations to further evaluate the SCM mechanism for the UIR bands and continuum.

  17. Induction of targeted osteogenesis with 3-aryl-2H-benzopyrans and 3-aryl-3H-benzopyrans: Novel osteogenic agents.

    Gupta, Atul; Ahmad, Imran; Kureel, Jyoti; Hasanain, Mohammad; Pandey, Praveen; Singh, Sarita; John, Aijaz A; Sarkar, Jayanta; Singh, Divya

    2016-04-01

    Development of target oriented chemotherapeutics for treatment of chronic diseases have been considered as an important approach in drug development. Following this approach, in our efforts for exploration of new osteogenic leads, substituted 3-aryl-2H-benzopyran and 3-aryl-3H-benzopyran derivatives (19, 20a-e, 21, 22a-e, 26, 27, 28a-e, 29, 31a-b, 32 and 33) have been characterized as estrogen receptor-β selective osteogenic (bone forming) agents. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for osteogenic activity using mouse calvarial osteoblast cells. Four compounds viz20b, 22a, 27and 32 showed significant osteogenic activity at EC50 values 1.35, 34.5, 407 and 29.5pM respectively. Out of these, 20b and 32 were analyzed for their bone mineralization efficacy and osteogenic gene expression by qPCR. The results showed that 20b and 32 significantly increased mineral nodule formation and the transcript levels of BMP-2, RUNX-2 and osteocalcin at 100pM concentrations respectively. Further mechanistic studies of 20b and 32 using transiently knocked down expression of ER-α and β in mouse osteoblast (MOBs) showed that 20b and 32 exerts osteogenic efficacy via activation of estrogen receptor-β preferentially. Additionally, compounds showed significant anticancer activity in a panel of cancer cell lines within the range of (IC50) 6.54-27.79μM. The most active molecule, 22b inhibited proliferation of cells by inducing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle at sub-G0 phase with concomitant decrease in cells at S phase. PMID:26807865

  18. Method for determination of .sup.18 O/.sup.16 O and .sup.2 H/.sup.1 H ratios and .sup.3 H (tritium) concentrations of xylem waters and subsurface waters using time series sampling

    Smith, Brian; Menchaca, Leticia

    1999-01-01

    A method for determination of .sup.18 O/.sup.16 O and .sup.2 H/.sup.1 H ratios and .sup.3 H concentrations of xylem and subsurface waters using time series sampling, insulating sampling chambers, and combined .sup.18 O/.sup.16 O, .sup.2 H/.sup.1 H and .sup.3 H concentration data on transpired water. The method involves collecting water samples transpired from living plants and correcting the measured isotopic compositions of oxygen (.sup.18 O/.sup.16 O) and hydrogen (.sup.2 H/.sup.1 H and/or .sup.3 H concentrations) to account for evaporative isotopic fractionation in the leafy material of the plant.

  19. Molecular structure of a hydrideniobocene complex [nb(5-c5h4sime3)2(h)3], and their use as catalyst for ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters

    Garcia Yuste, Santiago; Perez Flores, Juan Carlos; Alonso Moreno, Carlos; Garcia Martinez, Joaquin Calixto; Antiñolo Garcia, Antonio Fermin; Lopez Solera, Mª Isabel; Tercero Morales, Mª Teresa; Otero Montero, Antonio Leandro

    2012-01-01

    The second polyhydridoniobocene complex that was characterized by X-ray diffraction is reported. On the basis of H?H distances and H?Nb?H angles, [Nb(η5-C5H4SiMe3)2(H)3] (1) is classified as a ?compressed hydride?. Compound 1 acts as an efficient single-component initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and δ-valerolactone. ε-Caprolactone and δ-valerolactone are both polymerized within afew hours to yield high-to-medium-molecul...

  20. 1,5-Diaminopentane As A Structure-Directing Agent for Zincophosphate Networks: Zn3(PO42(C5H14N22·3H2O and C5H16N2·Zn3(PO42(HPO4·H2O

    William T.A. Harrison

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of two zincophosphate networks prepared in the presence of 1,5-diaminopentane (dap are described. In Zn3(PO42(C5H14N22·3H2O (1 the dap forms Zn–N coordinate bonds to generate an unusual three-dimensional “hybrid” framework constructed from ZnO3N, ZnO2N2 and PO4 tetrahedra with three different types of elongated channels occupied by water molecules. In C5H16N2·Zn3(PO42(HPO4·H2O; (2 the doubly-protonated H2dap acts in a more typical way to template double layers of vertex-sharing ZnO4, PO4 and HPO4 tetrahedra incorporating 10-rings and interacts with the inorganic component via N–H O hydrogen bonds. Crystal data: 1 (C10H34N4O11P2Zn3, Mr = 644.46, monoclinic, C2 (No. 4, Z = 4, a = 25.302 (7 Å, b = 4.9327 (13 Å, c = 19.808 (6 Å, b = 107.377 (8°, V = 2359.4 (12 Å3, R(F = 0.054, wR(F2 = 0.139. 2 (C5H19N2O13P3Zn3, Mr = 604.24, monoclinic, P21/c (No. 14, Z = 4, a = 11.3275 (15 Å, b = 8.3235 (11 Å, c = 18.588 (2 Å, b = 96.979 (3°, V = 1739.6 (4 Å3, R(F = 0.056, wR(F2 = 0.119.

  1. Optical pumping of chemical HF lasers on the basis of NF3-H2 and ClF5-H2 mixtures by an open surface discharge in the bleaching-wave mode

    Lasing on HF upon optical pumping by emission of an open discharge, using NF3 and ClF5 as donors of fluorine atoms, was obtained for the first time in a chemical laser and the bleaching-wave mode was realised in a chemical HF laser. An open surface discharge was used as a pump source. The velocity of the bleaching wave, which was formed under its action, reached ∼8 km s-1. The formation of this wave leads to a rapid (with an ultrasonic velocity) replacement of the working medium in the lasing region, which provides a quantum laser efficiency close to unity. The optimum compo-sition of the working mixture was found to be NF3:H2:Kr =6:10:125 Torr. For this composition, the output laser energy in a 3.2-μs pulse reached ∼0.4 J and the specific output energy was 3.5 J litre-1. Approximately the same output characteristics of laser emission (0.35 J in a 3.5-μs pulse in the ClF5:H2:Kr=3:20:50 Torr mixture) were obtained in the system using ClF5 as donors of fluorine atoms. (lasers, active media)

  2. Syntheses and Structural Researches of Nine-coordinate K3[TbIII(nta)2(H2O)]·5.5H2O and Eight-coordinate K3[YbIII(nta)2]·5H2O

    王君; 张向东; 王钰; 张扬; 张朝红; 佟健

    2004-01-01

    The crystal and molecular structures of K3[TbIII(nta)2(H2O)](5.5H2O (nta = nitrilotriacetic acid) and K3[YbIII(nta)2](5H2O complexes have been determined by single-crystal Xray structural analyses. Because TbIII and YbIII have different ionic radii and electronic configura- tions, they take nine- and eight-coordinate structures with two nta ligands, respectively. The crystal of K3[TbIII(nta)2(H2O)](5.5H2O belongs to orthorhombic, space group Pccn with a = 1.6374(7), b = 1.9913(8), c = 1.5068(6) nm, V = 4.913(3) nm3, Z = 8, Mr = 769.54, Dc = 2.081 g/cm3, μ= 3.476 mm-1 and F(000) = 3048. The final R and wR are 0.0432 and 0.0916 for 4961 observed reflections (I > 2.0(σI)), and 0.0814 and 0.1042 for all 21921 reflections, respectively. The [TbIII(nta)2(H2O)]3- complex anion has a nine-coordinate pseudo-monocapped square anti-prismatic structure, in which two N and six O coordinated atoms are from two nta ligands and the left ninth O atom from one water molecule. The crystal of K3[YbIII(nta)2]·5H2O is of monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 1.5579(5), b = 0.9981(3), c = 1.5956(5) nm, β = 109.776(5), V = 2.3348(13) nm3, Z = 4, Mr = 756.62, Dc = 2.153 g/cm3, μ= 4.624 mm-1 and F(000) = 1484. The final R and wR are 0.0253 and 0.0657 for 4123 observed reflections (I > 2.0(σI)), and 0.0320 and 0.0731 for all 9414 reflections, respectively. The [YbIII(nta)2]3- complex anion has an eight-coordination structure with a distorted square antiprismatic prism, in which each nta acts as a tetradentate ligand with one N atom from the amino group and three O atoms from the carboxylic groups.

  3. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Mixed Complex[ Cu(1, 10-phen)(CH2(COO)2)(H2O)]2·3H2O%混配配合物[Cu(1,10-phen)(CH2(COO)2)(H2O)]2·3H2O的合成和晶体结构

    孙绍发; 吴鸣虎; 曾卉一

    2003-01-01

    Blue block crystals of [ Cu( 1,10 - phen) ( CH2 ( COO)2 ) (H2O) ]2· 3H2O were obtained at room temperature over a period from the filtrate which was resulted from the addition of a alcohol solution of 1,10- philolin into the filtered resultant of the reaction of basic cupric carbonate with aqueous propanioic acid.Single - crystal X - ray diffraction analysis indicates that it crystallizes in a triclinic system with space group P1(No.2), α = 11.560(2),b = 11.750(2),c = 12.510(3) A,α =92.13(3)°,β= 105.50(3)°,γ=109.30(3)°, v = 1530.6(5)A3, z = 2, Mr = 781.66, F(000) = 800, Dc = 1. 696 g/cm3, μ(MoKα) =1.467 mm-1, R = 0.0392, and wR2= 0.0967 for 4560 reflections with I > 2.0σ(I). Each Cu atom is coordinated in a distorted square - pyramid geometry by two N atons of 1,10 - philolin, and two O atoms from two carboxyl group of propanioic acid, and one O atom from a coordination water molecule occupying the apical position with a long Cu - O distance. A dimer [Cu(1,10- phen) (CH2(COO)2) (H2O) ]2 is formed by the inter- molecular hydrogen bonding. The crystal structure is formed by the interconnection of the dimers and crystal water molecules via hydrogen bonding.%在碱式碳酸铜与丙二酸水溶液反应后的滤液中加入1,10-(口菲)啰啉的乙醇溶液,放置获得一种蓝色块状的晶体.X-ray衍射显示为三斜P-1群,α=11.560(2),b=11.750(2),c=12.510(3)A,α=92.13(3)°,β=105.50(3)°,γ=109.30(3)°,v=1530.6(5)A3,z=2,Mr=781.66,F(000)=800,Dc=1.696g/cm3,μ(M0Kα)=1.467mm-1,R=0.0392.二聚体[Cu(1,10-phen)(CH2(COO)2)(H2O)]2是通过分子间的氢键形成的.

  4. Preparation, crystal and molecular structure, thermal properties of complexes of zinc and cadmium diethyldithiocarbamates with imidazole [(C2H5)2NCS2]2Zn(C3H4N2) and [(C2H5)2NCS2]2

    Complex of cadmium eithyldithiocarbamate with [(C2H5)2NCS2]2Cd(C3H4N2) composition imidazole is synthesized. Using X-ray diffraction technique one determines, that complex has molecular structure with cadmium tetragonal-pyramidal coordination (CdS4N node), imidazole is coordinated by nitrogen tertiary atom. α-CdS forms as a result of thermolysis of [(C2H5)2NCS2]2Cd(CH3H4N2) complex

  5. Synthesis and molecular characterization of 5,5‧-((2,4-dichlorophenyl)methylene)bis(1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione)

    Barakat, Assem; Al-Najjar, Hany J.; Al-Majid, Abdullah Mohammed; Soliman, Saied M.; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Ghabbour, Hazem A.; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-03-01

    A simple, economical, and green approach to the synthesis of 5,5‧-((2,4-dichlorophenyl)methylene)bis(1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione) 4 using a tandem Aldol condensation-Michael addition process in aqueous diethylamine medium was described. The 3D structure of the latter was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray structure determination. The molecular structure of the titled compound was calculated using DFT B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method. The calculated geometric parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained from our reported X-ay structure. The two pyrimidinetrione rings have C16 and C20 atoms deviated significantly from the ring plane. The electronic spectra of the studied compound have been calculated using the TD-DFT method. The longest wavelength band (257.8 nm, f = 0.0276) occurs due to H → L (86%) transition. The 1H and 13C NMR calculated chemical shifts using GIAO method showed good correlation with the experimental data. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) showed that the most reactive sites for electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks are the carbonyl oxygen (O5) and the H21 atoms, respectively. The NBO calculations were performed to predict the natural atomic charges at the different atomic sites and to study the different intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) interactions occurring in the studied system. Interestingly, there is some delocalization of electron densities from the occupied σ-type NBO of the C20sbnd H21 to the unoccupied π∗-NBO of the two adjacent carbonyl groups.

  6. In Vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of Bioactive Compound 2H-FURO [2,3-H]-1-Benzopyran-2-one against seed borne fungi of maize

    B. Kiran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of bioactive compound 2HFuro[ 2,3-H]-1-benzopyran-2-one recorded a significant activity at 100-1000 ppm concentration against all the ten Aspergillus species tested. A. flavus recorded complete inhibition at 100 ppm concentration, A. niger at 500 ppm, A. fumigates at 600 ppm, A. flavus oryzae and A. flavus columnaris at 700 ppm respectively. A. ochraceous and A. flavipes recorded complete inhibition at 900 ppm concentration. Compared to synthetic fungicide Captan and Thiram at 2000ppm concentration. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of bioactive compound was in the range of 100- 900ppm concentration against all the test fungi.

  7. Gas-phase reactions of the bare Th2+ and U2+ ions with small alkanes, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8: experimental and theoretical study of elementary organoactinide chemistry.

    Di Santo, Emanuela; Santos, Marta; Michelini, Maria C; Marçalo, Joaquim; Russo, Nino; Gibson, John K

    2011-02-16

    The gas-phase reactions of two dipositive actinide ions, Th(2+) and U(2+), with CH(4), C(2)H(6), and C(3)H(8) were studied by both experiment and theory. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the bimolecular ion-molecule reactions; the potential energy profiles (PEPs) for the reactions, both observed and nonobserved, were computed by density functional theory (DFT). The experiments revealed that Th(2+) reacts with all three alkanes, including CH(4) to produce ThCH(2)(2+), whereas U(2+) reacts with C(2)H(6) and C(3)H(8), with different product distributions than for Th(2+). The comparative reactivities of Th(2+) and U(2+) toward CH(4) are well explained by the computed PEPs. The PEPs for the reactions with C(2)H(6) effectively rationalize the observed reaction products, ThC(2)H(2)(2+) and UC(2)H(4)(2+). For C(3)H(8) several reaction products were experimentally observed; these and additional potential reaction pathways were computed. The DFT results for the reactions with C(3)H(8) are consistent with the observed reactions and the different products observed for Th(2+) and U(2+); however, several exothermic products which emerge from energetically favorable PEPs were not experimentally observed. The comparison between experiment and theory reveals that DFT can effectively exclude unfavorable reaction pathways, due to energetic barriers and/or endothermic products, and can predict energetic differences in similar reaction pathways for different ions. However, and not surprisingly, a simple evaluation of the PEP features is insufficient to reliably exclude energetically favorable pathways. The computed PEPs, which all proceed by insertion, were used to evaluate the relationship between the energetics of the bare Th(2+) and U(2+) ions and the energies for C-H and C-C activation. It was found that the computed energetics for insertion are entirely consistent with the empirical model which relates insertion efficiency to the

  8. 2D-network of inorganic-organic hybrid material built on Keggin type polyoxometallate and amino acid: [L-C2H6NO2]3[(PO4)Mo12O36].5H2O

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid material based on polyoxometallate, [L-C2H6NO2]3[(PO4)Mo12O36].5H2O, has been successfully synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, elemental analysis, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and differential thermal analysis techniques. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P21/c, with a = 12.4938 (8) A, b = 19.9326 (12) A, c = 17.9270 (11) A, β = 102.129 (1)o, V = 4364.8 (5) A3, Z = 4 and R1(wR2) = 0.0513, 0.0877. The most remarkable structural feature of this hybrid can be described as two-dimensional inorganic infinite plane-like (2D/∞ [(PO4)Mo12O36]3-) which forming via weak Van der Waals interactions along the z axis. The characteristic band of the Keggin anion [(PO4)Mo12O36]3- appears at 210 nm in the UV spectrum. Thermal analysis indicates that the Keggin anion skeleton begins to decompose at 520 deg. C

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Crystal Structure of an Inorganic-organic Composite Metatungstate: [Co(4,4'-bipy)2(H2O)4](4,4'-H2bipy)2[H2W12O40]·5.5H2O

    2007-01-01

    A novel hybrid compound [Co(4,4'-bipy)2(H2O)4](4,4'- H2bipy)2[H2W12O40]·5.5H2Ohas been synthesized from an acidified aqueous solution and characterized by elemental and thermal analyses, IR and UV spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray structure determination. Structure analysis indicates that the title compound is of monoclinic, space group C2/c, with a = 21.315(9), b = 15.303 (7), c = 24.139(10) (A), β = 105.170(5)o, V = 7599(6) (A)3, Mr = 3706.99, Z = 4, F(000) = 6616, Dc = 3.231, μ = 18.395 mm-1, R = 0.0652 and wR = 0.1594. X-ray crystallographic study shows that the title compound consists of one [Co(4,4'-bipy)2(H2O)4]2+ cation, two diprotonated 4,4'-bipyridine molecules, 5.5 water molecules of crystallization, and one metatungstate polyoxoanion [H2W12O40]6-, which approaches an effective Td point symmetry. TG-DTA analysis indicates that the framework of the metatungstate polyoxoanion is collapsed at 587.0 ℃.

  10. The {sup 3}He(e,e'p){sup 2}H and {sup 4}He(e,e'p){sup 3}H reactions at high momentum transfer

    Ford, William P. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Van Orden, J. W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We present updated calculations for observables in the processes {sup 3}He(e,e'p){sup 2}H, {sup 4}He(e,e'p){sup 3}H and {sup 4}He(e-vector, e'p-vector){sup 3}H. This update entails the implementation of improved nucleon-nucleon (NN) amplitudes to describe final state interactions (FSI) within a Glauber approximation and includes full spin-isospin dependence in the profile operator. In addition, an optical potential, which has also been updated since previous work, is utilized to treat FSI for the {sup 4}He(e,e'p){sup 3}H and {sup 4}He(e-vector, e'p-vector){sup 3}H reactions. The calculations are compared with experimental data and show good agreement between theory and experiment. Comparisons are made between the various approximations in the Glauber treatment, including model dependence due to the NN scattering amplitudes, rescattering contributions, and spin dependence. We also analyze the validity of the Glauber approximation at the kinematics the data is available, by comparing to the results obtained with the optical potential.

  11. Syntheses of [2-2H]-5-ethynyl-1-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamid e and 5-ethynyl-1-([5-3H]-β-D-ribofuranosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamid e (EICAR)

    Metallation of 5-ethynyl-1-(2,3,5-tri-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-β-D-ribofura nosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (1) using n-BuLi, deuteration with deuterium oxide and removal of the tert-butyldimethylsilyl protecting groups using tetrabutylammonium fluoride yielded [2-2H]-5-ethynyl-1-(β-D-ribofuranosyl) imidazole-4-carboxamide (5a, 75 atom % deuterium). Regiospecific deprotection of the masked aldehyde N,N'-diphenylethylenediamino synthon 14 using DIAION PK212 ion-exchange resin (H+ form) yielded the aldehyde derivative (15). Reduction of the aldehyde moiety of 15 using excess [3H]NaBH4 gave the carbinol product 17. Removal of the ribofuranosyl 2,3-isopropylidene protecting group from 17 using 90% trifluoroacetic acid afforded 5-ethynyl-1-(5-3H]-β-D-ribofuranosyl) imidazole-4-carboxamide (18, 19% chemical yield, > 99% radiochemical purity, specific activity 1.56 Ci/mmol). (author)

  12. Shlykovite KCa[Si4O9(OH)] · 3H2O and cryptophyllite K2Ca[Si4O10] · 5H2O, new mineral species from the Khibiny alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    Pekov, I. V.; Zubkova, N. V.; Filinchuk, Ya. E.; Chukanov, N. V.; Zadov, A. E.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.; Gobechiya, E. R.

    2010-12-01

    New minerals, shlykovite and cryptophyllite, hydrous Ca and K phyllosilicates, have been identified in hyperalkaline pegmatite at Mount Rasvumchorr, Khibiny alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. They are the products of low-temperature hydrothermal activity and are associated with aegirine, potassium feldspar, nepheline, lamprophyllite, eudialyte, lomonosovite, lovozerite, tisinalite, shcherbakovite, shafranovskite, ershovite, and megacyclite. Shlykovite occurs as lamellae up to 0.02 × 0.02 × 0.5 mm in size or fibers up to 0.5 mm in length usually combined in aggregates up to 3 mm in size, crusts, and parallel-columnar veinlets. Cryptophyllite occurs as lamellae up to 0.02 × 0.1 × 0.2 mm in size intergrown with shlykovite being oriented parallel to {001} or chaotically arranged. Separate crystals of the new minerals are transparent and colorless; the aggregates are beige, brownish, light cream, and pale yellowish-grayish. The cleavage is parallel to (001) perfect. The Mohs hardness of shlykovite is 2.5-3. The calculated densities of shlykovite and cryptophyllite are 2.444 and 2.185 g/cm3, respectively. Both minerals are biaxial; shlykovite: 2 V meas = -60(20)°; cryptophyllite: 2 V meas > 70°. The refractive indices are: shlykovite: α = 1.500(3), β = 1.509(2), γ = 1.515(2); cryptophyllite: α = 1.520(2), β = 1.523(2), γ = 1.527(2). The chemical composition of shlykovite determined by an electron microprobe (H2O determined from total deficiency) is as follows, wt %: 0.68 Na2O, 11.03 K2O, 13.70 CaO, 59.86 SiO2, 14.73 H2O; the total is 100.00. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of 13 O atoms (OH/H2O calculated from the charge balance) is (K0.96Na0.09)Σ1.05Ca1.00Si4.07O9.32(OH)0.68 · 3H2O. The idealized formula is KCa[Si4O9(OH)] · 3H2O. The chemical composition of cryptophyllite determined by an electron microprobe (H2O determined from the total deficiency) is as follows, wt %: 1.12 Na2O, 17.73 K2O, 11.59 CaO, 0.08 Al2O3, 50.24 SiO2, 19.24 H2

  13. Supramolecular assembly based on a heteropolyanion: Synthesis and crystal structure of Na3(H2O)6[Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$\\cdot$2H2O

    Vaddypally Shivaiah; Samar K Das

    2005-05-01

    Synthesis and structural characterization of a polyoxometalate compound Na3(H2O)6 [Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$\\cdot$2H2O (1) have been described. Compound 1 exhibits three-dimensional network structure in the solid state, which is assembled by Anderson-type heteropolyanions, [Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$_n^{3n-}$, as building blocks sharing sodium cations. 1 possesses ``sinuous" channels occupied by supramolecular water dimers as guests. Anderson anions, sodium-coordinated water and crystal water are additionally involved in an intricate hydrogen-bonding network in the crystal of 1.

  14. Pd-Catalyzed sequential β-C(sp(3))-H arylation and intramolecular amination of δ-C(sp(2))-H bonds for synthesis of quinolinones via an N,O-bidentate directing group.

    Guan, Mingyu; Pang, Yubo; Zhang, Jingyu; Zhao, Yingsheng

    2016-05-19

    The pharmacological importance of 2-quinolinone derivatives is well known. Herein, we developed an effective protocol for the synthesis of 2-quinolinone derivatives by palladium-catalyzed sequential β-C(sp(3))-H arylation and selective intramolecular C(sp(2))-H/N-H amination starting with aryl iodides and carboxylic acids. A novel directing group, glycine dimethylamide, was used in the synthesis. We synthesized various quinolinone derivatives, including 5-substituted quinolinones, which are difficult to obtain using the traditional pathway. The directing group could be easily removed and could be readily transformed into other useful functional groups. PMID:27161570

  15. Crystal structure, dielectric properties and molecular motions of molecules in thiazolium halometalates(III): (C3H4NS)6M4Br18·2H2O (M = Sb, Bi)

    Piecha, A.; Jakubas, R.; Kinzhybalo, V.; Medycki, W.

    2012-04-01

    Two thiazolium analogs, (C3H4NS)6Sb4Br18·2H2O (TBA) and (C3H4NS)6Bi4Br18·2H2O (TBB), have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The compounds appeared to be isomorphous and crystallize in the triclinic symmetry, space group P1¯ (at 100 K). These ionic complexes are built up of thiazolium cations, centrosymmetric [M4Br18]6- anions (M = Sb, Bi) and water molecules. One of three independent thiazolium cations was found to be disordered (two-site model). The cations are hydrogen bonded to [M4Br18]6- moieties and water molecules. The water molecule (Ow) acts as a donor of the O-H⋯Br and an acceptor of the N-H⋯O types of hydrogen bonds. The dielectric dispersion studies disclosed a low frequency relaxation process characterized by a significant slowing down of two independent dielectric relaxators. The dielectric behavior was explained by the motion of thiazolium cations and water molecules The molecular motions of the thiazolium and water molecules were studied by means of the 1H NMR spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) measurements.

  16. Modelling of phase equilibria in CH4–C2H6–C3H8–nC4H10–NaCl–H2O systems

    Highlights: • A new model was established for the phase equilibria of C1–C2–C3–nC4–brine systems. • The model can reproduce of hydrocarbon–brine equilibria to high T&P and salinity. • The model can well predict H2O solubility in light hydrocarbon rich phases. - Abstract: A thermodynamic model is presented for the mutual solubility of CH4–C2H6–C3H8–nC4H10–brine systems up to high temperature, pressure and salinity. The Peng–Robinson model is used for non-aqueous phase fugacity calculations, and the Pitzer model is used for aqueous phase activity calculations. The model can accurately reproduce the experimental solubilities of CH4, C2H6, C3H8 and nC4H10 in water or NaCl solutions and H2O solubility in the non-aqueous phase. The experimental data of mutual solubility for the CH4–brine subsystem are sufficient for temperatures exceeding 250 °C, pressures exceeding 1000 bar and NaCl molalities greater than 6 molal. Compared to the CH4–brine system, the mutual solubility data of C2H6–brine, C3H8–brine and nC4H10–brine are not sufficient. Based on the comparison with the experimental data of H2O solubility in C2H6-, C3H8- or nC4H10-rich phases, the model has an excellent capability for the prediction of H2O solubility in hydrocarbon-rich phases, as these experimental data were not used in the modelling. Predictions of hydrocarbon solubility (at temperatures up to 200 °C, pressures up to 1000 bar and NaCl molalities greater than 6 molal) were made for the C2H6–brine, C3H8–brine and nC4H10–brine systems. The predictions suggest that increasing pressure generally increases the hydrocarbon solubility in water or brine, especially in the lower-pressure region. Increasing temperature usually decreases the hydrocarbon solubility at lower temperatures but increases the hydrocarbon solubility at higher temperatures. Increasing water salinity dramatically decreases the hydrocarbon solubility. The experimental solubility data for

  17. On the Formation and Isomer Specific Detection of Propenal (C2H3CHO) and Cyclopropanone (c-C3H4O) in Interstellar Model Ices - A Combined FTIR and Reflectron Time-of-Flight Mass Spectroscopic Study

    Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Borsuk, Aleca; Jones, Brant M.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2015-11-01

    The formation routes of two structural isomers—propenal (C2H3CHO) and cyclopropanone (c-C3H4O)—were investigated experimentally by exposing ices of astrophysical interest to energetic electrons at 5.5 K thus mimicking the interaction of ionizing radiation with interstellar ices in cold molecular clouds. The radiation-induced processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and via temperature programmed desorption exploiting highly sensitive reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with single photon ionization in the post irradiation phase. To selectively probe which isomer(s) is/are formed, the photoionization experiments were conducted with 10.49 and 9.60 eV photons. Our studies provided compelling evidence on the formation of both isomers—propenal (C2H3CHO) and cyclopropanone (c-C3H4O)—in ethylene (C2H4)—carbon monoxide (CO) ices forming propenal and cyclopropanone at a ratio of (4.5 ± 0.9):1. Based on the extracted reaction pathways, the cyclopropanone molecule can be classified as a tracer of a low temperature non-equilibrium chemistry within interstellar ices involving most likely excited triplet states, whereas propenal can be formed at ultralow temperatures, but also during the annealing phase via non-equilibrium as well as thermal chemistry (radical recombination). Since propenal has been detected in the interstellar medium and our laboratory experiments demonstrate that both isomers originated from identical precursor molecules our study predicts that the hitherto elusive second isomer—cyclopropanone—should also be observable toward those astronomical sources such as Sgr B2(N) in which propenal has been detected.

  18. Metal-containing ligands for mixed-metal polymers: novel Cu(II)-Ag(I) mixed-metal coordination polymers generated from [Cu(2-methylpyrazine-5-carboxylate)2(H2O)].3H2O and silver(I) salts.

    Dong, Y B; Smith, M D; zur Loye, H C

    2000-05-01

    One Cu(II)-containing ligand and two Cu(II)-Ag(I) mixed-metal coordination polymers have been synthesized. [Cu(2-methylpyrazine-5-carboxylate)2(H2O)].3H2O (1) was obtained as a molecular complex with two uncoordinated nitrogen donors by the reaction of 2-methylpyrazine-5-carboxylate sodium with CuCl(2).2H2O in water. Compound 1 crystallized in the triclinic space group P1, with a = 10.498(2) A, b = 11.000(2) A, c = 8.1424(16) A, alpha = 98.33(3) degrees, beta = 101.83(3) degrees, gamma = 66.68(3) degrees, and Z = 2. Reactions of 1 with silver(I) salts have been studied. Two Cu(II)-Ag(I) mixed-metal coordination polymers, namely, Ag[Cu(2-methylpyrazine-5-carboxylate)2.(H2O)2](BF4) (2) and Ag[Cu(2-methylpyrazine-5-carboxylate)2.(H2O)2](NO3) (3), have been generated by treating 1 with AgBF4 and AgNO3, respectively. Compound 2 crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2/c, with a = 25.827(5) A, b = 9.6430(19) A, c = 7.4525(15) A, beta = 94.74(3) degrees, and Z = 4. Compound 3 also crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2/c, with a = 25.855(5) A, b = 9.782(2) A, c = 7.1201(14) A, beta = 96.90(3) degrees, and Z = 4. The main structural feature in both 2 and 3 is a zigzag Cu(II)-Ag(I) mixed-metal chain, in which the alternating Cu(II) and Ag(I) centers are linked by 2-methylpyrazine-5-carboxylate spacers. The effect of the nitrate counterion was illustrated by compound 3, in which a novel [Ag+...NO3-] coordination chain has been found which acts as the connector to cross-link the one-dimensional zigzag chains into a three-dimensional network. In addition, an identical interchain O-H...O hydrogen bonding system has been found in both 2 and 3 and has been shown to play a significant role in directing the alignment of the one-dimensional mixed-metal polymer chains in the crystalline state. The magnetic susceptibilities of 2 and 3 were measured and found to follow the Curie law (mu eff = 1.85 for 2 and 1.83 for 3). PMID:11428114

  19. Layered hybrid organic-inorganic Co(II) alkylphosphonates. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetism of the first two members of the series: Co[(CH3PO3)(H2O)] and Co[(C2H5PO3)(H2O)

    Co[(CH3PO3)(H2O)] (1) and Co[(C2H5PO3)(H2O)] (2) were prepared by the hydrothermal method and isolated as blue-violet platelet crystals. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, TGA-DSC techniques and their magnetic properties studied by a dc-SQUID magnetometer. Compound (1) shows an hybrid layered structure, made of alternating inorganic and organic layers along the a-direction of the unit cell. The inorganic layers contain Co(II) ions six-coordinated by five phosphonate oxygen atoms and one from the water molecule. These layers are separated by bi-layers of methyl groups and van der Waals contacts are established between them. In compound (2), the layered hybrid structure is rather similar to that described for compound (1), but the alternation of the inorganic and organic layers is along the b-direction of the unit cell. The magnetic behavior of (1) and (2) as function of temperature and magnetic field was studied. The compounds obey the Curie-Weiss law at temperatures above 100K, the Curie C, and Weiss θ constants for the methyl derivative being C=3.36cm3Kmol-1 and θ=-53K and for the ethyl derivative C=3.62cm3Kmol-1 and θ=-75K, respectively. The observed magnetic moments for Co atom at room temperature (i.e. μeff=5.18 and 5.38 BM, respectively) are higher than those expected for a spin-only value for high spin Co(II) (S=3/2), revealing a substantial orbital contribution to the magnetic moment. The negative values of θ are an indication of the presence of antiferromagnetic exchange couplings between the near-neighbors Co(II) ions, within the layers. [Co(CnH2n+1PO3)(H2O)] (n=1,2) are 2D Ising antiferromagnets at low temperatures

  20. 87Sr/86Sr, 18O, 2H and 3H as tracers for genesis and saturation history of intruding groundwater in evaporitic deposits of the German Zechstein basin

    Full text: Salt mines in evaporitic deposits of the Permian Zechstein basin might be subject to flooding if formation water seeps into the mine openings through fore instance tectonically induced fractures.We apply several isotopic tracers to localize the sources of intrusions and to reconstruct the genesis and evolution of such brines. The evolution from formation water to brine comprises several starting points for isotopic tracers. Once the water infiltrates the salt rock, it starts to solute and concentrate various constituents and extractives of the drained deposits, and later on precipitations could occur. This non-linear solution and partly undersaturation poses a problem to the regular tracing methods. The element content might provide only limited indications on the source, which can be an aquifer or a large brine occurrence within the deposits. An aggravating factor is that such inclusions must not be of Permian age. The draining fractures can be closed in direction of the aquifer while enclosing liquids in different sized caverns or jointed rocks. However, these confined volumes of fluids pose only a limited risk for flooding. A combination of isotopic tracers, which provide indications on meteoric water, mixed water, connate water and a mixture of all, has to be contemplated: The cosmogenic radionuclide tritium 3H (τ = 12.35 yr) indicates -if present- a direct connection to the earths surface. The stable isotopes 18O and 2H can give clues to the type of water when related to older data. We have applied 87Sr/86Sr isotopes as an additional tool to further define the source. Recent 87Sr/86Sr analyzes of one brine inflow in a potash mine in the upper Permian Zechstein series suggest that the Sr isotope composition is rather affected by salt clay detritus than by halite or anhydrite. Other data show variations according to several isotopic seawater curves of Permian age. A combination of different isotopic tools may help to further delimit the source

  1. A b3lyp study searching for b-b triple bond in xbbx system (x= co, cs, n/sub 2/, cnch/sub 3/, h/sub 2/o, h/sub 2/s, nh/sub 3/, ph/sub 3/, c/sub 5/h/sub 5/n, f-, cn-, no/sub 2/-)

    A DFT study using B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p) method, has been performed to investigate the total energies, equilibrium geometries, bonding energies, and the values of spin contamination of BX and XBBX molecules, where X=CO, CS, N/sub 2/, CNCH/sub 3/, H/sub 2/O, H/sub 2/S, NH/sub 3/, PH/sub 3/, C/sub 5/H/sub 5/N, F-, CN-, NO/sub 2/-. NBO analysis calculations also obtain the natural charges and bond orders at B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p) level. The quadruplet is ground state for both CO and CS ligands, by dimer of which can form stable singlet of XBBX. But for the remaining ligands, the doublets are ground states, contrary to the BCO and BCS systems. (author)

  2. Nickel (II) complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline and 8-mercaptoquinoline. Synthesis and structure of nickel 2-methyl-5-propylthio-8-hydroxyquinolinate - pyridine adduct Ni[C9H4(CH3)(SC3H7)NO]2(C5H5N)2

    Nickel 2--methyl-5-popylthio-8-hydroxyquinoline - pyridine adduct Ni[C9H4(CH3)(SC3)(SC3H7)NO]2(C5H5N2) (I) has been synthesized and investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. The monocrystals of the title compound belong to triclinic syngony. Unit cell parameters: a=9.542(2), b=11.425(2), c=17,351(3)A; α=-86,5(2)deg, β=69.62(2)deg, γ=76.45(2)deg; V=1723.9(6)A3; ρtheor=1.313 g/cm3, Z=2; sp.gr. P1. The dynamics of the bonds in the certain nickel 8-hydroxyquinolinate adducts with pyridine has been analyzed. (authors)

  3. Synthesis and anti-proliferative activity of aromatic substituted 5-((1-benzyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione analogs against human tumor cell lines.

    Madadi, Nikhil Reddy; Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Janganati, Venumadhav; Crooks, Peter A

    2014-01-15

    Based on previous SAR studies on N-benzylindole and barbituric acid hybrid molecules, we have synthesized a series of aromatic substituted 5-((1-benzyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione analogs (3a-i) and evaluated them for their in vitro growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against a panel of 60 human tumor cell lines. Compounds 3c, 3d, 3f and 3g were identified as highly potent anti-proliferative compounds against ovarian, renal and breast cancer cell lines with GI50 values in low the nanomolar range. The 4-methoxy-N-benzyl analog (3d) was the most active compound with GI50 values of 20 nM and 40 nM against OVCAR-5 ovarian cancer cells and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, respectively. Two other analogs, 3c (the 4-methyl-N-benzyl analog) and 3g (the 4-fluoro-N-benzyl analog) exhibited equimolar potency against MDA-MB-468 cells GI50=30 nM). Analog 3f (the 4-chloro-N-benzyl analog) exhibited a GI50 value of 40 nM against renal cancer cell line A498. These results suggest that aromatic substituted N-benzylindole dimethylbarbituric acid hybrids may have potential for development as clinical candidates to treat a variety of solid tumors. PMID:24361000

  4. Cycloaddition of thiocyanate ion to cyanoguanidine in the presence of uranyl ion: synthesis and crystal structure of (C3N5H6S)2[(UO2)(C2O4)2(H2O)] · C2N4H4

    Uranyl complex (C3N5H6S)2[(UO2)(C2O4)2(H2O)] ·C2N4H4 has been synthesized, its X-ray diffraction study being conducted. It has been ascertained that the complex is crystallized in triclinic crystal system, space group P1-bar, a=8.5201(11), b=11.4027(14), c=14.329(2)A, α=103.182(5), β=99.607(6), γ=109.698(4)deg, Z=2, ρcalcd=2.258 g/cm3. The structure integrates a complex aquadioxalatouranylate-anion, two crystallographically nonequivalent cations of thioammelinium and a neutral molecule of cyanoguanidine. It is pointed out that uranyl ion serves as a catalyst of thioammelinium formation during synthesis of the complex mentioned

  5. Contributions of excited {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li nuclei to the production of {sup 4}He+{sup 2}H and {sup 4}He+{sup 3}H systems in {sup 16}O{sub p} collisions at a momentum of 3.25 GeV/c per nucleon

    Olimov, K., E-mail: olimov@uzsci.net [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Physical-Technical Institute, Fizika-Solntse Research and Production Association (Uzbekistan); Glagolev, V. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Gulamov, K. G.; Lutpullaev, S. L.; Kurbanov, A. R.; Olimov, A. K.; Petrov, V. I.; Yuldashev, A. A. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Physical-Technical Institute, Fizika-Solntse Research and Production Association (Uzbekistan)

    2013-07-15

    New experimental data on the cross sections for the yield of excited {sup 6}Li* and {sup 7}Li* nuclei and on their contributions to the production of {sup 4}He + {sup 2}H and {sup 4}He+{sup 3}H light dinuclear systems in {sup 16}O{sub p} collisions at a momentumof 3.25 A GeV/c per nucleon are presented.

  6. Thermostable molecular sieves, silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO)-34, for the removal of NOx with C{sub 3}H{sub 6} in the coexistence of O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and SO{sub 2}

    Ishihara, Tatsumi; Kagawa, Masaru; Hadama, Fumiaki; Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Ito, Masami; Takita, Yusaku [Oita Univ. (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    Selective reduction of NO with C{sub 3}H{sub 6} under an oxidizing atmosphere was studied over various Cu ion-exchanged molecular sieves. All examined Cu ion-exchanged catalysts are active for NO reduction with C{sub 3}H{sub 6} in a large excess of O{sub 2}; however, the temperature at the maximum NO conversion depends on the kind of molecular sieves. In particular, it was found that Cu-SAPO-34 is sometimes more active than Cu-ZSM-5. Thermal stability of SAPO-34 was extremely high, and consequently, decrease in the activity to NO selective reduction on Cu-SAPO-34 was negligible over 60 h at 673 K in an atmosphere containing 15 vol % H{sub 2}O. After thermal treatment at 1,073 K in a humidified atmosphere, decrease in the activity to NO reduction was also small. Although the activity of Cu-SAPO-34 to NO reduction was decreased slightly with the coexistence of SO{sub 2}, it is expected that the activity of Cu-SAPO-34 is sustained over a long period.

  7. Synthesis, structural characterization, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of [Ga(phen)(H1.5PO4)2].H2O and [Ga(phen)(HPO4)(H2PO4)].1.5H2O (phen=1, 10-phenanthroline), two organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with 1-D chain structures

    Two new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, [Ga(phen)(H1.5PO4)2].H2O (1) and [Ga(phen)(HPO4)(H2PO4)].1.5H2O (2) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline), have been synthesized by hydrothermal methods and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Their structures consist of 1-D chains of strictly alternating GaO4N2 octahedra and phosphate tetrahedra. The phen ligands in both compounds bind in a bidentate fashion to the gallium atoms and the 1-D structures extend into 3-D supramolecular arrays via π-π stacking interactions of phen ligands and hydrogen bonds. 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy was applied to study the deuterated sample of 1 which contains very short hydrogen bonds with an O-O distance of 2.406(2) A. Crystal data for 1: monoclinic, space group C2/c (No. 15), a=11.077(1) A, b=21.496(2) A, c=7.9989(7) A, β=127.211(2)o, and Z=4. The crystal symmetry is the same for 2 as for 1 except a=27.555(2) A, b=6.3501(5) A, c=21.327(2) A, β=122.498(1)o, and Z=8

  8. Synthesis and photosensitivity characterizations of 9-(6-bromo-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)-3,4,6,7-tetrahydro-3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-2H-xanthene-1,8-(5H,9H)-dione(BOCTTX)

    Ibrahim, Magdy A.; Farag, A. A. M.; Roushdy, N.; El-Gohary, Nasser M.

    2016-02-01

    Condensation reaction of 6-bromochromone-3-carboxaldehyde (1) with dimedone afforded 9-(6-bromo-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)-3,4,6,7-tetrahydro-3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-2H-xanthene-1,8-(5H,9H)-dione (3, BOCTTX). Structure of BOCTTX was deduced based on its correct elemental analysis and spectral data (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra). Thin films of BOCTTX were prepared in this study by using spin coating technique. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope analysis were studied for study the crystal and morphology characterization of BOCTTX. The results indicate that BOCTTX has a polycrystalline nature with monoclinic structure. From differential scanning calorimetry, BOCTTX is found to be thermally stable up to 583 K and the chemical structure plays an important role in the thermal decomposition process. The optical absorption of the film was studied in the UV-Vis spectral range and the value of two allowed energy gaps of 2.2 and 3.3 eV. Current-voltage characteristics of BOCTTX based devices were studied in dark and under various illumination intensities in the range 20-100 mW/cm2. Electrical and photoelectrical parameters were studied as a function of light intensity. The obtained results exhibits photoconductivity cauterization and suggest that the diode can be used as a photodiode in optoelectronic sensor application.

  9. W(CO)3(Ph2PC2H4PPh2)(η(2)-Sc3N@Ih-C80/Sc3N@D5h-C80): regioselective synthesis and crystallographic characterization of air-stable mononuclear complexes of endohedral fullerenes.

    Bao, Lipiao; Liu, Bin; Li, Xiaofang; Pan, Changwang; Xie, Yunpeng; Lu, Xing

    2016-08-01

    The organometallic chemistry of endohedral metallofullerenes has lagged far behind that of empty fullerenes. Herein, we report a highly regioselective coordination reaction involving two Sc3N@C80 isomers and W(CO)4(Ph2PC2H4PPh2) (1), which affords only one mononuclear complex for each Sc3N@C80 isomer (2a for Sc3N@Ih-C80 and 2b for Sc3N@D5h-C80). X-ray results demonstrate that the tungsten center coordinates with the cages in an η(2) fashion on a [6,6]-bond in both cases, forming the first derivatives with a closed three membered ring for Sc3N@C80. Although IR and absorption spectroscopic results reveal relatively weak exohedral-metal to ligand π back-donation in both 2a and 2b, they show remarkable air-stability which promises their potential uses in related fields. Moreover, the coordination has narrowed down the electrochemical gaps of the parent Sc3N@C80 isomers, making the complexes better electron donors but worse electron acceptors than the corresponding precursors. PMID:27075265

  10. Crystal structures of two decavanadates(V with pentaaquamanganese(II pendant groups: (NMe42[V10O28{Mn(H2O5}2]·5H2O and [NH3C(CH2OH3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O5}2]·2H2O

    Maurício P. Franco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two heterometallic decavanadate(V compounds, bis(tetramethylammonium decaaquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexadeca-μ2-oxido-hexaoxidodimanganese(IIdecavanadate(V pentahydrate, (Me4N2[V10O28{Mn(H2O5}2]·5H2O, A, and bis{[tris(hydroxymethylmethyl]ammonium} decaaquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexadeca-μ2-oxido-hexaoxidodimanganese(IIdecavanadate(V dihydrate, [NH3C(CH2OH3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O5}2]·2H2O, B, have been synthesized under mild reaction conditions in an aqueous medium. Both polyanions present two [Mn(OH25]2+ complex units bound to the decavanadate cluster through oxide bridges. In A, the decavanadate unit has 2/m symmetry, whereas in B it has twofold symmetry. Apart from this, the main differences between A and B rest on the organic cations, tetramethylammonium and [tris(hydroxymethylmethyl]ammonium, respectively, and on the number and arrangement of the water molecules of crystallization. In both compounds, the H atoms from the coordinating water molecules participate in extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks, which link the cluster units both directly and through solvent molecules and, in B, through the `tris' cation hydroxyl groups. The cation in B also participates in N—H...O hydrogen bonds. A number of C—H...O interactions are also observed in both structures.

  11. Structural study of (N2H5,H)2.9U1.1Ce0.9(C2O4)5·10H2O from a conventional X-ray diffraction diagram obtained on a powder synthesized by a fast vortex process

    In the context of research on U/minor actinides for nuclear fuel reprocessing in the transmutation process, developments are first studied with surrogates containing uranium and lanthanides to facilitate testing. The tests consist of precipitating and calcining a hydrazinium uranium/cerium oxalate. The structure of this oxalate had not been previously determined, but was necessary to validate the physicochemical mechanisms involved. The present study, firstly demonstrates the structural similarity of the U/Ce oxalate phase (N2H5,H)2.9U1.1Ce0.9(C2O4)5·10H2O, synthesized using a vortex precipitator for continuous synthesis of actinide oxalates, with previously known oxalates, crystallizing in P63/mmc symmetry, obtained by more classical methods. This fast precipitation process induces massive nucleation of fine powders. Their structural and microstructural determination confirms that the raw and dried phases belong to the same structural family as (NH4)2U2(C2O4)5·0.7H2O whose structure was described by Chapelet-Arab in P63/mmc symmetry, using single crystal data. However, they present an extended disorder inside the tunnels of the structure, even after drying at 100 °C, between water and hydrazinium ions. This disorder is directly related to the fast vortex method. This structure determination can be used as a basis for further semi-quantitative analysis on the U/minor actinides products formed under various experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Uranium cerium oxalate precipitate characterization by X-ray powder diffraction. • Morphology characterization by SEM analysis. • Structure determination by unit cell Rietveld refinement

  12. Crystal and molecular structure of the coordination compounds of Er3+ with 1-(methoxydiphenylphosphoryl)-2-diphenylphosphorylbenzene [ErL21(NO3)2]2[Er(NO3)2(H2O)5]0.333(NO3)2.333 · 2.833H2O and its ethyl substituted derivative [ErL22(NO3)2][Er(NO3)5]0.5 · 0.5H2O

    The coordination compounds of Er3+ with 1-(methoxydiphenylphosphoryl)-2-diphenylphosphorylbenzene [ErL21(NO3)2]2[Er(NO3)2(H2O)5]0.333(NO3)2.333 · 2.833H2O (I) and its ethyl substituted derivative [ErL22(NO3)2][Er(NO3)5]0.5 · 0.5H2O (II) are synthesized and their crystal structures are studied. I and II contain [ErL2(NO3)2]+ complex cations of identical composition and close structure. The eight-vertex polyhedron of the Er atom in the shape of a distorted octahedron with two split trans vertices is formed by the O atoms of the phosphoryl groups of L ligands and nitrate anions. L ligands close nine-membered metallocycles. The structures contain spacious channels which are populated differently, namely, by disordered [Er(NO3)2(H2O)5]+ complex cations, NO3− anions, and crystallization water molecules in I and disordered [Er(NO3)5]2− complex anions and crystallization water molecules in II. The IR spectra of I and II are studied

  13. Crystal and molecular structure of the coordination compounds of Er3+ with 1-(methoxydiphenylphosphoryl)-2-diphenylphosphorylbenzene [Er L {2/1}(NO3)2]2[Er(NO3)2(H2O)5]0.333(NO3)2.333 · 2.833H2O and its ethyl substituted derivative [Er L {2/2}(NO3)2][Er(NO3)5]0.5 · 0.5H2O

    Polyakova, I. N.; Baulin, V. E.; Ivanova, I. S.; Pyatova, E. N.; Sergienko, V. S.; Tsivadze, A. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The coordination compounds of Er3+ with 1-(methoxydiphenylphosphoryl)-2-diphenylphosphorylbenzene [Er L {2/1}(NO3)2]2[Er(NO3)2(H2O)5]0.333(NO3)2.333 · 2.833H2O ( I) and its ethyl substituted derivative [Er L {2/2}(NO3)2][Er(NO3)5]0.5 · 0.5H2O ( II) are synthesized and their crystal structures are studied. I and II contain [Er L 2(NO3)2]+ complex cations of identical composition and close structure. The eight-vertex polyhedron of the Er atom in the shape of a distorted octahedron with two split trans vertices is formed by the O atoms of the phosphoryl groups of L ligands and nitrate anions. L ligands close nine-membered metallocycles. The structures contain spacious channels which are populated differently, namely, by disordered [Er(NO3)2(H2O)5]+ complex cations, NO{3/-} anions, and crystallization water molecules in I and disordered [Er(NO3)5]2- complex anions and crystallization water molecules in II. The IR spectra of I and II are studied.

  14. Two fumarato-bridged Co(II) coordination polymers: syntheses, crystal structures and properties of Co(H2O)4L and [Co3(H2O)4(OH)2L2]·2H2O with H2L-HOOCCH-CHCOOH

    Two fumarato-bridged Co(II) coordination polymers Co(H2O)4L 1 and [Co3(H2O)4(OH)2L2]·2H2O 2 with H2L-HOOCCH-CHCOOH were prepared. Complex 1 consists of polymeric chains ∞1[Co(H2O)4(C4H2O4)2/2], which result from octahedrally coordinated Co atoms bridged by bis-monodentate fumarate anions and are assembled by interchain hydrogen bonds. Within 2, the edge-shared Co2O10 bi-octahedra are connected to the CoO6 octahedra to form 1D cobalt oxide chains and 3D open framework generated from the chains inter-linked by bis-bidentate fumarate anions displays rhombic tunnels, which are filled with the lattice H2O molecules. Thermal and magnetic behaviors of both the title coordination polymers are discussed. Crystal data: (1) monoclinic, P21/c, Z=4, a=7.493(1) A, b=14.377(1) A, c=7.708(1) A, β=99.54(1) deg., V=818.9(2) A3, R1=0.0304, and wR2=0.0669 for 1487 observed reflections (I≥2σ(I)) out of 1877 unique reflections; (2) monoclinic, P21/c, Z=2, a=6.618(1) A, b=8.172(2) A, c=15.578(3) A, β=96.30(3) deg., V=837.4(3) A3, R1=0.0360 and wR2=0.0663 for 1442 observed reflections (I≥2σ(I)) out of 1927 unique reflections

  15. Photodisintegration of 3H and 3He

    The photoneutron cross sections for 3H and 3He have been measured from threshold to approx. 25 MeV with monoenergetic photons from the annihilation in flight of fast positrons at the LLL Electron-Positron Linear Accelerator facility. These reactions include the two-body breakup of 3H and the three-body breakup of both 3H and 3He; these measurements for 3H are the first to span the energy region across the peaks of the cross sections. An efficient BF3-tube-and-paraffin neutron detector and high-pressure gaseous samples of several moles each (the activity of the 3H sample was approx. 200,000 Ci) were employed in these measurements. Measurements on 16O and 2H also were performed to verify the absolute cross-section scale. The results, when compared with each other and with results for the two-body breakup cross section for 3He from the literature, show that the two-body breakup cross sections for 3H and 3He have nearly the same shape, but the one for 3He lies lower in magnitude; the three-body breakup cross section for 3He lies higher in magnitude and is broader in the peak region and also rises less sharply from threshold than that for 3H; and these measured differences between the cross sections for the breakup modes largely compensate in their sum, so that the total photon absorption cross sections for 3H and 3He are nearly the same in both size and shape at energies near and above their peaks. Theoretical results from the literature disagree with the experimental results to a certain extent over the entire photon-energy region for which the photoneutron cross sections were measured. 50 figures, 7 tables

  16. Polynuclear complexes with bridging pyrophosphate ligands: synthesis and characterisation of {[(bipy)Cu(H2O)(mu-P2O7)Na2(H2O)6] x 4H2O}, {[(bipy)Zn-(H2O)(mu-P2O7)Zn(bipy)]2 x 14H2O} and {[(bipy)(VO)2]2(mu-P2O7)] x 5H2O}.

    Doyle, Robert P; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Kruger, Paul E

    2005-12-01

    The reaction in water of M(II) ions (M = Cu, 1; Zn, 2; VO, 3) with 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) followed by Na4P2O7 leads to the formation of three new complexes which feature the pyrophosphate anion, P2O7(4-), as a bridging ligand. Single crystal X-ray diffraction revealed 1 to be {[(bipy)Cu(H2O)(micro-P2O7)Na2(H2O)6] x 4H2O}, and 2 as a tetranuclear Zn(II) complex, {[(bipy)Zn(H2O)(micro-P2O7)Zn(bipy)]2 x 14H2O}. The structure of 1 consists of a mononuclear [(bipy)Cu(H2O)(P2O7)]2- unit that links via a pyrophosphate bridge to two Na atoms. The hydrated six-coordinate Na atoms themselves join together through bridging water molecules to generate a 2D Na-water sheet. The structure of 2 consists of a tetranuclear Zn(II) cluster (dimer-of-dimers) with two pyrophosphate ligands bridging between four metal centres. Adjacent clusters interact through face-to-face pi-pi interactions via the bipy ligands to yield a 2D sheet. Adjacent sheets pack in register to create channels, which are filled by the water molecules of crystallisation. An intricate 2D H-bonded water network separates adjacent sheets and encapsulates the tetranuclear clusters. Aspects of the pyrophosphate coordination modes in 1 and 2 are of structural relevance to those found within the inorganic pyrophosphatases. Compound 3, {[(bipy)(VO)2]2(micro-P2O7)] x 5H2O}, was isolated as an insoluble lime-green powder. Its dinuclear structure was elucidated from elemental and thermal analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurement and IR spectroscopy. The latter displayed characteristic bridging pyrophosphate and signature V=O stretches, which were corroborated by contrast to the IR spectra of 1 and 2 and through comparison with those found in the structurally characterised dinuclear complex, {[(bipy)Cu(H2O)]2(micro-P2O7) x 7H2O}, 4. PMID:16471055

  17. Crystal and molecular structure of the coordination compounds of Er{sup 3+} with 1-(methoxydiphenylphosphoryl)-2-diphenylphosphorylbenzene [ErL{sub 2}{sup 1}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}[Er(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sub 0.333}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2.333} · 2.833H{sub 2}O and its ethyl substituted derivative [ErL{sub 2}{sup 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}][Er(NO{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sub 0.5} · 0.5H{sub 2}O

    Polyakova, I. N., E-mail: polyakova@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Baulin, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation); Ivanova, I. S.; Pyatova, E. N.; Sergienko, V. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Tsivadze, A. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    The coordination compounds of Er{sup 3+} with 1-(methoxydiphenylphosphoryl)-2-diphenylphosphorylbenzene [ErL{sub 2}{sup 1}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}[Er(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sub 0.333}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2.333} · 2.833H{sub 2}O (I) and its ethyl substituted derivative [ErL{sub 2}{sup 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}][Er(NO{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sub 0.5} · 0.5H{sub 2}O (II) are synthesized and their crystal structures are studied. I and II contain [ErL{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} complex cations of identical composition and close structure. The eight-vertex polyhedron of the Er atom in the shape of a distorted octahedron with two split trans vertices is formed by the O atoms of the phosphoryl groups of L ligands and nitrate anions. L ligands close nine-membered metallocycles. The structures contain spacious channels which are populated differently, namely, by disordered [Er(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sup +} complex cations, NO{sub 3}{sup −} anions, and crystallization water molecules in I and disordered [Er(NO{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup 2−} complex anions and crystallization water molecules in II. The IR spectra of I and II are studied.

