WorldWideScience

Sample records for 2df galaxy redshift

  1. Searching for X-ray luminous 'normal' galaxies in 2dfGRS

    Tzanavaris, P; Georgakakis, A

    2006-01-01

    We cross-correlated the Chandra XASSIST and XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogues with the 2 degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dfGRS) database. Our aim was to identify the most X-ray luminous (L_X > 10^42 erg s^-1) examples of galaxies in the local Universe whose X-ray emission is dominated by stellar processes rather than AGN activity ('normal' galaxies) as well as to test the empirical criterion log(f_X/f_O) -2. We performed a similar search in two nearby-galaxy samples from the literature. All 44 galaxies in the Zezas (2001) sample have log(f_X/f_O) -2, the majority of which are massive ellipticals. Three of these have L_X > 10^42 erg s^-1 .

  2. Galaxies at High Redshifts

    Yahil, A.; Lanzetta, K. M.; Fernandez-Soto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Several conclusions have been reached over the last few years concerning high-redshift galaxies: (1) The excess of faint blue galaxies is due to dwarf galaxies. (2) Star formation peaks at redshifts z ~1-2. (3) It appears to occur piecemeal in any given galaxy and there is no evidence for starbursting throughout a large ~10 kpc galaxy. (4) There is significant and sharp diminution in the number of L* spiral galaxies at redshifts 1

  3. Galaxies at High Redshifts

    Yahil, A; Fernández-Soto, A

    1998-01-01

    Several conclusions have been reached over the last few years concerning high-redshift galaxies: (1) The excess of faint blue galaxies is due to dwarf galaxies. (2) Star formation peaks at redshifts z ~1-2. (3) It appears to occur piecemeal in any given galaxy and there is no evidence for starbursting throughout a large ~10 kpc galaxy. (4) There is significant and sharp diminution in the number of L* spiral galaxies at redshifts 1galaxies at redshifts 2.5redshift galaxies in universes with larger volumes per unit redshift, i.e., open or lambda models, which have lower deceleration parameters.

  4. Galaxies at Redshifts z > 5

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Pascarelle, Sebastian; Yahata, Noriaki

    1998-01-01

    Here we describe our attempts to establish statistically complete samples of very high redshift galaxies by obtaining photometric redshifts of galaxies in Medium Deep Survey (MDS) fields and photometric and spectroscopic redshifts of galaxies in very deep STIS slitless spectroscopy fields. On the basis of this analysis, we have identified galaxies of redshift z = 4.92 in an MDS field and of redshift z = 6.68 in a very deep STIS field.

  5. Photometric Redshifts of Submillimeter Galaxies

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya; McKee, Christopher F; Lutz, Dieter; Berta, Stefano; Popesso, Paola; Pozzi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    We use the photometric redshift method of Chakrabarti & McKee (2008) to infer photometric redshifts of submillimeter galaxies with far-IR (FIR) $\\it{Herschel}$ data obtained as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) program. For the sample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate the validity of this method over a large range of redshifts ($ 4 \\ga z \\ga 0.3$) and luminosities, finding an average accuracy in $(1+z_{\\rm phot})/(1+z_{\\rm spec})$ of 10%. Thus, this method is more accurate than other FIR photometric redshift methods. This method is different from typical FIR photometric methods in deriving redshifts from the light-to-gas mass ($L/M$) ratio of infrared-bright galaxies inferred from the FIR spectral energy distribution (SED), rather than dust temperatures. Once the redshift is derived, we can determine physical properties of infrared bright galaxies, including the temperature variation within the dust envelope, luminosity, mass, and surface density. We use data from the GOODS-S field to c...

  6. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya [School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Magnelli, Benjamin; Lutz, Dieter; Berta, Stefano; Popesso, Paola [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); McKee, Christopher F. [Physics and Astronomy Departments, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pozzi, Francesca, E-mail: chakrabarti@astro.rit.edu [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-08-20

    We use the photometric redshift method of Chakrabarti and McKee to infer photometric redshifts of submillimeter galaxies with far-IR (FIR) Herschel data obtained as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe program. For the sample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate the validity of this method over a large range of redshifts (4 {approx}> z {approx}> 0.3) and luminosities, finding an average accuracy in (1 + z{sub phot})/(1 + z{sub spec}) of 10%. Thus, this method is more accurate than other FIR photometric redshift methods. This method is different from typical FIR photometric methods in deriving redshifts from the light-to-gas mass (L/M) ratio of infrared-bright galaxies inferred from the FIR spectral energy distribution, rather than dust temperatures. To assess the dependence of our photometric redshift method on the data in this sample, we contrast the average accuracy of our method when we use PACS data, versus SPIRE data, versus both PACS and SPIRE data. We also discuss potential selection effects that may affect the Herschel sample. Once the redshift is derived, we can determine physical properties of infrared-bright galaxies, including the temperature variation within the dust envelope, luminosity, mass, and surface density. We use data from the GOODS-S field to calculate the star formation rate density (SFRD) of submillimeter bright sources detected by AzTEC and PACS. The AzTEC-PACS sources, which have a threshold 850 {mu}m flux {approx}> 5 mJy, contribute 15% of the SFRD from all ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L{sub IR} {approx}> 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }), and 3% of the total SFRD at z {approx} 2.

  7. [Redshift estimation of galaxy spectra based on similarity measure].

    Liu, Rong; Qiao, Xue-Jun; Duan, Fu-Qing

    2008-01-01

    Automated spectra analysis is desirable and necessary for efficiency of large sky surveys such as SDSS (Sloan digital sky survey), 2DF (2 degree fields) and LAMOST (large sky area multi-object spectroscopic telescope). In the present paper, we present a method for redshift estimation of galaxy spectra based on similarity measure. Firstly, we extract the spectral lines of the observed spectrum using the feature constrains of spectral lines; secondly, the authors determine the redshift candidates of the observed spectrum by spectral line features; then, the similarity between the observed spectrum and the template spectra shifted by each redshift candidate is measured; finally, the candidate of the highest similarity is chosen as the estimated redshift. PCA (principal component analysis) is used to build the static galaxy template spectra. The authors perform PCA for the four template spectra E, S0, Sa and Sb of the normal galaxy and the seven template spectra Sc, Sb1, Sb2, Sb3, Sb4, Sb5 and Sb6 of the starburst galaxy respectively, where the eleven template spectra are presented by Kinney & Calzetti et al. Two eigen-spectra are produced with the variance contribution rate of 99%. The authors choose the two eigen-spectra as the galaxy templates. The similarity measure proposed, which is similar to the evidence accumulation, is defined as the weighted sum of several similarity evidences. It can reduce the influence caused by some error matching. The authors divide the observed spectrum and the template spectrum respectively into several parts, and measure the correlations of the corresponding parts of them, which is chosen as the similarity evidences in the proposed similarity measure. The principle of setting the weights is that the higher the correlation, the higher the corresponding weight. The proposed approach is compared with the method based on spectral line matching and the traditional cross correlation technique by experiments, the results show that the

  8. Bayesian redshift-space distortions correction from galaxy redshift surveys

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Angulo, Raul E; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Monteagudo, Carlos Hernandez; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    We present a Bayesian reconstruction method which maps a galaxy distribution from redshift-space to real-space inferring the distances of the individual galaxies. The method is based on sampling density fields assuming a lognormal prior with a likelihood given by the negative binomial distribution function modelling stochastic bias. We assume a deterministic bias given by a power law relating the dark matter density field to the expected halo or galaxy field. Coherent redshift-space distortions are corrected in a Gibbs-sampling procedure by moving the galaxies from redshift-space to real-space according to the peculiar motions derived from the recovered density field using linear theory with the option to include tidal field corrections from second order Lagrangian perturbation theory. The virialised distortions are corrected by sampling candidate real-space positions (being in the neighbourhood of the observations along the line of sight), which are compatible with the bulk flow corrected redshift-space posi...

  9. Lensing convergence in galaxy redshift surveys

    Cardona, Wilmar; Kunz, Martin; Montanari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we demonstrate the importance of including the lensing contribution in galaxy clustering analyses with large galaxy redshift surveys. It is well known that radial cross-correlations between different redshift bins of galaxy surveys are dominated by lensing. But we show here that also neglecting lensing in the auto-correlations within one bin severely biases cosmological parameter estimation with redshift surveys. It leads to significant shifts for several cosmological parameters, most notably the scalar amplitude, the scalar spectral index and in particular the neutrino mass scale. Especially the latter parameter is one of the main targets of future galaxy surveys.

  10. Apparent discordant redshift QSO-galaxy associations

    Lopez-Corredoira, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An "exotic" idea proposed by Viktor Ambartsumian was that new galaxies are formed through the ejection from older active galaxies. Galaxies beget galaxies, instead of the standard scenario in which galaxies stem from the evolution of the seeds derived from fluctuations in the initial density field. This idea is in some way contained in the speculative proposal that some or all QSOs might be objects ejected by nearby galaxies, and that their redshift is not cosmological (Arp, G./M. Burbidge and others). I will discuss some of the arguments for and against this scenario; in particular, I shall talk about the existence of real physical connections in apparently discordant QSO-galaxy redshift associations. On the one hand, there are many statistical correlations of high-redshift QSOs and nearby galaxies that cannot yet be explained in terms of gravitational lensing, biases, or selection effects; and some particular configurations have very low probabilities of being a projection of background objects. Our underst...

  11. A New 2MASS/2df Selected Sample of Pairs of Galaxies and Calibration of Merging Rate in the Local Universe

    孙艳春; 徐聪; 何香涛

    2003-01-01

    We present a new sample of 37 close major-merger galaxy pairs, selected from the 2-degree field redshift survey of the two-micron all-sky survey (2MASS) galaxies. The selection criteria for our near-infrared pairs are more closely related to galaxy mass (a very important parameter in galaxy evolution models) than those for optical selected samples. Our sample benefits enormously from the high homogeneity and accuracy of the 2MASS database, and false matchings are minimized by the essentially three-dimensional selection procedure. Taking into account the biases, we find that 1.96 (±0.4)% of galaxies are in close major-merger pairs. This indicates a local merging rate of 1.0%, in good agreement with the results in recent studies of optical selected pairs in the local universe. The results derived with our sample have high confidence.

  12. The high redshift galaxy population in hierarchical galaxy formation models

    Kitzbichler, M G; Kitzbichler, Manfred G.; White, Simon D. M.

    2006-01-01

    We compare observations of the high redshift galaxy population to the predictions of the galaxy formation model of Croton et al. (2006). This model, implemented on the Millennium Simulation of the concordance LCDM cosmogony, introduces "radio mode" feedback from the central galaxies of groups and clusters in order to obtain quantitative agreement with the luminosity, colour, morphology and clustering properties of the low redshift galaxy population. Here we compare the predictions of this same model to the observed counts and redshift distributions of faint galaxies, as well as to their inferred luminosity and mass functions out to redshift 5. With the exception of the mass functions, all these properties are sensitive to modelling of dust obscuration. A simple but plausible treatment gives moderately good agreement with most of the data, although the predicted abundance of relatively massive (~M*) galaxies appears systematically high at high redshift, suggesting that such galaxies assemble earlier in this mo...

  13. Local redshift surveys and galaxy evolution

    De Propris, Roberto; Colless, Matthew; Croton, Darren

    2003-01-01

    We present observations of galaxy environmental dependencies using data from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. From a combined analysis of the luminosity function, Butcher-Oemler effect and trends in H$\\alpha$ line strengths we find support for a model where galaxy properties are mainly set by initial conditions at the time of their formation.

  14. Gravitational Redshifts in Simulated Galaxy Clusters

    Kim, Y R; Kim, Young-Rae; Croft, Rupert

    2004-01-01

    We predict the amplitude of the gravitational redshift of galaxies in galaxy clusters using an N-body simulation of a Lambda CDM universe. We examine if it might be possible to detect the gravitational effect on the total redshift observed for galaxies. For clusters of mass M ~10^15 m_sun, the difference in gravitational redshift between the brightest galaxy and the rest of the cluster members is ~10 km/s. The most efficient way to detect gravitational redshifts using information from galaxies only involves using the full gravitational redshift profile of clusters. Massive clusters, while having the largest gravitational redshift suffer from large galaxy peculiar velocities and substructure, which act as a source of noise. This and their low number density make it more reasonable to try averaging over many clusters and groups of relatively low mass. We examine publicly available data for 107 rich clusters from the ESO Nearby Abell Clusters Survey (ENACS), finding no evidence for gravitational redshifts. Test ...

  15. Bayesian redshift-space distortions correction from galaxy redshift surveys

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Ata, Metin; Angulo, Raul E.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Monteagudo, Carlos Hernández; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo

    2016-03-01

    We present a Bayesian reconstruction method which maps a galaxy distribution from redshift- to real-space inferring the distances of the individual galaxies. The method is based on sampling density fields assuming a lognormal prior with a likelihood modelling non-linear stochastic bias. Coherent redshift-space distortions are corrected in a Gibbs-sampling procedure by moving the galaxies from redshift- to real-space according to the peculiar motions derived from the recovered density field using linear theory. The virialized distortions are corrected by sampling candidate real-space positions along the line of sight, which are compatible with the bulk flow corrected redshift-space position adding a random dispersion term in high-density collapsed regions (defined by the eigenvalues of the Hessian). This approach presents an alternative method to estimate the distances to galaxies using the three-dimensional spatial information, and assuming isotropy. Hence the number of applications is very broad. In this work, we show the potential of this method to constrain the growth rate up to k ˜ 0.3 h Mpc-1. Furthermore it could be useful to correct for photometric redshift errors, and to obtain improved baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) reconstructions.

  16. Morphologies at High Redshift from Galaxy Zoo

    Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Simmons, Brooke; Willett, Kyle; Lintott, Chris

    2015-08-01

    I will present results from Galaxy Zoo classification of galaxies observed in public observed frame optical HST surveys (e.g. COSMOS, GOODS) as well as in observed frame NIR with (ie. CANDELS). Early science results from these classifications have investigated the changing bar fraction in disc galaxies as a function of redshift (to z~1 in Melvin et al. 2014; and at z>1 in Simmons et al. 2015), as well as how the morphologies of galaxies on the red sequence have been changing since z~1 (Melvin et al. in prep.). These unique dataset of quantitative visual classifications for high redshift galaxies will be made public in forthcoming publications (planned as Willett et al. for Galaxy Zoo Hubble, and Simmons et al. for Galaxy Zoo CANDELS).

  17. Groups of Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift

    Miller, Eric D.; Bautz, Marshall; Grant, Catherine; Hickox, Ryan; Brodwin, Mark; Murray, Stephen; Jones, Christine; Forman, William; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy groups are key tracers of galaxy evolution, cluster evolution, and structure formation, yet they are difficult to study at even moderate redshift. We have undertaken a project to observe a flux-limited sample of intermediate-redshift (0.1 < z < 0.5) group candidates identified by the XBootes Chandra survey. When complete, this project will nearly triple the current number of groups with measured temperatures in this redshift range. Here we present deep Suzaku/XIS and Chandra/ACIS follo...

  18. Measuring Gravitational Redshifts in Galaxy Clusters

    Kaiser, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Wojtak {\\it et al} have stacked 7,800 clusters from the SDSS survey in redshift space. They find a small net blue-shift for the cluster galaxies relative to the brightest cluster galaxies, which agrees quite well with the gravitational redshift from GR. Zhao {\\it et al.} have pointed out that, in addition to the gravitational redshift, one would expect to see transverse Doppler (TD) redshifts, and that these two effects are generally of the same order. Here we show that there are other corrections that are also of the same order of magnitude. The fact that we observe galaxies on our past light cone results in a bias such that more of the galaxies observed are moving away from us in the frame of the cluster than are moving towards us. This causes the observed average redshift to be $\\langle \\delta z \\rangle = -\\langle \\Phi \\rangle + \\langle \\beta^2 \\rangle / 2 + \\langle \\beta_x^2 \\rangle$, with $\\beta_x$ is the line of sight velocity. That is if we average over galaxies with equal weight. If the galaxies in ea...

  19. Measuring our Universe from Galaxy Redshift Surveys

    Lahav Ofer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy redshift surveys have achieved significant progress over the last couple of decades. Those surveys tell us in the most straightforward way what our local Universe looks like. While the galaxy distribution traces the bright side of the Universe, detailed quantitative analyses of the data have even revealed the dark side of the Universe dominated by non-baryonic dark matter as well as more mysterious dark energy (or Einstein's cosmological constant. We describe several methodologies of using galaxy redshift surveys as cosmological probes, and then summarize the recent results from the existing surveys. Finally we present our views on the future of redshift surveys in the era of precision cosmology.

  20. High Redshift Galaxy Populations and their Descendants

    Guo, Qi

    2008-01-01

    We study model predictions for three high-redshift galaxy populations: Lyman break galaxies at z~3 (LBGs), optically selected star-forming galaxies at z~2 (BXs), and distant red galaxies at z~2 (DRGs).Our galaxy formation model simultaneously reproduces the abundances, redshift distributions and clustering of all three observed populations. The star formation rates (SFRs) of model LBGs and BXs are lower than those quoted for real samples, reflecting different initial mass functions and scatter in model dust properties. About 85% of model galaxies selected as DRGs are star-forming, with SFRs ranging up to 100 M_sun/yr. Model LBGs, BXs and DRGs together account for less than half of all star formation over the range 1.510^{11}M_sun are classified as LBGs or BXs at the relevant redshifts, while 65% are classified as DRGs. Almost all model LBGs and BXs are central galaxies, but about a quarter of DRGs are satellites. Half of all LBG descendants at z=2 would be identified as BX's, but very few as DRGs. Clustering ...

  1. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 630) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude mB = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  2. The visibility of high-redshift galaxies

    The most visible galaxies - that is, those which have the largest apparent sizes and isophotal luminosities when seen at a given distance - are those with a particular observed surface brightness. Extending this argument to high-redshift galaxies, it is clear that this optimum surface brightness moves progressively to brighter intrinsic surface brightnesses, so as to counteract the effect of K-corrections and cosmological dimming. Thus the galaxies appearing in faint surveys will be from a population distinctly different from those 'normal' galaxies observed nearby. Galaxies in deep surveys are more likely to be spirals and to be of high surface brightness. This has very important implications for observational studies of galaxy evolution. (author)

  3. Xray observations of high redshift radio galaxies

    Carilli, C L

    2003-01-01

    I summarize Xray properties of high redshift radio galaxies, beginning with a brief review of what has been learned from Xray observations of low redshift powerful radio galaxies (in particular, Cygnus A), and then turning to Chandra observations of four high redshift radio galaxies. Hot Xray emitting atmospheres of the type seen in low redshift clusters are not detected in the high redshift sources, suggesting that these systems are not yet virialized massive clusters, but will likely evolve into such. Xray emission from highly obscured AGN is detected in all cases. Extended Xray emission is also seen, and the extended emission is clearly aligned with the radio source, and on a similar spatial scale. Multiple mechanisms are proposed for this radio-Xray alignment, including inverse Compton scattering of photons from the AGN (the 'Brunetti mechanism'), and thermal emission from ambient gas that is shocked heated by the expanding radio source. The pressure in the high filling factor shocked gas is adequate to c...

  4. Anomaly detection for machine learning redshifts applied to SDSS galaxies

    Hoyle, Ben; Paech, Kerstin; Bonnett, Christopher; Seitz, Stella; Weller, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of anomaly detection for machine learning redshift estimation. Anomaly detection allows the removal of poor training examples, which can adversely influence redshift estimates. Anomalous training examples may be photometric galaxies with incorrect spectroscopic redshifts, or galaxies with one or more poorly measured photometric quantity. We select 2.5 million 'clean' SDSS DR12 galaxies with reliable spectroscopic redshifts, and 6730 'anomalous' galaxies with spectroscopic redshift measurements which are flagged as unreliable. We contaminate the clean base galaxy sample with galaxies with unreliable redshifts and attempt to recover the contaminating galaxies using the Elliptical Envelope technique. We then train four machine learning architectures for redshift analysis on both the contaminated sample and on the preprocessed 'anomaly-removed' sample and measure redshift statistics on a clean validation sample generated without any preprocessing. We find an improvement on all measured stat...

  5. Jellyfish galaxies at low redshift

    Poggianti, B M; Omizzolo, A; Gullieuszik, M; Bettoni, D; Moretti, A; Paccagnella, A; Jaffe', Y L; Vulcani, B; Fritz, J; Couch, W; D'Onofrio, M

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish galaxies are galaxies that exhibit tentacles of debris material suggestive of gas stripping. We have conducted the first systematic search for jellyfish galaxies at low-z (z=0.04-0.07) in different environments. We have visually inspected B and V-band images and identified 241+153 candidates in 41+31 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 99 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. This large sample is well suited for follow-up studies of the gas and for a detailed analysis of the environments where such episodes of gas stripping occur. We present here the atlas of jellyfish candidates, a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Jellyfish candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion or X-ray luminosity. Interestingly, convincing cases of jellyfish candidates are also found ...

  6. An extended galaxy redshift survey: Pt. 1

    Redshifts and blue magnitudes are presented for a sample of 264 'field' galaxies virtually complete to a limiting magnitude of bj ∼ 16.80 mag. The galaxies were selected by sampling one galaxy in every three in order of apparent magnitude on each of nine high-latitude UK Schmidt (UKST) fields. Photometric data were provided by COSMOS machine measures of UKST plates, zero-pointed with CCD photometry. The spectral data came from observations with the 1.9-m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), and the resulting radial velocities have a precision of ∼ ± 130 km s-1. This survey augments substantially the Durham/AAT redshift survey. (author)

  7. Cool Gas in High Redshift Galaxies

    Carilli, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, observations of the cool interstellar medium in distant galaxies via molecular and atomic fine structure line emission has gone from a curious look into a few extreme, rare objects, to a mainstream tool to study galaxy formation, out to the highest redshifts. Molecular gas has now been observed in close to 200 galaxies at z>1, including numerous AGN host-galaxies out to z~7, highly starforming sub-millimeter galaxies (median redshift z~2.5), and increasing samples of 'main-sequence' star forming galaxies at z~1.5-2.5. Studies have moved well beyond simple detections, to dynamical imaging at kpc-scale resolution, and multi-line, multi-species studies that determine the physical conditions in the interstellar medium. Observations of the cool gas are the required complement to studies of the stellar density and star formation history of the Universe, as they reveal the phase of the interstellar medium that immediately precedes star formation. Current observations suggest that the order of m...

  8. Hierarchical Bayesian inference of galaxy redshift distributions from photometric surveys

    Leistedt, Boris; Peiris, Hiranya V

    2016-01-01

    Accurately characterizing the redshift distributions of galaxies is essential for analysing deep photometric surveys and testing cosmological models. We present a technique to simultaneously infer redshift distributions and individual redshifts from photometric galaxy catalogues. Our model constructs a piecewise constant representation (effectively a histogram) of the distribution of galaxy types and redshifts, the parameters of which are efficiently inferred from noisy photometric flux measurements. This approach can be seen as a generalization of template-fitting photometric redshift methods and relies on a library of spectral templates to relate the photometric fluxes of individual galaxies to their redshifts. We illustrate this technique on simulated galaxy survey data, and demonstrate that it delivers correct posterior distributions on the underlying type and redshift distributions, as well as on the individual types and redshifts of galaxies. We show that even with uninformative priors, large photometri...

  9. High-Redshift Galaxies: The HDF and More

    Fernandez-Soto, A.; Lanzetta, K. M.; Yahil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We review our present knowledge of high-redshift galaxies, emphasizing particularly their physical properties and the ways in which they relate to present-day galaxies. We also present a catalogue of photometric redshifts of galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field and discuss the possibilities that this kind of study offers to complete the standard spectroscopically based surveys.

  10. High-Redshift Galaxies The HDF and More

    Fernández-Soto, A; Yahil, A

    1998-01-01

    We review our present knowledge of high-redshift galaxies, emphasizing particularly their physical properties and the ways in which they relate to present-day galaxies. We also present a catalogue of photometric redshifts of galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field and discuss the possibilities that this kind of study offers to complete the standard spectroscopically based surveys.

  11. Photometric Redshifts of Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field

    Lanzetta, K M; Yahil, A; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Yahil, Amos

    1997-01-01

    We describe our application of broad-band photometric redshift techniques to faint galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field. To magnitudes AB(8140) < 26, the accuracy of the photometric redshifts is a few tenths and the reliability of the photometric redshifts approaches 100%. At fainter magnitudes the effects of photometric error on the photometric redshifts can be rigorously quantified and accounted for. We argue that broad-band photometric redshift techniques can be applied to accurately and reliably estimate redshifts of galaxies that are up to many magnitudes fainter than the spectroscopic limit.

  12. Photometric Redshifts of Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Yahil, Amos

    1997-01-01

    We describe our application of broad-band photometric redshift techniques to faint galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field. To magnitudes AB(8140) < 26, the accuracy of the photometric redshifts is a few tenths and the reliability of the photometric redshifts approaches 100%. At fainter magnitudes the effects of photometric error on the photometric redshifts can be rigorously quantified and accounted for. We argue that broad-band photometric redshift techniques can be applied to accurately and reli...

  13. Redshift distortions of galaxy correlation functions

    To examine how peculiar velocities can affect the 2-, 3-, and 4-point correlation functions, we evaluate volume-average correlations for configurations that emphasize and minimize distortions for four different volume-limited samples from each of the CfA, SSRS, and IRAS redshift catalogs. We present the results as the correlation length r0 and power index γ of the 2-point correlation, anti Ξ2 = (r0/r)γ, and as the hierarchical amplitudes of the 3- and 4-point functions, S3 = anti Ξ3/anti Ξ22 and S4 = anti Ξ/anti Ξ23. We find a characteristic distortion for anti Ξ2: The slope γ is flatter and the correlation length is larger in redshift space than in real space; that is, redshift distortions ''move'' correlations from small to large scales. At the largest scales, extra power in the redshift distribution is compatible with Ω4/7/b ∼ 1; we find 0.53 ± 0.15, 1.10 ± 0.16 and 0.84 ± 0.45 for the CfA, SSRS and IRAS catalogs. Higher order correlations anti Ξ3 and anti Ξ4 suffer similar redshift distortions, but in such a way that, within the accuracy of our analysis, the normalized amplitudes S3 and S4 are insensitive to this effect. The hierarchical amplitudes S3 and S4 are constant as a function of scale between 1-12 h-1 Mpc and have similar values in all samples and catalogues, S3 ∼ 2 and S4 ∼ 6, despite the fact that anti Ξ2, anti Ξ3, and anti Ξ4 differ from one sample to another by large factors. The agreement between the independent estimations of S3 and S4 is remarkable given the different criteria in the selection of galaxies and also the difference in the resulting range of densities, luminosities and locations between samples

  14. The circumgalactic medium of high redshift galaxies

    Pallottini, Andrea; Ferrara, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We study the properties of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of high-$z$ galaxies in the metal enrichment simulations presented in Pallottini et al. 2014. At $z=4$, we find that the simulated CGM gas density profiles are self-similar, once scaled with the virial radius of the parent dark matter halo. We also find a simple analytical expression relating the neutral hydrogen equivalent width (${\\rm EW}_{\\rm HI}$) of CGM absorbers as a function of the line of sight impact parameter ($b$). We test our predictions against mock spectra extracted from the simulations, and show that the model reproduces the ${\\rm EW}_{\\rm HI}(b)$ profile extracted from the synthetic spectra analysis. When compared with available data, our CGM model nicely predicts the observed ${\\rm EW}_{\\rm HI}(b)$ in $z\\lesssim2$ galaxies, and supports the idea that the CGM profile does not evolve with redshift.

  15. Hierarchical Bayesian inference of galaxy redshift distributions from photometric surveys

    Leistedt, Boris; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2016-08-01

    Accurately characterizing the redshift distributions of galaxies is essential for analysing deep photometric surveys and testing cosmological models. We present a technique to simultaneously infer redshift distributions and individual redshifts from photometric galaxy catalogues. Our model constructs a piecewise constant representation (effectively a histogram) of the distribution of galaxy types and redshifts, the parameters of which are efficiently inferred from noisy photometric flux measurements. This approach can be seen as a generalization of template-fitting photometric redshift methods and relies on a library of spectral templates to relate the photometric fluxes of individual galaxies to their redshifts. We illustrate this technique on simulated galaxy survey data, and demonstrate that it delivers correct posterior distributions on the underlying type and redshift distributions, as well as on the individual types and redshifts of galaxies. We show that even with uninformative priors, large photometric errors and parameter degeneracies, the redshift and type distributions can be recovered robustly thanks to the hierarchical nature of the model, which is not possible with common photometric redshift estimation techniques. As a result, redshift uncertainties can be fully propagated in cosmological analyses for the first time, fulfilling an essential requirement for the current and future generations of surveys.

  16. Galaxy clustering with photometric surveys using PDF redshift information

    Asorey, J.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Brunner, R. J.; Thaler, J.

    2016-06-01

    Photometric surveys produce large-area maps of the galaxy distribution, but with less accurate redshift information than is obtained from spectroscopic methods. Modern photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithms use galaxy magnitudes, or colours, that are obtained through multiband imaging to produce a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy in the map. We used simulated data to study the effect of using different photo-z estimators to assign galaxies to redshift bins in order to compare their effects on angular clustering and galaxy bias measurements. We found that if we use the entire PDF, rather than a single-point (mean or mode) estimate, the deviations are less biased, especially when using narrow redshift bins. When the redshift bin widths are Δz = 0.1, the use of the entire PDF reduces the typical measurement bias from 5 per cent, when using single point estimates, to 3 per cent.

  17. Star-forming galaxies at very high redshifts

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Yahil, Amos; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the deepest available images of the sky, obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveals a large number of candidate high-redshift galaxies. A catalogue of 1,683 objects is presented, with estimated redshifts ranging from $z=0$ to $z>6$. The high-redshift objects are interpreted as regions of star formation associated with the progenitors of present-day normal galaxies at epochs reaching to 95\\% of the time to the Big Bang.

  18. Star-forming galaxies at very high redshifts

    Lanzetta, K M; Fernández-Soto, A; Lanzetta, Kenneth M; Yahil, Amos; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the deepest available images of the sky, obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveals a large number of candidate high-redshift galaxies. A catalogue of 1,683 objects is presented, with estimated redshifts ranging from z=0 to z>6. The high-redshift objects are interpreted as regions of star formation associated with the progenitors of present-day normal galaxies at epochs reaching to 95\\% of the time to the Big Bang.

  19. The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: Redshift Identification of Single-Line Emission Galaxies

    Kirby, E N; Faber, S M; Koo, D C; Weiner, B J; Cooper, M C

    2007-01-01

    We present two methods for determining spectroscopic redshifts of galaxies in the \\deep survey which display only one identifiable feature, an emission line, in the observed spectrum ("single-line galaxies"). First, we assume each single line is one of the four brightest lines accessible to DEEP2: Halpha, [OIII] 5007, Hbeta, or [OII] 3727. Then, we supplement spectral information with BRI photometry. The first method, parameter space proximity (PSP), calculates the distance of a single-line galaxy to galaxies of known redshift in (B-R), (R-I), R, observed wavelength parameter space. The second method is an artificial neural network (ANN). Prior information, such as allowable line widths and ratios, rules out one or more of the four lines for some galaxies in both methods. Based on analyses of evaluation sets, both methods are nearly perfect at identifying blended [OII] doublets. Of the lines identified as Halpha in the PSP and ANN methods, 91.4% and 94.2% respectively are accurate. Although the methods are no...

  20. Photometric redshifts and selection of high redshift galaxies in the NTT and Hubble Deep Fields

    Fontana, A; Poli, F; Giallongo, E; Arnouts, S; Cristiani, S; Moorwood, A F M; Saracco, P

    2000-01-01

    We present and compare in this paper new photometric redshift catalogs of the galaxies in three public fields: the NTT Deep Field, the HDF-N and the HDF-S. Photometric redshifts have been obtained for thewhole sample, by adopting a $\\chi^2$ minimization technique on a spectral library drawn from the Bruzual and Charlot synthesis models, with the addition of dust and intergalactic absorption. The accuracy, determined from 125 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts, is $\\sigma_z\\sim 0.08 (0.3)$ in the redshift intervals $z=0-1.5 (1.5-3.5)$. The global redshift distribution of I-selected galaxies shows a distinct peak at intermediate redshifts, z~0.6 at I_{AB}5 candidates in the HDF filter set and that the 4 brightest candidates at $z>5$ in the HDF-S are indeed most likely M stars. (ABRIDGED)

  1. High-Redshift Radio Galaxies from Deep Fields

    C. H. Ishwara-Chandra; S. K. Sirothia; Y. Wadadekar; S. Pal

    2011-12-01

    Most of the radio galaxies with > 3 have been found using the red-shift spectral index correlation.We have started a programme with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) to exploit this correlation at flux density levels about 100 times deeper than the known high-redshift radio galaxies, with an aim to detect candidate high-redshift radio galaxies. Here we present results from the deep 150 MHz observations of LBDS-Lynx field, which has been imaged at 327, 610 and 1412 MHz with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and at 1400 and 4860 MHz with the Very Large Array (VLA). We find about 150 radio sources with spectra steeper than 1. About two-thirds of these are not detected in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), hence are strong candidate high-redshift radio galaxies, which need to be further explored with deep infra-red imaging and spectroscopy to estimate the red-shift.

  2. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: Preliminary Results

    Maddox, S.

    1997-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations for a new survey of 250 000 galaxy redshifts are underway, using the 2dF instrument at the AAT. The input galaxy catalogue and commissioning data are described. The first result from the preliminary data is a new estimate of the galaxy luminosity function at =0.1.

  3. Photometric Redshifts for Galaxies in the GOODS Southern Field

    Mobasher, B.; Idzi, R.; Benitez, N.; Cimatti, A.; Cristiani, S.; Daddi, E.; Dahlen, T.; Dickinson, M.; Erben, T.; Ferguson, H. C.; Giavalisco, M.; Grogin, N.A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mignoli, M.; Moustakas, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    We use extensive multi-wavelength photometric data from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) to estimate photometric redshifts for a sample of 434 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the Chandra Deep Field South. Using the Bayesian method, which incorporates redshift/magnitude priors, we estimate photometric redshifts for galaxies in the range 18 < R (AB) < 25.5, giving an rms scatter of 0.11. The outlier fraction is < 10%, with the outlier-clipped rms being 0.047. We exam...

  4. Galaxies of Redshift z > 5 The View from Stony Brook

    Lanzetta, K M; Fernández-Soto, A; Pascarelle, S; Yahata, N; Yahil, A; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Pascarelle, Sebastian; Yahata, Noriaki; Yahil, Amos

    1999-01-01

    We report on some aspects of our efforts to establish properties of the extremely faint galaxy population by applying our photometric redshift technique to the HDF and HDF-S WFPC2 and NICMOS fields. We find that cosmological surface brightness dimming effects play a dominant role in setting what is observed at redshifts z > 2, that the comoving number density of high intrinsic surface brightness regions increases monotonically with increasing redshift, and that previous estimates neglect a significant or dominant fraction of the ultraviolet luminosity density of the universe due to surface brightness effects. The ultraviolet luminosity density of the universe plausibly increases monotonically with increasing redshift to redshifts beyond z = 5.

  5. Mapping the Galaxy Color-Redshift Relation: Optimal Photometric Redshift Calibration Strategies for Cosmology Surveys

    Masters, Daniel; Stern, Daniel; Ilbert, Olivier; Salvato, Mara; Schmidt, Samuel; Longo, Giuseppe; Rhodes, Jason; Paltani, Stephane; Mobasher, Bahram; Hoekstra, Henk; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Coupon, Jean; Steinhardt, Charles; Speagle, Josh; Faisst, Andreas; Kalinich, Adam; Brodwin, Mark; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Calibrating the photometric redshifts of >10^9 galaxies for upcoming weak lensing cosmology experiments is a major challenge for the astrophysics community. The path to obtaining the required spectroscopic redshifts for training and calibration is daunting, given the anticipated depths of the surveys and the difficulty in obtaining secure redshifts for some faint galaxy populations. Here we present an analysis of the problem based on the self-organizing map, a method of mapping the distribution of data in a high-dimensional space and projecting it onto a lower-dimensional representation. We apply this method to existing photometric data from the COSMOS survey selected to approximate the anticipated Euclid weak lensing sample, enabling us to robustly map the empirical distribution of galaxies in the multidimensional color space defined by the expected Euclid filters. Mapping this multicolor distribution lets us determine where - in galaxy color space - redshifts from current spectroscopic surveys exist and whe...

  6. Measuring photometric redshifts using galaxy images and Deep Neural Networks

    Hoyle, B.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new method to estimate the photometric redshift of galaxies by using the full galaxy image in each measured band. This method draws from the latest techniques and advances in machine learning, in particular Deep Neural Networks. We pass the entire multi-band galaxy image into the machine learning architecture to obtain a redshift estimate that is competitive, in terms of the measured point prediction metrics, with the best existing standard machine learning techniques. The standard techniques estimate redshifts using post-processed features, such as magnitudes and colours, which are extracted from the galaxy images and are deemed to be salient by the user. This new method removes the user from the photometric redshift estimation pipeline. However we do note that Deep Neural Networks require many orders of magnitude more computing resources than standard machine learning architectures, and as such are only tractable for making predictions on datasets of size ≤50k before implementing parallelisation techniques.

  7. Measuring photometric redshifts using galaxy images and Deep Neural Networks

    Hoyle, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new method to estimate the photometric redshift of galaxies by using the full galaxy image in each measured band. This method draws from the latest techniques and advances in machine learning, in particular Deep Neural Networks. We pass the entire multi-band galaxy image into the machine learning architecture to obtain a redshift estimate that is competitive with the best existing standard machine learning techniques. The standard techniques estimate redshifts using post-processed features, such as magnitudes and colours, which are extracted from the galaxy images and are deemed to be salient by the user. This new method removes the user from the photometric redshift estimation pipeline. However we do note that Deep Neural Networks require many orders of magnitude more computing resources than standard machine learning architectures.

  8. An Empirical Limit on Extremely High Redshift Galaxies

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Yahil, Amos; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    We apply the Lyman absorption signature to search for galaxies at redshifts z \\~ 6 - 17 using optical and infrared images of the Hubble Deep Field. The infrared images are sensitive to a point source 5 sigma detection threshold of AB(22,000) = 23.8, which adopting plausible assumptions to relate rest-frame ultraviolet flux densities to unobscured star formation rates is easily sufficient to detect the star formation rates expected for massive elliptical galaxy formation to quite high redshift...

  9. Galaxies of Redshift z > 5: The View from Stony Brook

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Pascarelle, Sebastian; Yahata, Noriaki; Yahil, Amos

    1999-01-01

    We report on some aspects of our efforts to establish properties of the extremely faint galaxy population by applying our photometric redshift technique to the HDF and HDF-S WFPC2 and NICMOS fields. We find that cosmological surface brightness dimming effects play a dominant role in setting what is observed at redshifts z > 2, that the comoving number density of high intrinsic surface brightness regions increases monotonically with increasing redshift, and that previous estimates neglect a si...

  10. The number density of quiescent compact galaxies at intermediate redshift

    Damjanov, Ivana [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J.; Chilingarian, Igor, E-mail: idamjanov@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    Massive compact systems at 0.2 < z < 0.6 are the missing link between the predominantly compact population of massive quiescent galaxies at high redshift and their analogs and relics in the local volume. The evolution in number density of these extreme objects over cosmic time is the crucial constraining factor for the models of massive galaxy assembly. We select a large sample of ∼200 intermediate-redshift massive compacts from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) spectroscopy by identifying point-like Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric sources with spectroscopic signatures of evolved redshifted galaxies. A subset of our targets have publicly available high-resolution ground-based images that we use to augment the dynamical and stellar population properties of these systems by their structural parameters. We confirm that all BOSS compact candidates are as compact as their high-redshift massive counterparts and less than half the size of similarly massive systems at z ∼ 0. We use the completeness-corrected numbers of BOSS compacts to compute lower limits on their number densities in narrow redshift bins spanning the range of our sample. The abundance of extremely dense quiescent galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6 is in excellent agreement with the number densities of these systems at high redshift. Our lower limits support the models of massive galaxy assembly through a series of minor mergers over the redshift range 0 < z < 2.

  11. Exploring the SDSS photometric galaxies with clustering redshifts

    Rahman, Mubdi; Mendez, Alexander J.; Ménard, Brice; Scranton, Ryan; Schmidt, Samuel J.; Morrison, Christopher B.; Budavári, Tamás

    2016-07-01

    We apply clustering-based redshift inference to all extended sources from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric catalogue, down to magnitude r = 22. We map the relationships between colours and redshift, without assumption of the sources' spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We identify and locate star-forming quiescent galaxies, and active galactic nuclei, as well as colour changes due to spectral features, such as the 4000 Å break, redshifting through specific filters. Our mapping is globally in good agreement with colour-redshift tracks computed with SED templates, but reveals informative differences, such as the need for a lower fraction of M-type stars in certain templates. We compare our clustering-redshift estimates to photometric redshifts and find these two independent estimators to be in good agreement at each limiting magnitude considered. Finally, we present the global clustering-redshift distribution of all Sloan extended sources, showing objects up to z ˜ 0.8. While the overall shape agrees with that inferred from photometric redshifts, the clustering-redshift technique results in a smoother distribution, with no indication of structure in redshift space suggested by the photometric-redshift estimates (likely artefacts imprinted by their spectroscopic training set). We also infer a higher fraction of high-redshift objects. The mapping between the four observed colours and redshift can be used to estimate the redshift probability distribution function of individual galaxies. This work is an initial step towards producing a general mapping between redshift and all available observables in the photometric space, including brightness, size, concentration, and ellipticity.

  12. Exploring the SDSS Photometric Galaxies with Clustering Redshifts

    Rahman, Mubdi; Mendez, Alexander J.; Ménard, Brice; Scranton, Ryan; Schmidt, Samuel J.; Morrison, Christopher B.; Budavári, Tamás

    2016-04-01

    We apply clustering-based redshift inference to all extended sources from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric catalogue, down to magnitude r = 22. We map the relationships between colours and redshift, without assumption of the sources' spectral energy distributions (SED). We identify and locate star-forming, quiescent galaxies, and AGN, as well as colour changes due to spectral features, such as the 4000 Å break, redshifting through specific filters. Our mapping is globally in good agreement with colour-redshift tracks computed with SED templates, but reveals informative differences, such as the need for a lower fraction of M-type stars in certain templates. We compare our clustering-redshift estimates to photometric redshifts and find these two independent estimators to be in good agreement at each limiting magnitude considered. Finally, we present the global clustering-redshift distribution of all Sloan extended sources, showing objects up to z ˜ 0.8. While the overall shape agrees with that inferred from photometric redshifts, the clustering redshift technique results in a smoother distribution, with no indication of structure in redshift space suggested by the photometric redshift estimates (likely artifacts imprinted by their spectroscopic training set). We also infer a higher fraction of high redshift objects. The mapping between the four observed colours and redshift can be used to estimate the redshift probability distribution function of individual galaxies. This work is an initial step towards producing a general mapping between redshift and all available observables in the photometric space, including brightness, size, concentration, and ellipticity.

  13. Exploring the SDSS Photometric Galaxies with Clustering Redshifts

    Rahman, Mubdi; Ménard, Brice; Scranton, Ryan; Schmidt, Samuel J; Morrison, Christopher B; Budavári, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    We apply clustering-based redshift inference to all extended sources from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric catalogue, down to magnitude r = 22. We map the relationships between colours and redshift, without assumption of the sources' spectral energy distributions (SED). We identify and locate star-forming, quiescent galaxies, and AGN, as well as colour changes due to spectral features, such as the 4000 \\AA{} break, redshifting through specific filters. Our mapping is globally in good agreement with colour-redshift tracks computed with SED templates, but reveals informative differences, such as the need for a lower fraction of M-type stars in certain templates. We compare our clustering-redshift estimates to photometric redshifts and find these two independent estimators to be in good agreement at each limiting magnitude considered. Finally, we present the global clustering-redshift distribution of all Sloan extended sources, showing objects up to z ~ 0.8. While the overall shape agrees with that infer...

  14. Breaking the "Redshift Deadlock" -- II The redshift distribution for the submillimetre population of galaxies

    Aretxaga, I; Chapin, E L; Gaztañaga, E; Dunlop, J S

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we apply our Monte-Carlo photometric-redshift technique, introduced in paper I (Hughes et al. 2002), to the multi-wavelength data available for 77 galaxies selected at 850um and 1.25mm. Unlike earlier redshift estimates, we calculate a probability distribution for the redshift of each galaxy. These estimates include a detailed treatment of the observational errors and uncertainties in the evolutionary model. The cumulative redshift distribution of the sub-mm galaxy population that we present in this paper, based on 47 galaxies with a S/N >3.5 at 850um found in wide-area SCUBA surveys, is asymmetric, and broader than those published elsewhere, with a significant high-z tail. Approximately 40 to 90 per cent of the sub-mm population is expected to have redshifts in the interval 2 4. Spectroscopic confirmation of the redshifts, through the detection of rest-frame FIR--mm wavelength molecular transition-lines, will ultimately calibrate the accuracy of this technique. We use the redshift probability ...

  15. Mapping the Galaxy Color–Redshift Relation: Optimal Photometric Redshift Calibration Strategies for Cosmology Surveys

    Masters, Daniel; Capak, Peter; Stern, Daniel; Ilbert, Olivier; Salvato, Mara; Schmidt, Samuel; Longo, Giuseppe; Rhodes, Jason; Paltani, Stephane; Mobasher, Bahram; Hoekstra, Henk; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Coupon, Jean; Steinhardt, Charles; Speagle, Josh; Faisst, Andreas; Kalinich, Adam; Brodwin, Mark; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Calibrating the photometric redshifts of ≳109 galaxies for upcoming weak lensing cosmology experiments is a major challenge for the astrophysics community. The path to obtaining the required spectroscopic redshifts for training and calibration is daunting, given the anticipated depths of the surveys and the difficulty in obtaining secure redshifts for some faint galaxy populations. Here we present an analysis of the problem based on the self-organizing map, a method of mapping the distribution of data in a high-dimensional space and projecting it onto a lower-dimensional representation. We apply this method to existing photometric data from the COSMOS survey selected to approximate the anticipated Euclid weak lensing sample, enabling us to robustly map the empirical distribution of galaxies in the multidimensional color space defined by the expected Euclid filters. Mapping this multicolor distribution lets us determine where—in galaxy color space—redshifts from current spectroscopic surveys exist and where they are systematically missing. Crucially, the method lets us determine whether a spectroscopic training sample is representative of the full photometric space occupied by the galaxies in a survey. We explore optimal sampling techniques and estimate the additional spectroscopy needed to map out the color–redshift relation, finding that sampling the galaxy distribution in color space in a systematic way can efficiently meet the calibration requirements. While the analysis presented here focuses on the Euclid survey, similar analysis can be applied to other surveys facing the same calibration challenge, such as DES, LSST, and WFIRST.

  16. Ultra-Steep Spectrum Radio Galaxies at Hy Redshifts

    Van Breugel, W; Stanford, A; Röttgering, H J A; Miley, G K; Stern, D; Minniti, D; Carilli, C L; Breugel, Wil van; Breuck, Carlos De; Stanford, Adam; Röttgering, Huub; Miley, George; Stern, Daniel; Minniti, Dante; Carilli, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Radio sources have traditionally provided convenient beacons for probing the early Universe. Hy Spinrad was among the first of the tenacious breed of observers who would attempt to obtain optical identifications and spectra of the faintest possible `radio galaxies' to investigate the formation and evolution of galaxies at hy redshift. Modern telescopes and instruments have made these tasks much simpler, although not easy, and here we summarize the current status of our hunts for hy redshift radio galaxies (HyZRGs) using radio spectral and near-IR selection.

  17. Photometric redshift requirements for lens galaxies in galaxy-galaxy lensing analyses

    Nakajima, R; Seljak, U; Cohn, J D; Reyes, R; Cool, R

    2011-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is a valuable probe of galaxy formation and cosmology. Here we quantify the effects of using photometric redshifts (photo-z) in galaxy-galaxy lensing, for both sources and lenses, both for the immediate goal of using galaxies with photo-z as lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and as a demonstration of methodology for large, upcoming weak lensing surveys that will by necessity be dominated by lens samples with photo-z. We calculate the bias in the lensing mass calibration as well as consequences for absolute magnitude (i.e., k-corrections) and stellar mass estimates, for a large sample of SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8) galaxies. The redshifts are obtained with the template based photo-z code ZEBRA on the SDSS DR8 ugriz photometry. We assemble and characterise the calibration samples (~9k spectroscopic redshifts from four surveys) to obtain photometric redshift errors and lensing biases corresponding to our full SDSS DR8 lens and source catalogues. Our tests of the calibration s...

  18. High redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey: I. selection method and number counts based on redshift PDFs

    Viironen, K; López-Sanjuan, C; Varela, J; Chaves-Montero, J; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Molino, A; Fernández-Soto, A; Ascaso, B; Cenarro, A J; Cerviño, M; Cepa, J; Ederoclite, A; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Moles, M; Oteo, I; Pović, M; Aguerri, J A L; Alfaro, E; Aparicio-Villegas, T; Benítez, N; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Caño, J; Castander, J F; Del Olmo, A; Delgado, R M González; Husillos, C; Infante, L; Martínez, V J; Perea, J; Prada, F; Quintana, J M

    2015-01-01

    Context. Most observational results on the high redshift restframe UV-bright galaxies are based on samples pinpointed using the so called dropout technique or Ly-alpha selection. However, the availability of multifilter data allows now replacing the dropout selections by direct methods based on photometric redshifts. In this paper we present the methodology to select and study the population of high redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey data. Aims. Our aim is to develop a less biased methodology than the traditional dropout technique to study the high redshift galaxies in ALHAMBRA and other multifilter data. Thanks to the wide area ALHAMBRA covers, we especially aim at contributing in the study of the brightest, less frequent, high redshift galaxies. Methods. The methodology is based on redshift probability distribution functions (zPDFs). It is shown how a clean galaxy sample can be obtained by selecting the galaxies with high integrated probability of being within a given redshift interval. However, reach...

  19. Linear redshift space distortions for cosmic voids based on galaxies in redshift space

    Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Liang, Yu; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Zhao, Cheng; McDonald, Patrick; Tao, Charling

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic voids found in galaxy surveys are defined based on the galaxy distribution in redshift space. We show that the large scale distribution of voids in redshift space traces the fluctuations in the dark matter density field \\delta(k) (in Fourier space with \\mu being the line of sight projected k-vector): \\delta_v^s(k) = (1 + \\beta_v \\mu^2) b^s_v \\delta(k), with a beta factor that will be in general different than the one describing the distribution of galaxies. Only in case voids could be assumed to be quasi-local transformations of the linear (Gaussian) galaxy redshift space field, one gets equal beta factors \\beta_v=\\beta_g=f/b_g with f being the growth rate, and b_g, b^s_v being the galaxy and void bias on large scales defined in redshift space. Indeed, in our mock void catalogs we measure void beta factors being in good agreement with the galaxy one. Further work needs to be done to confirm the level of accuracy of the beta factor equality between voids and galaxies, but in general the void beta factor...

  20. An Empirical Limit on Extremely High Redshift Galaxies

    Lanzetta, K M; Fernández-Soto, A; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Yahil, Amos; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    We apply the Lyman absorption signature to search for galaxies at redshifts z infrared images are sensitive to a point source 5 sigma detection threshold of AB(22,000) = 23.8, which adopting plausible assumptions to relate rest-frame ultraviolet flux densities to unobscured star formation rates is easily sufficient to detect the star formation rates expected for massive elliptical galaxy formation to quite high redshifts. For q_0 = 0.5, the infrared images are sensitive to an unobscured star formation rate of 100 h^-2 solar masses per year to redshifts as large as z = 17, and for q_0 = 0, the infrared images are sensitive to an unobscured star formation rate of 300 h^-2 solar masses per year to redshifts as large as z = 14. The primary result of the analysis is that only one extremely high redshift galaxy candidate is identified at the 5 sigma level of significance (and four at the 4 sigma level). This implies a strict upper limit to the surface density of extremely high redshift galaxies of < 1.5 arcmin^-...

  1. On the Number of Galaxies at High Redshift

    Lorenzo Zaninetti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of galaxies at a given flux as a function of the redshift, z, is derived when the z-distance relation is non-standard. In order to compare different models, the same formalism is also applied to the standard cosmology. The observed luminosity function for galaxies of the zCOSMOS catalog at different redshifts is modeled by a new luminosity function for galaxies, which is derived by the truncated beta probability density function. Three astronomical tests, which are the photometric maximum as a function of the redshift for a fixed flux, the mean value of the redshift for a fixed flux, and the luminosity function for galaxies as a function of the redshift, compare the theoretical values of the standard and non-standard model with the observed value. The tests are performed on the FORS Deep Field (FDF catalog up to redshift z = 1.5 and on the zCOSMOS catalog extending beyond z = 4. These three tests show minimal differences between the standard and the non-standard models.

  2. Using Morphology to Identify Galaxy Mergers at High Redshift

    Blancato, Kirsten; Kartaltepe, J. S.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed a set of 22,003 galaxies in three of the five CANDELS fields: COSMOS, UDS, and GOODS-S, in order to determine how well automated image statistics did with classifying galaxy morphology and mergers at high redshifts (z > 1). For each galaxy in our set, we have multi-wavelength data, photometric redshifts from SED fitting, visual classifications from the CANDELS structure and morphology group, and automated image statistics. The redshifts of our sample range from z = .01 to 4 with = 1.33. We constructed a conservative set of 1,914 galaxies that we believe to be mergers and interactions. Of this set of merging galaxies, 1,343 were at a redshift greater than z = 1. We also identified a conservative set of 535 spheroids and a set of 2,902 disks. Several different quantitative methods were then used to attempt an automated classification of these visually classified samples. Of the different image statistics, we found M20 and Gini to be the most successful at picking out high redshift mergers and morphological characteristics. Blancato was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  3. High-redshift Insights from Low-redshift Galaxies

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Schaerer, Daniel; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Melinder, Jens; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana; Cannon, John M.; Herenz, E. Christian; Adamo, Angela

    2015-08-01

    I will summarize results from an extensive multi-wavelength observational campaign to dissect local star-forming galaxies. The Lyman alpha Reference Sample, LARS, comprises ~55 local systems, selected in various ways (FUV luminosity, IR luminosity, H-alpha EW) to provide the closest analogues systems for galaxies that are routinely discovered in high-z surveys and dominate cosmic star formation at various epochs beyond z of 1. The data-set is complete with 8 band HST imaging (5 broadband, plus H-alpha, H-beta, and Ly-alpha narrowbands), HST/COS ultraviolet spectroscopy, direct HI measurements from 21 cm interferometry (GMRT and J-VLA), optical integral field spectroscopy (CAHA/PMAS or VLT/MUSE), far IR emission lines (Herschel or SOFIA), and more.For this talk I will focus on kinematic measurements in warm-ionized, warm-neutral, and cold-neutral interstellar media. I will discuss feedback from massive stars, and how local gas kinematics and ionization states is connected to the properties of the massive stellar population. I will also discuss the extended halos of Ly-alpha that arise when large HI envelopes scatter the radiation produced by recombinations in the HII. I will quantify the extents of Ly-alpha scattering halos, and contrast these with direct observations of HI, HII, and metal lines to show how the halos arise under certain conditions in the ionized and neutral media. With results from low-z galaxies in place I will discuss the validity of using Ly-alpha and UV absorption lines for measuring the properties of gas in the circumgalactic medium of high-z galaxies.

  4. Local Analogs for High-redshift Galaxies: Resembling the Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in High-redshift Galaxies

    Bian, Fuyan; Dopita, Michael; Juneau, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of local analogs for high-redshift galaxies selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in these local analogs resemble those in high-redshift galaxies. These galaxies are selected based on their positions in the [OIII]/H$\\beta$ versus [NII]/H$\\alpha$ nebular emission-line diagnostic diagram. We show that these local analogs share similar physical properties with high-redshift galaxies, including high specific star formation rates (sSFRs), flat UV continuums and compact galaxy sizes. In particular, the ionization parameters and electron densities in these analogs are comparable to those in $z\\simeq2-3$ galaxies, but higher than those in normal SDSS galaxies by $\\simeq$0.6~dex and $\\simeq$0.9~dex, respectively. The mass-metallicity relation (MZR) in these local analogs shows $-0.2$~dex offset from that in SDSS star-forming galaxies at the low mass end, which is consistent with the MZR of the $z\\sim2-3$ galaxies. We compare the lo...