  18. Muon capture on 3H

    Golak, J; Witala, H; Topolnicki, K; Kamada, H; Nogga, A; Marcucci, L E

    2016-01-01

    The muon capture on 3H leading to muonic neutrino and three neutrons in the final state is studied under full inclusion of final state interactions. Predictions for the three-body break-up of 3H are calculated with the AV18 potential, augmented by the Urbana IX three-nucleon force. Our results are based on the single nucleon weak current operator comprising the dominant relativistic corrections. This work is a natural extension of our investigations of the muon capture on 3He leading to 3H or n+d or n+n+p and muonic neutrino in the final state, presented in Phys. Rev. C90, 024001 (2014).

  19. 3H-Penciclovir (3H-PCV) Uptake Assay

    Sekar, Thillai V; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2016-01-01

    Thymidine Kinase from human Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1-TK) in combination with specific substrate prodrug nucleotide analogue ganciclovir (GCV) has been widely used as suicidal therapeutic gene for cancer gene therapy. HSV1, and its mutant (HSV1-sr39TK) with improved substrate specificity, were used as reporter genes for PET-imaging of various biological functions in small animals, by combining with radiolabeled substrates such as 18F-FHBG and 124I-FIAU. 3H-Penciclovir (PCV) uptake assay is a method of choice used to determine the expression level of HSV1-TK in mammalian cells and tissues. HSV1-TK phosphorylate PCV and result in the formation of penciclovir monophosphate, and its subsequent phopsphorylation by cellular TK lead to the formation of penciclovir triphosphate, which is trapped selectively in cells expressing HSV-TK. 3H-Penciclovir enables the detection of penciclovir uptake of mammalian cells and tissues by radioactive procedures such as scintillation counting. Here we describe the protocol to carry out 3H-Penciclovir uptakes in mammalian cells.

  20. Microautoradiographic localisation of [3H]sucrose and [3H]mannitol in Robinia pseudoacacia pulvinar tissues during phytochrome-mediated nyctinastic closure.

    Moysset, L; Llambrich, E; López-Iglesias, C; Simón, E

    2006-11-01

    We have analysed the incorporation of [(3)H]sucrose and [(3)H]mannitol in pulvinar motor cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L. during phytochrome-mediated nyctinastic closure. Pairs of leaflets, excised 2 h after the beginning of the photoperiod, were fed with 50 mM [(3)H]sucrose or [(3)H]mannitol, irradiated with red (15 min) or far-red (5 min) light and placed in the dark for 2-3 h. Label uptake was measured in whole pulvini by liquid scintillation counting. The distribution of labelling in pulvinar sections was assessed by both light and electron microautoradiography. [(3)H]Sucrose uptake was twice that of [(3)H]mannitol incorporation in both red- and far-red-irradiated pulvini. In the autoradiographs, [(3)H]sucrose and [(3)H]mannitol labelling was localised in the area from the vascular bundle to the epidermis, mainly in vacuoles, cytoplasm, and cell walls. Extensor and flexor protoplasts displayed a different distribution of [(3)H]sucrose after red and far-red irradiation. Far-red light drastically reduced the [(3)H]sucrose incorporation in extensor protoplasts and caused a slight increase in internal flexor protoplasts. After red light treatment, no differences in [(3)H]sucrose labelling were found between extensor and flexor protoplasts. Our results indicate a phytochrome control of sucrose distribution in cortical motor cells and seem to rule out the possibility of sucrose acting as an osmoticum. PMID:17102931

  1. Syntheses of [5-2H]-uracil, [5-2H]-cytosine, [6-2H]-uracil and [6-2H]-cytosine

    Syntheses of [5-2H]-, [6-2H]-uracil and [5-2H]-, [6-2H]-cytosine were investigated. The catalytic reaction of uracil or cytosine with 2H2 gas in alkaline media gave rise to [6-2H]-compounds almost exclusively. On the other hand, the reaction of 5-bromouracil or 5-bromocytosine with 2H2 gas gave rise to a mixture of [5-2H]-, [6-2H]- and [5-2H, 6-2H]-compounds depending on the experimental conditions. By controlling the temperature, the pressure of 2H2 gas and the amount of catalyst, [5-2H]-uracil and [5-2H]-cytosine were obtained. The isotopic distribution in each product was measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy combined with an HPLC method. (author)

  2. Differential binding of 3H-imipramine and 3H-mianserin in rat cerebral cortex

    Drug competition profiles, effect of raphe lesion, and sodium dependency of the binding of two antidepressant drugs 3H-imipramine and 3H-mianserin to rat cerebral cortex homogenate were compared to examine whether the drugs bound to a common ''antidepressant receptor.'' Of the neurotransmitters tested, only serotonin displaced binding of both 3H-imipramine and 3H-mianserin. 3H-Mianserin binding was potently displaced by serotonin S2 antagonists and exhibited a profile similar to that of 3H-spiperone binding. In the presence of the serotonin S2 antagonist spiperone, antihistamines (H1) potently displaced 3H-mianserin binding. 3H-Imipramine binding was displaced potently by serotonin uptake inhibitors. The order of potency of serotonergic drugs in displacing 3H-imipramine binding was not similar to their order in displacing 3H-spiperone or -3H-serotonin binding. Prior midbrain raphe lesions greatly decreased the binding of 3H-imipramine but did not alter binding of 3H-mianserin. Binding of 3H-imipramine but not 3H-mianserin was sodium dependent. These results show that 3H-imipramine and 3H-mianserin bind to different receptors. 3H-Imipramine binds to a presynaptic serotonin receptor which is probably related to a serotonin uptake recognition site, the binding of which is sodium dependent. 3H-Mianserin binds to postsynaptic receptors, possibly both serotonin S2 and histamine H1 receptors, the binding of which is sodium independent

  3. Hydrothermal Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Photoluminescence of Two Novel Metal-organic Supramolecular Frameworks Based on Mixed Ligands of Dipyrazino[2,3f:2'3'-h]quinoxaline and Pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic Acid

    WANG Xiu-Li; LIU Guo-Cheng; LIN Hong-Yan; CHEN Bao-Kuan; FANG Jia-Ni; ZHAO Hai-Yan

    2008-01-01

    Two novel metal-organic frameworks [Zn2(DlXl)2(2,5-pda)2(H2O)2]·2H2O (1) (dipyrazino[2,3f2'3'-h]quinoxaline=Dpq) and [Cd2(Dpq)2(2,5-pda)2]·2H2O (2) (pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid=2,5-H2pda) have been obtained from hydrothermal reactions of two different metal(II) nitrates with the same mixed ligands Dpq and 2,5-H2pda,and structurally characterized by elemental analyses,TG,IR spectroscopy,and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyse.Single-crystal X-ray analyses show that the metal ions are bridged by different coordination modes of 2,5-pda to form a dimer in 1,2D rhombic grid in 2,respectively.In the compound 1,adjacent dimers are packed through hydrogen bonds and π-π aromatic stacking interactions to form a distorted a-Po supramolecular structure.In the compound 2,adjacent polymer layers are further linked by hydrogen bonds to form a distorted a-Po 3D supramolecular framework stabilized by π-π stacking interactions.The different structures of compounds 1 and 2 illustrate the influence of the metal ions and ligands on the self-assembly of polymeric coordination architectures.In addition,the title compounds exhibit blue emission in the solid state at room temperature.

  4. [3H]imidacloprid: synthesis of a candidate radioligand for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Imidacloprid is an exceptionally potent insecticide known from physiological studies to act at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. To prepare [3H]imidacloprid as a candidate radioligand, 6-chloronicotinoyl chloride was reduced with NaB2H4 (in model studies) or NaB3H4 in absolute ethanol to 2-chloro-5-pyridinylmethanol which was transformed to 2-chloro-5-chloromethylpyridine on refluxing with thionyl chloride. Coupling with 4,5-dihydro-N-nitro-1H-imidazol-2-amine then gave [2H2]imidacloprid incorporating about 95% of the deuterium or [3H2]imidacloprid (25 Ci/mmol) in 80% radiochemical yield. In studies not detailed here [3H] imidacloprid was found to undergo high affinity, specific and saturable binding to a site in insect brain. (author)

  5. Astronomical identification of the C3H radical

    The C3H radical has been identified in the millimeter-wave spectra of IRC +10216 and TMC-1. In IRC +10216, four rotational transitions have been observed, three in the lower fine-structure ladder (2Pi1/2) and one in the upper (2Pi3/2), each a resolved or partially resolved lambda-doublet. In TMC-1, both lambda components of the lowest lying 3/2-1/2 transition of the 2Pi1/2 ladder have been observed, each with well-resolved hfs. In IRC +10216, the excitation of C3H is similar to that of SiCC: the rotational temperature Trot within the 2Pi1/2 ladder is low (8.5 K), because of rapid radiative decay, while Trot across the ladders is high (about 52 K), because interconnecting far-IR radiative transitions are only weakly permitted. The column density of C3H in IRC +10216 averaged over the estimated source diameter of 84 arcsec is 2.8 x 10 to the 13th/sq cm, an order of magnitude less than that of C2H and C4H. 10 references

  6. Astronomical identification of the C3H radical

    Thaddeus, P.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Hjalmarson, A.; Johansson, L. E. B.; Irvine, W. M.; Friberg, P.; Linke, R. A.

    1985-07-01

    The C3H radical has been identified in the millimeter-wave spectra of IRC +10216 and TMC-1. In IRC +10216, four rotational transitions have been observed, three in the lower fine-structure ladder (2Pi1/2) and one in the upper (2Pi3/2), each a resolved or partially resolved lambda-doublet. In TMC-1, both lambda components of the lowest lying 3/2-1/2 transition of the 2Pi1/2 ladder have been observed, each with well-resolved hfs. In IRC +10216, the excitation of C3H is similar to that of SiCC: the rotational temperature Trot within the 2Pi1/2 ladder is low (8.5 K), because of rapid radiative decay, while Trot across the ladders is high (about 52 K), because interconnecting far-IR radiative transitions are only weakly permitted. The column density of C3H in IRC +10216 averaged over the estimated source diameter of 84 arcsec is 2.8 x 10 to the 13th/sq cm, an order of magnitude less than that of C2H and C4H.

  7. Reference: OCTAMERMOTIFTAH3H4 [PLACE

    Full Text Available OCTAMERMOTIFTAH3H4 Taoka K, Kaya H, Nakayama T, Araki T, Meshi T, Iwabuchi M Identification of t ... hree Kinds of mutually related composite ... elements conferring S phase-specific transcription ...

  8. Preparation of methyl-3H labelled dimethylnitrosamine

    Tritium labelled dimethylamine was prepared from benzalmethylimine in reaction with methyl-3H iodide followed by hydrolysis. The product was converted with sodium nitrite in glacial acetic acid into labelled dimethylnitrosamine. The radiochemical yield was 85%. (author)

  9. Syntheses of bar 6-2H bar-indole, bar 6-2H bar-gramine and bar 6-3H bar-gramine

    The title compounds were obtained from the corresponding 6-bromo derivatives by conversion to the 1,6-dilithio-compounds followed by treatment with deuteriated or tritiated water and exchange of the 1-deuterium or tritium with water. (author)

  10. Syntheses of bar 6-/sup 2/H bar-indole, bar 6-/sup 2/H bar-gramine and bar 6-/sup 3/H bar-gramine

    Ghini, A.A.; Burton, G.; Gros, E.G.

    1986-08-01

    The title compounds were obtained from the corresponding 6-bromo derivatives by conversion to the 1,6-dilithio-compounds followed by treatment with deuteriated or tritiated water and exchange of the 1-deuterium or tritium with water.

  11. Indirect Study of the (2)H(d,p)(3)H and (2)H(d,n)(3)He Reactions at Astrophysical Energies via the Trojan Horse Method

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Typel, S.; Aliotta, M.; Burjan, Václav; Del Santo, M. G.; Kiss, G.G.; Kroha, Václav; Hons, Zdeněk; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Pizzone, R. G.; Piskoř, Štěpán; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Sparta, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, 1-4 (2011), s. 323-325. ISSN 0177-7963. [21st European Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics Location. Salamanca, 30.08.2010-03092010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/10/0310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : CROSS-SECTIONS * REACTION-RATES * COMPILATION * D+D Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.438, year: 2011

  12. An exclusive cross section of reaction 3H(p,pn)n1H in diffraction approximation

    A theoretical analysis in diffraction approach of full triton breakup process (3H → p+2n) at scattering of protons with energy 72 MeV is performed. An estimation of cross section magnitude of three particle breakup of 3H nucleus is carried out in order to compare with reaction cross section 3H(p,pn)2H. The comparison with experimental data is done

  13. Understanding the $\\rm C_3H_2$ cyclic-to-linear ratio in L1544

    Sipilä, O; Caselli, P

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We aim to understand the high cyclic-to-linear $\\rm C_3H_2$ ratio ($32 \\pm 4$) observed toward L1544 by Spezzano et al. (2016). Methods. We combine a gas-grain chemical model with a physical model for L1544 to simulate the column densities of cyclic and linear $\\rm C_3H_2$ observed toward L1544. The most important reactions for the formation and destruction of both forms of $\\rm C_3H_2$ are identified, and their relative rate coefficients are varied to find the best match to the observations. Results. We find that the ratio of the rate coefficients of $\\rm C_3H_3^+ + e^- \\longrightarrow C_3H_2 + H$ for cyclic and linear $\\rm C_3H_2$ must be $\\sim 20$ in order to reproduce the observations, depending on the branching ratios assumed for the $\\rm C_3H_3^+ + e^- \\longrightarrow C_3H + H_2$ reaction. In current astrochemical networks it is assumed that cyclic and linear $\\rm C_3H_2$ are formed in a 1:1 ratio in the aforementioned reactions. Laboratory studies and/or theoretical calculations are needed to con...

  14. [3H] diazepam binding to human granulocytes

    [3H]-diazepam binds to sites on human granulocyte membranes, with little or no binding to platelets or lymphocytes. These [3H]-diazepam binding sites are of the peripheral type, being strongly inhibited by R05-4864 (Ki=6.23nM) but only weakly by clonazepam (Ki=14μM). Binding of [3H] diazepam at 00 is saturable, specific and stereoselective. Scatchard analysis indicates a single class of sites with Bmax of 109 +/- 17f moles per mg of protein and K/sub D/ of 3.07 +/- 0.53nM. Hill plots of saturation experiments gave straight lines with a mean Hill coefficient of 1.03 +/- 0.014. Binding is time dependent and reversible and it varies linearly with granulocyte protein concentration over the range 0.025-0.300 mg of protein. 11 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  15. The synthesis of [2-3H2] taurine and [2-3H2] hypotaurine

    The synthesis of [2-3H2]-2-aminoethanesulfonate [2-3H]-taurine by the reduction of cyanomethanesulfonic acid with tritium gas is described. The conversion of [2-3H]-taurine and its 14C and 35S isotopic forms to 2-aminoethanesulfinate (hypotaurine) was accomplished by converting taurine to its corresponding sulfonyl chloride and reducing the latter with metallic zinc. (author)

  16. Main: NONAMERMOTIFTAH3H4 [PLACE

    Full Text Available NONAMERMOTIFTAH3H4 S000071 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi Nonamer motif found in promoter of wheat ... at (T.a.) histone genes H3 and H4; HBP-1A; HBP-1B; wheat ... histone; CaMV 35S; NOS; meristem; wheat ... (Triticum ...

  17. Astrophysical S-factors of radiative capture of protons on 2H, 3H, 6Li and 12C nuclei

    Dubovichenko, S. B.; Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    We have considered the possibility to describe the astrophysical S-factors of some light atomic nuclei on the basis of the potential cluster model by taking into account the supermultiplet symmetry of wave functions and splitting the orbital states according to Young's schemes. Such an approach allows analyzing the structure of inter-cluster interactions, to determine the presence of allowed and forbidden states in the interaction potential and so the number of nodes of the orbital wave funct...

  18. The Photon Polarization Parameter of 2H(n, γ)3H reaction with Inclusion of the Electric Quadrupole Contribution

    Sadeghi, H.; Mosavi-Khansari, M.

    2014-09-01

    We use effective field theory (EFT) for the calculation of neutron—deuteron radiative capture at very low energies. We present here the use of EFT to calculate a low-energy photo-nuclear observable in three-body systems, the photon polarization parameter and fore—aft asymmetry at thermal neutron energies up to next-to-next to leading order (N2LO), with inclusion of the electric quadrupole contribution. The photon polarization parameter in total is found to be Rc = -0.421 ± 0.003 and is in good agreement with the other modern theoretical calculations based on modern nucleon—nucleon potentials. In comparison with our previous work, a satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data is found by inclusion of the electric quadrupole contribution.

  19. Synthesis of singly 2H-, 3H-, and 14C- and doubly labeled acetaminophen, phenacetin, and p-acetanisidine

    Several efficient procedures for the synthesis of deuterium, tritium, and 14C-labeled acetaminophen, phenacetin, and p-acetanisidine are described. p-Aminophenol was acylated by the appropriate acetic anhydride under mild conditions yielding labeled acetaminophen. With O-alkylation using NaCH2SOCH3 and appropriate labeled and unlabeled alkyl halides, labeled phenacetin and p-acetanisidine were also obtained. Phenacetin labeled both with 14C on the acyl group and deuterium on the ethoxy group was synthesized in high yield by acylation of p-phenetidine-d5. The last compound was obtained by acid hydrolysis of phenacetin-d5 synthesized previously. (author)

  20. Frequency comb assisted measurement of fundamental transitions of cold H3+, H2D+ and D2H+

    Jusko, Pavol; Konietzko, Christoph; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    H3+ and two of its deuterated variants have been trapped and cooled in a 4 K trap machine, and their fundamental vibrational transitions probed with the laser induced reactions method. With the help of a frequency comb system the line centers are determined with high accuracy and precision, typically well below 1 MHz. For the deuterated variants, ground state combination differences allow for comparison with existing rotational THz data, and the accurate prediction thereof.

  1. Reactive scattering of carbon atoms: the reaction dynamics of C(3P, 1D) +C2H2 and C2H4

    The reaction dynamics of C(3P, 1D) with acetylene and ethylene have been investigated by using the crossed beam technique with mass spectrometric detection and time-of-flight (TOF) analysis. The novel capability of generating continuous supersonic beams of carbon atoms by a radio-frequency discharge beam source is exploited. From angular and velocity distribution measurements, the primary reaction products are identified, their relative importance assessed, and their dynamics of formation characterized. While the reaction C(3P) + C2H2(X1Σg+) has been found to lead to C3H + H and C3(X1Σg+) + H2(X1Σg+) in comparable amount, the reaction C(3P) + C2H4(X1At) has been found to lead, predominantly, to H + C3H3 (propargylene). The dynamics of the C(1D) reactions are also characterized. The spin-forbidden H2 elimination channel in the reaction C(3P) + C2H2 is attributed to the occurrence of inter-system-crossing between the triplet and singlet manifold of the C3H2 potential energy surfaces. Interestingly, these findings provide evidence that the C(3P) + C2H2 reaction maybe the source of both C3H and C3 species detected in the extreme environment of dense interstellar clouds and outflows of carbon stars, as well as in combustion systems. (author)

  2. [Pulmonary calcification in C3H mice].

    Yoshida, M; Uchida, K; Shigemura, M; Fujiwara, H; Kusano, N

    1985-10-01

    C3H mice including aged retired breeding females, aged virginal females, young virginal females and young males were examined for the incidence and severity of pulmonary calcification. Pulmonary calcification appeared in aged females, but not in young mice of either sex, and the lesions in aged breeders were more severe and frequent than in aged virgins. These results indicate that spontaneous pulmonary calcification is observed in aged females of the C3H strain. The findings of increased incidence and severity of pulmonary lesions in aged breeders suggest that pregnancy, delivery and lactation are important enhancing factors. Calcified lesions were also observed in kidney, heart, brain, ovary, choroid plexus, cornea and artery in the animals examined. PMID:4085573

  3. Main: HEXMOTIFTAH3H4 [PLACE

    Full Text Available HEXMOTIFTAH3H4 S000053 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi hexamer motif found in promoter of wheat ... S; Binding with HBP-1A and HBP-1B; Binding site of wheat ... (T.a.) nuclear protein HBP-1 (histone DNA binding ... t not of replication-independent expression of the wheat ... histone H3 gene; See S000076, S000267; Rice OBF1-h ...

  4. Eu2(PO3H)3

    The structure of dieuropium tris(hydrogen phosphite), Eu2(PO3H)3, contains three independent phosphite anions. One Eu3+ cation is eight-coordinate whereas the other is only seven-coordinate. One [EuO8] dodecahedron and one monocapped [EuO7] trigonal prism alternate so that, by sharing one vertex, infinite layers are formed parallel to the [101] direction. The layers are held together by Eu-O interlayer bonds. (orig.)

  5. Radioimmunocytochemistry with [3H]biotin

    The authors exploit the high affinity of biotin for avidin in the design of radioimmunocytochemical methods using [3H]biotin. [3H]Biotin and avidin D form a radioactive complex which can be linked onto a primary antibody by means of a biotinylated anti-rabbit IgG or biotinylated protein A link. With both approaches it was possible to localize a number of antigens such as somatostatin, substance P, avian pancreatic polypeptide, tyrosine hydroxylase, and enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in various regions of the rat and human brain. By using tritium-sensitive film, large regions of the brain could be studied and analyzed semiquantitatively using computerized microdensitometry. The technique was also taken to the electron microscope level, and in the case of substance P immunoreactivity within the rat substantia nigra silver grains were found to be highly localized over axons and axon terminals. It was also possible to demonstrate co-existence or lack of co-existence of a number of different antigens within neurones. The first primary antibody was localized with biotinylated protein A followed by avidin-peroxidase, while the second primary antibody was linked to the [3H]biotin again with biotinylated protein A. As an example of the potential of these methods for semiquantification, the distribution of substance P within postmortem human spinal cord was examined 24 months after amputation. A 49% loss of peptide was found in the corresponding dorsal horn. In summary these methods using [3H]biotin have proved successful in quantification, electron microscopy and double labelling studies. (Auth.)

  6. Synthesis and Electrical and Gas Sensing Properties of Some 5-(Quinolinylmethylene)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione and 5-(Quinolinylmethylene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione Derivatives

    H. Kerim Beker; Mevlude Canlica; Alper Akinci; Ahmet Altindal; Seniz Kaban

    2013-01-01

    Eight new 5-(quinolinylmethylene)barbituric acid derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid and 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid with quinoline-4-carboxaldehydes and several quinoline-2-carboxaldehydes via Knoevenagel condensation. The novel compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass, IR, and UV-visible spectral data and elemental analyses. d.c. and a.c. conduction properties of the compounds were investigated in the frequency range of 40–105 Hz an...

  7. KBS-3H design description 2005

    Autio, Jorma (Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-05-15

    SKB and Posiva are performing an RandD program over the period of 2002-2007 with the overall aim to develop the KBS-3H to an alternative to the KBS-3V concept for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. A feasibility study of the KBS-3H concept was carried out in 2002, followed by the setting up of basic design in 2003. Several problems related to the behavior of the design and scope of future research and development work were addressed. Therefore the design basis was developed further and two candidate designs were developed: 1) previous Basic Design (BD) was developed more robust and tolerable to inflows. Parallel to that a novel modified 2) DAWE design with Drainage, Air evacuation and Watering and was developed to function robustly at various inflow situations. The candidate designs presented in this report include several novel components, such as fixing rings and steel plugs which have been designed without support of applicable design guidelines, regulations or standards available. The design basis and performance of these components include uncertainties, which should be studied and verified. It is possible that a feasible site specific design can be based on using both alternatives

  8. KBS-3H design description 2005

    SKB and Posiva are performing an RandD program over the period of 2002-2007 with the overall aim to develop the KBS-3H to an alternative to the KBS-3V concept for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. A feasibility study of the KBS-3H concept was carried out in 2002, followed by the setting up of basic design in 2003. Several problems related to the behavior of the design and scope of future research and development work were addressed. Therefore the design basis was developed further and two candidate designs were developed: 1) previous Basic Design (BD) was developed more robust and tolerable to inflows. Parallel to that a novel modified 2) DAWE design with Drainage, Air evacuation and Watering and was developed to function robustly at various inflow situations. The candidate designs presented in this report include several novel components, such as fixing rings and steel plugs which have been designed without support of applicable design guidelines, regulations or standards available. The design basis and performance of these components include uncertainties, which should be studied and verified. It is possible that a feasible site specific design can be based on using both alternatives

  9. Shock wave and modeling study of the thermal decomposition reactions of pentafluoroethane and 2-H-heptafluoropropane.

    Cobos, C J; Sölter, L; Tellbach, E; Troe, J

    2014-06-01

    The thermal decomposition reactions of CF3CF2H and CF3CFHCF3 have been studied in shock waves by monitoring the appearance of CF2 radicals. Temperatures in the range 1400-2000 K and Ar bath gas concentrations in the range (2-10) × 10(-5) mol cm(-3) were employed. It is shown that the reactions are initiated by C-C bond fission and not by HF elimination. Differing conclusions in the literature about the primary decomposition products, such as deduced from experiments at very low pressures, are attributed to unimolecular falloff effects. By increasing the initial reactant concentrations in Ar from 60 to 1000 ppm, a retardation of CF2 formation was observed while the final CF2 yields remained close to two CF2 per C2F5H or three CF2 per C3F7H decomposed. This is explained by secondary bimolecular reactions which lead to comparably stable transient species like CF3H, releasing CF2 at a slower rate. Quantum-chemical calculations and kinetic modeling help to identify the reaction pathways and provide estimates of rate constants for a series of primary and secondary reactions in the decomposition mechanism. PMID:24352693

  10. Crystal structure of 1,5-diethyl-1H-1,5-benzodiazepine-2,4(3H,5H-dithione

    Abderrahman Lamkaddem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H16N2S2, the seven-membered ring adopts a boat conformation, with the two phenylene C atoms representing the stern and the methylene C atom as the prow. The thione S atoms and N-bound ethyl groups lie on the opposite side of the molecule to the phenylene ring so that the molecule approximates mirror symmetry. In the crystal, supramolecular layers in the bc plane are sustained by a pair of C—H...S interactions to the same S atom acceptor.

  11. Crystal structure of 5-[bis(methylsulfonylmethyl]-1,3-dimethyl-5-(methylsulfonylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H-trione

    Eyad Mallah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H16N2O9S3, the pyrimidine ring of the 1,3-dimethyl barbituric acid moiety has an envelope conformation with the C atom carrying the methylsulfonyl and bis(methylsulfonylmethyl substituents as the flap. The dihedral angle between mean plane of the pyrimidine ring and the S/C/S plane is 72.4 (3°. In the crystal, molecules are linked via C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  12. Electrochemical behaviour of some pyrimidine derivatives: polarographic reduction of 1, 3-dimethyl-2, 4, 6(1h, 3h, 5h) pyrimidinetrione and its substituted 5-phenylazo

    Helmy, Ahlam M. A. [احلام عباس حلمي; MIGAHED, M. A.; Morsi, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    The polarographic behaviour and spectrophotometric pKa of 1,3-dimethyl barbituric acid and 5-phenylazo substituted products were investigated in buffer solution of pH ~ 2-11. The results revealed an azo form of the substituted products, a mechanism for the electroreduction pathway was suggested. Half wave potentials showed fair correlation with o constants while pKa showed practically no dependence on substitutes.

  13. Incorporation of 3H-labeled nucleosides and 3H-labeled deoxynucleosides into detergent soluble DNA

    Detergent soluble DNA from splenocytes of immunologically stimulated mice has been shown to incorporate [3H]dThd more rapidly than detergent insoluble DNA. In this report the author compares the incorporation of other 3H-labeled nucleosides and 3H-labeled deoxynucleosides and the distribution of 3H in the different size classes of detergent soluble DNA. The order of incorporation into DS DNA is [3H]dThd > [3H]dCyd > [3H]Ado > [3H]dGuo approx. = [3H]Cyd > [3H]dAdo > [3H]Guo. The author also shows that the previously reported slight enrichment in Gua + Cyt content is not due to preferential incorporation of dGuo or of dCyd into any one size class

  14. [3H]glucosamine and [3H]proline radioautography of embryonic mouse dental basement membrane

    [3H]proline and [3H]glucosamine radioautography was performed to analyze the labeling pattern of mouse embryonic dental basement membrane before and during odontoblast terminal differentiation. Sixteen- and eighteen-day-old first lower molars and trypsin-isolated enamel organs, as well as EDTA-isolated dental papillae, were used. Continuous labeling for 12 to 24 hr was required with [3H]proline to obtain a clear labeling of epithelial-mesenchymal junction in intact tooth germs or accumulation of surface label in trypsin-isolated enamel organs. With [3H]glucosamine, after 6-hr labeling, the epithelial-mesenchymal junction was heavily labeled and the trypsin-isolated enamel organs accumulated substantial amounts of surface label, corresponding to the redeposited basement membrane. At Day 16 stage, these labels always had a uniform distribution and decreased during chase without any redistribution. At Day 18 stage, when the terminal differentiation of odontoblasts occurred the label accumulated in a unique pattern: much more label was at the epithelial surface corresponding to the top of the cusps than in the apical parts. During chase and only in intact tooth germs epithelial surfaces which had labeled poorly during pulse became labeled, but those labeling heavily during pulse lost label. This pattern existed only in the presence of mesenchyme. EDTA treatment of [3H]glucosamine-labeled teeth enabled us to obtain isolated dental papillae with surface label. Distribution of this label was exactly the same as that for the epithelial-mesenchymal junction of intact teeth. During chase, these dental papillae completely lost the surface label. The mesenchyme seen to control the synthesis and/or the degradation of epithelially derived [3H]glucosamine-labeled material

  15. Selective labeling of apomorphine receptors by 3H-LSD

    There are at least two types of dopamine receptors: the 3H-dopamine or 3H-apomorphine receptor (with high or nM affinity for dopamine), and the 3H-neuroleptic receptor (with low or μm affinity for dopamine). While 3H-LSD can label the 3H-neuroleptic receptor, this study was done in order to label the 3H-apomorphine/dopamine receptor site. In the presence of excess phentolamine, serotonin and spiperone (to preculude binding to α-adrenergic, serotonergic and neuroleptic receptors, respectively) similar concentrations of dopaminergic drugs inhibited the binding (to calf caudate) of 3H-LSD and 3H-apomorphine. This is compatible with the concept that the 3H-apomorphine/dopamine receptor and the 3H-neuroleptic/dopamine receptor are separate. (Auth.)

  16. Structure of Ln2(PO3H)3.H2O (Ln=Pr, Nd)

    Dipraseodymium triphosphite monohydrate, Pr2(PO3H)3.H2O, Mr=539.8, monoclinic, P21/n, a=9.620(2), b=8.005(1), c=13.119(2) A, β=108.98(1)deg, V=955.4(3) A3, Z=4, Dm=3.72(1), Dx=3.754 Mg m-3, λ(Mo Kα)=0.71073 A, μ=10.68 mm-1, F(000)=992, T=293 K, R=0.025 for 1947 independent reflections. Dineodymium triphosphite monohydrate, Nd2(PO3H)3.H2O, Mr=546.4, monoclinic, P21/n, a=9.581(2), b=7.980(2), c=13.056(3) A, β=108.95(1)deg, V=944.2(4) A3, Z=4, Dm=3.81(1), Dx=3.845 Mg m-3, λ(Mo Kα)=0.71073 A, μ=11.51 mm-1, F(000)=1000, T=293 K, R=0.0305 for 1992 independent reflections. The structure contains three independent phosphite anions. Both Ln3+ are eight-coordinated: One by eight O atoms of six different phosphite anions, but the other by only seven O atoms of six different phosphite anions and one water O atom. (orig.)

  17. Synthetic studies towards putative yuremamine using an iterative C(sp(3))-H arylation strategy.

    Calvert, Matthew B; Sperry, Jonathan

    2016-06-28

    An overview of an iterative, 8-aminoquinoline (AQ)-directed C(sp(3))-H arylation strategy towards the pyrroloindole structure initially assigned to the alkaloid yuremamine is described. During initial efforts using a model indane system, it was discovered that the iodoresorcinol unit was not a viable C(sp(3))-H arylation partner when masked as its dimethyl ether but upon switching to a MOM group, the ether oxygen served to stabilise the high valent Pd intermediate during the reaction, thus promoting reductive elimination and leading to acceptable yields of the C(sp(3))-H arylation product. The second C(sp(3))-H arylation with an iodopyrogallol gave a 1,3-diarylated model yuremamine system possessing the desired 1,3-cis relationship. When the successful model studies were applied to a pyrroloindole system in pursuit of yuremamine, it became apparent that C9 underwent competing C(sp(2))-H arylation if left vacant, but installing a tryptamine side chain at this site prevented the desired C(sp(3))-H arylation from occurring altogether. However, a C9-methyl pyrroloindole underwent iterative C(sp(3))-H arylation at C1 with an iodoresorcinol followed by C3 with an iodopyrogallol to give a diarylated product with the aryl groups in the undesired 1,3-trans-relationship, arising from epimerisation at C1 during the second C(sp(3))-H arylation event. Although the synthesis of putative yuremamine was not accomplished, several findings are disclosed that will serve as useful additions to the burgeoning field of directed C(sp(3))-H arylations and related C-H functionalization reactions. PMID:26891188

  18. Photodisintegration of /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He. [Threshold to 25 MeV

    Faul, D.D.

    1980-09-01

    The photoneutron cross sections for /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He have been measured from threshold to approx. 25 MeV with monoenergetic photons from the annihilation in flight of fast positrons at the LLL Electron-Positron Linear Accelerator facility. These reactions include the two-body breakup of /sup 3/H and the three-body breakup of both /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He; these measurements for /sup 3/H are the first to span the energy region across the peaks of the cross sections. An efficient BF/sub 3/-tube-and-paraffin neutron detector and high-pressure gaseous samples of several moles each (the activity of the /sup 3/H sample was approx. 200,000 Ci) were employed in these measurements. Measurements on /sup 16/O and /sup 2/H also were performed to verify the absolute cross-section scale. The results, when compared with each other and with results for the two-body breakup cross section for /sup 3/He from the literature, show that the two-body breakup cross sections for /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He have nearly the same shape, but the one for /sup 3/He lies lower in magnitude; the three-body breakup cross section for /sup 3/He lies higher in magnitude and is broader in the peak region and also rises less sharply from threshold than that for /sup 3/H; and these measured differences between the cross sections for the breakup modes largely compensate in their sum, so that the total photon absorption cross sections for /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He are nearly the same in both size and shape at energies near and above their peaks. Theoretical results from the literature disagree with the experimental results to a certain extent over the entire photon-energy region for which the photoneutron cross sections were measured. 50 figures, 7 tables.

  19. The serum 14C-triolein/3H-oleic acid assimilation test for differential diagnosis of maldigestion and malabsorption

    In 125 consecutive patients the measurement of serum radioactivities after simultaneous ingestion of 14C-triolein and 3H-oleic acid was investigated as a test of lipid assimilation. The sum of the 2-h and 4-h concentrations of 14C in serum (se(2+4)14C) was most useful as an index of lipid assimilation, and the 2-h serum 3H/14C ratio (se-3H/14C) reflected lipid digestion. Normal values were se(2+4)14C >= 1.0% of the dose ingested per litre serum and se-3H/14C14C correlated significantly with faecal fat (r = -0.56, P 7 g/day. False-negative values appeared mainly in the patients with moderate steatorrhoea and gastrointestinal anastomoses. Only one false-positive se(2+4)14C value was found. Se-3H/14C was abnormal in 24 of the 34 patients with maldigestion with two false-positive results. When the results of se(2+4)14C and se-3H/14C were combined, the predictive value of the test result '' normal lipid assimilation'' was 0.75, that of the test result ''maldigestion'' was 0.93 and that of ''malabsorption'' 0.71. It is concluded that the serum 14C-triolein/3H-oleic acid assimilation test is convenient and inexpensive and may be useful when quantitative faecal collections are not available

  20. Differential binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin in rat cerebral cortex

    Dumbrille-Ross, A.; Tang, S.W.; Coscina, D.V.

    1981-11-16

    Drug competition profiles, effect of raphe lesion, and sodium dependency of the binding of two antidepressant drugs /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin to rat cerebral cortex homogenate were compared to examine whether the drugs bound to a common ''antidepressant receptor.'' Of the neurotransmitters tested, only serotonin displaced binding of both /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin. /sup 3/H-Mianserin binding was potently displaced by serotonin S/sub 2/ antagonists and exhibited a profile similar to that of /sup 3/H-spiperone binding. In the presence of the serotonin S/sub 2/ antagonist spiperone, antihistamines (H/sub 1/) potently displaced /sup 3/H-mianserin binding. /sup 3/H-Imipramine binding was displaced potently by serotonin uptake inhibitors. The order of potency of serotonergic drugs in displacing /sup 3/H-imipramine binding was not similar to their order in displacing /sup 3/H-spiperone or -3H-serotonin binding. Prior midbrain raphe lesions greatly decreased the binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine but did not alter binding of /sup 3/H-mianserin. Binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine but not /sup 3/H-mianserin was sodium dependent. These results show that /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin bind to different receptors. /sup 3/H-Imipramine binds to a presynaptic serotonin receptor which is probably related to a serotonin uptake recognition site, the binding of which is sodium dependent. /sup 3/H-Mianserin binds to postsynaptic receptors, possibly both serotonin S/sub 2/ and histamine H/sub 1/ receptors, the binding of which is sodium independent.

  1. [3H]Clonazepam, like [3H]flunitrazepam, is a photoaffinity label for the central type of benzodiazepine receptors

    [3H]Clonazepam, like [3H]flunitrazepam, is irreversibly bound to membrane proteins of brain tissue when exposed to UV light. In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by fluorography, the same pattern of photolabelled proteins was obtained in cerebellum and in hippocampus when either [3H]clonazepam or [3H]flunitrazepam was used as photoaffinity label. Since [3H]clonazepam does not interact with the peripheral type of benzodiazepine binding site present in the brain, these results confirm previous evidence that the proteins photolabelled with [3H]flunitrazepam are associated with the central type of benzodiazepine receptor. (Auth.)

  2. Autoradiographic localization of binding sites for [3H] γ-aminobutyrate, [3H] muscimol, (+) [3H] bicuculline methiodide and [3H] flunitrazepam in cultures of rat cerebellum and spinal cord

    Cultures of rat cerebellum and spinal cord were used to visualize sites for [3H]γ-aminobutyrate, [3H]muscimol, [3H]bicuculline methiodide and [3H] flunitrazepam by autoradiography. In cerebellar cultures, many large neurons (presumably Purkinje cells) and interneurons were labelled. In spinal cord cultures, these compounds were mainly bound to small and medium-sized neurons, whereas the majority of large neurons were unlabelled. No binding sites for these radioligands were found on glial cells. Binding of [3H]γ-aminobutyrate, [3H]muscimol and [3H]bicuculline methiodide was markedly reduced or inhibited by adding unlabelled γ-aminobutyrate, muscimol and bicuculline (10-3M) respectively to the incubation medium. Addition of a thienobenzazepine markedly reduced binding with [3H]flunitrazepam. It is concluded that tissues cultures are an excellent tool to visualize the cellular localization of binding sites for neurotransmitters and drugs using autoradiography. (author)

  3. Intense laser induced field ionization of C2H2, C2H4,and C2H6

    GAO Lirong; JI Na; XONG Yijia; TANG Xiaoping; KONG Fan'ao

    2003-01-01

    Using HOMO Field Ionization Model, the tunneling probabilities and the theoretical threshold intensities of the field ionizations of acetylene, ethylene, and ethane in intense laser field are calculated. C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6 were irradiated by 800 nm, 100 fs laser pulses with the intensity range of 1013-1014 W/cm2. A TOF-mass spectrometer was coupled to the laser system and used to experimentally investigate the field ionization of these molecules. The experimental ionization threshold intensities are obtained. The calculating results of the three molecules agree well with the experimental results, indicating that HOMO Field Ionization Model is valid for the ionization of polyatomic molecules in intense laser field.

  4. In vivo labeling of cocaine receptors with 3H-(-) cocaine, 3H-WIN 35,065-2 and 3H-WIN 35,428

    11C-(-)cocaine (-COC) has recently been employed to image -COC binding sites in vivo using PET. Two analogs of -COC, WIN 35,065-2 (WIN-2) and WIN 35,428 (CFT), have been shown in vitro to exhibit higher affinity for the -COC receptor than -COC. The present study evaluates 3H-WIN-2 and 3H-CFT as in vivo receptor labels in mice with a view towards the use of these compounds as PET ligands for -COC receptors in the living human brain. 3H-labeled -COC, WIN-2 and CFT were injected i.v. into mice and their specific binding in the CNS determined. Peak striatal/cerebellar (S/C) ratios were reached at 5 minutes post injection with -COC (1.56), at 45 minutes with 3H-WIN-2 (3.30) and 60 minutes with 3H-CFT (4.0). The specificity of in vivo binding of 3H-WIN-2 and 3H-CFT was tested by pre-injection of various drugs. Binding of 3H-WIN-2 and 3H-CFT was dose-dependently blocked by cold WIN-2 and CFT, and by dopamine uptake site inhibitors (mazindol, GBR 12,909, nomifensine), but not by (+)COC, paroxetine and desipramine. The data indicate that 3H-WIN-2 and 3H-CFT exhibit improved in vivo binding (higher S/C ratios, longer retention time at the -COC receptor/dopamine transporter) compared to -COC and support their testing in PET studies

  5. Pressure Effects on Product Channels of the Allyl Radical Reactions; C3H5+C3H5 and C3H5+CH3

    Halpern, J. B.; N'Doumi, M.; Fahr, A.

    2011-12-01

    Relatively large hydrocarbon molecules (C4, C6 and larger) have been detected in several planetary environments. The mechanism for the formation of such large molecular species and detailed mechanism for their potential destruction are not well understood and are of considerable current interest. Previously we have studied the kinetics and product channels of small unsaturated hydrocarbon radical (C2 and C3s) reactions relevant to planetary atmospheric modeling. Reactions of C2 radicals (such as vinyl, H2CCH and ethynyl C2H) and C3 radicals (such as propargyl, HCCCH2) can affect the abundances of a large number of stable observable C3, C4, C5, C6 and larger molecules, including linear, aromatic and even poly aromatic molecules. Pressure-dependent product yields have been determined experimentally for the self- and cross-radical reactions performed at 298 K and at pressures between ~4 Torr (0.5 kPa) and 760 Torr (101 kPa). Final reaction products were quantitatively determined using a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC/MS/FID). In some cases complementary computational studies extended the pressure and temperature range of the experiments and provided valuable information on the complex reaction mechanisms. Theses studies provide a systematic framework so that important energetic and structural parameters for radical-radical reactions can be assessed. Here we report recent results for the allyl radical reactions H2CCCH3+ H2CCCH3 and H2CCCH3+CH3. For the allyl radical self-reaction, at high pressures the "head -to-head", combination channel forming 1,5-hexadiene is dominant with a combination/disproportionation = 1,5-hexadiene/propyne ratio of about 24 at 500 Torr (67 kPa, T=298K). At low pressures the ratio is substantially reduced to about 1.2 (at 0.3 kPa) and other major products are observed including allene, propene, 1-butene and propyne.

  6. Structural determination; vibration study and thermal decomposition of [C5H6N5]2SeO4ṡ2H2O

    Ben Hassen, C.; Boujelbene, M.; Mhiri, T.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper reports the chemical synthesis, structure study, thermal analysis, and vibrational properties of new hybrid compound called: bis (adeninium) selenate bihydrates. It is crystallized in the triclinic system with P-1 space group and the following parameters a = 7.804(5) Å; b = 9.686 (5) Å; c = 11.771 (5) Å; α = 84.421(5)°; ß = 77.556(5)°; γ = 81.186 (5)°; Z = 2 and V = 856.7(8) Å3. The structure is built up from tunnels containing all the components of the structure and following to the c axis, linked via three types of hydrogen bonds (Nsbnd H…O, Nsbnd H…N and Osbnd H…O). The thermal decomposition of precursors studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), indicate the existence of two mass loss region correspond to dehydration and degradation of the title compound, respectively. The existence of vibrational modes correspond to the organic and inorganic groups and water molecular are identified by the IR and Raman spectroscopy in the frequency ranges 400-4000 and 300-1600 cm-1, respectively.

  7. Comparison of [3H]nicotine and [3H]acetylcholine binding in mouse brain: regional distribution

    In a continuing study of nicotine binding sites, the authors determined the relative amount of nicotine binding and acetylcholine binding in various brain regions of C57/BL and of DBA mice. Although midbrain showed the highest and cerebellum the lowest binding for both [3H]nicotine and [3H]acetylcholine, the ratio of nicotine to acetylcholine binding showed a three-fold regional variation. Acetylcholine inhibition of [3H]nicotine binding indicated that a portion of nicotine binding was not inhibited by acetylcholine. These results indicate important differences between the binding of (+/-)-[3H]nicotine and that of [3H]acetylcholine

  8. Cycloaddition reactions of 3-aryl-5-phenyl-5H,7H-thiazolo[3,4-c]oxazol-4-ium-1-olates

    Melo, Teresa M. V. D. Pinho e; Gomes, Clara S. B.; Gonsalves, António M. d'A. Rocha; Paixão, José A; Beja, Ana M; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Veiga, Luiz Alte da

    2002-01-01

    Intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of (5R)- and (5S)-3,5-diphenyl-5H,7H-thiazolo[3,4-c]oxazol-4-ium-1-olates, (5R)- and (5S)-3-(p-methoxyphenyl)-5-phenyl-5H,7H-thiazolo-[3,4-c]oxazol-4-ium-1-olates with a range of dipolarophiles is described. New chiral 5-aryl-3-phenyl-1H,3H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]thiazoles with R and S configuration were obtained. The structure of methyl (3R)-3-phenyl-5-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1H,3H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]thiazole-6-carboxylate was determined by X-ray crystallography. The syn...

  9. Clinical and treatment effects on 3H-clonidine and 3H-imipramine binding in elderly depressed patients

    3H-clonidine and 3H-imipramine binding were measured in depressed patients, 55 years and older. There was no significant difference in either 3H-clonidine or 3H-imipramine binding between depressed patients and age- and sex-matched controls. There was no significant correlation between 3H-clonidine or 3H-imipramine binding and severity of depression before treatment. There was a significant negative correlation between the K/sub D/ of 3H-imipramine binding sites and Hamilton score over seven weeks of antidepressant treatment. There was no significant difference between receptor data of responders and nonresponders to antidepressant treatment. 19 references, 2 tables

  10. Synthesis of 1-C2H3 theophylline and 3-C2H3 theophylline

    This article describes a three step-selective deuteration method of 1-methyl and 3-methylxanthine, after protection of the N-7 position by chloromethylpivalate and alkylation by trideuteromethyl iodide ; yielding 1-C2H3 and 3-C2H3 theophylline. (author)

  11. Synthesis of psilocin labelled with 14C and 3H

    14C- and 3H-labelled psilocin (4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine), the principal, active agent of hallucinogenic mushrooms, was synthesized from 2-methyl-3-nitrophenol via 4-benzyloxyindole. 14C-Labelled potassium cyanide was reacted with 4-benzyloxygramine (obtained from 4-benzyloxyindole) to give 14C-4-benzyloxy-3-indole acetic acid, an intermediate for 14C-psilocin synthesis. 3H-Labelled lithium aluminium hydride was used to react with 4-benzyloxy-3-indole-N,N-dimethyl-glyoxylamide (obtained from 4-benzyloxyindole) to give 3H-4-benzyloxy-psilocin which was debenzylated to form 3H-psilocin. (author)

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Tungstite (WO3.H2O) Nanoleaves and Nanoribbons

    Ahmadi, Majid; Guinel, Maxime J-F

    2013-01-01

    An environmentally benign method capable of producing large quantities of materials was used to synthesize tungstite (WO3.H2O) leaf-shaped nanoplatelets (LNPs) and nanoribbons (NRs). These materials were simply obtained by aging of colloidal solutions prepared by adding hydrochloric acid (HCl) to dilute sodium tungstate solutions (Na2WO4.2H2O) at a temperature of 5-10oC. The aging medium and the pH of the precursor solutions were also investigated. Crystallization and growth occurred by Ostwa...

  13. (3)H activity comparison between FTMC, VNIIM and LNE-LNHB.

    Cassette, Philippe; Butkus, Paulius; Gudelis, Arunas; Shilnikova, Tatiana

    2016-03-01

    An activity comparison of tritiated water was organized in 2013 between 3 laboratories: FTMC (Lithuania), LNE-LNHB (France) and VNIIM (Russia). The solution was prepared by LNHB and ampoules were sent to the others laboratories. This solution was standardized in terms of activity per unit mass by participant laboratories using the Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR) method in liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The tritiated water solution is traceable to the solution prepared by LNHB for the CCRI(II)-K2.H-3 2009 (3)H international comparison. PMID:26651170

  14. Supramolecular stabilization of N(2)H(7)(+).

    Atwood, Jerry L; Barbour, Leonard J; Jerga, Agoston

    2002-03-13

    The cation N(2)H(7)(+) has been stabilized in a largely hydrophobic supramolecular environment and characterized in the solid state. The cation is situated in the bowl-shaped cavity of calix[4]arene. All of the hydrogen atoms are clearly discernible owing to high-quality X-ray data as well as lack of disorder and symmetry-imposed ambiguity. It appears that electrostatic interactions play a critical role in stabilizing the structure. PMID:11878959

  15. Dissociative recombination of N2H+

    dos Santos, S. Fonseca; Ngassam, V.; Orel, A. E.; Larson, Å.

    2016-08-01

    The direct and indirect mechanisms of dissociative recombination of N2H+ are theoretically studied. At low energies, the electron capture is found to be driven by recombination into bound Rydberg states, while at collision energies above 0.1 eV, the direct capture and dissociation along electronic resonant states becomes important. Electron-scattering calculations using the complex Kohn variational method are performed to obtain the scattering matrix as well as energy positions and autoionization widths of resonant states. Potential-energy surfaces of electronic bound states of N2H and N2H+ are computed using structure calculations with the multireference configuration interaction method. The cross section for the indirect mechanism is calculated using a vibrational frame transformation of the elements of the scattering matrix at energies just above the ionization threshold. Here vibrational excitations of the ionic core from v =0 to v =1 and v =2 for all three normal modes are considered and autoionization is neglected. The cross section for the direct dissociation along electronic resonant states is computed with wave-packet calculations using the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method, where all three internal degrees of freedom are considered. The calculated cross sections are compared to measurements.

  16. Group theoretical analysis of the H3+ +H2 ↔ H5+ reaction

    Lin, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    The H3+ +H2 →H2 + H3+ proton transfer reaction is complicated due to the proton scrambling from the large amplitude motions in the H5+ intermediate. In order to understand this reaction, high-resolution spectroscopic studies are necessary for the reactants/products and the intermediate, and the group theoretical analysis is an essential aspect in the prediction and interpretation of these spectra. With five indistinguishable protons, H5+ is characterized using the G240 complete nuclear permutation-inversion (CNPI) group. For most of the configurations sampled by the reaction path, the feasible permutations depend on the distance between the H3+ and H2 fragments. Subgroups of G240 can be used to describe these feasible permutations. Specifically, we consider two limits of the molecular configurations. The equilibrium structure of H5+ , i.e., [H2 -H -H2 ]+, can be described using the G16 molecular symmetry group, while the dissociation products, i.e., H3+ ⋯H2 , require the G24 molecular symmetry group. In the present study, a group theoretical analysis is performed for both limits, providing the symmetries for the nuclear spins and rovibrational wave functions. Also, spectroscopic properties for [H2 -H -H2 ]+, particularly rovibrational couplings and electric dipole selection rules, as well as correlations of energy levels between [H2 -H -H2 ]+ and H3+ ⋯H2 , are obtained.

  17. Uptake of [3H]glycine and [3H]GABA by amacrine cells in the cat retina

    After intravitreal injection, [3H]glycine accumulates in 3 distinct subpopulations of amacrine cells in the cat retina whereas [3H]GABA accumulates in 4 different subpopulations. Each labelled cell type can be distinguished on the basis of size and cytologic features. The density of label associated with each subpopulation serves as an additional distinguishing characteristic. [3H]Glycine is concentrated within the outer two-thirds of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). [3H]GABA is localized in two narrow bands in the outer half of the IPL and in a wider band adjacent to the ganglion cell layer. (Auth.)

  18. Accumulation and overflow of 3H following incubation of the guinea-pig gall bladder with [3H]-noradrenaline

    Doggrell, Sheila A.; Vincent, Lynn

    1980-01-01

    1 Strips of guinea-pig gall bladder readily accumulate 3H following incubation in the presence of 5 × 10-8 M (-)-[3H]-noradrenaline. This accumulation was reduced by lowering the incubation temperature (from 37° to 23°C), by cocaine (10-6 M), by nortriptyline (10-8, 10-6 and 10-4 M) and following incubation of the tissues with 6-hydroxydopamine (10-3 M for 3 h). At 10-6 M, (-)-noradrenaline and (-)-adrenaline, but not (-)-isoprenaline, inhibited the accumulation of 3H.

  19. Sodium modulation of 3H-agonist and 3H-antagonist binding to alpha 2-adrenoceptor subtypes.

    MacKinnon, A. C.; Spedding, M.; Brown, C. M.(University of Victoria, V8W 3P6, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada)

    1993-01-01

    1. The alpha 2-adrenoceptors on human platelets and neonatal rat lung were characterized with the agonist and antagonist ligands [3H]-adrenaline and [3H]-RS-15385-197 respectively. A correlation of affinities for 3H-antagonist binding showed the receptors to be of the alpha 2A-(platelet) and alpha 2B-(neonatal rat lung) adrenoceptor subtypes, whereas a correlation of affinities for 3H-agonist binding showed the receptors to have similar characteristics (r = 0.88). 2. NaCl (100 mM) had no effe...

  20. Main: 1V3H [RPSD[Archive

    Full Text Available 1V3H 大豆 Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill Beta-Amylase Name=Bmy1; Glycine Max Molecule: Beta-Amylase; Chai... 495 AA, Molecular weight: 56011 Da ATSDSNMLLNYVPVYVMLPLGVVNVDNVFEDPDGLKEQLLQLRAAGVDGVMVDVWWGIIELKGPKQYDWRAYRSLFQLVQECGLTLQAI...MSFHQCGGNVGDIVNIPIPQWVLDIGESNHDIFYTNRSGTRNKEYLTVGVDNEPIFHGRTAIEIYSDYMKSFRENMSDFLESGLIIDIEVG...FLTWYSNKLLNHGDQILDEANKAFLGCKVKLAIKVSGIHWWYKVENHAAELTAGYYNLNDRDGYRPIARMLSRHHAILNFTCLEMRDSEQPSDAKSGPQELVQQVLSG...GWREDIRVAGENALPRYDATAYNQIILNAKPQGVNNNGPPKLSMFGVTYLRLSDDLLQKSNFNIFKKFVLKMHADQDYCANPQKYNHAITPLKPSAPKIPIEVLLEATKPTLPFPWLPETDMKVDG soybean_1V3H.jpg ...

  1. 3He(3H,γ)6Li

    The authors have calculated the 3He(3H,γ)6Li reaction rate at big bang temperatures based on a microscopic study in the framework of the Generator Coordinate Method. It is discussed whether 6Li could be made by 3He + 3H fusion in the early epoch of our universe

  2. [3H]TA-3090, a selective benzothiazepine-type calcium channel receptor antagonist: In vitro characterization

    Binding of the new benzothiazepine calcium channel blocker, (+)-(2S,3S)-3-acetoxy-8-chloro-5-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-2,3-dihydro-2- (4- methoxyphenyl)-1,5-benzothiazepine-4-(5H)-one maleate, [3H]TA-3090, was characterized and its specificity for rat myocardial benzothiazepine receptors described. Scatchard plots and nonlinear regression analysis of specific [3H]TA-3090 binding best fit a one-site binding model (Kd = 8.8 +/- 2.7 nM, Bmax = 132 +/- 38 fmol/mg protein). Kinetically derived affinity constants were in close agreement (Kd = 7.86 nM) with those obtained from analysis of equilibrium binding data. In comparison, under identical conditions [3H]diltiazem exhibited a Kd of 38 nM and Bmax, 106 fmol/mg protein. Specific binding was saturable, reversible and stereoselective (d-cis-TA-3090 Ki = 14 nM; 1-cis-TA-3090 Ki = 2700 nM). Competitions for [3H]TA-3090 binding were conducted with nifedipine, propranolol, prazosin, quinuclidinyl benzilate, verapamil and yohimbine. Only the calcium channel blockers nifedipine and verapamil inhibited specific [3H]TA-3090 binding. Nifedipine could maximally inhibit only 52% of specifically bound [3H]TA-3090 at 10 microM. In contrast, however, 10 microM verapamil completely inhibited specific radioligand binding (Ki = 93 +/- 28 nM) but with six times less efficacy than TA-3090. Thus, these data demonstrate that [3H]TA-3090 is a potent radioligand selective for the benzothiazepine binding site and is consistent with the hypothesis that [3H]TA-3090 interacts with a myocardial benzothiazepine receptor site

  3. Release of 3H2O form 1β,2β[3H]androstenedione by equine granulosa cells

    Granulosa cells were harvested from mares at various stages of the oestrous cycle and incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer with 1β,2β[3H]androstenedione as substrate. The release of 3H2O expressed as CPM/h/mg protein varied from 44 000 to 768 000 in follicles from 7 mares. The release of 3H2O was not significantly altered by luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone or pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin. There was a significant negative correlation between the release of 3H2O and the concentration of progesterone in the follicular fluid. Based on the assemption that the release of 3H2O represent total aromatization, these data suggest that the equine granulosa cells have a very active aromatizing enzyme system. (author)

  4. Theoretical Studies on the Reaction Mechanisms of C3H2 (cyclopropenylidene) and O(3P) Radicals

    XlE Xiaohua; SHEN Wei; HE Rongxing; ZHANG Jinsheng; LI Ming

    2009-01-01

    The complex potential energy surface for the reaction of C3H2 (cyclopropenylidene) with O(3p) was explored computationally using a density functional and ab initio QCISD(T) methods. The geometries of all the stationary points (transition states, intermediates and products) were fully optimized at the B3LYP/6-311++G** computa-tional level, and the single point calculation including full population analysis was performed by employing QCISD(T). Our results show that the product P1 (C2H+HCO) is the major product, while the products P2 (C2H2+ CO) and P3 (HC3O+H) are minor products, as confirmed by experiment. Product P1 could be gained through the path: R→IM1→IM2→P1, and the C3H2+O(3P) reaction was expected to be rapid. So, the C3H2+O(3p) reaction may be an efficient strategy for producing C2H using cyclopropenylidene in atmosphere. The present results can lead us to understand deeply the mechanism of the title reaction.