  5. The optical redshift survey sample selection and the galaxy distribution

    Santiago, B X; Lahav, O; Davis, M; Dressler, A; Huchra, J P

    1994-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers describing the {\\it Optical Redshift Survey} (ORS), a redshift survey of optically selected galaxies covering 98\\% of the sky above |b| = 20^\\circ (8.09 ster). The survey is drawn from the UGC, ESO, and ESGC galaxy catalogues, and contains two sub-samples, one complete to a B magnitude of 14.5, the other complete to a B major axis diameter of 1.9^\\prime. The entire sample consists of 8457 objects, of which redshifts are now available for 8286; 171 objects remain without measured redshifts. The ORS provides the most detailed and homogeneous sampling of the large-scale galaxy distribution to date in these areas. The density field of bright optical galaxies is well-defined to 8000 \\kms, and is dominated by the Virgo, Telescopium-Pavo-Indus, Hydra-Centaurus, Pisces-Perseus, and Coma-A1367 Superclusters. The dense sampling provided by ORS allows a detailed analysis of the galaxy density field, and will be used to test its dependence on morphology and other galaxy parameters.

  6. Photometric Redshift with Bayesian Priors on Physical Properties of Galaxies

    Tanaka, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We present a proof-of-concept analysis of photometric redshifts with Bayesian priors on physical properties of galaxies. This concept is particularly suited for upcoming/on-going large imaging surveys, in which only several broad-band filters are available and it is hard to break some of the degeneracies in the multi-color space. We construct model templates of galaxies using a stellar population synthesis code and apply Bayesian priors on physical properties such as stellar mass and star formation rate. These priors are a function of redshift and they effectively evolve the templates with time in an observationally motivated way. We demonstrate that the priors help reduce the degeneracy and deliver significantly improved photometric redshifts. Furthermore, we show that a template error function, which corrects for systematic flux errors in the model templates as a function of rest-frame wavelength, delivers further improvements. One great advantage of our technique is that we simultaneously measure redshifts...

  7. Tuning target selection algorithms to improve galaxy redshift estimates

    Hoyle, Ben; Rau, Markus Michael; Seitz, Stella; Weller, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    We showcase machine learning (ML) inspired target selection algorithms to determine which of all potential targets should be selected first for spectroscopic follow up. Efficient target selection can improve the ML redshift uncertainties as calculated on an independent sample, while requiring less targets to be observed. We compare the ML targeting algorithms with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) target order, and with a random targeting algorithm. The ML inspired algorithms are constructed iteratively by estimating which of the remaining target galaxies will be most difficult for the machine learning methods to accurately estimate redshifts using the previously observed data. This is performed by predicting the expected redshift error and redshift offset (or bias) of all of the remaining target galaxies. We find that the predicted values of bias and error are accurate to better than 10-30% of the true values, even with only limited training sample sizes. We construct a hypothetical follow-up survey and fi...

  8. Witnessing Galaxy-SMBH Co-Evolution at Redshift ~ 2

    Renzini, Alvio; Daddi, Emanuele

    2008-01-01

    In a recent multiwavelength study of galaxies at redshift ~ 2 by Daddi et al. (2007a,b) it is shown that galaxies with a Mid-IR excess most likely harbor a Compton-thick AGN, thus bringing to about 1/3 the fraction of z ~ 2 galaxies hosting an AGN. This finding opens a number of intriguing issues concerning the concomitant growth of galaxies and supermassive black holes, AGN feedback, and downsizing, at the cosmic epoch of most intense star formation and nuclear activity.

  9. The local hole revealed by galaxy counts and redshifts

    Whitbourn, J. R.; Shanks, T.

    2014-01-01

    The redshifts of ≈250 000 galaxies are used to study the local hole and its associated peculiar velocities. The sample, compiled from the 6dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, provides wide sky coverage to a depth of ≈300 h-1 Mpc. We have therefore examined K- and r-limited galaxy redshift distributions and number counts to map the local density field. Comparing observed galaxy n(z) distributions to homogeneous models in three large regions of the high-latitude sky, we find evidence for underdensities ranging from ≈4-40 per cent in these regions to depths of ≈150 h-1 Mpc with the deepest underdensity being over the southern Galactic cap. Using the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey, we then establish the normalization of galaxy counts at fainter magnitudes and thus confirm that the underdensity over all three fields at K < 12.5 is ≈15 ± 3 per cent. Finally, we further use redshift catalogues to map sky-averaged peculiar velocities over the same areas using the average redshift-magnitude, overline{z}(m), technique of Soneira. After accounting for the direct effect of the large-scale structure on overline{z}(m), we can then search for peculiar velocities. Taking all three regions into consideration, the data reject at the ≈4σ level the idea that we have recovered the cosmic microwave background rest frame in the volume probed. We therefore conclude that there is some consistent evidence from both counts and Hubble diagrams for a `local hole' with an ≈150 h-1 Mpc underdensity that deeper counts and redshifts in the northern Galactic cap suggest may extend to ≈300 h-1 Mpc.

  10. Feature importance for machine learning redshifts applied to SDSS galaxies

    Hoyle, Ben; Zitlau, Roman; Steiz, Stella; Weller, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of importance feature selection applied to photometric redshift estimation using the machine learning architecture Random Decision Forests (RDF) with the ensemble learning routine Adaboost. We select a list of 85 easily measured (or derived) photometric quantities (or 'features') and spectroscopic redshifts for almost two million galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. After identifying which features have the most predictive power, we use standard artificial Neural Networks (aNN) to show that the addition of these features, in combination with the standard magnitudes and colours, improves the machine learning redshift estimate by 18% and decreases the catastrophic outlier rate by 32%. We further compare the redshift estimate from RDF using the ensemble learning routine Adaboost with those from two different aNNs, and with photometric redshifts available from the SDSS. We find that the RDF requires orders of magnitude less computation time than the aNNs to obtain a m...

  11. Evolution of Galaxy Luminosity Function Using Photometric Redshifts

    Ramos, B H F; Benoist, C; da Costa, L N; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; Ogando, R L C; de Simoni, F; Mesquita, A A

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of using photometric redshifts for studying the evolution of both the global galaxy luminosity function (LF) and that for different galaxy types. To this end we compare LFs obtained using photometric redshifts from the CFHT Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) D1 field with those from the spectroscopic survey VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) comprising ~4800 galaxies. We find that for z<2, in the interval of magnitudes considered by this survey, the LFs obtained using photometric and spectroscopic redshifts show a remarkable agreement. This good agreement led us to use all four Deep fields of CFHTLS comprising ~386000 galaxies to compute the LF of the combined fields and estimate directly the error in the parameters based on field-to-field variation. We find that the characteristic absolute magnitude M* of Schechter fits fades by ~0.7mag from z~1.8 to z~0.3, while the characteristic density phi* increases by a factor of ~4 in the same redshift bin. We use the galaxy classification provided by the templ...

  12. The Local Hole revealed by galaxy counts and redshifts

    Whitbourn, J R

    2013-01-01

    The redshifts of ~250000 galaxies are used to study the Local Hole and its associated peculiar velocities. The sample, compiled from 6dFGS and SDSS provides wide sky coverage to a depth of ~300h-1Mpc. We have therefore examined K and r limited galaxy redshift distributions and number counts to map the local density field. Comparing observed galaxy n(z) distributions to homogeneous models in three large regions of the high latitude sky, we find evidence for under-densities ranging from ~4-40% in these regions to depths of ~150h-1Mpc with the deepest under-density being over the Southern Galactic cap. Using the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey we then establish the normalisation of galaxy counts at fainter magnitudes and thus confirm that the underdensity over all three fields at K<12.5 is ~15+-3%. Finally, we further use redshift catalogues to map peculiar velocities over the same areas using the average redshift - magnitude, zbar(m), technique of Soneira (1979). After accounting for the direct effect...

  13. The rotation curves of galaxies at intermediate redshift

    Vogt, N P; Haynes, M P; Courteau, S; Vogt, Nicole P; Herter, Terry; Haynes, Martha P; Courteau, Stephane

    1996-01-01

    We have undertaken a pilot project to measure the rotation velocities of spiral galaxies in the redshift range 0.18 < z < 0.4 using high dispersion long slit spectroscopy obtained with the Palomar 5m telescope. One field galaxy and three cluster objects known to have strong emission lines were observed over wavelength ranges covering the redshifted lines of [OII], CaII K, H beta, and [OIII]. Two of the objects show extended line emission that allows the tracing of the rotation curve in one or more lines. A line width similar to that obtained with single dish telescopes for the 21-cm HI line observed in lower redshift galaxies can be derived from the observed H beta, [OII], and [OIII] emission by measuring a characteristic width from the velocity histogram. These moderately distant galaxies have much stronger emission lines than typical low-redshift spirals but they appear to be kinematically similar. Application of the Tully-Fisher relation suggests that the two galaxies with rotation curves are intrins...

  14. The redshift distribution of submillimeter galaxies at different wavelengths

    Zavala, J A; Hughes, D H

    2014-01-01

    Using simulations we demonstrate that some of the published redshift distributions of Submillimeter Galaxies (SMGs) at different wavelengths, that were previously reported to be statistically different, are consistent with a parent distribution of the same population of galaxies. The redshift distributions which peak at z_med=2.9, 2.6, 2.2, 2.2, and 2.0 for galaxies selected at 2 and 1.1 mm, and 870, 850, and 450 um respectively, can be derived from a single parent redshift distribution, in contrast with previous studies. The differences can be explained through wavelength selection, depth of the surveys, and to a lesser degree, angular resolution. The main differences are attributed to the temperature of the spectral energy distributions, as shorter-wavelength maps select a hotter population of galaxies. Using the same parent distribution and taking into account lensing bias we can also reproduce the redshift distribution of 1.4 mm-selected ultra-bright galaxies, which peaks at z_med=3.4. However, the redshi...

  15. Redshift space clustering of galaxies and cold dark matter model

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Cen, Renyue; Gramann, Mirt

    1993-01-01

    The distorting effect of peculiar velocities on the power speturm and correlation function of IRAS and optical galaxies is studied. The observed redshift space power spectra and correlation functions of IRAS and optical the galaxies over the entire range of scales are directly compared with the corresponding redshift space distributions using large-scale computer simulations of cold dark matter (CDM) models in order to study the distortion effect of peculiar velocities on the power spectrum and correlation function of the galaxies. It is found that the observed power spectrum of IRAS and optical galaxies is consistent with the spectrum of an Omega = 1 CDM model. The problems that such a model currently faces may be related more to the high value of Omega in the model than to the shape of the spectrum. A low-density CDM model is also investigated and found to be consistent with the data.

  16. Metals in Star-Forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    Leitherer, Claus

    2005-01-01

    The chemical composition of high-redshift galaxies is an important property that gives clues to their past history and future evolution. Measuring abundances in distant galaxies with current techniques is often a challenge, and the canonical metallicity indicators can often not be applied. I discuss currently available metallicity indicators based on stellar and interstellar absorption and emission lines, and assess their limitations and systematic uncertainties. Recent studies suggest that s...

  17. The SDSS Coadd: A Galaxy Photometric Redshift Catalog

    We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z's) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Coadd Data. We use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique to calculate photo-z's and the Nearest Neighbor Error (NNE) method to estimate photo-z errors for ∼ 13 million objects classified as galaxies in the coadd with r 68 = 0.036. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.

  18. New Improved Photometric Redshifts of Galaxies in the HDF

    Furusawa, Hisanori; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Doi, Mamoru; Okamura, Sadanori

    1999-01-01

    We report new improved photometric redshifts of 1048 galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). A standard chi^2 minimizing method is applied to seven-color UBVIJHK photometry by Fernandez-Soto, Lanzetta, & Yahil (1999). We use 187 template SEDs representing a wide variety of morphology and age of observed galaxies based on a population synthesis model by Kodama & Arimoto (1997). We introduce two new recipes. First, the amount of the internal absorption is changed as a free parameter in the ran...

  19. Comparing Dense Galaxy Cluster Redshift Surveys with Weak Lensing Maps

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Rines, Kenneth J; Zahid, H Jabran

    2014-01-01

    We use dense redshift surveys of nine galaxy clusters at $z\\sim0.2$ to compare the galaxy distribution in each system with the projected matter distribution from weak lensing. By combining 2087 new MMT/Hectospec redshifts and the data in the literature, we construct spectroscopic samples within the region of weak-lensing maps of high (70--89%) and uniform completeness. With these dense redshift surveys, we construct galaxy number density maps using several galaxy subsamples. The shape of the main cluster concentration in the weak-lensing maps is similar to the global morphology of the number density maps based on cluster members alone, mainly dominated by red members. We cross correlate the galaxy number density maps with the weak-lensing maps. The cross correlation signal when we include foreground and background galaxies at 0.5$z_{\\rm cl}$20% for A383, A689 and A750). The fractional excess in the cross correlation signal including foreground and background structures could be a useful proxy for assessing th...

  20. ALMA redshifts of millimeter-selected galaxies from the SPT survey: The redshift distribution of dusty star-forming galaxies

    Weiss, A; Marrone, D P; Vieira, J D; Aguirre, J E; Aird, K A; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Bethermin, M; Biggs, A D; Bleem, L E; Bock, J J; Bothwell, M; Bradford, C M; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chapman, S C; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Downes, T P; Fassnacht, C D; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Halverson, N W; Hezaveh, Y D; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Husband, K; Keisler, R; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Malkan, M; McIntyre, V; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Meyer, S S; Murphy, E J; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Rosenman, M; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spilker, J S; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Vanderlinde, K; Welikala, N; Williamson, R

    2013-01-01

    Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have conducted a blind redshift survey in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window for 26 strongly lensd dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The sources were selected to have S_1.4mm>20 mJy and a dust-like spectrum and, to remove low-z sources, not have bright radio (S_843MHz=3.5. This finding is in contrast to the redshift distribution of radio-identified DSFGs, which have a significantly lower mean redshift of =2.3 and for which only 10-15% of the population is expected to be at z>3. We discuss the effect of gravitational lensing on the redshift distribution and compare our measured redshift distribution to that of models in the literature.

  1. Tuning target selection algorithms to improve galaxy redshift estimates

    Hoyle, Ben; Paech, Kerstin; Rau, Markus Michael; Seitz, Stella; Weller, Jochen

    2016-06-01

    We showcase machine learning (ML) inspired target selection algorithms to determine which of all potential targets should be selected first for spectroscopic follow-up. Efficient target selection can improve the ML redshift uncertainties as calculated on an independent sample, while requiring less targets to be observed. We compare seven different ML targeting algorithms with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) target order, and with a random targeting algorithm. The ML inspired algorithms are constructed iteratively by estimating which of the remaining target galaxies will be most difficult for the ML methods to accurately estimate redshifts using the previously observed data. This is performed by predicting the expected redshift error and redshift offset (or bias) of all of the remaining target galaxies. We find that the predicted values of bias and error are accurate to better than 10-30 per cent of the true values, even with only limited training sample sizes. We construct a hypothetical follow-up survey and find that some of the ML targeting algorithms are able to obtain the same redshift predictive power with 2-3 times less observing time, as compared to that of the SDSS, or random, target selection algorithms. The reduction in the required follow-up resources could allow for a change to the follow-up strategy, for example by obtaining deeper spectroscopy, which could improve ML redshift estimates for deeper test data.

  2. Properties of Low-Redshift Damped Lyman Alpha Galaxies

    Nestor, D B; Turnshek, D A; Monier, E M; Lane, W; Bergeron, J; Nestor, Daniel B.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Turnshek, David A.; Monier, Eric; Lane, Wendy; Bergeron, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Images of five QSO fields containing six damped Lyman alpha (DLA) systems at redshifts 0.09galaxies giving rise to the DLA systems are made. The observed and modeled characteristics of the DLA galaxies are discussed. The DLA galaxies have impact parameters ranging from < 4 kpc to \\approx 34 kpc and luminosities in the range \\approx 0.03L* to \\approx 1.3L*. Their morphologies include amorphous low surface brightness systems, a probable dwarf spiral, and luminous spirals.

  3. Bulge growth through disk instabilities in high-redshift galaxies

    Bournaud, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The role of disk instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disk galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges. This secular growth of bulges in modern disk galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudo-bulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disk instabilities at high redshift (z>1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (10^10 to a few 10^11 Msun of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift disks are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 10^8-10^9 Msun of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disk evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms, on short timescales. The giant clumps can...

  4. Gravitational redshift of galaxies in clusters from SDSS and BOSS

    Sadeh, Iftach; Lahav, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    The gravitational redshift effect allows one to directly probe the gravitational potential in clusters of galaxies. As such, it provides a fundamental test of general relativity (GR), and may help to constrain alternative theories of gravity. Following up on Wojtak, Hansen & Hjorth (2011), we present a new measurement. We take advantage of new data from the tenth data release of SDSS and BOSS, covering a range of redshift between 0.05 and 0.6. After selection, our dataset includes 60k galaxies, matched to 12k clusters, with an average cluster mass of $10^{14} M_{\\odot}$. The analysis is focused on optimizing the selection method of clusters and of galaxies, taking into account possible systematic biases. We compare the light originating from the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), to that of galaxies at the outskirts of clusters. We find that BCGs have an average relative redshift of 11 km/s, with a standard deviation of +7 and -5 km/s. The result is consistent with the measurement of Wojtak et al. and is ...

  5. Reconstructing the galaxy density field with photometric redshifts: I. Methodology and validation on stellar mass functions

    Malavasi, Nicola; Cucciati, Olga; Bardelli, Sandro; Cimatti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Measuring environment for large numbers of distant galaxies is still an open problem, for which we need galaxy positions and redshifts. Photometric redshifts are more easily available for large numbers of galaxies, but at the price of larger uncertainties than spectroscopic ones. In this work we study how photometric redshifts affect the measurement of galaxy environment and how this may limit an analysis of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) in different environments. Using mock galaxy catalogues, we measured the environment with a fixed aperture method, using each galaxy's true and photometric redshifts. We varied the fixed aperture volume parameters and the photometric redshift uncertainties. We then computed GSMF as a function of redshift and environment. We found that only when using high-precision photometric redshifts with $\\sigma_{\\Delta z/(1+z)} \\le 0.01$, the most extreme environments can be reconstructed in a fairly accurate way, with a fraction $\\ge 60\\div 80\\%$ of galaxies placed in the corr...

  6. Redshift distortions of galaxy correlation functions

    Fry, J.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States) Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics); Gaztanaga, E. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States) Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics)

    1993-05-12

    To examine how peculiar velocities can affect the 2-, 3-, and 4-point correlation functions, we evaluate volume-average correlations for configurations that emphasize and minimize distortions for four different volume-limited samples from each of the CfA, SSRS, and IRAS redshift catalogs. We present the results as the correlation length r[sub 0] and power index [gamma] of the 2-point correlation, [anti [Xi

  7. Spatial density fluctuations and selection effects in galaxy redshift surveys

    Labini, Francesco Sylos; Baryshev, Yurij V

    2014-01-01

    One of the main problems of observational cosmology is to determine the range in which a reliable measurement of galaxy correlations is possible. This corresponds to determine the shape of the correlation function, its possible evolution with redshift and the size and amplitude of large scale structures. Different selection effects, inevitably entering in any observation, introduce important constraints in the measurement of correlations. In the context of galaxy redshift surveys selection effects can be caused by observational techniques and strategies and by implicit assumptions used in the data analysis. Generally all these effects are taken into account by using pair-counting algorithms to measure two-point correlations. We review these methods stressing that they are based on the a-priori assumption that galaxy distribution is spatially homogeneous inside a given sample. We show that, when this assumption is not satisfied by the data, results of the correlation analysis are affected by finite size effect...

  8. Galaxy redshift surveys with sparse sampling

    Survey observations of the three-dimensional locations of galaxies are a powerful approach to measure the distribution of matter in the universe, which can be used to learn about the nature of dark energy, physics of inflation, neutrino masses, etc. A competitive survey, however, requires a large volume (e.g., Vsurvey ∼ 10Gpc3) to be covered, and thus tends to be expensive. A ''sparse sampling'' method offers a more affordable solution to this problem: within a survey footprint covering a given survey volume, Vsurvey, we observe only a fraction of the volume. The distribution of observed regions should be chosen such that their separation is smaller than the length scale corresponding to the wavenumber of interest. Then one can recover the power spectrum of galaxies with precision expected for a survey covering a volume of Vsurvey (rather than the volume of the sum of observed regions) with the number density of galaxies given by the total number of observed galaxies divided by Vsurvey (rather than the number density of galaxies within an observed region). We find that regularly-spaced sampling yields an unbiased power spectrum with no window function effect, and deviations from regularly-spaced sampling, which are unavoidable in realistic surveys, introduce calculable window function effects and increase the uncertainties of the recovered power spectrum. On the other hand, we show that the two-point correlation function (pair counting) is not affected by sparse sampling. While we discuss the sparse sampling method within the context of the forthcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, the method is general and can be applied to other galaxy surveys

  9. On the formation redshift of Low-Mass Star-Forming Galaxies at intermediate redshifts

    Gallego, Jesus; Rodriguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Pacifici, Camilla; Tresse, Laurence; Charlot, Stéphane; Gil de Paz, Armando; Barro, Guillermo; Gomez-Guijarro, Carlos; Villar, Víctor

    2015-08-01

    Dwarf galaxies play a key role in galaxy formation and evolution: (1) hierarchical models predict that low-mass systems merged to form massive galaxies (building block paradigm; Dekel & Silk 1986); (2) dwarf systems might have been responsible for the reionization of the Universe (Wyithe & Loeb 2006); (3) theoretical models are particularly sensitive to the density of low-mass systems at diferent redshifts (Mamon et al. 2011), being one of the key science cases for the future E-ELT (Evans et al. 2013). While the history of low-mass dark matter halos is relatively well understood, the formation history of dwarf galaxies is still poorly reproduced by the models due to the distinct evolution of baryonic and dark matter.We present constraints on the star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of low-mass Star-Forming Galaxies (LMSFGs; 7.3 motivated SFHs with non-uniform variations of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time.The median SFH of our LMSFGs appears to form 90% of the median stellar mass inferred for the sample in the ˜0.5-1.8 Gyr immediately preceding the observation. These results suggest a recent stellar mass assembly for dwarf SFGs, consistent with the cosmological downsizing trends. We find similar median SFH timescales for a slightly more massive secondary sample 8.0 < log M∗/Mo < 9.1).This is a pilot study for future surveys on dwarf galaxies at high redshift.

  10. The Galaxy Population of Low-Redshift Abell Clusters

    Barkhouse, Wayne A; Lopez-Cruz, Omar

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the luminosity and color properties of galaxies selected from a sample of 57 low-redshift Abell clusters. We utilize the non-parametric dwarf-to-giant ratio (DGR) and the blue galaxy fraction (fb) to investigate the clustercentric radial-dependent changes in the cluster galaxy population. Composite cluster samples are combined by scaling the counting radius by r200 to minimize radius selection bias. The separation of galaxies into a red and blue population was achieved by selecting galaxies relative to the cluster color-magnitude relation. The DGR of the red and blue galaxies is found to be independent of cluster richness (Bgc), although the DGR is larger for the blue population at all measured radii. A decrease in the DGR for the red and red+blue galaxies is detected in the cluster core region, while the blue galaxy DGR is nearly independent of radius. The fb is found not to correlate with Bgc; however, a steady decline toward the inner-cluster region is observed for the giant galaxies....

  11. Stellar Population Maps of High-Redshift Galaxies

    Fetherolf, Tara; Reddy, Naveen; MOSDEF

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study of resolved galaxy structure can shed light on the formation and evolution of galactic properties, such as the distribution of stars and interstellar dust that obscures starlight. This requires high-resolution, multi-waveband photometry and spectroscopy to completely characterize the galaxies. Previous studies lacked key spectroscopic information, were comprised of small samples, or focused on the local universe. We use HST ACS/WFC3 high-resolution, multi-waveband imaging from the CANDELS project in parallel with moderate-resolution Keck I MOSFIRE spectra from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey to produce resolved stellar population and dust maps of ~500 galaxies at redshifts 1.4 Python program to process our large, comprehensive dataset. From the multi-waveband imaging and spectroscopic redshifts, we model the spectral energy distribution for every resolution element within each galaxy and compare these results to the spectroscopically measured global properties. From our stellar population and dust maps we identify resolved structures within these galaxies. We also investigate if spectroscopically measured galaxy properties are biased when compared with that of localized sub-galactic structures.

  12. Impacts of satellite galaxies on the redshift-space distortions

    Hikage, Chiaki [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro, E-mail: hikage@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kazuhiro@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-hiroshima, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, 739-8526 (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    We study the impacts of the satellite galaxies on the redshift-space distortions. In our multipole power spectrum analysis of the luminous red galaxies (LRGs) samples of the Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS), we have clearly detected the non-zero signature of the hexadecapole and tetrahexadecapole spectrum, which almost disappears in the power spectrum with the sample of the brightest LRGs only. We thus demonstrate that the satellite LRGs in multiple systems make a significant contribution to the multipole power spectrum though its fraction is small. The behavior can be understood by a simple halo model, in which the one-halo term, describing the Finger of God (FoG) effect from the satellite galaxies, makes the dominant contribution to the higher multipole spectra. We demonstrate that the small-scale information of higher multipole spectrum is useful for calibrating the satellite FoG effect and improves the measurement of the cosmic growth rate dramatically. We further demonstrate that the fiber collision in the galaxy survey influences the one-halo term and the higher multipole spectra, because the number of satellite galaxies in the halo occupation distribution (HOD) is changed. We also discuss about the impact of satellite galaxies on future high-redshift surveys targeting the H-alpha emitters.

  13. Comparison of HI and optical redshifts of galaxies - The impact of redshift uncertainties on spectral line stacking

    Maddox, Natasha; Blyth, S -L; Jarvis, M J

    2013-01-01

    Accurate optical redshifts will be critical for spectral co-adding techniques used to extract detections from below the noise level in ongoing and upcoming surveys for HI, which will extend our current understanding of gas reservoirs in galaxies to lower column densities and higher redshifts. We have used existing, high quality optical and radio data from the SDSS and ALFALFA surveys to investigate the relationship between redshifts derived from optical spectroscopy and neutral hydrogen (HI) spectral line observations. We find that the two redshift measurements agree well, with a negligible systematic offset and a small distribution width. Employing simple simulations, we determine how the width of an ideal stacked HI profile depends on these redshift offsets, as well as larger redshift errors more appropriate for high redshift galaxy surveys. The width of the stacked profile is dominated by the width distribution of the input individual profiles when the redshift errors are less than the median width of the ...

  14. Spatial density fluctuations and selection effects in galaxy redshift surveys

    One of the main problems of observational cosmology is to determine the range in which a reliable measurement of galaxy correlations is possible. This corresponds to determining the shape of the correlation function, its possible evolution with redshift and the size and amplitude of large scale structures. Different selection effects, inevitably entering in any observation, introduce important constraints in the measurement of correlations. In the context of galaxy redshift surveys selection effects can be caused by observational techniques and strategies and by implicit assumptions used in the data analysis. Generally all these effects are taken into account by using pair-counting algorithms to measure two-point correlations. We review these methods stressing that they are based on the a-priori assumption that galaxy distribution is spatially homogeneous inside a given sample. We show that, when this assumption is not satisfied by the data, results of the correlation analysis are affected by finite size effects. In order to quantify these effects, we introduce a new method based on the computation of the gradient of galaxy counts along tiny cylinders. We show, by using artificial homogeneous and inhomogeneous point distributions, that this method identifies redshift dependent selection effects and disentangles them from the presence of large scale density fluctuations. We then apply this new method to several redshift catalogs and we find evidence that galaxy distribution, in those samples where selection effects are small enough, is characterized by power-law correlations with exponent γ=0.9 up to 20 Mpc/h followed by a change of slope that, in the range 20–100 Mpc/h, corresponds to a power-law exponent γ=0.25. Whether a crossover to spatial uniformity occurs at ∼ 100 Mpc/h or larger scales cannot be clarified by the present data

  15. The Formation of High Redshift Submillimeter Galaxies

    Narayanan, Desika; Cox, Thomas J; Hernquist, Lars; Jonsson, Patrik; Younger, Joshua D; Groves, Brent

    2009-01-01

    We describe a model for the formation of z~2 Submillimeter Galaxies (SMGs) which simultaneously accounts for both average and bright SMGs while providing a reasonable match to their mean observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs). By coupling hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy mergers with the high resolution 3D polychromatic radiative transfer code, Sunrise, we find that a mass sequence of merger models which use observational constraints as physical input naturally yield objects which exhibit black hole, bulge, and H2 gas masses similar to those observed in SMGs. The dominant drivers behind the 850 micron flux are the masses of the merging galaxies and the stellar birthcloud covering fraction. The most luminous (S_850 >~ 15 mJy) sources are recovered by ~10^13 Msun 1:1 major mergers with a birthcloud covering fraction close to unity, whereas more average SMGs (S_850 ~ 5-7 mJy) may be formed in lower mass halos (~5 x 10^12 Msun). These models demonstrate the need for high spatial resolution hydrodynamic a...