  5. Intravenous kinetics and metabolism of [15,16-3H]naltrexonium methiodide in the rat.

    Misra, A L; Pontani, R B; Vadlamani, N L

    1987-03-01

    After a 4 mg kg-1 bolus intravenous dose of [15,16-3H]naltrexonium methiodide to the rat, brain to plasma concentration ratios of the compound were 0.031 to 0.228 between 0.25 to 6 h after injection and the t 1/2 beta in plasma and brain were 2.92 and 7.61 h, respectively. Ethyl acetate-extracted radioactivity due to metabolites in plasma decayed with t 1/2 beta 1.83 h and the ratios of plasma concentration of metabolites to quaternary compound between 0.25 and 6 h were 0.014-0.026. Only unconjugated 7,8-dihydro-14-hydroxynormorphine, naltrexone and traces of 7,8-dihydro-14-hydroxynormorphinone were the metabolites in plasma. Naltrexone (but not normetabolites) was present only in traces in brain up to 0.5 h after injection and not at later times. PMID:2883290

  6. Preparation of methyl-/sup 3/H labelled dimethylnitrosamine

    Jablonkai, I.; Marton, A.F.; Dutka, F. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest. Koezponti Kemiai Kutato Intezete)

    1983-10-24

    Tritium labelled dimethylamine was prepared from benzalmethylimine in reaction with methyl-/sup 3/H iodide followed by hydrolysis. The product was converted with sodium nitrite in glacial acetic acid into labelled dimethylnitrosamine. The radiochemical yield was 85%.

  7. ${}^3$H production via neutron-neutron-deuteron recombination

    Deltuva, A; Fonseca, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    We study the recombination of two neutrons and deuteron into neutron and ${}^3$H using realistic nucleon-nucleon potential models. Exact Alt, Grassberger, and Sandhas equations for the four-nucleon transition operators are solved in the momentum-space framework using the complex-energy method with special integration weights. We find that at astrophysical or laboratory neutron densities the production of ${}^3$H via the neutron-neutron-deuteron recombination is much slower as compared to the ...

  8. KBS-3H Complementary studies, 2008-2010

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    KBS-3H is a joint project between Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) in Sweden and Posiva Oy in Finland. The main goal during the project phase Complementary studies of horizontal emplacement KBS-3H 2008-2010 was to develop KBS-3H to such a state that a decision to go ahead with full-scale testing and demonstration could be made. The KBS-3H design is a variant of the KBS-3 method and an alternative to the KBS-3V design. In KBS-3H multiple canisters containing spent nuclear fuel are emplaced in parallel, 100-300 m long, horizontal deposition drifts at a depth of about 400-500 m in the bedrock whereas the KBS-3V design calls for vertical emplacement of the canisters in individual deposition holes. Further development and evaluation of the main KBS-3H design alternatives developed in earlier work, DAWE (Drainage, Artificial Watering and air Evacuation) and STC (Semi Tight Compartments) (Autio el al. 2007) has now enabled a well-founded KBS-3H reference design selection, DAWE has been selected. Regarding long-term safety; bentonite-metal interactions have been in focus and studies have given a good basis for material selection for the Supercontainer, plugs and other supporting structures and titanium is selected. The selections and evaluations made during this project phase will be used in the safety evaluations planned for Forsmark and Olkiluoto in the upcoming project phase. KBS-3H specific production lines have been outlined and layout adaptations for both Forsmark and Olkiluoto have been developed. Full-scale tests of system components have also been carried out with good results; the full-scale compartment plug test shows the ability to install a plug that separates drift compartments hydraulically.

  9. KBS-3H complementary studies, 2008-2010

    KBS-3H is a joint project between Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) in Sweden and Posiva Oy in Finland. The main goal during the project phase Complementary studies of horizontal emplacement KBS-3H 2008-2010 was to develop KBS-3H to such a state that a decision to go ahead with full-scale testing and demonstration could be made. The KBS-3H design is a variant of the KBS-3 method and an alternative to the KBS-3V design. In KBS-3H multiple canisters containing spent nuclear fuel are emplaced in parallel, 100-300 m long, horizontal deposition drifts at a depth of about 400-500 m in the bedrock whereas the KBS- 3V design calls for vertical emplacement of the canisters in individual deposition holes. Further development and evaluation of the main KBS-3H design alternatives developed in earlier work, DAWE (Drainage, Artificial Watering and air Evacuation) and STC (Semi Tight Compartments) (Autio el al. 2007) has now enabled a well-founded KBS-3H reference design selection, DAWE has been selected. Regarding long-term safety; bentonite-metal interactions have been in focus and studies have given a good basis for material selection for the Supercontainer, plugs and other supporting structures and titanium is selected. The selections and evaluations made during this project phase will be used in the safety evaluations planned for Forsmark and Olkiluoto in the upcoming project phase. KBS-3H specific production lines have been outlined and layout adaptations for both Forsmark and Olkiluoto have been developed. Full-scale tests of system components have also been carried out with good results; the full-scale compartment plug test shows the ability to install a plug that separates drift compartments hydraulically. (orig.)

  10. KBS-3H Complementary studies, 2008-2010

    KBS-3H is a joint project between Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) in Sweden and Posiva Oy in Finland. The main goal during the project phase Complementary studies of horizontal emplacement KBS-3H 2008-2010 was to develop KBS-3H to such a state that a decision to go ahead with full-scale testing and demonstration could be made. The KBS-3H design is a variant of the KBS-3 method and an alternative to the KBS-3V design. In KBS-3H multiple canisters containing spent nuclear fuel are emplaced in parallel, 100-300 m long, horizontal deposition drifts at a depth of about 400-500 m in the bedrock whereas the KBS-3V design calls for vertical emplacement of the canisters in individual deposition holes. Further development and evaluation of the main KBS-3H design alternatives developed in earlier work, DAWE (Drainage, Artificial Watering and air Evacuation) and STC (Semi Tight Compartments) (Autio el al. 2007) has now enabled a well-founded KBS-3H reference design selection, DAWE has been selected. Regarding long-term safety; bentonite-metal interactions have been in focus and studies have given a good basis for material selection for the Supercontainer, plugs and other supporting structures and titanium is selected. The selections and evaluations made during this project phase will be used in the safety evaluations planned for Forsmark and Olkiluoto in the upcoming project phase. KBS-3H specific production lines have been outlined and layout adaptations for both Forsmark and Olkiluoto have been developed. Full-scale tests of system components have also been carried out with good results; the full-scale compartment plug test shows the ability to install a plug that separates drift compartments hydraulically

  11. Monitoring of 3H surface contamination by noncontact radioluminography

    A phosphor screen imaging technique has been developed (a new surface monitoring technique that uses radioluminography) to detect 3H contamination on floor surfaces. A 3H imaging plate is elevated a maximum of 0.1 cm above the surface being monitored. This technique prevents the imaging plate from being cross-contaminated. Unlike the traditional smear test, this technique can be used to monitor fixed contamination

  12. R-matrix description of particle energy spectra produced by low-energy 3H + 3H reactions

    An R-matrix model for three-body final states is presented and applied to a recent measurement of the neutron energy spectrum from the 3H + 3H → 2n + α reaction. The calculation includes the n alpha and n n interactions in the final state, angular momentum conservation, antisymmetrization, and the interference between different channels. A good fit to the measured spectrum is obtained, where clear evidence for the 5He ground state is observed. The model is also used to predict the alpha-particle spectrum from 3H + 3H as well as particle spectra from 3He + 3He. The R-matrix approach presented here is very general, and can be adapted to a wide variety of problems with three-body final states

  13. Comparison of high affinity binding of 3H-proadifen and 3H-(-)-cocaine t rat liver membranes

    The characteristics of the binding of 3H-proadifen to rat liver membranes were studied and compared to those of 3H-cocaine. It was found that 3H-proadifen was bound reversibly with high affinity (KD=1.8±0.5 nM) and large capacity (Bmax=2010±340 pmol/g wet tissue) to liver membranes. The corresponding values for the 3H-cocaine binding were 3.5 nM and 1000 pmol/g wet tissue. The binding of 3H-proadifen was mainly localised to the microsomal fraction. The number of binding sites was not increased by treatment of rats with phenobarbitone. With 1 μM CdCl2 in the incubation buffer it was possible to differentiate between two 3H-cocaine binding sites with Kd values of 1.6 and 7.7 nM and Bmax values of 280 and 940 pmol/g wet liver tissue. S-(-)-Alaproclate inhibited the binding of 3H-proadifen and 3H-cocaine inhibited the binding of 3H-proadifen (IC50=10 nM) and proadifen that of 3H-cocaine (IC50=1 nM). There was a high correlation coefficient (rr=0.972; P50=100-500 nM): chloroquine, phenoxybenzamine, amitriptyline, ajmaline, remoxipride, imipramine and (-)-alaprenolol. CdCl2, ZnCl2 and CuCl2 inhibited the binding of both ligands with low Hill coefficients, indicating heterogeneous binding sites. The inhibition curve of Cd2+ on the cocaine binding was biphasic with a high affinity part around 50 nM and a low affinity part at 15μM. The similarity of the characteristics of the binding of these ligands with that of 3H-alaproclate is discussed. It is suggested that all three compounds bind to the same sites, although additional binding sites seem to exist for proadifen. (au) (9 refs.)

  14. Calculational and Experimental Investigations of the Pressure Effects on Radical - Radical Cross Combinations Reactions: C2H5 + C2H3

    Fahr, Askar; Halpern, Joshua B.; Tardy, Dwight C.

    2007-01-01

    Pressure-dependent product yields have been experimentally determined for the cross-radical reaction C2H5 + C2H3. These results have been extended by calculations. It is shown that the chemically activated combination adduct, 1-C4H8*, is either stabilized by bimolecular collisions or subject to a variety of unimolecular reactions including cyclizations and decompositions. Therefore the "apparent" combination/disproportionation ratio exhibits a complex pressure dependence. The experimental studies were performed at 298 K and at selected pressures between about 4 Torr (0.5 kPa) and 760 Torr (101 kPa). Ethyl and vinyl radicals were simultaneously produced by 193 nm excimer laser photolysis of C2H5COC2H3 or photolysis of C2H3Br and C2H5COC2H5. Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC/MS/FID) were used to identify and quantify the final reaction products. The major combination reactions at pressures between 500 (66.5 kPa) and 760 Torr are (1c) C2H5 + C2H3 yields 1-butene, (2c) C2H5 + C2H5 yields n-butane, and (3c) C2H3 + C2H3 yields 1,3-butadiene. The major products of the disproportionation reactions are ethane, ethylene, and acetylene. At moderate and lower pressures, secondary products, including propene, propane, isobutene, 2-butene (cis and trans), 1-pentene, 1,4-pentadiene, and 1,5-hexadiene are also observed. Two isomers of C4H6, cyclobutene and/or 1,2-butadiene, were also among the likely products. The pressure-dependent yield of the cross-combination product, 1-butene, was compared to the yield of n-butane, the combination product of reaction (2c), which was found to be independent of pressure over the range of this study. The [ 1-C4H8]/[C4H10] ratio was reduced from approx.1.2 at 760 Torr (101 kPa) to approx.0.5 at 100 Torr (13.3 kPa) and approx.0.1 at pressures lower than about 5 Torr (approx.0.7 kPa). Electronic structure and RRKM calculations were used to simulate both unimolecular and bimolecular processes. The relative importance

  15. Uptake of 3H-choline and synthesis of 3H-acetylcholine by human penile corpus cavernosum

    The neuroeffectors which relax penile smooth muscle and lead to erection are unknown; physiological studies of human corpus cavernosum, in vitro, have suggested a significant role of cholinergic neurotransmission. To further characterize the importance of cholinergic nerves, biopsies of human corpus cavernosum were obtained at the time of penile prosthesis implantation. Tissues were incubated in 3H-choline (10-5M, 80 Ci/mmol) in oxygenated physiological salt solution at 370C, pH 7.4 for 1 hour. Radiolabelled compounds were extracted with perchloric acid (0.4 M) and acetylcholine and choline were separated by HPLC; 14C-acetylcholine was used as internal standard. 3H-choline was accumulated by the tissues (20 +/- 1.9 fmol/mg), and 3H-acetylcholine was synthesized (4.0 +/- 1.1 fmol/mg). In control experiments, heating of the tissue blocked synthesis of 3H-acetylcholine. Inhibition of high affinity choline transport by hemicholinium-3 (10-5M) diminished tissue accumulation of 3H-choline and significantly reduced the synthesis of 3H-acetylcholine (0.5 +/ 0.2 fmol/mg, p < 0.05). These results provide direct evidence of neuronal accumulation of choline and enzymatic conversion to acetylcholine in human corpus cavernosum. Taken together with the physiological studies, it can be concluded that cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum plays a role in penile erection

  16. Environmental 14C and 3H activities: global trends and local contamination

    The anthropogenic disturbance of natural distributions of radiocarbon ( 14C) and tritium (3H) due to the release of bomb-produced isotopes occurred after the World War II and at the same time the monitoring of these isotopes started at several stations in the world. Radioactive isotopes 14C and 3H, together with the stable isotopes 2H and 18O, are very important tracers in environmental, climatological and hydrological studies. Monitoring of environmental levels of 14C and 3H in Croatia started more then 20 years ago, while that of the stable isotopes somewhat later. The monitoring was performed at the three types of stations: a) 'clean-air' sites, which are supposed to reflect only the global disturbance of the atmospheric isotope concentrations, b) in a densely populated industrial center, where the effect of intense fossil-fuel combustion is expected, and local contamination from institutions using radioactive-labeled material is also possible, and c) at locations around the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko. The mean yearly 3H activities in precipitation continuously decrease since the beginning of monitoring approaching slowly the natural equilibrium. The monthly 3H activities show seasonal variations, with maximum in early summer and minimum in early winter. Both seasonal variations and the decrease of the mean yearly values are typical for continental stations of the Northern Hemisphere. At the sampling site located at the Institute, several periods of higher 3H activities were observed, due to the local contamination with the tritium-labeled material. The 14C concentration in the atmosphere shows also the continuous decrease of the mean yearly values and superposed seasonal fluctuations, with higher activity during summer. Seasonal peak-to-peak variations are higher in the area of the city of Zagreb than at the clean-air site on the mountain (about 1000 m a.s.l.). This difference is caused by the introduction of CO2 (containing no 14C isotope) produced by fossil

  17. 3H-spiroperidol binding sites in blood platelets

    3H-spiroperidol, an antagonist of dopamine receptors in brain (striatum), was found to bind to human and rat platelet membrane preparations. The binding was rapid, reversible, saturable and specific. Unlabelled haloperidol displaced the specifically bound 3H-spiroperidol. Binding equilibrium was attained in 15 min at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C. Scatchard analysis of 3H-spiroperidol binding revealed a single population of binding site with Kd of 7.6 nM in rat platelet membrane and Kd of 15 nM in human platelet membrane. Unlabelled 5-hydroxytryptamine produced no significant effect on 3H-spiroperidol binding to rat or human blood platelet membranes in the presence or absence of haloperidol. Some dopaminergic agents, known to inhibit spiroperidol binding in corpus striatum, also inhibited the same in rat and human blood platelet membranes under in vitro conditions. This study suggests the presence of specific 3H-spiroperidol binding sites in blood platelets

  18. KBS-3H - Development of the horizontal disposal concept

    SKB and Posiva are performing an R and D programme over the period of 2002-2007 with the overall aim to find out whether the KBS-3H concept can be regarded as an alternative to the KBS-3V concept for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. A feasibility study of the KBS-3H concept was carried out in 2002, followed by the setting up of basic design in 2003, and since 2004 the demonstration phase is ongoing, ending with the evaluation of the potencial of the concept in 2007. In order to find out whether the concept can be regarded as a viable alternative to the KBS-3V concept demonstration and design work involve development of excavation technology of the drift, detailed studies on the function of the buffer bentonite, deposition equipment and methods for construction of low-pH shotcrete plugs. The investigations related to long-term safety are based on difference analyses between KBS-3V and KBS-3H and focus on KBS-3H specific processes. By the end of 2007 the KBS-3H concept will be reported including a preliminary safety case of the concept with Olkiluoto in Finland as a reference site. (author)

  19. Kinetic calculation for the reaction of H with Si2H6 using the variational transition state theory

    ZHANG; Qingzhu

    2001-01-01

    [1]Gates, S. M., Kuna, R. R., Greenlief, C. M., Silicon hydride etch products from the reaction of atomic hydrogen with Si(100), Surf. Sci., 1989, 207: 364.[2]Abrefah, J., Olander, D. R., Reaction of atomic hydrogen with crystalline silicon, Surf. Sci., 1989, 209: 291.[3]Kerwin, D. D., Douglas, J. D., Mechanistic insight into gas-phase of H+Si2H6 and hydrogen atom etching of silicon surface, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1993, 115: 3731.[4]Pollock, T. L., Sandhu, H. S., Jodhan, A. et al., Photochemistry of silicon compounds, IV. Mercury photosensitization of disilane, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1973, 95: 1017.[5]Austin, E. R., Lampe, F W., Rate constants for the reactions of hydrogen atoms with some silicanes and germanes, J. Phys. Chem., 1977, 81(12): 1134.[6]Fabry, L., Potzinger, P, Reimann, B. et al., Gas-phase homolytic substitution reactions of hydrogen atoms at silicon centers. Organometallics. 1986, 5: 1231.[7]Oberhammer, H., Lobreyer, T., Sundermeyer, W., The Ge-Si bond in silylgermane discrepancy between experiment and theory, J. Mol. Struct., 1994, 323: 125.[8]Durig. J. R., Church, J. S., Vibrational spectra of crystalline disilane and disilane, barrier to internal rotation and some normal coordinate calculations on H3SiSiH3, H3SiNCO, H3SiNCS, J. Chem. Phys., 1980, 73: 4784.[9]Espinosa-Garcia, J., Sanson, J., Corchado, J. C., The SiH4+H→SiH3+H2 reaction: potential energy surface, rate constants, and kinetic isotope effects, J. Chem. Phys., 1998, 109(2): 466.[10]Charles, B. M., Siddharth, D., William, A. G., Hessian biased force field for polysilane polymers, J. Phys. Chem,, 1995, 99:13321.[11]Wu, Y. D., Wong, C. L., Substituion effect on the dissociation energy of the Si-H bond: a density functional study, J. Org. Chem., 1995, 60: 821.[12]Taylor. C. A.. Marshall, P., A discharge-fluoro/chemiluminescence study of the reaction O+SiH at room temperature, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1993, 205(6): 493.[13]Doncaster, A. M., Walsh, R

  20. Theoretical Studies of PCl3/H2 Gas Chromatography Mechanism

    WANG Yan-Li; MA Lin; SUN Ren-An

    2007-01-01

    Density functional theory B3LYP method was firstly applied to fully optimize the geometrical configuration of each stable point on PCl3/H2 gas chromatography reaction potential energy surface on the 6-311G** basis set, and single point energy was computed at the QCISD(T)/ 6-311G** level, then the transition state was validated by analyzing the unique imaginary vibration modes of each transition state and calculating intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC), and the major reaction and competing reaction paths of PCl3/H2 gas chromatography reaction were presented through comparing active energy barrier, and phosphor was finally gained from the reaction of PH and PCl.

  1. 3H and 3He electromagnetic form factors

    We report the results of three experiments on elastic electron scattering from 3H and 3He. A detailed description of the experiments and the data obtained is given. We have performed a combined analysis of the world data on 3H and 3He. This analysis gives a complete experimental information on the trinucleon electromagnetic form factors up to q2=30 fm-2, and also provides a separation into the isoscalar and isovector form factors. The results are compared to selected calculations that include nucleonic and mesonic degrees of freedom. ((orig.))

  2. Synthesis of [8-3H]pentostatin

    Starting from 3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-6, 7-dihydroimidazo[4,5-d][1,3]diazepin-8(3H)-one (4), the synthesis of both the R- and S-isomers of [8-3H]pentostatin has been achieved. The separation of the desired R-isomer in ca. 24% overall chemical yield from the R,S-mixture was effected by preparative reverse-phase chromatography utilizing a C18 stationary support. Crystalline product of high specific activity (227 mCi/mmole) was obtained. (author)

  3. An Efficient Synthesis of Highly Optically Active 4-Substituted-2(5H)-furanones from Chiral 3-Bromo-2(5H)-furanone

    FAN, Xue-E(范雪娥); HUANG, Min(黄敏); HUANG, Hui(黄慧); CHEN, Qing-Hua(陈庆华)

    2004-01-01

    Highly optically active 4-substituted-2(5H)-furanones 6a-6j were obtained in good yields with de≥98% by the tandem Michael addition/elimination reaction of chiral 3-bromo-2(5H)-furanone (4a), which was conveniently prepared starting from 2-furaldehyde under mild conditions. The products were identified on the basis of their satisfactory elemental analysis and spectroscopic data of IR, UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra. The stereochemistry and absolute configuration of this type of compounds were established by the X-ray crystallographic study. The reaction provided a short and efficient synthesis of the interesting highly optically active 4-substituted-2(5H)-furanones containing an active pyrimidine and a purine base group.

  4. Dissolution of plutonium metal in HNO3-N2H4-KF

    Plutonium metal dissolves in HNO3-N2H4.HNO3-KF solution to yield a Pu3+ solution without an accompanying precipitation of plutonium oxide solids. The reaction evolves less than 0.2 mole of gas per mole of plutonium dissolved; the gas contains only 3% H2. About 10-3 moles of HN3 are produced per mole of plutonium dissolved. Optimum conditions for dissolving both alpha-phase and delta-phase plutonium metal were developed. Possible applications are to the recovery of plutonium metal or the processing of irradiated plutonium metal and alloys

  5. Thermodynamic study of NaCl-CdCl2-H2O system at 25 deg

    The solubility is studied and water activity is measured in the whole region concentrations of ternary solutions of the NaCl-CdCl2-H2O system at 25 deg by isothermal and isopiestic methods respectively. The solubility isotherm has two branches proper to crystallization of the 2xNaClxCdCl2x3H2O and 3xNaClx4CdCl2x14H2O complexes. Changes of isobar potential at formation of the above compounds from the system components are calculated, based on the data on phase equilibriums

  6. Conclusions and recommendations on the usefulness of studies of the isotopes 18O, 2H and 3H in water in the unsaturated zone

    For estimation of local recharge environmental tritium has been used extensively in temperate climates. In arid regions tritium may be helpful for obtaining semi-quantitative estimates of local recharge. Labelling of soil water with artificial tritium has also been used extensively under temperate and semi-arid conditions for successfully estimating local recharge. For low rates of local recharge (approx. less than 10 mm a-1) measurements of the displacement of oxygen 18 and deuterium delta values of soil water from the local meteoric line may give semi-quantitative information on recharge rates. Oxygen 18 and deuterium profiles appear to be promising tools for quantitative estimation of groundwater discharge when this occurs through the unsaturated zone. The paper includes some problems in measuring and interpreting stable isotope profiles in the unsaturated zone and recommendations for future work

  7. Estrogen biosynthesis: Metabolism of [16, 16, 19-2H3] [19-3H]19-Oxoandrost-4-ene-3, 17-Dione (1) by placental microsomal aromatase

    Publication of our results showing that 2β-hydroxy-19-oxoandrost-4-ene-3, 17-dione is not an obligatory estrogen precursor, rekindled interest in the late stages of estrogen biosynthesis from (1) and particularly in the utilization of the required third mole of oxygen and of NADPH. To understand the scope of transformations of the 19-oxo (1), and eventually isolate and identify the [oxygenated-(1)] estrogen precursor, we investigated the metabolism of (1) by placental microsomal aromatase. The following new types of metabolites of (1) were discovered: a: [(1)+0]; b: 4,6-dien-3-one analogs of (1) and of 19-norandrogens; c: 19-norandrogens and d: [(19-norandrost-4-ene-3, 17-dione)+0]. Biosynthesis of estrogens will be discussed in the context of the new results

  8. Ab initio studies of O2-(H2O)n and O3-(H2O)n anionic molecular clusters, n≤12

    Bork, Nicolai Christian; Kurtén, T.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker;

    2011-01-01

    An ab initio study of gaseous clusters of O2− and O2− with water is presented. Based on thorough scans of configurational space, we determine the thermodynamics of cluster growth. The results are in good agreement with benchmark computational methods and existing experimental data. We find...

  9. Ab initio studies of O-2(-) (H2O)(n) and O-3(-) (H2O)(n) anionic molecular clusters, n

    Bork, Nicolai Christian; Kurten, T.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker;

    2011-01-01

    An ab initio study of gaseous clusters of O-2(-) and O-3(-) with water is presented. Based on thorough scans of configurational space, we determine the thermodynamics of cluster growth. The results are in good agreement with benchmark computational methods and existing experimental data. We find...

  10. Oxidative coupling between C(sp(2))-H and C(sp(3))-H bonds of indoles and cyclic ethers/cycloalkanes.

    Yang, Qingjing; Choy, Pui Ying; Wu, Yinuo; Fan, Baomin; Kwong, Fuk Yee

    2016-02-24

    Cross-dehydrogenative-coupling (CDC) between C-H/C-H bonds of indoles and cyclic ethers/cycloalkanes is made viable through a simple transition-metal-free pathway. With the aid of only di-tert-butyl peroxide, a number of inactive cyclic ethers and cycloalkanes can be directly coupled with indole derivatives in satisfactory yields. PMID:26842403

  11. Evaporation and concentration gradients created by episodic river recharge in a semi-arid zone aquifer: Insights from Cl-, δ18O, δ2H, and 3H

    Meredith, K. T.; Hollins, S. E.; Hughes, C. E.; Cendón, D. I.; Chisari, R.; Griffiths, A.; Crawford, J.

    2015-10-01

    This study has significantly advanced our understanding of the origin of groundwater recharge in a semi-arid zone region of the Darling River catchment, Australia. The generally accepted hypothesis in arid zone environments in Australia that river water forms the primary groundwater recharge source has proven difficult to monitor. This is due to the time lags between large floods, the remoteness and expense of studying these hydrologically complex systems in detail. In addition, the highly episodic nature of dryland rivers complicates the interpretation of the groundwater signal. A range of hydrochemical tracers (chloride, oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium) measured in rain, river water, soil water and groundwater were used in this multi-year study to trace the pathways of groundwater recharge under wet and dry climatic conditions. The evaporation and Cl concentrations observed in the unsaturated zone confirmed that small volumetric inputs from periodic rainfall were not the major recharge mechanism. Sampling which included an overbank flooding event in March 2012 provided firm evidence for groundwater originating from high flow episodic river recharge. The use of long-term environmental data to understand how economically important water resources respond to climate change with increasing temperatures is considered essential for future sustainability.

  12. 298 K rate coefficients for the reaction of OH with i - C3H7I, n - C3H7I and C3H8

    Carl, S. A.; J. N. Crowley

    2001-01-01

    The kinetics of the title reactions were investigated using the laser photolysis - resonance fluorescence method, employing the sequential two-photon dissociation of NO2 in the presence of H2  as the OH source. The 298 K rate constant for OH + C3H8 was found to be (1.15 ± 0.1) × 10-12 cm3 s-1, in excellent agreement with the literature recommendation, and with a separate determination using HNO3  photolysis at 248 nm as the OH source. The 298 K rate constant...

  13. (/sup 3/H)glucosamine and (/sup 3/H)proline radioautography of embryonic mouse dental basement membrane

    Osman, M.; Ruch, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)proline and (/sup 3/H)glucosamine radioautography was performed to analyze the labeling pattern of mouse embryonic dental basement membrane before and during odontoblast terminal differentiation. Sixteen- and eighteen-day-old first lower molars and trypsin-isolated enamel organs, as well as EDTA-isolated dental papillae, were used. Continuous labeling for 12 to 24 hr was required with (/sup 3/H)proline to obtain a clear labeling of epithelial-mesenchymal junction in intact tooth germs or accumulation of surface label in trypsin-isolated enamel organs. With (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, after 6-hr labeling, the epithelial-mesenchymal junction was heavily labeled and the trypsin-isolated enamel organs accumulated substantial amounts of surface label, corresponding to the redeposited basement membrane. At Day 16 stage, these labels always had a uniform distribution and decreased during chase without any redistribution. At Day 18 stage, when the terminal differentiation of odontoblasts occurred the label accumulated in a unique pattern: much more label was at the epithelial surface corresponding to the top of the cusps than in the apical parts. During chase and only in intact tooth germs epithelial surfaces which had labeled poorly during pulse became labeled, but those labeling heavily during pulse lost label. This pattern existed only in the presence of mesenchyme. EDTA treatment of (/sup 3/H)glucosamine-labeled teeth enabled us to obtain isolated dental papillae with surface label. Distribution of this label was exactly the same as that for the epithelial-mesenchymal junction of intact teeth. During chase, these dental papillae completely lost the surface label. The mesenchyme seen to control the synthesis and/or the degradation of epithelially derived (/sup 3/H)glucosamine-labeled material.

  14. Radiotoxicity of intracellular 67Ga, 125I and 3H

    L1210 leukaemia cells were labelled with various doses of 67Ga-citrate, 3H-thymidine, or 125I-iododeoxyuridine to evaluate the cytocidal effects of the intracellular decay of the three radionuclides. Based on radioisotope incorporation data, cellular dimensions, and intracellular radioisotope distributions (3H and 125I intranuclear, 67Ga cytoplasmic) the rates of deposition of cellular, nuclear, and cytoplasmic energy were calculated. In terms of energy absorption/cell, 67Ga (LD50: 2250 keV/hr; 69 rad/hr) was much less toxic than either 3H (LD50: 325 keV/hr; 10 rad/hr) or 125I (LD50: 50 keV/hr; 1.5 rad/hr). In terms of energy absorption/nucleus, 67Ga and 3H produced almost identical effects (LD50: 230 versus 255 keV/hr; 22.2 versus 24.6 rad/hr), but 125I remained much more toxic (LD50: 40 keV/hr; 3.9 rad/hr). (author)

  15. Synthesis of (2R,S)-[2-2H] and [2,3-2H] tryptophan

    α-Deuterated tryptophan was prepared either by exchange of the α-hydrogen of tryptophan or by hydrolysis and decarboxylation of ethyl 2-formamido-2-carbethoxy-3-indole propionate, followed by treatment with CH3COO2H. α,β-dideuterated tryptophan was in turn synthetized from ethyl-α-acetamido-indole-3-acrylate, by catalytic deuteration (2H2/Pd-C) and alkaline hydrolysis (NaO2H/2H2O). (author)

  16. Post-mortem 3H-thymidine incorporation in human epidermis and oral mucosa

    Using the 3H-thymidine labelling method, the authors studied post-mortem incorporation activity in the epidermis and oral mucosa of corpses which were stored with their clothes on under conditions of normal room temperature (+200) and of cooling (+40C). Samples were taken in the form of skin punches at 2 h or 4 h intervals, respec.. Using histo-autoradiograms, the incorporation of 3H-thymidine in dependence from the time interval between the points of time of death and sampling were determined in situe and given as the ratio of labelled cells of the germinative layer per 100 μm length of basement membrane. A linear drop of post-mortem thymidine incorporation rates in epidermis and oral mucosa was found in human corpse skin correlating with increasing temporal distance from the point of time of death. Incorporation rates in the oral mucosa were markedly higher (by a factor of 3 to 5) than those of the epidermis which agrees well with in vivo conditions. No labelling of cell nuclei, i.e. no synthetic activity of the germinative layer, could be detected in the epidermis 35-40 h after individual death at the latest (in the oral mucosa after 45-50 h). However, clear incorporation activities could be observed in the germinative layer of epidermis and oral mucosa after more than 4 d in the case of storage at +40C. (orig./MG)

  17. Laeve-[1-3H]Methadone disposition in tolerant dogs.

    Misra, A L; Bloch, R; Vadlamani, N L; Mulé, S J

    1975-04-01

    1. Following a subcutaneous dose (4mg/kg) of [3H]methadone, peak levels of drug occurred in plasma, tissues and selected areas of the central nervous system (CNS) 2h after injection in both non-tolerant and tolerant dogs. Highest concentrations of methadone were attained in bile and lung compared to other tissues. 2. Levels of methadone in plasma, tissue and CNS of tolerant and non-tolerant animals were not markedly different up to 8h after injection, but a much faster rate of egression of free drug (lower t1/2) was observed subsequently in tolerant dogs. 3. Peak levels of methadone in various areas of the CNS ranged between 2-7 (spinal cord) to 3-6 (thalamus) mug/g in non-tolerant and 3-0 -rebellum) to 4-1 (thalamus) mug/g in tolerant dogs 2h after injection. No marked accumulation of methadone occurred in selected areas of the CNS in spite of the persistence of drug in these areas. 4. The plasma protein electrophoretic profiles did not differ between control, non-tolerant and tolerant dogs. 5. Similar qualitative patterns of metabolites were observed in non-tolerant and tolerant dogs and the development of tolerance did not appear to modify the metabolic pathways of methadone. PMID:1154803

  18. Reduced number of (3H)nicotine and (3H)acelylcholine binding sites in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer brains

    Nicotinic cholinergic receptors were measured in human frontal cortex using (3H)nicotine and (3H)acetylcholine (in the presence of atropine) as receptor ligands. A parallel marked reduction in number of (3H)nicotine (52%, P3H)acetylcholine (-55%, P3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate and found to be significantly increased (+23%, P<0.01) in AD/SDAT compared to controls. (author)

  19. Quantitation of methadone enantiomers in humans using stable isotope-labeled (2H3)-, (2H5)-, and (2H8)Methadone

    Nakamura, K.; Hachey, D.L.; Kreek, M.J.; Irving, C.S.; Klein, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    A new technique for simultaneous stereoselective kinetic studies of methadone enantiomers was developed using three deuterium-labeled forms of methadone and GLC-chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. A racemic mixture (1:1) of (R)-(-)-(2H5)methadone (l-form) and (S)-(R)-(2H3)methadone (d-form) was administered orally in place of a single daily dose of unlabeled (+/-)-(2H0)methadone in long-term maintenance patients. Racemic (+/-)-(2H8)methadone was used as an internal standard for the simultaneous quantitation of (2H0)-, (2H3)-, and (2H5)methadone in plasma and urine. A newly developed extraction procedure, using a short, disposable C18 reversed-phase cartridge and improved chemical-ionization procedures employing ammonia gas, resulted in significant reduction of the background impurities contributing to the ions used for isotopic abundance measurements. These improvements enabled the measurement of labeled plasma methadone levels for 120 hr following a single dose. This methodology was applied to the study of methadone kinetics in two patients; in both patients, the analgesically active l-enantiomer of the drug had a longer plasma elimination half-life and a smaller area under the plasma disappearance curve than did the inactive d-form.

  20. Quantitation of methadone enantiomers in humans using stable isotope-labeled [2H3]-, [2H5]-, and [2H8]Methadone

    A new technique for simultaneous stereoselective kinetic studies of methadone enantiomers was developed using three deuterium-labeled forms of methadone and GLC-chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. A racemic mixture (1:1) of (R)-(-)-[2H5]methadone (l-form) and (S)-(R)-[2H3]methadone (d-form) was administered orally in place of a single daily dose of unlabeled (+/-)-[2H0]methadone in long-term maintenance patients. Racemic (+/-)-[2H8]methadone was used as an internal standard for the simultaneous quantitation of [2H0]-, [2H3]-, and [2H5]methadone in plasma and urine. A newly developed extraction procedure, using a short, disposable C18 reversed-phase cartridge and improved chemical-ionization procedures employing ammonia gas, resulted in significant reduction of the background impurities contributing to the ions used for isotopic abundance measurements. These improvements enabled the measurement of labeled plasma methadone levels for 120 hr following a single dose. This methodology was applied to the study of methadone kinetics in two patients; in both patients, the analgesically active l-enantiomer of the drug had a longer plasma elimination half-life and a smaller area under the plasma disappearance curve than did the inactive d-form

  1. Reaction rate of the proton radiative capture on 3H

    Dubovichenko, S B; Afanasyeva, N V

    2016-01-01

    Calculations of the reaction rate of the proton radiative capture on 3H at temperatures from 0.01 T9 up to 5 T9, which are based on the theoretical results for the astrophysical S factor and take into account the latest experimental data, were carried out. Theoretical results for the S factor at energies from 1 keV up to 5 MeV were obtained in the framework of the modified potential cluster model with the classification of orbital states according to Young tableaux. On the basis of used nuclear model of the interaction of p and 3H particles there was shown possibility of description the latest experimental data for the S factor at the energy range from 50 keV up to 5 MeV.

  2. Estudo do decaimento $\\tau -3h\\pi^{0}\

    Da Silva, Tatiana

    In this thesis the results obtained for tests carried out in collaboration with the group of the DELPHI luminosity detector, STIC, are presented and the measurement of the branching fractions of the ! 3h and ! ! decays is performed, using the data collected by DELPHI during the 1993, 1994 and 1995 runs. The results of the tests are satisfactory and the measured values for the branching fractions are compatible with recent measurements

  3. THE ABUNDANCE OF C{sub 3}H{sub 2} AND OTHER SMALL HYDROCARBONS IN THE DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Liszt, Harvey [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Sonnentrucker, Paule [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cordiner, Martin [Astrochemistry Laboratory and the Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Mailstop 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Gerin, Maryvonne, E-mail: hliszt@nrao.edu [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC and UCP (France)

    2012-07-10

    Hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, observed in diverse environments ranging from diffuse to molecular dark clouds and strong photon-dominated regions near H II regions. Recently, two broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 4881 A and 5450 A were attributed to the linear version of propynylidene l-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}, a species whose more stable cyclic conformer c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} has been widely observed in the diffuse interstellar medium at radio wavelengths. This attribution has already been criticized on the basis of indirect plausibility arguments because the required column densities are quite large, N(l-C{sub 3}H{sub 2})/E{sub B-V} =4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} mag{sup -1}. Here we present new measurements of N(l-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}) based on simultaneous 18-21 GHz Very Large Array absorption profiles of cyclic and linear C{sub 3}H{sub 2} taken along sight lines toward extragalactic radio-continuum background sources with foreground Galactic reddening E{sub B-V} = 0.1-1.6 mag. We find that N(l-C{sub 3}H{sub 2})/N(c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}) Almost-Equal-To 1/15-1/40 and N(l-C{sub 3}H{sub 2})/E{sub B-V} Almost-Equal-To (2 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} mag{sup -1}, so that the column densities of l-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} needed to explain the DIBs are some three orders of magnitude higher than what is observed. We also find N(C{sub 4}H)/E{sub B-V} <1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} mag{sup -1} and N(C{sub 4}H{sup -})/E{sub B-V} <1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} mag{sup -1} (3{sigma}). Using available data for CH and C{sub 2}H we compare the abundances of small hydrocarbons in diffuse and dark clouds as a guide to their ability to contribute as DIB carriers over a wide range of conditions in the interstellar medium.

  4. Distribution of 3H-8-MOP and its metabolites in rat organs after a single oral administration

    Wulf, H.C.; Andreasen, M.P.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrations of 3H-8-methoxypsoralen (MOP), its lipid- and water soluble metabolites and tritiated water have been measured in rat serum, liver, kidney, and skin, using liquid scintillation, thin-layer chromatography and other techniques. Radioactivity in whole blood, plasma, ovary, adrenals, and pancreas has also been measured. The radioactivty has been measured up to 1 week after medication, while 3H-8-MOP and metabolite concentrations have been measured from 10 min to 24 h after medication with a single dose of 1 mg 3H-8-MOP in solution/kg bodyweight. Maximum 8-MOP concentrations were seen from 10 to 30 min after dosing. The concentrations in microgram/kg 10 min, 2 h, and 24 h after medication were as follows: serum--686, 57, 2.1; liver--489, 45, 3.3; kidney--1708, 139, 4.3; and skin--55, 16, 3.8. The concentrations of water soluble metabolites were very high in the liver and only slightly lower in the kidney. The concentrations of these metabolites might accumulate after doses repeated 4 times a week. 3H-8-MOP and its metabolites would not show similar accumulation. Most of the radioactivity present after 1 week is due to trititated water.

  5. Measurement of 3hJNC' connectivities across hydrogen bonds in a 30 kDa protein

    A method is described which permits detection of 3h JNC' scalar couplings across hydrogen bonds in larger, perdeuterated proteins. The experiment is demonstrated for the uniformly 2 H/13C/15N-enriched 30 kDa ribosome inactivating protein MAP30. The 3h JNC' interactions are smaller than 1 Hz, but their detection in an HNCO experiment is made possible through the use of constructive interference between the 15N chemical shift anisotropy and 1 H-15N dipole-dipole relaxation mechanisms in a manner similar to that of recently proposed TROSY schemes. Sensitivity of the HNCO experiment depends strongly on the 15 N transverse relaxation rate of the downfield 15 N multiplet component and on the amide proton T1. In perdeuterated MAP30 at 40 deg. C, the average TROSY T2 was 169 ms at 750 MHz 1 H frequency, and a wide range of longitudinal relaxation rates was observed for the amide protons

  6. Thermal Hydrolysis Synthesis and Characterization of Monoclinic Metahewettite CaV6O16•3H2O

    LI Lanjie; ZHENG Shili; WANG Shaona; DU Hao; ZHANG Yi

    2014-01-01

    Monoclinic metahewettite CaV6O16•3H2O has been fabricated via thermal hydrolysis of calcium vanadate (Ca10V6O25). High purity calcium vanadate precipitate, featuring column structure with surface area of 8.61 m2/g, can be obtained by reacting sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4) with calcium oxide at 90℃for 2 h. By acidification of calcium vanadate in hot water at pH of 1.0-3.0, the monoclinic metahewettite crystals with uniform particle distribution, layered structure and nonporous structure can be fabricated. With the well crystallized layered structure, CaV6O16•3H2O may be a potential cathode material for secondary batteries as well as super capacitor materials.

  7. Interaction of [3H] estradiol - and [3H] monohydroxytamoxifen-estrogen receptor complexes with a monoclonal antibody.

    Tate, A C; DeSombre, E R; Greene, G L; Jensen, E V; Jordan, V C

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and contrast the interaction of estrogen [( 3H]17 beta-estradiol)- or antiestrogen [( 3H]monohydroxytamoxifen)-receptor complexes from human breast tumor cytosols with monoclonal antibodies raised to the human breast tumor estrogen receptor. Breast tumor cytosols containing estrogen receptor which sedimented as radiolabeled peaks in either the 8S, 8S and 4S, or 4S regions of sucrose density gradients, interacted with the monoclonal antibody D547 to produce a broad 9-10S peak, a broad 8S-10S peak, or a more discrete 8S peak, respectively. On high salt (0.4M KC1) sucrose density gradients the 4S ligand-receptor complex plus antibody produced a binding peak at approximately the 8S region of the gradient. These sedimentation studies with the monoclonal antibody D547, and similar studies with the monoclonal antibody D58, could detect no differences in the cytosolic estrogen receptor whether complexed with [3H]estradiol or with [3H]monohydroxytamoxifen. These observations were confirmed by Scatchard equilibrium saturation analysis and sucrose density gradient analysis of cytosols from the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The antibody D547 interacted with 8S ER from these cytosols to produce a broad 8S-10S peak, but the antibody produced no change in the affinity or number of binding sites present in these cytosols. It seems, therefore, that the antigenic determinants recognized by these particular antibodies on the breast tumor cytosolic receptor are not significantly altered by the binding of either an estrogen or an antiestrogen to the receptor. PMID:6671136

  8. (/sup 3/H)Clonazepam, like (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam, is a photoaffinity label for the central type of benzodiazepine receptors

    Sieghart, W. (Vienna Univ. (Austria)); Moehler, H. (Hoffmann-La Roche (F.) and Co., Basel (Switzerland))

    1982-06-16

    (/sup 3/H)Clonazepam, like (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam, is irreversibly bound to membrane proteins of brain tissue when exposed to UV light. In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by fluorography, the same pattern of photolabelled proteins was obtained in cerebellum and in hippocampus when either (/sup 3/H)clonazepam or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam was used as photoaffinity label. Since (/sup 3/H)clonazepam does not interact with the peripheral type of benzodiazepine binding site present in the brain, these results confirm previous evidence that the proteins photolabelled with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam are associated with the central type of benzodiazepine receptor.

  9. Temporal pattern of incorporation of 3H precursors into pituitary glycoproteins and their subsequent release

    The temporal pattern of incorporation of various 3H precursors into glycoproteins by rat anterior pituitaries incubated in vitro and the release of 3H-glycoproteins was examined. [3H]Leucine incorporation was linear with respect to time and [3H]leucine-containing macromolecules appeared in the media in about 1 hr. The temporal pattern of [3H]mannose incorporation and release was similar. [3H]Galactose and [3H]fucose were incorporated after apparent time of delays of approximately 15 min and soon thereafter (20-25 min) appeared in the medium in 3H-glycoproteins. Thus, these precursors appear to be added as terminal residues. [3H]Glucosamine exhibited a pattern intermediate between [3H]leucine and [3H]fucose whereas [3H]GlcNAc appeared to be incorporated as a terminal residue

  10. Radiation doses from some [3H]-labelled organic compounds following ingestion

    Published information, especially human data, on the biokinetics of 11 compounds labelled with 3H was used to develop simple, cautious compound-specific models and to calculate both tissue absorbed doses and effective doses using the OLINDA computer code. The compounds were [3H]-cortisol, 3α-Hydroxy-5β-pregnane-11, 20-dione-7-[3H], cyclic 20 trimethylene acetal, [3H]-ifetroban, [3H]-digoxin, 7-[2'-α- methylphenyl-ethylamino[3H

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Bis-benzyl and Bis-allyl Complexes of Titanium(III) and Vanadium(III); Catalytic Isomerization of Alkenes with CpV(η3-C3H5)2

    Nieman, J.; Pattiasina, J.W.; Teuben, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Reactions of CpTiCl2 (Cp = η5-C5H5) with RMgX (X = Cl, Br) yield the complexes CpTiR2 (R = CH2Ph, η3-C3H5). The complex Cp*Ti(η3-C3H5)2 (Cp* = η5-C5Me5) was prepared analogously from Cp*TiCl2(THF). CpVCl2(PEt3)2 and Cp´VCl2(PEt3)2 (Cp´ = η5-C5H4Me) were used for the preparation of CpV(CH2Ph)2, CpV(η3-C3H5)2, CpV(η3-1-MeC3H4)2 and Cp´V(η3-C3H5)2, respectively. The corresponding Cp*V derivatives could not be obtained. The reaction of CpCrCl2(thf) with C3H5MgCl gives a dimeric complex [CpCr(C3H5...

  12. Synthesis of 3H and 14C labelled changrolin

    3 kinds of [14C] and [3H] changrolin labelled at different positions (I, II, III) were prepared. The synthesis of I is as follows: (Scheme 1): Heating 5-bromoanthranilic acid with formamide yielded IV, which on heating with POCl3 gave V. Condensation of V with 4-aminophenol and Mannich reaction produced 6-bromochangrolin (VI). Catalytic dehalogenation of VI with tritium gas gave I. The synthesis of II was started from (14C) formamide and anthranilic acid. Labelled 4-chloroquine obtained was condensed with Mannich base (VII) directly (Scheme 2). III was prepared by 1 step with (14C) formaldehyde (Scheme 1)

  13. Evidence for Triangular D_3h Symmetry in 12C

    Marin-Lambarri, D J; Freer, M; Gai, M; Kokalova, Tz; Parker, D J; Wheldon, C

    2014-01-01

    We report a measurement of a new high spin Jp = 5- state at 22.4(0.2) MeV in 12C which fits very well to the predicted (ground state) rotational band of an oblate equilateral triangular spinning top with a D_3h symmetry characterized by the sequence 0+, 2+, 3-, 4+/-, 5- with almost degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Such a D_3h symmetry was observed in triatomic molecules and it is observed here for the first time in nuclear physics. We discuss a classification of other rotation-vibration bands in 12C such as the (0+) Hoyle band and the (1-) bending mode band and suggest measurements in search of the predicted ("missing") states that may shed new light on clustering in 12C and light nuclei. In particular the observation (or non-observation) of the predicted ("missing") states in the Hoyle band will allow us to conclude the geometrical arrangement of the three alpha-particle composing the Hoyle state at 7.654 MeV in 12C.

  14. Autoradiography of 3H-α-fluoromethyl histidine in mice

    Tritium-α-fluoromethyl histidine (3H-α-FMH), designed as a Kcat-inhibitor of mammalian histidine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.22), was administered intravenously in male and pregnant female mice of the NMRI strain and the distribution of tritium in the body recorded by whole-body and microautoradiography. The results showed penetration of radioactivity into most tissues within 5 min. after the injection. After 4 hrs the highest levels of radioactivity were present in the intestinal content and in the kidneys. In the pregnant animal there was also a high labelling of the foetal tissues. When whole-body sections were washed in TCA prior to the autoradiographic exposure to retain only protein-bound radioactivity, a distinct labelling pattern was seen in the kidneys of the pregnant female mice ebut not in those of the male mice. Microautoradiography of the kidneys showed that the cells involved were located within the proximal convoluted tubuli. In several mouse strains, including the NMRI, the activity of kidney histidine decarboxylase is low in the males but high in females during a transient period of pregnancy. Incorporation of tritium into kidney protein after treatment with 3H-α-FMH, was correlated to a loss in histidine decarboxylase activity. The isotopic labelling was confined mainly to a component which cofractionated with histidine decarboxylase in polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis (PAGE) under nondenaturing conditions. Our data indicate that the cells described above represent the location of kidney histidine decarboxylase. (author)

  15. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal

  16. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  17. The 3H-3He Charge Radii Difference

    Myers, Luke S. [Bluffton University, Bluffton, OH; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Arrington, John R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Higinbotham, Douglas W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The upcoming E12-14-009 [1] experiment at Jefferson Lab will determine the ratio of the electric form factors for the A=3 mirror nuclei 3He and 3H. The measurement will use a 1.1 GeV electron beam, a special collimator plate to allow for simultaneous optics measurements, and the low-activity tritium target being prepared for Jefferson Lab. By observing the dependence of the form factor ratio as a function of Q2 over 0.05–0.09 GeV2, the dependence of the radii extraction on the shape of the form factors is minimized. As a result, we anticipate the uncertainty of the extracted charge radii difference to be 0.03 fm, a reduction of 70% from the current measurement. Using precise measurements of the 3He charge radius from isotopic shift or μHe measurements [2–4], we can deduce the absolute 3H charge radius. The results will provide a direct comparison to recent calculations of the charge radii.

  18. Bindings of /sup 3/H-prazosin and /sup 3/H-yohimbine to alpha adrenoceptors in the guinea-pig stomach

    Taniguchi, T.; Nishikawa, H.

    1988-01-01

    Alpha adrenoceptor subtypes have been investigated by radioligand binding study in guinea-pig stomach using /sup 3/H-prazosin and /sup 3/H-yohimbine. The specific /sup 3/H-prazosin binding to guinea-pig stomach was saturable and of high affinity with a Bmax of 33 fmol/mg protein. Specific /sup 3/H-yohimbine binding to the tissue was also saturable and of high affinity with a Bmax of 150 fmol/mg protein. Adrenergic drugs competed for /sup 3/H-prazosin binding in order of prazosin > phentolamine > methoxamine > norepinephrine > clonidine > epinephrine > yohimbine. These drugs competed for /sup 3/H-yohimbine binding in order of yohimbine > phentolamine > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > prazosin > methoxamine. They also examined whether dopamine receptors exist in guinea-pig stomach, using radioligand binding study. Specific binding of /sup 3/H-spiperone, /sup 3/H-apomorphine, /sup 3/H-dopamine and /sup 3/H-domperidone was not detectable in the stomach. Dopaminergic drugs such as dopamine, haloperidol, domperidone and sulpiride competed for /sup 3/H-prazosin binding in order of haloperidol > domperidone > dopamine > sulpiride. Metoclopramide, sulpiride and dopamine competed for /sup 3/H-yohimbine binding in order of metoclopramide > sulpiride > dopamine.

  19. Preparation of (10R,S)-[10-3H] juvenile hormone III and (10R,S, 11S,R)-[10-3H] juvenile hormone O; conversion of [10-3H] juvenile hormone III to methyl (2E,6E)-[10-3H] farnesoate and (2E,6E)-[10-3H] farnesol

    Samples of racemic [10-3H]juvenile hormone III (methyl (2E,6E)-10,11 epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6-dodecadienoate) and [10-3H]juvenile hormone 0 (methyl (2E,6E, 10cis)-3,7-diethyl-10,11-epoxy-11-methyl-2, 6-tridecadienoate) were prepared by NaB3H4 reduction of the corresponding 11-chloro-10-oxo ('chloroketone') precursors to their respective [10-3H] chlorohydrins, followed by treatment of the latter with potassium carbonate in methanol. [10-3H] Juvenile hormone III was converted to methyl [10-3H]farnesoate (methyl (2E,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienoate) by reduction with sodium iodide and zinc in acetic acid-sodium acetate. Further reduction of methyl [10-3H]farnesoate with diisobutyl aluminum hydride afforded a sample of [10-3H]farnesol ((2E, 6E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-o1). (author)

  20. Using 14C and 3H to understand groundwater flow and recharge in an aquifer window

    Atkinson, A. P.; Cartwright, I.; Gilfedder, B. S.; Cendón, D. I.; Unland, N. P.; Hofmann, H.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of groundwater residence times and recharge locations is vital to the sustainable management of groundwater resources. Here we investigate groundwater residence times and patterns of recharge in the Gellibrand Valley, southeast Australia, where outcropping aquifer sediments of the Eastern View Formation form an "aquifer window" that may receive diffuse recharge from rainfall and recharge from the Gellibrand River. To determine recharge patterns and groundwater flow paths, environmental isotopes (3H, 14C, δ13C, δ18O, δ2H) are used in conjunction with groundwater geochemistry and continuous monitoring of groundwater elevation and electrical conductivity. The water table fluctuates by 0.9 to 3.7 m annually, implying recharge rates of 90 and 372 mm yr-1. However, residence times of shallow (11 to 29 m) groundwater determined by 14C are between 100 and 10 000 years, 3H activities are negligible in most of the groundwater, and groundwater electrical conductivity remains constant over the period of study. Deeper groundwater with older 14C ages has lower δ18O values than younger, shallower groundwater, which is consistent with it being derived from greater altitudes. The combined geochemistry data indicate that local recharge from precipitation within the valley occurs through the aquifer window, however much of the groundwater in the Gellibrand Valley predominantly originates from the regional recharge zone, the Barongarook High. The Gellibrand Valley is a regional discharge zone with upward head gradients that limits local recharge to the upper 10 m of the aquifer. Additionally, the groundwater head gradients adjacent to the Gellibrand River are generally upwards, implying that it does not recharge the surrounding groundwater and has limited bank storage. 14C ages and Cl concentrations are well correlated and Cl concentrations may be used to provide a first-order estimate of groundwater residence times. Progressively lower chloride concentrations from 10

  1. Determination of muscle protein synthesis rates in fish using (2)H2O and (2)H NMR analysis of alanine.

    Marques, Cátia; Viegas, Filipa; Rito, João; Jones, John; Viegas, Ivan

    2016-09-15

    Following administration of deuterated water ((2)H2O), the fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of a given endogenous protein can be estimated by (2)H-enrichment quantification of its alanine residues. Currently, this is measured by mass spectrometry following a derivatization procedure. Muscle FSR was measured by (1)H/(2)H NMR analysis of alanine from seabass kept for 6 days in 5% (2)H-enriched saltwater, following acid hydrolysis and amino acid isolation by cation-exchange chromatography of muscle tissue. The analysis is simple and robust, and provides precise measurements of excess alanine (2)H-enrichment in the 0.1-0.4% range from 50 mmol of alanine recovered from muscle protein. PMID:27418547

  2. An observational investigation of the identity of B11244 (l-C3H+/C3H-)

    Pety et al. have reported the detection of eight transitions of a closed-shell, linear molecule (B11244) in observations toward the Horsehead photodissociation region (PDR), which they attribute to the l-C3H+ cation. Recent high-level ab initio calculations have called this assignment into question; the anionic C3H– molecule has been suggested as a more likely candidate. Here, we examine observations of the Horsehead PDR, Sgr B2(N), TMC-1, and IRC+10216 in the context of both l-C3H+ and C3H–. We find no observational evidence of Ka = 1 lines, which should be present were the carrier indeed C3H–. Additionally, we find a strong anticorrelation between the presence of known molecular anions and B11244 in these regions. Finally, we discuss the formation and destruction chemistry of C3H– in the context of the physical conditions in the regions. Based on these results, we conclude there is little evidence to support the claim that the carrier is C3H–.

  3. Photodisintegration of 3H in a three dimensional Faddeev approach

    An interaction of a photon with 3H nuclei is investigated based on a three dimensional Faddeev approach. In this approach The three-nucleon Faddeev equations with two-nucleon interactions are formulated with consideration of the magnitudes of the vector Jacobi momenta and the angle between them with the inclusion of the spin-isospin quantum numbers, without employing a partial wave decomposition. In this calculation the two body t matrices and triton wave function with nd scattering are calculated in the three dimensional approach using AV18 potential. The standard single nucleon current and π-and ρ-like two-body currents have been used which fulfill the current continuity equation together with the corresponding parts of the AV18 potential. Finally the calculated observables are compared with the results of partial wave one and the experimental data.

  4. Autoradiographic studies of oleilanilide-3H distribution in rat tissues

    In this work the possibility that oleilanilides are involved in the pathgenesis of ''toxic syndrome'' is studied. Oleilanilide-3H labelled in the anilidi aromatic ring has been used to determine the distribution, localization and incorporation of that compound in several tissues of rats. Liquid scintillation counting for quantitative evaluation of the total radioactivity accumulated in the tissues, as well as autoradiographic techniques have been employed as analytical procedures. Results obtained from measurement of total radioactivity have shown accumulation of oleilanilide or its metabolites in all the studied tissues, mainly in the liver. No specific radioactivity localization has been detected by autoradiographic techniques, being the labelled molecules distributed in cytaplasm and cell interstice. (Author)

  5. Plasmid DNA labelled with 14C or 3H

    Plasmid DNA labelled with 14C or 3H in thymine was isolated from the thymine-dependent strain of Escherichia coli 15 SPT bacteria. The specific activity of the plasmid DNA preparations lay in the range from 0.5 to 20 MBq/mg, their relative molecular weight was 1.7 x 106 dalton. Molecular weight, preparation purity, and the degree of damage of the plasmid DNA molecules were examined by UV absorption spectroscopy, by gel electrophoresis, and by electron micrography. The quality of the [thymine-2-14C] plasmid DNA was verified in a diagnostic test for the determination of the anti-dsDNA bonding activity in human serum. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 30 refs

  6. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  7. The enantiospecific synthesis of [5-2H]-5-epi-shikimic acid and of (6R) [6-2H]-, (6S) [6-2H]- and [6-2H2] shikimic acid

    The enantioselective synthesis of [5-2H]-5-epi-shikimic acid starting from commercially available L-shikimic acid has been accomplished in this work. The introduction of the stable isotope was facilitated by an enzymic reduction of a ketone. An interesting stereospecific enolisation was also observed during this reaction resulting in partial deuteration of the 6-equatorial position. In addition, the enantioselective syntheses of methyl (6R) [6-2H]-, and (6S) [6-2H] shikimate are described. The procedure is an adaptation of a reported enantiospecific synthesis of shikimic acid, with the inclusion of an enzymic reduction step. (author)

  8. SMA Observations of W3(OH) Complex: Physical and Chemical Differentiation between W3(H$_2$O) and W3(OH)

    Qin, Sheng-Li; Wu, Jingwen; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie; Liu, Ying; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    We report on the Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of molecular lines at 270 GHz toward W3(OH) and W3(H$_2$O) complex. Although previous observations already resolved the W3(H$_2$O) into two or three sub-components, the physical and chemical properties of the two sources are not well constrained. Our SMA observations clearly resolved W3(OH) and W3(H$_2$O) continuum cores. Taking the advantage of the line fitting tool XCLASS, we identified and modeled a rich molecular spectrum in this complex, including multiple CH$_3$CN and CH$_3$OH transitions in both cores. HDO, C$_2$H$_5$CN, O$^{13}$CS, and vibrationally excited lines of HCN, CH$_3$CN, and CH$_3$OCHO were only detected in W3(H$_2$O). We calculate gas temperatures and column densities for both cores. The results show that W3(H$_{2}$O) has higher gas temperatures, and larger column densities than W3(OH) as previously observed, suggesting physical and chemical differences between the two cores. We compare the molecular abundances in W3(H$_2$O) to those i...

  9. The H+3 + H2 isotopic system. Origin of deuterium astrochemistry

    Dense cold molecular clouds reckoned to be stellar nurseries are the scene of an extreme molecular deuteration. Despite the cosmic D/H ratio of ∝10-5, molecular species in prestellar cores are observed to contain nearly as much deuterium as hydrogen. This astonishing deuterium enrichment promoted by low temperatures is the work of H+3. It is the key species which unlocks the deuterium from its HD reservoir via reactions like H+3+HD ↔ H2D++H2 and drags it further to other species in successive reactions. For this reason, the H+3+H2 isotopic system is outstandingly critical for the astrochemistry of cold environments. However, its understanding is yet incomplete and insufficient. This thesis thus focuses on the H+3+H2 isotopic system from a theoretical, experimental and astronomical point of view giving a particular look into the role of nuclear spins. As a first step, the stringent nuclear spin selection rules in associative, dissociative and reactive collisions are investigated. This purely theoretical study zooms into the details of the nuclear spin wavefunctions and shows that their permutation symmetry representation is necessary and sufficient, contrary to their angular momentum representation. Additionally, a new deterministic interpretation of nuclear spins in chemical reactions is proposed. Based on these considerations, a complete set of state-to-state rate coefficients for all H+3 + H2 isotopic variants is calculated using a microcanonical model leaned on phase space theory. An experimental study is conducted in parallel with a 22-pole ion trap apparatus in order to inspect the influences of temperature and H2 ortho-to-para ratio. The good overall agreement between experimental and theoretical results supports the validity and utility of the calculated set of rate coefficients. Furthermore, the potentiality of the 22-pole ion trap apparatus is explored via the Laser Induced Reaction (LIR) technique applied to our system of interest. High resolution

  10. 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) analogues exhibit differential effects on synaptosomal release of 3H-dopamine and 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine

    McKenna, D.J.; Guan, X.M.; Shulgin, A.T. (Department of Neurology Neurological Sciences, Stanford University Medical Center, CA (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The effect of various analogues of the neurotoxic amphetamine derivative, MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) on carrier-mediated, calcium-independent release of 3H-5-HT and 3H-DA from rat brain synaptosomes was investigated. Both enantiomers of the neurotoxic analogues MDA and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) induce synaptosomal release of 3H-5-HT and 3H-DA in vitro. The release of 3H-5-HT induced by MDMA is partially blocked by 10(-6) M fluoxetine. The (+) enantiomers of both MDA and MDMA are more potent than the (-) enantiomers as releasers of both 3H-5-HT and 3H-DA. Eleven analogues, differing from MDA with respect to the nature and number of ring and/or side chain substituents, also show some activity in the release experiments, and are more potent as releasers of 3H-5-HT than of 3H-DA. The amphetamine derivatives {plus minus}fenfluramine, {plus minus}norfenfluramine, {plus minus}MDE, {plus minus}PCA, and d-methamphetamine are all potent releasers of 3H-5-HT and show varying degrees of activity as 3H-DA releasers. The hallucinogen DOM does not cause significant release of either 3H-monoamine. Possible long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity was assessed by quantifying the density of 5-HT uptake sites in rats treated with multiple doses of selected analogues using 3H-paroxetine to label 5-HT uptake sites. In the neurotoxicity study of the compounds investigated, only (+)MDA caused a significant loss of 5-HT uptake sites in comparison to saline-treated controls. These results are discussed in terms of the apparent structure-activity properties affecting 3H-monoamine release and their possible relevance to neurotoxicity in this series of MDA congeners.

  11. 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) analogues exhibit differential effects on synaptosomal release of 3H-dopamine and 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine.

    McKenna, D J; Guan, X M; Shulgin, A T

    1991-03-01

    The effect of various analogues of the neurotoxic amphetamine derivative, MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) on carrier-mediated, calcium-independent release of 3H-5-HT and 3H-DA from rat brain synaptosomes was investigated. Both enantiomers of the neurotoxic analogues MDA and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) induce synaptosomal release of 3H-5-HT and 3H-DA in vitro. The release of 3H-5-HT induced by MDMA is partially blocked by 10(-6) M fluoxetine. The (+) enantiomers of both MDA and MDMA are more potent than the (-) enantiomers as releasers of both 3H-5-HT and 3H-DA. Eleven analogues, differing from MDA with respect to the nature and number of ring and/or side chain substituents, also show some activity in the release experiments, and are more potent as releasers of 3H-5-HT than of 3H-DA. The amphetamine derivatives (+/-)fenfluramine, (+/-)norfenfluramine, (+/-)MDE, (+/-)PCA, and d-methamphetamine are all potent releasers of 3H-5-HT and show varying degrees of activity as 3H-DA releasers. The hallucinogen DOM does not cause significant release of either 3H-monoamine. Possible long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity was assessed by quantifying the density of 5-HT uptake sites in rats treated with multiple doses of selected analogues using 3H-paroxetine to label 5-HT uptake sites. In the neurotoxicity study of the compounds investigated, only (+)MDA caused a significant loss of 5-HT uptake sites in comparison to saline-treated controls. These results are discussed in terms of the apparent structure-activity properties affecting 3H-monoamine release and their possible relevance to neurotoxicity in this series of MDA congeners. PMID:1829838

  12. Selective labeling of serotonin uptake sites in rat brain by (/sup 3/H)citalopram contrasted to labeling of multiple sites by (/sup 3/H)imipramine

    D' Amato, R.J.; Largent, B.L.; Snowman, A.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-07-01

    Citalopram is a potent and selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin uptake. In rat brain membranes (/sup 3/H)citalopram demonstrates saturable and reversible binding with a KD of 0.8 nM and a maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 570 fmol/mg of protein. The drug specificity for (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding and synaptosomal serotonin uptake are closely correlated. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding by both serotonin and imipramine is consistent with a competitive interaction in both equilibrium and kinetic analyses. The autoradiographic pattern of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding sites closely resembles the distribution of serotonin. By contrast, detailed equilibrium-saturation analysis of (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding reveals two binding components, i.e., high affinity (KD = 9 nM, Bmax = 420 fmol/mg of protein) and low affinity (KD = 553 nM, Bmax = 8560 fmol/mg of protein) sites. Specific (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding, defined as the binding inhibited by 100 microM desipramine, is displaced only partially by serotonin. Various studies reveal that the serotonin-sensitive portion of binding corresponds to the high affinity sites of (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding whereas the serotonin-insensitive binding corresponds to the low affinity sites. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with p-chloroamphetamine causes a large decrease in (/sup 3/H)citalopram and serotonin-sensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding with only a small effect on serotonin-insensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding. The dissociation rate of (/sup 3/H)imipramine or (/sup 3/H)citalopram is not altered by citalopram, imipramine or serotonin up to concentrations of 10 microM. The regional distribution of serotonin sensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine high affinity binding sites closely resembles that of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding.

  13. Synthesis of c-C3H2 in interstellar clouds

    The synthesis of c-C3H2 in interstellar clouds is exmained. It is argued that the reaction of C3H(+) with H2, which generates cyclic and linear isomers of C3H(3+), and dissociation recombination of these isomers produces c-C3H2 in interstellar clouds. Various ion-molecule reactions that could generate C3H(3+) in interstellar clouds are investigated. 20 references

  14. [6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl-3H]neonicotinoids as high-affinity radioligands for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: preparation using NaB3H4 and LiB3H4

    NaB3H4 and LiB3H4 at 78% and 97% isotopic enrichments, respectively, were used in the synthesis of 3H-labeled 1-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)-methyl-2-nitromethyleneimidazolidine (CH-IMI) and N'-[(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl]-n''-cyano-n'-methylacetamidine (acetamiprid) (two very potent insecticides) and of 1-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl-2-iminoimidazolidine (desnitro-IMI) (a metabolite of the commercial insecticides imidacloprid). 6-Chloronicotinoyl chloride was treated with either NaB3H4 in methanol or LiB3H4 in tetrahydrofuran and the resulting alcohol transformed to 2-chloro-5-chloromethylpyridine, which was then coupled to N-cyano-N'-methylacetamidine to give [3H] acetamiprid (45 Ci/mmol). 2-Chloro-5-chloro[3H]methylpyridine was also reacted with ethylenediamine and the product was either refluxed in absolute ethanol with 1,1-bis(methylthio)-2-nitro-ethylene to provide [3H]CH-IMI or reacted in toluene with a solution of cyanogen bromide to produce [3H] desnitro-IMI (each 55 Ci/mmol. (author)

  15. Theoretical Studies on N2H+O Reaction

    L(U) Ying-wen; L(U) Wen-cai; SU Zhong-min

    2008-01-01

    The N2H+O potential energy profile was studied at the CCSD(T)/6-311G++(dfp)//MP2/6-311G(d,p) level.Reactions associated with four intermediates(cis-HNNO, trans-HNNO, NNHO, and NNOH) were investigated. The results indicate that N2H+O reaction toward H+N2O is more favored than that toward N2+OH, consistent with previous experimental studies. The pathways for the two reactions are found to go through cis-HNNO, transition state, and finally to the products. The N2H+O→NH+NO reaction was studied in detail. Product NO in such a reaction is likely to occur via cis-HNNO, followed by trans-HNNO, and finally dissociates into NH+NO. These results suggest that N2H+O→NH+NO is an important channel in NO production.

  16. Solar photocatalytic degradation of isoproturon over TiO2/H-MOR composite systems

    The photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of isoproturon herbicide was investigated in aqueous solution containing TiO2 over H-mordenite (H-MOR) photocatalysts under solar light. The catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffused reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS), Fourier transform-infra red spectra (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of TiO2, H-MOR support and different wt% of TiO2 over the support on the photocatalytic degradation and influence of parameters such as TiO2 loading, catalyst amount, pH and initial concentration of isoproturon on degradation are evaluated. 15 wt% TiO2/H-MOR composite is found to be optimum. The degradation reaction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and is discussed in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetic model. The extent of isoproturon mineralization studied with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) measurements and ∼80% mineralization occurred in 5 h. A plausible mechanism is proposed based on the intermediates identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS)

  17. C2H observations toward the Orion Bar

    Nagy, Z.; Ossenkopf, V.; Van der Tak, F. F. S.; Faure, A.; Makai, Z.; Bergin, E. A.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The ethynyl radical (C2H) is one of the first radicals to be detected in the interstellar medium. Its higher rotational transitions have recently become available with the Herschel Space Observatory. Aims: We aim to constrain the physical parameters of the C2H emitting gas toward the Orion Bar. Methods: We analyze the C2H line intensities measured toward the Orion Bar CO+ Peak and Herschel/HIFI maps of C2H, CH, and HCO+ and a NANTEN map of [Ci]. We interpret the observed C2H emission using the combination of Herschel/HIFI and NANTEN data with radiative transfer and PDR models. Results: Five rotational transitions of C2H (from N = 6-5 up to N = 10-9) have been detected in the HIFI frequency range toward the CO+ peak of the Orion Bar. Based on the five detected C2H transitions, a single component rotational diagram analysis gives a rotation temperature of ~64 K and a beam-averaged C2H column density of 4 × 1013 cm-2. The rotational diagram is also consistent with a two-component fit, resulting in rotation temperatures of 43 ± 0.2 K and 123 ± 21 K and in beam-averaged column densities of ~8.3 × 1013 cm-2 and ~2.3 × 1013 cm-2 for the three lower-N and for the three higher-N transitions, respectively. The measured five rotational transitions cannot be explained by any single parameter model. According to a non-LTE model, most of the C2H column density produces the lower-N C2H transitions and traces a warm (Tkin ~ 100-150 K) and dense (n(H2) ~ 105-106 cm-3) gas. A small fraction of the C2H column density is required to reproduce the intensity of the highest-N transitions (N = 9-8 and N = 10-9) originating in a high-density (n(H2) ~5 × 106 cm-3) hot (Tkin ~ 400 K) gas. The total beam-averaged C2H column density in the model is 1014 cm-2. A comparison of the spatial distribution of C2H to those of CH, HCO+, and [Ci] shows the best correlation with CH. Conclusions: Both the non-LTE radiative transfer model and a simple PDR model representing the Orion Bar

  18. Thermal condition of open KBS.3H tunnel

    This report contains the temperature calculations of open KBS-3H type spent nuclear fuel repository, where the fuel canisters are disposed at horizontal position in horizontal tunnels according to the preliminary SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) and Posiva plan. The objective of the study is to simulate the operation phase atmospheric conditions in open horizontal tunnels, where the KBS-3H type canister containers and distance blocks are installed. The analyses concern BWR type canisters. The analyses were made as heat conduction problem by taking into account radiation over gaps. A perforated steel plate surrounds a canister and bentonite. Heat transfer through a perforated plate and surrounding air gaps is a complicated three-dimensional heat transfer problem. To simplify the analysis, the gaps around a container and a distance block were taken into account by describing them by a homogenous layer having effective thermal properties. Convection due to natural circulation of humid air in horizontal gaps between the container and rock was not considered. Convection could reduce the temperature variation in the gap. On the other hand, the perforated steel plate has good conductivity and transfers quite well heat in horizontal gaps. Since the actual temperatures of disposal canisters depend in a complicated way on considered time and position, two extreme cases were studied to make the analyses easier. In the first extreme case an infinite queue of canisters are disposed simultaneously. This case overestimates temperatures, since the actual number of canisters is finite and they are not disposed simultaneously. In other extreme case only the first single canister and the first distance block are disposed. This case underestimates temperatures, since the actual number of canisters is greater than one and the canisters heat each other in later phase. The analysis showed that temperatures differ only a little from each other in the two extreme cases

  19. In vivo labeling of cocaine receptors with sup 3 H-(-) cocaine, sup 3 H-WIN 35,065-2 and sup 3 H-WIN 35,428

    Scheffel, U.; Boja, J.W.; Stathis, M.; Kuhar, M.J. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1990-02-26

    {sup 11}C-(-)cocaine (-COC) has recently been employed to image -COC binding sites in vivo using PET. Two analogs of -COC, WIN 35,065-2 (WIN-2) and WIN 35,428 (CFT), have been shown in vitro to exhibit higher affinity for the -COC receptor than -COC. The present study evaluates {sup 3}H-WIN-2 and {sup 3}H-CFT as in vivo receptor labels in mice with a view towards the use of these compounds as PET ligands for -COC receptors in the living human brain. {sup 3}H-labeled -COC, WIN-2 and CFT were injected i.v. into mice and their specific binding in the CNS determined. Peak striatal/cerebellar (S/C) ratios were reached at 5 minutes post injection with -COC (1.56), at 45 minutes with {sup 3}H-WIN-2 (3.30) and 60 minutes with {sup 3}H-CFT (4.0). The specificity of in vivo binding of {sup 3}H-WIN-2 and {sup 3}H-CFT was tested by pre-injection of various drugs. Binding of {sup 3}H-WIN-2 and {sup 3}H-CFT was dose-dependently blocked by cold WIN-2 and CFT, and by dopamine uptake site inhibitors (mazindol, GBR 12,909, nomifensine), but not by (+)COC, paroxetine and desipramine. The data indicate that {sup 3}H-WIN-2 and {sup 3}H-CFT exhibit improved in vivo binding (higher S/C ratios, longer retention time at the -COC receptor/dopamine transporter) compared to -COC and support their testing in PET studies.

  20. Crystal structure of 5-[bis-(methyl-sulfon-yl)meth-yl]-1,3-dimethyl-5-(methyl-sulfon-yl)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione.

    Mallah, Eyad; Al-Sheikh, Ahmed; Sweidan, Kamal; Abu Dayyih, Wael; Steimann, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C10H16N2O9S3, the pyrimidine ring of the 1,3-dimethyl barbituric acid moiety has an envelope conformation with the C atom carrying the methyl-sulfonyl and bis-(methyl-sulfon-yl)methyl substituents as the flap. The dihedral angle between mean plane of the pyrimidine ring and the S/C/S plane is 72.4 (3)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. PMID:25705508

  1. Crystal structure of 5-[bis­(methyl­sulfon­yl)meth­yl]-1,3-dimethyl-5-(methyl­sulfon­yl)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione

    Mallah, Eyad; Al-Sheikh, Ahmed; Sweidan, Kamal; Abu Dayyih, Wael; Steimann, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C10H16N2O9S3, the pyrimidine ring of the 1,3-dimethyl barbituric acid moiety has an envelope conformation with the C atom carrying the methyl­sulfonyl and bis­(methyl­sulfon­yl)methyl substituents as the flap. The dihedral angle between mean plane of the pyrimidine ring and the S/C/S plane is 72.4 (3)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. PMID:25705508

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 5-benzylidenepyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione derivatives for the treatment of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Ma, Liang; Xie, Caifeng; Ran, Yan; Liang, Xiaolin; Huang, Li; Pei, Heying; Chen, Jinying; Liu, Juan; Sang, Yun; Lai, Huijun; Peng, Aihua; Xiang, Mingli; Wei, Yuquan; Chen, Lijuan

    2012-11-26

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of chronic liver diseases, seems to be rising as the obesity epidemic continues. In this study, 54 novel (thio)barbituric acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for pharmacological activity. 7h exhibited potent glucose-lowering effects on insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and regulated adiponectin and leptin expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Oral administration of 7h at 25 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 4 weeks improved the progression of high fat diet-induced NAFLD by reducing the weight of body, liver, and fat, as well as modulating serum levels of fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, LDL-c, ALT, adiponectin and hepatic contents of triglycerides, total cholesterol. H&E stainings revealed that 7h blocked fat deposition in liver and the increase of adipocyte number and size in adipose tissues from NAFLD. Furthermore, treatment with 7h alleviated the obese clinical symptoms, recovered serum biomarkers to appropriate ranges, and improved glucose tolerance by OGTT and IGTT in DIO mice. PMID:23025244

  3. Photobinding of 3H 8-methoxypsoralen to monkey intraocular tissues

    Young (less than 1 year) and old (greater than 15 years) Rhesus monkeys were utilized in this study in order to determine whether ultraviolet (UV) radiation at ambient levels induces psoralen photobinding in primate eyes (in particular the lens and retina). Unilateral aphakia or pseudophakia was induced surgically and the eyes were allowed to heal. The animals then were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 3H 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and immediately exposed to BLB lights (of measured radiation intensity at the corneal surface). The animals were killed at varying time periods (2-6 weeks), and the eyes were removed immediately. One-half of each cornea and lens was frozen for subsequent optical spectroscopy and the remaining ocular tissues were fixed for histopathologic studies and autoradiography. These data demonstrate that low level UV radiation (less than 0.4 mW/cm2) can cause 8-MOP photobinding to lens proteins and DNA and to aphakic, pseudophakic, and young phakic primate retinas. The older phakic primate lens serves as a protective UV filter and prevents psoralen photobinding within the retina. These data suggest that older aphakes and pseudophakes may require UV radiation protection to prevent direct as well as photosensitized retinal photodamage

  4. Monitoring of atmospheric 3H around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

    Atmospheric tritium activity was measured regularly around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) since gaseous waste which contains tritium is being released through a 100 m high stack at KAPS site. Data collected shows a large variation of 3H concentration in air, fluctuating in the range of ≤0.2-19.9 Bq x m-3. Significantly, higher tritium levels were measured in samples at the site boundary (1.6 km) of KAPS compared to off-site locations. The atmospheric dilution factor was found to be in the range of 1.1 x 10-7 - 2.9 x 10-7 s x m-3. The scavenging ratio of KAPS site was found to be varying from 0.4 x 104 to 16.7 x 104 (Bq x m-3 rain water per Bq x m-3 air). The inhalation dose to a member of general public at different distances (1.6-30 km) from KAPS site was found to be 0.07 μSv x y-1. (author)

  5. Monitoring of atmospheric 3H around Narora Atomic Power Station

    Atmospheric tritium activity is measured regularly around Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) since gaseous waste, which contains tritium, is being released through a 145 m high stack at NAPS site. Atmospheric data collected during 2004-2008 shows a large variation of 3H concentration in air, fluctuating in the range of ≤0.2-91.6 Bq m-3. Significantly, higher tritium levels were measured in samples near the site boundary (1.6 km) of NAPS compared to off-site locations. The atmospheric dilution factor was found to be in the range of 1.1 x 10-7-7.3 x 10-7 s m-3. The scavenging ratio of NAPS site was found to be varying from 0.2 x 104 to 14.1 x 104 (Bq m-3 rain water per Bq m-3 air). The inhalation dose to a member of general public at different distances (1.6-30 km) from NAPS site was found to be ranged from 0.08-0.21 μSv year-1. (author)

  6. Tissue Distribution of [3H]—Nicotine in Rats

    ParimalChowdhury; RyuichiroDOI; 等

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted in adult male Sprageue-Dawley rats to determine the distribution of [3H]-nicotine in blood and tissues following a bolus injection and a constant infusion of pure nicotine.The animalw were anesthetized and injectd with either 0.5ml of nicotine solution or given a constant infusion of the same nicotine solution with indentical amounts of radioactive nicotine.After sacrifice.blood,brain,trachea,salivery gland, esophagus,lung,heart,liver,fundus,antrum,spleen,pancreas,duodenum,jejunum,ileum, cecum,colon,kidneys,adrenal gland,and testes were collected and measured for radioactivity by scintillation counting.The distribution of nicotine was found highest in kidneys by both routes of administration.Higher accumulations were also found in salivary and adrenal glands,fundus,antrum,duodenum,jejunum,ileum and colon.Retention of nicotine via constant infusion was significantly higher in esophagus,fundus antrum,spleen,cecum, pancreas,testes,heart and muscle when compared with bolus injection,Six-fold increase in retention of blood levels of nicotine were ofund with constant infusion.(P<0.05).The results indicate that longer retention of nicotine occurs in blood and other specific tissues such as esophagus,fundus,antrum,spleen,cecum,pancreas,testes,heart and muscle via constant exposure.These data may implicate the predisposition of these tissues to patologic manifestations.

  7. Elimination of 3H-methylguanidine at limited renal function

    The serum levels, hepatic and renal excretions and the tissue concentrations of 3H methyl guanidine 60 to 90 minutes after intravenous injection were measured in rats with healthy kidneys and rats with experimental renal insufficiences. The following results were obtained: Methyl guanidine is quickly eliminated through the kidney and the liver of organisms with healthy kidneys. In the case of experimental renal insufficiency, the renal excretion of methyl guanidine is reduced, whilst the hepatic excretion is increased. Methyl guanidine is subject to an enterohepatic circuit. Methyl guanidine can accumulate to much higher levels in various tissues examined than in serum. The highest organ accumulation level of methyl guanidine was found in the case of renal insufficiency. The most important finding of the study accordingly is the partial rehabilitation of methyl guanidine as a potential uremic poison. In the author's opinion, too much attention has so far been paid to the serum concentration, and too little attention to the tissue level of the substance. (orig.)

  8. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3OCF2CF2H and CF3OC(CF3)2H

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Nielsen, O J; Wallington, T J;

    2005-01-01

    gives CF3OC(O)CF3 and COF2 in molar yields that are indistinguishable from 100%. Quantitative infrared spectra were recorded and used to estimate global warming potentials of 3690 and 8230 (100 year time horizon, relative to CO2) for CF3OCF2CF2H and CF3OC(CF3)2H, respectively. All experiments were...

  9. Differential effect of detergents on [3H]Ro 5-4864 and [3H]PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine-binding sites

    The present study demonstrates a differential effect of various detergent treatments on [3H]Ro 5-4864 and [3H]PK 11195 binding to peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites (PBS). Triton X-100 caused a decrease of about 70% in [3H]Ro 5-4864 binding to membranes from various peripheral tissues of rat, but had only a negligible effect on [3H]PK 11195 binding. A similar effect of Triton X-100 was observed on guinea pig and rabbit kidney membranes. The decrease in [3H]Ro 5-4864 binding after treatment with Triton X-100 was apparently due to a decrease in the density of PBS, since the affinity remained unaltered. The detergents 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS), Tween 20, deoxycholic acid, or digitonin (0.0125%) caused only a minor change in [3H]Ro 5-4864 and [3H]PK 11195 binding to rat kidney membranes; but when concentrations were substantially increased (0.1%), all detergents caused a decrease of at least 50% in [3H]Ro 5-4864 binding, while [3H]PK 11195 binding to rat kidney membranes remained unaffected by the first three detergents, with only a minor decrease (15%) after treatment with digitonin

  10. Size determination of binding polymers for (/sup 3/H)imipramine and (/sup 3/H)paroxetine in human platelet membranes

    Mellerup, E.T.; Plenge, P. (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Nielsen, M. (Sct. Hans Mental Hospital, Roskilde (Denmark))

    1984-11-13

    Imipramine and paroxetine both inhibit the transport of serotonin in serotonergic neurons and in platelets; furthermore specific high affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)imipramine and (/sup 3/H)paroxetine are located in these two cell types, probably on the serotonin transport mechanism. However, previous studies indicated that the binding site for (/sup 3/H)imipramine was different from the binding site for (/sup 3/H)paroxetine. The authors report that the polymers on which the two binding sites are located have different molecular weights.

  11. Parkinson's disease: decreased density of /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-paroxetine binding sites in putamen

    Raisman, R.; Cash, R.; Agid, Y.

    1986-04-01

    The density of high-affinity /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-paroxetine binding sites (two serotonin-uptake blockers) was decreased in the putamen of parkinsonian patients. The correlation between serotonin levels and the number of /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-paroxetine binding sites suggests that they are located on serotoninergic nerve terminals and could be used to study serotoninergic innervation in the human brain. Since imipramine and paroxetine are powerful antidepressants, these results furthermore suggest that decreased serotoninergic transmission may be implicated in the pathophysiology of depression in Parkinson's disease.

  12. Ethanol intake and sup 3 H-serotonin uptake II: A study in alcoholic patients using platelets sup 3 H-paroxetine binding

    Daoust, M.; Boucly, P. (U.F.R. de Medecine et Pharmacie, Saint Etienne du Rouvrary (France)); Ernouf, D. (Institut du Medicament, Tours (France)); Breton, P. (Centre National de Transfusion Sanguine de Rouen (France)); Lhuintre, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of {sup 3}H-paroxetine binding and {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied in platelets of alcoholic patients. There was no difference between alcoholic and non alcoholic subjects in {sup 3}H-paroxetine binding. When binding and {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied, in the same plasma of the same subjects, the Vmax of serotonin uptake was increased in alcoholics. The data confirm the involvement of serotonin uptake system in alcohol dependance and suggest that serotonin uptake and paroxetine binding sites may be regulated independently in this pathology.

  13. High pressure oxidation of C2H4/NO mixtures

    Giménez-López, J.; Alzueta, M.U.; Rasmussen, C.T.;

    2011-01-01

    An experimental and kinetic modeling study of the interaction between C2H4 and NO has been performed under flow reactor conditions in the intermediate temperature range (600–900K), high pressure (60bar), and for stoichiometries ranging from reducing to oxidizing conditions. The main reaction...... reaction HOCH2CH2OO+NO→CH2OH+CH2O+NO2, which pushes a complex system of partial equilibria towards products. This is a confirmation of the findings of Doughty et al. [3] for a similar system at atmospheric pressure. Under reducing conditions and temperatures above 700K, a significant fraction of the NOx is...... pathways of the C2H4/O2/NOx conversion, the capacity of C2H4 to remove NO, and the influence of the presence of NOx on the C2H4 oxidation are analyzed. Compared to the C2H4/O2 system, the presence of NOx shifts the onset of reaction 75–150K to lower temperatures. The mechanism of sensitization involves the...

  14. Phase transitions in the ferroelastic [C5H10NH2]SbCl6

    Pietraszko, A.; Bednarska-Bolek, B.; Jakubas, R.; Zielinski, P.

    2001-07-01

    A new piperidinium chloroantimonate-(V) analogue, (C5H10NH2)SbCl6 has been studied by means of single-crystal x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal expansion and dielectric techniques. It undergoes three solid-solid state phase transitions: at 363 K first order (from Cmcm (phase I) to Cc (phase II)), at 310 K second order (from Cc to P1 (phase III)) and at 283 K first order (from P1 to P21/m (phase IV)). The crystal structure of (C5H10NH2)SbCl6 has been solved at 293 K (phase III) and at 338 K (phase II). It consists of isolated SbCl-6 anions and piperidinium cations. The ferroelastic domain structure appears below 363 K. Group theoretical analysis of phase transitions is presented.

  15. Phase transitions in the ferroelastic [C5H10NH2]SbCl6

    A new piperidinium chloroantimonate-(V) analogue, (C5H10NH2)SbCl6 has been studied by means of single-crystal x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal expansion and dielectric techniques. It undergoes three solid-solid state phase transitions: at 363 K first order (from Cmcm (phase I) to Cc (phase II)), at 310 K second order (from Cc to P1 (phase III)) and at 283 K first order (from P1 to P21/m (phase IV)). The crystal structure of (C5H10NH2)SbCl6 has been solved at 293 K (phase III) and at 338 K (phase II). It consists of isolated SbCl-6 anions and piperidinium cations. The ferroelastic domain structure appears below 363 K. Group theoretical analysis of phase transitions is presented. (author)

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain Nissle 1917 (Serovar O6:K5:H1)

    Cress, Brady F.; Linhardt, Robert J.; Koffas, Mattheos A. G.

    2013-01-01

    We announce the availability of the 5.023-Mbp high-quality draft assembly of the Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (serovar O6:K5:H1) genome. Short genomic segments from this important probiotic strain have been available in public databases, but the full genome sequence has remained inaccessible. Thus, high-coverage, whole genome sequencing of E. coli Nissle 1917 is presented herein. Reannotation and metabolic reconstruction will enable comparative genomics analysis and model-guided predic...

  17. Effects of several cerebroprotective drugs on NMDA channel function: evaluation using Xenopus oocytes and [3H]MK-801 binding.

    Kaneko, S; Sugimura, M; Inoue, T; Satoh, M

    1991-06-19

    The effects of several cerebroprotective and nootropic drugs on the function of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus oocytes after injection of rodent brain poly(A)+ mRNA were investigated. The oocyte response to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in the presence of glycine (Gly) was inhibited dose-dependently by bifemelane, indeloxazine, vinpocetine and vincamine while no effect was observed by idebenone, Ca hopantenate, aniracetam or piracetam. Bifemelane, indeloxazine and vinpocetine suppressed the maximum response of NMDA and Gly without affecting their EC50 values. Unlike Mg2+, they did not affect the current-voltage relationship of the NMDA response below 0 mV. On the non-NMDA-type responses of the injected oocytes to kainate (KA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) and quisqualate (QA), no significant effects were observed by these drugs at 100 microM. On the binding of [3H](+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imi ne (MK-801) to brain membranes, the estimated IC50 values were 88 microM for bifemelane, 102 microM for indeloxazine, and 115 microM for vinpocetine. The dissociation rate of [3H]MK-801 was significantly slowed by Zn2+ and vinpocetine, but not affected by bifemelane or indeloxazine. The Kd value for [3H]MK-801 binding was increased by bifemelane and indeloxazine while Bmax was unchanged. These results suggest that the inhibition of NMDA channels by vinpocetine shows a similarity to the action of Zn2+ which closes the gate of the NMDA channel. In contrast, bifemelane and indeloxazine may affect the phencyclidine (PCP)-site in the open channels and inhibit NMDA function. PMID:1652446

  18. sigma opiates and certain antipsychotic drugs mutually inhibit (+)-[3H]SKF 10,047 and [3H]haloperidol binding in guinea pig brain membranes

    The relationship between binding of antipsychotic drugs and sigma psychotomimetic opiates to binding sites for the sigma agonist (+)-[3H]SKF 10,047 (N-allylnormetazocine) and to dopamine D2 sites was investigated. In guinea pig brain membranes, (+)-[3H]SKF 10,047 bound to single class of sites with a K/sub d/ of 4 x 10-8 M and a B/sub max/ of 333 fmol/mg of protein. This binding was different from μ, kappa, or delta opiate receptor binding. It was inhibited by opiates that produce psychotomimetic activities but not by opiates that lack such activities. Some antipsychotic drugs inhibited (+)-[3H]SKF 10,047 binding with high to moderate affinities in the following order of potency: haloperidol > perphenazine > fluphenazine > acetophenazine > trifluoperazine > molindone greater than or equal to pimozide greater than or equal to thioridazine greater than or equal to chlorpromazine greater than or equal to triflupromazine. However, there were other antipsychotic drugs such as spiperone and clozapine that showed low affinity for the (+)-[3H]SKF 10,047 binding sites. Affinities of antipsychotic drugs for (+)-[3H]SKF 10,047 binding sites did not correlate with those for [3H]spiperone (dopamine D2) sites. [3H]-Haloperidol binding in whole brain membranes was also inhibited by the sigma opiates pentazocine, cyclazocine, and (+)-[3H]SKF 10,047. In the striatum, about half of the saturable [3H]haloperidol binding was to [3H]spiperone (D2) sites and the other half was to sites similar to (+)-[3H]SKF 10,047 binding sites. 15 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  19. Temperature Dependent Product Yields for the Spin Forbidden Singlet Channel of the C(3P) + C2H2 Reaction

    Hickson, Kevin M; Wakelam, Valentine

    2016-01-01

    The atomic hydrogen formation channels of the C + C2H2 reaction have been investigated using a continuous supersonic flow reactor over the 52 K 296 K temperature range. H-atoms were detected directly at 121.567 nm by vacuum ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence. Absolute H-atom yields were determined by comparison with the H-atom signal generated by the C + C2H4 reaction. The product yields agree with earlier crossed beam experiments employing universal detection methods. Incorporating these branching ratios in a gas-grain model of dense interstellar clouds increases the cC3H abundance. This reaction is a minor source of C3 containing molecules in the present simulations.

  20. N2H+ Observations of Molecular Cloud Cores in Taurus

    Tatematsu, K; Umemoto, T; Kandori, R.; Y. Sekimoto

    2004-01-01

    N2H+ observations of molecular cloud cores in Taurus with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope are reported. We compare ``cores with young stars'' with ``cores without young stars''. The differences in core radius, linewidth, and core mass are small. Linewidth is dominated by thermal motions in both cases. N2H+ maps show that the intensity distribution does not differ much between cores without stars and those with stars. This is in contrast to the result previously obtained in H13CO+ toward Tau...

  1. Binding of [3H]ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate to brain benzodiazepine receptors

    It is reported that in contrast to the changes in affinity of [3H]benzodiazepines elicited by halide ions, barbiturates, and pyrazolopyridines, the apparent affinity of β-[3H]CCE (ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate) is unaffected by these agents. Furthermore, Scatchard analysis of β-[3H]CCE binding to cerebral cortical and cerebellar membranes revealed a significantly greater number of binding sites than was observed with either [3H]diazepam or [3H]flunitazepam, suggesting that at low concentrations benzodiazepines selectively label a subpopulation of the receptors labelled with β-[3H]CCE. Alternatively, β-[3H]CCE may bind to sites that are distinct from those labelled with [3H]-benzodiazepines. (Auth.)

  2. A Cu (NO3)2.3H2O catalysed facile synthesis of substituted 4(3H)-quinazolinones and benzimidazoles

    G A N K Durgareddy; R Ravikumar; S Ravi; Srinivas R Adapa

    2013-01-01

    One pot synthesis of alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl mono(2)substituted 4(3H)-quinazolinones and 2-aryl or heteroaryl, 1-arylmethyl or heteroarylmethyl -1H-benzimidazoles using a water soluble Cu (NO3)2.3H2O catalyst at room/ambient temperature in excellent yield.

  3. The crystal structure of Yb2(SO4)3.3H2O and its decomposition product, β-Yb2(SO4)3

    Yb2(SO4)3.3H2O, synthesised by hydrothermal methods at 220(2) deg. C, has been investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Yb2(SO4)3.3H2O crystallises in space group Cmc21 and is isostructural with Lu2(SO4)3.3H2O. The crystal structure has been refined to R1=0.0145 for 3412 reflections [Fo>3σ(F)], and 0.0150 for all 3472 reflections. The structure of Yb2(SO4)3.3H2O is a complex framework of YbO6 octahedra, YbO8 and YbO5(H2O)3 polyhedra and SO4 tetrahedra. Thermal data shows that Yb2(SO4)3.3H2O decomposes between 120 and 190 deg. C to form β-Yb2(SO4)3. The structure of a twinned crystal of β-Yb2(SO4)3 was solved and refined using an amplimode refinement in R3c with an R1=0.0755 for 8944 reflections [Fo>3σ(F)], and 0.1483 for all 16,361 reflections. β-Yb2(SO4)3 has a unique structural topology based on a 3D network of pinwheels. - Graphical abstract: Octahedral-tetrahedral linkages found in Y2(SO4)3 [and Er2(SO4)3] and ss-Yb2(SO4)3. Highlights: → The crystal structure and decomposition reactions of Yb2(SO4)3.3H2O. → The crystal structure of a twinned crystal of β-Yb2(SO4)3. → Comparison of the structures of β-Yb2(SO4)3 and Y2(SO4)3.

  4. The effects of surgical and chemical lesions on striatal [3H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate binding: correlation with [3H]dopamine uptake

    The specific binding of [3H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate to membranes prepared from rat striatum was significantly reduced following either surgical lesions of the medial forebrain bundle or intracerebroventricular administration of 6-hydroxydopamine. The decrease in the density of [3H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate binding sites in striatum following chemical or surgical denervation was highly correlated with the decrease in [3H]dopamine uptake. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, AF64A, or chronic parenteral administration of reserpine did not alter either the number or apparent affinity of [3H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate binding sites. These data suggest that the specific binding sites for [3H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate in striatum are localized to dopaminergic nerve terminals, and may be associated with the dopamine transport complex. (orig.)

  5. Effects of surgical and chemical lesions on striatal (/sup 3/H)threo-(+-)-methylphenidate binding: correlation with (/sup 3/H)dopamine uptake

    Janowsky, A.; Berger, P.; Long, R.; Paul, S.M. (National Inst. of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Schweri, M.M.; Skolnick, P. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1985-01-22

    The specific binding of (/sup 3/H)threo-(+-)-methylphenidate to membranes prepared from rat striatum was significantly reduced following either surgical lesions of the medial forebrain bundle or intracerebroventricular administration of 6-hydroxydopamine. The decrease in the density of (/sup 3/H)threo-(+-)-methylphenidate binding sites in striatum following chemical or surgical denervation was highly correlated with the decrease in (/sup 3/H)dopamine uptake. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, AF64A, or chronic parenteral administration of reserpine did not alter either the number or apparent affinity of (/sup 3/H)threo-(+-)-methylphenidate binding sites. These data suggest that the specific binding sites for (/sup 3/H)threo-(+-)-methylphenidate in striatum are localized to dopaminergic nerve terminals, and may be associated with the dopamine transport complex.

  6. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 5H-Chromenopyridines as Potential Anti-Cancer Agents

    Souvik Banerjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of 5H-chromenopyridines was identified as anticancer agents in our continuing effort to discover and develop new small molecule anti-proliferative agents. Based on our initial lead SP-6-27 compound, we designed and synthesized novel tricyclic 5H-thiochromenopyridine and 5H-chromenopyridine analogs to evaluate the impact of an additional ring, as well as conformational flexibility on cytotoxic activity against human melanoma and glioma cell lines. All of the 5H-thiochromenopyridines have been achieved in good yields (89%–93% using a single-step, three-component cyclization without the need for purification. The 5H-chromenopyridine analog of the potent 5H-thiochromenopyride was obtained in a good yield upon purification. All newly-prepared 5H-thiochromenopyridines showed good to moderate cytotoxicity against three melanoma and two glioma cell lines (3–15 μM. However, the 5H-chromenopyridine analogue that we prepared in our laboratory lost cytotoxic activity. The moderate cytotoxic activity of 5H-thiochromenopyridines shows the promise of developing chromenopyridines as potential anticancer agents.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain Nissle 1917 (Serovar O6:K5:H1).

    Cress, Brady F; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2013-01-01

    We announce the availability of the 5.023-Mbp high-quality draft assembly of the Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (serovar O6:K5:H1) genome. Short genomic segments from this important probiotic strain have been available in public databases, but the full genome sequence has remained inaccessible. Thus, high-coverage, whole genome sequencing of E. coli Nissle 1917 is presented herein. Reannotation and metabolic reconstruction will enable comparative genomics analysis and model-guided predictions of genetic manipulations leading to increased production of the K5 capsular polysaccharide known as N-acetyl heparosan, a precursor to the anticoagulant pharmaceutical heparin. PMID:23516190

  8. Molecular Structural and Properties of 3-chloro-4 (dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2 [5H] -furanone (MX)

    李欣; 龙运前; 齐晶瑶; 王郁萍

    2004-01-01

    3 - chloro - 4 (dichloromethyl) - 5 - hydroxy - 2 [5H] - furanone (MX) formed during chlorination of water containing natural organic substances, is a very potent bacterial mutgen. Molecular mechanics calculations to evaluate the conformation of structure, and to determine structure relationship properties are put forward. The investigations allow the correlation of molecular structures of MX with its properties, such as mass,partial charges, steric energy, frontier molecular orbital. The VRML molecular models have been investigated using Virtual Reality software. The spectral simulation of MX is illustrated. The principal aim is to develop an efficient method which control of MX.

  9. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1986-01-01

    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation. PMID:3000830

  10. The thermal dissociation of LaFe(CN)6.5H2O

    At atmospheric pressure the hexagonal LaFe(CN)6.5H2O looses the first H2O molecule near 700C. This first-order transition to the orthorhombic phase is accompanied by a marked volume jump. After a gradual loss of another two H2O molecules the orthorhombic structure collapses. An intermediate structure, existing between 140 and 1600C, transforms back to a hexagonal structure from which the last H2O molecule gradually moves out. Finally, the water-free cyanide disintegrates near 2500C and above 5500C the diffraction lines of LaFeO3 appear

  11. Search for the isomers of C2H3NO and C2H3NS in the Interstellar Medium

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    With about 40% of all the known interstellar and circumstellar molecules having their isomeric analogues as known astromolecules, isomerism remains one of the leading themes in interstellar chemistry. In this regard, the recent detection of methyl isocyanate (with a number of isomeric analogues) in the Sgr B2(N) giant molecular cloud opens a new window for the possible astronomical detection of other C_2H_3NO isomers. The present work looks at the possibility of detecting other isomers of methyl isocyanate by considering different factors such as thermodynamic stability of the different isomers with respect to the Energy, Stability and Abundance (ESA) relationship, effect of interstellar hydrogen bonding with respect to the formation these isomers on the surface of the interstellar dust grains, possible formation routes for these isomers, spectroscopic parameters for potential astromolecules among these isomers, chemical modeling among other studies. The same studies are repeated for the C_2H_3NS isomers which are the isoelectroninc analogues of the C_2H_3NO isomers taking into account the unique chemistry of S and O-containing interstellar molecular species. Among the C_2H_3NS isomers, methyl isothiocyanate remains the most potential candidate for astronomical observation.

  12. Photoaffinity labeling of [3H]flunitrazepam- and [3H]Ro15-4513-bound pellets in rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum

    Irreversible incorporation of [3H]flunitrazepam and [3H]Ro15-4513 into GABA/benzodiazepine receptor subunits was studied by UV/irradiation using ligand-bound membrane pellets from rat cerebral cortical and cerebellar synaptic membranes. Specific incorporation for [3H]flunitrazepam was greater in the pellet than in the suspension. The incorporation was identical for [3H]Ro15-4513 in both pellet and suspension. With the ligand-bound pellets, 50% of the available binding sites were photolabeled by both ligands in cortex and cerebellum. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of [3H]flunitrazepam photo-labeled receptor revealed the same number of major sites in both brain regions. In contrast, [3H]Ro15-4513 appears to label fewer sites in cortex and cerebellum. Photoaffinity labeling with [3H]flunitrazepam in ligand-bound membrane pellet provides a more selective and reliable method for studying the subunit structure of GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex

  13. Alterations in [3H] thymidine incorporation into DNA and [3H] uridine incorporation into RNA induced by 5-azacytidine in vivo

    Administration in vivo 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR) caused suppression of [3H] thymidine ([3H]TdR) incorporation into DNA of bone marrow and gastrointestinal mucosa of mice and a more prolonged suppression of L1210 ascites tumor. Single doses of 5-aza-CR caused a modest and short-lived suppression of incorporation of [3H] uridine ([3H]UR) into nuclear RNA of L1210 ascites tumor cells. No suppression of [3H]UR incorporation into RNA of bone marrow or gastrointestinal mucosa was observed. L1210 tumor cells resistant to the other active cytidine analogue, cytosine arabinoside, demonstrated less disruption of [3H]TdR incorporation after exposure to 5-aza-CR, suggesting some cross resistance in the effects of these two drugs on DNA synthesis. Survival studies carried out in mice bearing both the sensitive and resistant L1210 tumor cell lines confirmed cross resistance of the anti-tumor effects of the two cytidine analogues. Second doses of 5-aza-CR, with the timing of administration based upon the differing patterns of recovery of [3H]TdR incorporation between normal tissues and tumor cells, led to a prolongation of survival in mice bearing the sensitive L1210 ascites tumor. (author)

  14. The H{sup +}{sub 3} + H{sub 2} isotopic system. Origin of deuterium astrochemistry

    Hugo, Edouard Jean-Marie

    2008-07-01

    Dense cold molecular clouds reckoned to be stellar nurseries are the scene of an extreme molecular deuteration. Despite the cosmic D/H ratio of {proportional_to}10{sup -5}, molecular species in prestellar cores are observed to contain nearly as much deuterium as hydrogen. This astonishing deuterium enrichment promoted by low temperatures is the work of H{sup +}{sub 3}. It is the key species which unlocks the deuterium from its HD reservoir via reactions like H{sup +}{sub 3}+HD {r_reversible} H{sub 2}D{sup +}+H{sub 2} and drags it further to other species in successive reactions. For this reason, the H{sup +}{sub 3}+H{sub 2} isotopic system is outstandingly critical for the astrochemistry of cold environments. However, its understanding is yet incomplete and insufficient. This thesis thus focuses on the H{sup +}{sub 3}+H{sub 2} isotopic system from a theoretical, experimental and astronomical point of view giving a particular look into the role of nuclear spins. As a first step, the stringent nuclear spin selection rules in associative, dissociative and reactive collisions are investigated. This purely theoretical study zooms into the details of the nuclear spin wavefunctions and shows that their permutation symmetry representation is necessary and sufficient, contrary to their angular momentum representation. Additionally, a new deterministic interpretation of nuclear spins in chemical reactions is proposed. Based on these considerations, a complete set of state-to-state rate coefficients for all H{sup +}{sub 3} + H{sub 2} isotopic variants is calculated using a microcanonical model leaned on phase space theory. An experimental study is conducted in parallel with a 22-pole ion trap apparatus in order to inspect the influences of temperature and H{sub 2} ortho-to-para ratio. The good overall agreement between experimental and theoretical results supports the validity and utility of the calculated set of rate coefficients. Furthermore, the potentiality of the 22-pole

  15. Nicotinic binding in rat brain: autoradiographic comparison of [3H]acetylcholine, [3H]nicotine, and [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin

    Three radioligands have been commonly used to label putative nicotinic cholinoceptors in the mammalian central nervous system: the agonists [3H]nicotine and [3H]acetylcholine ([3H]ACh--in the presence of atropine to block muscarinic receptors), and the snake venom extract, [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin([125I]BTX), which acts as a nicotinic antagonist at the neuromuscular junction. Binding studies employing brain homogenates indicate that the regional distributions of both [3H]nicotine and [3H]ACh differ from that of [125I]BTX. The possible relationship between brain sites bound by [3H]nicotine and [3H]ACh has not been examined directly. The authors have used the technique of autoradiography to produce detailed maps of [3H]nicotine, [3H]ACh, and [125I]BTX labeling; near-adjacent tissue sections were compared at many levels of the rat brain. The maps of high affinity agonist labeling are strikingly concordant, with highest densities in the interpeduncular nucleus, most thalamic nuclei, superior colliculus, medial habenula, presubiculum, cerebral cortex (layers I and III/IV), and the substantia nigra pars compacta/ventral tegmental area. The pattern of [125I]BTX binding is strikingly different, the only notable overlap with agonist binding being the cerebral cortex (layer I) and superior colliculus. [125I]BTX binding is also dense in the inferior colliculus, cerebral cortex (layer VI), hypothalamus, and hippocampus, but is virtually absent in thalamus. Various lines of evidence suggest that the high affinity agonist-binding sites in brain correspond to nicotinic cholinergic receptors similar to those found at autonomic ganglia; BTX-binding sites may also serve as receptors for nicotine and are possibly related to neuromuscular nicotinic cholinoceptors

  16. 3H-radioactivity measurement in the rat kidney after single injection of folic acid and continuous infusion of 3H-Thymidine

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single i.v. injection of folic acid. Immediately afterwards, continuous intravenous infusion of 3H-Thymidine has been started. The animals have been sacrified after 0.5 up to 10.0 days for determination of the vital weight of the kidneys, of the wet weight of kidney sections (thickness 20 μ) after removal of the paraffine coat, and of the radioactivity per dry weight unit of the kidney in the 20 μ kidney section after residue-free incineration of tissue. The radioactivity per total kidney and the percentage of 3H-Thymidine radioactivity utilized by the whole kidney in relation to the infused 3H-Thymidine radioactivity have been calculated. The various data have been compared with results obtained by autoradiographic investigations on the same model under fully identical conditions. Excellent agreement has been found between the autoradiographically obtained curves of the 3H-Thymidine labelling indices in the epithelium and in the mesenchyma of the kidney on the one hand and the curves of the 3H-Radioactivity per dry weight unit of the kidney on the other. The method of sample preparation applied largely excludes unwanted 'radioactive contamination', so that the 3H-Thymidine radioactivity measurements in agreement with the autoradiographic data can be assumed to show an incorporation of 3H-Thymidine into newly developed DNA. The percentages of 3H-Thymidine radioactivity utilized by the kidney in relation to the quantity of infused 3H-Thymidine radioactivity are almost constant during folic acid induced proliferation. The strong decline in radioactivity per dry weight unit between 3.0 and 3.5 days coincides with the occurrence of blackened, desquamated tubulus epithelia in the tubular lumen which became necrotic, and with the simultaneous occurrence of radioactively labelled, monocytic cells in the blood. These phenomena are related to the cell loss. (orig./MG)

  17. Study of the system: Lu(NO3)3-Rb2CO3-H2O

    The interaction in the Lu(NO3)3-Rb2CO3-H2O system at 25 deg C and molar relation (R)CO32-:Lu3+=0.5-20 is studied by the method of residual concentrations. From the data on chemical analysis it follows that depending on the R value three compounds are consequently formed in the system: Lu2(CO3)3x3H2O(1) (R=0.5-20); Rb(Lu(CO3)2)x2H2O(2) (R=2.5-5.0); Rb3(Lu(CO3)3))x6H2O(3) (R=3-10). The first two compounds are the precipitates, and the latter is the well-soluble salt. Thermal decomposition of compound 2 proceeds through stages of step-by-step dehydration in the 20-200 deg C interval and decarbonization (200-520 deg C) with Rb2OxLu2O3 formation

  18. Sandwich SrTiO3/TiO2/H-Titanate nanofiber composite photocatalysts for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SrTiO3/TiO2/H-titanate nanofiber composites with sandwich heterojunctions are prepared. • Sandwich heterojunctions largely improves the charge separation efficiency. • Photo-excited electrons exclusively transfer to photocatalytically active TiO2 component. • Sandwich composites are most active in the photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction. • Multi-heterojunctions strategy is proposed for efficient photocatalysts. - Abstract: SrTiO3/TiO2/H-Titanate nanofiber composites were synthesized through facile thermal treatment of Sr(OH)2 and H-titanate nanofibers in an ethanol/water solution and their photocatalytic activities for H2 evolution from a methanol/water solution under simulated solar irradiation were evaluated. TiO2/H-titanate nanofiber composites were acquired without Sr(OH)2 addition. At low Sr/Ti molar ratios, SrTiO3/TiO2/H-titanate nanofiber composites form. SrTiO3 nanoparticles were found to selectively grow on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles, forming a unique SrTiO3-TiO2-H-titanate sandwich heterojunction. Upon increasing the Sr/Ti molar ratio, the fraction of TiO2 in the resultant composites decreases and eventually SrTiO3/H-titanate nanofiber composites form. SrTiO3/TiO2/H-titanate nanofiber composites are significantly more photocatalytically active than SrTiO3/H-titanate nanofiber and TiO2/H-titanate nanofiber composites due to the mitigated charge recombination and the accumulation of photo-excited electrons on the photocatalytically active TiO2 component. These results demonstrate an effective strategy of multi-heterojunctions with both appropriately-aligned band structures and appropriately-arranged composite structures to fabricate efficient composite photocatalysts

  19. Hydrocalcite (CaCO3 * H2O) and Nesquehonite (MgCO3 * 3H2O) in Carbonate Scales.

    Marschner, H

    1969-09-12

    Hydrocalcite (CaCO(3) * H(2)O) with exactly one molecule of hydrate water is the main component of carbonate scales deposited from cold water in contact with air. When the magnesium content of the water is high, the hydrocalcite occurs together with MgCO(3) * 3H(2)O (nesquehonite). From the conditions under which hydrocalcite is transformed into calcite and aragonite, it appears that in some cases aragonite in nature may be formed by way of an intermediary of CaCO(3) * H(2)O. PMID:17779803

  20. The synthesis of 3H-putrescine and subsequent biosynthesis of 3H-jacobine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Senecio jacobaea

    A new method was developed for the preparation of tritiated putrescine dihydrochloride ([2,3-3H]-1,4-diaminobutane dihydro-chloride) from succinonitrile (1,4-butanedinitrile) and 3H2O, with a radiochemical yield of 16%. Tritiated jacobine and other pyrrolizidine alkaloids were then biosynthesized in Senecio jacobaea using 3H-putrescine-2HCl as the precursor with a radiochemical yield of 0.9% into total pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Jacobine accounted for 36% of the total. This synthetic method provides a relatively inexpensive source for the preparation of these labelled compounds. (author)

  1. Incorporation of [3H]Leucine and [3H]Valine into Protein of Freshwater Bacteria: Uptake Kinetics and Intracellular Isotope Dilution

    Jørgensen, Niels O. G.