  16. FIR line emission from high redshift galaxies

    Vallini, Livia; Ferrara, Andrea; Baek, Sunghye

    2013-01-01

    By combining high resolution, radiative transfer cosmological simulations of z~6 galaxies with a sub-grid multi-phase model of their interstellar medium we derive the expected intensity of several far infrared (FIR) emission lines ([C II] 158 micron, [O I] 63 micron, and [N II] 122 micron) for different values of the gas metallicity, Z. For Z = Z_sun the [C II] spectrum is very complex due to the presence of several emitting clumps of individual size < 3 kpc; the peak is displaced from the galaxy center by ~100 km/s. While the [O I] spectrum is also similarly displaced, the [N II] line comes predominantly from the central ionized regions of the galaxy. When integrated over ~500 km/s, the [C II] line flux is 185 mJy km/s; 95% of such flux originates from the cold (T~250 K) H I phase, and only 5% from the warm (T~5000 K) neutral medium. The [O I] and [N II] fluxes are ~6 and ~90 times lower than the [C II] one, respectively. By comparing our results with observations of Himiko, the most extended and luminous...

  17. Intermediate-redshift galaxy halos - Results from QSO absorption lines

    For a sample of Mg II-selected QSO absorption-line systems for which the absorbing galaxies have been successfully identified, the rest-frame equivalent widths of the Mg II 2796-A absorption lines are examined as a function of the known impact parameters between the background QSOs and the absorbing galaxies. There appears to exist a relationship between the equivalent widths and the impact parameters, in the sense that larger equivalent widths occur at smaller impact parameters. No trend of the doublet ratio is found with impact parameter, and neither the equivalent widths nor the doublet ratios are correlated with the absolute luminosities or redshifts of the absorbing galaxies. These results apparently indicate that the main factor that determines the equivalent width of a particular absorption system is the impact parameter between the background QSO and the absorbing galaxy. 32 refs

  18. Intermediate-redshift galaxy halos - Results from QSO absorption lines

    Lanzetta, K.M.; Bowen, D. (Cambridge Univ. (England) Royal Greenwich Observatory, Cambridge (England))

    1990-07-01

    For a sample of Mg II-selected QSO absorption-line systems for which the absorbing galaxies have been successfully identified, the rest-frame equivalent widths of the Mg II 2796-A absorption lines are examined as a function of the known impact parameters between the background QSOs and the absorbing galaxies. There appears to exist a relationship between the equivalent widths and the impact parameters, in the sense that larger equivalent widths occur at smaller impact parameters. No trend of the doublet ratio is found with impact parameter, and neither the equivalent widths nor the doublet ratios are correlated with the absolute luminosities or redshifts of the absorbing galaxies. These results apparently indicate that the main factor that determines the equivalent width of a particular absorption system is the impact parameter between the background QSO and the absorbing galaxy. 32 refs.

  19. The SDSS Coadd: A Galaxy Photometric Redshift Catalog

    Reis, Ribamar R.R.; /Fermilab /Rio de Janeiro Federal U.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; /Fermilab /Inst. Geo. Astron., Havana /Sao Paulo U.; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Hao, Jiangang; /Fermilab; Johnston, David; /Fermilab; Kubo, Jeffrey; /Fermilab; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab; Seo, Hee-Jong; /UC, Berkeley; Simet, Melanie; /Chicago U.

    2011-11-01

    We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z's) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Coadd Data. We use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique to calculate photo-z's and the Nearest Neighbor Error (NNE) method to estimate photo-z errors for {approx} 13 million objects classified as galaxies in the coadd with r < 24.5. The photo-z and photo-z error estimators are trained and validated on a sample of {approx} 89, 000 galaxies that have SDSS photometry and spectroscopic redshifts measured by the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7), the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Galaxy Survey (CNOC2), the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Data Release 3(DEEP2 DR3), the SDSS-III's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), the Visible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph - Very Large Telescope Deep Survey (VVDS) and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. For the best ANN methods we have tried, we find that 68% of the galaxies in the validation set have a photo-z error smaller than {sigma}{sub 68} = 0.036. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.

  20. The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: Design, Observations, Data Reduction, and Redshifts

    Newman, Jeffrey A.; Cooper, Michael C.; Davis, Marc; Faber, S. M.; Coil, Alison L; Guhathakurta, Puraga; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Gerke, Brian F.; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wilmer, C. N. A.; Yan, Renbin; Harker, Justin J.; Kassin, Susan A.; Konidaris, N. P.; Lai, Kamson; Madgwick, Darren S.; Noeske, K. G.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Kirby, Evan N.; Lotz, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design and data analysis of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, the densest and largest high-precision redshift survey of galaxies at z approx. 1 completed to date. The survey was designed to conduct a comprehensive census of massive galaxies, their properties, environments, and large-scale structure down to absolute magnitude MB = -20 at z approx. 1 via approx.90 nights of observation on the Keck telescope. The survey covers an area of 2.8 Sq. deg divided into four separate fields observed to a limiting apparent magnitude of R(sub AB) = 24.1. Objects with z approx. galaxies with z > 0.7 to be targeted approx. 2.5 times more efficiently than in a purely magnitude-limited sample. Approximately 60% of eligible targets are chosen for spectroscopy, yielding nearly 53,000 spectra and more than 38,000 reliable redshift measurements. Most of the targets that fail to yield secure redshifts are blue objects that lie beyond z approx. 1.45, where the [O ii] 3727 Ang. doublet lies in the infrared. The DEIMOS 1200 line mm(exp -1) grating used for the survey delivers high spectral resolution (R approx. 6000), accurate and secure redshifts, and unique internal kinematic information. Extensive ancillary data are available in the DEEP2 fields, particularly in the Extended Groth Strip, which has evolved into one of the richest multiwavelength regions on the sky. This paper is intended as a handbook for users of the DEEP2 Data Release 4, which includes all DEEP2 spectra and redshifts, as well as for the DEEP2 DEIMOS data reduction pipelines. Extensive details are provided on object selection, mask design, biases in target selection and redshift measurements, the spec2d two-dimensional data-reduction pipeline, the spec1d automated redshift pipeline, and the zspec visual redshift verification process, along with examples of instrumental signatures or other artifacts that in some cases remain after data reduction. Redshift errors and catastrophic failure rates are assessed

  1. The Premature Formation of High Redshift Galaxies

    Melia, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Observations with WFC3/IR on the Hubble Space Telescope and the use of gravitational lensing techniques have facilitated the discovery of galaxies as far back as z ~ 10-12, a truly remarkable achievement. However, this rapid emergence of high-z galaxies, barely ~ 200 Myr after the transition from Population III star formation to Population II, appears to be in conflict with the standard view of how the early Universe evolved. This problem has much in common with the better known (and probably related) premature appearance of supermassive black holes at z ~ 6. It is difficult to understand how ~ 10^9 solar-mass black holes could have appeared so quickly after the big bang without invoking non-standard accretion physics and the formation of massive seeds, neither of which is seen in the local Universe. In earlier work, we showed that the appearance of high-z quasars could instead be understood more reasonably in the context of the R_h=ct Universe, which does not suffer from the same time compression issues as L...

  2. Magnetic fields in galaxies at high redshifts

    Bernet, Martin Leo; Gaensler, Bryan; Lilly, Simon; O'Sullivan, Shane; Miniati, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    We have recently demonstrated an association between high Faraday Rotation of radio quasars and the presence of intervening strong MgII absorption and determined that the magnetized plasma in the associated galaxies extends up to 60 kpc. These findings are based on Rotation Measure (RM) observations typically performed at 5 GHz, but they can not be reproduced using RMs obtained at lower frequencies, e.g. using the Taylor et al. (2009) RM catalogue at 1.4 GHz. This apparent discrepancy can be explained by a model which takes into account the depolarization of the sources due to inhomogeneous Faraday Rotation screens and their partial coverage of the sources. We propose here to observe 27 sources of our sample which are accessible by the ATCA to test this hypothesis. Our goal is to observe the selected sources over the broad frequency range 1.1 -10.8 GHz to obtain depolarization curves and to perform Faraday Rotation Measure Synthesis. With this sample we will be able to determine the homogeneity of the Faraday screens in the intervening galaxies and to further strengthen the original result. Finally the outcome of this experiment has important implications for the design of future RM surveys.

  3. Testing the CMB Quenching for High-Redshift Radio Galaxies

    Wu, Jianfeng; Gallo, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The identification of a dozen of high-redshift (z > 4) blazars implies that a much larger population of powerful, but mis-aligned jetted AGNs already exists in the early Universe. However, this parent population remains elusive, although they are expected to be within the sensitivity threshold of modern wide-field radio surveys. One appealing mechanism is that the CMB photons upscatter the diffuse synchrotron radio emission in the lobes to the X-ray band. In this scenario, the lobes will turn into luminous X-ray sources. We analyzed the extended X-ray emission around several radio galaxies at z~4 and constructed their broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Modeling their SEDs will test this CMB quenching scenario for high-redshift radio galaxies.

  4. Large scale magnetic fields in galaxies at high redshifts

    Bernet, M. L.; Miniati, F.; Lilly, S. J.; Kronberg, P. P.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.

    2012-09-01

    In a recent study we have used a large sample of extragalactic radio sources to investigate the redshift evolution of the Rotation Measure (RM) of polarized quasars up to z ≈ 3.0. We found that the dispersion in the RM distribution of quasars increases at higher redshifts and hypothesized that MgII intervening systems were responsible for the observed trend. To test this hypothesis, we have recently obtained high-resolution UVES/VLT spectra for 76 quasars in our sample and in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 2.0. We found a clear correlation between the presence of strong MgII systems and large RMs. This implies that normal galaxies at z ≈ 1 already had large-scale magnetic fields comparable to those seen today.

  5. A faint galaxy redshift survey behind massive clusters

    Frye, Brenda

    1999-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with the gravitational lensing effect by massive galaxy clusters. We have explored a new technique for measuring galaxy masses and for detecting high-z galaxies by their optical colors. A redshift survey has been obtained at the Keck for a magnitude limited sample of objects (I<23) behind three clusters, A1689, A2390, and A2218 within a radius of 0.5M pc. For each cluster we see both a clear trend of increasing flux and redshift towards the center. This behavior is the result of image magnifications, such that at fixed redshift one sees further down the luminosity function. The gradient of this magnification is, unlike measurements of image distortion, sensitive to the mass profile, and found to depart strongly from a pure isothermal halo. We have found that V RI color selection can be used effectively as a discriminant for finding high-z galaxies behind clusters and present five 4.1 < z < 5.1 spectra which are of very high quality due to their high mean magnification of {approximately}20, showing strong, visibly-saturated interstellar metal lines in some cases. We have also investigated the radio ring lens PKS 1830-211, locating the source and multiple images and detected molecular absorption at mm wavelengths. Broad molecular absorption of width 1/40kms is found toward the southwest component only, where surprisingly it does not reach the base of the continuum, which implies incomplete coverage of the SW component by molecular gas, despite the small projected size of the source, less than 1/8h pc at the absorption redshift.

  6. Bimodal star formation - Constraints from galaxy colors at high redshift

    Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Silk, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that at early epochs the light from elliptical galaxies is dominated by stars with an initial mass function (IMF) which is deficient in low-mass stars, relative to the solar neighborhood is investigated. V-R colors for the optical counterparts of 3CR radio sources offer the most severe constraints on the models. Reasonable fits are obtained to both the blue, high-redshift colors and the redder, low-redshift colors with a model galaxy which forms with initially equal star formation rates in each of two IMF modes: one lacking low-mass stars, and one with stars of all masses. The net effect is that the time-integrated IMF has twice as many high-mass stars as the solar neighborhood IMF, relative to low mass stars. A conventional solar neighborhood IMF does not simultaneously account for both the range in colors at high redshift and the redness of nearby ellipticals, with any single star formation epoch. Models with a standard IMF require half the stellar population to be formed in a burst at low redshift z of about 1.

  7. Recovering a redshift-extended VSL signal from galaxy surveys

    Salzano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a new method to recover (if any) a possible varying speed of light (VSL) signal from cosmological data. It comes as an upgrade of [1,2], where it was argued that such signal could be detected at a single redshift location only. Here, we show how it is possible to extract information on a VSL signal on an extended redshift range. We use mock cosmological data from future galaxy surveys (BOSS, DESI, \\emph{WFirst-2.4} and SKA): the sound horizon at decoupling imprinted in the clustering of galaxies (BAO) as an angular diameter distance, and the expansion rate derived from those galaxies recognized as cosmic chronometers. We find that, given the forecast sensitivities of such surveys, a $\\sim1\\%$ VSL signal can be detected at $3\\sigma$ confidence level in the redshift interval $z \\in [0.,1.55]$. Smaller signals $(\\sim0.1\\%)$ will be hardly detected (even if some lower possibility for a $1\\sigma$ detection is still possible). Finally, we discuss the degeneration between a VSL signal and a non-null s...

  8. The Synergy between Weak Lensing and Galaxy Redshift Surveys

    de Putter, Roland; Takada, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    We study the complementarity of weak lensing (WL) and spectroscopic galaxy clustering (GC) surveys, by forecasting dark energy and modified gravity constraints for three upcoming survey combinations: SuMIRe (Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts, the combination of the Hyper Suprime-Cam lensing survey and the Prime Focus Spectrograph redshift survey), EUCLID and WFIRST. From the WL surveys, we take into account both the shear and clustering of the source galaxies and from the GC surveys, we use the three-dimensional clustering of spectroscopic galaxies, including redshift space distortions. A CMB prior is included in all cases. Focusing on the large-scale, two-point function information, we find strong synergy between the two probes. The dark energy figure of merit from WL+GC is up to a factor ~2.5 larger than from either probe alone. Considering modified gravity, if the growth factor f(z) is treated as a free function, it is very poorly constrained by WL or GC alone, but can be measured at the few perce...

  9. XMM-Newton observations of three high redshift radio galaxies

    Belsole, E; Hardcastle, M J

    2004-01-01

    We present results on the physical states of three high-redshift powerful radio galaxies (3C 292 at z=0.7, 3C 184 at z=1, and 3C322 at z=1.7). They were obtained by combining radio measurements with X-ray measurements from XMM-Newton that separate spectrally and/or spatially radio-related and hot-gas X-ray emission. Originally observed as part of a programme to trace clusters of galaxies at high redshift, none of the sources is found to lie in a rich X-ray-emitting environment similar to those of some powerful radio galaxies at low redshift, although the estimated gas pressures are sufficient to confine the radio lobes. The weak gas emission is a particularly interesting result for 3C 184, where a gravitational arc is seen, suggesting the presence of a very massive cluster. Here Chandra data complement the XMM-Newton measurements in spatially separating X-ray extended emission from that associated with the nucleus and rather small radio source. 3C 292 is the source for which the X-ray-emitting gas is measured...

  10. The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: The Voronoi-Delaunay Method Catalog of Galaxy Groups

    Gerke, Brian F.; /UC, Berkeley; Newman, Jeffrey A.; /LBNL, NSD; Davis, Marc; /UC, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Marinoni, Christian; /Brera Observ.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Conroy, Charlie; Cooper, Michael C.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Faber, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; /Lick Observ.; Kaiser, Nick; /Hawaii U.; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; /Lick Observ.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; /Maryland U.

    2012-02-14

    We use the first 25% of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey spectroscopic data to identify groups and clusters of galaxies in redshift space. The data set contains 8370 galaxies with confirmed redshifts in the range 0.7 {<=} z {<=} 1.4, over one square degree on the sky. Groups are identified using an algorithm (the Voronoi-Delaunay Method) that has been shown to accurately reproduce the statistics of groups in simulated DEEP2-like samples. We optimize this algorithm for the DEEP2 survey by applying it to realistic mock galaxy catalogs and assessing the results using a stringent set of criteria for measuring group-finding success, which we develop and describe in detail here. We find in particular that the group-finder can successfully identify {approx}78% of real groups and that {approx}79% of the galaxies that are true members of groups can be identified as such. Conversely, we estimate that {approx}55% of the groups we find can be definitively identified with real groups and that {approx}46% of the galaxies we place into groups are interloper field galaxies. Most importantly, we find that it is possible to measure the distribution of groups in redshift and velocity dispersion, n({sigma}, z), to an accuracy limited by cosmic variance, for dispersions greater than 350 km s{sup -1}. We anticipate that such measurements will allow strong constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy in the future. Finally, we present the first DEEP2 group catalog, which assigns 32% of the galaxies to 899 distinct groups with two or more members, 153 of which have velocity dispersions above 350 km s{sup -1}. We provide locations, redshifts and properties for this high-dispersion subsample. This catalog represents the largest sample to date of spectroscopically detected groups at z {approx} 1.

  11. Evidence for Morphology and Luminosity Transformation of Galaxies at High Redshifts

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Changbom

    2009-01-01

    We study the galaxy morphology-luminosity-environmental relation and its redshift evolution using a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). In the redshift range of $0.4\\leq z\\leq1.0$ we detect conformity in morphology between neighboring galaxies. The realm of conformity is confined within the virialized region associated with each galaxy plus dark matter halo system. When a galaxy is located within the virial radius of its nearest neighbor ga...

  12. ASSOCIATIONS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS WITH ACTIVE, LOW-REDSHIFT SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Following the discovery in the 1960s of radio and optical QSOs it was found that some of them lie very close to low-redshift (z ≤ 0.01) spiral galaxies with separations of ∼<2 arcmin. These were discovered both serendipitously by many observers, and systematically by Arp. They are some of the brightest QSOs in radio and optical wavelengths and are very rare. We have carried out a new statistical analysis of most of those galaxy-QSO pairs and find that the configurations have high statistical significance. We show that gravitational microlensing due to stars or other dark objects in the halos of the galaxies apparently cannot account for the excess. Sampling or identification bias likewise seems unable to explain it. Following this up we selected all ∼4000 QSOs with g ≤ 18 from a catalog of confirmed QSOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and compared them with various subsets of galaxies from the RC 3 galaxy catalog. In contrast to the earlier results, no significant excess of such QSOs was found around these galaxies. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed.

  13. The fate of high-redshift massive compact galaxies

    de la Rosa, Ignacio G; Ferreras, Ignacio; Almeida, Jorge Sánchez; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Martínez-Valpuesta, Inma; Stringer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Massive high-redshift quiescent compact galaxies (nicknamed red nuggets) have been traditionally connected to present-day elliptical galaxies, often overlooking the relationships that they may have with other galaxy types. We use large bulge-disk decomposition catalogues based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to check the hypothesis that red nuggets have survived as compact cores embedded inside the haloes or disks of present-day massive galaxies. In this study, we designate a "compact core" as the bulge component that satisfies a prescribed compactness criterion. Photometric and dynamic mass-size and mass-density relations are used to show that, in the inner regions of galaxies at z ~ 0.1, there are "abundant" compact cores matching the peculiar properties of the red nuggets, an abundance comparable to that of red nuggets at z ~ 1.5. Furthermore, the morphology distribution of the present-day galaxies hosting compact cores is used to demonstrate that, in addition to the standard channel connecting red ...

  14. Radio Galaxy Redshift-Angular Size Data Constraints on Dark Energy

    Podariu, Silviu; Daly, Ruth A.; Mory, Matthew P.; Ratra, Bharat

    2002-01-01

    We use FRIIb radio galaxy redshift-angular size data to constrain cosmological parameters in a dark energy scalar field model. The derived constraints are consistent with but weaker than those determined using Type Ia supernova redshift-magnitude data.

  15. The bright galaxy population of five medium redshift clusters. II. Quantitative Galaxy Morphology

    Ascaso, B; Moles, M; Sánchez-Janssen, R; Bettoni, D

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Following the study already presented in our previous paper, based on the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) sample, which consists of five clusters of galaxies within the redshift range 0.18 $\\leq$ z $\\leq$ 0.25, imaged in the central 0.5-2 Mpc in very good seeing conditions, we have studied the quantitative morphology of their bright galaxy population Methods: We have analyzed the surface brightness profiles of the galaxy population in those clusters. Previously, we have performed simulations in order to check the reliability of the fits. We have also derived a quantitative morphological classification. Results: The structural parameters derived from these analysis have been analyzed. We have obtained that the structural parameters of E/S0 galaxies are similar to those showed by galaxies in low redshift clusters. However, the disc scales are different. In particular, the scales of the discs of galaxies at medium redshift clusters are statistically different than those located in similar galaxies in the Co...

  16. CFHTLenS and RCSLenS: Testing Photometric Redshift Distributions Using Angular Cross-Correlations with Spectroscopic Galaxy Surveys

    Choi, Ami; Blake, Chris; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Duncan, Christopher A J; Erben, Thomas; Nakajima, Reiko; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Viola, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We determine the accuracy of galaxy redshift distributions as estimated from photometric redshift probability distributions $p(z)$. Our method utilises measurements of the angular cross-correlation between photometric galaxies and an overlapping sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We describe the redshift leakage from a galaxy photometric redshift bin $j$ into a spectroscopic redshift bin $i$ using the sum of the $p(z)$ for the galaxies residing in bin $j$. We can then predict the angular cross-correlation between photometric and spectroscopic galaxies due to intrinsic galaxy clustering when $i \

  17. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: stochastic relative biasing between galaxy populations

    Wild, V; Lahav, O; Conway, E; Maddox, S; Baldry, I K; Baugh, C M; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bridges, T; Cannon, R; Cole, S; Colless, M; Collins, C; Couch, W; Dalton, G B; De Propris, R; Driver, S P; Efstathiou, G P; Ellis, Richard S; Frenk, C S; Glazebrook, K; Jackson, C; Lewis, I; Lumsden, S; Madgwick, D; Norberg, P; Peterson, B A; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the clustering of galaxies depends on galaxy type. Such relative bias complicates the inference of cosmological parameters from galaxy redshift surveys, and is a challenge to theories of galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper we perform a joint counts-in-cells analysis on galaxies in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, classified by both colour and spectral type, eta, as early or late type galaxies. We fit three different models of relative bias to the joint probability distribution of the cell counts, assuming Poisson sampling of the galaxy density field. We investigate the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the relative bias, with cubical cells of side 10Mpc \\leq L \\leq 45Mpc (h=0.7). Exact linear bias is ruled out with high significance on all scales. Power law bias gives a better fit, but likelihood ratios prefer a bivariate lognormal distribution, with a non-zero `stochasticity' - i.e. scatter that may result from physical effects on galaxy formation other than those from the loca...

  18. Reconstructing the galaxy redshift distribution from angular cross power spectra

    Sun, L; Tao, C

    2015-01-01

    The control of photometric redshift (photo-$z$) errors is a crucial and challenging task for precision weak lensing cosmology. The spacial cross-correlations (equivalently, the angular cross power spectra) of galaxies between tomographic photo-$z$ bins are sensitive to the true redshift distribution $n_i(z)$ of each bin and hence can help calibrate the photo-$z$ error distribution for weak lensing surveys. Using Fisher matrix analysis, we investigate the contributions of various components of the angular power spectra to the constraints of $n_i(z)$ parameters and demonstrate the importance of the cross power spectra therein, especially when catastrophic photo-$z$ errors are present. We further study the feasibility of reconstructing $n_i(z)$ from galaxy angular power spectra using Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation. Considering an LSST-like survey with $10$ photo-$z$ bins, we find that the underlying redshift distribution can be determined with a fractional precision ($\\sigma(\\theta)/\\theta$ for parameter $\\...

  19. POPULATION III STARS AND REMNANTS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Recent simulations of Population III star formation have suggested that some fraction form in binary systems, in addition to having a characteristic mass of tens of solar masses. The deaths of metal-free stars result in the initial chemical enrichment of the universe and the production of the first stellar-mass black holes. Here we present a cosmological adaptive mesh refinement simulation of an overdense region that forms a few 109 M☉ dark matter halos and over 13,000 Population III stars by redshift 15. We find that most halos do not form Population III stars until they reach Mvir ∼ 107 M☉ because this biased region is quickly enriched from both Population III and galaxies, which also produce high levels of ultraviolet radiation that suppress H2 formation. Nevertheless, Population III stars continue to form, albeit in more massive halos, at a rate of ∼10–4 M☉ yr–1 Mpc–3 at redshift 15. The most massive starless halo has a mass of 7 × 107 M☉, which could host massive black hole formation through the direct gaseous collapse scenario. We show that the multiplicity of the Population III remnants grows with halo mass above 108 M☉, culminating in 50 remnants located in 109 M☉ halos on average. This has implications that high-mass X-ray binaries and intermediate-mass black holes that originate from metal-free stars may be abundant in high-redshift galaxies

  20. Optical galaxy cluster detection across a wide redshift range

    Hao, Jiangang; /Michigan U.

    2009-04-01

    The past decade is one of the most exciting period in the history of physics and astronomy. The discovery of cosmic acceleration dramatically changed our understanding about the evolution and constituents of the Universe. To accommodate the new acceleration phase into our well established Big Bang cosmological scenario under the frame work of General Relativity, there must exist a very special substance that has negative pressure and make up about 73% of the total energy density in our Universe. It is called Dark Energy. For the first time people realized that the vast majority of our Universe is made of things that are totally different from the things we are made of. Therefore, one of the major endeavors in physics and astronomy in the coming years is trying to understand, if we can, the nature of dark energy. Understanding dark energy cannot be achieved from pure logic. We need empirical evidence to finally determine about what is dark energy. The better we can constrain the energy density and evolution of the dark energy, the closer we will get to the answer. There are many ways to constrain the energy density and evolution of dark energy, each of which leads to degeneracy in certain directions in the parameter space. Therefore, a combination of complimentary methods will help to reduce the degeneracies and give tighter constraints. Dark energy became dominate over matter in the Universe only very recently (at about z {approx} 1.5) and will affect both the cosmological geometry and large scale structure formation. Among the various experiments, some of them constrain the dark energy mainly via geometry (such as CMB, Supernovae) while some others provides constraints from both structures and geometry (such as BAO, Galaxy Clusters) Galaxy clusters can be used as a sensitive probe for cosmology. A large cluster catalog that extends to high redshift with well measured masses is indispensable for precisely constraining cosmological parameters. Detecting clusters in

  1. Optical galaxy cluster detection across a wide redshift range

    Hao, Jiangang [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The past decade is one of the most exciting period in the history of physics and astronomy. The discovery of cosmic acceleration dramatically changed our understanding about the evolution and constituents of the Universe. To accommodate the new acceleration phase into our well established Big Bang cosmological scenario under the frame work of General Relativity, there must exist a very special substance that has negative pressure and make up about 73% of the total energy density in our Universe. It is called Dark Energy. For the first time people realized that the vast majority of our Universe is made of things that are totally different from the things we are made of. Therefore, one of the major endeavors in physics and astronomy in the coming years is trying to understand, if we can, the nature of dark energy. Understanding dark energy cannot be achieved from pure logic. We need empirical evidence to finally determine about what is dark energy. The better we can constrain the energy density and evolution of the dark energy, the closer we will get to the answer. There are many ways to constrain the energy density and evolution of dark energy, each of which leads to degeneracy in certain directions in the parameter space. Therefore, a combination of complimentary methods will help to reduce the degeneracies and give tighter constraints. Dark energy became dominate over matter in the Universe only very recently (at about z ~ 1.5) and will affect both the cosmological geometry and large scale structure formation. Among the various experiments, some of them constrain the dark energy mainly via geometry (such as CMB, Supernovae) while some others provides constraints from both structures and geometry (such as BAO, Galaxy Clusters) Galaxy clusters can be used as a sensitive probe for cosmology. A large cluster catalog that extends to high redshift with well measured masses is indispensable for precisely constraining cosmological parameters. Detecting clusters in optical

  2. Real and Redshift-Space Clustering in the ESP Galaxy Redshift Survey

    Guzzo, L; Cappi, A

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the two-point correlation properties of galaxies in the ESO Slice Project (ESP) redshift survey, both in redshift and real space. The redshift-space correlation function xi(s) for the whole magnitude-limited survey is well described by a power law with \\gamma ~ 1.55 between 3 and ~40/h Mpc, where it smoothly breaks down, crossing the zero value on scales as large as ~80/h Mpc. On smaller scales (0.2-2/h Mpc), the slope is shallower, mostly due to redshift-space depression by virialized structures. This effect is found to be enhanced by the J3 optimal-weighting estimator for xi. We explicitly evidence these effects by computing xi(r_p,pi) and the projected function w_p(r_p). In this way we recover the real-space correlation function xi(r), which we fit below 10/h Mpc with a power-law model. This gives a reasonable fit, with r_o=4.15^{+0.20}_{-0.21} /h Mpc and \\gamma=1.67^{+0.07}_{-0.09}. This results on xi(r) and xi(s), and the comparison with other surveys, clearly confirm how the shape of spatial ...