    1992-01-01

    Incorporation of [3H]leucine and [3H]valine into proteins of freshwater bacteria was studied in two eutrophic lakes. Incorporation of both amino acids had a saturation level of about 50 nM external concentration. Only a fraction of the two amino acids taken up was used in protein synthesis. At 100 nM, the bacteria respired 91 and 78% of leucine and valine taken up, respectively. Respiration of 3H and 14C isotopes of leucine gave similar results. Most of the nonrespired leucine was recovered i...

  2. Ferroelectric properties of [4-NH2C5H4NH][SbCl4

    Jakubas, R.; Ciunik, Z.; Bator, G.

    2003-01-01

    A ferroelectric crystal [4-NH2C5H4NH][SbCl4] has been synthesized. The x-ray diffraction studies indicate that it is made of polyanionic chains of (SbCl-4)n forming a tunnel-like structure and the 4-aminopyridinium cations connected via weak hydrogen bonds to the chlorine atoms. The x-ray and differential scanning calorimetry studies show that the crystal undergoes a complex sequence of phase transitions: P21/c↔240/245 K(Cc)CcC2/cC2/c. The pyroelectric measurements reveal that [4-NH2C5H4NH][SbCl4] becomes ferroelectric below 270.5 K with the spontaneous polarization of the order of 3.5 mC/m2 measured along the [102] direction. The dielectric results confirm the order-disorder nature of the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition. The dynamics of the 4-aminopyridinium cations plays an essential role in the ferroelectric phase transition mechanism.

  3. Ferroelectric properties of [4-NH2C5H4NH][SbCl4

    A ferroelectric crystal [4-NH2C5H4NH][SbCl4] has been synthesized. The x-ray diffraction studies indicate that it is made of polyanionic chains of (SbCl4-)n forming a tunnel-like structure and the 4-aminopyridinium cations connected via weak hydrogen bonds to the chlorine atoms. The x-ray and differential scanning calorimetry studies show that the crystal undergoes a complex sequence of phase transitions: P21/c(subform(↔))(lim((bu(240/245 K))))(Cc)(subform(↔))top-tag(248.5/250 K)top-tagCc(subform(↔))top-tag(270.5/271 K)top-tagC2/c(subform(↔))top-tag(304/304 K)top-tagC2/c. The pyroelectric measurements reveal that [4-NH2C5H4NH][SbCl4] becomes ferroelectric below 270.5 K with the spontaneous polarization of the order of 3.5 mC/m2 measured along the [102] direction. The dielectric results confirm the order-disorder nature of the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition. The dynamics of the 4-aminopyridinium cations plays an essential role in the ferroelectric phase transition mechanism

  4. Ferroelectric properties of (C5H5NH)5Bi2Br11

    Jóźków, J.; Jakubas, R.; Bator, G.; Pietraszko, A.

    2001-04-01

    A new pyridinium compound, (C5H5NH)5Bi2Br11, has been synthesized. The x-ray diffraction studies indicate that its structure is built up of four independent pyridinium cations and isolated Bi2Br115- groups. At room temperature it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n. Two phase transitions of second- and first-order type are detected by the differential scanning calorimetry measurements at 118 and 405/403 K (on heating-cooling), respectively. The corresponding anomalies in the linear thermal expansion at 118 and 405 K are observed along three crystallographic directions. The dielectric investigations reveal dielectric absorption and dispersion in the radio-frequency region. The experimental results were analyzed on the basis of dielectric formula which represents the sum of two independent relaxators. The pyroelectric measurements reveal that (C5H5NH)5Bi2Br11 becomes ferroelectric below 118 K and is characterized by the appearance of spontaneous polarization of the order of 3ṡ10-3 C/m2 along the b axis.

  5. Study on delayed cracking of conductive notch under electric field in PZT-5H ferroelectric ceramics

    QIAO Guangli; SU Yanjing; QIAO Lijie; CHU Wuyang

    2006-01-01

    Electric-field-induced delay cracking of conducting notch in PZT-5H ferroelectric ceramics has been studied using a compact specimen with a notch filled in conductive silver paste. The critical electric field that induces instant failure of the PZT-5H specimen is shown to be EF = 14.7(3.2 kV/cm. When an electric field lower than EF, but higher than EDF = 9.9 kV/cm was applied, a micro-crack formed at the conductive notch tip instantly, propagating slowly until the specimen failure. When the electric field was lower than EDF, the micro-crack propagated a short distance, and then stopped. When the electric field was lower than EK=4.9 kV/cm, no cracks formed at the conductive notch tip instantly, however, a delay micro-crack would form and propagate. When the electric field was lower than EDK=2.4 kV/cm, no cracks formed and delay propagation occurred. A model for electric charge emission and concentration at a conductive notch is proposed to explain the delay cracking of conducting notch.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of scorodite and parascorodite (FeAsO4 center dot 2H(2)O), kankite (FeAsO4 center dot 3.5H(2)O), and FeAsO4

    Majzlan, J.; Drahota, P.; Filippi, Michal; Grevel, K.-D.; Kahl, W.-A.; Plášil, J.; Boerio-Goates, J.; Woodfield, B. F.

    117/118, April (2012), s. 47-56. ISSN 0304-386X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : scorodite * ferric arsenates * formation enthalpy * entropy * solubility Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.169, year: 2012

  7. Complexes of ruthenium (4) with nicotinamide and 6-aminonicotinamide. Crystal structure of the complex (HNC5H3NH2)2[RuNOCl5]x2H2O

    Interaction of ruthenium (4) nitrozyl complexes with nicotinamide (NCA) and 6-aminonicotinamide (ANCA) is studied. Dependence of the produced complex character on the ligand nature and sulfur acidity is shown. The complexes are characterised using IRspectroscopy. X-ray structural analysis of complex 1 is performed. Crystals 1 belong to a monoclinic syngony with the following parameters: a=7.153(4), b=15.690(6), c=9.857(3) A. β=97.31(3) deg, sp.gr. P21, Z=2, V=1097.8(9) A3, β(cal)=1.88 g/cm3, R=0.030. The structure is based on isolated octahedral [RuNOCl5]2- anions with Ru-Cleq distances from 2.358(9) to 2.39(1)A, Ru-Clax-2.332(5), Ru-N-1.771(3), N-O-1.15(3) A, RuNO angle-176.50(9) deg. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Crystal structure of 2-[(3aS,6R-3,3,6-trimethyl-3,3a,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-2H-indazol-2-yl]thiazol-4(5H-one

    Abdellah N'ait Ousidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H19N3OS, is a new thiazolidin-4-one derivative prepared and isolated as the pure (3aS,6R-diastereisomer from (R-thiosemicarbazone pulegone. It crystallized with two independent molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit. The compound is composed of a hexhydroindazole ring system (viz. a five-membered dihydropyrazole ring fused to a cyclohexyl ring with a thiazole-4-one ring system attached to one of the pyrazole N atoms (at position 2. The overall geometry of the two molecules differs slightly, with the mean planes of the pyrazole and thiazole rings being inclined to one another by 10.4 (1° in molecule A and 0.9 (1° in molecule B. In the crystal, the A and B molecules are linked via C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to the ab plane. There are C—H...π interactions present within the layers, and between the layers, so forming a three-dimensional structure.

  9. 10-[2-(Dimethylaminoethyl]-9-(4-methoxyphenyl-3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-3,4,6,7,9,10-hexahydroacridine-1,8(2H,5H-dione

    K. Sivakumar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C28H38N2O3, the central ring of the acridinedione system adopts a boat conformation, while one of the outer rings adopts a half-chair conformation and the conformation of the other outer ring is between a sofa and a half-chair. The acridinedione system is buckled, with an angle of 22.01 (3°. The crystal packing comprises layers of molecules laid parallel to the ac plane, being reinforced by an intermolecular C—H...O interaction.

  10. 10-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]-9-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-3,4,6,7,9,10-hexahydroacridine-1,8(2H,5H)-dione

    Sivakumar, K.; Yamin, Bohari M.; Thiagarajan, V.; Jagan, R.; Balamurugan, P.

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C28H38N2O3, the central ring of the acridinedione system adopts a boat conformation, while one of the outer rings adopts a half-chair conformation and the conformation of the other outer ring is between a sofa and a half-chair. The acridinedione system is buckled, with an angle of 22.01 (3)°. The crystal packing comprises layers of molecules laid parallel to the ac plane, being reinforced by an intermolecular C—H...O interaction.

  11. The dependence receptor UNC5H2/B triggers apoptosis via PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of DAP kinase.

    Guenebeaud, Céline; Goldschneider, David; Castets, Marie; Guix, Catherine; Chazot, Guillaume; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Eisenberg-Lerner, Avital; Shohat, Galit; Zhang, Mingjie; Laudet, Vincent; Kimchi, Adi; Bernet, Agnès; Mehlen, Patrick

    2010-12-22

    The UNC5H dependence receptors promote apoptosis in the absence of their ligand, netrin-1, and this is important for neuronal and vascular development and for limitation of cancer progression. UNC5H2 (also called UNC5B) triggers cell death through the activation of the serine-threonine protein kinase DAPk. While performing a siRNA screen to identify genes implicated in UNC5H-induced apoptosis, we identified the structural subunit PR65β of the holoenzyme protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). We show that UNC5H2/B recruits a protein complex that includes PR65β and DAPk and retains PP2A activity. PP2A activity is required for UNC5H2/B-induced apoptosis, since it activates DAPk by triggering its dephosphorylation. Moreover, netrin-1 binding to UNC5H2/B prevents this effect through interaction of the PP2A inhibitor CIP2A to UNC5H2/B. Thus we show here that, in the absence of netrin-1, recruitment of PP2A to UNC5H2/B allows the activation of DAPk via a PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation and that this mechanism is involved in angiogenesis regulation. PMID:21172653

  12. Metabolism of excess methionine in the liver of intact rat: an in vivo 2H NMR study

    L-Methionine is the most toxic amino acid if supplied in excess, and the metabolic basis for this toxicity has been extensively studied, with varying conclusions. It is demonstrated here that in vivo 2H NMR spectroscopy provides a useful approach to the study of the hepatic metabolism of methionine in the anesthetized rat. Resonances corresponding to administered L-[methyl-2H3]methionine, and to the transmethylation product sarcosine, are observed during the first 10-min period after an intravenous injection of the labeled methionine, and the time dependence has been followed for a period of 5 h. A third resonance, assigned to the N-trimethyl groups of carnitine, phosphorylcholine, and other metabolites, becomes observable several hours after administration of the deuteriated methionine. In addition, there is a small increase in the intensity of the HDO resonance over the period of the study, which is interpreted to reflect the ultimate oxidation of the labeled sarcosine methyl group via mitochondrial sarcosine dehydrogenase. Additional small 2H resonances assigned to N1-methylhistidine and creatine could be observed in perchloric acid extracts of the livers of rats treated with the deuteriated methionine. Inhibition of the flux through the transmethylation pathway is observed in the rat pretreated with the S-ethyl analogue of methionine, ethionine. These data provide strong support for the importance of glycine transmethylation in the catabolism of excess methionine

  13. Effect of beta-amino-propionitrile on the regenerating newt limb evaluated by uptake of 3H-proline and 3H-lysine

    Newt forelimbs were unilaterally amputated and Beta-amino propionitrile (BAPN) was added to the water in which the newts were maintained. Sixty-three days after amputation, animals were injected with either 3H-proline or 3H-lysine. Forelimbs distal to the elbow of both amputated and non-amputated sides were removed 72 hours later. Uptake of 3H-proline and 3H-lysine in whole limbs was assessed by liquid scintillation and in cartilage cells and matrix by autoradiography. Amputation was a potent stimulus to both collagen formation and maturation during regeneration. BAPN reduced the stimulatory effect of amputation on collagen formation but not on its maturation. Collagen synthesis and maturation are independent events and, in intact non-regenerating limbs, BAPN adversely affected collagen maturation while collagen synthesis was unaltered

  14. Compounds extracted from Phyllantus and Jatropha elliptica inhibit the binding of [3H]glutamate and [3H]GMP-PNP in rat cerebral cortex membrane.

    Martini, L H; Souza, C R; Marques, P B; Calixto, J B; Yunes, R A; Souza, D O

    2000-02-01

    Glutamate is to be considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter and glutamatergic antagonists present antinoceptive activity. In this study we investigated the effects of the naturally occurring antinociceptive compounds rutin, geraniin and quercetine extracted from Phyllanthus, as well as the diterpene jatrophone, extracted from Jatropha elliptica on the binding of [3H]glutamate and [3H]GMP-PNP [a GTP analogue which binds to extracellular site(s), modulating the glutamatergic transmission] in rat brain membrane. Jatrophone inhibited [3H]glutamate binding and geraniin inhibited [3H]GMP-PNP binding. Quercetine inhibited the binding of both ligands. These results may indicate a neurochemical parameter possibly related to the antinoceptive activity of these natural compounds. PMID:10786704

  15. Preparation of 2'-O-succinyl[8-3H]cGMP and of 2'-O-([2,3-3H]succinyl)cGMP

    The methods are described of the preparation of 2'-O-succinyl[8-3H]cGMP of a molar activity of 416 GBq mmol-1 and 2'-O-([2,3-3H]succinyl)cGMP of a molar activity of 1.722 TBq mmol-1. In tracer tests the effect was studied of molar concentration of succinic anhydride on reaction yield. Also identified were reaction conditions under which the isotopic exchange of tritium in [8-3H]cGMP is limited [2,3-3H]succinic anhydride was prepared by tritiation of maleinic anhydride in anhydrous dioxane catalyzed by 10% Pd/C. (author). 1 fig., 7 tabs., 6 refs

  16. Thermodynamic properties and crystal structure refinement of ferricopiapite, coquimbite, rhomboclase, and Fe2(SO4)3(H2O)5

    Majzlan, J.; Navrotsky, A.; McCleskey, R.B.; Alpers, C.N.

    2006-01-01

    Enthalpies of formation of ferricopiapite [nominally Fe4.67(SO4)6(OH)2 (H2O)20]. coquimbite [Fe2(SO4)3(H2O)9], rhomboclase [(H3O)Fe(SO4)2 (H2O)3], and Fe2(SO4)3(H2O)5 were measured by acid (5 N HCl) solution calorimetry. The samples were characterized by wet chemical analyses and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The refinement of XRD patterns gave lattice parameters, atomic positions, thermal factors, and occupancies of the sites. The calculated formulae differ slightly from the nominal compositions: Fe4.78(SO4)6 (OH)2.34(H2O)20.71 (ferricopiapite), (Fe1.47Al0.53)(SO4)3 (H2O)9.65 (coquimbite), (H3O)1.34Fe(SO4)2.17 (H2O)3.06 (rhomboclase), and Fe2(SO4)3 (H2O)5.03. All thermodynamic data are given per mole of these formulae. The measured standard enthalpies (in kJ/mol) of formation from the elements (crystalline Fe, Al, S, and ideal gases O2 and H2) at T = 298.15 K are -4115.8??4.1 [Fe2(SO4)3 (H2O)5.03], -12045.1??9.2 (ferricopiapite), -5738.4??3.3 (coquimbite), and -3201.1??2.6 (rhomboclase). Standard entropy (S??) was estimated as a sum of entropies of oxide, hydroxide, and sulfate components. The estimated S?? (in J/mol.K) values for the iron sulfates are 488.2 [Fe2(SO4)3 (H2O)5.03], 1449.2 (ferricopiapite), 638.3 (coquimbite), and 380.1 (rhomboclase). The calculated Gibbs free energies of formation (in kJ/mol) are -3499.7??4.2 [Fe2(SO4)3 (H2O)5.03], -10089.8??9.3 (ferricopiapite), -4845.6??3.3 (coquimbite), and -2688.0??2.7 (rhomboclase). These results combined with other available thermodynamic data allow construction of mineral stability diagrams in the FeIII2(SO4)3-FeII SO4-H2O system. One such diagram is provided, indicating that the order of stability of ferric sulfate minerals with decreasing pH in the range of 1.5 to -0.5 is: hydronium jarosite, ferricopiapite, and rhomboclase. ?? 2006 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  17. Lethal Infection of C3H/HeJ and C3H/SCID Mice with an Isolate of Leptospira interrogans Serovar Copenhageni

    Nally, Jarlath E.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Blanco, David R.; Lovett, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain RJ16441, a blood isolate from humans with the severe pulmonary form of leptospirosis, has previously been shown to cause fatal pulmonary hemorrhage in guinea pigs and asymptomatic chronic renal tubular colonization with urinary shedding in rats. In this study, RJ16441 caused lethal infection of both C3H/HeJ and C3H/SCID mice, but no hemorrhagic phenomena were observed.

  18. Mesostructured tin oxide as sensitive material for C(2)H(5)OH sensor.

    Wang, Yu-De; Ma, Chun-Lai; Wu, Xing-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Dan; Li, Heng-De

    2002-07-01

    Mesostructured tin oxide with high specific surface area was synthesized using cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB: CH(3)(CH(2))(15)N(+)(CH(3))(3)Br(-)) as the organic template and hydrous tin chloride (SnCl(4).5H(2)O) and NH(4)OH as the inorganic precursors under acidic conditions at ambient temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and N(2)-sorption isotherms were used to characterize the mesostructured tin oxide that was formed at room temperature as well as calcined at different temperature. The surface area of mesostructured tin oxide calcined at 400 degrees C is 136 m(2) g(-1). The indirect heating sensor using this material as sensitive body was fabricated on an alumna tube with Au electrodes and platinum wires. Electrical and sensing properties of such a sensor were investigated. It was found that the mesostructured tin oxide with high surface area had higher sensitivity to C(2)H(5)OH and selectivity to gasoline than commercial sample of polycrystalline tin(IV) oxide. PMID:18968691

  19. Baclofen (β-p-chlorophenyl-γ-aminobutyric acid) enhances [3H]γ-aminobutyric acid (3H-GABA) release from rat globus pallidus in vitro

    The rat globus pallidus has been investigated as a possible model in which to study pre-synaptic GABA mechanisms in vitro. (+ -)-Baclofen (300μM-1 mM) significantly enhanced the release of radioactivity from superfused slices of rat globus pallidus prelabelled with 3H-GABA in vitro. This releasing action was specific to the (+)-isomer of baclofen. Neither the (-)-isomer nor another neuronal depressant DL-α-upsilon-diaminopimelic acid had any significant effect. The releasing effect of baclofen appeared unrelated to the phenethylamine moiety of its structure as neither β-phenethylamine nor dopamine evoked release of 3H-GABA from pallidal slices. Baclofen increased the efflux of radioactivity from pallidal slices prelabelled with either [3H]β-alanine or 3H diaminobutric acid in vitro. The use of specific glial and neuronal GABA uptake blocking compounds (β-alanine and (+ -)-cis-1,3-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid) did not permit resolution of the elements from which baclofen was evoking [3H]GABA release. Baclofen also inhibited uptake of [3H]GABA into pallidal slices with an IC50 value of 6 x 10-4m. The GABA-like properties of baclofen may be related to the (+)-isomer while non-specific neuronal depressant actions are an effect of the (-)-isomer. The potential of the (+)-isomer as an antipyschotic agent while (-)-baclofen remains the effective antispastic drug free from unwanted side-effects is discussed. (author)

  20. In vitro metabolism of [3H] corticosterone by mammary glands from lactating rats. Isolation and identification of 21-acyl[3H]corticosterone

    [3H] Corticosterone undergoes extensive 21-acylation on incubation with minced mammary glands from lactating rats. A purified 21-acyl [3H] corticosterone fraction was obtained by subjecting extracts of the incubated tissues to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography followed by partitioning between n-heptane/methanol. Mass spectral analysis of the 21-acyl [3H] corticosterone 3,20-dimethoxime and synthetic corticosterone 21-oleate 3,20-dimethoxime suggested identity. Confirmation of the precise nature of the 21-acyl moiety was obtained by isotope dilution analysis of the underivatized radiometabolite with corticosterone 21-oleate. The composition of the 21-acyl [3H] corticosterone fraction was ascertained by isotope dilution analysis with various corticosterone esters. It appears that [3H] corticosterone 21-oleate is a major component of this fraction, representing 80% of the radioactivity; [3H] corticosterone 21-linoleate is a minor component, i.e. 8.6%. It is suggested that bioacylation of corticosterone serves to modulate the biological action of the glucocorticoid hormone on the mammary glands during lactation

  1. Synthesis and structure of [(UO2(OH)(C6NO2H4)(C6NO2H5)

    [(UO2(OH)(C6NO2H4)(C6NO2H5)] (1) monocrystals are synthesized and studied by the method of x-ray diffraction. The compound is crystallized into monoclinic lattice with parameters: space group P21/n, Z=2, a=8.789(1), b=16.635(7), c=9.238(1), β=97.89(1). Basic structural units of the crystal are chains with composition coincidental with composition of compound belonging to crystal-chemical group AM2B2M1 (A=UO22+; M2=OH-, B2 and M1 - molecules of isonicotinic acid or isonicotinate-ions) of uranyl complexes. Reciprocal packing of the chains into three-dimensional skeleton is determined by hydrogen bonds

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Infrared (IR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) study of keto-enol tautomerism of isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one derivatives

    Pires, Diego Arantes Teixeira; Pereira, Wagner Luiz; Teixeira, Róbson Ricardo; Figueroa-Villar, José Daniel; Nascimento, Claudia Jorge do

    2016-06-01

    The keto-enol tautomerism of 3-(2-hydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-6-oxo-cyclohexen-1-yl)isobenzofuran-1(3H-one (1), 3-(2-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (2), 3-(2-hydroxy-4-methyl-6-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (3), 3-(2-hydroxy-5-oxocyclopent-1-enyl)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (4) and 2-(3-oxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl)-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione (5) were investigated. We noticed that for compounds 1 to 4 only the enol form is observed in solid, in solution or in the gas phase. Their tautomeric equilibria are not affected by the solvent, temperature or physical state. Compound 5 was observed in its keto form in solution (NMR) and solid state (IR). The enol species of 5 was also observed upon Mass Spectrometry analysis. These findings were supported by NMR, IR, MS/MS and molecular modeling analyses.

  3. Inelastic incoherent neutron and Raman scattering from the [K1-x(NH4)x]3H(SO4)2 mixed crystals

    Complete text of publication follows. There are known investigations of the vibrational spectrum of K2H(SO4)2 carried out by inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) (1) and Raman scattering (RS) (2). There is interest to study the influence of ammonium ions on the change of vibrational spectra of the (K1-x(NH4)x)3H(SO4)2 mixed crystals. There are presented results of vibrational spectrum study of these crystals obtained by IINS and RS in wide temperature interval for ammonium concentrations x = 0.0, 0.1 and 0.7. (author)

  4. The phonon splitting and anisotropic effect of B2H6 molecular in the C2v minima

    Based on Jahn-Teller effect theory, quantum theory and group theory, the phonon splitting and anisotropic phenomena of the E ⊗e' system for B2H6 molecules with D3h symmetry are studied in the C2v minima. The vibration frequency of the system after Jahn-Teller distortion is calculated using the unitary shift transformation and modified scale transformation, it is found that the doubly degenerate vibration state e' is split into two states and its degeneration is completely lifted because of Jahn-Teller distortion. No matter which of the four C2v minima the system is in, the phonon splitting of the system is completely same. The Jahn-Teller distortion results in that the ground state of the system has lower energy after the distortion than before the distortion, B2H6 molecules will achieve a more stable state after the distortion just for the energy lessening. The phonon splitting is further discussed using group theory in this paper, the discussed results show that the vibration state e' of the system is split into two states respectively with a1 and b2 symmetries under the group C2v. The phonon splitting signifies that the isotropy of B2H6 molecules is destroyed and its anisotropy should appear. (authors)

  5. [3H]-DOB(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine) and [3H] ketanserin label two affinity states of the cloned human 5-hydroxytryptamine2 receptor

    The binding properties of the 5-hydroxytryptamine2 (5-HT2) receptor have been the subject of much interest and debate in recent years. The hallucinogenic amphetamine derivative 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine (DOB) has been shown to bind to a small number of binding sites with properties very similar to [3H]ketanserin-labeled 5-HT2 receptors, but with much higher agonist affinities. Some researchers have interpreted this as evidence for the existence of a new subtype of 5-HT2 receptor (termed 5-HT2A), whereas others have interpreted these data as indicative of agonist high affinity and agonist low affinity states for the 5-HT2 receptor. In this investigation, a cDNA clone encoding the serotonin 5-HT2 receptor was transiently transfected into monkey kidney Cos-7 cells and stably transfected into mouse fibroblast L-M(TK-) cells. In both systems, expression of this single serotonin receptor cDNA led to the appearance of both [3H]DOB and [3H]ketanserin binding sites with properties that matched their binding characteristics in mammalian brain homogenates. Addition of guanosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido) triphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] to this system caused a rightward shift and steepening of agonist competition curves for [3H] ketanserin binding, converting a two-site binding curve to a single low affinity binding state. Gpp(NH)p addition also caused a 50% decrease in the number of high affinity [3H]DOB binding sites, with no change in the dissociation constant of the remaining high affinity states. These data on a single human 5-HT2 receptor cDNA expressed in two different transfection host cells indicate that [3H]DOB and [3H]ketanserin binding reside on the same gene product, apparently interacting with agonist and antagonist conformations of a single human 5-HT2 receptor protein

  6. Highly Enantioselective Construction of Tertiary Thioethers and Alcohols via Phosphine-Catalyzed Asymmetric γ-Addition reactions of 5H-Thiazol-4-ones and 5H-Oxazol-4-ones: Scope and Mechanistic Understandings

    Wang, Tianli

    2015-06-02

    Phosphine-catalyzed highly enantioselective γ-additions of 5H-thiazol-4-ones and 5H-oxazol-4-ones to allenoates have been developed for the first time. With the employment of amino-acid derived bifunctional phosphines, a wide range of substituted 5H-thiazol-4-one and 5H-oxazol-4-one derivatives bearing heteroarom (S or O)-containing tertiary chiral centers were constructed in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. The reported method provides a facile access to enantioenriched tertiary thioether/alcohols. The mechanism of γ-addition reaction was investigated by performing DFT calculations, and the hydrogen bonding interactions between the Brønsted acid moiety of the phosphine catalysts and the “C=O” unit of donor molecules were shown to be crucial in asymmetric induction.

  7. Specificity of the activation of [3H]hemicholinium-3 binding by phospholipase A2

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) treatment has been shown previously to stimulate the sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake system as assessed by both the specific binding of [3H]hemicholinium-3 ([ 3H]HCh-3) and the uptake of [3H]choline. In the present study, the specificity of PLA2-induced stimulation upon [3H]HCh-3 binding has been examined. PLA2, as well as phospholipase C (PLC), treatment of synaptic membranes produced a dose-dependent increase in the specific binding of [3H]HCh-3 whereas neither phospholipase B nor phospholipase D had any effect. PLC-induced stimulation of [3H]HCh-3 binding resulted from a significant decrease in the Kd without a change in the maximum binding of [3H]HCh-3 binding. PLC treatment of synaptosomes resulted in an inhibition of [3H]choline uptake accompanied by an inhibition of Na+, K+-adenosine triphosphatase activity. In contrast to the increase of [3H]HCh-3 binding, the specific binding of both [3H]desipramine and [3H]mazindol was decreased by PLA2 treatment. After PLA2 treatment, [3H]HCh-3 binding was increased about 2.5-fold over basal levels in different regions of the brain. Electrolytic lesions of the medial septal nucleus and kainic acid-induced lesions of the striatum resulted in a marked reduction of [3H]HCh-3 binding in the hippocampus and the striatum, respectively. Residual [3H]HCh-3 binding in the denervated hippocampus and lesioned striatum was increased by PLA2 treatment but remained lower than that in PLA2-treated controls. Finally, atropine-induced up-regulation of [3H]HCh-3 binding in vivo was not additive with PLA2-induced stimulation. These results support the hypothesis that PLA2 might be involved in the regulation of the sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake

  8. Synthesis and characterization of optically pure [3H](+)-azidophenazocine ([3H](+)-AZPH), a novel photoaffinity label for sigma receptors

    [3H](+)-cis-N-(2-(4-Azidophenyl)ethyl)-2'-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-6,7-benzomorphan [3H]1) ([3H](+)-AZPH), a novel high affinity and high selectivity benzomorphan based photoaffinity label for sigma receptors was synthesized in 4 steps starting with optically pure (+)-normetazocine and 2-(p-azidophenyl)ethyl methanesulfonate ester. Condensation of these compounds in DMF in the presence of NaHCO3 afforded 1 in 77% yield. The tritiation precursor (+)-cis-N-(2-(4-azidophenyl)ethyl-2'-hydroxy-1',3'-dibromo-2,6-dimethyl-6,7-benzomorphan (4) for medium specific activity [3H]1 was obtained in 96% yield by bromination of 1 with 2 equivalents of bromine. The sequence of catalytic tritiation of 4, treatment of the resulting aniline ([3H]5) (13.5% radiochemical yield, specific activity 22.9 Ci/mmol) with nitrous acid followed by sodium azide afforded the target compound in 78% chemical yield. (author)

  9. Modeling and validating tritium transfer in a grassland ecosystem in response to 3H releases

    Tritium (3H) is a major radionuclide released in several forms (HTO, HT) by nuclear facilities under normal operating conditions. In terrestrial ecosystems, tritium can be found under two forms: tritium in tissue free water (TFWT) following absorption of tritiated water by leaves or roots and Organically Bound Tritium (OBT) resulting from TFWT incorporation by the plant organic matter during photosynthesis. In order to study transfers of tritium from atmospheric releases to terrestrial ecosystem such as grasslands, an in-situ laboratory has been set up by IRSN on a ryegrass field plot located 2 km downwind the AREVA NC La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (North-West of France), as was done in the past for the assessment of transfer of radiocarbon in grasslands. The objectives of this experimental field are: (i) to better understand the OBT formation in plant by photosynthesis, (ii) to evaluate transfer processes of tritium in several forms (HT, HTO) from the atmosphere (air and rainwater) to grass and soil, (iii) to develop a modeling allowing to reproduce the dynamic response of the ecosystem to tritium atmospheric releases depending of variable environmental conditions. For this purpose, tritium activity measurements will be carried out in grass (monthly measurements of HTO, OBT), in air, rainwater, soil (daily measurements of HT, HTO) and CO2, H2O fluxes between soil and air compartments will be carried out. Then, the TOCATTA-c model previously developed to simulate 14C transfers to pasture on a hourly time-step basis will be adapted to take account for processes specific to tritium. The model will be tested by a comparison between simulated results and measurements. The objectives of this presentation are (1) to present the organization of the experimental design of the VATO study (Validation of TOCATTA) dedicated to transfers of tritium in a grassland ecosystem, (2) to document the major assumptions, conceptual modelling and mathematical formulations of

  10. First-principles study of structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of EuMg{sub 2} and EuMg{sub 2}H{sub 6}

    Bian, Nan; Mo, Zhou-Sheng; Pan, Rong-Kai; Wang, Ming-Hui; Li, Peng-Bo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Tang, Bi-Yu, E-mail: tangbiyu@gxu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan Province 411105 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Within framework of the density functional theory, the structural and electronic properties of EuMg{sub 2} and its hydride EuMg{sub 2}H{sub 6} have been investigated. The calculated structural parameters are in good agreement with the experimental results, and the obtained formation enthalpies indicate that the stability of EuMg{sub 2} is lower than that of EuMg{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The calculated electronic structures show that both compounds exhibit a strong spin polarization feature near the Fermi level owing to the localized Eu-f electrons, and the EuMg{sub 2}H{sub 6} demonstrates mainly ionic characteristic. For thermodynamics of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation process of this system, the calculated reaction enthalpies along possible five reaction routes show that the most possible hydrogenation pathway is EuMg{sub 2}+3H{sub 2}{yields}EuMg{sub 2}H{sub 6}, while the favorable dehydrogenation pathway is EuMg{sub 2}H{sub 6}{yields}EuH{sub 2}+2Mg+2H{sub 2}. - The charge difference distribution (e/Bohr{sup 3}) (a) on (1010) plane of EuMg{sub 2}, (b) on (110) and (c) (020) planes of its hydride EuMg{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Eu-f electron has important effects on stability and hydrogen storage behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydride exhibits primary ionic characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three types of Mg--H bonding display also obvious ionic feature with some covalence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dehydrogenation temperature of EuMg{sub 2}H{sub 6} is further determined.

  11. Groundwater dating with 3H and SF6 in relation to mixing patterns, transport modelling and hydrochemistry

    Zuber, A.; Witczak, S.; Róaski, K.; Liwka, I.; Opoka, M.; Mochalski, P.; Kuc, T.; Karlikowska, J.; Kania, J.; Jackowicz-Korczyski, M.; Duliski, M.

    2005-07-01

    A comprehensive study of a sandy aquifer of deltaic origin in southern Poland included water chemistry, isotopes, dissolved trace gases and transport modelling. Tritium, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and freons (F-11, F-12 and F-113) showed the presence of modern waters in the recharge areas and shallow confined parts of the aquifer. The presence of older Holocene waters farther from the recharge areas was indicated by lack of 3H, SF6 contents 0.02 fmol l-1 and relatively low 14C values. The discharge from the system is by upward seepage in the valley of a major river. Pre-Holocene waters of a cooler climate, identified on the basis of 18O, 2H, 14C, Ne and Ar data, were found in some distant wells. Concentrations of N2, Ne and Ar determined by gas chromatography were used for calculating the noble gas temperatures, air excess needed for correction of SF6, and nitrogen content released by denitrification process. The time series of 3H content available for some wells supplied quantitative information on age distributions and the total mean ages of flow through the unsaturated and saturated zones. The derived 3H age distributions turned out to be very wide, with mean values in the range of about 30 to 160 years. For each well with determined 3H age, the SF6 data showed either a lower age range or the possibility of a lower age as expected due to shorter travel times of SF6 through the unsaturated zone, which most probably also resulted in different types of age distributions of these tracers. Freons appeared to be of little use for individual age determinations. A quantitative estimation of two-component mixing from SF63H relations is not possible unless the travel time of 3H through the unsaturated zone is comparable to that of SF6. The ratio of integrals of the response function over the age range with tracer and the whole response function yields the ratio of water with tracer to total flow of water. That ratio is a tracer-dependent function of time. Transport

  12. [3H]methylcarbamylcholine, a new radioligand for studying brain nicotinic receptors

    A new radioligand, [3H]methylcarbamylcholine, has been developed for the study of the nicotinic cholinergic and nicotine-like binding sites in rat brain membranes. A Scatchard analysis with the radioligand yielded a Ksub(d) of 1.1 x 10-9 M and a Bsub(max) of 4.0 x 10-14 moles/mg protein which compares with a lower affinity site for (-)-[3H]nicotine having a Ksub(d) of 3 x 10-9 M and a Bsub(max) of 2x 10-14 moles/mg. Comparable values for the Ksub(d) were obtained from a Hill plot and from calculations based on rate constants for association and dissociation. A comparison of the binding affinities of various nicotine analogues, nicotinic cholinergic agents, and other neurotropic agents revealed a close similarity between the two radioligands, with the exception that quaternization of nicotine or carbamate esters increased affinity by at least an order of magnitude with [3H]methylcarbamylcholine and resulted in a comparable decrease in affinity with [3H]nicotine as the ligand. The binding of [3H]methylcarbamylcholine, like [3H]nicotine, was not displaceable by muscarinic cholinergic antagonists. It was concluded that, although [3H]methylcarbamylcholine and [3H]nicotine bind to a common receptor in brain, the functional and chemical characteristics of the receptor(s) differ in some respects from peripheral nicotinic cholinergic receptors. (author)

  13. Morphine enhances the release of /sup 3/H-purines from rat brain cerebral cortical prisms

    Wu, P.H.; Phillis, J.W.; Yuen, H.

    1982-10-01

    In vitro experiments have shown that /sup 3/H-purines can be released from /sup 3/H-adenosine preloaded rat brain cortical prisms by a KCl-evoked depolarization. The KCl-evoked release of /sup 3/H-purines is dependent on the concentration of KCl present in the superfusate. At concentrations of 10(-7) approximately 10(-5)M morphine did not influence the basal release of /sup 3/H-purines from the prisms, although it enhanced the KCl-evoked release of /sup 3/H-purines. The enhancement of KCl-evoked /sup 3/H-purine release by morphine was concentration-dependent and was antagonized by naloxone, suggesting the involvement of opiate receptors. Uptake studies with rat brain cerebral cortical synaptosomes show that morphine is a very weak inhibitor of adenosine uptake. Comparisons with dipyridamole, a potent inhibitor of adenosine uptake, suggest that this low level of inhibition of the uptake did not contribute significantly to the release of /sup 3/H-purine by morphine seen in our experiments. It is therefore suggested that morphine enhances KCl-evoked /sup 3/H-purine release by an interaction with opiate receptors and that the resultant increase in extracellular purine (adenosine) levels may account for some of the actions of morphine.

  14. Morphine enhances the release of 3H-purines from rat brain cerebral cortical prisms

    In vitro experiments have shown that 3H-purines can be released from 3H-adenosine preloaded rat brain cortical prisms by a KCl-evoked depolarization. The KCl-evoked release of 3H-purines is dependent on the concentration of KCl present in the superfusate. At concentrations of 10(-7) approximately 10(-5)M morphine did not influence the basal release of 3H-purines from the prisms, although it enhanced the KCl-evoked release of 3H-purines. The enhancement of KCl-evoked 3H-purine release by morphine was concentration-dependent and was antagonized by naloxone, suggesting the involvement of opiate receptors. Uptake studies with rat brain cerebral cortical synaptosomes show that morphine is a very weak inhibitor of adenosine uptake. Comparisons with dipyridamole, a potent inhibitor of adenosine uptake, suggest that this low level of inhibition of the uptake did not contribute significantly to the release of 3H-purine by morphine seen in our experiments. It is therefore suggested that morphine enhances KCl-evoked 3H-purine release by an interaction with opiate receptors and that the resultant increase in extracellular purine (adenosine) levels may account for some of the actions of morphine

  15. Measurement of specific [3H]-ouabain binding to different types of human leucocytes

    Boon, Arnold; Oh, V M; Taylor, John E.; Johansen, Torben; Aronson, J K; Grahame-Smith, D G

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the specific binding of [3H]-ouabain to intact mononuclear leucocytes (82% lymphocytes) and polymorphonuclear leucocytes. In both types of cells [3H]-ouabain binding was saturable, confined to a single site of high affinity, slow to reach equilibrium, slow to reverse, temperature-...

  16. Behavior of substances labeled with /sup 3/H-proline and /sup 3/H-fucose in the cellular processes of odontoblasts and ameloblasts

    Warshawsky, H.; Josephsen, K.

    1981-05-01

    Odontoblasts are cells with single cytoplasmic processes that grow longer as more dentin is elaborated. Ameloblasts also have single processes and it has been postulated that they too grow longer as more enamel is made. Support for this hypothesis was obtained using rat incisors to investigate the behavior of substances labeled with /sup 3/H-proline and /sup 3/H-fucose. A comparison was made between odontoblasts, which have processes known to grow and remain within the dentin, and the ameloblasts whose Tomes' processes are hypothesized to grow and leave remnants in the completed enamel. With /sup 3/H-proline, the odontoblast bodies are labeled at the early time intervals. With /sup 3/H-fucose, the cell bodies are labeled at the early intervals and the newly formed glycoproteins are deposited into the predentin. Almost immediately, these are progressively added to the dentin at the calcification front. With time a gradient of labeling extends from the unlabeled dentin toward the odontoblast bodies. Unlike the behavior of labeled proteins, by 1 and 2 days labeled glycoproteins appear along the entire length of the odontoblast processes. In the enamel, no Tomes' processes are present during maturation. With /sup 3/H-proline, reactions are adjacent to the cells and diffuse toward, but do not reach the dentino-enamel junction by 1 and 2 days. With /sup 3/H-fucose, reactions appear over the enamel near the cells. By 1 and 2 days no diffusive pattern is seen, but grains are concentrated near the dentino-enamel junction, in a region containing holes known to be the beginning of Tomes' processes. Since odontoblast glycoproteins migrate along odontoblast processes, it was postulated that cytoplasmic remnants were present in enamel along which ameloblast glycoproteins could also migrate to reach the holes at the dentino-enamel junction.

  17. Behavior of substances labeled with 3H-proline and 3H-fucose in the cellular processes of odontoblasts and ameloblasts

    Odontoblasts are cells with single cytoplasmic processes that grow longer as more dentin is elaborated. Ameloblasts also have single processes and it has been postulated that they too grow longer as more enamel is made. Support for this hypothesis was obtained using rat incisors to investigate the behavior of substances labeled with 3H-proline and 3H-fucose. A comparison was made between odontoblasts, which have processes known to grow and remain within the dentin, and the ameloblasts whose Tomes' processes are hypothesized to grow and leave remnants in the completed enamel. With 3H-proline, the odontoblast bodies are labeled at the early time intervals. With 3H-fucose, the cell bodies are labeled at the early intervals and the newly formed glycoproteins are deposited into the predentin. Almost immediately, these are progressively added to the dentin at the calcification front. With time a gradient of labeling extends from the unlabeled dentin toward the odontoblast bodies. Unlike the behavior of labeled proteins, by 1 and 2 days labeled glycoproteins appear along the entire length of the odontoblast processes. In the enamel, no Tomes' processes are present during maturation. With 3H-proline, reactions are adjacent to the cells and diffuse toward, but do not reach the dentino-enamel junction by 1 and 2 days. With 3H-fucose, reactions appear over the enamel near the cells. By 1 and 2 days no diffusive pattern is seen, but grains are concentrated near the dentino-enamel junction, in a region containing holes known to be the beginning of Tomes' processes. Since odontoblast glycoproteins migrate along odontoblast processes, it was postulated that cytoplasmic remnants were present in enamel along which ameloblast glycoproteins could also migrate to reach the holes at the dentino-enamel junction

  18. Inelastic neutron scattering study of proton dynamics in Cs3H(SeO4)2 and Rb3H(SeO4)2

    The proton dynamics of the Cs3H(SeO4)2 and Rb3H(SeO4)2 have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering in a temperature range from 5 K to 60 K. The results are discussed in comparison with the isostructural acid sulphates, however the dynamics of the selenates is quite different. The splitting of selenate bands at low temperatures for both Cs and Rb salts indicate a phase transition to low symmetry. The anomalous temperature dependence of hydrogen bond bending modes in the Cs salt is discussed in the framework of interactions between strongly anharmonic stretching modes and bending vibrations. (orig.)

  19. Spin-resolved electron capture cross sections for C5+-H collisions

    Li, X. Y.; Liu, L.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.

    2015-10-01

    The charge transfer process in C5+-H collisions has been theoretically studied using the two-center atomic orbital close-coupling method in the energy interval from 0.1 to 300 keV u-1. The interaction of active electron with the projectile ion is represented by model potentials different for the singlet and triplet systems of C4+(1snl) states. The results of the present calculations are compared with other theoretical results and experimental measurements and good agreement is obtained for the total spin-averaged cross sections in the overlapping energy range. For the spin-resolved cross sections, we found that the present total and n-shell electron capture cross sections are also in good agreement with the results of other theoretical studies in the overlapping energy range for both the singlet and triplet cases. Good overall agreement has been obtained with the results of other authors for the nl-state-selective cross sections, except for the capture to 3p and 4p singlet states at the low collision energies.

  20. 4-(2-Chloroanilino-3-phenylfuran-2(5H-one

    Zhu-Ping Xiao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H12ClNO2, featuring a furan-2(5H-one (γ-butyrolactone core, contains two molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit, with different dihedral angles between the central ring and the pendant phenyl and chlorobenzene rings [43.33 (8 and 20.16 (8°, respectively, for A, and 47.79 (8 and 13.87 (8°, respectively, for B]. In the crystal, the A molecules are linked into [001] chains by single C—H...O interactions. The B molecules also form [001] chains, but their relative orientations in the chains are quite different to those of the A molecules so that adjacent B molecules are linked by two C—H...O hydrogen bonds. Finally, C—H...O interactions and aromatic π–π stacking contacts [centroid–centroid separations = 3.754 (1 and 3.817 (1 Å] link the chains into a two-dimensional array parallel to (010.

  1. Hydrophobization of epoxy nanocomposite surface with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane for superhydrophobic properties

    Psarski, Maciej; Marczak, Jacek; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Sobieraj, Grzegorz; Gumowski, Konrad; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

    2012-10-01

    Nature inspires the design of synthetic materials with superhydrophobic properties, which can be used for applications ranging from self-cleaning surfaces to microfluidic devices. Their water repellent properties are due to hierarchical (micrometer- and nanometre-scale) surface morphological structures, either made of hydrophobic substances or hydrophobized by appropriate surface treatment. In this work, the efficiency of two surface treatment procedures, with a hydrophobic fluoropolymer, synthesized and deposited from 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (PFOTS) is investigated. The procedures involved reactions from the gas and liquid phases of the PFOTS/hexane solutions. The hierarchical structure is created in an epoxy nanocomposite surface, by filling the resin with alumina nanoparticles and micron-sized glass beads and subsequent sandblasting with corundum microparticles. The chemical structure of the deposited fluoropolymer was examined using XPS spectroscopy. The topography of the modified surfaces was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hydrophobic properties of the modified surfaces were investigated by water contact and sliding angles measurements. The surfaces exhibited water contact angles of above 150° for both modification procedures, however only the gas phase modification provided the non-sticking behaviour of water droplets (sliding angle of 3°). The discrepancy is attributed to extra surface roughness provided by the latter procedure.

  2. Binding of ( sup 3 H)idazoxan and of its methoxy derivative ( sup 3 H) RX821002 in human fat cells: ( sup 3 H)idazoxan but not ( sup 3 H) RX821002 labels additional non-alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites

    Langin, D.; Paris, H.; Lafontan, M. (Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France))

    1990-06-01

    Binding studies were carried out in human fat cell membranes with two alpha 2-adrenergic antagonists, (3H)idazoxan and its methoxy derivative (3H)RX821002. Inhibition studies with epinephrine enantiomers indicate that (3H)RX821002 only binds to alpha 2-adrenoceptors, whereas (3H)idazoxan labels alpha 2-adrenoceptors and additional nonadrenergic sites (NAIBS). NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptors display different affinities towards drugs from various chemical families. Imidazoline and some guanidine derivatives exhibit a high affinity for NAIBS. Pharmacological studies of human NAIBS indicate that they are slightly different from those previously reported in the rabbit, suggesting the existence of several subtypes of NAIBS. Furthermore, NAIBS are different from the previously described imidazoline-preferring sites. (3H)idazoxan and (3H)RX821002 saturation analyses were performed in human adipocytes from different anatomical locations, in order to compare the number of NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Although there was an important variation in NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptor numbers in the studied samples, a very poor correlation was obtained between the Bmax values of the two sites. Moreover, alkylation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors by phenoxybenzamine produces a 90% reduction in accessible (3H)RX821002 binding sites, without modification of (3H)idazoxan binding. These data show that NAIBS are not closely related to the alpha 2-adrenergic molecule. In addition, benextramine appears to be a reversible competitor at NAIBS. (3H)idazoxan binding, but not (3H)RX821002 binding, is sensitive to K+, suggesting that the domains involved in the ligand-NAIBS interaction are different from those involved in the ligand-alpha 2-adrenoceptor interaction.

  3. Photoaffinity labeling of the dopamine reuptake carrier protein with 3-azido 3H GBR-12935

    A high affinity tritiated azido-diphenylpiperazine derivative, 3-azido 3H GBR-12935, was synthesized as a potential photoaffinity probe of the dopamine transporter. Initially, the reversible binding of 3-azido 3H GBR-12935 to crude synaptosomal membranes from the rat striatum was characterized. Specific binding was sodium dependent and inhibited by a variety of drugs that are known to potently inhibit dopamine uptake. Other neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors, as well as cis-flupenthixol, a potent inhibitor of 3H GBR-12935 binding to piperazine binding sites, failed to inhibit specific binding at concentrations of less than or equal to 10 microM. A good correlation was observed between the relative potencies of these drugs in inhibiting dopamine uptake into synaptosomes and in inhibiting specific 3-azido 3H GBR-12935 binding to rat striatal membranes. These data suggest that 3-azido 3H GBR-12935, like other diphenylpiperazines such as 3H GBR-12935 and 3H GBR-12909, binds primarily to the dopamine transporter under defined assay conditions. After UV photolysis of crude synaptosomal membranes preincubated with 3-azido 3H GBR-12935 (1-2 nM), a single radiolabeled polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 80 kDa was observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. Photoincorporation of 3-azido 3H GBR-12935 into this polypeptide was inhibited selectively by compounds that inhibit the uptake of dopamine and was completely dependent on the presence of Na+. No photolabeled proteins were observed when cerebellar membranes were substituted for striatal membranes. Essentially complete adsorption of the radiolabeled 80-kDa polypeptide to wheat germ agglutinin and elution with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine strongly suggest that the dopamine transporter polypeptide photolabeled by 3-azido 3H GBR-12935 is glycosylated

  4. Detailed Studies of Hydrocarbon Radicals: C2H Dissociation

    Wittig, Curt

    2014-10-06

    A novel experimental technique was examined whose goal was the ejection of radical species into the gas phase from a platform (film) of cold non-reactive material. The underlying principle was one of photo-initiated heat release in a stratum that lies below a layer of CO2 or a layer of amorphous solid water (ASW) and CO2. A molecular precursor to the radical species of interest is deposited near or on the film's surface, where it can be photo-dissociated. It proved unfeasible to avoid the rampant formation of fissures, as opposed to large "flakes." This led to many interesting results, but resulted in our aborting the scheme as a means of launching cold C2H radical into the gas phase. A journal article resulted that is germane to astrophysics but not combustion chemistry.

  5. 2H NMR studies of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    Nath, R.; Nowaczyk, A.; Geil, B.; Bohmer, R.

    2007-11-01

    Acetyl salicylic acid, deuterated at the methyl group, was investigated using 2H-NMR in its supercooled and glassy states. Just above the glass transition temperature the molecular reorientations were studied using stimulated-echo spectroscopy and demonstrated a large degree of similarity with other glass formers. Deep in the glassy phase the NMR spectra look similar to those reported for the crystal [A. Detken, P. Focke, H. Zimmermann, U. Haeberlen, Z. Olejniczak, Z. T. Lalowicz, Z. Naturforsch. A 50 (1995) 95] and below 20 K they are indicative for rotational tunneling with a relatively large tunneling frequency. Measurements of the spin-lattice relaxation times for temperatures below 150 K reveal a broad distribution of correlation times in the glass. The dominant energy barrier characterizing the slow-down of the methyl group is significantly smaller than the well defined barrier in the crystal.

  6. Doping dependent plasmon dispersion in 2 H -transition metal dichalcogenides

    Müller, Eric; Büchner, Bernd; Habenicht, Carsten; König, Andreas; Knupfer, Martin; Berger, Helmuth; Huotari, Simo

    2016-07-01

    We report the behavior of the charge carrier plasmon of 2 H -transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) as a function of intercalation with alkali metals. Intercalation and concurrent doping of the TMD layers have a substantial impact on plasmon energy and dispersion. While the plasmon energy shifts are related to the intercalation level as expected within a simple homogeneous electron gas picture, the plasmon dispersion changes in a peculiar manner independent of the intercalant and the TMD materials. Starting from a negative dispersion, the slope of the plasmon dispersion changes sign and grows monotonously upon doping. Quantitatively, the increase of this slope depends on the orbital character (4 d or 5 d ) of the conduction bands, which indicates a decisive role of band structure effects on the plasmon behavior.

  7. 2H and 18O Freshwater Isoscapes of Scotland

    Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Kemp, Helen; Frew, Danny

    2013-04-01

    Scotland's freshwater lochs and reservoirs provide a vital resource for sustaining biodiversity, agriculture, food production as well as for human consumption. Regular monitoring of freshwaters by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) fulfils legislative requirements with regards to water quality but new scientific methods involving stable isotope analysis present an opportunity combining these mandatory monitoring schemes with fundamental research to inform and deliver on current and nascent government policies [1] through gaining a greater understanding of Scottish waters and their importance in the context of climate change, environmental sustainability and food security. For example, 2H and 18O isoscapes of Scottish freshwater could be used to underpin research and its applications in: • Climate change - Using longitudinal changes in the characteristic isotope composition of freshwater lochs and reservoirs as proxy, isoscapes will provide a means to assess if and how changes in temperature and weather patterns might impact on precipitation patterns and amount. • Scottish branding - Location specific stable isotope signatures of Scottish freshwater have the potential to be used as a tool for provenancing and thus protecting premium Scottish produce such as Scottish beef, Scottish soft fruit and Scottish Whisky. During 2011 and 2012, with the support of SEPA more than 110 samples from freshwater lochs and reservoirs were collected from 127 different locations across Scotland including the Highlands and Islands. Here we present the results of this sampling and analysis exercise isotope analyses in form of 2H and 18O isoscapes with an unprecedented grid resolution of 26.5 × 26.5 km (or 16.4 × 16.4 miles). [1] Adaptation Framework - Adapting Our Ways: Managing Scotland's Climate Risk (2009): Scotland's Biodiversity: It's in Your Hands - A strategy for the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity in Scotland (2005); Recipe For Success - Scotland

  8. Nonempirical LCAO-MO-SCF calculations of geometric structure and force field of Be2H4 molecule and Be2H3+ ion

    Determination of equilibrium geometry, of the most general force field and frequencies of normal oscillations of Be2H4 molecule and Be2H3+ ion have been carried out. The ''Orbital 8'' programme has been used for nonempirical calculations on the basis of linear combinations of nodalless gauss functions. It is shown that flat bridge Dsub(2h) symmetry configuration is the only one of nuclei in Be2H4 molecule and linear configuration of D infinity h symmetry in Be2H3+ ion. A complete set of molecular constants of Be2H4 and Be2H3+ is obtained, which permits to carry out calculations of thermodynamical functions of these compounds by the methods of statistical physics

  9. Methodological issues in the preparation and assay of platelet 3H-imipramine binding.

    Severson, J A; Schneider, L S; Fredrickson, E R

    1990-07-01

    Several methodological factors in the preparation of platelets and the determination of platelet 3H-imipramine (3H-IMI) binding were examined. The ionic composition of the assay significantly affected platelet 3H-IMI binding. Approximately 25% of the specific binding of 3H-IMI to intact platelet preparations was retained in the absence of sodium and chloride ions. The addition of sodium ions enhanced the specific binding of 3H-IMI, but the addition of chloride in the presence of sodium had a more pronounced effect, enhancing binding approximately five-fold over that observed with the addition of sodium. Sodium was the only cation tested that enhanced binding. Only halides enhanced binding in the presence of sodium with the following order of potency: Cl- greater than Br- greater than I- = F-. Ions increased the density of binding sites (Bmax) and did not affect the affinity of the binding sites for 3H-IMI. In the presence of sodium and chloride, the use of serotonin (5HT) to define nonspecific binding in saturation experiments resulted in lower binding densities (Bmax) than when desipramine was used to define nonspecific binding. The component of binding that was insensitive to 5HT was roughly equal to the Bmax of 3H-IMI binding obtained in the absence of sodium and chloride using desipramine to define nonspecific binding. Overall, these data suggest that not all 3H-IMI binding that is displaced by desipramine is related to serotonergic mechanisms, and suggest that 5HT is a better choice than desipramine for the determination of the nonspecific binding of 3H-IMI. In addition, the binding of 3H-IMI to different platelet preparations was compared. The binding of 3H-IMI to intact platelets was less than that obtained using lysed platelet membranes when data were expressed per mg protein. The Coomassie Blue dye-binding method to determine platelet protein resulted in greater Bmax values than were obtained with the Folin phenol reagent method. The method of platelet

  10. Depletion of [3H]methyltrienolone cytosol binding in glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy (42001)

    The present study was undertaken to determine cytosol binding properties of [3H]methyltrienolone, a synthetic androgen, in comparison with [3]dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, under conditions of glucocorticoid excess in skeletal muscle. Male hypophysectomized rats received either seven daily subcutaneous injections of cortisone acetate (CA) (100 mg x kg-1 body wt) or the vehicle, 1% carboxymethyl cellulose. Following treatment, both [3H]dexamethansone and [3H]methyltrienolone-receptor concentrations were decreased from those in vehicle-treated rats by more than 90 and 80%, respectively, in CA-treated animals. Scatchard analysis of [3H]methyltrienolone binding in muscles of vehicle-treated animals became nonlinear at high concentrations of labeled ligand and were reanalyzed by a two-component binding model. The lower affinity, higher capacity component, which was attributed to binding of methyltrienolone to a dexamethasone component, which was attributed to binding of methyltrienolone to a dexamethasone component, disappeared in muscles of CA-treated rats and Scatchard plots were linear. Receptor concentrations of the higher affinity lower capacity methyltrienolone component were similar in muscles of vehicle-treated and CA-treated groups. From competition studies, the high relative specificities of glucocorticoids for [3H]methyltrienolone binding in muscles of vehicle-treated animals were markedly reduced by CA treatment. In addition, the binding specificity data also showed strong competition by progesterone and methyltrienolone for [3H]dexamethasone binding and estradiol-17β for [3H]methyltrienolone binding

  11. APOBEC3H polymorphisms and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in an Indian population.

    Naruse, Taeko K; Sakurai, Daisuke; Ohtani, Hitoshi; Sharma, Gaurav; Sharma, Surendra K; Vajpayee, Madhu; Mehra, Narinder K; Kaur, Gurvinder; Kimura, Akinori

    2016-03-01

    Human APOBEC3H (A3H) is a member of APOBEC cytidine deaminase family intensively constraining the HIV-1 replication. A3H is known to be polymorphic with different protein stability and anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. We recently reported that A3H haplotypes composed of two functional polymorphisms, rs139292 (N15del) and rs139297 (G105R), were associated with the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in Japanese. To confirm the association of A3H and HIV-1 infection in another ethnic group, a total of 241 HIV-1-infected Indian individuals and ethnic-matched 286 healthy controls were analyzed for the A3H polymorphisms. The frequency of 15del allele was high in the HIV-1-infected subjects as compared with the controls (0.477 vs 0.402, odds ratio (OR)=1.36, P=0.014). Haplotype analysis showed that the frequencies of 15del-105R was high (0.475 vs 0.400, OR=1.36, permutation P=0.037) in the HIV-1-infected subjects, confirming the association of A3H polymorphisms with the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. PMID:26559750

  12. Quantitative autoradiography of 3H-nomifensine binding sites in rat brain

    The distribution of 3H-nomifensine binding sites in the rat brain has been studied by quantitative autoradiography. The binding of 3H-nomifensine to caudate putamen sections was saturable, specific, of a highly affinity (Kd = 56 nM) and sodium-dependent. The dopamine uptake inhibitors benztropine, nomifensine, cocaine, bupropion and amfonelic acid were the most potent competitors of 3H-nomifensine binding to striatal sections. The highest levels of (benztropine-displaceable) 3H-nomifensine binding sites were found in the caudate-putamen, the olfactory tubercle and the nucleus accumbens. 6-Hydroxy-dopamine-induced lesion of the ascending dopaminergic bundle resulted in a marked decrease in the 3H-ligand binding in these areas. Moderately high concentrations of the 3H-ligand were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the anteroventral thalamic nucleus, the cingulate cortex, the lateral septum, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the zona incerta and some hypothalamic nuclei. There were low levels of binding sites in the habenula, the dorsolateral geniculate body, the substantia nigra, the ventral tegmental area and the periaqueductal gray matter. These autoradiographic data are consistent with the hypothesis that 3H-nomifensine binds primarily to the presynaptic uptake site for dopamine but also labels the norepinephrine uptake site. 33 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  13. Quantitative autoradiography of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites in rat brain

    Scatton, B.; Dubois, A.; Dubocovich, M.L.; Zahniser, N.R.; Fage, D.