  3. Galaxy evolution in overdense environments at high redshift: passive early-type galaxies in a cluster at redshift 2

    Strazzullo, V; Daddi, E; Onodera, M; Carollo, M; Dickinson, M; Renzini, A; Arimoto, N; Cimatti, A; Finoguenov, A; Chary, R -R

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of galaxy populations in the central region of the IRAC-selected, X-ray detected galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z=2. Based on a sample of spectroscopic and photometric cluster members, we investigate stellar populations and morphological structure of cluster galaxies over an area of ~0.7Mpc^2 around the cluster core. The cluster stands out as a clear overdensity both in redshift space, and in the spatial distribution of galaxies close to the center of the extended X-ray emission. The cluster core region (r<200 kpc) shows a clearly enhanced passive fraction with respect to field levels. However, together with a population of massive passive galaxies mostly with early-type morphologies, it also hosts massive actively star-forming, often highly dust-reddened sources. Close to the cluster center, a multi-component system of passive and star-forming galaxies could be the future BCG still assembling. We observe a clear correlation between passive stellar populations and an early-type morpholo...

  4. Galaxy bispectrum, primordial non-Gaussianity and redshift space distortions

    Tellarini, Matteo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Wands, David

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the non-Gaussianity of the primordial density field have the power to considerably improve our understanding of the physics of inflation. Indeed, if we can increase the precision of current measurements by an order of magnitude, a null-detection would rule out many classes of scenarios for generating primordial fluctuations. Large-scale galaxy redshift surveys represent experiments that hold the promise to realise this goal. Thus, we model the galaxy bispectrum and forecast the accuracy with which it will probe the parameter $f_{\\rm NL}$, which represents the degree of primordial local-type non Gaussianity. Specifically, we address the problem of modelling redshift space distortions (RSD) in the tree-level galaxy bispectrum including $f_{\\rm NL}$. We find novel contributions associated with RSD, with the characteristic large scale amplification induced by local-type non-Gaussianity. These RSD effects must be properly accounted for in order to obtain un-biased measurements of $f_{\\rm NL}$ from ...

  5. Galaxy groups in the 2MASS Redshift Survey

    Lu, Yi; Shi, Feng; Mo, H J; Tweed, Dylan; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhang, Youcai; Li, Shijie; Lim, S H

    2016-01-01

    A galaxy group catalog is constructed from the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) with the use of a halo-based group finder. The halo mass associated with a group is estimated using a `GAP' method based on the luminosity of the central galaxy and its gap with other member galaxies. Tests using mock samples shows that this method is reliable, particularly for poor systems containing only a few members. On average 80% of all the groups have completeness >0.8, and about 65% of the groups have zero contamination. Halo masses are estimated with a typical uncertainty $\\sim 0.35\\,{\\rm dex}$. The application of the group finder to the 2MRS gives 29,904 groups from a total of 43,246 galaxies at $z \\leq 0.08$, with 5,286 groups having two or more members. Some basic properties of this group catalog is presented, and comparisons are made with other groups catalogs in overlap regions. With a depth to $z\\sim 0.08$ and uniformly covering about 91% of the whole sky, this group catalog provides a useful data base to study galaxies...

  6. High-Redshift galaxies light from the early universe

    Appenzeller, Immo

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive account of the scientific results on high-redshift galaxies accumulated during the past ten years. Apart from summarizing and critically discussing the wealth of observational data, the observational methods which made it possible to study these very distant and extremely faint objects are described in detail. Moreover, the technical feasibilities and physical limitations for existing and for future ground-based and space-based telescopes are discussed. Thus, apart from summarizing the knowledge accumulated so far, the book is designed as a tool for planning future observational and instrumental programs and projects. In view of the potential importance of the observational results of the high-redshift universe for basic physics the book is written for astronomers as well as for physicists without prior astronomical knowledge. For this purpose it contains introductory chapters describing the basic concepts and notations used in modern astronomy and a brief overview of the pr...

  7. Survey of galaxy redshifts. I. Data reduction techniques

    We are currently undertaking a magnitude limited redshift survey of galaxies having m/sub B/ or =40, delta> or =0. In this paper, we present in some detail our methods of data reduction, which are based on cross correlation against filtered templates. We present expressions for the uncertainty of a measured redshift, for the internal broadening of the object, and for the uncertainty of this broadening. Comparison of our optical data with previously published 21 cm data shows no systematic errors and yields excellent agreement with our internal error analysis. The method of analyzing velocity dispersions is new and quite promising for further application. A series of spectra are presented as examples to show the power and limitations of the correlation techniques

  8. Selection and Physical Properties of High-redshift Galaxies

    Fang, G. W.

    2014-09-01

    Extremely Red Objects (EROs) and BzKs continue to attract considerable interest. It has been suggested that they may be the direct progenitors of present-day massive E/S0 galaxies, and can provide crucial constraints on the current galaxy formation and evolution models. Therefore, the key question is to measure the relative fraction of OGs (old galaxies) and DGs (young, and dusty starburst galaxies) in the sample of EROs. Many groups have been currently investigating the fractions of these two ERO populations using a variety of observational approaches, but the fraction of OGs and DGs from different surveys is different. In the meantime, a number of observations suggest that the epoch of z˜2 also plays an important role in galaxy formation and evolution for various reasons: the cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD) begins to drop at z˜2 from a flat plateau at higher redshifts; the morphological type mix of field galaxies changes remarkably at z˜2; the number density of QSOs has a peak at z˜2; and about 50% to 70% of the stellar mass assembly of galaxies took place in the redshift range 1research progresses of EROs at z˜1, BzKs at z˜2, and ULIRGs at z˜2, respectively. In Chapter 2 we present a quantitative study of the classification of EROs in the UDF and COSMOS field. Our sample includes 5264 (COSMOS, K_{Vega} ≤19.2) and 24 EROs (UDF, K_{Vega}≤22.0) with (i-K)_{AB}≥2.45. Using the fitting method of spectral energy distribution (SED), [3.6]-[8.0] color, and the nonparametric measures of galaxy morphology, we classify EROs into two classes: DGs and OGs. We find that the fraction of OGs and DGs in our sample (COSMOS) is similar, about 52% of them are DGs, and the other 48% are OGs. For 24 EROs in the UDF, 16 fall into DGs, while 8 are OGs. To reduce the redundancy of these three different classification methods, we perform a principal component analysis on the measurements of EROs, and find that the nonparametric measures and SEDs are efficient in

  9. Dynamics of clusters of galaxies with central dominant galaxies. I - Galaxy redshifts

    Malumuth, Eliot M.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Van Dyke Dixon, W.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Ritchie, Christine

    1992-01-01

    Optical redshifts are presented for a sample of 638 galaxies in the fields of the clusters Abell 85, DC 0107-46, Abell 496, Abell 2052, and DC 1842-63. The velocity histograms and wedge diagrams show evidence for a foreground sheet of galaxies in Abell 85 and background sheets of galaxies in DC 0107-46 and Abell 2052. The foreground group projected against the center of Abell 85 found by Beers et al. (1991) is confirmed. No evidence of substructure was found in Abell 496, Abell 2052, and DC 1842-63. The clusters have global velocity dispersions ranging from 551 km/s for DC 1842-63 to 714 km/s for A496, and flat dispersion profiles. Mass estimates using the virial theorem and the projected mass method range from 2.3 x 10 exp 14 solar masses for DC 0107-46 to 1.1 x 10 exp 15 solar masses for A85.

  10. Using gamma regression for photometric redshifts of survey galaxies

    Elliott, J; Krone-Martins, A; Cameron, E; Ishida, E E O; Hilbe, J

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning techniques offer a plethora of opportunities in tackling big data within the astronomical community. We present the set of Generalized Linear Models as a fast alternative for determining photometric redshifts of galaxies, a set of tools not commonly applied within astronomy, despite being widely used in other professions. With this technique, we achieve catastrophic outlier rates of the order of ~1%, that can be achieved in a matter of seconds on large datasets of size ~1,000,000. To make these techniques easily accessible to the astronomical community, we developed a set of libraries and tools that are publicly available.

  11. Analytic model for the bispectrum of galaxies in redshift space

    We develop an analytic theory for the redshift space bispectrum of dark matter, haloes, and galaxies. This is done within the context of the halo model of structure formation, as this allows for the self-consistent inclusion of linear and nonlinear redshift-space distortions and also for the nonlinearity of the halo bias. The model is applicable over a wide range of scales: on the largest scales the predictions reduce to those of the standard perturbation theory (PT); on smaller scales they are determined primarily by the nonlinear virial velocities of galaxies within haloes, and this gives rise to the U-shaped anisotropy in the reduced bispectrum--a finger print of the Finger-Of-God distortions. We then confront the predictions with measurements of the redshift-space bispectrum of dark matter from an ensemble of numerical simulations. On very large scales, k=0.05h Mpc-1, we find reasonably good agreement between our halo model, PT and the data, to within the errors. On smaller scales, k=0.1h Mpc-1, the measured bispectra differ from the PT at the level of ∼10%-20%, especially for colinear triangle configurations. The halo model predictions improve over PT, but are accurate to no better than 10%. On smaller scales k=0.5-1.0h Mpc-1, our model provides a significant improvement over PT, which breaks down. This implies that studies which use the lowest order PT to extract galaxy bias information are not robust on scales k > or approx. 0.1h Mpc-1. The analytic and simulation results also indicate that there is no observable scale for which the configuration dependence of the reduced bispectrum is constant--hierarchical models for the higher-order correlation functions in redshift space are unlikely to be useful. It is hoped that our model will facilitate extraction of information from large-scale structure surveys of the Universe, because different galaxy populations are naturally included into our description.

  12. The Stony Brook Photometric Redshifts of Faint Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Fields

    Lanzetta, K M; Fernández-Soto, A; Pascarelle, S; Pütter, R C; Yahata, N; Yahil, A; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Pascarelle, Sebastian; Puetter, Rick; Yahata, Noriaki; Yahil, Amos

    1999-01-01

    We report on some aspects of the current status of our efforts to establish properties of faint galaxies by applying our photometric redshift technique to faint galaxies in the HDF and HDF-S WFPC2 and NICMOS fields.

  13. INTRINSIC ALIGNMENT OF CLUSTER GALAXIES: THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION

    We present measurements of two types of cluster galaxy alignments based on a volume limited and highly pure (≥90%) sample of clusters from the GMBCG catalog derived from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). We detect a clear brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) alignment (the alignment of major axis of the BCG toward the distribution of cluster satellite galaxies). We find that the BCG alignment signal becomes stronger as the redshift and BCG absolute magnitude decrease and becomes weaker as BCG stellar mass decreases. No dependence of the BCG alignment on cluster richness is found. We can detect a statistically significant (≥3σ) satellite alignment (the alignment of the major axes of the cluster satellite galaxies toward the BCG) only when we use the isophotal fit position angles (P.A.s), and the satellite alignment depends on the apparent magnitudes rather than the absolute magnitudes of the BCGs. This suggests that the detected satellite alignment based on isophotal P.A.s from the SDSS pipeline is possibly due to the contamination from the diffuse light of nearby BCGs. We caution that this should not be simply interpreted as non-existence of the satellite alignment, but rather that we cannot detect them with our current photometric SDSS data. We perform our measurements on both SDSS r-band and i-band data, but do not observe a passband dependence of the alignments.

  14. New Improved Photometric Redshifts of Galaxies in the HDF

    Furusawa, H; Doi, M; Okamura, S; Furusawa, Hisanori; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Doi, Mamoru; Okamura, Sadanori

    1999-01-01

    We report new improved photometric redshifts of 1048 galaxies in the HubbleDeep Field (HDF). A standard chi^2 minimizing method is applied to seven-colorUBVIJHK photometry by Fernandez-Soto, Lanzetta, & Yahil (1999). We use 187template SEDs representing a wide variety of morphology and age of observedgalaxies based on a population synthesis model by Kodama & Arimoto (1997). Weintroduce two new recipes. First, the amount of the internal absorption ischanged as a free parameter in the range of E(B-V)=0.0 to 0.5 with an intervalof 0.1. Second, the absorption due to intergalactic HI clouds is also changedby a factor of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 around the opacity given by Madau (1995). Thetotal number of template SEDs is thus 187x6x3=3,366, except for the redshiftgrid. The dispersion sigma_z of our photometric redshifts with respect tospectroscopic redshifts is sigma_z=0.08 and 0.24 for z2, respectively,which are smaller than the corresponding values (sigma_z=0.09 and 0.45) byFernandez-Soto et al. Improvement is ...

  15. Distribution of streaming rates into high-redshift galaxies

    Goerdt, Tobias; Dekel, Avishai; Teyssier, Romain

    2015-01-01

    We study the accretion along streams from the cosmic web into high-redshift massive galaxies using three sets of AMR hydro-cosmological simulations. We find that the streams keep a roughly constant accretion rate as they penetrate into the halo centre. The mean accretion rate follows the mass and redshift dependence predicted for haloes by the EPS approximation, dM / dt is proportional to Mvir^{1.25} (1 + z)^{2.5}. The distribution of the accretion rates can well be described by a sum of two Gaussians, the primary corresponding to "smooth inflow" and the secondary to "mergers". The same functional form was already found for the distributions of specific star formation rates in observations. The mass fraction in the smooth component is 60 - 90 %, insensitive to redshift or halo mass. The simulations with strong feedback show clear signs of re-accretion due to recycling of galactic winds. The mean accretion rate for the mergers is a factor 2 - 3 larger than that of the smooth component. The standard deviation o...

  16. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: Hierarchical galaxy clustering

    Baugh, C M; Gaztañaga, E; Norberg, P; Colless, M; Baldry, I K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bridges, T J; Cannon, R; Cole, S; Collins, C; Couch, W; Dalton, G B; De Propris, R; Driver, S P; Efstathiou, G P; Ellis, Richard S; Frenk, C S; Glazebrook, K; Jackson, C; Lahav, O; Lewis, I; Lumsden, S; Maddox, S; Madgwick, D; Peacock, J A; Peterson, B A; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K

    2004-01-01

    We use the two-degree field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) to test the hierarchical scaling hypothesis: namely, that the $p$-point galaxy correlation functions can be written in terms of the two point correlation function or variance. This scaling is expected if an initially Gaussian distribution of density fluctuations evolves under the action of gravitational instability. We measure the volume averaged $p$-point correlation functions using a counts in cells technique applied to a volume limited sample of 44,931 $L_*$ galaxies. We demonstrate that $L_{*}$ galaxies display hierarchical clustering up to order $p=6$ in redshift space. The variance measured for $L_{*}$ galaxies is in excellent agreement with the predictions from a $\\Lambda$-cold dark matter N-body simulation. This applies to all cell radii considered, $0.3<(R/h^{-1}{\\rm Mpc})<30$. However, the higher order correlation functions of $L_*$ galaxies have a significantly smaller amplitude than is predicted for the dark matter for $R<10h^{-1...

  17. Nearby Clumpy, Gas Rich, Star Forming Galaxies: Local Analogs of High Redshift Clumpy Galaxies

    Garland, C A; Mac Low, M -M; Kreckel, K; Rabidoux, K; Guzmán, R

    2015-01-01

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) have enhanced star formation rates and compact morphologies. We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey data with HI data of 29 LCBGs at redshift z~0 to understand their nature. We find that local LCBGs have high atomic gas fractions (~50%) and star formation rates per stellar mass consistent with some high redshift star forming galaxies. Many local LCBGs also have clumpy morphologies, with clumps distributed across their disks. Although rare, these galaxies appear to be similar to the clumpy star forming galaxies commonly observed at z~1-3. Local LCBGs separate into three groups: 1. Interacting galaxies (~20%); 2. Clumpy spirals (~40%); 3. Non-clumpy, non-spirals with regular shapes and smaller effective radii and stellar masses (~40%). It seems that the method of building up a high gas fraction, which then triggers star formation, is not the same for all local LCBGs. This may lead to a dichotomy in galaxy characteristics. We consider possible gas delivery scenarios and sugges...

  18. Simultaneous Constraints on Cosmology and Photometric Redshift Bias from Weak Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    Samuroff, S; Bridle, SL; Zuntz, J; MacCrann, N; Krause, E; Eifler, T; Kirk, D

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the expected cosmological constraints from a combination of weak lensing and large-scale galaxy clustering using realistic redshift distributions. Introducing a systematic bias in the weak lensing redshift distributions (of 0.05 in redshift) produces a $>2\\sigma$ bias in the recovered matter power spectrum amplitude and dark energy equation of state, for preliminary Stage III surveys. We demonstrate that these cosmological errors can be largely removed by marginalising over unknown biases in the assumed weak lensing redshift distributions, if we assume high quality redshift information for the galaxy clustering sample. Furthermore the cosmological constraining power is mostly retained despite removing much of the information on the weak lensing redshift distribution biases. We show that this comes from complementary degeneracy directions between cosmic shear and the combination of galaxy clustering with cross-correlation between shear and galaxy number density. Finally we examine how the self-c...

  19. Morphological Redshift Estimates for Galaxy Clusters in a Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Survey

    Diego-Rodriguez, J M; Silk, J; Bryan, G

    2003-01-01

    We develop a new method to estimate the redshift of galaxy clusters through resolved images of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE). Our method is based on morphological observables which can be measured by actual and future SZE experiments. We test the method with a set of high resolution hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters at different redshifts. Our method combines the observables in a principal component analysis. After calibrating the method with an independent redshift estimation for some of the clusters, we show - using a Bayesian approach - how the method can give an estimate of the redshift of the galaxy clusters. Although the error bars given by the morphological redshift estimation are large, it should be useful for future SZE surveys where thousands of clusters are expected to be detected; a first preselection of the high redshift candidates could be done using our proposed morphological redshift estimator. Although not considered in this work, our method should also be useful to give an ...

  20. CLASH: Extreme Emission Line Galaxies and Their Implication on Selection of High-Redshift Galaxies

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron; Moustakas, John; Shu, Xinwen; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zitrin, Adi; Frye, Brenda L; Postman, Marc; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benitez, Narciso; Bradley, Larry; Broadhurst, Tom; Coe, Dan; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo; Kelson, Daniel; Koekemoer, Anton; Lahav, Ofer; Medezinski, Elinor; Moustakas, Leonidas; Rosati, Piero; Seitz, Stella; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    We utilize the CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble) observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y105) and F125W (J125), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] 4959, 5007 at redshift of about 0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multi-band observations help to constrain the equivalent widths of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] 4959,5007 equivalent width of about 3737 angstrom. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high equivalent width can be only found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic the dropout feature similar to that of high redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high redshift galaxies when the S/N ratio is limited ...

  1. The Luminosity Function of Low-Redshift Abell Galaxy Clusters

    Barkhouse, Wayne A; López-Cruz, Omar

    2007-01-01

    We present the results from a survey of 57 low-redshift Abell galaxy clusters to study the radial dependence of the luminosity function (LF). The dynamical radius of each cluster, r200, was estimated from the photometric measurement of cluster richness, Bgc. The shape of the LFs are found to correlate with radius such that the faint-end slope, alpha, is generally steeper on the cluster outskirts. The sum of two Schechter functions provides a more adequate fit to the composite LFs than a single Schechter function. LFs based on the selection of red and blue galaxies are bimodal in appearance. The red LFs are generally flat for -22 -18. The blue LFs contain a larger contribution from faint galaxies than the red LFs. The blue LFs have a rising faint-end component (alpha ~ -1.7) for M_Rc > -21, with a weaker dependence on radius than the red LFs. The dispersion of M* was determined to be 0.31 mag, which is comparable to the median measurement uncertainty of 0.38 mag. This suggests that the bright-end of the LF is...

  2. The infrared-dark dust content of high redshift galaxies

    Ferrara, A; Ouchi, M; Fujimoto, S

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical model aimed at explaining the IRX-$\\beta$ relation for high redshift (z >5) galaxies. Recent observations (Capak+2015; Bouwens+2016) have shown that early Lyman Break Galaxies, although characterized by a large UV attenuation (e.g. flat UV beta slopes), show a striking FIR deficit, i.e. they are "infrared-dark". This marked deviation from the local IRX-beta relation can be explained by the larger molecular gas content of these systems. While dust in the diffuse ISM attains relatively high temperatures (Td = 45 K for typical size a=0.1 um; smaller grains can reach Td = 60 K), a sizable fraction of the dust mass is embedded in dense gas, and therefore remains cold. If confirmed, the FIR deficit might represent a novel, powerful indicator of the molecular content of high-z galaxies which can be used to pre-select candidates for follow-up deep CO observations. Thus, high-z CO line searches with ALMA might be much more promising than currently thought.

  3. Revealing the nature of star forming blue early-type galaxies at low redshift

    George, Koshy

    2015-01-01

    Context: Star forming early-type galaxies with blue optical colours at low redshift can be used to test our current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Aims: We want to reveal the fuel and triggering mechanism for star formation in these otherwise passively evolving red and dead stellar systems. Methods: We undertook an optical and ultraviolet study of 55 star forming blue early-type galaxies, searching for signatures of recent interactions that could be driving the molecular gas into the galaxy and potentially triggering the star formation. Results: We report here our results on star forming blue early-type galaxies with tidal trails and in close proximity to neighbouring galaxies that are evidence of ongoing or recent interactions between galaxies. There are 12 galaxies with close companions with similar redshifts, among which two galaxies are having ongoing interactions that potentially trigger the star formation. Two galaxies show a jet feature that could be due to the complete tidal disrupti...

  4. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey - I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution

    Perley, D. A.; Krühler, T.; Schulze, S.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R; Fong, W.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; J. Gorosabel; Greiner, J.; Jakobsson, P.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey ("SHOALS"), a multi-observatory high-redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy obs...

  5. The ESO Slice Project (ESP) galaxy redshift survey. II. The luminosity function and mean galaxy density.

    Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Vettolani, G.; Cappi, A.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Stirpe, G. M.; MacGillivray, H.; Collins, C.; Balkowski, C.; Cayatte, V.; Maurogordato, S.; Proust, D.; Chincarini, G.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Blanchard, A.; Ramella, M.

    1997-10-01

    The ESO Slice Project (ESP) is a galaxy redshift survey we have recently completed as an ESO Key-Project over about 23 square degrees, in a region near the South Galactic Pole. The survey is nearly complete to the limiting magnitude b_J_=19.4 and consists of 3342 galaxies with reliable redshift determination. The ESP survey is intermediate between shallow, wide angle samples and very deep, one-dimensional pencil beams: spanning a volume of ~5x10^4^h^-3^Mpc^3^ at the sensitivity peak (z~0.1), it provides an accurate determination of the "local" luminosity function and the mean galaxy density. We find that, although a Schechter function (with α=-1.22, M^*^_bJ_=-19.61+5logh and φ^*^=0.020h^3^/Mpc^3^) is an acceptable representation of the luminosity function over the entire range of magnitudes (M_bJ_=-17+5logh. Such a steepening at the faint end of the luminosity function, well fitted by a power law with slope β~-1.6, is almost completely due to galaxies with emission lines: in fact, dividing our galaxies into two samples, i.e. galaxies with and without emission lines, we find significant differences in their luminosity functions. In particular, galaxies with emission lines show a significantly steeper slope and a fainter M^*^. The amplitude and the α and M^*^ parameters of our luminosity function are in good agreement with those of the AUTOFIB redshift survey (Ellis et al. 1996). Vice-versa, our amplitude is significantly higher, by a factor ~1.6 at M~M^*^, than that found for both the Stromlo-APM (Loveday et al. 1992) and the Las Campanas (Lin et al. 1996) redshift surveys. Also the faint end slope of our luminosity function is significantly steeper than that found in these two surveys. The galaxy number density for M_bJ_blue luminosity densities in these three cases are ρ_LUM_=(2.0, 2.2, 2.3)x10^8^hLsun_/Mpc^3^, respectively. Large over- and under- densities are clearly seen in our data. In particular, we find evidence for a "local" under-density (n~0.5n

  6. Relativistic jet feedback in high-redshift galaxies I: Dynamics

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Sutherland, Ralph S; Wagner, A Y

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of three dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of interaction of AGN jets with a dense turbulent two-phase interstellar medium, which would be typical of high redshift galaxies. We describe the effect of the jet on the evolution of the density of the turbulent ISM. The jet driven energy bubble affects the gas to distances up to several kiloparsecs from the injection region. The shocks resulting from such interactions create a multi-phase ISM and radial outflows. One of the striking result of this work is that low power jets (P_jet < 10^{43} erg/s) although less efficient in accelerating clouds, are trapped in the ISM for a longer time and hence affect the ISM over a larger volume. Jets of higher power drill through with relative ease. Although the relativistic jets launch strong outflows, there is little net mass ejection to very large distances, supporting a galactic fountain scenario for local feedback.

  7. Relativistic jet feedback in high-redshift galaxies I: Dynamics

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Sutherland, Ralph; Wagner, Alex

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of three dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of interaction of AGN jets with a dense turbulent two-phase interstellar medium, which would be typical of high redshift galaxies. We describe the effect of the jet on the evolution of the density of the turbulent ISM. The jet driven energy bubble affects the gas to distances up to several kiloparsecs from the injection region. The shocks resulting from such interactions create a multi-phase ISM and radial outflows. One of the striking result of this work is that low power jets (Pjet ≲ 1043ergs-1) although less efficient in accelerating clouds, are trapped in the ISM for a longer time and hence affect the ISM over a larger volume. Jets of higher power drill through with relative ease. Although the relativistic jets launch strong outflows, there is little net mass ejection to very large distances, supporting a galactic fountain scenario for local feedback.

  8. Galaxy growth from redshift 5 to 0 at fixed comoving number density

    van de Voort, Freeke

    2016-01-01

    Studying the average properties of galaxies at a fixed comoving number density over a wide redshift range has become a popular observational method, because it may trace the evolution of galaxies statistically. We test this method by comparing the evolution of galaxies at fixed number density and by following individual galaxies through cosmic time (z=0-5) in cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations from OWLS. Comparing progenitors, descendants, and galaxies selected at fixed number density a...

  9. A Spectroscopically Identified Galaxy of Probable Redshift z = 6.68

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Pascarelle, Sebastian

    1999-01-01

    The detection and identification of distant galaxies is a prominent goal of observational cosmology because distant galaxies are seen as they were in the distant past and hence probe early galaxy formation, due to the cosmologically significant light travel time. We have sought to identify distant galaxies in very deep spectroscopy by combining a new spectrum extraction technique with photometric and spectroscopic analysis techniques. Here we report the identification of a galaxy of redshift ...

  10. The Spatial Distribution of Satellite Galaxies Selected from Redshift Space

    Agustsson, Ingolfur

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies that were obtained from a mock redshift survey of the first Millennium Run simulation. The satellites were identified using typical redshift space criteria and, hence, the sample includes both genuine satellites and a large number of interlopers. As expected from previous work, the 3D locations of the satellites are well-fitted by a combination of a Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) density profile and a power law. At fixed stellar mass, the NFW scale parameter, r_s, for the satellite distribution of red hosts exceeds that for the satellite distribution of blue hosts. In both cases the dependence of r_s on host stellar mass is well-fitted by a power law. For the satellites of red hosts, r_s^{red} \\propto (M_\\ast / M_sun)^{0.71 \\pm 0.05} while for the satellites of blue hosts, r_s^{blue} \\propto (M_\\ast / M_sun)^{0.48 \\pm 0.07}. For hosts with stellar masses greater than 4.0E+10 M_sun, the satellite distribution around blue hosts is much more concent...

  11. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: higher order galaxy correlation functions

    Croton, D J; Baugh, C M; Norberg, P; Colless, M; Baldry, I K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bridges, T; Cannon, R; Cole, S; Collins, C; Couch, W; Dalton, G; De Propris, R; Driver, S P; Efstathiou, G P; Ellis, Richard S; Frenk, C S; Glazebrook, K; Jackson, C; Lahav, O; Lewis, I; Lumsden, S; Maddox, S; Madgwick, D; Peacock, J A; Peterson, B A; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K; Dziarmaga, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    We measure moments of the galaxy count probability distribution function in the two-degree field galaxy redshift survey (2dFGRS). The survey is divided into volume limited subsamples in order to examine the dependence of the higher order clustering on galaxy luminosity. We demonstrate the hierarchical scaling of the averaged p-point galaxy correlation functions, xibar_p, up to p=6. The hierarchical amplitudes, S_p = xibar_p/xibar_2^{p-1}, are approximately independent of the cell radius used to smooth the galaxy distribution on small to medium scales. On larger scales we find the higher order moments can be strongly affected by the presence of rare, massive superstructures in the galaxy distribution. The skewness S_3 has a weak dependence on luminosity, approximated by a linear dependence on log luminosity. We discuss the implications of our results for simple models of linear and non-linear bias that relate the galaxy distribution to the underlying mass.

  12. Galaxy growth from redshift 5 to 0 at fixed comoving number density

    van de Voort, Freeke

    2016-01-01

    Studying the average properties of galaxies at a fixed comoving number density over a wide redshift range has become a popular observational method, because it may trace the evolution of galaxies statistically. We test this method by comparing the evolution of galaxies at fixed number density and by following individual galaxies through cosmic time (z=0-5) in cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations from OWLS. Comparing progenitors, descendants, and galaxies selected at fixed number density at each redshift, we find differences of up to a factor of three for galaxy and interstellar medium (ISM) masses. The difference is somewhat larger for black hole masses. The scatter in ISM mass increases significantly towards low redshift with all selection techniques. We use the fixed number density technique to study the assembly of dark matter, gas, stars, and black holes and the evolution in accretion and star formation rates. We find three different regimes for massive galaxies, consistent with observations: at high ...

  13. The power spectrum of galaxies in the 2dF 100k redshift survey

    Tegmark, Max; Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Xu, Yongzhong

    2001-01-01

    We compute the real-space power spectrum and the redshift-space distortions of galaxies in the 2dF 100k galaxy redshift survey using pseudo-Karhunen-Loeve eigenmodes and the stochastic bias formalism. Our results agree well with those published by the 2dFGRS team, and have the added advantage of producing easy-to-interpret uncorrelated minimum-variance measurements of the galaxy-galaxy, galaxy-velocity and velocity-velocity power spectra in 27 k-bands, with narrow and well-behaved window func...

  14. Photometric Redshifts for DPOSS Galaxy Clusters at z < 0.4

    Gal, R R; Djorgovski, S G; Brunner, R J; De Carvalho, R R

    1999-01-01

    We report on the creation of an unbiased catalog of galaxy clusters from the galaxy catalogs derived from the digitized POSS-II (DPOSS). Utilizing the g-r color information, we show that it is possible to estimate redshifts for galaxy clusters at z<0.4 with an rms accuracy of 0.01.

  15. ZEN and the search for high-redshift galaxies

    Willis, Jon; Courbin, Frédéric; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Minniti, Dante

    2006-03-01

    We present the ZEN ( z equals nine) survey: a deep, narrow J-band search for proto-galactic Ly α emission at redshifts z ˜ 9. In the first phase of the survey, dubbed ZEN1, we combine an exceptionally deep image of the Hubble Deep Field South, obtained using a narrow-band filter centred on the wavelength 1.187 μm, with existing deep, broad band images covering optical to near infrared wavelengths. Candidate z ˜ 9 Ly α-emitting galaxies display a significant narrow-band excess relative to the Js-band that are undetected at optical wavelengths. We detect no sources consistent with this criterion to the 90% point source flux limit of the NB image, FNB = 3.28 × 10 -18 ergs s -1 cm -2. The survey selection function indicates that we have sampled a volume of approximately 340 h -3 Mpc 3 to a Ly α emission luminosity of 10 43 h -2 ergs s -1. When compared to the predicted properties of z ˜ 9 galaxies based upon no evolution of observed z ˜ 6 Ly α-emitting galaxies, the 'volume shortfall' of the current survey, i.e., the volume required to detect this putative population, is a factor of at least 8-10. We also discuss continuing narrow J-band imaging surveys that will reduce the volume shortfall factor to the point where the no-evolution prediction from z ˜ 6 is probed in a meaningful manner.

  16. Quiescent Compact Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift in the COSMOS field. I. The Number Density

    Damjanov, Ivana; Zahid, H Jabran; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of compact galaxy number density over the redshift range $0.21$ for equivalently selected compact samples. Small variations in the abundance of the COSMOS compact sources as a function of redshift correspond to known structures in the field. The constancy of the compact galaxy number density is robust and does not depend on the compactness threshold or the stellar mass range (for $M_\\ast>10^{10}\\, M_\\odot$). To maintain constant number density any size growth of high-redshift compact systems with decreasing redshift must be balanced by formation of quiescent compact systems at $z<1$.

  17. Keck Spectroscopy and NICMOS Photometry of a Redshift z=5.60 Galaxy

    Weymann, R. J.; Stern, D; Bunker, A; Spinrad, H.; Chaffee, F. H.; Thompson, R. I.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    1998-01-01

    We present Keck LRIS spectroscopy along with NICMOS F110W (~J) and F160W (~H) images of the galaxy HDF4-473.0 (hereafter 4-473) in the Hubble Deep Field, with a detection of an emission line consistent with Ly-alpha at a redshift of z=5.60. Attention to this object as a high redshift galaxy was first drawn by Lanzetta, Yahil and Fernandez-Soto and appeared in their initial list of galaxies with redshifts estimated from the WFPC2 HDF photometry. It was selected by us for spectroscopic observat...

  18. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): Redshift Space Distortions from the Clipped Galaxy Field

    Simpson, Fergus; Peacock, John A; Baldry, Ivan; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Heavens, Alan; Heymans, Catherine; Loveday, Jon; Norberg, Peder

    2015-01-01

    We present the first cosmological measurement derived from a galaxy density field subject to a `clipping' transformation. By enforcing an upper bound on the galaxy number density field in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey (GAMA), contributions from the nonlinear processes of virialisation and galaxy bias are greatly reduced. This leads to a galaxy power spectrum which is easier to model, without calibration from numerical simulations. We develop a theoretical model for the power spectrum of a clipped field in redshift space, which is exact for the case of anisotropic Gaussian fields. Clipping is found to extend the applicability of the conventional Kaiser prescription by more than a factor of three in wavenumber, or a factor of thirty in terms of the number of Fourier modes. By modelling the galaxy power spectrum on scales k < 0.3 h/Mpc and density fluctuations $\\delta_g < 4$ we measure the normalised growth rate $f\\sigma_8(z = 0.18) = 0.29 \\pm 0.10$.

  19. Caltech Faint Galaxy Redshift Survey X A Redshift Survey in the Region of the Hubble Deep Field North

    Cohen, J; Blandford, R D; Cowie, L L; Hu, E; Songaila, A; Shopbell, P l; Richberg, K; Cohen, Judith; Hogg, David; Blandford, Roger; Cowie, Lennox; Hu, Esther; Songaila, Antoinette; Shopbell, Patrick; Richberg, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    A redshift survey has been carried out in the region of the Hubble Deep Field North using the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph at the Keck Observatory. The resulting redshift catalog, which contains 671 entries, is a compendium of our own data together with published LRIS/Keck data. It is more than 92% complete for objects, irrespective of morphology, to $R = 24$ mag in the HDF itself and to $R = 23$ mag in the Flanking Fields within a diameter of 8 arcmin centered on the HDF, an unusually high completion for a magnitude limited survey performed with a large telescope. A median redshift $z = 1.0$ is reached at $R \\sim 23.8$. Strong peaks in the redshift distribution, which arise when a group or poor cluster of galaxies intersect the area surveyed, can be identified to $z \\sim 1.2$ in this dataset. More than 68% of the galaxies are members of these redshift peaks. In a few cases, closely spaced peaks in $z$ can be resolved into separate groups of galaxies that can be distinguished in both velocity and locat...

  20. Photometric redshifts and clustering of emission line galaxies selected jointly by DES and eBOSS

    Jouvel, S.; et al.

    2015-09-23

    We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\\% and 68\\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a mean redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6redshifts, the mean redshift for the bright and faint sample is 0.85 and 0.9 respectively. Star contamination is lower than 2\\%. We measure a galaxy bias averaged on scales of 1 and 10~Mpc/h of 1.72 \\pm 0.1 for the bright sample and of 1.78 \\pm 0.12 for the faint sample. The error on the galaxy bias have been obtained propagating the errors in the correlation function to the fitted parameters. This redshift evolution for the galaxy bias is in agreement with theoretical expectations for a galaxy population with MB-5\\log h < -21.0. We note that biasing is derived from the galaxy clustering relative to a model for the mass fluctuations. We investigate the quality of the DES photometric redshifts and find that the outlier fraction can be reduced using a comparison between template fitting and neural network, or using a random forest algorithm.

  1. An Efficient Approach to Obtaining Large Numbers of Distant Supernova Host Galaxy Redshifts

    Lidman, C; Sullivan, M; Myzska, J; Dobbie, P; Glazebrook, K; Mould, J; Astier, P; Balland, C; Betoule, M; Carlberg, R; Conley, A; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C; Regnault, N; Rich, J

    2012-01-01

    We use the wide-field capabilities of the 2dF fibre positioner and the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) to obtain redshifts of galaxies that hosted supernovae during the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). With exposure times ranging from 10 to 60 ksec per galaxy, we were able to obtain redshifts for 400 host galaxies in two SNLS fields, thereby substantially increasing the total number of SNLS supernovae with host galaxy redshifts. The median redshift of the galaxies in our sample that hosted photometrically classified Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is 0.77, which is 25% higher than the median redshift of spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia in the three-year sample of the SNLS. Our results demonstrate that one can use wide-field fibre-fed multi-object spectrographs on 4m telescopes to efficiently obtain redshifts for large numbers of supernova host galaxies over the large areas of sky that will be covered by future high-redshift supernova surveys, such as the Dark...

  2. The Age-Redshift Relationship of Old Passive Galaxies

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Wang, Fa-Yin; Yu, Hai

    2015-07-01

    We use 32 age measurements of passively evolving galaxies as a function of redshift to test and compare the standard model (ΛCDM) with the {R}{{h}}={ct} universe. We show that the latter fits the data with a reduced {χ }{dof}2=0.435 for a Hubble constant {H}0={67.2}-4.0+4.5 km {{{s}}}-1 {{Mpc}}-1. By comparison, the optimal flat ΛCDM model, with two free parameters (including {{{Ω }}}{{m}}={0.12}-0.11+0.54 and {H}0={94.3}-35.8+32.7 km s-1 {{Mpc}}-1), fits the age-z data with a reduced {χ }{dof}2=0.428. Based solely on their {χ }{dof}2 values, both models appear to account for the data very well, though the optimized ΛCDM parameters are only marginally consistent with those of the concordance model ({{{Ω }}}{{m}}=0.27 and H0 = 70 km {{{s}}}-1 {{Mpc}}-1). Fitting the age-z data with the latter results in a reduced {χ }{dof}2=0.523. However, because of the different number of free parameters in these models, selection tools, such as the Akaike, Kullback and Bayes Information Criteria, favor {R}{{h}}={ct} over ΛCDM with a likelihood of ˜66.5%-80.5% versus ˜19.5%-33.5%. These results are suggestive, though not yet compelling, given the current limited galaxy age-z sample. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations based on these current age measurements to estimate how large the sample would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ˜ 99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is ΛCDM, a sample of ˜45 galaxy ages would be sufficient to rule out {R}{{h}}={ct} at this level of accuracy, while ˜350 galaxy ages would be required to rule out ΛCDM if the real universe were instead {R}{{h}}={ct}. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with ΛCDM.

  3. The XMM-2df Cluster Survey

    Gaga, T; Georgantopoulos, I; Georgakakis, A; Basilakos, S; Stewart, G C; Kolokotronis, V G; Stobbart, A M

    2003-01-01

    We present the results from a shallow (2-10 ksec) XMM/2dF survey. Our survey covers 18 XMM fields ($\\sim 5 {\\rm deg}^2$) previously spectroscopically followed up with the Anglo-Australian telescope 2-degree field facility. About half of the fields are also covered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We are searching for extended sources using the XMM SAS maximum likelihood algorithm in the 0.3-2 keV band and we have detected 14 candidate clusters down to a flux of $\\sim2\\times10^{-14} cgs$. Our preliminary results show that: i) the redshift distribution peaks at relatively high redshifts ($\\sim0.4$) as expected from the Rosati et al. $\\Phi(L)$, ii) some of our X-ray clusters appear to have optical counterparts.

  4. Changing physical conditions in star-forming galaxies between redshifts 0 evolution

    Cullen, F.; Cirasuolo, M.; Kewley, L. J.; McLure, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Bowler, R. A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the redshift evolution of the [OIII]/Hb nebular emission line ratio for a sample of galaxies spanning the redshift range 0 evolution to a set of theoretical models which account for the independent evolution of chemical abundance, ionization parameter and interstellar-medium (ISM) pressure in star-forming galaxies with redshift. Accounting for selection effects in the combined datasets, we show that the evolution to higher [OIII]/Hb ratios with redshift is a real physical effect which is best accounted for by a model in which the ionization parameter is elevated from the average values typical of local star-forming galaxies, with a possible simultaneous increase in the ISM pressure. We rule out the possibility that the observed [OIII]/Hb evolution is purely due to metallicity evolution. We discuss the implications of these results for using local empirical metallicity calibrations to measure metallicities at high redshift, and briefly discuss possible theoretical implications of our results.

  5. Discovery of Nine Intermediate Redshift Compact Quiescent Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Damjanov, Ivana; Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J

    2013-01-01

    We identify nine galaxies with dynamical masses of M_dyn>10^10 M_sol as photometric point sources, but with redshifts between z=0.2 and z=0.6, in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectro-photometric database. All nine galaxies have archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. Surface brightness profile fitting confirms that all nine galaxies are extremely compact (with circularized half-light radii between 0.4 and 6.6 kpc and the median value of 0.74 kpc) for their velocity dispersion (1101 galaxies and the other eight objects follow the high-redshift dynamical size-mass relation.

  6. Dark-ages reionization & galaxy formation simulation IV: UV luminosity functions of high-redshift galaxies

    Liu, Chuanwu; Angel, P W; Duffy, Alan R; Geil, Paul M; Poole, Gregory B; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present calculations of the UV luminosity function predictions from the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) project, which combines N-body, semi-analytic and semi-numerical modeling designed to study galaxy formation during the Epoch of Reionization. Using galaxy formation physics including supernova feedback, the model naturally reproduces the UV LFs for high-redshift star-forming galaxies from $z{\\sim}5$ through to $z{\\sim}10$. We investigate the predicted luminosity-star formation rate (SFR) relation, finding that variable SFR histories of galaxies result in a scatter around the mean relation of $0.1$-$0.3$ dex depending on UV luminosity. We find close agreement between the model and observationally derived SFR functions. We use our predicted luminosities to investigate the luminosity function below current detection limits, and the ionizing photon budget for reionization. We predict that the slope of the UV LF remains steep below cu...

  7. An Improved Technique for Increasing the Accuracy of Photometrically Determined Redshifts for ___Blended___ Galaxies

    Parker, Ashley Marie; /Marietta Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The redshift of a galaxy can be determined by one of two methods; photometric or spectroscopic. Photometric is a term for any redshift determination made using the magnitudes of light in different filters. Spectroscopic redshifts are determined by measuring the absorption spectra of the object then determining the difference in wavelength between the 'standard' absorption lines and the measured ones, making it the most accurate of the two methods. The data for this research was collected from SDSS DR8 and then separated into blended and non-blended galaxy sets; the definition of 'blended' is discussed in the Introduction section. The current SDSS photometric redshift determination method does not discriminate between blended and non-blended data when it determines the photometric redshift of a given galaxy. The focus of this research was to utilize machine learning techniques to determine if a considerably more accurate photometric redshift determination method could be found, for the case of the blended and non-blended data being treated separately. The results show a reduction of 0.00496 in the RMS error of photometric redshift determinations for blended galaxies and a more significant reduction of 0.00827 for non-blended galaxies, illustrated in Table 2.

  8. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey : Wiener reconstruction of the cosmic web

    Erdogdu, P; Lahav, O; Zaroubi, S; Efstathiou, G; Moody, S; Peacock, JA; Colless, M; Baldry, IK; Baugh, CM; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bridges, T; Cannon, R; Cole, S; Collins, C; Couch, W; Dalton, G; De Propris, R; Driver, SP; Ellis, RS; Frenk, CS; Glazebrook, K; Jackson, C; Lewis, [No Value; Lumsden, S; Maddox, S; Madgwick, D; Norberg, P; Peterson, BA; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K

    2004-01-01

    We reconstruct the underlying density field of the Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) for the redshift range 0.035

  9. Galaxy Cluster Gas Mass Fraction and Hubble Parameter versus Redshift Constraints on Dark Energy

    Samushia, Lado; Chen, Gang; Ratra, Bharat

    2007-01-01

    Galaxy cluster gas mass fraction versus redshift data and Hubble parameter versus redshift data are used to jointly constrain dark energy models. These constraints favor the Einstein cosmological constant limit of dark energy but do not strongly rule out slowly-evolving dark energy.

  10. The Age-Redshift Relationship of Old Passive Galaxies

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Melia, Fulvio; Wang, Fa-Yin; Yu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    We use 32 age measurements of passively evolving galaxies as a function of redshift to test and compare the standard model ($\\Lambda$CDM) with the $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ Universe. We show that the latter fits the data with a reduced $\\chi^2_{\\rm dof}=0.435$ for a Hubble constant $H_{0}= 67.2_{-4.0}^{+4.5}$ km $\\rm s^{-1}$ $\\rm Mpc^{-1}$. By comparison, the optimal flat $\\Lambda$CDM model, with two free parameters (including $\\Omega_{\\rm m}=0.12_{-0.11}^{+0.54}$ and $H_{0}=94.3_{-35.8}^{+32.7}$ km $\\rm s^{-1}$ $\\rm Mpc^{-1}$), fits the age-\\emph{z} data with a reduced $\\chi^2_{\\rm dof}=0.428$. Based solely on their $\\chi^2_{\\rm dof}$ values, both models appear to account for the data very well, though the optimized $\\Lambda$CDM parameters are only marginally consistent with those of the concordance model ($\\Omega_{\\rm m}=0.27$ and $H_{0}= 70$ km $\\rm s^{-1}$ $\\rm Mpc^{-1}$). Fitting the age-$z$ data with the latter results in a reduced $\\chi^2_{\\rm dof}=0.523$. However, because of the different number of free paramete...

  11. The dust budget crisis in high-redshift submillimetre galaxies

    Rowlands, K; Dunne, L; Aragón-Salamanca, A; Dye, S; Maddox, S; da Cunha, E; van der Werf, P

    2014-01-01

    We apply a chemical evolution model to investigate the sources and evolution of dust in a sample of 26 high-redshift ($z>1$) submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) from the literature, with complete photometry from ultraviolet to the submillimetre. We show that dust produced only by low-intermediate mass stars falls a factor 240 short of the observed dust masses of SMGs, the well-known `dust-budget crisis'. Adding an extra source of dust from supernovae can account for the dust mass in 19 per cent of the SMG sample. Even after accounting for dust produced by supernovae the remaining deficit in the dust mass budget provides support for higher supernova yields, substantial grain growth in the interstellar medium or a top-heavy IMF. Including efficient destruction of dust by supernova shocks increases the tension between our model and observed SMG dust masses. The models which best reproduce the physical properties of SMGs have a rapid build-up of dust from both stellar and interstellar sources and minimal dust destructi...

  12. Environmental Effects on Real-Space and Redshift-Space Galaxy Clustering

    Zu, Ying; Zhu, G T; Jing, Y P

    2007-01-01

    Galaxy formation inside dark matter halos, as well as the halo formation itself, can be affected by large-scale environments. Evaluating the imprints of environmental effects on galaxy clustering is crucial for precise cosmological constraints with data from galaxy redshift surveys. We investigate such an environmental impact on both real-space and redshift-space galaxy clustering statistics using a semi-analytic model(SAM) derived from the Millennium Simulation. We compare clustering statistics from original SAM galaxy samples and shuffled ones with environmental influence on galaxy properties eliminated. Among the three luminosity-threshold samples examined, the one most affected by environmental effects has a ~10% decrease in the real-space two-point correlation function (2PCF) after shuffling. By decomposing the 2PCF into five different components based on the source of pairs, we show that the change in the 2PCF can be explained by the richness (galaxy occupation number) dependence of halo clustering. The...

  13. Measurement of Redshift Space Power Spectrum for BOSS galaxies and the Growth Rate at redshift 0.57

    Li, Zhigang; Zhang, Pengjie; Cheng, Dalong

    2016-01-01

    We present a measurement of two-dimensional (2D) redshift-space power spectrum for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 11 CMASS galaxies in the North Galactic Cap (NGC) based on the method developed by Jing & Borner (2001). In this method, we first measure the 2D redshift-space correlation function for the CMASS galaxies, and obtain the 2D power spectrum based on Fourier Transform of the correlation function. The method is tested with an N-body mock galaxy catalog, which demonstrates that the method can yield an accurate and unbiased measurement of the redshift-space power spectrum given the input 2D correlation function is correct. Compared with previous measurements in literature that are usually based on direct Fourier Transform in redshift space, our method has the advantages that the window function and shot-noise are fully corrected. In fact, our 2D power spectrum, by its construction, can accurately reproduce the 2D correlation function, and in the meanwhile can reproduc...

  14. Quiescent Compact Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift in the COSMOS Field. II. The Fundamental Plane of Massive Galaxies

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Damjanov, Ivana; Geller, Margaret J.; Chilingarian, Igor

    2015-06-01

    We examine the relation between surface brightness, velocity dispersion, and size—the fundamental plane (FP)—for quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts in the COSMOS field. The COSMOS sample consists of ˜150 massive quiescent galaxies with an average velocity dispersion of σ ˜ 250 km s-1 and redshifts between 0.2 MCQ) COSMOS galaxies onto the local FP at z = 0. Therefore, evolution in size or velocity dispersion for MCQ galaxies since z ˜ 1 is constrained by the small scatter observed in the FP. We conclude that MCQ galaxies at z ≲ 1 are not a special class of objects but rather the tail of the mass and size distribution of the normal quiescent galaxy population.

  15. A search for moderate-redshift survivors from the population of luminous compact passive galaxies at high redshift

    From a search of a ∼2400 deg2 region covered by both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey databases, we have attempted to identify galaxies at z ∼ 0.5 that are consistent with their being essentially unmodified examples of the luminous passive compact galaxies found at z ∼ 2.5. After isolating good candidates via deeper imaging, we further refine the sample with Keck moderate-resolution spectroscopy and laser guide star adaptive-optics imaging. For four of the five galaxies that so far remain after passing through this sieve, we analyze plausible star-formation histories based on our spectra in order to identify galaxies that may have survived with little modification from the population formed at high redshift. We find two galaxies that are consistent with having formed ≳ 95% of their mass at z > 5. We attempt to estimate masses both from our stellar population determinations and from velocity dispersions. Given the high frequency of small axial ratios, both in our small sample and among samples found at high redshifts, we tentatively suggest that some of the more extreme examples of passive compact galaxies may have prolate morphologies.

  16. The Unusual Spectral Energy Distribution of a Galaxy Previously Reported to be at Redshift 6.68

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Pascarelle, Sebastian; Yahata, Noriaki

    2000-01-01

    Observations of distant galaxies are important both for understanding how galaxies form and for probing the physical conditions of the universe at the earliest epochs. It is, however, extremely difficult to identify galaxies at redshift z>5, because these galaxies are faint and exhibit few spectral features. In a previous work, we presented observations that supported the identification of a galaxy at redshift z = 6.68 in a deep STIS field. Here we present new ground-based photometry of the g...

  17. Studying the Role of Mergers in Black Hole - Galaxy Co-evolution via a Morphological Analysis of Redshift 1 Galaxies

    Powell, Meredith; Urry, C. Megan

    2016-06-01

    We study the role of mergers in the quenching of star formation in galaxies at the dominant epoch of their evolution, by examining their color-mass distributions for different morphology types. We use HST ACS data from the CANDELS/GOODS North and South fields for galaxies in the redshift range 0.7 sequence for the disky galaxies corresponds to a slow exhaustion of gas, while the lack of elliptical galaxies in the `green valley' indicates a faster quenching time for galaxies that underwent a major merger. We compare the inactive galaxies to the AGN hosts and find that the AGN phase lasts well into the red sequence for both types of host galaxy, spanning the full color space. The results suggest that the AGN trigger mechanism, as well as the significance of AGN feedback, is dependent on the merger history of the host galaxy.

  18. A Photometric Redshift Galaxy Catalog from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey

    Hsieh, B C; Lin, H; Gladders, M D

    2005-01-01

    The Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS) provides a large and deep photometric catalog of galaxies in the $z'$ and $R_c$ bands for ~90 square degrees of sky, and supplemental $V$ and $B$ data have been obtained for 33.6 deg$^{2}$. We compile a photometric redshift catalog from these 4-band data by utilizing the empirical quadratic polynomial photometric redshift fitting technique in combination with CNOC2 and GOODS/HDF-N redshift data. The training set includes 4924 spectral redshifts. The resulting catalog contains more than one million galaxies with photometric redshifts $< 1.5$ and $R_c < 24$, giving an rms scatter $\\sigma(\\Delta{z}) < 0.06$ within the redshift range $0.2 < z < 0.5$ and $\\sigma(\\Delta{z}) < 0.11$ for galaxies at $0.0 < z < 1.5$. We describe the empirical quadratic polynomial photometric redshift fitting technique which we use to determine the relation between redshift and photometry. A kd-tree algorithm is used to divide up our sample to improve the accuracy of our cat...

  19. Redshift Measurement and Spectral Classification for eBOSS Galaxies with the Redmonster Software

    Hutchinson, Timothy A; Dawson, Kyle S; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Bailey, Stephen; Bautista, Julian E; Brownstein, Joel R; Conroy, Charlie; Guy, Julien; Myers, Adam D; Newman, Jeffrey A; Prakash, Abhishek; Carnero-Rosell, Aurelio; Seo, Hee-Jong; Vivek, M; Zhu, Guangtun Ben

    2016-01-01

    We describe the redmonster automated redshift measurement and spectral classification software designed for the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV). We describe the algorithms, the template standard and requirements, and the newly developed galaxy templates to be used on eBOSS spectra. We present results from testing on early data from eBOSS, where we have found a 90.5% automated redshift and spectral classification success rate for the luminous red galaxy sample (redshifts 0.6 $\\lesssim$ $z$ $\\lesssim$ 1.0). The \\texttt{redmonster} performance meets the eBOSS cosmology requirements for redshift classification and catastrophic failures, and represents a significant improvement over the previous pipeline. We describe the empirical processes used to determine the optimum number of additive polynomial terms in our models and an acceptable $\\Delta\\chi_r^2$ threshold for declaring statistical confidence. Statistical errors on redshift measurement du...

  20. Semi-analytical galaxy formation models and the high redshift universe

    Lacey, C; Cole, S; Frenk, C S; Governato, F; Lacey, Cedric; Baugh, Carlton; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos; Governato, Fabio

    1998-01-01

    Semi-analytical models of galaxy formation based on hierarchical clustering now make a wide range of predictions for observable properties of galaxies at low and high redshift. This article concentrates on 2 aspects: (1) Self-consistent modelling of dust absorption predicts a mean UV extinction A_{UV} ~ 1 mag, depending only weakly on redshift, and similar to observational estimates. (2) The models predict that the Lyman-break galaxies found at z ~ 3 should be strongly clustered with a comoving correlation length r_0 = 4-7 Mpc/h (depending on the cosmology), in good agreement with subsequent observational determinations.