    1985-03-04

    The distribution of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites in the rat brain has been studied by quantitative autoradiography. The binding of /sup 3/H-nomifensine to caudate putamen sections was saturable, specific, of a highly affinity (Kd = 56 nM) and sodium-dependent. The dopamine uptake inhibitors benztropine, nomifensine, cocaine, bupropion and amfonelic acid were the most potent competitors of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding to striatal sections. The highest levels of (benztropine-displaceable) /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites were found in the caudate-putamen, the olfactory tubercle and the nucleus accumbens. 6-Hydroxy-dopamine-induced lesion of the ascending dopaminergic bundle resulted in a marked decrease in the /sup 3/H-ligand binding in these areas. Moderately high concentrations of the /sup 3/H-ligand were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the anteroventral thalamic nucleus, the cingulate cortex, the lateral septum, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the zona incerta and some hypothalamic nuclei. There were low levels of binding sites in the habenula, the dorsolateral geniculate body, the substantia nigra, the ventral tegmental area and the periaqueductal gray matter. These autoradiographic data are consistent with the hypothesis that /sup 3/H-nomifensine binds primarily to the presynaptic uptake site for dopamine but also labels the norepinephrine uptake site. 33 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. High affinity binding of [3H]cocaine to rat liver microsomes

    ]3H]cocaine bound reversible, with high affinity and stereospecificity to rat liver microsomes. Little binding was detected in the lysosomal, mitochondrial and nuclear fractions. The binding kinetics were slow and the kinetically calculated K/sub D/ was 2 nM. Induction of mixed function oxidases by phenobarbital did not produce significant change in [3H]cocaine binding. On the other hand, chronic administration of cocaine reduced [3H]cocaine binding drastically. Neither treatment affected the affinity of the liver binding protein for cocaine. Microsomes from mouse and human livers had less cocaine-binding protein and lower affinity for cocaine than those from rat liver. Binding of [3H]cocaine to rat liver microsomes was insensitive to monovalent cations and > 10 fold less sensitive to biogenic amines than the cocaine receptor in rat striatum. However, the liver protein had higher affinity for cocaine and metabolites except for norcocaine. Amine uptake inhibitors displaced [3H]cocaine binding to liver with a different rank order of potency than their displacement of [3H]cocaine binding to striatum. This high affinity [3H]cocaine binding protein in liver is not likely to be monooxygenase, but may have a role in cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity

  15. [3H] glycogen hydrolysis in brain slices: responses to meurotransmitters and modulation of noradrenaline receptors

    Different agents have been investigated for their effects on [3H] glycogen synthesized in mouse cortical slices. Of these noradrenaline, serotonin and histamine induced clear concentration-dependent glycogenesis. [3H] glycogen hydrolysis induced by noradrenaline appears to be mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors because it is completely prevented by timolol, while phentolamine is ineffective. It seems to involve cyclic AMP because it is potentiated in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine; in addition dibutyryl cyclic AMP (but not dibutyryl cyclic GMP) promotes glycogenolysis. Lower concentrations of noradrenaline were necessary for [3H] glycogen hydrolysis (ECsub(50) 0.5μM) than for stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation (ECsub(50) = 8μM). After subchronic reserpine treatment the concentration-response curve to noradrenaline was significantly shifted to the left (ECsub(50) = 0.09 +- 0.02 μM as compared with 0.49 +- 0.08μM in saline-pretreated mice) without modifications of either the basal [3H] glycogen level, maximal glycogenolytic effect, or the dibutyryl cAMP-induced glycogenolytic response. In addition to noradrenaline, clear concentration-dependent [3H] glycogen hydrolysis was observed in the presence of histamine or serotonin. In contrast to the partial [3H] glycogen hydrolysis elicited by these biogenic amines, depolarization of the slices by 50 mM K+ provoked a nearly total [3H] glycogen hydrolysis. (author)

  16. Quantitative autoradiography of [3H]CTOP binding to mu opioid receptors in rat brain

    [3H]H-D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 ([3H]CTOP), a potent and highly selective mu opioid antagonist, was used to localize the mu receptors in rat brain by light microscopic autoradiography. Radioligand binding studies with [3H]CTOP using slide-mounted tissue sections of rat brain produced a Kd value of 1.1 nM with a Bmax value of 79.1 fmol/mg protein. Mu opioid agonists and antagonists inhibited [3H]CTOP binding with high affinity (IC50 values of 0.2-2.4nM), while the delta agonist DPDPE, delta antagonist ICI 174,864, and kappa agonist U 69,593 were very weak inhibitors of [3H]CTOP binding. Light microscopic autoradiography of [3H]CTOP binding sites revealed regions of high density and regions of moderate labeling. The cerebral cortex showed a low density of [3H]CTOP binding

  17. Analysis of several high-resolution infrared bands of spiropentane, C5H8

    Maki, Arthur G.; Price, Joseph E.; Harzan, J.; Nibler, Joseph W.; Weber, Alfons; Masiello, Tony; Blake, Thomas A.

    2015-06-01

    he high-resolution infrared absorption spectrum of spiropentane (C5H8) has been measured from 200 to 4000 cm 1, and a detailed analysis is presented for eight bands in the region from 700 to 2200 cm 1. Two fundamental perpendicular bands were analyzed, m22 and m24 near 1050 and 780 cm 1, respectively, along with two fundamental parallel bands, m14 and m16 near 1540 and 990 cm1, respectively. Two other fundamentals, m17 and m23, are seen as intense overlapping bands near 880 cm*1 and are Coriolis-coupled, producing a complex mixture in which only P-branch transitions could be tentatively assigned for m17. In addition, three binary combination bands were fit at about 1570, 2082, and 2098 cm*1 which are assigned as either 2m24 or m5 + m16 in the first case, m4 + m22 in the second case, and 2m22 in the latter case. The two l-type resonance constants, q+ and q*, were determined for each of the two perpendicular fundamentals m22 and m24. Those two constants were also responsible for splittings observed in the K = 3 levels of m24. For the ground state the order of the split K = 2 B1/B2 levels has been reversed from that reported previously, based on the measurements and assignments for the m24 band. Rovibrational parameters deduced from the analyses are compared with those obtained from density functional Gaussian calculations at the anharmonic level.

  18. 298 K rate coefficients for the reaction of OH with i-C3H7I, n-C3H7I and C3H8

    J. N. Crowley

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the title reactions were investigated using the laser photolysis - resonance fluorescence method, employing the sequential two-photon dissociation of NO2 in the presence of H2 as the OH source. The 298 K rate constant for OH + C3H8 was found to be (1.15±0.1 × 10-12 cm3 s-1, in excellent agreement with the literature recommendation, and with a separate determination using HNO3 photolysis at 248 nm as the OH source. The 298 K rate constants for OH + n-C3H7I and i-C3H7I were measured for the first time and found to be (1.47±0.08 and (1.22±0.06 × 10-12 cm3 s-1, respectively. The errors include an assessment of systematic error due to concentration measurement, which, for the propyl-iodides was minimised by on-line UV-absorption spectroscopy. The implications of these results for the reactive iodine budget of the marine boundary layer are discussed.

  19. Effects of hyperglycemia on glucose production and utilization in humans. Measurement with [3H]-2-, [3H]-3-, and [14C]-6-glucose

    Studies with tritiated isotopes of glucose have demonstrated that hyperglycemia per se stimulates glucose utilization and suppresses glucose production in humans. These conclusions rely on the assumption that tritiated glucose provides an accurate measure of glucose turnover. However, if in the presence of hyperglycemia the isotope either loses its label during futile cycling or retains its label during cycling through glycogen, then this assumption is not valid. To examine this question, glucose utilization and glucose production rates were measured in nine normal subjects with a simultaneous infusion of [3H]-2-glucose, an isotope that may undergo futile cycling but does not cycle through glycogen; [14C]-6-glucose, an isotope that may cycle through glycogen but does not futile cycle; and [3H]-3-glucose, an isotope that can both undergo futile cycling and cycle through glycogen. In the postabsorptive state at plasma glucose concentration of 95 mg X dl-1, glucose turnover determined with [14C]-6-glucose (2.3 +/- 0.1 mg X kg-1 X min-1) was greater than that determined with [33H]glucose (2.1 +/- 0.1 mg X kg-1 X min-1, P = 0.002) and slightly less than that determined with [3H]-2-glucose (2.7 +/- 0.2 mg X kg-1 X min-1, P = 0.08). Plasma glucose was then raised from 95 to 135 to 175 mg X dl-1 while insulin secretion was inhibited, and circulating insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone concentrations were maintained constant by infusion of these hormones and somatostatin. Glucose production and utilization rates determined with [14C]-6-glucose continued to be less than those determined with [3H]-2-glucose and greater than those seen with [3H]-3-glucose

  20. Autoradiographic localization of 3H-paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites in rat brain

    Paroxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake into neurons. Serotonin uptake sites have been identified, localized, and quantified in rat brain by autoradiography with 3H-paroxetine; 3H-paroxetine binding in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain was of high affinity (KD = 10 pM) and the inhibition affinity constant (Ki) values of various drugs in competing 3H-paroxetine binding significantly correlated with their reported potencies in inhibiting synaptosomal serotonin uptake. Serotonin uptake sites labeled by 3H-paroxetine were highly concentrated in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, central gray, superficial layer of the superior colliculus, lateral septal nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and the islands of Calleja. High concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in brainstem areas containing dopamine (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) and norepinephrine (locus coeruleus) cell bodies. Moderate concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were present in laminae I and IV of the frontal parietal cortex, primary olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, regions of the basal ganglia, septum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and some brainstem areas including the interpeduncular, trigeminal, and parabrachial nuclei. Lower densities of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in other regions of the neocortex and very low to nonsignificant levels of binding were present in white matter tracts and in the cerebellum. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine caused large decreases in 3H-paroxetine binding. The autoradiographic distribution of 3H-paroxetine binding sites in rat brain corresponds extremely well to the distribution of serotonin terminals and cell bodies as well as with the pharmacological sites of action of serotonin

  1. Felbamate increases [3H]glycine binding in rat brain and sections of human postmortem brain.

    McCabe, R T; Sofia, R D; Layer, R T; Leiner, K A; Faull, R L; Narang, N; Wamsley, J K

    1998-08-01

    The anticonvulsant compound felbamate (2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate; FBM) appears to inhibit the function of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex through an interaction with the strychnine-insensitive glycine recognition site. Since we have demonstrated previously that FBM inhibits the binding of [3H]5, 7-dichlorokynurenic acid (DCKA), a competitive antagonist at the glycine site, we assessed the ability of FBM to modulate the binding of an agonist, [3H]glycine, to rat forebrain membranes and human brain sections. In contrast to its ability to inhibit [3H]5,7-DCKA binding, FBM increased [3H]glycine binding (20 nM; EC50 = 485 microM; Emax = 211% of control; nH = 1.8). FBM, but not carbamazepine, phenytoin, valproic acid or phenobarbital, also increased [3H]glycine binding (50 nM; EC50 = 142 microM; Emax = 157% of control; nH = 1.6) in human cortex sections. Autoradiographic analysis of human brain slices demonstrated that FBM produced the largest increases in [3H]glycine binding in the cortex, hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus. Because various ions can influence the binding of glycine-site ligands, we assessed their effects on FBM-modulation of [3H]glycine binding. FBM-enhanced [3H]glycine binding was attenuated by Zn++ and not inhibited by Mg++ in human brain. These results suggest that FBM increases [3H]glycine binding in a manner sensitive to ions which modulate the NMDA receptor. These data support the hypothesis that FBM produces anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects by inhibiting NMDA receptor function, likely through an allosteric modulation of the glycine site. PMID:9694960

  2. Autoradiographic localization of /sup 3/H-paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites in rat brain

    De Souza, E.B.; Kuyatt, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Paroxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake into neurons. Serotonin uptake sites have been identified, localized, and quantified in rat brain by autoradiography with 3H-paroxetine; 3H-paroxetine binding in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain was of high affinity (KD = 10 pM) and the inhibition affinity constant (Ki) values of various drugs in competing 3H-paroxetine binding significantly correlated with their reported potencies in inhibiting synaptosomal serotonin uptake. Serotonin uptake sites labeled by 3H-paroxetine were highly concentrated in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, central gray, superficial layer of the superior colliculus, lateral septal nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and the islands of Calleja. High concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in brainstem areas containing dopamine (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) and norepinephrine (locus coeruleus) cell bodies. Moderate concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were present in laminae I and IV of the frontal parietal cortex, primary olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, regions of the basal ganglia, septum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and some brainstem areas including the interpeduncular, trigeminal, and parabrachial nuclei. Lower densities of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in other regions of the neocortex and very low to nonsignificant levels of binding were present in white matter tracts and in the cerebellum. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine caused large decreases in 3H-paroxetine binding. The autoradiographic distribution of 3H-paroxetine binding sites in rat brain corresponds extremely well to the distribution of serotonin terminals and cell bodies as well as with the pharmacological sites of action of serotonin.

  3. 1H MAS, 13C CP/MAS, and 2H NMR spectra studies of piperidinium p-chlorobenzoate

    Anomalous H/D isotope effects were detected in the 1H MAS NMR spectra of piperidinium p-chlorobenzoate (C5H10NH 2+⋅ ClC6H4COO − ) upon deuterium substitution of hydrogen atoms which form two kinds of N-H⋯O H-bonds in the crystal; in contrast to these spectra, only slight chemical shifts were recorded in 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra. 2H NMR spectrum of the deuterated sample show quadrupole coupling constants of 148 and 108 kHz, and reveal that there are a few motions contributing to the electric-field modulation of the 2H nucleus. The 1H MAS NMR spectra of piperidinium p-chlrobenzoate-d16 (C5D10ND 2+⋅ ClC6D4COO − ) and -d14 (C5D10NH 2+⋅ ClC6D4COO − ) revealed that the change in the envelope is caused by chemical shifts of each signal upon deuteration. Calculations based on the density-functional-theory showed that the N-H distance along the crystallographic a-axis mainly contributes to the anomalous isotope effects on 1H MAS NMR envelopes.

  4. Human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2): Inhibitor studies using S2-hOCT2 cells

    Highly expressed in kidney and located on the basolateral membrane, human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) can transport various compounds (i.e. drugs and toxins) into the proximal tubular cell. Using cultured proximal tubule cells stably expressing hOCT2 (i.e. S2-hOCT2 cells), we sought to probe different compound classes (e.g. analgesics, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, disinfectant, herbicides, insecticides, local anesthetic, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, sedatives, steroid hormone, stimulants and toxins) for their ability to inhibit 14C-TEA uptake, a prototypical OCT2 substrate. Aconitine, amitriptyline, atropine, chlorpyrifos, diazepam, fenitrothion, haloperidol, lidocaine, malathion, mianserin, nicotine and triazolam significantly inhibited 14C-TEA uptake; IC50 values were 59.2, 2.4, 2.0, 20.7, 32.3, 13.2, 32.5, 104.6, 71.1, 17.7, 52.8 and 65.5 μM, respectively. In addition, aconitine, amitriptyline, atropine, chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, haloperidol, lidocaine, and nicotine displayed competitive inhibition with Ki values of 145.6, 2.5, 2.4, 24.8, 16.9, 51.6, 86.8 and 57.7 μM, respectively. These in vitro data support the notion that compounds pertaining to a wide variety of different drug classes have the potential to decrease renal clearance of drugs transported via hOCT2. Consequently, these data warrant additional studies to probe hOCT2 and its role to influence drug pharmacokinetics

  5. Radiotracer studies on the formation of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone in detached ripening strawberry fruits

    The transformation of 12 radioactively labeled compounds into 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF), glycosidically bound DMHF, and 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF) was investigated in detached ripening strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa) over a 3-day period. Radiochemical analysis of the different fruit parts revealed that major portions of the applied radioactivity (up to 66%) remained in the stems and calyx. Incorporation levels of [2-14C]-dihydroxyacetone, D-[1-3H]glucose, D-[U-14C]-glucose, D-[U-14C]glucose 6-phosphate, D-[U-14C]fructose, and D-[U-14C]fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into the total amount of furanone derivatives were 0.022, 0.032, 0.035, 0.147, 0.202, and 0.289% of the radioactivity entering the fruits, respectively. Minor amounts of radioactivity (0.001%) were detected in the furanone structures after the administration of [1-14C]acetate and [3-14C]pyruvate. L-[1-14C]Fucose, L-[6-3H]fucose, L-[1-3H]rhamnose, L-[U-14C]-threonine, L-[U-14C]lactaldehyde, and [2-14C]malonic acid were not transformed into DMHF or a derivative thereof. (author)

  6. Collisional excitation of doubly and triply deuterated ammonia ND$_2$H and ND$_3$ by H$_2$

    Daniel, F; Faure, A; Roueff, E; Gérin, M; Lis, D C; Hily-Blant, P; Bacmann, A; Wiesenfeld, L

    2016-01-01

    The availability of collisional rate coefficients is a prerequisite for an accurate interpretation of astrophysical observations, since the observed media often harbour densities where molecules are populated under non--LTE conditions. In the current study, we present calculations of rate coefficients suitable to describe the various spin isomers of multiply deuterated ammonia, namely the ND$_2$H and ND$_3$ isotopologues. These calculations are based on the most accurate NH$_3$--H$_2$ potential energy surface available, which has been modified to describe the geometrical changes induced by the nuclear substitutions. The dynamical calculations are performed within the close--coupling formalism and are carried out in order to provide rate coefficients up to a temperature of $T$ = 50K. For the various isotopologues/symmetries, we provide rate coefficients for the energy levels below $\\sim$ 100 cm$^{-1}$. Subsequently, these new rate coefficients are used in astrophysical models aimed at reproducing the NH$_2$D, ...

  7. Understanding the $\\rm C_3H_2$ cyclic-to-linear ratio in L1544

    Sipilä, O.; Spezzano, S.; Caselli, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We aim to understand the high cyclic-to-linear $\\rm C_3H_2$ ratio ($32 \\pm 4$) observed toward L1544 by Spezzano et al. (2016). Methods. We combine a gas-grain chemical model with a physical model for L1544 to simulate the column densities of cyclic and linear $\\rm C_3H_2$ observed toward L1544. The most important reactions for the formation and destruction of both forms of $\\rm C_3H_2$ are identified, and their relative rate coefficients are varied to find the best match to the observa...

  8. Liquid scintillation counting of 3H-thymidine incorporated into rat lens DNA

    DNA synthesis in the lens has previously been localized by autoradiography following incorporation of 3H-thymidine. For the quantification of DNA synthesis in the lens, pooling of lenses and extraction of the DNA for liquid scintillation counting, has formerly been adapted. In the present investigation a method has been developed for the extraction of the unincorporated tracer from whole lenses after short time incubation in a medium containing 3H-thymidine. The 3H-thymidine incorporated into individual lenses was then detected by liquid scintillation counting after dissolution of the lenses. The sources of the variation in the method are evaluated. (author)

  9. Ligand-Promoted Borylation of C(sp(3))-H Bonds with Palladium(II) Catalysts.

    He, Jian; Jiang, Heng; Takise, Ryosuke; Zhu, Ru-Yi; Chen, Gang; Dai, Hui-Xiong; Dhar, T G Murali; Shi, Jun; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Peter T W; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2016-01-11

    A quinoline-based ligand effectively promotes the palladium-catalyzed borylation of C(sp(3))-H bonds. Primary β-C(sp(3))-H bonds in carboxylic acid derivatives as well as secondary C(sp(3))-H bonds in a variety of carbocyclic rings, including cyclopropanes, cyclobutanes, cyclopentanes, cyclohexanes, and cycloheptanes, can thus be borylated. This directed borylation method complements existing iridium(I)- and rhodium(I)-catalyzed C-H borylation reactions in terms of scope and operational conditions. PMID:26611496

  10. The synthesis of (4- sup 3 H)oxiracetam - a novel nootropic agent

    Crowe, A.M.; Lawrie, K.W.M.; Saunders, D. (SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, Welwyn (UK)); Pfeiffer, U. (ISF, Milan (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of (4-{sup 3}H)oxiracetam from ethyl 2-(4-chloro-3-oxo-butyramido)acetate is described. Ethyl 2-(4-chloro-3-oxo-butyramido)-acetate was reduced with sodium borotritide at Amersham International plc to give ethyl 2-(4-chloro-(3-{sup 3}H)-3-hydroxy-butyramido)acetate. This was elaborated, in four steps, to (4-{sup 3}H)oxiracetam in 4.8% overall radiochemical yield, furnishing 5735 {mu}Ci, 212 MBq, 41.8 {mu}g, of specific activity 21.7 Ci/mmol, 802.9 GBq/mmol, and radiochemical purity of greater than 98%. (author).

  11. Free water 3H concentration in diet samples collected during 1969-88 in Akita, Japan

    Fallout 3H concentrations in diet samples collected during 1969-88 in Akita Prefecture are reported in this paper. Since 3H is a potential nuclear fuel for fusion reactors in future, its environmental behavior is important for dose assessment of released 3H from the plants. Tritium in foods is classified into two types; free water 3H (FWT) and organically-bound 3H (OBT). The FWT is practically separated by means of freeze-drying, while the OBT is measured with water sample collected by combustion of dried sample. The OBT concentrations in foods and human tissue samples were reported for 3H originating from nuclear weapon fallout. We already published 3H concentrations in diet samples collected in Akita City during 1985-88. Although results for the samples collected in U.S.A. and European countries in the 1970s showed higher specific activity of OBT than FWT, our recent results in Japan indicate almost the same specific activity between them. Since the measurements for the samples in 1960s and 1970s are important to understand the long-term movement of 3H in the environment, we have searched old diet samples. Recently, diet samples collected in Akita Prefecture during 1969-80 were found and obtained for 3H analysis. The samples were originally gathered for nutrition survey programs and consisted of duplicate diet samples for 1 day from 10-30 persons. Food samples excluding boiled rice which is the staple food was homogenized by electric mixers after adding tap water. Then, the food and the boiled rice samples were stored in a refrigerator at -20degC. Free water in the samples was collected with lyophilization, then 3H in the water sample was measured after purification with low-level liquid scintillation counters. The free water 3H concentrations were measured for 57 diet samples (dish excluding boiled rice) and 17 boiled rice samples. The free water 3H concentrations in diet and rice samples exponentially decreased from 1969 to 1988 with apparent half time of 5.6y

  12. In vivo portal-hepatic venous gradients of glycogenic precursors and incorporation of D-(3- sup 3 H)glucose into liver glycogen in the awake rat

    Dobson, G.P.; Veech, R.L.; Passonneau, J.V.; Huang, M.T. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (USA))

    1990-09-25

    Male Wistar fed rats were chronically cannulated and fed ground chow for 2 h for 6 days. On the 7th post-operative day, blood was simultaneously drawn from the portal and hepatic veins over a 2-h feeding period. The position of the hepatic vein cannula was verified using a tritiated water washout technique. In separate experiments, 200 microCi of (3-3H)glucose was added to the food in order to determine the contribution of D-glucose and 3-C precursors to newly synthesized glycogen. The 22-h fasting plasma portal vein concentrations of D-glucose, L-lactate, and L-alanine were 4.8 +/- 0.03, 0.81 +/- 0.06, and 0.20 +/- 0.03 mM, respectively (n = 5). The fasting hepatic vein plasma concentrations were 5.1 +/- 0.2, 0.70 +/- 0.15 and 0.19 +/- 0.03 mM, respectively. The portal-hepatic vein gradients after 22 h were -0.24, +0.16, and +0.01 mM for D-glucose, L-lactate, and L-alanine, respectively. At 20 min after beginning the meal, the respective gradients were +2.2, +0.53, and +0.44 mM, indicating hepatic uptake of all glycogen precursors. Of the total carbon from the three major precursors entering the liver as C-6, D-glucose contributed 82%, while alanine and lactate contributed 18% at 20 min. As portal vein D-glucose and L-alanine levels exceeded 6.65 +/- 0.69 and 0.32 +/- 0.07 mM, respectively, the portal-hepatic venous gradient became positive and increased linearly with portal concentrations. The glycogen concentration in the liver increased from a 22-h fast value of 5 mumol of glucosyl units/g wet weight to 101 +/- 7 mumol/g 2 h after the meal. The mean specific activity of portal vein plasma of (3-3H)glucose was 11,490 +/- 1,180 dpm/mumol (+/- S.E.) and that in the glycogen isolated from liver was 8,175 +/- 785 dpm/mumol of glycosyl units 2 h after the meal. The specific activity of liver (3H)glycogen relative to glucose after the meal was 0.73 +/- 0.08.

  13. In vivo portal-hepatic venous gradients of glycogenic precursors and incorporation of D-[3-3H]glucose into liver glycogen in the awake rat

    Male Wistar fed rats were chronically cannulated and fed ground chow for 2 h for 6 days. On the 7th post-operative day, blood was simultaneously drawn from the portal and hepatic veins over a 2-h feeding period. The position of the hepatic vein cannula was verified using a tritiated water washout technique. In separate experiments, 200 microCi of [3-3H]glucose was added to the food in order to determine the contribution of D-glucose and 3-C precursors to newly synthesized glycogen. The 22-h fasting plasma portal vein concentrations of D-glucose, L-lactate, and L-alanine were 4.8 +/- 0.03, 0.81 +/- 0.06, and 0.20 +/- 0.03 mM, respectively (n = 5). The fasting hepatic vein plasma concentrations were 5.1 +/- 0.2, 0.70 +/- 0.15 and 0.19 +/- 0.03 mM, respectively. The portal-hepatic vein gradients after 22 h were -0.24, +0.16, and +0.01 mM for D-glucose, L-lactate, and L-alanine, respectively. At 20 min after beginning the meal, the respective gradients were +2.2, +0.53, and +0.44 mM, indicating hepatic uptake of all glycogen precursors. Of the total carbon from the three major precursors entering the liver as C-6, D-glucose contributed 82%, while alanine and lactate contributed 18% at 20 min. As portal vein D-glucose and L-alanine levels exceeded 6.65 +/- 0.69 and 0.32 +/- 0.07 mM, respectively, the portal-hepatic venous gradient became positive and increased linearly with portal concentrations. The glycogen concentration in the liver increased from a 22-h fast value of 5 mumol of glucosyl units/g wet weight to 101 +/- 7 mumol/g 2 h after the meal. The mean specific activity of portal vein plasma of [3-3H]glucose was 11,490 +/- 1,180 dpm/mumol (+/- S.E.) and that in the glycogen isolated from liver was 8,175 +/- 785 dpm/mumol of glycosyl units 2 h after the meal. The specific activity of liver [3H]glycogen relative to glucose after the meal was 0.73 +/- 0.08

  14. Dopamine D2 receptor radiotracers [11C](+)-PHNO and [3H]raclopride are indistinguishably inhibited by D2 agonists and antagonists ex vivo

    Introduction: In vitro, the dopamine D2 receptor exists in two states, with high and low affinity for agonists. The high-affinity state is the physiologically active state thought to be involved in dopaminergic illnesses such as schizophrenia. The positron emission tomography radiotracer [11C](+)-PHNO ([11C](+)-4-propyl-3,4,4a,5,6,10b-hexahydro-2H-naphtho[1,2-b][1,4] oxazin-9-o l), being a D2 agonist, should selectively label the high-affinity state at tracer dose and therefore be more susceptible to competition by agonist as compared to the antagonist [3H]raclopride, which binds to both affinity states. Methods: We tested this prediction using ex vivo dual-radiotracer experiments in conscious rats. D2 antagonists (haloperidol or clozapine), a partial agonist (aripiprazole), a full agonist [(-)-NPA] or the dopamine-releasing drug amphetamine (AMPH) were administered to rats prior to an intravenous coinjection of [11C](+)-PHNO and [3H]raclopride. Rats were sacrificed 60 min after radiotracer injection. Striatum, cerebellum and plasma samples were counted for 11C and 3H. The specific binding ratio {SBR, i.e., [%ID/g (striatum)-%ID/g (cerebellum)]/(%ID/g (cerebellum)} was used as the outcome measure. Results: In response to D2 antagonists, partial agonist or full agonist, [11C](+)-PHNO and [3H]raclopride SBRs responded indistinguishably in terms of both ED50 and Hill slope (e.g., (-)-NPA ED50 values are 0.027 and 0.023 mg/kg for [11C](+)-PHNO and [3H]raclopride, respectively). In response to AMPH challenge, [11C](+)-PHNO and [3H]raclopride SBRs were inhibited to the same degree. Conclusions: We have shown that the SBRs of [11C](+)-PHNO- and [3H]raclopride do not differ in their response to agonist challenge. These results do not support predictions of the in vivo binding behavior of a D2 agonist radiotracer and cast some doubt on the in vivo applicability of the D2 two-state model, as described by in vitro binding experiments

  15. Dopamine D2 receptor radiotracers [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride are indistinguishably inhibited by D2 agonists and antagonists ex vivo

    McCormick, Patrick N. [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada)], E-mail: patrick.mccormick@camhpet.ca; Kapur, Shitij [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); PET Center, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Seeman, Philip [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan A. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); PET Center, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2008-01-15

    Introduction: In vitro, the dopamine D2 receptor exists in two states, with high and low affinity for agonists. The high-affinity state is the physiologically active state thought to be involved in dopaminergic illnesses such as schizophrenia. The positron emission tomography radiotracer [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO ([{sup 11}C](+)-4-propyl-3,4,4a,5,6,10b-hexahydro-2H-naphtho[1,2-b][1,4] oxazin-9-o l), being a D2 agonist, should selectively label the high-affinity state at tracer dose and therefore be more susceptible to competition by agonist as compared to the antagonist [{sup 3}H]raclopride, which binds to both affinity states. Methods: We tested this prediction using ex vivo dual-radiotracer experiments in conscious rats. D2 antagonists (haloperidol or clozapine), a partial agonist (aripiprazole), a full agonist [(-)-NPA] or the dopamine-releasing drug amphetamine (AMPH) were administered to rats prior to an intravenous coinjection of [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride. Rats were sacrificed 60 min after radiotracer injection. Striatum, cerebellum and plasma samples were counted for {sup 11}C and {sup 3}H. The specific binding ratio {l_brace}SBR, i.e., [%ID/g (striatum)-%ID/g (cerebellum)]/(%ID/g (cerebellum){r_brace} was used as the outcome measure. Results: In response to D2 antagonists, partial agonist or full agonist, [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride SBRs responded indistinguishably in terms of both ED{sub 50} and Hill slope (e.g., (-)-NPA ED{sub 50} values are 0.027 and 0.023 mg/kg for [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride, respectively). In response to AMPH challenge, [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride SBRs were inhibited to the same degree. Conclusions: We have shown that the SBRs of [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO- and [{sup 3}H]raclopride do not differ in their response to agonist challenge. These results do not support predictions of the in vivo binding behavior of a D2 agonist radiotracer and cast some doubt on the in vivo

  16. Microwave activated synthesis of 2-aryl-quinazolin-4(3H)ones

    2007-01-01

    A highly efficient synthesis of 2-aryl-quinazolin-4(3H)ones was performed by one-pot oxidative heterocyclization of 2-aminobenzamide with aldehydes in the presence of potassium permanganate in dimethylacetamide under microwave irradiation.

  17. Ground state structures and properties of Si3H ( = 1–6) clusters

    D Balamurugan; R Prasad

    2003-01-01

    The ground state structures and properties of Si3H (1 ≤ ≤ 6) clusters have been calculated using Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics with simulated annealing and steepest descent optimization methods. We have studied cohesive energy per particle and first excited electronic level gap of the clusters as a function of hydrogenation. Hydrogenation is done till all dangling bonds of silicon are saturated. Our results show that over coordination of hydrogen is favoured in Si3H clusters and the geometry of Si3 cluster does not change due to hydrogenation. Cohesive energy per particle and first excited electronic level gap study of the clusters show that Si3H6 cluster is most stable and Si3H3 cluster is most unstable among the clusters considered here.

  18. The effects of tritium on embryo development: the embryotoxic effects of [3H]tryptophan

    The effects of tritiated amino acids on the development of the early mouse embryo in vitro are described. [3H]tryptophan was extremely toxic, compared with [3H]glutamic acid, and inhibited growth of the two-cell embryo to the blastocyst stage. The LD50 values for the two amino acids were, respectively, 1 and 296 kBq/ml of medium. The two-cell embryo was more sensitive to the irradiation from incorporated [3H]tryptophan than any later stage of development. It was shown that [3H]tryptophan is selectively incorporated into two chromosomal proteins in the two-cell embryo, and that those proteins were stage-specific markers of development. (author)

  19. N-[3H]acetyl-labeling, a convenient method for radiolabeling of glycosaminoglycans

    A method for the introduction of N-[3H]acetyl groups into glycosaminoglycans is described. The procedure is based on [3H]acetylation of N-unsubstituted hexosamine residues by treating the polysaccharides with [3H]acetic anhydride. Preparations of heparin and heparin sulfate were found to contain significant numbers of N-unsubstituted hexosamine residues, as isolates. In contrast, such units could not be detected in chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, or hyaluronic acid. These polysaccharides were therefore subjected to partial N-deacetylation by reaction with hydrazine in the presence of hydrazine sulfate. After treatment with [3H]acetic anhydride, the specific activities of the resulting labeled polysaccharide preparations ranged between 0.1 X 106 and 0.6 X 106 cpm 3H/μg of uronic acid. The 3H-labeled polysaccharide preparations did not differ significantly from the corresponding unlabeled starting materials with regard to polyanion properties (chromatography on DEAE-cellulose) or polymer chain size (gel chromatography). Further, the radiolabeled polysaccharide derivatives were susceptible to specific enzymatic degradation (chondroitinase ABC and mammalian heparitinase) and retained their ability to interact specifically with certain proteins - for example, [3H]heparin with antithrombin [3H]hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. These findings indicate that the labeling procedures did not induce any major structural derangement of the polysaccharide molecules. The method developed should be useful in providing labeled glycosaminoglycans for metabolic and enzymatic experiments as well as for studies on the interacion between glycosaminoglycans and other bilogical macromolecules

  20. N-(/sup 3/H)acetyl-labeling, a convenient method for radiolabeling of glycosaminoglycans

    Hook, M.; Riesenfeld, J.; Lindahl, U.

    1982-01-15

    A method for the introduction of N-(/sup 3/H)acetyl groups into glycosaminoglycans is described. The procedure is based on (/sup 3/H)acetylation of N-unsubstituted hexosamine residues by treating the polysaccharides with (/sup 3/H)acetic anhydride. Preparations of heparin and heparin sulfate were found to contain significant numbers of N-unsubstituted hexosamine residues, as isolates. In contrast, such units could not be detected in chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, or hyaluronic acid. These polysaccharides were therefore subjected to partial N-deacetylation by reaction with hydrazine in the presence of hydrazine sulfate. After treatment with (/sup 3/H)acetic anhydride, the specific activities of the resulting labeled polysaccharide preparations ranged between 0.1 X 10/sup 6/ and 0.6 X 10/sup 6/ cpm /sup 3/H/..mu..g of uronic acid. The /sup 3/H-labeled polysaccharide preparations did not differ significantly from the corresponding unlabeled starting materials with regard to polyanion properties (chromatography on DEAE-cellulose) or polymer chain size (gel chromatography). Further, the radiolabeled polysaccharide derivatives were susceptible to specific enzymatic degradation (chondroitinase ABC and mammalian heparitinase) and retained their ability to interact specifically with certain proteins - for example, (/sup 3/H)heparin with antithrombin (/sup 3/H)hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. These findings indicate that the labeling procedures did not induce any major structural derangement of the polysaccharide molecules. The method developed should be useful in providing labeled glycosaminoglycans for metabolic and enzymatic experiments as well as for studies on the interacion between glycosaminoglycans and other bilogical macromolecules.

  1. Artifactual high-affinity and saturable binding of (3H)5-hydroxytryptamine induced by radioligand oxidation

    Peroutka, S.J.; Ison, P.J.; Liu, D.U.; Barrett, R.W.

    1986-07-01

    The binding of (3H)5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) to cerebellar membranes was examined after preincubation of (/sup 3/H)5-HT in the presence or absence of ascorbate. The tissue preparation was identical in all experiments and consisted of rat cerebellar homogenates in Tris-HCl buffer with 0.1% ascorbate. Cerebellar membranes were used because of their low density of 5-HT1 binding sites. In the presence of ascorbate during a 4-h preincubation period, minimal specific binding of 2 nM (/sup 3/H)5-HT is detected. Similar results are obtained with equimolar concentrations of other antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene, sodium dithionite, and sodium metabisulfite). Apparent specific binding increases 14-fold following a 4-h preincubation of (/sup 3/H)5-HT in the absence of ascorbate. The increase in apparent specific (/sup 3/H)5-HT binding is time-dependent and plateaus after 4-6 h of preincubation. When ascorbate is present during the 4-h preincubation, Scatchard analysis of (/sup 3/H)5-HT binding reveals a KD value of 3.0 +/- 0.3 nM and a Bmax value of 1.9 +/- 0.2 pmol/g tissue. When ascorbate is absent during the preincubation, the KD is essentially unchanged at 3.6 +/- 0.1 nM but the Bmax is significantly increased to 36.5 +/- 7 pmol/g tissue. Drug competition studies reveal that the apparent specific (/sup 3/H)5-HT binding in the absence of ascorbate appears to be displaced by nanomolar concentrations of hydroxylated tryptamines (5-HT, bufotenine) but not by nonhydroxylated tryptamines (5-methoxytryptamine, tryptamine). HPLC analysis demonstrates that (3H)5-HT is essentially destroyed by a 4-h incubation at 22/sup 0/C in the absence of ascorbate.

  2. Studies of the uptake and release of [3H]β-alanine by frog spinal slices

    [3H]β-alanine was accumulated by frog spinal cord slices by two transport components with estimated Ksub(m) values of μM ('high-affinity') and 11 mM ('low affinity') respectively. The high affinity uptake exhibited sodium ion and energy dependence, temperature sensitivity, had a very low Vsub(max) (10.4 nmol/g/min) compared to GABA and glycine, was competitively inhibited by GABA (Ksub(i) 2μM), and was significantly reduced by the presence of glycine and of taurine in the incubating medium. When slices preloaded with [3H]β-alanine were superfused with medium containing depolarizing concentrations of potassium ions, there was a small, but consistent, increase in [3H]β-alanine efflux: 1.4 times prestimulation rates in 40 mM potassium. When the superfusate was altered by omission of calcium and addition of concentrations of magnesium (10 mM), manganese (1 mM), and cobalt (1 mM) ions sufficient to block reflex transmission in the isolated in vitro frog cord, the potassium-evoked release was not blocked. Release was decreased by lanthanum ions (1 mM). Release of [3H]GABA and [3H]glycine in parallel experiments was inhibited by magnesium, manganese, cobalt and lanthanum. Veratridine significantly increased the release of [3H]GABA and [3H]glycine but not of [3H]β-alanine. These observations demonstrate the non-specificity of β-alanine uptake and the unconventional nature of the calcium-dependence of β-alanine release and therefore do not lend support to the hypothesis that β-alanine functions as a neurotransmitter in frog spinal cord. (author)

  3. Control by fibroblast growth factor of differentiation in the BC3H1 muscle cell line

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) expression by polypeptide growth factors has been examined in the clonal mouse muscle BC3H1 cell line. After arrest of cell growth by exposure to low concentrations of serum, BC3H1 cells accumulate high levels of muscle- specific proteins including CPK. The induction of this enzyme is reversible in the presence of high concentrations of fetal calf serum, which cause quiescent, differentiated cells to reenter the cell cycle. Under these conditions...

  4. Solubility polytherms of NaCl(KCl)-GdCl3-H2O system

    The isothermal method in the temperature range from 25 up to 100 deg C has been used to study the solubility in the NaCl-GdCl3-H2O and KCl-GdCl3-H2O systems. The limits of the NaCl, KCl and GdCl3x6H2O crystallization are discriminated. Solubility polytherms of the systems are plotted

  5. Synthesis and formation mechanism of micro/nano flower-like MgCO3·5H2O

    Yin, Wan-zhong; Wang, Yu-lian; Ji, Qiang-dong; Yao, Jin; Hou, Ying; Wang, Lei; Zhong, Wen-xing

    2014-03-01

    Micro/nano magnesium carbonate pentahydrate (MgCO3·5H2O) with flower-like morphology was synthesized using magnesite as a substrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate as an additive. The synthesized samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. The influence of pyrolysis time on crystal morphology was explored. The formation mechanism was investigated on the basis of the characterized results and the crystal structure of MgCO3·5H2O. The results showed that the flower-like MgCO3·5H2O was 1.5-3.0 μm in length and 100-500 nm in diameter and was successfully obtained with a pyrolysis time of 30 min. The formation mechanism of flower-like MgCO3·5H2O is suggested to be the selective adsorption of potassium dihydrogen phosphate on the surface. The process of flower-like crystal growth is as follows: amorphous nanoparticles formation, acicular and rod monocrystal formation, flower-like monocrystal formation, and flower-like polymers (MgCO3·5H2O) crystallization. In the MgCO3·5H2O crystal, the magnesium ion presents two different octahedral coordinations corresponding to Mg(H2O){6/2-} and [Mg(H2O) (CO{3/2-})2]2-, and the chemical formula of the crystal is Mg(H2O)6 · Mg(H2O)4 (CO{3/2-})2.

  6. The effect of light exposure following an intraocular injection of [3H]N-acetylmannosamine on the labeling of gangliosides and glycoproteins of retina ganglion cells and optic tectum of singly caged chickens

    Ten-day-old chickens that after a 2-day-period of adaptation to dark received an intraocular injection of [3H]N-acetylmannosamine ([3H]ManNAc) and were exposed, individually housed, to light, have more labeling in the gangliosides and glycoproteins of the ganglion cell layer of retina and in the contralateral optic tectum compared to their counterparts that remained in darkness. No differences were found in the labeling of the acid soluble fraction of the ganglion cell layer between the animals in dark and light at 0.5 and 5 h after the injection of [3H]ManNAc. No differences could be observed in the quality or storage of the gangliosides labeled in light with respect to those labeled in dark, but those labeled in light had a higher percentage of labeling released by neuraminidase at 5 h after the intraocular injection of the labeled precursor. In animals exposed to intermittent light, the increased labeling with respect to dark was smaller than that found in animals exposed continuously to light. (Auth.)

  7. A single-vial biphasic liquid extraction assay for choline acetyltransferease using [3H]choline

    A single-vial liquid extraction assay for choline acetyltransferase that uses [3H]choline as the labeled substrate has been devised. [3H]Choline is incubated with an excess of acetyl-CoA in a small reaction vial which also serves as a scintillation vial. After a suitable reaction period, unreacted [3H]choline is quickly and quantitatively converted to phosphoryl-[3H]choline by the addition of an excess of choline kinase. This treatment is followed by the addition of scintillation fluid containing sodium tetraphenylboron after which the vial is capped, shaken, and counted. A two-phase system is produced in which product [3H]choline is selectively extracted into the scintillation fluid, where is is counted. Phosphoryl-[3H]choline remains in the aqueous phase and is not counted. This assay is rapid, simple, and quite sensitive. In comparison to assays using acetyl-CoA as the labeled substrate, it is less sensitive to interference by other enzymes and thus more suitable for measuring choline acetyltransferase in crude extracts and in the initial stages of purificaton. Similar single-vial radiometric assays are described for choline kinase and acetyl-CoA hydrolases

  8. Rates of [3H]thymidine incorporation into thymidine triphosphate vs nuclear matrix DNA in vivo

    Previous studies in vitro have indicated the possible existence of more than one thymidine pool accessible to DNA replication forks. To investigate this possibility in vivo, the incorporation of [3H]thymidine (3H-Thd) into matrix DNA and soluble thymidine triphosphate (TTP) was examined in regenerating rat liver. Nuclear matrix-attached DNA, although only 2% of total nuclear DNA, represents the most newly replicated DNA in eukaryotic cells, thereby providing a very sensitive means of examining precursor incorporation kinetics. Partially hepatectomized rats were injected with 200 μC 3H-Thd via the hepatic portal vein. After various pulse times, matrix DNA and/or soluble TTP were extracted and their specific activities determined. After only 1 min, the labeling of matrix DNA had already reached a maximum. Matrix DNA contained 27% of the label at 2 min, 11% at 5 min, and only 5% at 10 min with respect to total DNA. Contrary to the kinetics found for matrix DNA, 3H-Thd incorporation into TTP was still increasing at early pulse times and had not peaked even after a 10 min pulse. Five min after injection, TTP specific activity was 3050 dpm/nmole and was 7030 dpm/nmole after 10 min. Since the peak specific activity for [3H]-Thd incorporation into matrix DNA precedes that for [3H]-Thd into TTP, there may be channeling of exogenous thymidine directly to the site of DNA synthesis bypassing existing nucleotide pools

  9. Temperature-sensitive high affinity [3H]serotonin binding: characterization and effects of antidepressant treatment

    Characterization of temperature-sensitive [3H]serotonin (5-HT) binding sites (1 and 4 nM Kd sites) revealed complex inhibition by neuroleptics and serotonin antagonists. There was no simple correlation with affinities for S1 and S2 receptors. In vivo pretreatment (48 h before) with mianserin did not alter B/sub max/ or Kd for the 1 nM Kd [3H]5-HT site, although [3H]ketanserin (S2) densities were decreased by 50%. This suggested that possible S2 components of [3H]5-HT binding must be negligible, even though ketanserin competed with high affinity (IC50 = 3 nM) for a portion of the 1 nM Kd [3H]5-HT site. Low concentrations of mianserin inhibited the 1 nM Kd [3H]5-HT site in a non-competitive manner, as shown by a decrease in B/sub max/ with no change in Kd after in vitro incubation. The complex inhibition data may therefore represent indirect interactions through another site

  10. Uptake, incorporation and metabolism of ( sup 3 H)triolein in the isolated perfused rabbit heart

    Weis, M.T.; Palazzo, A.J.; Williams, J.L. Jr.; Malik, K.U. (Univ. of Tennessee Center for the Health Sciences, Memphis (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the uptake and metabolism of exogenous triglyceride in the isolated perfused rabbit heart. When infused into the rabbit heart, (9,10-3H(N))triolein was retained and incorporated into a lipid fraction that had the chromatographic mobility of authentic triolein. Incorporation of labeled triolein was not likely to be the result of a lipoprotein lipase-mediated lipolysis/resynthesis cycle, since: (i) The distribution of radioactivity following administration of (3H)oleic acid was markedly different from the distribution of radioactivity following the administration of (3H)triolein; (ii) heparin was administered to the rabbits at the time of sacrifice; and (iii) the hearts were perfused with a protein-free buffer for 20 min prior to the labelling period. When isoproterenol was administered to hearts labelled with (3H)triolein, there was an increased output of total radioactivity, composed of labelled free fatty acids, diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol. In these same hearts, there was an increased output of glycerol in response to isoproterenol. However, following the administration of bradykinin or angiotensin II, neither the radioactivity nor the glycerol content of the perfusate was changed. These data suggest that (3H)triolein is selectively incorporated into the triglyceride pool of the isolated perfused rabbit heart. Furthermore, this (3H)triolein is available to hormonally-activated lipolytic enzymes.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Ru(II) complexes with polyfunctional quinazoline-(3H)-4-ones

    Few Ru(II) complexes of the type Ru(O-N-O)2 with tridentate O-N-O donors and of the type RuCl2(O-N)2 with bidentate O-O and O-N donors have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of analytical, conductivity, thermal, magnetic, IR, electronic and PMR spectral data. The IR and PMR spectral data of the metal complexes indicate that the lignads like 2-methyl/phenyl-3-(2'-hydroxybenzalamino) quinazoline-(3H)-4-one(MHBQ/PHBQ) act as uninegative tridentate, 2-methyl/phenyl-3-(carboxymethyl) quinazoline(3H)-4-one (MCMQ/PCMQ) as uninegative bidentate and 2-methyl/phenyl-3-(furfuralamino) quinazoline-(3H)-4-one (MFQ/PFQ), 2-methyl/phenyl-3-(acetamino) quinazoline-(3H)-4-one (MAQ/PAQ), 2-methyl/phenyl3-(uramino)quinazoline-(3H)-4-one (MUQ/PUQ) and 2-methyl/phenyl-3-thiouramino)quinazoline-(3H)-4-one-(MTUQ/PTUQ) as neutral bidentate ligands. The electronic spectral data of the complexes indicate that the arrangement around Ru(II) is octahedral. (author). 25 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Competition for in vitro [3H]gibberellin A4 binding in cucumber by substituted phthalimides

    Certain N-substituted phthalimides (NSPs) have gibberellin (GA)-like activity in a number of GA bioassays. The interaction between representative NSPs and a protein fraction from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls that has GA-binding characteristics consistent with those expected of GA receptors was studied. Analysis of in vitro equilibrium saturation data indicated the presence of only one class of high affinity [3H]GA4 binding sites (Kd ∼30 nanomolar, n = 0.25 picomole per milligram of protein). In the presence of 6 or 60 micromolar 1-[3-chlorophthalimido]-cyclohexanecarboximide (AC-94,377), the Kd for [3H]GA4 increased, whereas the maximum number of saturable [3H]GA4 binding sites did not change significantly. The dissociation of [3H]GA4 from its binding sites was complex and was best described by a bi-exponential equation. AC-94,377 did not affect the rates of [3H]GA4 dissociation from its binding sites. These results implied that AC-94,377 and [3H]GA4 compete for binding to the same sites. A correlation was observed between the activity of over 20 NSPs in the cucumber hypocotyl bioassay and their in vitro affinity for the GA binding sites. Our observations lend further support to the notion that certain GA binding proteins in cucumber cytosol are GA receptors and also provide a molecular explanation for the GA-like in vivo activity of some NSPs

  13. Evaluation of sup 3 H-paroxetine as a radiopharmaceutical for lung function

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Goromaru, Tsuyoshi (Fukuyama Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences)

    1989-07-01

    The potential of {sup 3}H-paroxetine as a radiotracer for in vivo study of the function in mouse lung was examined. The high accumulation of radioactivity in the mouse lung was observed after intravenous administration of {sup 3}H-paroxetine. However, the distributions of radioactivity in the mouse lung were not significantly decreased by treatment with paroxetine or other monoamine uptake inhibitors (6-nitroquipazine, desipramine and GBR 12909). It was found that the radioactivity in the mouse lung at 1 hr after intravenous administration of {sup 3}H-paroxetine was due to unmetabolized {sup 3}H-paroxetine from TLC and HPLC analyses. Furthermore, {sup 3}H-paroxetine exhibits both saturable and high affinity binding sites in mouse lung with a maximal number of binding sites (B{sub max}) of 303 fmoles/mg protein and a dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of 92.2 pM. These results suggest that {sup 3}H-paroxetine would be a suitable radiopharmaceutical for in vivo study of the function of lung as a metabolic organ of serotonin.

  14. Morphological and biochemical studies of canine progressive rod-cone degeneration. 3H-fucose autoradiography

    Visual cell pathology and rod outer segment renewal were investigated in normal and PRCD-affected miniature poodles using 3H-fucose autoradiography. Twenty-four hours following the intravitreal injection of 3H-fucose, label accumulated diffusely over cone OS and in a banded pattern at the rod OS base. In normal rods, the band of 3H-label was displaced sclerad with time. PRCD-affected rods in the early stages of the disease (stages 0-1) also showed a similar 3H-label pattern but a significantly (P less than 0.001) reduced renewal rate (control = 2.35 +/- 0.43 mu/24 hr; affected = 0.99 +/- mu/24 hr). This abnormal renewal rate was present in central, equatorial, and peripheral visual cells and was not associated with the presence or density of pigment in the RPE cell layer. Biochemical studies indicated that the 3H-label was present as an integral membrane component in the rod OS and confirmed that canine rhodopsin is a fucosylated glycoprotein. The 3H-band in the rod OS layer disappeared in stage 2 of the disease; diffuse label now was present over rod OS that had decreased length and were reduced in number. At this stage of the disease, interphotoreceptor space was invaded by phagocytic cells, and photoreceptor nuclei were lost from the outer nuclear layer. These late degenerative changes were more extensive in the superior and inferior retinal meridians

  15. Autoradiographic localization of specific [3H]dexamethasone binding in fetal lung

    The cellular and subcellular localization of specific [3H]dexamethasone binding was examined in fetal mouse lung at various stages of development and in human fetal lung at 8 weeks of gestation using a rapid in vitro steroid incubation technique followed by thaw-mount autoradiography. Competition studies with unlabeled steroids demonstrate the specificity of [3H]dexamethasone labeling, and indicate that fetal lung mesenchyme is a primary glucocorticoid target during lung development. Autoradiographs of [3H]dexamethasone binding in lung tissue at early stages of development demonstrate that the mesenchyme directly adjacent to the more proximal portions of the bronchiolar network is heavily labeled. In contrast, the epithelium which will later differentiate into bronchi and bronchioles, is relatively unlabeled. Distal portions of the growing epithelium, destined to become alveolar ducts and alveoli, do show nuclear localization of [3H]dexamethasone. In addition, by utilizing a technique which allows the simultaneous examination of extracellular matrix components and [3H]dexamethasone binding, a relationship is observed between extensive mesenchymal [3H]dexamethasone binding and extensive extracellular matrix accumulation. Since glucocorticoids stimulate the synthesis of many extracellular matrix components, these results suggest a role for these hormones in affecting mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during lung morphogenesis

  16. Full-dimensional quantum dynamics study of the H2 + C2H → H + C2H2 reaction on an ab initio potential energy surface.

    Chen, Liuyang; Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Yang, Minghui; Zhang, Dong H

    2016-05-21

    This work performs a time-dependent wavepacket study of the H2 + C2H → H + C2H2 reaction on a new ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The PES is constructed using neural network method based on 68 478 geometries with energies calculated at UCCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVTZ level and covers H2 + C2H↔H + C2H2, H + C2H2 → HCCH2, and HCCH2 radial isomerization reaction regions. The reaction dynamics of H2 + C2H → H + C2H2 are investigated using full-dimensional quantum dynamics method. The initial-state selected reaction probabilities are calculated for reactants in eight vibrational states. The calculated results showed that the H2 vibrational excitation predominantly enhances the reactivity while the excitation of bending mode of C2H slightly inhibits the reaction. The excitations of two stretching modes of C2H molecule have negligible effect on the reactivity. The integral cross section is calculated with J-shift approximation and the mode selectivity in this reaction is discussed. The rate constants over 200-2000 K are calculated and agree well with the experimental measured values. PMID:27208951

  17. Translocation of 3H-DNA, 131I-ribonuclease and 3H-DNA 131I-ribonuclease complexes in germinated barley grains

    Barley grains, after germinating for 11 hours in the presence of water, were cut into sections at the end opposite the embryo. They were incubated in solutions of 3H-DNA, 13II-ribonuclease, and 3H-DNA 131I-ribonuclease complex for three hours. They were then placed in a water-saturated atmosphere for 24 hours. At this stage the different organs of the seedlings were separated and homogenized in a solution containing 0.15M sodium chloride and 0.1 M sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate at pH 7. By measuring the radioactivity found in the homogenates one can estimate the penetration of the macromolecules under study. The results show that the quantity found varies from one case to the other and depends both on the nature of the macromolecule and of the organ studied. (author)

  18. Radiosynthesis of a chloroacetanilide herbicide ([phenyl-4-3 H] acetochlor) and a dichloroacetamide safener for herbicides [2,2-dimethyl-3 H]R-29148

    2-Chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl) acetamide (the chloroacetanilide herbicide acetochlor) and 3-(dichloroacetyl)-2,2,5-trimethyl-1, 3-oxazolidine (the dichloroacetamide safener R-29148) are required at high specific activity for studies on their metabolism and mode of action. [phenyl-4-3H]Acetochlor was obtained at 22 Ci/mmol in 71% yield by reductive dehalogenation of iodoacetochlor with tritium gas in ethanol in the presence of palladium on carbon and triethylamine. [2,2-dimethyl-3H]R-29148 was prepared at 15 Ci/mmol by treating acetone and 1-amino-2-propanol in pentane with two equivalents of NaOH in tritiated water (i.e. hydroxide ion-catalyzed enolization of acetone) followed by dichloroacetyl chloride. (Author)

  19. (125I)LSD labels 5-TCsub(IC) recognition sites in pig choriod plexus membranes. Comparison with (3H)mesulergine and (3H)5-HT binding

    The mammalian choroid plexus is enriched in a newly described serotonin recognition site, the binding characteristics of (125I)LSD, (3H)mesulergine and (3H)serotonin to pig choroid plexus membranes were compared. These ligands labelled with high affinity a similar number of sites. The binding profiles of the sites labelled with these radioligands are indistinguishable as illustrated by highly significant correlation parameters. These sites are very similar to those labelled by Nsub(I)-methyl-2-(125I)LSD in pig and rat choroid plexus membranes. The data demonstrate that these ligands label 5-HTsub(IC) recognition sites in the pig and rat choroid plexus membranes. (author)

  20. Spin-orbit Splitting and Lifetime Broadening in the A2△ Electronic State of l-C5H

    Mohammad Ali Haddad; Dong-feng Zhao; Harold Linnartza; Wim Ubachs

    2012-01-01

    Optical absorption bands at ~18772 and ~18807 cm-1,previously assigned to A2△-X2Ⅱelectronic origin band transitions of the linear carbon-chain radicals C5H and CsD,respectively,have been reinvestigated.The spectra have been recorded in direct absorption applying cavity ring-down spectroscopy to a supersonically expanding acetylene/helium plasma.The improved spectra allow deducing a l-C5H upper state spin-orbit coupling constant A1=-0.7(3) cm-1 and a A2△ lifetime of 1.6±0.3 ps.

  1. Nigral dopamine type-1 receptors are reduced in Huntington's disease: A postmortem autoradiographic study using [3H]SCH 23390 and correlation with [3H]forskolin binding

    Intrastriatal injection of excitatory amino acids, particularly quinolinic acid, has been proposed as an animal model of Huntington's disease. Such neurotoxic lesions of caudate-putamen result in marked dopamine type-1 (D1) receptor losses in the injected nuclei as well as in the ipsilateral substantia nigra pars reticulata. Postmortem human substantia nigra from Huntington's disease brains and from control brains were examined using in vitro autoradiography. A marked reduction in [3H]SCH 23390 binding (labeling D1 receptors) in the substantia nigra of postmortem brains of Huntington's patients was identified, thus paralleling the alterations seen in the animal models. A positive, statistically significant correlation was also encountered between D1 receptor binding (labeled by [3H]SCH 23390) and [3H]forskolin binding (which identifies adenylate cyclase, a second messenger system linked to D1 receptor activation). The results suggest that in the human--as in lower vertebrates--D1 receptors are located on striatonigral terminals and that D1 receptor loss tends to be paralleled by a reduction in adenylate cyclase. Radioactive agents selective for the D1 receptor may prove useful in future studies of Huntington's disease using positron emission tomography scanning

  2. Sandwich SrTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}/H-Titanate nanofiber composite photocatalysts for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Liu, Yuanxu; Wang, Zhonglei; Wang, Wendong [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); An, Xiaoqiang [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC 1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Mi, Shiyang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Tang, Junwang [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC 1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Huang, Weixin, E-mail: huangwx@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SrTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}/H-titanate nanofiber composites with sandwich heterojunctions are prepared. • Sandwich heterojunctions largely improves the charge separation efficiency. • Photo-excited electrons exclusively transfer to photocatalytically active TiO{sub 2} component. • Sandwich composites are most active in the photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution reaction. • Multi-heterojunctions strategy is proposed for efficient photocatalysts. - Abstract: SrTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}/H-Titanate nanofiber composites were synthesized through facile thermal treatment of Sr(OH){sub 2} and H-titanate nanofibers in an ethanol/water solution and their photocatalytic activities for H{sub 2} evolution from a methanol/water solution under simulated solar irradiation were evaluated. TiO{sub 2}/H-titanate nanofiber composites were acquired without Sr(OH){sub 2} addition. At low Sr/Ti molar ratios, SrTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}/H-titanate nanofiber composites form. SrTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles were found to selectively grow on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, forming a unique SrTiO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}-H-titanate sandwich heterojunction. Upon increasing the Sr/Ti molar ratio, the fraction of TiO{sub 2} in the resultant composites decreases and eventually SrTiO{sub 3}/H-titanate nanofiber composites form. SrTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}/H-titanate nanofiber composites are significantly more photocatalytically active than SrTiO{sub 3}/H-titanate nanofiber and TiO{sub 2}/H-titanate nanofiber composites due to the mitigated charge recombination and the accumulation of photo-excited electrons on the photocatalytically active TiO{sub 2} component. These results demonstrate an effective strategy of multi-heterojunctions with both appropriately-aligned band structures and appropriately-arranged composite structures to fabricate efficient composite photocatalysts.

  3. Depletion of (/sup 3/H)methyltrienolone cytosol binding in glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy (42001)

    Kurowski, T.T.; Capaccio, J.A.; Chatterton, R.T. Jr.; Hickson, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine cytosol binding properties of (/sup 3/H)methyltrienolone, a synthetic androgen, in comparison with (/sup 3/)dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, under conditions of glucocorticoid excess in skeletal muscle. Male hypophysectomized rats received either seven daily subcutaneous injections of cortisone acetate (CA) (100 mg x kg/sup -1/ body wt) or the vehicle, 1% carboxymethyl cellulose. Following treatment, both (/sup 3/H)dexamethansone and (/sup 3/H)methyltrienolone-receptor concentrations were decreased from those in vehicle-treated rats by more than 90 and 80%, respectively, in CA-treated animals. Scatchard analysis of (/sup 3/H)methyltrienolone binding in muscles of vehicle-treated animals became nonlinear at high concentrations of labeled ligand and were reanalyzed by a two-component binding model. The lower affinity, higher capacity component, which was attributed to binding of methyltrienolone to a dexamethasone component, which was attributed to binding of methyltrienolone to a dexamethasone component, disappeared in muscles of CA-treated rats and Scatchard plots were linear. Receptor concentrations of the higher affinity lower capacity methyltrienolone component were similar in muscles of vehicle-treated and CA-treated groups. From competition studies, the high relative specificities of glucocorticoids for (/sup 3/H)methyltrienolone binding in muscles of vehicle-treated animals were markedly reduced by CA treatment. In addition, the binding specificity data also showed strong competition by progesterone and methyltrienolone for (/sup 3/H)dexamethasone binding and estradiol-17..beta.. for (/sup 3/H)methyltrienolone binding.

  4. Characterization and regulation of [3H]-serotonin uptake and release in rodent spinal

    The uptake and release of [3H]-serotonin were investigated in rat spinal cord synaptosomes. In the uptake experiments, sodium-dependent and sodium-independent [3H]-serotonin accumulation processes were found. Sodium-dependent [3H]-serotonin accumulation was: linear with sodium concentrations up to 180 mM; decreased by disruption of membrane integrity or ionic gradients; associated with purified synaptosomal fractions; and reduced after description of descending serotonergic neurons in the spinal cord. Of the uptake inhibitors tested, the most potent was fluoxetine (IC50 75 nM), followed by desipramine (IC50 430 nM) and nomifensine (IC50 950 nM). The sodium-independent [3H]-serotonin accumulation process was insensitive to most treatments and probably represents nonspecific membrane binding. Thus, only sodium-dependent [3H]-serotonin uptake represents the uptake process of serotonergic nerve terminals in rat spinal cord homogenates. In the release experiments, K+-induced release of previously accumulated [3H]-serotonin was Ca2+-dependent, and originated from serotonergic synaptosomes. Exogenous serotonin and 5-methyoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine inhibited [3H]-serotonin release in a concentration-dependent way. Of the antagonists tested, only methiothepin effectively blocked the effect of serotonin. These data support the existence of presynaptic serotonin autoreceptors on serotonergic nerve terminals in the rat spinal cord that act to inhibit a voltage and Ca2+-sensitive process linked to serotonin release. Alteration of spinai cord serotonergic function may therefore be possible by drugs acting on presynaptic serotonin autoreceptors in the spinal cord

  5. Characterization and regulation of (/sup 3/H)-serotonin uptake and release in rodent spinal

    Stauderman, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake and release of (/sup 3/H)-serotonin were investigated in rat spinal cord synaptosomes. In the uptake experiments, sodium-dependent and sodium-independent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin accumulation processes were found. Sodium-dependent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin accumulation was: linear with sodium concentrations up to 180 mM; decreased by disruption of membrane integrity or ionic gradients; associated with purified synaptosomal fractions; and reduced after description of descending serotonergic neurons in the spinal cord. Of the uptake inhibitors tested, the most potent was fluoxetine (IC/sub 50/ 75 nM), followed by desipramine (IC/sub 50/ 430 nM) and nomifensine (IC/sub 50/ 950 nM). The sodium-independent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin accumulation process was insensitive to most treatments and probably represents nonspecific membrane binding. Thus, only sodium-dependent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin uptake represents the uptake process of serotonergic nerve terminals in rat spinal cord homogenates. In the release experiments, K/sup +/-induced release of previously accumulated (/sup 3/H)-serotonin was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent, and originated from serotonergic synaptosomes. Exogenous serotonin and 5-methyoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine inhibited (/sup 3/H)-serotonin release in a concentration-dependent way. Of the antagonists tested, only methiothepin effectively blocked the effect of serotonin. These data support the existence of presynaptic serotonin autoreceptors on serotonergic nerve terminals in the rat spinal cord that act to inhibit a voltage and Ca/sup 2 +/-sensitive process linked to serotonin release. Alteration of spinai cord serotonergic function may therefore be possible by drugs acting on presynaptic serotonin autoreceptors in the spinal cord.

  6. Photodegradation of amoxicillin by catalyzed Fe3+/H2O2 process

    Xiaoming Li; Tingting Shen; Dongbo Wang; Xiu Yue; Xian Liu; Qi Yang; Jianbin Cao; Wei Zheng; Guangming Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Three oxidation processes of UV-Fe3+(EDTA)/H2O2 (UV:ultraviolet light; EDTA:ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid),UV-Fe3+/H2O2 and Fe3+/H2O2 were simultaneously investigated for the degradation of amoxicillin at pH 7.0.The results indicated that,100% amoxicillin degradation and 81.9% chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) removal could be achieved in the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process.The treatment efficiency of amoxicillin and CODcr removal were found to decrease to 59.0% and 43.0% in the UV-Fe3+/H2O2 process;39.6% and 31.3% in the Fe3+/H2O2 process.Moreover,the results of biodegradability (biological oxygen demand (BOD5)/CODCr ratio) revealed that the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process was a promising strategy to degrade amoxicillin as the biodegradability of the effluent was improved to 0.45,compared with the cases of UV-Fe3+/H2O2 (0.25) and Fe3+/H2O2 (0.10) processes.Therefore,it could be deduced that EDTA and UV light performed synergetic catalytic effect on the Fe3+/H2O2 process,enhancing the treatment efficiency.The degradation mechanisms were also investigated via UV-Vis spectra,and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectra.The degradation pathway of amoxicillin was further proposed.

  7. Tissue distribution of 3H-nicotine in rats after bolus or constant injection

    Two groups of rats, (N = 7), were fasted for 24 hrs prior to the study. On the day of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized and infused with either 5 ml nicotine solution (200 μg/L) in saline containing 5 μc 3H-nicotine, (sp. activity 50-80 mCi/mol) for 90 minutes or injected as a bolus with 0.5 ml of the same nicotine (200 μg/L) solution. The animals were sacrificed 60 minutes after the injection or after the infusion was stopped. Blood and tissue samples were counted by liquid scintillation counting. Percent distribution of 3H-nicotine per gm of tissue was calculated from the total radioactivity recovered in individual tissues over the total activity injected into the rat and the values were compared using student's t test. Results: Distribution of 3H-nicotine was found highest in kidney (45-49%) among all tissues examined and was not different between routes of administration. Significantly higher retention of 3H-nicotine was found with continuous infusion in esophagus, fundus, antrum, spleen, cecum, pancreas, testes, heart and muscle when 3H-nicotine retentions were compared with bolus injection. In contrast, the distribution of 3H-nicotine in adrenal gland, was significantly lower in continuous infusion group. Distribution in blood was 6 fold higher in continuous infusion (7.26%) compared to bolus (1.11%) injection. The distribution 3H-nicotine in other tissues were not different by either routes of injection

  8. Ascorbic acid enables reversible dopamine receptor /sup 3/H-agonist binding

    Leff, S.; Sibley, D.R.; Hamblin, M.; Creese, I.

    1981-11-16

    The effects of ascorbic acid on dopaminergic /sup 3/H-agonist receptor binding were studied in membrane homogenates of bovine anterior pituitary and caudate, and rat striatum. In all tissues virtually no stereospecific binding (defined using 1uM (+)butaclamol) of the /sup 3/H-agonists N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA), apomorphine, or dopamine could be demonstrated in the absence of ascorbic acid. Although levels of total /sup 3/H-agonist binding were three to five times greater in the absence than in the presence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, the increased binding was entirely non-stereospecific. Greater amounts of dopamine-inhibitable /sup 3/H-NPA binding could be demonstrated in the absence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, but this measure of ''specific binding'' was demonstrated not to represent dopamine receptor binding since several other catecholamines and catechol were equipotent with dopamine and more potent than the dopamine agonist (+/-)amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) in inhibiting this binding. High levels of dopamine-displaceable /sup 3/H-agonist binding were detected in fresh and boiled homogenates of cerebellum, an area of brain which receives no dopaminergic innervation, further demonstrating the non-specific nature of /sup 3/H-agonist binding in the absence of ascorbic acid. These studies emphasize that under typical assay conditions ascorbic acid is required in order to demonstrate reversible and specific /sup 3/H-agonist binding to dopamine receptors.

  9. Characterization of (/sup 3/H)paroxetine binding in rat brain

    Marcusson, J.O.; Bergstroem, M.E.; Eriksson, K.; Ross, S.B.

    1988-06-01

    The binding of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) uptake inhibitor (3H)paroxetine to rat cortical homogenates has been characterized. The effect of tissue concentration was examined and, with 0.75 mg wet weight tissue/ml in a total volume of 1,600 microliter, the binding was optimized with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 0.03-0.05 nM. Competition experiments with 5-HT, citalopram, norzimeldine, and desipramine revealed a high (90%) proportion of displaceable binding that fitted a single-site binding model. Fluoxetine and imipramine revealed, in addition to a high-affinity (nanomolar) site, also a low-affinity (micromolar) site representing approximately 10% of the displaceable binding. The specificity of the (3H)paroxetine binding was emphasized by the fact that 5-HT was the only active neurotransmitter bound and that the serotonin S1 and S2 antagonist methysergide was without effect on the binding. Both 5-HT- and fluoxetine-sensitive (3H)paroxetine binding was completely abolished after protease treatment, suggesting that the binding site is of protein nature. Saturation studies with 5-HT (100 microM) sensitive (3H)paroxetine binding were also consistent with a single-site binding model, and the binding was competitively inhibited by 5-HT and imipramine. The number of binding sites (Bmax) for 5-HT-sensitive (3H)paroxetine and (3H)imipramine binding was the same, indicating that the radioligands bind to the same sites. Lesion experiments with p-chloroamphetamine resulted in a binding in frontal and parietal cortices becoming undetectable and a greater than 60% reduction in the striatum and hypothalamus, indicating a selective localization on 5-HT terminals. Together these findings suggest that (3H)paroxetine specifically and selectively labels the substrate recognition site for 5-HT uptake in rat brain.

  10. Mechanism of higher incidence of apoptosis by irradiation in C3H mouse macrophages

    Full text: The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism underlying higher sensitivity of C3H mouse macrophages with respect to irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gamma-irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy induced significant apoptosis in peritoneal resident macrophages (PRMs) of C3H mice 4 hr after irradiation, but not three other strains of mice tested. The induction of apoptosis in PRMs of C3H mice increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 50 Gy, but in PRMs of B6 mice the percentage of apoptosis remained low even at a dose of 100 Gy. On the other hand, hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis in PRMs of both strains at similar levels. Pretreatment of PRMs of C3H mice with buthionine sulfoximine or N-acetyl cysteine in order to alter the intracellular glutathione level significantly affected hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis but had no effect at all on irradiation-induced apoptosis. Sodium formate (a hydroxy radical scavenger) or deferoxamine mesylate (a potent iron chelater) had no effect on irradiation-induced apoptosis but Tiron, a cell permeable superoxide scavenger, significantly interfered with it. The enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase in the cell lysate of PRMs was measured using a commercial assay kit. The activity of superoxide dismutase was much lower in PRMs of C3H mice than in those of B6 mice. These results suggest that the remarkable irradiation-induced apoptosis observed only in PRMs of C3H mice can be attributed to the lower superoxide dismutase activity and that superoxide among reactive oxygen species produced by ionizing radiation is an important molecule in irradiation-induced apoptosis in PRMs of C3H mice

  11. Leonardsenite, MgAlF5(H2O)(2), a new mineral species from Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey Island, Iceland

    Mitolo, Donatella; Garavelli, Anna; Zunic, Tonci Balic;

    2013-01-01

    Leonardsenite (IMA2011-059), with ideal formula MgAlF5(H2O)(2), is a new fumarole mineral from Eldfell volcano, Iceland. It has also been found in volcanic encrustations from the Hekla crater, Iceland. The mineral forms a soft and friable mass of white crystals up to 20 mu m in length. The streak...

  12. Experimental and computational study on the energetics of 10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene (dibenzosuberane)

    Miranda, Margarida S., E-mail: msmirand@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Matos, M. Agostinha R., E-mail: marmatos@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Morais, Victor M.F., E-mail: vmmorais@icbas.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, ICBAS, Universidade do Porto, P-4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Liebman, Joel F., E-mail: jliebman@umbc.ed [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    A study on the molecular structure and energetics of 10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene (dibenzosuberane) was performed combining experimental calorimetric techniques and high level computational calculations. In the experimental work, the solid phase standard (p{sup 0} = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of 10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene was derived from its standard massic energy of combustion, at T = 298.15 K, measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry, in oxygen. The respective standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, was measured by Calvet microcalorimetry enabling the calculation of the standard molar enthalpy of formation (161.4 {+-} 3.7) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K. In addition, computational calculations were performed using the density functional theory with the B3LYP hybrid functional and extended basis sets in order to obtain the molecular structure of 10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene and that of related molecules. Estimates of the standard molar enthalpy of formation, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, for 10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene were performed using three different methods: G3(MP2)//B3LYP, MC3BB, and MC3MPW and appropriate homodesmic reactions. Computational estimates are in very good agreement with the experimental value.

  13. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... antigen detection test. Memoranda of understanding or other means must be used to establish testing...

  14. Bonding in Zintl phase hydrides: density functional calculations for SrAlSiH, SrAl2H2, SrGa2H2 and BaGa2H2

    Subedi, Alaska P [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the bonding characteristics of SrAlSiH, SrAl{sub 2}H{sub 2}, SrGa{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and BaGa{sub 2}H{sub 2} using density functional calculations. The mixed bonding characteristic of other families of Zintl phases is found, with the formation of covalent sp{sup 2} bonds in the Al/Ga/Al-Si planes of the various compounds. On the other hand the Sr and Ba atoms occur as divalent cations, while the H is anionic. The results indicate that insulating SrSiAlH may be a switchable ferroelectric.

  15. 2H and 13C tracer studies of ethanol metabolism by Fourier transform 13C[2H, 1H] NMR difference spectroscopy

    A novel form of NMR difference spectroscopy has been developed to monitor low levels of deuterium incorporation in steroids resulting from ethanol metabolism. Ethanol specifically labeled with 13C and/or 2H was administered to bile fistula rats, and bile acids were collected, derivatized and separated. Subtracting 13C [1H] spectra from 13C[2H,1H] spectra of such samples, where the brackets imply complete noise decoupling of the indicated nuclei, results in difference spectra. These spectra display 13C resonances only from 13C spins which are J-coupled to 2H spins. Particular sites and extents of 2H incorporation along the steroid skeletons could thus be evaluated and compared with GC-MS analysis. A practical lower limit of approximately 20 nanomoles of 13C--2H couples could be observed using this technique, through use of sample microcells, quadrature detection and long-term signal averaging

  16. SYNTHESIS AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF NEW 5H-INDOLO[2,3-B]QUINOLINE O-AMINOGLYCOSIDES.

    Badowska-Rosłonek, Katarzyna; Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Switalska, Marta; Piskozub, Małgorzata; Peczyńska-Czoch, Wanda; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Novel 5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline O-aminoglycosides were synthesized in order to check the hypothesis that the construction of hybrids composed of the active 5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline chromophore and daunosaminyl or acosaminyl moiety may result in the cytotoxic activity of the obtained derivatives that is much higher than the one of the parent DIMIQ (5,11-dimethyl-5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline) and 6H-indoloquinoline analogs. Actually, 5H-indolo[2,3-b]indoloquinoline O-aminoglycosides showed the anti-proliferative activity in vitro against human lung adenocarcinoma A549, breast cancer MCF-7, melanoma Hs294T, promyelocytic leukemia HL-60, uterine sarcoma MES-SA and colon cancer LoVo cell lines, which was 10 times higher than that of the 6H-analogs and comparable to the one of the referential DIMIQ. Unexpectedly, it appeared that except for HL-60/MX2 (P-gp-independent and topoisomerase II-dependent resistance), other MDR tumor cell lines (LoVo/DX. P-gp-dependent, MRP-, LRP-dependent multidrug resistance) and MES-SA/DX5 (P-gp-dependent resistance to doxorubicin) are also resistant to the 5H-indolo[2,3-b]indoloquinoline O-aminoglycosides tested. This is surprising because 6H-analogs, in general, 10 times less active against non-MDR tumor cell lines, as well as the DIMIQ itself, are able to overcome drug resistance in all MDR cell lines examined. The cytotoxicity of the tested compounds against tumor cell lines and against normal cells (mice fibroblasts BALB/3T3) was comparable. PMID:27476287

  17. Characterization of [3H]leukotriene D4 binding sites in guinea-pig ventricular myocardium

    [3H]Leukotriene (LT) D4 was used to identify specific LTD4 binding sites in guinea-pig ventricular myocardial membranes. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses indicated that, in the presence of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase inhibitor L-serine-borate (80 mM), less than 3% of membrane-bound [3H]LTD4 was converted to [3H]LTC4 or [3H]LTE4 at 30 degrees C. The specific [3H] LTD4 binding, assayed in the presence of 80 mM L-serine-borate, reached a stable steady state within 45 min at 30 degrees C (pH 7.5). A monophasic Scatchard plot of saturation binding data yielded an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 3.4 +/- 2.1 nM and a maximum number of binding sites of 850 +/- 91 fmol/mg of protein. Competition binding studies with [3H]LTD4, synthetic 5S, 6R-LTD4 (LTD4) and its diastereoisomer 5R,6S-LTD4, LTE4, LTC4 and the putative LT antagonists FPL 55712, 4R-hydroxy-5S-1-cysteinylglycine-6Z-nonadecanoic acid (2-nor-LTD1) and SKF 88046 demonstrated a potency order of LTD4 greater than LTE4 greater than LTC4 greater than 5R,6S-LTD4 much greater than 2-nor-LTD1. FPL 55712 and SKF 88046 were ineffective in displacing the specific [3H]LTD4 binding. Pretreatment of the heart membranes with the sulfhydryl reducing reagent dithiothreitol decreased the specific [3H]LTD4 binding in a concentration-dependent manner. Scatchard analyses of saturation isotherms indicated that 0.3 mM dithiothreitol pretreatment of heart membranes decreased the maximum number of binding sites of the [3H]LTD4 binding to 368 +/- 61 fmol/mg of protein with minimal effects on the apparent Kd

  18. Rolipram depresses [3H]2-deoxyglucose uptake in mouse brain and heart in vivo

    The effects of systemic administration of rolipram, a selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, on [3H]2-deoxyglucose (DG) uptake in brain and peripheral tissues were examined. Rolipram significantly and dose-dependently decreased [3H]DG uptake in brain, heart and skeletal muscle. In contrast, the radioactivity concentrations in the plasma of rolipram-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice at all times after injection of the tracer. In the kinetic study, the initial uptake of [3H]DG in brain was decreased by rolipram, whereas no significant differences were observed in the uptake in heart and skeletal muscle. However, radioactivity concentrations in the brain, heart and skeletal muscle 30 min after the injection of [3H]DG were significantly lowered by rolipram to about 60%, 10% and 10% of control values, respectively. The uptake of [13N]ammonia in brain and heart of rolipram-treated mice was slightly decreased, which indicated that rolipram diminished both cerebral and cardiac blood flow. These results indicate that the phosphorylation process via hexokinase rather than the transport of [3H]DG might be depressed by rolipram. Together with the previous observations that inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) markedly enhanced [14C]DG uptake in rat brain, these results indicate an important role of the cAMP/PKA systems in the regulation of glucose metabolism in the living brain as well as in peripheral tissues such as the heart and skeletal muscle. (orig.)

  19. An analysis of [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding in the human brain.

    Lloyd, K G; Dreksler, S

    1979-03-01

    The binding of [3H]GABA to membranes prepared from human brains obtained post morten was examined. This binding was independent of patient sex, age (16--80 years), postmortem interval (4--33 h) or storage time when frozen (0-64 months). In preparations from cerebellar cortex various compounds displaced [3H]GABA binding with the following order of potency: muscimol greater than 3-aminopropanesulfonic acid greater than GABA greater than imidazoleacet acid greater than delta-amino-n-valeric acid greater than 3-hydroxyGABA greater than bicuculline. Other compounds active 'in vitro' included strychnine, homocarnosine and some (e.g. clozapine, thioridazine, pimozide) but not all (chlorpromazine, haloperiodol) neuroleptics. Compounds inactive 'in vitro' included aminooxyacetic acid, baclofen, picrotoxin, anticholinergics, metrazole, anticonvulsants and naloxone. Triton X-100 augmented the [3H]GABA binding (25 nM) by about 10--20-fold in most brain regions. [3H]GABA binding (IC50) was altered in Huntington's chorea and Reye's syndrome, but not in schizophrenics (4-neuroleptic-treated patients) or sudden infant death syndrome. The data presented strongly support the proposal that the measurement of [3H]GABA binding in postmortem human brain offers a reflection of the state of the physiologically relevant GABA receptor. PMID:218679

  20. Dopamine regulation of [3H]acetylcholine release from guinea-pig stomach

    The involvement of dopamine receptors in cholinergic transmission of guinea-pig stomach was investigated by analyzing the effects of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists on acetylcholine (ACh) release from this organ. Electrical stimulation (1-20 Hz) of strips of guinea-pig stomach preloaded with [3H] choline induced a [3H]ACh release that was calcium dependent and tetrodotoxin sensitive. Dopamine inhibited this transmural stimulation-induced [3H]ACh release in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-8)-10(-4) M). This effect of dopamine was not altered by 10(-5) M hexamethonium, thereby suggesting that the major dopamine receptors are located on the postganglionic cholinergic neurons. Concentration-response curves for dopamine on [3H]ACh release were inhibited by haloperidol, sulpiride and domperidone but not by prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol and ketanserin. LY 171555, an agonist for the D2 dopamine receptor, but not SKF 38-393, an agonist for the D1 dopamine receptor, to some extent decreased the release of [3H]ACh induced by transmural stimulation. In view of the results, the release of ACh from postganglionic cholinergic neurons is probably required through dopamine receptors antagonized by D2 antagonists but not by adrenergic or serotonin receptor antagonists

  1. In vivo (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding: imaging of receptor regulation

    Ciliax, B.J.; Penney, J.B. Jr.; Young, A.B.

    1986-08-01

    The use of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam as a ligand to measure alterations in benzodiazepine receptors in vivo in rats was investigated. Animals were injected with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam i.v., arterial samples of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam were obtained and, later, the animals were sacrificed to assay brain binding. (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam enters the brain rapidly and binds to benzodiazepine receptors. About two-thirds of this binding is blocked by predosing the animals with 5 mg/kg of clonazepam. The amount of remaining (nonspecific) binding correlates very well (r = 0.88) with the amount of radioactivity found in plasma at the time of death. A series of rats were lesioned unilaterally with kainic acid in the caudate-putamen several months before the infusion of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam. In vivo autoradiography in lesioned rats showed that benzodiazepine binding in globus pallidus and substantia nigra on the side of the lesion was increased significantly as compared to the intact side. The observed changes in benzodiazepine binding were similar to those observed previously in lesioned rats using in vitro techniques. Thus, benzodiazepine receptor regulation can be imaged quantitatively using in vivo binding techniques.

  2. In vivo [3H]flunitrazepam binding: imaging of receptor regulation

    The use of [3H]flunitrazepam as a ligand to measure alterations in benzodiazepine receptors in vivo in rats was investigated. Animals were injected with [3H]flunitrazepam i.v., arterial samples of [3H]flunitrazepam were obtained and, later, the animals were sacrificed to assay brain binding. [3H]flunitrazepam enters the brain rapidly and binds to benzodiazepine receptors. About two-thirds of this binding is blocked by predosing the animals with 5 mg/kg of clonazepam. The amount of remaining (nonspecific) binding correlates very well (r = 0.88) with the amount of radioactivity found in plasma at the time of death. A series of rats were lesioned unilaterally with kainic acid in the caudate-putamen several months before the infusion of [3H]flunitrazepam. In vivo autoradiography in lesioned rats showed that benzodiazepine binding in globus pallidus and substantia nigra on the side of the lesion was increased significantly as compared to the intact side. The observed changes in benzodiazepine binding were similar to those observed previously in lesioned rats using in vitro techniques. Thus, benzodiazepine receptor regulation can be imaged quantitatively using in vivo binding techniques

  3. Modulation of [3H]-glutamate binding by serotonin in the rat hippocampus: An autoradiographic study

    Serotonin (5-HT) added in vitro increased [3H]-glutamate specific binding in the rat hippocampus, reaching statistical significance in layers rich in N-Methyl-D-Aspartate sensitive glutamate receptors. This effect was explained by a significant increase in the apparent affinity of [3H]-glutamate when 5-HT is added in vitro. Two days after lesion of serotonergic afferents to the hippocampus with 5,7- Dihydroxytryptamine [3H]-glutamate binding was significantly decreased in the CA3 region and stratum lacunosum moleculare of the hippocampus, this reduction being reversed by in vitro addition of 10 μM 5-HT. The decrease observed is due to a significant reduction of quisqualate-insensitive (radiatum CA3) and kainate receptors (strata oriens, radiatum, pyramidal of CA3). Five days after lesion [3H]-glutamate binding increased significantly in the CA3 region of the hippocampus but was not different from sham animals in the other hippocampal layers. Two weeks after lesion [3H]-glutamate binding to quisqualate-insensitive receptors was increased in all the hippocampal layers, while kainate and quisqualate-sensitive receptors were not affected. These data are consistent with the possibility that 5-HT is a direct positive modulator of glutamate receptor subtypes

  4. Effect of exogenous CNT on kinetics of 3H-lysine in haerbin white rabbits

    Haerbin White rabbits was used as testimonial and trace kinetics and radioimmunoassay and other techniques were used to study the distribution, transportation and metabolism of 3H-Lysine in the animal. The metabolic kinetics of 3H-Lysine could be described by the follows equation: (Y-circumflex)(t)=983.6281e-0.021935t + 1773.9999e-0.083932t - 983.6281e-0.432590t - 0773.9999e-0.050399t + 300.2820. Experimental results showed that 3H-Lysine was accumulated mainly in kidney, heart, liver, spleen and muscle in check group; accumulated mainly in muscle, stomach, liver, heart and genitalia in cAMP treated group; accumulated in bladder, muscle, lung and intestine in cGMP treated group; and accumulated mainly in muscle, bladder, genitalia an fat in cAMP + cGMP treated group, respectively. The distribution of 3H-Lysine was of evidently variations being treated with exogenous CNT. The results indicated that the distribution, transportation and metabolism of 3H-Lysine were significantly affected by exogenous CNT in the Haerbin White rabbit. (authors)

  5. Electron swarm parameters in pure C2H2 and in C2H2-Ar mixtures and electron collision cross sections for the C2H2 molecule

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu

    2010-09-01

    Electron swarm parameters (the drift velocity and the longitudinal diffusion coefficient) were measured in pure C2H2 and also in C2H2-Ar mixtures containing 0.517% and 5.06% acetylene over wide E/N ranges. These swarm parameters were analysed using a Boltzmann equation analysis and a set of electron collision cross sections for the C2H2 molecule was derived so that it was consistent with the present swarm data and published ionization coefficient. The present result suggested the presence of a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum in the elastic momentum transfer cross section at 0.08 eV and prominent threshold and resonance peaks in the ν4/ν5 vibrational excitation cross section. The present cross section set was also confirmed to be consistent with the published experimental total cross section of C2H2.

  6. Crystal structure of 3-{1-[(1-allyl-1H-indazol-6-ylamino]ethylidene}-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H-dione

    Mohamed El Ghozlani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H17N3O3, the dihedral angle between the planes of the indazole ring system [maximum deviation = 0.012 (1 Å] and the pyran-2,4-dione ring is 54.03 (6°. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond closes an S(6 ring. The same H atom also participates in an intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond, which generates an inversion dimer. The dimers are linked by weak C—H...O contacts, thereby forming a three-dimensional network.

  7. Functional comparison of muscarinic partial agonists at muscarinic receptor subtypes hM1, hM2, hM3, hM4 and hM5 using microphysiometry

    Wood, Martyn D.; Murkitt, Karen L; Ho, Michael; Watson, Jeannette M; Brown, Frank; Hunter, A Jacqueline; Middlemiss, Derek N

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the pharmacological comparison of the muscarinic partial agonists sabcomeline, xanomeline and milameline at human cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes (hM1–5).Radioligand binding studies at the hM1–5 muscarinic receptor subtypes were compared with functional studies using microphysiometry using carbachol as the standard full agonist.In binding assays none of the compounds studied displayed preferential affinity for the M1,3,4 or M5 subtypes although carbachol was less pote...

  8. Assembly of gold nanoparticles with H10TTPR(3a, 4, 5, 8, 9, 9a, 10, 11-octa-hydro-2H,3H-1,6,7,12-tetrathia-perylene) as the rigid cross-linker

    SHAO Xiangfeng; WANG Tongxin; ZHANG Deqing; XU Wei; ZHU Daoben

    2004-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles were assembled with the rigid cross-linker, H10TTPR. The assembly process was studied with the UV-vis spectroscopy and TEM. By adjusting the amount of H10TTPR added to the gold nanoparticle solution, the aggregate form of gold nanoparticles could be controlled.

  9. Investigation of the NH-π hydrogen bond interaction in the aniline-alkene (C2H4,C3H6,C4H8) cluster cations by infrared depletion spectroscopy

    The vibrational spectra of the NH stretching vibrations of aniline-alkene cluster cations have been measured using infrared depletion method. Aniline-ethene cation showed three strong absorption bands at 3448, 3314 and 3220 cm-1. The comparison with MO calculation has shown that the main intermolecular interaction is the NH-π type hydrogen bond between one of the NH bonds of aniline cation and π-electron of ethene, which is different from that observed for the neutral aniline-ethene cluster. The bands at 3448 and 3220 cm-1 have been assigned to the stretching vibrations of free NH and bonded NH, respectively, and the band at 3314 cm-1 to the binary overtone of the NH2 deformation vibration. Similar results have been obtained for aniline-propene and aniline-butene cluster cations. The red shift of the stretching vibration of free NH bond of aniline cation agreed with that expected from the correlation with the proton affinity of the acceptor molecule obtained for the aniline-aromatic cluster cations (NH-π type)

  10. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Property of 3a,4,5,8,9,9a,10,11-Octahydro-2H,3H-1,6,7,12-tetrathiaperylene (H10TTPR)

    SHAO, Xiang-Feng(邵向锋); ZHAN, Chuan-Lang(詹传郎); WANG, Cheng(汪成); ZHANG, De-Qing(张德清); XU, Wei(徐伟); LIU, Cai-Ming(刘彩明); ZHU, Dao-Ben(朱道本)

    2004-01-01

    H10TTPR was prepared starting from terephthalaldehyde and characterized. Crystal structure of H10TTPR and an intermediate compound 11 were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. A quasi-reversible redox wave at 1.15 V (vs. SCE) was observed for H10TTPR, indicating that it is a weak electron donor.

  11. Effects of beta-adrenergic blocking agents on specific binding of [3H]D-Ala2-Met5-enkephalinamide and [3H]naloxone.

    Takayama, Haruhiko; Ogawa,Norio; Asanuma, Masato; Hirata, Hiroshi; Ogura,Toshio; Ota,Zensuke

    1991-01-01

    To gain further insight into the central nervous system (CNS)-action of beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta-blockers), we examined the effects of various kinds of beta-blockers on opioid receptors (Op-Rs) using radiolabeled receptor assay (RRA). We demonstrated that beta-blockers are competitively bound to Op-Rs in the CNS. Sodium index of beta-blockers in [3H]naloxone binding study indicated that beta-blockers had the mixed agonist-antagonist activity of opiates. The relative potency of be...

  12. The EM autoradiographic distribution of label in tissue blocks of pallidum incorporating [3H]-Leu-enkephalin and [3H]-naloxone in vitro

    The distribution of radioactivity in pallidal tissue blocks incubated in the presence of either a tritiated enkephalin analogue or [3H]-naloxone, was examined using EM autoradiography. The quantitative evaluation was based on the principle of proportional grain counting. The results showed a preferential accumulating of silver grains over dendrites in the enkephalin-labelled tissue. Following naloxone-labelling, a slight enrichment of grains over axonal elements was found. The findings provide ultrastructural support for previous biochemical data which suggested that different types of opiate binding sites have different tissue localizations. (author)

  13. Fe3O4@MCM-48-SO3H:An efficient magnetically separable nanocatalyst for the synthesis of benzo[f]chromeno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones

    Hassan Kefayati; Mostafa Golshekan; Shahab Shariati; Mahsa Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonic acid groups were grafted onto three different types of synthesized magnetic nanoparticles, namely Fe3O4, Fe3O4@SiO2, and Fe3O4@MCM‐48. The sulfonic acid‐functionalized nanoparticles were evaluated as catalysts for the synthesis of 5‐aryl‐1H‐benzo[f]chromeno[2,3‐d]pyrimidine‐2,4(3H,5H)‐dione derivatives in terms of activity and recyclability. Their catalytic activities were compared with that of the homogeneous acid catalyst 1‐methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([HMIm][HSO4]). The activity of Fe3O4@MCM‐48–SO3H was comparable to those of the other heter‐ogeneous and homogeneous catalysts.

  14. Safety Assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 spent fuel disposal method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RD and D) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007 have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. This safety assessment is summarised in the present report. The scientific basis of the safety assessment includes around 30 years of scientific R and D and technical development in the Swedish and Finnish KBS-3V programmes. Much of this scientific basis is directly applicable to KBS-3H. This has allowed the KBS-3H safety studies to focus on those issues that are unique to this design alternative, identified in a systematic difference analysis of KBS-3H and KBS-3V. This difference analysis has shown that the key differences in the evolution and performance of KBS-3H and KBS-3V relate mainly to the engineered barrier system and to the impact of local variations in the rate of groundwater inflow on buffer saturation along the KBS-3H deposition drifts. No features or processes specific to KBS-3H have been identified that could lead to a loss or substantial degradation of the safety functions of the engineered barriers over a million year time frame. Radionuclide release from the repository near field in the event of

  15. Plasmodium falciparum: assessment of in vitro growth by (/sup 3/H)hypoxanthine incorporation

    Chulay, J.D.; Haynes, J.D.; Diggs, C.L.

    1983-02-01

    To evaluate rapidly Plasmodium falciparum growth in Vitro, (/sup 3/H)hypoxanthine was added to parasite microcultures and radioisotope incorporation was measured. When culture parameters were carefully controlled, (/sup 3/H)hypoxanthine incorporation was proportional to the number of parasitized erythrocytes present. Factors affecting (/sup 3/H)hypoxanthine incorporation included initial parasitemia, duration of culture, duration of radioisotope pulse, parasite stage, concentration of uninfected erythrocytes, the use of serum or plasma to supplement growth, and the concentration of a variety of purines in the culture medium. The method described can be used to measure inhibition of P. falciparum growth by immune serum and has previously been used to study antimalarial drug activity in vitro.

  16. The absorption and utilization rates for different types of 3H-vitamin A by broiler

    165 newly hatched Arbor Acres broiler chickens were divided into three groups for studying the absorption speed and the utilization rate of different types and doses of 3H-vitamin A through feeding and metabolizing experiments. The results obtained are as follows: 1. All types of vitamin A could be absorbed by first-week chicken, and water-dispersible vitamin A is the best one. 2. Utilization rates for three types of 3H-vitamin A were: oil type 80.67%, power type 82.91%, water-dispersible type 89.43%. 3. Chikens absorbed 3H-vitamin A more quickly when they were 1-3 days old. Moreover, the absorption was mainly performed at the 2-4 hours after the intake of vitamin A. 4. The absorption of vitamin A in intestine was a continuing process lasted about 72 hours, but most of it was absorbed within 24-28 hours

  17. Effect of membrane protein concentration on binding of 3H-imipramine in human platelets

    Binding of 3H-imipramine to platelet membranes has been implicated as a marker for depression. Comparing 3H-IMI binding between depressed patients and normal subjects we observed an increase in the dissociation constant Kd with increasing membrane protein. This phenomenon was studied more rigorously in five normal subjects. Platelet membranes were prepared and adjusted to four concentrations of protein ranging from 100 to 800 micrograms/ml. The 3H-IMI binding parameters of maximum binding sites number (Bmax) and Kd were obtained by Scatchard analysis at each membrane concentration. A positive linear relationship was found between K/sub d/ values and the concentration of membrane protein in the assay, but no change was observed in Bmax. The variability in Kd values reported in the literature may be accounted for in part by the different concentrations of membrane protein used in various studies

  18. Blood epididymal barrier to [3H]-inulin in intact and vasectomized hamsters

    The net transport of [3H]-inulin into the fluids of the hamster seminiferous and caput, corpus, and cauda epididymal tubules was examined in both intact animals and those vasectomized 10 months previously. Mean isotope concentrations in reproductive tract tubule fluids did not exceeded 10 per cent of blood plasma isotope concentrations during the experiment. There were no significant differences in net transport of [3H]-inulin into any of the tubule fluids sampled. Ten months after vasectomy, the seminiferous tubule, and all regions of the epididymal tubule retain the capacity to exclude [3H]-insulin. Thus in the hamster 10 months after vasectomy, the blood testis and blood epididymal barriers to inulin are intact

  19. Characterization with 3H-haloperidol of the dopamine receptor in the rat kidney particulate preparation

    The dopamine receptor of rat kidney particulate preparation was identified and characterized by the use of 3H-haloperidol binding. Binding of 3H-haloperidol to the kidney particulate preparation was slow and saturable. The dissociation constants (K sub(D)) were 0.41 nM and 5.88 nM, respectively, according to the model of two classes of independent binding sites. Maximal binding of high affinity site was obtained with 166 fmole/mg protein which was about 40% of the total receptor density. A wide variety of neuroleptics at specifically low concentrations in nanomolar range inhibited the 3H-haloperidol binding. There was an excellent correlation between the affinity of numerous neuroleptics for the kidney particulate preparation and that for the brain striatum. (author)

  20. Competitive inhibition of [3H]dexamethasone binding to mammary glucocorticoid receptor by leupeptin

    The inhibitory effect of leupeptin on [3H]dexamethasone binding to the glucocorticoid receptor from lactating goat mammary cytosol has been studied. Leupeptin (10 mM) caused a significant (about 35%) inhibition of [3H]dexamethasone binding to glucocorticoid receptor. Binding inhibition is further increased following filtration of unlabeled cytosolic receptor through a Bio-Gel A 0.5-m column. Binding inhibition was partially reversed by monothioglycerol at 10 mM concentration. A double reciprocal plot revealed that leupeptin appears to be a competitive inhibitor of [3H]dexamethasone binding to the glucocorticoid receptor. Low salt sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed that the leupeptin-treated sample formed a slightly larger (approximately 9 S) receptor complex (leupeptin-free complex sediments at 8 S)

  1. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Summary report

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 spent fuel disposal method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007 have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. This safety assessment is summarised in the present report. The scientific basis of the safety assessment includes around 30 years of scientific RandD and technical development in the Swedish and Finnish KBS-3V programmes. Much of this scientific basis is directly applicable to KBS-3H. This has allowed the KBS-3H safety studies to focus on those issues that are unique to this design alternative, identified in a systematic 'difference analysis' of KBS-3H and KBS-3V. This difference analysis has shown that the key differences in the evolution and performance of KBS-3H and KBS-3V relate mainly to the engineered barrier system and to the impact of local variations in the rate of groundwater inflow on buffer saturation along the KBS-3H deposition drifts. No features or processes specific to KBS-3H have been identified that could lead to a loss or substantial degradation of the safety functions of the engineered barriers over a million year time frame. Radionuclide release from the repository near field in the event of

  2. Measuring techniques for environmental 3H, 14C and 222Rn by liquid scintillation counter

    Measuring techniques for environmental 3H, 14C and 222Rn with a liquid scintillation counter have been studied. 3H in environmental water was enriched by electrolysis and measured with a low background liquid scintillation counter. By this technique, 3H concentration of ground water, river water, sea water and rain water at Tokyo was founded to be 0.1 ∼ 2.5 Bq/1. 14C in taurine and ethyl-alcohol was measured directly liquid scintillation counter. By this 14C measuring, natural products, contain low level 14C, were distinguished from synthesised products contain no 14C. 222Rn in toluene extracted from environmental water or air was measured by scintillation pulse interval analysis method. By this technique, 222Rn was able to be measured under very low background counting rate, 0.03cpm, and high efficiency. (author)

  3. Synthesis and characterization of [N-methyl-3H]loperamide.

    Filer, Crist N; Egan, Judith A; Nugent, Richard P

    2014-05-30

    Loperamide is a piperidine butyramide mu-opiate receptor agonist and currently employed to treat diarrhea. Because a single past report of tritiating loperamide was limited to only a very low specific activity product without technical details or extensive analysis, the synthesis of [N-methyl-(3)H]loperamide at high specific activity is now described in detail. An imine precursor was alkylated with [(3)H]methyl iodide to obtain a quaternary intermediate, which was then reacted with 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidine to afford the desired product [N-methyl-(3)H]loperamide, characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC, MS, UV, and proton-decoupled tritium NMR. PMID:24753311

  4. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Summary report

    Smith, Paul; Neall, Fiona; Snellman, Margit; Pastina, Barbara; Nordman, Henrik; Johnson, Lawrence; Hjerpe, Thomas

    2008-03-15

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 spent fuel disposal method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007 have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. This safety assessment is summarised in the present report. The scientific basis of the safety assessment includes around 30 years of scientific RandD and technical development in the Swedish and Finnish KBS-3V programmes. Much of this scientific basis is directly applicable to KBS-3H. This has allowed the KBS-3H safety studies to focus on those issues that are unique to this design alternative, identified in a systematic 'difference analysis' of KBS-3H and KBS-3V. This difference analysis has shown that the key differences in the evolution and performance of KBS-3H and KBS-3V relate mainly to the engineered barrier system and to the impact of local variations in the rate of groundwater inflow on buffer saturation along the KBS-3H deposition drifts. No features or processes specific to KBS-3H have been identified that could lead to a loss or substantial degradation of the safety functions of the engineered barriers over a million year time frame. Radionuclide release from the repository near field in the

  5. Lethal and mutagenic effects of 3H-incorporated in position 2' into DNA of extracellular phage Lambda

    The lethal and mutagenic effects of 3H decay in 2' position of deoxyribose residues in DNA of extracellular λ phase were studied, [2'-3H]-deoxyadenosine (3H-dA) or [2'-3H]-thymidine (3H-dT) being used as labelled DNA precursors. In UV-irradiated E.coli cells, with the induced SOS repair, the mutagenic effect of 3H-dA in phage λ is significantly higher than that of 3H-dT. This is perhaps related to the formation in DNA of AP-sites, resulting from 3H-decay in 2' position, and to the predominant incorporation of adenosine residues opposite to AP-sites during SOS-repair

  6. Autoradiographic examinations on the synthesis of the virus herpes simplex in macrophages, rabbit kidney- and BHK-cells by labelling with 3H-thymidine, 3H-uridine and UDP-3H-galactose

    After injection, an autoradiographically measurable reduplication of virus-specific DNA takes place in NMRI-macrophages infected with HSV (herpes simplex virus). For this process, a sufficient duration of the 3H-thymidine pulses is of essential importance. An infection with HSV of the Lennette strain induces in considerably more cells of a macrophage population the production of virus-specific DNA than the infection with HSV of the D-316 type. After injection a reduplication of virus-specific DNA occurs in more cells of a HSV-infected population of old macrophages than in that one consisting of young macrophages. In the 7th hour after injection a reduction of RNA synthesis was observed in the HSV-infected macrophage cultures. After HSV-infection, a synthesis of virus-specific DNA could not be detected autoradiographically in macrophages of C 57/bl mice. After HSV-infection the virus-specific DNA synthesis was also observed in activated macrophages of NMRI mice, which had been treated with thioglucollate 72 hours before cell extraction. In general, the previous thioglucollate treatment increased the susceptibility of the macrophages of infection with subsequent reduplication of herpes-specific DNA. Compared to other not infected but activated macrophages, the RNA synthesis after injection was found to be not (HSV Lennette) or only minutely (HSV D-316) reduced in HSV-infected cultures of activated macrophages. In the investigations about the utilisation of exogenic UDP-3H-galactose by BHK and rabbit cells it was observed that only few cells of the cultures provide an externally accessible galactosyl transferase activity. Due to the influence of cell-damaging mechanisms a cell proliferation is induced, which is accompanied by externally accessible galactosyl transferase activities in the cell cultures. (orig./MG)

  7. Differences in affinity of cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors for [3H]dihydroalprenolol

    We performed quantitative light microscopic autoradiography of [3H]dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding to frozen sections of canine myocardium to test the hypothesis that there are differences in the density or affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors on various tissue compartments. In one study, with concentrations of [3H]DHA from 0.34 to 5.1 nM, specific binding to cardiac myocytes was saturable, whereas nonspecific binding was linear with ligand concentration. Arterioles had more specific grain counts than muscle cells (P less than 0.0001), and Scatchard analysis showed that the arterioles had a much higher affinity for [3H]DHA than myocytes. In a second study with lower concentrations of [3H]DHA (0.19-1.98 nM), binding to the arterioles saturated, whereas binding to the cardiac myocytes did not. Specific binding to arterioles was significantly higher (P less than 0.0001) than binding to myocytes at all concentrations of [3H]DHA. The dissociation constants for the subendocardial and subepicardial myocytes were 1.57 and 1.71 nM, respectively, while the dissociation constant for the arterioles was 0.26 nM. The maximum number of binding sites was 911 grains/0.9 X 10(-2) mm2 for subepicardial myocytes, 936 for subendocardial myocytes, and 986 for arterioles. The large nerves accompanying an epicardial artery also demonstrated specific [3H]DHA binding. Thus this study has demonstrated major differences in the distribution and affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors, which may help to explain various physiological responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation

  8. Interactions of [3H]amphetamine with rat brain synaptosomes. II. Active transport

    The accumulation of 5 nM d-[3H]amphetamine (d-[3H]AMPH) into rat brain synaptosomes was examined using physiological buffer conditions. The accumulation of d-[3H]AMPH into striatal synaptosomes was saturable, of high affinity, ouabain-sensitive and temperature-dependent, suggesting an active transport phenomenon. Eadee-Hofstee analysis of striatal d-[3H]AMPH transport (AMT) saturation isotherms indicated an apparent Km of 97 nM and a Vmax of 3.0 fmol/mg tissue/min. Lesion of the striatal dopaminergic innervation led to equivalent decreases of [3H] dopamine (DA) transport and AMT, indicating that AMT occurs in DA terminals. Furthermore, AMT was not evident in cerebral cortex, a brain region with a paucity of DA terminals. In competition studies, AMT was stereospecific; d-AMPH (IC50 = 60 nM) was an 8-fold more potent inhibitor of the transport than its I-isomer (IC50 = 466 nM). DA(IC50 = 257 nM), DA uptake blockers and substrates were found to be potent inhibitors of AMT: GBR12909 IC50 = 5 nM; methamphetamine IC50 = 48 nM; methylphenidate IC50 = 53 nM; and cocaine IC50 = 172 nM. In contrast, serotonin was relatively weak in inhibiting AMT (IC50 = 7.9 microM). There was a highly significant (P less than .001; slope = 1.2) linear correlation between the AMT-inhibiting potencies of AMPH analogs and their potencies in stimulating locomotor activity in rodents. AMT may be important in the low dose effects of AMPH such as increased locomotor activity in rodents and stimulant activity in man. Differences between AMT and d-[3H]AMPH sequestration described earlier, as well as their possible relevance to behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of AMPH administration are also discussed

  9. Interactions of ( sup 3 H)amphetamine with rat brain synaptosomes. II. Active transport

    Zaczek, R.; Culp, S.; De Souza, E.B. (Addiction Research Center, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The accumulation of 5 nM d-({sup 3}H)amphetamine (d-({sup 3}H)AMPH) into rat brain synaptosomes was examined using physiological buffer conditions. The accumulation of d-({sup 3}H)AMPH into striatal synaptosomes was saturable, of high affinity, ouabain-sensitive and temperature-dependent, suggesting an active transport phenomenon. Eadee-Hofstee analysis of striatal d-({sup 3}H)AMPH transport (AMT) saturation isotherms indicated an apparent Km of 97 nM and a Vmax of 3.0 fmol/mg tissue/min. Lesion of the striatal dopaminergic innervation led to equivalent decreases of ({sup 3}H) dopamine (DA) transport and AMT, indicating that AMT occurs in DA terminals. Furthermore, AMT was not evident in cerebral cortex, a brain region with a paucity of DA terminals. In competition studies, AMT was stereospecific; d-AMPH (IC50 = 60 nM) was an 8-fold more potent inhibitor of the transport than its I-isomer (IC50 = 466 nM). DA(IC50 = 257 nM), DA uptake blockers and substrates were found to be potent inhibitors of AMT: GBR12909 IC50 = 5 nM; methamphetamine IC50 = 48 nM; methylphenidate IC50 = 53 nM; and cocaine IC50 = 172 nM. In contrast, serotonin was relatively weak in inhibiting AMT (IC50 = 7.9 microM). There was a highly significant (P less than .001; slope = 1.2) linear correlation between the AMT-inhibiting potencies of AMPH analogs and their potencies in stimulating locomotor activity in rodents. AMT may be important in the low dose effects of AMPH such as increased locomotor activity in rodents and stimulant activity in man. Differences between AMT and d-({sup 3}H)AMPH sequestration described earlier, as well as their possible relevance to behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of AMPH administration are also discussed.

  10. Distribution of 3H-GABA uptake sites in the nematode Ascaris

    The distribution of uptake sites for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nematode Ascaris suum was examined by autoradiography of 3H-GABA uptake. Single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords were labeled with 3H-GABA. Serial section analysis identified the cells of origin of these processes as the RMEV-like and RMED-like neurons. These cells belong to a set of four neurons in the nerve ring, all of which are labeled by 3H-GABA. 3H-GABA labeling of at least two other sets of cephalic neurons was seen. One of these pairs consists of medium-sized lateral ganglia neurons, located at the level of the amphid commissure bundle. A second pair is located in the lateral ganglia at the level of the deirid commissure bundle. The position and size of these lateral ganglia cells suggest that they are the GABA-immunoreactive lateral ganglia cells frequently seen in whole-mount immunocytochemical preparations. Four neuronal cell bodies located in the retrovesicular ganglion were also labeled with 3H-GABA. These cells, which are probably cholinergic excitatory motor neurons, do not contain detectable GABA-like immunoreactivity. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed. The ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motor neurons, which are known to contain GABA-like immunoreactivity, were not labeled above background with 3H-GABA. Together with the experiments reported previously, these results define three classes of GABA-associated neurons in Ascaris: (1) neurons that contain endogenous GABA and possess a GABA uptake system; (2) neurons that contain endogenous GABA, but that either lack a GABA uptake system or possess a GABA uptake system of low activity; (3) neurons that possess a GABA uptake system, but that lack endogenous GABA

  11. Distribution of 3H-GABA uptake sites in the nematode Ascaris

    Guastella, J.; Stretton, A.O. (University of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1991-05-22

    The distribution of uptake sites for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nematode Ascaris suum was examined by autoradiography of 3H-GABA uptake. Single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords were labeled with 3H-GABA. Serial section analysis identified the cells of origin of these processes as the RMEV-like and RMED-like neurons. These cells belong to a set of four neurons in the nerve ring, all of which are labeled by 3H-GABA. 3H-GABA labeling of at least two other sets of cephalic neurons was seen. One of these pairs consists of medium-sized lateral ganglia neurons, located at the level of the amphid commissure bundle. A second pair is located in the lateral ganglia at the level of the deirid commissure bundle. The position and size of these lateral ganglia cells suggest that they are the GABA-immunoreactive lateral ganglia cells frequently seen in whole-mount immunocytochemical preparations. Four neuronal cell bodies located in the retrovesicular ganglion were also labeled with 3H-GABA. These cells, which are probably cholinergic excitatory motor neurons, do not contain detectable GABA-like immunoreactivity. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed. The ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motor neurons, which are known to contain GABA-like immunoreactivity, were not labeled above background with 3H-GABA. Together with the experiments reported previously, these results define three classes of GABA-associated neurons in Ascaris: (1) neurons that contain endogenous GABA and possess a GABA uptake system; (2) neurons that contain endogenous GABA, but that either lack a GABA uptake system or possess a GABA uptake system of low activity; (3) neurons that possess a GABA uptake system, but that lack endogenous GABA.