  1. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Star formation history of passive galaxies

    Siudek, M; Scodeggio, M; Garilli, B; Pollo, A; Haines, C P; Fritz, A; Bolzonella, M; de la Torre, S; Granett, B R; Guzzo, L; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; De Lucia, G; Davidzon, I; Franzetti, P; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Marchetti, A; Marulli, F; Polletta, M; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Branchini, E; Ilbert, O; Gargiulo, A; Moscardini, L; Takeuchi, T T; Zamorani, G

    2016-01-01

    We trace the evolution and the star formation history of passive galaxies, using a subset of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We extracted from the VIPERS survey a sample of passive galaxies in the redshift range 0.4galaxies. We characterize the formation redshift-stellar mass relation for intermediate-redshift passive galaxies. We find that at $z\\sim1$ stellar populations in low-mass passive galaxies are younger than in high-mass passive galaxies, similarly to what is observed at the present epoch. Over the full analyzed redshift and stellar mass range, the...

  2. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution

    Perley, D. A.; Krühler, T.; Schulze, S.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R.; Fong, W.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gorosabel, J.; Greiner, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kim, S.; Laskar, T.; Levan, A. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Tanvir, N. R.; Thöne, C. C.; Wiersema, K.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (“SHOALS”), a multi-observatory high-redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly deep, multicolor optical/near-IR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without preexisting redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust obscured, and at most 2% originate from z\\gt 5.5. Using this sample, we estimate the redshift-dependent GRB rate density, showing it to peak at z∼ 2.5 and fall by at least an order of magnitude toward low (z = 0) redshift, while declining more gradually toward high (z∼ 7) redshift. This behavior is consistent with a progenitor whose formation efficiency varies modestly over cosmic history. Our survey will permit the most detailed examination to date of the connection between the GRB host population and general star-forming galaxies, directly measure evolution in the host population over cosmic time and discern its causes, and provide new constraints on the fraction of cosmic star formation occurring in undetectable galaxies at all redshifts.

  3. Photometric redshifts and clustering of emission line galaxies selected jointly by DES and eBOSS

    Jouvel, S; Comparat, J; Carnero, A; Camacho, H; Abdalla, F B; Kneib, J-P; Merson, A; Lima, M; Sobreira, F; da Costa, Luiz; Prada, F; Zhu, G B; Benoit-Levy, A; De La Macora, A; Kuropatkin, N; Lin, H; Abbott, T M C; Allam, S; Banerji, M; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Capozzi, D; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Castander, F J; Cunha, C E; Desai, S; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Estrada, J; Neto, A Fausti; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Maia, M A G; March, M; Marshall, J L; Miquel, R; Percival, W J; Plazas, A A; Reil, K; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Rykoff, E S; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Santiago, B; Scarpine, V; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Santos, M Soares; Suchyta, E; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Walker, A; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\\% and 68\\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a mean redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6redshifts, the mean redshift for the bright and faint sample is 0.85 and 0.9 respectively. Star contamination is lower than 2\\%. We measure a galaxy bias averaged on scales of 1 and 10~...

  4. A 21 cm redshift survey and the large scale distribution of dwarf galaxies

    The first results of an all-sky 21-cm redshift survey of all 1849 galaxies classified as dwarf, magellanic irregular or irregular are presented. The detection rate is∼85 %. The survey reveals a broad continuum of galaxies with absolute blue luminosities. Detailed comparison of the spatial distributions of dwarf and bright galaxies shows that there is no difference between the two distributions. Dwarf galaxies do not fill the voids seen in the bright galaxy distribution. This rules out a certain class of biased galaxy formation theories. If biasing occurs, the dark matter which is in the voids cannot be traced by dwarf and LSB galaxies, and biasing must be equally effective for both bright and faint galaxies. The dwarf redshift sample has been used in conjunction with other redshift samples to measure the topology of the universe out to∼21 000 km s-1. The universe shows a sponge-like topology, which implies random phase Gaussian initial density fluctuations. This topology is inconsistent with explosive amplification or cosmic string galaxy formation models. The cold dark matter model withω=1 and H=50 km s-1 Mpc-1 fits best the topology of the universe on different length scales

  5. Star Formation and Extinction in Redshift z~2 Galaxies: Inferences from Spitzer MIPS Observations

    Reddy, N A; Erb, D K; Fadda, D; Pettini, M; Shapley, A E; Steidel, C C; Yan, L; Adelberger, Kurt L.; Erb, Dawn K.; Fadda, Dario; Pettini, Max; Reddy, Naveen A.; Shapley, Alice E.; Steidel, Charles C.; Yan, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Using very deep Spitzer/MIPS 24 micron observations, we present an analysis of the bolometric luminosities (L[bol]) and UV extinction properties of more than 200 spectroscopically identified, optically selected (UGR) z~2 galaxies in the GOODS-N field. The large spectroscopic sample is supplemented with near-IR selected (BzK/DRG) galaxies and submm sources at similar redshifts in the same field, providing a representative collection of relatively massive (M*>1e10 Msun) galaxies at high redshifts. We focus on the redshift range 1.5-2.6, where MIPS is sensitive to the strength of the mid-IR PAH features in the galaxy spectra (rest-frame 5-8.5 micron). We demonstrate, using stacked X-ray data and a subset of galaxies with H-alpha measurements, that L(5-8.5) provides a reliable estimate of L(IR) for most star forming galaxies at z~2. The range of L(IR) in the samples considered extends from ~1e10 to >1e12 Lsun, with a mean of 2e11 Lsun. Using 24 micron observations to infer dust extinction in high redshift galaxie...

  6. The bispectrum of galaxies from high-redshift galaxy surveys: Primordial non-Gaussianity and non-linear galaxy bias

    Sefusatti, Emiliano; /Fermilab; Komatsu, Eiichiro; /Texas U., Astron. Dept.

    2007-05-01

    The greatest challenge in the interpretation of galaxy clustering data from any surveys is galaxy bias. Using a simple Fisher matrix analysis, we show that the bispectrum provides an excellent determination of linear and non-linear bias parameters of intermediate and high-z galaxies, when all measurable triangle configurations down to mildly non-linear scales, where perturbation theory is still valid, are included. The bispectrum is also a powerful probe of primordial non-Gaussianity. The planned galaxy surveys at z {approx}> 2 should yield constraints on non-Gaussian parameters, f{sub NL}{sup loc.} and f{sub NL}{sup eq.}, that are comparable to, or even better than, those from CMB experiments. We study how these constraints improve with volume, redshift range, as well as the number density of galaxies. Finally we show that a halo occupation distribution may be used to improve these constraints further by lifting degeneracies between gravity, bias, and primordial non-Gaussianity.

  7. Dark-ages Reionization & Galaxy Formation Simulation I: The dynamical lives of high redshift galaxies

    Poole, Gregory B; Mutch, Simon J; Power, Chris; Duffy, Alan R; Geil, Paul M; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, Stuart B

    2015-01-01

    We present the Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) program and Tiamat, the collisionless N-body simulation program upon which DRAGONS is built. The primary trait distinguishing Tiamat from other large simulation programs is its density of outputs at high redshift (100 from z=35 to z=5; roughly one every 10 Myr) enabling the construction of very accurate merger trees at an epoch when galaxy formation is rapid and mergers extremely frequent. We find that the friends-of-friends halo mass function agrees well with the prediction of Watson et al. at high masses, but deviates at low masses, perhaps due to our use of a different halo finder or perhaps indicating a break from "universal" behaviour. We then analyse the dynamical evolution of galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization finding that only a small fraction (~20%) of galactic halos are relaxed. We illustrate this using standard relaxation metrics to establish two dynamical recovery time-scales: i) halo...

  8. A Spectroscopically Identified Galaxy of Probable Redshift z = 6.68

    Chen, H W; Pascarelle, S; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Pascarelle, Sebastian

    1999-01-01

    The detection and identification of distant galaxies is a prominent goal of observational cosmology because distant galaxies are seen as they were in the distant past and hence probe early galaxy formation, due to the cosmologically significant light travel time. We have sought to identify distant galaxies in very deep spectroscopy by combining a new spectrum extraction technique with photometric and spectroscopic analysis techniques. Here we report the identification of a galaxy of redshift z = 6.68, which is the most distant object ever identified. The spectrum of the galaxy is characterized by an abrupt discontinuity at wavelength $\\lambda \\approx 9300$ Å, which we interpret as the \\lya decrement (produced by intervening Hydrogen absorption), and by an emission line at wavelength $\\lambda \\approx 9334$, which we interpret as \\lya. The galaxy is relatively bright, and the ultraviolet luminosity density contributed by the galaxy alone is almost ten times the value measured at $z \\approx 3$.

  9. A Study of Selection Methods for H alpha Emitting Galaxies at z~1.3 for the Subaru/FMOS Galaxy Redshift Survey for Cosmology (FastSound)

    Tonegawa, Motonari; Totani, Tomonori; Akiyama, Masayuki; Dalton, Gavin; Glazebrook, Karl; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Sumiyoshi, Masanao; Tamura, Naoyuki; Yabe, Kiyoto; Coupon, Jean; Goto, Tomotsugu; Spitler, Lee R.

    2013-01-01

    The efficient selection of high-redshift emission galaxies is important for future large galaxy redshift surveys for cosmology. Here we describe the target selection methods for the FastSound project, a redshift survey for H alpha emitting galaxies at z=1.2-1.5 using Subaru/FMOS to measure the linear growth rate f\\sigma 8 via Redshift Space Distortion (RSD) and constrain the theory of gravity. To select ~400 target galaxies in the 0.2 deg^2 FMOS field-of-view from photometric data of CFHTLS-W...

  10. Redshift weights for baryon acoustic oscillations: application to mock galaxy catalogues

    Zhu, Fangzhou; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Ross, Ashley J.; Zhao, Gongbo

    2016-09-01

    Large redshift surveys capable of measuring the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal have proven to be an effective way of measuring the distance-redshift relation in cosmology. Building off the work in Zhu et al., we develop a technique to directly constrain the distance-redshift relation from BAO measurements without splitting the sample into redshift bins. We apply the redshift weighting technique in Zhu et al. to the clustering of galaxies from 1000 Quick particle mesh (QPM) mock simulations after reconstruction and achieve a 0.75 per cent measurement of the angular diameter distance DA at z = 0.64 and the same precision for Hubble parameter H at z = 0.29. These QPM mock catalogues mimic the clustering and noise level of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 12 (DR12). We compress the correlation functions in the redshift direction on to a set of weighted correlation functions. These estimators give unbiased DA and H measurements across the entire redshift range of the combined sample. We demonstrate the effectiveness of redshift weighting in improving the distance and Hubble parameter estimates. Instead of measuring at a single `effective' redshift as in traditional analyses, we report our DA and H measurements at all redshifts. The measured fractional error of DA ranges from 1.53 per cent at z = 0.2 to 0.75 per cent at z = 0.64. The fractional error of H ranges from 0.75 per cent at z = 0.29 to 2.45 per cent at z = 0.7. Our measurements are consistent with a Fisher forecast to within 10-20 per cent depending on the pivot redshift. We further show the results are robust against the choice of fiducial cosmologies, galaxy bias models, and redshift-space distortions streaming parameters.

  11. Predicting the Redshift 2 H-Alpha Luminosity Function Using [OIII] Emission Line Galaxies

    Mehta, Vihang; Scarlata, Claudia; Colbert, James W.; Dai, Y. S.; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Rafelski, Marc; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.; Bagley, Micaela; Beck, Melanie; Ross, Nathaniel R.; Rutkowski, Michael; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Upcoming space-based surveys such as Euclid and WFIRST-AFTA plan to measure Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAOs) in order to study dark energy. These surveys will use IR slitless grism spectroscopy to measure redshifts of a large number of galaxies over a significant redshift range. In this paper, we use the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey (WISP) to estimate the expected number of H-alpha emitters observable by these future surveys. WISP is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope slitless spectroscopic survey, covering the 0.8 - 1.65 micrometers wavelength range and allowing the detection of H-alpha emitters up to z approximately equal to 1.5 and [OIII] emitters to z approximately equal to 2.3. We derive the H-alpha-[OIII] bivariate line luminosity function for WISP galaxies at z approximately equal to 1 using a maximum likelihood estimator that properly accounts for uncertainties in line luminosity measurement, and demonstrate how it can be used to derive the H-alpha luminosity function from exclusively fitting [OIII] data. Using the z approximately equal to 2 [OIII] line luminosity function, and assuming that the relation between H-alpha and [OIII] luminosity does not change significantly over the redshift range, we predict the H-alpha number counts at z approximately equal to 2 - the upper end of the redshift range of interest for the future surveys. For the redshift range 0.7 less than z less than 2, we expect approximately 3000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of 3 x 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the proposed depth of Euclid galaxy redshift survey) and approximately 20,000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of approximately 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the baseline depth of WFIRST galaxy redshift survey).

  12. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The dependence of the galaxy luminosity function on environment, redshift and colour

    McNaught-Roberts, Tamsyn; Baugh, Carlton; Lacey, Cedric; Loveday, J; Peacock, J; Baldry, I; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Driver, Simon P; Robotham, A S G; Vazquez-Mata, J A

    2014-01-01

    We use 80922 galaxies in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey to measure the galaxy luminosity function (LF) in different environments over the redshift range 0.04redshift to measure the dependence of the LF on environment, redshift and colour. We find that the LF varies smoothly with overdensity, consistent with previous results, with little environmental dependent evolution over the last 3 Gyrs. The modified GALFORM model predictions agree remarkably well with our LFs split by environment, particularly in the most overdense environments. The LFs predicted by the model for both blue and red galaxies are consistent with GAMA for the environments and luminosities at which such galaxies dominate. Discrepancies between the model and the data seen in the faint end of the LF suggest too many faint red galaxies are predicted, which is likely to be due to the over-quenching of satellite galaxies. The excess of bright blue...

  13. Redshift evolution of the dynamical properties of massive galaxies from SDSS-III/BOSS

    Beifiori, Alessandra; Saglia, Roberto P.; Bender, Ralf; Senger, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Steele, Oliver; Masters, Karen L.; Pforr, Janine; Tojeiro, Rita; Johansson, Jonas; Nichol, Robert C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Chen, Yan-Mei; Wake, David [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bolton, Adam; Brownstein, Joel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Leauthaud, Alexie [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Skibba, Ramin [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Pan, Kaike, E-mail: beifiori@mpe.mpg.de [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2014-07-10

    We study the redshift evolution of the dynamical properties of ∼180, 000 massive galaxies from SDSS-III/BOSS combined with a local early-type galaxy sample from SDSS-II in the redshift range 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.6. The typical stellar mass of this sample is M{sub *} ∼2 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ☉}. We analyze the evolution of the galaxy parameters effective radius, stellar velocity dispersion, and the dynamical to stellar mass ratio with redshift. As the effective radii of BOSS galaxies at these redshifts are not well resolved in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging we calibrate the SDSS size measurements with Hubble Space Telescope/COSMOS photometry for a sub-sample of galaxies. We further apply a correction for progenitor bias to build a sample which consists of a coeval, passively evolving population. Systematic errors due to size correction and the calculation of dynamical mass are assessed through Monte Carlo simulations. At fixed stellar or dynamical mass, we find moderate evolution in galaxy size and stellar velocity dispersion, in agreement with previous studies. We show that this results in a decrease of the dynamical to stellar mass ratio with redshift at >2σ significance. By combining our sample with high-redshift literature data, we find that this evolution of the dynamical to stellar mass ratio continues beyond z ∼ 0.7 up to z > 2 as M{sub dyn}/M{sub *} ∼(1 + z){sup –0.30±0.12}, further strengthening the evidence for an increase of M{sub dyn}/M{sub *} with cosmic time. This result is in line with recent predictions from galaxy formation simulations based on minor merger driven mass growth, in which the dark matter fraction within the half-light radius increases with cosmic time.

  14. On the recovery of the local group motion from galaxy redshift surveys

    There is an ∼150 km s–1 discrepancy between the measured motion of the Local Group (LG) of galaxies with respect to the cosmic microwave background and the linear theory prediction based on the gravitational force field of the large-scale structure in full-sky redshift surveys. We perform a variety of tests which show that the LG motion cannot be recovered to better than 150-200 km s–1 in amplitude and within ≈10° in direction. The tests rely on catalogs of mock galaxies identified in the Millennium simulation using semi-analytic galaxy formation models. We compare these results to the Ks = 11.75 Two-Mass Galaxy Redshift Survey, which provides the deepest and most complete all-sky spatial distribution of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts available thus far. In our analysis, we use a new concise relation for deriving the LG motion and bulk flow from the true distribution of galaxies in redshift space. Our results show that the main source of uncertainty is the small effective depth of surveys like the Two-Mass Redshift Survey (2MRS), which prevents a proper sampling of the large-scale structure beyond ∼100 h –1 Mpc. Deeper redshift surveys are needed to reach the 'convergence scale' of ≈250 h –1 Mpc in a ΛCDM universe. Deeper surveys would also mitigate the impact of the 'Kaiser rocket' which, in a survey like 2MRS, remains a significant source of uncertainty. Thanks to the quiet and moderate density environment of the LG, purely dynamical uncertainties of the linear predictions are subdominant at the level of ∼90 km s–1. Finally, we show that deviations from linear galaxy biasing and shot noise errors provide a minor contribution to the total error budget.

  15. THE EGNoG SURVEY: MOLECULAR GAS IN INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Bauermeister, A.; Blitz, L.; Wright, M. [Department of Astronomy and Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bolatto, A.; Teuben, P. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bureau, M. [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Leroy, A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ostriker, E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Wong, T., E-mail: amberb@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, MC-221, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We present the Evolution of molecular Gas in Normal Galaxies (EGNoG) survey, an observational study of molecular gas in 31 star-forming galaxies from z = 0.05 to z = 0.5, with stellar masses of (4-30) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and star formation rates of 4-100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. This survey probes a relatively un-observed redshift range in which the molecular gas content of galaxies is expected to have evolved significantly. To trace the molecular gas in the EGNoG galaxies, we observe the CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) and CO(J = 3 {yields} 2) rotational lines using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We detect 24 of 31 galaxies and present resolved maps of 10 galaxies in the lower redshift portion of the survey. We use a bimodal prescription for the CO to molecular gas conversion factor, based on specific star formation rate, and compare the EGNoG galaxies to a large sample of galaxies assembled from the literature. We find an average molecular gas depletion time of 0.76 {+-} 0.54 Gyr for normal galaxies and 0.06 {+-} 0.04 Gyr for starburst galaxies. We calculate an average molecular gas fraction of 7%-20% at the intermediate redshifts probed by the EGNoG survey. By expressing the molecular gas fraction in terms of the specific star formation rate and molecular gas depletion time (using typical values), we also calculate the expected evolution of the molecular gas fraction with redshift. The predicted behavior agrees well with the significant evolution observed from z {approx} 2.5 to today.

  16. A new method to assign galaxy cluster membership using photometric redshifts

    Castignani, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new effective strategy to assign group and cluster membership probabilities $P_{mem}$ to galaxies using photometric redshift information. Large dynamical ranges both in halo mass and cosmic time are considered. The method takes the magnitude distribution of both cluster and field galaxies as well as the radial distribution of galaxies in clusters into account using a non-parametric formalism and relies on Bayesian inference to take photometric redshift uncertainties into account. We successfully test the method against 1,208 galaxy clusters within redshifts $z=0.05-2.55$ and masses $10^{13.29-14.80}~M_\\odot$ drawn from wide field simulated galaxy mock catalogs developed for the Euclid mission. Median purity $(55^{+17}_{-15})\\%$ and completeness $(95^{+5}_{-10})\\%$ are reached for galaxies brighter than 0.25$L_\\ast$ within $r_{200}$ of each simulated halo and for a statistical photometric redshift accuracy $\\sigma((z_s-z_p)/(1+z_s))=0.03$. The mean values $\\overline{\\mathsf{p}}=56\\%$ and $\\overl...

  17. Predictions for the abundance and colours of galaxies in high redshift clusters in hierarchical models

    Merson, Alexander I; Abdalla, Filipe B; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Lagos, Claudia del P; Mei, Simona

    2015-01-01

    High redshift galaxy clusters allow us to examine galaxy formation in extreme environments. Here we compile data for $z>1$ galaxy clusters to test the predictions from one of the latest semi-analytical models of galaxy formation. The model gives a good match to the slope and zero-point of the cluster red sequence. The model is able to match the cluster galaxy luminosity function at faint and bright magnitudes, but under-estimates the number of galaxies around the break in the luminosity function. We find that simply assuming a weaker dust attenuation improves the model predictions for the cluster galaxy luminosity function, but worsens the predictions for the red sequence at bright magnitudes. Examination of the properties of the bright cluster galaxies suggests that the default dust attenuation is very large due to these galaxies having large reservoirs of cold gas as well as small radii. We find that matching the luminosity function and colours of high redshift cluster galaxies, whilst remaining consistent ...

  18. Redshift evolution of the dynamical properties of massive galaxies from SDSS-III/BOSS

    Beifiori, Alessandra; Maraston, Claudia; Steele, Oliver; Masters, Karen L; Pforr, Janine; Saglia, Roberto P; Bender, Ralf; Tojeiro, Rita; Chen, Yan-Mei; Bolton, Adam; Brownstein, Joel R; Johansson, Jonas; Leauthaud, Alexie; Nichol, Robert C; Schneider, Donald P; Senger, Robert; Skibba, Ramin; Wake, David; Pan, Kaike; Snedden, Stephanie; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Shelden, Alaina; Ebelke, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    We study the redshift evolution of the dynamical properties of ~180,000 massive galaxies from SDSS-III/BOSS combined with a local early-type galaxy sample from SDSS-II in the redshift range 0.12sigma significance. By combining our sample with high-redshift literature data we find that this evolution of the dynamical to stellar mass ratio continues beyond z~0.7 up to z>2 as Mdyn/Mstar~ (1+z)^{-0.30+/- 0.12} further strengthening the evidence for an increase of Mdyn/Mstar with cosmic time. This result is in line with recent predictions from galaxy formation simulations based on minor merger driven mass growth, in which the dark matter fraction within the half-light radius increases with cosmic time.

  19. Star formation trends in high-redshift galaxy surveys: the elephant or the tail?

    Stringer, Martin; Frenk, Carlos S; Stark, Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    Star formation rate and accummulated stellar mass are two fundamental physical quantities that describe the evolutionary state of a forming galaxy. Two recent attempts to determine the relationship between these quantities, by interpreting a sample of star-forming galaxies at redshift of z~4, have led to opposite conclusions. We use a model galaxy population to investigate possible causes for this discrepancy and conclude that minor errors in the conversion from observables to physical quantities can lead to major misrepresentation when applied without awareness of sample selection. We also investigate, in a general way, the physical origin of the correlation between star formation rate and stellar mass within hierarchical galaxy formation theory.

  20. Compression and Classification Methods for Galaxy Spectra in Large Redshift Surveys

    Lahav, Ofer

    2000-01-01

    Methods for compression and classification of galaxy spectra, which are useful for large galaxy redshift surveys (such as the SDSS, 2dF, 6dF and VIRMOS), are reviewed. In particular, we describe and contrast three methods: (i) Principal Component Analysis, (ii) Information Bottleneck, and (iii) Fisher Matrix. We show applications to 2dF galaxy spectra and to mock semi-analytic spectra, and we discuss how these methods can be used to study physical processes of galaxy formation, clustering and...

  1. The local environments of low-redshift quasars and powerful radio galaxies

    Smith, Eric P.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    1990-01-01

    The local environments of 31 low-redshift QSOs and 35 powerful radio galaxies (PRGs) are studied on the basis of V and R CCD frames processed to generate catalogs of companion galaxies. The PRGs and radio-loud QSOs are noted to inhabit regions whose local galaxy densities are similar to normal giant ellipticals and 3-4 times less dense than the regions inhabited by lower power radio-loud elliptical galaxies. The brightest companion galaxy is on average about 2 mag dimmer than the QSO host galaxy or PRG. Attention is given to the implications of these results for theories of the origin of nuclear activity, as well as the relationship between various classes of active galaxies and QSOs.

  2. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR GALAXIES IN THE SDSS DR8

    We present redshift probability distributions for galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 imaging data. We used the nearest-neighbor weighting algorithm to derive the ensemble redshift distribution N(z), and individual redshift probability distributions P(z) for galaxies with r < 21.8 and u < 29.0. As part of this technique, we calculated weights for a set of training galaxies with known redshifts such that their density distribution in five-dimensional color-magnitude space was proportional to that of the photometry-only sample, producing a nearly fair sample in that space. We estimated the ensemble N(z) of the photometric sample by constructing a weighted histogram of the training-set redshifts. We derived P(z)'s for individual objects by using training-set objects from the local color-magnitude space around each photometric object. Using the P(z) for each galaxy can reduce the statistical error in measurements that depend on the redshifts of individual galaxies. The spectroscopic training sample is substantially larger than that used for the DR7 release. The newly added PRIMUS catalog is now the most important training set used in this analysis by a wide margin. We expect the primary sources of error in the N(z) reconstruction to be sample variance and spectroscopic failures: The training sets are drawn from relatively small volumes of space, and some samples have large incompleteness. Using simulations we estimated the uncertainty in N(z) due to sample variance at a given redshift to be ∼10%-15%. The uncertainty on calculations incorporating N(z) or P(z) depends on how they are used; we discuss the case of weak lensing measurements. The P(z) catalog is publicly available from the SDSS Web site.

  3. The mass distribution of a moderate redshift galaxy group and brightest group galaxy from gravitational lensing and kinematics

    McKean, J P; Koopmans, L V E; Vegetti, S; Czoske, O; Fassnacht, C D; Treu, T; More, A; Kocevski, D D

    2009-01-01

    The gravitational lens system CLASS B2108+213 has two radio-loud lensed images separated by 4.56 arcsec. The relatively large image separation implies that the lensing is caused by a group of galaxies. In this paper, new optical imaging and spectroscopic data for the lensing galaxies of B2108+213 and the surrounding field galaxies are presented. These data are used to investigate the mass and composition of the lensing structure. The redshift and stellar velocity dispersion of the main lensing galaxy (G1) are found to be z = 0.3648 +/- 0.0002 and sigma_v = 325 +/- 25 km/s, respectively. The optical spectrum of the lensed quasar shows no obvious emission or absorption features and is consistent with a BL Lac type radio source. However, the tentative detection of the G-band and Mg-b absorption lines, and a break in the spectrum of the host galaxy of the lensed quasar gives a likely source redshift of z = 0.67. Spectroscopy of the field around B2108+213 finds 51 galaxies at a similar redshift to G1, thus confirm...

  4. Identifying clustering at high redshift through actively star-forming galaxies

    Davies, L J M; Stanway, E R; Husband, K; Lehnert, M D; Mannering, E J A

    2013-01-01

    Identifying galaxy clustering at high redshift (i.e. z > 1) is essential to our understanding of the current cosmological model. However, at increasing redshift, clusters evolve considerably in star-formation activity and so are less likely to be identified using the widely-used red sequence method. Here we assess the viability of instead identifying high redshift clustering using actively star-forming galaxies (SMGs associated with over-densities of BzKs/LBGs). We perform both a 2- and 3-D clustering analysis to determine whether or not true (3D) clustering can be identified where only 2D data are available. As expected, we find that 2D clustering signals are weak at best and inferred results are method dependant. In our 3D analysis, we identify 12 SMGs associated with an over-density of galaxies coincident both spatially and in redshift - just 8% of SMGs with known redshifts in our sample. Where an SMG in our target fields lacks a known redshift, their sightline is no more likely to display clustering than ...

  5. Herschel-ATLAS: Properties of dusty massive galaxies at low and high redshifts

    Rowlands, K; Dye, S; Aragón-Salamanca, A; Maddox, S; da Cunha, E; Smith, D J B; Bourne, N; Eales, S; Gomez, H L; Smail, I; Alpaslan, M; Clark, C J R; Driver, S; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Robotham, A; Smith, M W L; Valiante, E

    2014-01-01

    We present a comparison of the physical properties of a rest-frame $250\\mu$m selected sample of massive, dusty galaxies from $01$ SMGs have an average SFR of $390^{+80}_{-70}\\,$M$_\\odot$yr$^{-1}$ which is 120 times that of the low-redshift sample matched in stellar mass to the SMGs (SFR$=3.3\\pm{0.2}$ M$_\\odot$yr$^{-1}$). The SMGs harbour a substantial mass of dust ($1.2^{+0.3}_{-0.2}\\times{10}^9\\,$M$_\\odot$), compared to $(1.6\\pm0.1)\\times{10}^8\\,$M$_\\odot$ for low-redshift dusty galaxies. At low redshifts the dust luminosity is dominated by the diffuse ISM, whereas a large fraction of the dust luminosity in SMGs originates from star-forming regions. At the same dust mass SMGs are offset towards a higher SFR compared to the low-redshift H-ATLAS galaxies. This is not only due to the higher gas fraction in SMGs but also because they are undergoing a more efficient mode of star formation, which is consistent with their bursty star-formation histories. The offset in SFR between SMGs and low-redshift galaxies is s...