  12. Seasonal variation of 7Be and 3H in Korean ambient air and rain

    The seasonal variation of the 7Be activities in air was monitored by a continuous sampling with a high volume air dust sampler. And also, 7Be and 3H activities in precipitation were determined. The activity level of 7Be in air was ranged from 1.94 to 47.2 Bq/m3. And 7Be in the precipitation was separated using cation exchange resin and the monthly average activity level was ranged from 0.29 to 4.77 Bq/L. 3H was analyzed using electrolytic enrichment method and activity ranged from 0.27 to 2.22 Bq/L. (author)

  13. Detection of apoptotic cells by selective precipitation of [3H]thymidine-labelled DNA.

    Patki, A H; Lederman, M M

    1996-01-01

    Apoptosis is characterized by systematic fragmentation of high-molecular-weight DNA into oligonucleosome fragments. A sensitive method for detection of apoptotic cells involving [3H]thymidine-labelled DNA is presented. Cells from mid-log-phase cultures were labelled with [3H]thymidine for 15 to 18 h and then exposed to gamma irradiation to induce apoptosis. A modified Hirt method was used to separate low-molecular-weight DNA from high-molecular-weight DNA. The percentage of fragmented DNA and...

  14. Quadrupole hyperfine interaction and thermal stability of ZrF4.3H2O

    The quadrupole hyperfine interaction of ZrF4.3H2O is reported. This compound is observed to dehydrate to ZrF4 at 325 K. Spectra taken on cooling were observed to be time dependent, and the rehydration process involved was investigated at 293, 298 and 302 K. Contrary to what had previously been determined in HfF4.3H2O, no intermediate compound was observed to participate in the reaction investigated, thus confirming structural differences already reported to exist between these isoformulae compounds. (orig.)

  15. Erythrocyte 3H-ouabain binding and digitalis treatment in ethanol addicted patients

    The binding of 3H-ouabain to human erythrocytes was analyzed in a population of hospitalized male ethanol addicted patients under long term digitalis treatment. In the non-alcoholic patient group the long term digitalis treatment induced an increase in Bmax and Kd values; such modification was not observed in the alcoholic patients. Chronic alcohol intake itself induced an increase in 3H-ouabain kinetic parameters. These observations confirm that ouabain binding to human erythrocytes is subject to pharmacological and toxicological regulation and that adaptive changes in peripheral tissues can be useful in predicting possible parallel modifications in other less accessible tissues. 22 references, 1 table

  16. Influence of haloperidol on the 3H-leucine incorporation in incretory organs of the mouse

    The 3H-leucine incorporation in proteins of incretory organs of the mouse, the exocrine pancreas, and the renal tubuli was studied autoradiographically after administration of therapylike doses of the neuroleptic drug Haloperidol. With exception of the pancreas, a dosage dependent increase of the 3H-leucine incorporation was observed in the treated animals. The results reveal an activation of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenocortical system due to a 10-days administration of Haloperidol. These results are in conformity with former ones in brain and liver. (author)

  17. Specific binding of 3H-naloxone with isolated rat enterocytes

    This paper presents data on the specific binding of naloxone with isolated rat enterocytes. Naloxone was bound with the cells in medium 199 containing 1 mg/ml of BSA. The incubation mixture contained 5 x 100 mM 3H-naloxone and, if indicated, other substances also. Dose dependence of binding of naloxone with rat enterocytes is shown. The kinetics of specific binding of naloxone with enterocytes at different temperatures is also shown, as is the irreversibility of binding of 3H-naloxone with isolated rat enterocytes. It was found that different ligands of opioid receptors can inhibit binding of naloxone competitively

  18. Central nervous system dysfunction in a mouse model of FA2H deficiency.

    Potter, Kathleen A; Kern, Michael J; Fullbright, George; Bielawski, Jacek; Scherer, Steven S; Yum, Sabrina W; Li, Jian J; Cheng, Hua; Han, Xianlin; Venkata, Jagadish Kummetha; Khan, P Akbar Ali; Rohrer, Bärbel; Hama, Hiroko

    2011-07-01

    Fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) is responsible for the synthesis of myelin galactolipids containing hydroxy fatty acid (hFA) as the N-acyl chain. Mutations in the FA2H gene cause leukodystrophy, spastic paraplegia, and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Using the Cre-lox system, we developed two types of mouse mutants, Fa2h(-/-) mice (Fa2h deleted in all cells by germline deletion) and Fa2h(flox/flox) Cnp1-Cre mice (Fa2h deleted only in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells). We found significant demyelination, profound axonal loss, and abnormally enlarged axons in the CNS of Fa2h(-/-) mice at 12 months of age, while structure and function of peripheral nerves were largely unaffected. Fa2h(-/-) mice also exhibited histological and functional disruption in the cerebellum at 12 months of age. In a time course study, significant deterioration of cerebellar function was first detected at 7 months of age. Further behavioral assessments in water T-maze and Morris water maze tasks revealed significant deficits in spatial learning and memory at 4 months of age. These data suggest that various regions of the CNS are functionally compromised in young adult Fa2h(-/-) mice. The cerebellar deficits in 12-month-old Fa2h(flox/flox) Cnp1-Cre mice were indistinguishable from Fa2h(-/-) mice, indicating that these phenotypes likely stem from the lack of myelin hFA-galactolipids. In contrast, Fa2h(flox/flox) Cnp1-Cre mice did not show reduced performance in water maze tasks, indicating that oligodendrocytes are not involved in the learning and memory deficits found in Fa2h(-/-) mice. These findings provide the first evidence that FA2H has an important function outside of oligodendrocytes in the CNS. PMID:21491498

  19. Distribution of 1-(3H)methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (3H-MPTP) in the frog

    The nigrostriatal toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) causes selective destruction of pigmented monoaminergic neurons of the brain, mainly in the substantia nigra. Primates and amphibians, whose nerve cells contain melanin, have shown a higher sensitivity for the toxic effects of MPTP than species which are lacking neuromelanin, e.g. rodents. In the present study the distribution after intraperitoneal injection of 3H-MPTP in frogs (Rana temporaria) was studied by whole-body autoradiography. Histochemical staining methods for melanin were used in order to identify the pigment in various tissues. Melanin-containing nerve cells were present bilaterally in the ventral motor parts of the frog brain. Melanin was also found in the meninges, around the cerebral ventricles and the aqueducts, and in the eyes, skin and liver. The results from the autoradiographic study of 3H-MPTP revealed a high accumulation and retention in all melanin-containing structures up to 15 days after administration (the longest survival time). The pigmented tissues showed the highest concentration of radioactivity in the body at all survival times. The MPTP-induced destruction of pigmented tissues nerve cells may be related to the binding and storage of MPTP and/or its metabolities in neuromelanin, causing toxic cytoplasmic concentrations through the continuous release of substance from the melanin depot. (author)

  20. Compartmental analysis and dosimetric aspects applied to cholesterol with {sup 3}H labeled; Analise compartimental e aspectos dosimetricos aplicados ao colesterol marcado com {sup 3}H

    Oliveira, Adriano dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the major reasons of death around the world according to the World Health Organization (WHO). It is well known that changes in levels of plasma lipoproteins, which are responsible for the transport of cholesterol into the bloodstream, are associated with cardiovascular diseases. For this reason to know the biokinetic parameters of plasma lipoproteins and quantifies them is important to correct and deep understanding about the diseases associated with these disorders. The main aim of this study is to provide a biokinetic model and estimate the radiometric doses for {sup 3}H-Cholesterol, a radioactive tracer widely used in physiological and metabolic studies. The model was based on [Schwartz et al. 2004] about the distribution of cholesterol by the lipoprotein and gastrointestinal model [ICRP 30, 1979]. The doses distribution in compartments of the model and other organs and tissues of a standard adult described in [ICRP 106, 2008] was calculated using MIRD method (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) and compartmental analysis using the computer program Matlab®. The dose coefficients were estimated for a standard phantom man (73 kg) described in [ICRP 60, 1991]. The estimated doses for both model and for other organs were low and did not exceed the highest dose obtained that was in the upper large intestine, as 44,8 μGy these parameters will assist in ethics committee's opinions on the use of works that use the {sup 3}H-cholesterol which radioactive tracer. (author)

  1. [3H]PN200-110 and [3H]ryanodine binding and reconstitution of ion channel activity with skeletal muscle membranes

    Skeletal muscle membranes derived either from the tubular (T) network or from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) were characterized with respect to the binding of the dihydropyridine, [3H]PN200-110, and the alkaloid, [3H]ryanodine; polypeptide composition; and ion channel activity. Conditions for optimizing the binding of these radioligands are discussed. A bilayer pulsing technique is described and is used to examine the channels present in these membranes. Fusion of T-tubule membranes into bilayers revealed the presence of chloride channels and dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels with three distinct conductances. The dihydropyridine-sensitive channels were further characterized with respect to their voltage dependence. Pulsing experiments indicated that two different populations of dihydropyridine-sensitive channels existed. Fusion of heavy SR vesicles revealed three different ion channels; the putative calcium release channel, a potassium channel, and a chloride channel. Thus, this fractionation procedure provides T-tubules and SR membranes which, with radioligand binding and single channel recording techniques, provide a useful tool to study the characteristics of skeletal muscle ion channels and their possible role in excitation-contraction coupling

  2. Reduced permeation of 14C-sucrose, 3H-mannitol and 3H-inulin across blood-brain barrier in nephrectomized rats

    Experiments were carried out to determine if changes in the concentration-time profile of a blood-borne radiotracer such as 14C-sucrose would spuriously alter measurements of its permeation across the blood-brain barrier (permeability-area product, PA) based on a 2-compartment (plasma/brain) simple diffusion model. Anesthetized rats which were bilaterally nephrectomized and given a standard intravenous bolus injection of 14C-sucrose, 3H-mannitol or 3H-inulin exhibited an elevated plasma tracer concentration compared to control animals. However, tracer concentration measured in brain parenchyma after 30 min was not proportionally elevated, and PA calculated from the ratio, parenchymal tracer concentration: plasma concentration-time integral, was significantly reduced below control values. In control rats, distortion and elevation of the plasma 14C-sucrose profile by continuous intravenous infusion did not result in lowered PA values. This suggested that the lowering of PA by nephrectomy reflected reduced cerebrovascular permeability or area or other cerebral influence rather than a deficiency in the 2-compartment model for PA measurement

  3. Crystal structures of [NEt3H]5[XCoIIW11O39]·3H2O (X = P or As)

    Evans, H.T., Jr.; Weakley, T.J.R.; Jameson, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The orthorhombic crystal structures of [NEt3H]5[XCoIIW11O39]·3H2O for X = P and As have been determined with data collected at room temperature, and for X = P at –100 °C, using Mo-Kα radiation. For the latter the space group is Pna21, a= 21.670(11), b= 14.805(4), c= 20.393(5)Å and Z= 4. The structure consists of chains of α-Keggin-type molecules joined by W–O–links aligned in the a-axis direction. The Co/W occupancy at the link is disordered, with 61% Co on one side and 39% on the other. Further probable disorder, by lamellar merohedral twinning on (001) and by misorientation of the triethylammonium ions, has obscured the ethyl groups and the water molecules. In polarized light the crystals are deep wine-red normal to the chains (in the b direction), but nearly colourless in the a and c directions. The structure of the arsenate is similar to that of the phosphate.

  4. (/sup 3/H)forskolin- and (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol-binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1988-03-01

    The characteristics of the cardiac adenylate cyclase system were studied in rats fed diets containing fish oil (menhaden oil) and other oils. Adenylate cyclase activity generally was higher in cardiac homogenates and membranes of rats fed diet containing 10% menhaden oil than in the other oils. The increase in enzyme activity, especially in forskolin-stimulated activity, was associated with an increase in the concentration of the (/sup 3/H) forskolin-binding sites in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The beta-adrenergic receptor concentration was not significantly altered although the affinity for (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol-binding was lower in membranes of rats fed menhaden oil than those fed the other oils. omega-3 fatty acids from menhaden oil were incorporated into the cardiac membrane phospholipids. The results suggest that the observed increase in myocardial adenylate cyclase activity of rats fed menhaden oil may be due to an increase in the number of the catalytic subunits of the enzyme or due to a greater availability of the forskolin-binding sites.

  5. Environmental, trophic, and ecological factors influencing bone collagen δ2H

    Topalov, Katarina; Schimmelmann, Arndt; David Polly, P.; Sauer, Peter E.; Lowry, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Organic deuterium/hydrogen stable isotope ratios (i.e., 2H/1H, expressed as δ2H value in ‰) in animal tissues are related to the 2H/1H in diet and ingested water. Bone collagen preserves the biochemical 2H/1H isotopic signal in the δ2H value of collagen's non-exchangeable hydrogen. Therefore, δ2H preserved in bone collagen has the potential to constrain environmental and trophic conditions, which is of interest to researchers studying of both living and fossil vertebrates. Our data examine the relationship of δ2H values of collagen with geographic variation in δ2H of meteoric waters, with local variations in the ecology and trophic level of species, and with the transition from mother's milk to adult diet. Based on 97 individuals from 22 marine and terrestrial vertebrates (predominately mammals), we found the relationships of collagen δ2H to both geographic variation in meteoric water δ2H (R2 = 0.55) and to δ15N in bone collagen (R2 = 0.17) statistically significant but weaker than previously reported. The second strongest control on collagen δ2H in our data is dietary, with nearly 50 percent of the variance in δ2H explained by trophic level (R2 = 0.47). Trophic level effects potentially confound the local meteoric signal if not held constant: herbivores tend to have the lowest δ2H values, omnivores have intermediate ones, and carnivores have the highest values. Body size (most likely related to mass-specific metabolic rates) has a strong influence on collagen δ2H (R2 = 0.30), by causing greater sensitivity in smaller animals to seasonal climate variations and/or high evapotranspiration leading to 2H-enrichment in tissues. In marine mammals weaning produces a dramatic effect on collagen δ2H with adult values being universally higher than pup values (R2 = 0.79). Interestingly, the shift in δ15N at weaning is downward, even though normally hydrogen and nitrogen isotope ratios are positively correlated with one another in respect to trophic level. Our

  6. Synthesis of thorn-like Ca2B2O5.H2O by hydrothermal method

    Guowei Zhao; Laiping Zhang; Jilin Wang; Jie Li; Qiongli Qian; Xinye Pan; Yunle Gu

    2011-10-01

    Thorn-like polycrystalline Ca2B2O5.H2O microspheres with nano-sized slices were synthesized using boric acid and calcium hydroxide as reactants by a facile catalyst-free hydrothermal method at low temperature. The products were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD pattern reveals that the Ca2B2O5.H2O is a monoclinic phase polycrystalline with cell parameters = 0.6702, = 0.5419 and = 0.3558 nm. SEM also reveals that the monoclinic phase polycrystalline are thornlike microspheres composed of many flakes with an average thickness of <100 nm. Possible reaction and growth mechanism were also discussed.

  7. Infrared investigation of the order-disorder phase transitions in (C 5H 5NH) 6Bi 4Cl 18

    Jóźków, J.; Jakubas, R.; Baran, J.

    2000-11-01

    Infrared spectra (4000-500 cm -1) of polycrystalline samples of (C 5H 5NH) 6Bi 4Cl 18 were investigated in the temperature range 23-309 K. An assignment of the observed bands at 23 and 309 K is proposed. A temperature dependence study of the frequencies, ν, half-widths, Δ ν1/2 and intensities of some internal bands of organic cations confirm the presence of phase transitions at 122 and 154 K. In the low-temperature phases numerous internal modes show splitting that indicates a distinct change in the motional state of the pyridinium cations. The spectroscopic results are consistent with earlier 1H NMR studies showing that the phase transitions are governed by the in-plane complex motion of the C 5H 5NH + cations.

  8. Synthesis and study of NH4[HSiUO6]·0.5H2O

    Previously unknown ammonium uranosilicate of NH4[HSiUO6]·0.5H2O composition is synthesised by precipitation from aqueous solution containing ammonium chloride, uranyl nitrate and quartz glass with the size of granules ≤ 2. On evidence of X-ray diffraction ammonium uranosilicate is a full crystallographic analog of proper lithium and potassium derivatives with approaching parameters of crystal lattices: a= 7.01(2), b=7.03(8), c=6.65(9) A, β=105.6(0) Deg. Functional composition and peculiarity of ammonium uranosilicate structure are detected by IR spectroscopic study. Scheme of thermal decomposition of ammonium uranosilicate is demonstrated based on thermal gravimetric and X-ray diffraction measurements. NH4[HSiUO6]·0.5H2O is among of morphotropic raw of A1/kk HSiUO6·nH2O

  9. Phase transitions in tricyclopentadienyl-chloro-uranium(IV), U(C5H5)3Cl

    The molecule crystallises in a monoclinic unit cell. On examining a single crystal of U(C5H5)3Cl, two phase transitions were found. This transition is characterised by the progressive appearance of peaks (O, k, O) with k odd from 230 K to 150 K. The appearance of those peaks transgresses one of the room temperature space-group extinction rules. The other transition (78 K) is of first order and produces twins. The peaks (O, k, O) with k odd do not exist below 78K. The structure between 230 K and 78 K is still monoclinic. X-ray powder experiments have also been performed in order to follow the evolution of the cell parameters as a function of the temperature from 300 K to 30K. The C5H5 dynamics is studied by neutron quasielastic experiments

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Thermochemistry of 2MgO:B2O3:1.5H2O

    刘志宏; 赵莉; 胡满成

    2003-01-01

    A new magnesium borate 2MgO·B2O3·1.5H2O has been synthesized by the method of phase transformation of double salt under hydrothermal condition and characterized by XRD, IR,Raman spectra and TG. The enthalpy of solution of 2MgO·B2O3·1.5H2O in 2.9842mol·L-1 HCl was determined. From a combination of this result with measured enthalpies of solution of H3BO3 in 2.9842 mol·L-1 HCl(aq.) and of MgO in (HCl+H3BO3) solution, together with the standard molar enthalpies of formation of MgO(s), H3BO3(s), and H2O(I), the standard molar enthalpy of formation of -(3019.76±1.79)kJ·mol-1 of 2MgO·B2O3·1.5H2O was obtained.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of novel pyrazolothiazol-4(5H-one derivatives

    Priyanka L Gaikwad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial screening of several novel pyrazolothiazol-4(5H-one derivatives (3a-3j has been performed. Reaction of aromatic aldehydes with aromatic ketones yielded starting chalcones (1a-1j which have been subsequently reacted with thiosemicarbazide for obtaining N-thiocarbamoylpyrazole derivatives (2a-2j. These were further cyclized to pyrazolothiazol-4(5H-one derivatives (3a-3j in the presence of ethylbromoacetate. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by FTIR and 1 H NMR and/or MS. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of these compounds was evaluated against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and fungi. Their minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by tube dilution method. The results showed that most of the compounds have promising antimicrobial activity as compared to standard drugs. Among the test compounds, 2-[5(4-chlorophenyl-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl]-thiazol-4(5H-one (3e was found to show the most potent antimicrobial activity.

  12. Preparation and characterization of the high molecular weight [3H]hyaluronic acid

    Two methods of preparation were investigated. In the first, hydrogen atoms in the molecule are replaced by tritium. This isotopic substitution was performed in aqueous solution using Pd/CaCO3 as catalyst. In the second method, the high molecular weight hyaluronic acid was alkylated with [3H]methyl bromide in liquid ammonia at a temperature of -33.5 degC. High-performance gel permeation chromatographic separation was used for the separation and characterization of the high molecular weight [3H]hyaluronic acid. Molecular weight parameters for the labelled biopolymers were: M-barw=128 kDa, M-barw/M-barn=1.88 (first method) and M-barw=268 kDa, M-barw/M-barn=1.55 (second method). The high molecular weight [3H]hyaluronic acid with M-barw=268 kDa was degraded further by specific hyaluronidase. Products of the enzymatic depolymerization were observed to be identical for both the labelled and cold biopolymer. This finding indicates that the described labelling procedure using [3H]methyl bromide does not induce any major structural rearrangements in the molecule. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 13 refs

  13. Isolation and characterisation of high molecular weight ( sup 3 H)hyaluronic acid

    Chabrecek, P. (Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Inst. of Biotechnology); Soltes, L.; Kallay, Z. (Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Experimentalnej Farmakologie); Fugedi, A. (Slovenska Akademia, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Computing Centre)

    1990-10-01

    A high-performance gel permeation chromatographic separation method was developed for the isolation and characterisation of high molecular weight ({sup 3}H)hyaluronic acid. The molecular characteristics of the labelled sample were M{sub w}=3.92 x 10{sup 5} Da, M{sub w}/M{sub n}=1.55. (author).

  14. Isolation and characterisation of high molecular weight [3H]hyaluronic acid

    A high-performance gel permeation chromatographic separation method was developed for the isolation and characterisation of high molecular weight [3H]hyaluronic acid. The molecular characteristics of the labelled sample were Mw=3.92 x 105 Da, Mw/Mn=1.55. (author)

  15. Determination of progesterone for reproduction control in cows using a 3H radioimmunoassay. 1

    For verification of cow fertility a 3H radioimmunoassay of progesterone in milk and blood plasma was developed. It is of high specificity and accuracy as well. Extraction of progesterone from milk was facilitated by application of alcohol. Suggested differences in milk and plasma progesterone levels between pregnant and nonpregnant cows could be revealed

  16. Polysaccharides on microsporocytes and tapetum in Rhoeo discolor. Cytochemical and autoradiographic study (3H-glucose)

    In Rhoeo discolor, we have been studying the evolution of cytoplasmic and wall polysaccharides on microsporocytes and tapetum by cytochemical and autoradiographic (6-3H glucose) methods with particular attention to the meiocyte special wall, microspore intine, pollen generative cell wall, microsporocyte plastids and tapetum cytoplasm

  17. Regulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    Shirakawa, J.; Taniyama, K.; Iwai, S.; Tanaka, C.

    1988-12-01

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of (/sup 3/H)GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized by atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.

  18. Regulation of [3H]GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of [3H]GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with [3H]GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of [3H]GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized by atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of [3H]GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors

  19. Minority and mode conversion heating in (He-3)-H JET plasmas

    Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Johnson, T. J.; Hellsten, T.; Ongena, J.; Mayoral, M. L.; Frigione, D.; Sozzi, C.; Calabro, G.; Lennholm, M.; Beaumont, P.; Blackman, T.; Brennan, D.; Brett, A.; Cecconello, M.; Coffey, I.; Coyne, A.; Crombe, K.; Czarnecka, A.; Felton, R.; Johnson, M. G.; Giroud, C.; Gorini, G.; Hellesen, C.; Jacquet, P.; Kazakov, Y.; Kiptily, V.; Knipe, S.; Krasilnikov, A.; Lin, Y.; Maslov, M.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Nocente, M.; Pangioni, L.; Proverbio, I.; Stamp, M.; Studholme, W.; Tardocchi, M.; Versloot, T. W.; Vdovin, V.; Whitehurst, A.; Wooldridge, E.; Zoita, V.

    2012-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) heating experiments have recently been conducted in JET (He-3)-H plasmas. This type of plasmas will be used in ITER's non-activated operation phase. Whereas a companion paper in this same PPCF issue will discuss the RF heating scenario's at half the nominal magnetic fi

  20. sup(3)H labelling and toxicokinetic examination of thiocarbamate type herbicides

    A method was developed for sup(3)H labelling of secondary amines and used for the synthesis of buthylate and EPTC. The elimination of buthylate (T1/2 = 57.76 min) after its intravenous administration, intramuscular and iliac resorption, its distribution in organs, the bile secretion from the liver, and the excretion of buthylate from the organism of rats were determined. (author)

  1. The preparation of 3-H-labeled Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates and Study of their Stability

    Elbert, Tomáš; Břehová, Petra; Holý, Antonín

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 7 (2010), s. 757-766. ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA AV ČR IAA400550801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : tritium * 3-H NMR * acyclic nucleotide analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010

  2. Establishing release limits for 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I

    Tritium (3H), 14C, 85Kr, and 129I are the most important globally dispersed radionuclides released from the nuclear fuel cycle. In this paper, we investigate whether global transport of these radionuclides could also be important in assessing doses to individuals in critical groups of the population

  3. Expression of the capacity to release [3H]norepinephrine by neural crest cultures

    Cultures of trunk neural crest cells from quail embryos were tested for their ability to release [3H]norepinephrine [(3H]NE) in response to depolarization. After 7 days in vitro, exposure of the cultures to either the alkaloid veratridine or 40 mM K+ results in the evoked release of [3H]NE. The release evoked by veratridine is blocked in the presence of tetrodotoxin. The release evoked by increased K+ is blocked by the calcium antagonist cobalt. Release in response to the nicotinic cholinergic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazine was also observed. The amount of evoked release is highly correlated with the number of histochemically demonstrable catecholamine-containing cells in a given culture. Autoradiography reveals that the radioactivity taken up by these cultures is located in a subpopulation of cells whose morphology resembles that of the histochemically detectable catecholamine-containing cell population. Whereas capacity for the release of [3H] NE is readily detectable after 7 days in vitro, it is detectable only with difficulty after 4 days in vitro. There is a greater than 6-fold increase in uptake capacity over the period of 4 to 7 days in vitro. These results demonstrate that neural crest cultures grown without their normal synaptic inputs or targets can exhibit the capacity for stimulus secretion coupling characteristic of synaptic neurotransmitter release

  4. Aminosilanes derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione

    Palomo-Molina, Juliana [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Colima, Carretera Coquimatlán-Colima, Coquimatlán Colima 28400 (Mexico); García-Báez, Efrén V. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Biotecnología, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Avenida Acueducto s/n, Barrio La Laguna Ticomán, México DF 07340 (Mexico); Contreras, Rosalinda [Departamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, México DF 07000 (Mexico); Barrio La Laguna Ticomán, México DF 07340 (Mexico); Pineda-Urbina, Kayim; Ramos-Organillo, Angel, E-mail: aaramos@ucol.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Colima, Carretera Coquimatlán-Colima, Coquimatlán Colima 28400 (Mexico)

    2015-08-12

    In two trimethylsilyl-substituted 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thiones, noncovalent C—H⋯π interactions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe{sub 3} groups form helicoidal arrangements in one, and dimerization results in the formation of R{sub s} {sup 2}(8) rings via N—H⋯S interactions, along with parallel π–π interactions between imidazole and benzene rings, in the second compound. Two new molecular structures, namely 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C{sub 13}H{sub 22}N{sub 2}SSi{sub 2}, (2), and 1-trimethylsilyl-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C{sub 10}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}SSi, (3), are reported. Both systems were derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione. Noncovalent C—H⋯π interactions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe{sub 3} groups form helicoidal arrangements in (2). Dimerization of (3) results in the formation of R{sub 2}{sup 2}(8) rings via N—H⋯S interactions, along with parallel π–π interactions between imidazole and benzene rings.

  5. A time-dependent picture of the charge transfer process in the S3+ +H collision

    In this work we observe for the first time the evolution of the electronic charge density in a collisional system. The model used is system S3+ + H over the range of relative ion kinetic energies from [1-10] eV. To this aim, ab initio potential energy surfaces and non-adiabatic couplings together with wavepacket propagations have been used.

  6. Aminosilanes derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione

    In two trimethylsilyl-substituted 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thiones, noncovalent C—H⋯π interactions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe3 groups form helicoidal arrangements in one, and dimerization results in the formation of Rs 2(8) rings via N—H⋯S interactions, along with parallel π–π interactions between imidazole and benzene rings, in the second compound. Two new molecular structures, namely 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C13H22N2SSi2, (2), and 1-trimethylsilyl-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C10H14N2SSi, (3), are reported. Both systems were derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione. Noncovalent C—H⋯π interactions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe3 groups form helicoidal arrangements in (2). Dimerization of (3) results in the formation of R22(8) rings via N—H⋯S interactions, along with parallel π–π interactions between imidazole and benzene rings

  7. Platelet 3H-serotonin releasing immune complexes induced by pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis

    In vitro formation of immune complexes was studied by 3H-serotonin release from human platelets by P. aeruginosa antigens in the presence of serum from 22 cyctic fibrosis patients, chronically infected with mucoid P. aeruginosa (CF+P) and with a pronounced antibody response against these bacteria, and in 24 patients without P. aeruginosa (CF-P). All CF+P patients responded with 3H-serotonin release (16-34%), whereas CF-P patients released less than 15%. In the group of CF+P patients the number of P. aeruginosa precipitins was correlated to the serotonin titer. Time courses indicated that 3H-serotonin release was maximal between 2 and 5 min, and that no further release was observed up to 20 min. There was a gradual increase in 3H-serotonin release with higher platelet concentrations. The response was not changed by complement inactivation, and fractionation of serum demonstrated that the serotonin release was dependent on the presence of the immunoglobulin fraction. These experiments support the suggestion of a type III reaction being involved in the lung damage in CF+P patients and also suggest a possible involvement of serotonin in the inflammatory reaction during chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. (author)

  8. Continuous flow photolysis of aryl azides: Preparation of 3H-azepinones

    Farhan R. Bou-Hamdan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Photolysis of aryl azides to give nitrenes, and their subsequent rearrangement in the presence of water to give 3H-azepinones, is performed in continuous flow in a photoreactor constructed of fluorinated ethylene polymer (FEP tubing. Fine tuning of the reaction conditions using the flow reactor allowed minimization of secondary photochemical reactions.

  9. [3H]Ouabain binding and Na+, K+-ATPase in resealed human red cell ghosts

    The interaction of the cardiac glycoside [3H]ouabain with the Na+, K+ pump of resealed human erythrocyte ghosts was investigated. Binding of [3H]ouabain to high intracellular Na+ ghosts was studied in high extracellular Na+ media, a condition determined to produce maximal ouabain binding rates. Simultaneous examination of both the number of ouabain molecules bound per ghost and the corresponding inhibition of the Na+, K+-ATPase revealed that one molecule of [3H]ouabain inhibited one Na+, K+-ATPase complex. Intracellular magnesium or magnesium plus inorganic phosphate produced the lowest ouabain binding rate. Support of ouabain binding by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was negligible, provided synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the residual adenylate kinase activity was prevented by the adenylate kinase inhibitor Ap5A. Uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) alone did not support ouabain binding after inhibition of the endogenous nucleoside diphosphokinase by trypan blue and depletion of residual ATP by the incorporation of hexokinase and glucose. ATP acting solely at the high-affinity binding site of the Na+, K+ pump (Km approximately 1 microM) promoted maximal [3H]ouabain binding rates. Failure of 5'-adenylyl-beta-gamma-imidophosphate (AMP-PNP) to stimulate significantly the rate of ouabain binding suggests that phosphorylation of the pump was required to expose the ouabain receptor

  10. Rapid Screening for Insecticidal Compounds Using [3H] EBOB Binding Assay

    Ju Xiulian(巨修练); Fan Zhijin

    2004-01-01

    Binding assay is a convenient, simple, inexpensive, and rapid method that can be used for rapid screening insecticidal compounds. The present study examines 6 compounds for their inhibition of [3H] EBOB bound to housefly-head membranes, of which 3 compounds have potency for housefly-head membranes.

  11. LiCl(NaCl)-CeCl3-H2O systems at 25 deg C

    It has been found by the method of isothermal solubility that aqueous ternary systems LiCl(NaCl)-CeCl3-H2O at 25 deg C refer to the eutonic type with crystallization of the initial components LiClxH2O, NaCl, and CeCl3x7H2O

  12. DIBENZODIOXOCIN STRUCTURES INVOLVING P-HYDROXYPHENYL UNITS IN C3H DOWN-REGULATED LIGNINS

    We previously reported that downregulation of the gene encoding 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) in alfalfa markedly increased the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units relative to the normally dominant guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units, as determined by 2D 13C-1H correlative NMR methods, thioaci...

  13. Reaction of the C2H radical with 1-butyne (C4H6): Low Temperature Kinetics and Isomer-Specific Product Detection

    Soorkia, Satchin; Trevitt, Adam J.; Selby, Talitha M.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2009-12-22

    The rate coefficient for the reaction of the ethynyl radical (C{sub 2}H) with 1-butyne (H-C{triple_bond}C-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 3}) is measured in a pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus. Ethynyl radicals are formed by laser photolysis of acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) at 193 nm and detected via chemiluminescence (C{sub 2}H + O{sub 2} {yields} CH (A{sup 2}{Delta}) + CO{sub 2}). The rate coefficients are measured over the temperature range of 74-295 K. The C{sub 2}H + 1-butyne reaction exhibits no barrier and occurs with rate constants close to the collision limit. The temperature dependent rate coefficients can be fit within experimental uncertainties by the expression k = (2.4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup -10} (T/295 K)-(0.04 {+-} 0.03) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1}. Reaction products are detected at room temperature (295 K) and 533 Pa using a Multiplexed Photoionization Mass Spectrometer (MPIMS) coupled to the tunable VUV synchrotron radiation from the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Two product channels are identified for this reaction: m/z = 64 (C{sub 5}H{sub 4}) and m/z = 78 (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) corresponding to the CH{sub 3}- and H-loss channels, respectively. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves are used to analyze the isomeric composition of both product channels. The C{sub 5}H{sub 4} products are found to be exclusively linear isomers composed of ethynylallene and methyldiacetylene in a 4:1 ratio. In contrast, the C{sub 6}H{sub 6} product channel includes two cyclic isomers, fulvene 18({+-}5)% and 3,4-dimethylenecyclobut-1-ene 32({+-}8)%, as well as three linear isomers, 2-ethynyl-1,3-butadiene 8({+-}5)%, 3,4-hexadiene-1-yne 28({+-}8)% and 1,3-hexadiyne 14({+-}5)%. Within experimental uncertainties, we do not see appreciable amounts of benzene and an upper limit of 10% is estimated. Diacetylene (C{sub 4}H{sub 2}) formation via the C{sub 2}H{sub 5}-loss channel is also thermodynamically possible but cannot be observed due to experimental

  14. Autoradiographic study of 3H-proline incorporation by rat periodontal ligament, gingival connective tissue and dental pulp

    The rates of 3H-proline incorporation by the rat periodontal ligament, the gingival connective tissue and the dental pulp were studied by autoradiography. The rate of 3H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was 2.8 times higher than by the gingival connective tissue and 5 times higher than by the dental pulp. These differences were significant (p3H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was significantly different (p3H-proline incorporation. The ratio of the rates of 3H-proline incorporation by the three tissues did not correlate with the ratio of the cellular densities in the same three tissues. (author)

  15. The role of isovalency in the reactions of the cyano (CN), boron monoxide (BO), silicon nitride (SiN), and ethynyl (C2H) radicals with unsaturated hydrocarbons acetylene (C2H2) and ethylene (C2H4).

    Parker, D S N; Mebel, A M; Kaiser, R I

    2014-04-21

    The classification of chemical reactions based on shared characteristics is at the heart of the chemical sciences, and is well exemplified by Langmuir's concept of isovalency, in which 'two molecular entities with the same number of valence electrons have similar chemistries'. Within this account we further investigate the ramifications of the isovalency of four radicals with the same X(2)Σ(+) electronic structure - cyano (CN), boron monoxide (BO), silicon nitride (SiN), and ethynyl (C2H), and their reactions with simple prototype hydrocarbons acetylene (C2H2) and ethylene (C2H4). The fact that these four reactants own the same X(2)Σ(+) electronic ground state should dictate the outcome of their reactions with prototypical hydrocarbons holding a carbon-carbon triple and double bond. However, we find that other factors come into play, namely, atomic radii, bonding orbital overlaps, and preferential location of the radical site. These doublet radical reactions with simple hydrocarbons play significant roles in extreme environments such as the interstellar medium and planetary atmospheres (CN, SiN and C2H), and combustion flames (C2H, BO). PMID:24418936

  16. Rolipram depresses [{sup 3}H]2-deoxyglucose uptake in mouse brain and heart in vivo

    Ishikawa, Megumi; Hosoi, Rie; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Inoue, Osamu [Department of Medical Physics, School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka University, 1-7 Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The effects of systemic administration of rolipram, a selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, on [{sup 3}H]2-deoxyglucose (DG) uptake in brain and peripheral tissues were examined. Rolipram significantly and dose-dependently decreased [{sup 3}H]DG uptake in brain, heart and skeletal muscle. In contrast, the radioactivity concentrations in the plasma of rolipram-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice at all times after injection of the tracer. In the kinetic study, the initial uptake of [{sup 3}H]DG in brain was decreased by rolipram, whereas no significant differences were observed in the uptake in heart and skeletal muscle. However, radioactivity concentrations in the brain, heart and skeletal muscle 30 min after the injection of [{sup 3}H]DG were significantly lowered by rolipram to about 60%, 10% and 10% of control values, respectively. The uptake of [{sup 13}N]ammonia in brain and heart of rolipram-treated mice was slightly decreased, which indicated that rolipram diminished both cerebral and cardiac blood flow. These results indicate that the phosphorylation process via hexokinase rather than the transport of [{sup 3}H]DG might be depressed by rolipram. Together with the previous observations that inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) markedly enhanced [{sup 14}C]DG uptake in rat brain, these results indicate an important role of the cAMP/PKA systems in the regulation of glucose metabolism in the living brain as well as in peripheral tissues such as the heart and skeletal muscle. (orig.)

  17. Characterization of high affinity [3H]triazolam binding in rat brain

    The hypnotic Triazolam (TZ), a triazolo (1,4)-benzodiazepine, displays a short physiological half life and has been used for the treatment of insomnia related to anxiety states. Specific binding properties of this recently tritiated TZ were characterized. The authors major objectives were the direct measurement of the temperature dependence and the GABA effect on [3H]TZ binding. Saturation studies showed a shift to lower affinity at 370C (K/sub d/ = 0.25 +/- 0.01 nM at O0C; K/sub d/ = 1.46 +/- 0.03 nM at 370C) while the B/sub max/ values remained unchanged (1003 +/- 37 fmoles/mg prot. at 00C and 1001 +/- 43 fmoles/mg prot. at 370C). Inhibition studies showed that [3H]TZ binding displayed no GABA shift at 00C(K/sub i/ 0.37 +/- 0.03 nM/- GABA and K/sub i/ = 0.55 +/- 0.13 nM/+GABA) but a nearly two-fold shift was apparent at 370C (K/sub i/ = 2.92 +/- 0.2 nM/-GABA; K/sub i/ = 1.37 +/- 0.11 mM/+GABA). These results were also confirmed by saturation studies in the presence or absence of GABA showing a shift to higher affinity in the presence of GABA only at 370C. In Ro 15-1788/[3H]TZ competition experiments the presence of GABA did not affect the inhibitory potency of Ro 15-1788 on [3H]TZ binding at both temperatures. In conclusion [3H]TZ binding showed an extremely high affinity for benzodiazepine receptors. In contrast to reported literature, the findings suggest that TZ interacts with benzodiazepine receptors similar to other benzodiazepine agonists

  18. Excretion of (3H)prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of (3H)prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of (3H)prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and (3H)prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of (3H)prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of (3H)prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  19. Excretion of [3H]prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    The excretion rate of [3H]prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of [3H]prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and [3H]prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of [3H]prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of [3H]prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows

  20. Characterization of specific binding sites for [3H](d)-N-allylnormetazocine in rat brain membranes

    Binding of [3H](d)-N-allylnormetazocine ([3H](d)-NANM) to rat brain membranes is stereospecific, reversible, and saturable (Bmax . 260 fmol/mg of protein) and manifests moderately high affinity (Kd . 20 nM). The rank order of potency among opioidbenzomorphans and phencyclidine (PCP) analogs for competition for [3H](d)-NANM-binding sites is as follows: (d)-NANM . PCP-3-OH greater than (d)-cyclazocine greater than N-ethylphenylcyclohexylamine greater than PCP greater than (l)-cyclazocine . dextrorphan greater than (d/l)-ethylketocyclazocine greater than (d/l)-bremazocine greater than (1)-NANM greater than 1-phenylcyclohexylamine greater than levorphanol. Other opioid ligands, relatively selective for each of the types of opioid binding sites other than sigma, such as morphine (mu), H-Tyr-D-Ala(Me)Phe-NH-CH2-OH (mu), D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin (delta), tifluadom (kappa), and U 50488 (kappa) as well as etorphine and naloxone were all unable to compete with [3H](d)-NANM for specific binding even at a concentration of 1 microM. Regional distribution studies of [3H](d)-NANM-binding sites show high density in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and amygdala and low density in cerebellum and nonfrontal neocortex membranes of the rat brain. These binding sites are very sensitive to protein-modifying enzymes and reagents such as trypsin and N-ethylmaleimide and to heat denaturation. These results provide direct biochemical evidence for the existence of distinct (d)-NANM-binding sites in rat brain

  1. Measurement and modeling for vanadium extraction from the (NaVO3 + H2SO4 + H2O) system by primary amine N1923

    Highlights: • LLE data for vanadium extraction by primary amine N1923 were obtained. • Three extraction reactions were determined with the slope method. • Thermodynamic equilibrium constants and new Pitzer parameters were regressed. • The prediction performance of this new model was discussed and verified. - Abstract: In this work, the solvent extraction of vanadium by using the primary amine N1923 as extractant was studied. Within different vanadium concentration ranges, the extraction reactions were determined using the slope method at T = 298.15 K based on the vanadium phase diagram. The slopes (the stoichiometric ratio) were determined as 5/3, 1 and 11/3 for (RNH2)5/3H3VO4,(RNH2)H3V3O9 and (RNH2)11/3H6V10O28, respectively. The thermodynamic model was established through regression of the experimental results with the Pitzer equation for both aqueous and organic phases by the General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS). Three different sets of parameters and chemical equilibrium constants K were determined, which corresponded to the three extraction reactions. The orders of the lnK values are V10>V3>V1 (organic V species), and the distribution coefficients (DV) are DV1>DV3>DV10. The new model was applied to predict the regularities of extraction yield along with different initial conditions, and the results agree well with the experimental values

  2. A non-adiabatic wavepacket dynamical study of the low energy charge transfer process in the S{sup 3+} + H collision

    Labuda, Marta, E-mail: marta@mif.pg.gda.pl [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, ul. Narutowicza 11/12, 80233 Gdansk (Poland); Gonzalez-Vazquez, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, C/ Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martin, Fernando [Departamento de Quimica, Modulo 13, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileno de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia (IMDEA-Nanociencia), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Leticia [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S{sup 3+} + H charge transfer process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low energy collision in the [1-10] eV range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-adiabatic wavepacket quantum dynamical study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2D time-dependent wavepacket approach in the femtosecond time scale. - Abstract: The collisional system S{sup 3+} + H {yields} S{sup 2+} + H{sup +} has been studied using a time-dependent wavepacket methodology in two-dimensions. Using available potential energy surfaces and coupling matrix elements obtained from multireference ab initio calculations, five non-adiabatically coupled electronic states of {sup 1}{Pi} symmetry have been included in the dynamical simulations. The collision has been studied in the low energy regime of 1-10 eV. The wavepacket treatment accounts for the description of the collision including all possible impact parameters simultaneously in all spatial directions of the considered plane. The molecular movie of the scattered products arising from charge transfer yields the angular distribution and the total charge transfer probability vs. initial kinetic energy of the projectile. A detailed analysis of the forward, sideways, and backward scattering mechanisms showing different patterns is presented.

  3. Structure, phase transitions, dielectric and spectroscopic studies of the 2-aminopyrimidinium salts: [(2-NH 2C 4N 2H 3) 2H][ClO 4] and [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 4][BF 4

    Czupiński, O.; Wojtaś, M.; Ciunik, Z.; Jakubas, R.

    2006-01-01

    Crystal structure of the 2-aminopyrimidinium derivatives: [(2-NH 2C 4N 2H 3) 2H][ClO 4] (I) and [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 4][BF 4] (II) has been determined at 100 K (I) and 293 K (II) by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction as monoclinic space group, P2/c and P2/n, respectively. The asymmetric part of the unit cell of (I) contains two symmetry independent 2-aminopyrimidine forming one dimeric cation and one disordered perchlorate anion. The structure of (II) consists of 2-aminopyrimidinium cation, [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 4] +, protonated at a pyrimidine ring-N atom and [BF 4] - anion. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on perchlorate derivative ( 1:1), [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 3][ClO 4] (III)—being isomorphic to tetrafluoroborate one (I) at room temperature, reveals two phase transitions of first order: at 250/275 K and 390/410 K (cooling-heating, respectively), whereas the analog (II) only one transition at high temperatures—343/385 K. The dielectric studies in the frequency range 75 kHz - 10 MHz disclose relaxation process at high temperatures in salt (I). Infrared spectra of polycrystalline [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 4][BF 4] have been studied in the temperature range 300-420 K. Substantial changes in the temperature evolution of frequencies of internal modes of the 2-aminopyrimidinium cations and [BF 4] - anions near 390 K are due to the variations in the motion of both moieties and hydrogen bond configuration. The experimental studies indicate that all phase transitions taking place in studied 2-aminopyrimidinium derivatives are classified as an order-disorder.

  4. Dissection and cytological mapping of barley chromosome 2H in the genetic background of common wheat

    Joshi, Giri Prasad; Nasuda, Shuhei; Endo, Takashi R.

    2011-01-01

    We used gametocidal (Gc) chromosomes 2C and 3C[SAT] to dissect barley 2H added to common wheat. The Gc chromosome induces chromosomal breakage resulting in chromosomal aberrations in the progeny of the 2H addition line of common wheat carrying the monosomic Gc chromosome. We conducted in situ hybridization to select plants carrying structurally rearranged aberrant 2H chromosomes and characterized them by sequential C-banding and in situ hybridization. We established 66 dissection lines of com...

  5. The evaluation of 2H(n,2n)1H reaction cross section

    2H(n,2n)p reaction cross section is useful to nuclear power development. All the experimental data of 2H(n,2n)p reaction until 1990 were collected. The original data and errors of all the experiments were analysed and fitted on computer MICRO-VAX-II with orthogonal polynomial. The recommended 2H(n,2n) cross section are presented

  6. Synthesis of 2-substituted 2H-chromenes using potassium vinyltrifluoroborates

    Liu, Fei; Evans, Todd; Das, Bhaskar C.

    2008-01-01

    2H-Chromenes were synthesized from salicylaldehyde using potassium vinylic borates in the presence of secondary amines. We synthesized these 2H-chromene derivatives as a part of an ongoing project to develop inhibitors for TGF-β receptors. Potassium vinyl trifluoroborates react with salicylaldehydes at 80 °C in the presence of a secondary amine and produced 2-substituted 2H-chromene derivatives with a 70–90% yield.

  7. Nuclear reaction analysis of 1H and 2H in hafnium silicate films on Si

    The 1H(15N,αγ)12C and 2H(3He,p)4He nuclear reactions were employed to detect, respectively, 1H and 2H in hafnium silicates films on Si. The methods employed to achieve quantitative analyses are described. Moreover, by performing annealing sequences in vacuum or O2 followed by 1H2 or 2H2, it was observed that the O2-preanneled films incorporate less H, either 1H or 2H. This was explained by O-deficient, H-trapping sites that are eliminated by the O2 preannealing

  8. On the Meshing Efficiency of 2K-2H Type Planetary Gear Reducer

    Long-Chang Hsieh; Hsiu-Chen Tang

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes 2K-2H type planetary gear reducer and analyzes its meshing efficiency. First, according to the concept of train value equation, the kinematic design of 2K-2H type planetary gear reducers is carried out. Three 2K-2H type planetary gear reducers are designed to illustrate the design algorithm. Then, based on the latent power theorem, the meshing efficiency equation of 2K-2H type planetary gear reducer is derived. According to the meshing efficiency equation, the meshing effi...

  9. Central nervous system dysfunction in a mouse model of FA2H deficiency

    Potter, Kathleen A.; Kern, Michael J.; Fullbright, George; Bielawski, Jacek; Scherer, Steven S.; Yum, Sabrina W.; Li, Jian J.; Cheng, Hua; Han, Xianlin; Venkata, Jagadish Kummetha; Khan, P. Akbar Ali; Rohrer, Bärbel; Hama, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) is responsible for the synthesis of myelin galactolipids containing hydroxy fatty acid (hFA) as the N-acyl chain. Mutations in the FA2H gene cause leukodystrophy, spastic paraplegia, and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Using the Cre-lox system, we developed two types of mouse mutants, Fa2h−/− mice (Fa2h deleted in all cells by germline deletion) and Fa2hflox/flox Cnp1-Cre mice (Fa2h deleted only in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells). We found s...

  10. A study on pharmacokinetics of 3H-mitoxantrone in experimental animals

    Mitroxantrone (DHAQ) is a new semisynthetic antitumor drug prepared in China. This paper reports the pharmacokinetic studies of 3H-mitoxantrone in mice by liquid scintillation. The results showed that the decline of radioactivity in the plasma was a biphasic curve after intramuscular and intravenous injection in rats. The adsorption of 3H-DHAQ was ready and completed after intramuscular injection. It was widely distributed in body tissues. The concentration order of various organs was liver > intestine > kidney > lung > heart > muscles > brain. The elimination of the drug was slow, T1/2 was 42.56 h. In 72h after administration the cumulative excretion of radioactivity in urine was 7% of the total dose, while that in feces was 43%. The main forms of the drug in urine were its metabolites

  11. Fluoride stimulates [3H]thymidine incorporation and alkaline phosphatase production by human osteoblasts

    The effect of sodium fluoride on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) release and [3H]thymidine uptake by human osteoblasts in culture was investigated. Sodium fluoride stimulated both ALP release and [3H]thymidine uptake at concentrations of sodium fluoride greater than 250 mumol/L. This stimulation was similar in magnitude to that induced by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. The fluoride-induced increase in ALP was inhibited by verapamil, a calcium channel blocker. We conclude that sodium fluoride stimulates osteoblasts to proliferate and to release ALP. This stimulation by fluoride is dependent on calcium influx. Fluoride-induced stimulation of human osteoblasts may be relevant to its effect in enhancing bone formation in patients with osteoporosis

  12. 3H- and 125I-labelled imipramine derivatives for radioimmunoassay of tricyclic antidepressants

    3H-desmethyl imipramine was prepared by catalyzed reaction of a solution of the non-active substance with tritium gas. The radiochemical purity of the product was 97% and molar activity was 2.4 TBq/mol. Reduction methylation by formaldehyde in the presence of tritium gas was used to prepare 3H-imipramine from labelled desmethyl imipramine. The radiochemical purity of the product was 96% and molar activity 2.9 TBq/mol. A detailed description is presented of the preparation of desimipraminyl derivatives as is their iodination with 125I. The degree of inhibition in iodinated derivatives was found to be lower than in tritium labelled imipramine. (E.S.). 2 figs., 4 refs

  13. Some observations indicating a low brain uptake of [3H]Nle11-Substance P

    The studies concerning the problem of whether an exogenous neuropeptide is able to enter the brain tissue were extended to the undecapeptide Substance P (SP). The amount of radioactivity 15 s after intracarotid injection of [3H]Nle11-SP or [14C]inulin was determined in 18 brain regions and the anterior pituitary of male rats. As compared to the reference [14C]inulin, the amount of radioactivity was higher after [3H]Nle11-SP injection (0.233 +- 0.039%, p < 0.001). Statistically significant differences could be found particularly in cortical and caudal areas as well as in the circumventricular organs studied. These observations do not refute the assumption that a low brain uptake of the labelled neuropeptide occurred due to an accumulation within structures of the blood-brain barrier and/or a penetration of the barrier system. (author)

  14. Radioprotection of C3H mice by recombinant human interleukin-1α

    High doses of rHIL-1 protected C3H/HeN mice against lethal radiation damage. The optimum time of radioprotection was found when this cytokine was administered at 4 h and at 20 h before irradiation. The dose reduction factors when the IL-1 was administered at those times were about 1.30. The radio-protection at the optimum times was also observed in the cell kinetic behaviour of GM-CFC in the bone marrow. In previous studies it was reported that less radioprotection was found in C3H/HeN mice pretreated with IL-1. This may not be the case with a higher dose of IL-1. (author)

  15. Metaphit irreversibly inhibits (/sup 3/H)threo-(+/-)-methylphenidate binding to rat striatal tissue

    Schweri, M.M.; Jacobson, A.E.; Lessor, R.A.; Rice, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Metaphit (1-(1-(3-isothiocyanatophenyl)cyclohexyl)-piperidine), a derivative of phencyclidine that contains an isothiocyanate group on the meta position of the aromatic ring, resembles its parent compound (phencyclidine) in its ability to inhibit the binding of the stimulant drug (/sup 3/H)threo-(+/-)-methylphenidate to crude synaptosomal membranes from rat striatal tissue (IC50 = 1.4 and 6.2 microM for phencyclidine and Metaphit, respectively). Unlike phencyclidine, however, Metaphit appears to inhibit binding of the radiolabeled stimulant in an irreversible manner, as the degree of inhibition of binding of the stimulant does not diminish when the Metaphit-treated tissue is subjected to repeated washings before determination of the binding of (/sup 3/H)threo-(+/-)-methylphenidate. This finding suggests that Metaphit may be a useful tool in the study of the molecular basis of stimulant action.

  16. Effects of sodium on cell surface and intracellular 3H-naloxone binding sites

    The binding of the opiate antagonist 3H-naloxone was examined in rat whole brain homogenates and in crude subcellular fractions of these homogenates (nuclear, synaptosomal, and mitochondrial fractions) using buffers that approximated intra- (low sodium concentration) and extracellular (high sodium concentration) fluids. Saturation studies showed a two-fold decrease in the dissociation constant (Kd) in all subcellular fractions examined in extracellular buffer compared to intracellular buffer. In contrast, there was no significant effect of the buffers on the Bmax. Thus, 3H-naloxone did not distinguish between binding sites present on cell surface and intracellular tissues in these two buffers. These results show that the sodium effect of opiate antagonist binding is probably not a function of altered selection of intra- and extracellular binding sites. 17 references, 2 tables

  17. Morphometric studies with attached mouse C3H/10T 1/2 cells

    Studies of in vitro transformation using the Syrian hamster embryo cell system and the mouse C3H/10T 1/2 cell system form an integral part of this laboratory's activities. As part of the studies with the mouse cell line we have monitored the behavior of these cells in culture in order to ascertain those variables which might influence the expression of transformation. The study of transformed cells versus normal cells could lead to insight into an earlier definition of transformation that the clonal morphological change currently in use. This present report details the changes in cellular morphology with time in culture of normal mouse C3H/10T 1/2 cells from early passages (9 to 13) and x-ray transformed cells which have been maintained in culture for three years

  18. Evaluation of a modified IRMA for anti-D quantitation, using 3H protein A

    A modified immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) using tritiated (3H) protein A was developed to estimate anti-D concentration. The main advantages of the assay were longer shelf life of the labelled reagent (more than two years); minimum radiation hazard and; low non specific binding. Levels of anti-D were estimated in 23 Rh (D) immunized women. A good correlation of anti-D concentration (μg/ml) with Rh antibody titre was observed (r=+ 0.89, P 3H protein A IRMA correlated well with the severity of Rh-HDN. This assay could quantitate anti-D in sera having exclusively IgG3 subtype. (author). 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Assessment of the 3H and 7Be generation in the IFMIF lithium loop

    A complete evaluation of the 7Be and tritium inventory induced in the IFMIF lithium loop by deuterons and neutrons was performed on the basis of 3D Monte Carlo calculations with the MCDeLicious code and evaluated d-Li and n-Li cross-section data. The associated reaction cross-sections and thick lithium target yields were checked against available experimental data. The IFMIF calculations showed that the deuteron beam will produce 1.5 g of 7Be and 6 g of 3H per full power year in the lithium jet. The tritium generation in the whole lithium loop due to neutron induced reactions is at a rate of 1.5 g/fpy. The radio-active decay results in an equilibrium concentration 0.3 mg of 7Be and 50 mg of 3H per 1 kg of circulating lithium if no radioactive products are removed from the loop

  20. Metabolism of 3H-dopamine by human chorioamnion in vitro

    Previous investigation has demonstrated biologically significant concentrations of catecholamines in amniotic fluid, which increase with gestation. The half life, metabolic clearance rate, and metabolic fate of these hormones in the amniotic compartment are yet to be established. This study was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of human chorioamnion to metabolize dopamine in vitro. Incubation experiments demonstrated that 3H-dopamine is rapidly metabolized to dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxy, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-methoxy, 4-hydroxyphenylethanol-all products of monoamine oxidase. No significant 3-methoxytyramine, a catechol-o-methyltransferase product, was observed. Incubation experiments with pargyline, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, resulted in significant reduction in 3H-dopamine metabolism. Catecholamines and their interaction with prostaglandin synthesis have been theorized to be a fetal signal for the initiation of parturition. The ability of chorioamnion to metabolize catecholamine could, therefore, provide another control mechanism by which fetal catecholamines are modulated