  6. Photometric Redshift Probability Distributions for Galaxies in the SDSS DR8

    Sheldon, Erin S; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Brinkmann, J; Weaver, Benjamin A

    2011-01-01

    We present redshift probability distributions for galaxies in the SDSS DR8 imaging data. We used the nearest-neighbor weighting algorithm presented in Lima et al. 2008 and Cunha et al. 2009 to derive the ensemble redshift distribution N(z), and individual redshift probability distributions P(z) for galaxies with r < 21.8. As part of this technique, we calculated weights for a set of training galaxies with known redshifts such that their density distribution in five dimensional color-magnitude space was proportional to that of the photometry-only sample, producing a nearly fair sample in that space. We then estimated the ensemble N(z) of the photometric sample by constructing a weighted histogram of the training set redshifts. We derived P(z) s for individual objects using the same technique, but limiting to training set objects from the local color-magnitude space around each photometric object. Using the P(z) for each galaxy, rather than an ensemble N(z), can reduce the statistical error in measurements t...

  7. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey - I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution

    Perley, D A; Schulze, S; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Hjorth, J; Berger, E; Cenko, S B; Chary, R; Cucchiara, A; Ellis, R; Fong, W; Fynbo, J P U; Gorosabel, J; Greiner, J; Jakobsson, P; Laskar, T; Levan, A J; Michałowski, M J; Milvang-Jensen, B; Tanvir, N R; Thöne, C C; Wiersema, K

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey ("SHOALS"), a multi-observatory high-redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host-galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly-deep, multi-color optical/NIR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without pre-existing redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host-galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust-obscured, and at most 2% originate from z>5.5. Using this sample we estimate the redshift-depen...

  8. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: Clustering properties of radio galaxies

    Magliocchetti, M; Hawkins, E; Peacock, J A; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bridges, T J; Cannon, R; Cole, S; Colless, M; Collins, C; Couch, W; Dalton, G B; De Propris, R; Driver, S P; Efstathiou, G P; Ellis, Richard S; Frenk, C S; Glazebrook, K; Jackson, C A; Jones, B; Lahav, O; Lewis, I; Lumsden, S; Norberg, P; Peterson, B A; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K; Magliocchetti, Manuela; Maddox, Steve J.; Hawkins, Ed; Peacock, John A.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bridges, Terry; Cannon, Russell; Cole, Shaun; Colless, Matthew; Collins, Chris; Couch, Warrick; Dalton, Gavin; Propris, Roberto de; Driver, Simon P.; Efstathiou, George; Ellis, Richard S.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Glazebrook, Karl; Jackson, Carole A.; Jones, Bryn; Lahav, Ofer; Lewis, Ian; Lumsden, Stuart; Norberg, Peder; Peterson, Bruce A.; Sutherland, Will; Taylor, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The clustering properties of local, S_{1.4 GHz} > 1 mJy, radio sources are investigated for a sample of 820 objects drawn from the joint use of the FIRST and 2dF Galaxy Redshift surveys. To this aim, we present 271 new bj < 19.45 spectroscopic counterparts of FIRST radio sources to be added to those already introduced in Magliocchetti et al. (2002). The two-point correlation function for the local radio population is found to be entirely consistent with estimates obtained for the whole sample of 2dFGRS galaxies. We estimate the parameters of the real-space correlation function xi(r)=(r/r_0)^{-\\gamma}, r_0=6.7^{+0.9}_{-1.1} Mpc and \\gamma=1.6\\pm 0.1, where h=0.7 is assumed. Different results are instead obtained if we only consider sources that present signatures of AGN activity in their spectra. These objects are shown to be very strongly correlated, with r_0=10.9^{+1.0}_{-1.2} Mpc and \\gamma=2\\pm 0.1, a steeper slope than has been claimed in other recent works. No difference is found in the clustering pro...

  9. The metallicity evolution of low mass galaxies: New constraints at intermediate redshift

    Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L.; Finlator, Kristian; Dressler, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We present abundance measurements from 26 emission-line selected galaxies at z~0.6-0.7. By reaching stellar masses as low as 10^8 M_{\\sun}, these observations provide the first measurement of the intermediate redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation below 10^9 M_{\\sun} For the portion of our sample above M > 10^9 M_{\\sun} (8/26 galaxies), we find good agreement with previous measurements of the intermediate redshift MZ relation. Compared to the local relation, we measure an evolution that corr...

  10. Correlations between O VI Absorbers and Galaxies at Low Redshift

    Ganguly, Rajib; Fang, Taotao; Sembach, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between galaxies and metal-line absorption systems in a large-scale cosmological simulation with galaxy formation. Our detailed treatment of metal enrichment and non-equilibrium calculation of oxygen species allow us, for the first time, to carry out quantitative calculations of the cross-correlations between galaxies and O VI absorbers. We find the following: (1) The cross-correlation strength depends weakly on the absorption strength but strongly on the luminosity of the galaxy. (2) The correlation distance increases monotonically with luminosity from ~0.5-1h^-1 Mpc for 0.1L* galaxies to ~3-5h^-1 Mpc for L* galaxies. (3) The correlation distance has a complicated dependence on absorber strength, with a luminosity-dependent peak. (4) Only 15% of O VI absorbers lie near >=Lz* galaxies. The remaining 85%, then, must arise ``near'' lower-luminosity galaxies, though, the positions of those galaxies is not well-correlated with the absorbers. This may point to pollution of intergala...

  11. The EGNoG Survey: Molecular Gas in Intermediate-Redshift Star-Forming Galaxies

    Bauermeister, Amber; Bolatto, Alberto D; Bureau, Martin; Leroy, Adam; Ostriker, Eve; Teuben, Peter J; Wong, Tony; Wright, Melvyn C H

    2013-01-01

    We present the Evolution of molecular Gas in Normal Galaxies (EGNoG) survey, an observational study of molecular gas in 31 star-forming galaxies from z=0.05 to z=0.5, with stellar masses of (4-30)x10^10 M_Sun and star formation rates of 4-100 M_Sun yr^-1. This survey probes a relatively un-observed redshift range in which the molecular gas content of galaxies is expected to have evolved significantly. To trace the molecular gas in the EGNoG galaxies, we observe the CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) rotational lines using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We detect 24 of 31 galaxies and present resolved maps of 10 galaxies in the lower redshift portion of the survey. We use a bimodal prescription for the CO to molecular gas conversion factor, based on specific star formation rate, and compare the EGNoG galaxies to a large sample of galaxies assembled from the literature. We find an average molecular gas depletion time of 0.76 \\pm 0.54 Gyr for normal galaxies and 0.06 \\pm 0.04 Gyr for star...

  12. The environments of high-redshift radio galaxies and quasars: probes of protoclusters

    Orsi, Álvaro A.; Fanidakis, Nikos; Lacey, Cedric G.; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2016-03-01

    We use the GALFORM semi-analytical model to study high-density regions traced by radio galaxies and quasars at high redshifts. We explore the impact that baryonic physics has upon the properties of galaxies in these environments. Star-forming emission-line galaxies (Ly α and H α emitters) are used to probe the environments at high redshifts. Radio galaxies are predicted to be hosted by more massive haloes than quasars, and this is imprinted on the amplitude of galaxy overdensities and cross-correlation functions. We find that Ly α radiative transfer and active galactic nucleus feedback indirectly affect the clustering on small scales and also the stellar masses, star formation rates and gas metallicities of galaxies in dense environments. We also investigate the relation between protoclusters associated with radio galaxies and quasars, and their present-day cluster descendants. The progenitors of massive clusters associated with radio galaxies and quasars allow us to determine an average protocluster size in a simple way. Overdensities within the protoclusters are found to correlate with the halo descendant masses. We present scaling relations that can be applied to observational data. By computing projection effects due to the wavelength resolution of modern spectrographs and narrow-band filters, we show that the former have enough spectral resolution to map the structure of protoclusters, whereas the latter can be used to measure the clustering around radio galaxies and quasars over larger scales to determine the mass of dark matter haloes hosting them.

  13. The escape of ionising radiation from high-redshift dwarf galaxies

    Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Altay, Gabriel; Kruip, Chael

    2011-01-01

    The UV escape fraction from high-redshift galaxies plays a key role in models of cosmic reionisation. Because it is currently not possible to deduce the escape fractions during the epoch of reionisation from observations, we have to rely on numerical simulations. Our aim is to better constrain the escape fraction from high-redshift dwarf galaxies, as these are the most likely sources responsible for reionising the Universe. We employ a N-body/SPH method that includes realistic prescriptions for the physical processes that are important for the evolution of dwarf galaxies. These models are post-processed with radiative transfer to determine the escape fraction of ionising radiation. We perform a parameter study to assess the influence of the spin parameter, gas fraction and formation redshift of the galaxy and study the importance of numerical parameters as resolution, source distribution and local gas clearing. We find that the UV escape fraction from high-redshift dwarf galaxies that have formed a rotational...

  14. The evolution of quiescent galaxies at high redshift (z > 1.4)

    Pozzi, F; Cimatti, A; Ilbert, O; Pozzetti, L; McCracken, H; Capak, P; Floch, E Le; Salvato, M; Zamorani, G; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Kneib, J P; Févre, O Le; Lilly, S J; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Borgne, J F Le; Brun, V Le; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pelló, R; Peng, Y; Pérez-Montero, E; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L A M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the evolution of high redshift quiescent galaxies over an effective area of ~1.7 deg^2 in the COSMOS field. Galaxies have been divided according to their star-formation activity and the evolution of the different populations has been investigated in detail. We have studied an IRAC (mag_3.6 1.4 with multi-wavelength coverage. We have derived accurate photometric redshifts (sigma=0.06) and other important physical parameters through a SED-fitting procedure. We have divided our sample into actively star-forming, intermediate and quiescent galaxies depending on their specific star formation rate. We have computed the galaxy stellar mass function of the total sample and the different populations at z=1.4-3.0. We have studied the properties of high redshift quiescent galaxies finding that they are old (1-4 Gyr), massive (log(M/M_sun)~10.65), weakly star forming stellar populations with low dust extinction (E(B-V) 11, while the quiescent population increases from 10% to 50% at the same redshift and...

  15. High-Redshift Galaxy Kinematics: Constraints on Models of Disk Formation

    Robertson, Brant E

    2008-01-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of galaxies at redshift z~2 has revealed a population of early-forming, rotationally-supported disks. These high-redshift systems provide a potentially important clue to the formation processes that build disk galaxies in the universe. A particularly well-studied example is the z=2.38 galaxy BzK-15504, which was shown by Genzel et al. (2006) to be a rotationally supported disk despite the fact that its high star formation rate and short gas consumption timescale require a very rapid acquisition of mass. Previous kinematical analyses have suggested that z~2 disk galaxies like BzK-15504 did not form through mergers because their line-of-sight velocity fields display low levels of asymmetry. We perform the same kinematical analysis on a set of simulated disk galaxies formed in gas-rich mergers of the type that may be common at high redshift, and show that the remnant disks display low velocity field asymmetry and satisfy the criteria that have been used to classify high-redshift galax...

  16. The impact of nebular emission on the broadband fluxes of high-redshift galaxies

    Zackrisson, E; Leitet, E

    2008-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the light emitted from young or star-forming galaxies at ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths comes from the ionized interstellar medium in the form of emission lines and a nebular continuum. At high redshifts, star formation rates are on average higher and stellar populations younger than in the local Universe. Both of these effects act to boost the impact of nebular emission on the overall spectrum of galaxies. Even so, the broadband fluxes and colours of high-redshift galaxies are routinely analyzed under the assumption that the light observed originates directly from stars. Here, we assess the impact of nebular emission on broadband fluxes in Johnson/Cousins BVRIJHK, Sloan Digital Sky Survey griz and Spitzer IRAC/MIPS filters as a function of observed redshift (up to z=15) for galaxies with different star formation histories. We find that nebular emission may account for a non-negligible fraction of the light received from high-redshift galaxies. The ages and masses inferred ...

  17. The Accelerated Build-up of the Red Sequence in High Redshift Galaxy Clusters

    Cerulo, P; Lidman, C; Demarco, R; Huertas-Company, M; Mei, S; Sánchez-Janssen, R; Barrientos, L F; Muñoz, R P

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the evolution of the red sequence in a sample of galaxy clusters at redshifts $0.8 11.5$) red sequence galaxies in the WINGS clusters, which do not include only the brightest cluster galaxies and which are not present in the HCS clusters, suggesting that they formed at epochs later than $z=0.8$. The comparison with the luminosity distribution of a sample of passive red sequence galaxies drawn from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field in the photometric redshift range $0.8

  18. Photometric/Spectroscopic Redshift Identification of Faint Galaxies in STIS Slitless Spectroscopy Observations

    Chen, H W; Pascarelle, S; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.

    1999-01-01

    We present a new spectrum extraction technique which employs optimal weights for the spectral extraction, deblends the overlapping spectra, determines the precise sky background, and takes into account correlations between errors correctly for STIS slitless observations. We obtained roughly 250 optimally extracted spectra in a deep STIS field as well as self-confirming redshift measurements for these objects, including a galaxy at $z=6.68$. In addition, we identified five isolated emission-line objects in the dispersed image that were not accounted for by objects detected in the direct image. Assuming that these are \\lya\\ emission line galaxies at high redshifts and adopting a simple on a likelihood analysis, that \\lya\\ emission line galaxies at $\\langle density measured in Lyman break galaxies at $z\\approx 4$.

  19. The K20 survey. IV. The redshift distribution of Ks<20 galaxies a test of galaxy formation models

    Cimatti, A; Mignoli, M; Daddi, E; Menci, N; Poli, F; Fontana, A; Renzini, A; Zamorani, G; Broadhurst, T J; Cristiani, S; D'Odorico, S; Giallongo, E; Gilmozzi, R

    2002-01-01

    We present the redshift distribution of a complete sample of 480 galaxies with Ks1 and z>1.5 respectively. A ``blind'' comparison is made with the predictions of a set of the most recent LambdaCDM hierarchical merging and pure luminosity evolution (PLE) models. The hierarchical merging models overpredict and underpredict the number of galaxies at low-z and high-z respectively, whereas the PLE models match the median redshift and the low-z distribution, still being able to follow the high-z tail of N(z). We briefly discuss the implications of this comparison and the possible origins of the observed discrepancies. We make the redshift distribution publicly available.

  20. Scale-Free Processes in Galaxy Formation at High Redshift

    Dekel, Avishai

    2015-08-01

    Key processes of galaxy formation in the Einstein-de Sitter cosmological phase are scale free. For example, 1. The specific accretion rate into dark-matter halos, and that of baryons into the central galaxies, is mass independent and scales as a generic power-law (1+z)^{5/2}. 2. The main-sequence of star-forming galaxies is evolving self-similarly accordingly. Its confinement is determined by generic evolution of galaxies through a sequence of compaction and quenching events. 3. The evolution of the overall gas and stellar content of galaxies can be addressed via a very simple and useful bathtub toy model, which converges to a self-similar quasi-steady-state solution. 4. The spin parameter of the halos, and of the baryons in the galaxy, as built up by streams from the cosmic web, is independent of mass and cosmic time. 5. Counter-rotating streams, self-similar on all scales, may play a major role in generating compaction events and stimulating disk instability. 6. The violent disk instability in the gas-rich high-z galaxies is manifested in a scale-free mass function of clumps. 7. This instability is nonlinear, stimulated by the intense gas inflow into the galaxies, and it may involve scale-free compressive modes of turbulence. These processes are studied using toy models and cosmological simulations.

  1. The Compared Number Density of High-Redshift Galaxies and Lyman \\alpha Clouds

    Fernandez-Soto, A.; Lanzetta, K. M.; Yahil, A.; Chen, H. -W.

    1997-01-01

    We use our catalog of photometric redshifts in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) to estimate the Luminosity Function (LF) of galaxies up to z=2. Using the obtained LF and a relationship between luminosity and halo size, we calculate the expected density of galactic halo crossings for any arbitrary line of sight. This density is then compared with the known one of Lyman \\alpha lines, showing that the observed density of galaxies is enough to account for the observed absorption lines.

  2. The Compared Number Density of High-Redshift Galaxies and Lyman $\\alpha$ Clouds

    Fernández-Soto, A; Chen, A Y

    1997-01-01

    We use our catalog of photometric redshifts in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) to estimate the Luminosity Function (LF) of galaxies up to z=2. Using the obtained LF and a relationship between luminosity and halo size, we calculate the expected density of galactic halo crossings for any arbitrary line of sight. This density is then compared with the known one of Lyman \\alpha lines, showing that the observed density of galaxies is enough to account for the observed absorption lines.

  3. THE GENTLE GROWTH OF GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFTS IN OVERDENSE ENVIRONMENTS

    Romano-Díaz, Emilio [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, University of Bonn, Auf dem Haegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Shlosman, Isaac [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Choi, Jun-Hwan [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Sadoun, Raphael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0830 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We have explored prevailing modes of galaxy growth for redshifts z ∼ 6-14, comparing substantially overdense and normal regions of the universe, using high-resolution zoom-in cosmological simulations. Such rare overdense regions have been projected to host high-z quasars. We demonstrate that galaxies in such environments grow predominantly by a smooth accretion from cosmological filaments which dominates the mass input from major, intermediate, and minor mergers. We find that by z ∼ 6, the accumulated galaxy mass fraction from mergers falls short by a factor of 10 of the cumulative accretion mass for galaxies in the overdense regions, and by a factor of 5 in the normal environments. Moreover, the rate of the stellar mass input from mergers also lies below that of an in situ star formation (SF) rate. The fraction of stellar masses in galaxies contributed by mergers in overdense regions is ∼12%, and ∼33% in the normal regions, at these redshifts. Our median SF rates for ∼few × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} galaxies agrees well with the recently estimated rates for z ∼ 7 galaxies from Spitzer's SURF-UP survey. Finally, we find that the main difference between the normal and overdense regions lies in the amplified growth of massive galaxies in massive dark matter halos. This leads to the formation of ≳ 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} galaxies due to the ∼100 fold increase in mass during the above time period. Such galaxies are basically absent in the normal regions at these redshifts.

  4. A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR PREDICTING HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY EVOLUTION

    Behroozi, Peter S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Silk, Joseph [Institut d' Astrophysique, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2015-01-20

    We show that the ratio of galaxies' specific star formation rates (SSFRs) to their host halos' specific mass accretion rates (SMARs) strongly constrains how the galaxies' stellar masses, SSFRs, and host halo masses evolve over cosmic time. This evolutionary constraint provides a simple way to probe z > 8 galaxy populations without direct observations. Tests of the method with galaxy properties at z = 4 successfully reproduce the known evolution of the stellar mass-halo mass (SMHM) relation, galaxy SSFRs, and the cosmic star formation rate (CSFR) for 5 < z < 8. We then predict the continued evolution of these properties for 8 < z < 15. In contrast to the nonevolution in the SMHM relation at z < 4, the median galaxy mass at fixed halo mass increases strongly at z > 4. We show that this result is closely linked to the flattening in galaxy SSFRs at z > 2 compared to halo SMARs; we expect that average galaxy SSFRs at fixed stellar mass will continue their mild evolution to z ∼ 15. The expected CSFR shows no breaks or features at z > 8.5; this constrains both reionization and the possibility of a steep falloff in the CSFR at z = 9-10. Finally, we make predictions for stellar mass and luminosity functions for the James Webb Space Telescope, which should be able to observe one galaxy with M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} per 10{sup 3} Mpc{sup 3} at z = 9.6 and one such galaxy per 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup 3} at z = 15.

  5. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation--VII. The sizes of high-redshift galaxies

    Liu, Chuanwu; Poole, Gregory; Angel, Paul; Duffy, Alan; Geil, Paul; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    We investigate high-redshift galaxy sizes using a semi-analytic model constructed for the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulation project. Our fiducial model, including strong feedback from supernovae and photoionization background, accurately reproduces the evolution of the stellar mass function and luminosity function. Using this model, we study the size--luminosity relation of galaxies and find that the effective radius scales with UV luminosity as $R_\\mathrm{e}\\propto L^{0.25}$ at $z{\\sim}5$--$9$. We show that recently discovered very luminous galaxies at $z{\\sim}7$ (Bowler et al. 2016) and $z{\\sim}11$ (Oesch et al. 2016) lie on our predicted size--luminosity relations. We find that a significant fraction of galaxies at $z>6$ will not be resolved by JWST, but GMT will have the ability to resolve all galaxies in haloes above the atomic cooling limit. We show that our fiducial model successfully reproduces the redshift evolution of average galaxy sizes at $z>5$. We ...

  6. Redshift

    Clark, Stuart

    1997-01-01

    The light emitted by celestial objects can have its wavelength "stretched" in different ways before it is observed by astronomers. These stretching phenomena are collectively called "redshift". They influence virtually all aspects of astronomy and even underpin the "Big Bang" theory of the creation of the universe. This book details the types of redshift and explains their myriad of uses. It begins by introducing the nature of light and the problems involved in measuring its properties. After explaining the redshift phenomena and their uses, the book touches on the age and size of the universe; two subjects embroiled in controversy because of our current interpretation of the redshift. Less conventional theories are then expressed. As a by-product of the explanation of redshift, the book offers the reader a basic understanding of Einstein's theory of relativity. Mathematical treatments of the concepts introduced in the text are boxed off and should not detract from the book's readibility, but allow it to be u...

  7. CFHTLenS and RCSLenS: Testing Photometric Redshift Distributions Using Angular Cross-Correlations with Spectroscopic Galaxy Surveys

    Choi, A.; Heymans, C.; Blake, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Duncan, C. A. J.; Erben, T.; Nakajima, R.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Viola, M.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the accuracy of galaxy redshift distributions as estimated from photometric redshift probability distributions p(z). Our method utilises measurements of the angular cross-correlation between photometric galaxies and an overlapping sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We describe the redshift leakage from a galaxy photometric redshift bin j into a spectroscopic redshift bin i using the sum of the p(z) for the galaxies residing in bin j. We can then predict the angular cross-correlation between photometric and spectroscopic galaxies due to intrinsic galaxy clustering when i ≠ j as a function of the measured angular cross-correlation when i = j. We also account for enhanced clustering arising from lensing magnification using a halo model. The comparison of this prediction with the measured signal provides a consistency check on the validity of using the summed p(z) to determine galaxy redshift distributions in cosmological analyses, as advocated by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We present an analysis of the photometric redshifts measured by CFHTLenS, which overlaps the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We also analyse the Red-sequence Cluster Lensing Survey (RCSLenS), which overlaps both BOSS and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We find that the summed p(z) from both surveys are generally biased with respect to the true underlying distributions. If unaccounted for, this bias would lead to errors in cosmological parameter estimation from CFHTLenS by less than ˜4%. For photometric redshift bins which spatially overlap in 3-D with our spectroscopic sample, we determine redshift bias corrections which can be used in future cosmological analyses that rely on accurate galaxy redshift distributions.

  8. The near-infrared luminosity function of cluster galaxies beyond redshift one

    Strazzullo, V; Eisenhardt, P E; Ettori, S; Lidman, C; Mainieri, V; Nonino, M; Rosati, P; Stanford, S A; Toft, S; Toft, and S.

    2006-01-01

    We determined the K band luminosity function (LF) of cluster galaxies at redshift z~1.2, using near-infrared images of three X-ray luminous clusters at z=1.11,1.24,1.27. The composite LF was derived down to M*+4, by means of statistical background subtraction, and is well described by a Schechter function with K*=20.5 AB mag and alpha=-1. From the K band composite LF we derived the stellar mass function of cluster galaxies. Using available X-ray mass profiles we determined the M/L ratios of these three clusters, which tend to be lower than those measured in the local universe. With these data, no significant difference can be seen between the shapes of the cluster galaxies LF and the LF of field galaxies at similar redshift. We also found no significant evolution out to z ~1.2 in the bright (2. The results obtained in this work support and extend previous findings that most of the stars in bright galaxies were formed at high redshift, and that K-bright (M>10^11 Msun) galaxies were already in place at z ~ 1.2,...

  9. Direct determination of oxygen abundances in line emitting star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshift

    Pérez, José M; Díaz, Ángeles I; Koo, David C; Willmer, Christopher N

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of 22 blue ($(B-V)_{AB}<0.45$), luminous ($M_{B,AB}<-18.9$), metal-poor galaxies in the $0.69redshift range, selected from the DEEP2 galaxy redshift survey. Their spectra contain the $[OIII]\\lambda4363$ auroral line, the $[OII]\\lambda \\lambda3726,3729$ doublet and the strong nebular $[OIII]\\lambda \\lambda 4959,5007$ emission lines. The ionised gas-phase oxygen abundances of these galaxies lie between $7.62<12+\\log O/H < 8.19$, i.e. between $1/10 Z_{\\odot}$ and $1/3 Z_{\\odot}$. We find that galaxies in our sample have comparable metallicities to other intermediate-redshift samples, but are more metal poor than local systems of similar B-band luminosities and star formation activity. The galaxies here show similar properties to the "green peas" discovered at $z\\simeq 0.2 - 0.3$ though our galaxies tend to be slightly less luminous.

  10. Spectroscopic confirmation of a galaxy at redshift z=8.6

    Lehnert, M D; Cuby, J -G; Swinbank, A M; Morris, S; Clement, B; Evans, C J; Bremer, M N; Basa, S

    2010-01-01

    Galaxies had their most significant impact on the Universe when they assembled their first generations of stars. Energetic photons emitted by young, massive stars in primeval galaxies ionized the intergalactic medium surrounding their host galaxies, cleared sight-lines along which the light of the young galaxies could escape, and fundamentally altered the physical state of the intergalactic gas in the Universe continuously until the present day. Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background, and of galaxies and quasars at the highest redshifts, suggest that the Universe was reionised through a complex process that was completed about a billion years after the Big Bang, by redshift z~6. Detecting ionizing Ly-alpha photons from increasingly distant galaxies places important constraints on the timing, location and nature of the sources responsible for reionisation. Here we report the detection of Ly-a photons emitted less than 600 million years after the Big Bang. UDFy-38135539 is at a redshift z=8.5549+-0.000...

  11. On the recovery of Local Group motion from galaxy redshift surveys

    Nusser, Adi; Branchini, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    There is a $\\sim 150 km s^{-1}$ discrepancy between the measured motion of the Local Group of galaxies (LG) with respect to the CMB and the linear theory prediction based on the gravitational force field of the large scale structure in full-sky redshift surveys. We perform a variety of tests which show that the LG motion cannot be recovered to better than $150-200 km s^{-1}$ in amplitude and within a $\\approx10^\\circ$ in direction. The tests rely on catalogs of mock galaxies identified in the Millennium simulation using semi-analytic galaxy formation models. We compare these results to the $K_s=11.75$ Two-Mass Galaxy Redshift Survey, which provides the deepest, widest and most complete spatial distribution of galaxies available so far. In our analysis we use a new, concise relation for deriving the LG motion and bulk flow from the true distribution of galaxies in redshift space. Our results show that the main source of uncertainty is the small effective depth of surveys like the 2MRS that prevents a proper sa...

  12. Distortion of the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies by gravitational lensing

    Fialkov, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The observed properties of high redshift galaxies depend on the underlying foreground distribution of large scale structure, which distorts their intrinsic properties via gravitational lensing. We focus on the regime where the dominant contribution originates from a single lens and examine the statistics of gravitational lensing by a population of virialized and non-virialized structures using sub-mm galaxies at z ~ 2.6 and Lyman-break galaxies at redshifts z ~ 6-15 as the background sources. We quantify the effect of lensing on the luminosity function of the high redshift sources, focusing on the intermediate and small magnifications (mu < 3) which affect the majority of the background galaxies. We show that depending on the intrinsic properties of the background galaxies, gravitational lensing can significantly affect the observed luminosity function even when no obvious strong lenses are present. Finally, we find that in the case of the Lyman-break galaxies it is important to account for the surface bri...

  13. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Environmental effects shaping the galaxy stellar mass function

    Davidzon, I; Bolzonella, M; De Lucia, G; Zamorani, G; Arnouts, S; Moutard, T; Ilbert, O; Garilli, B; Scodeggio, M; Guzzo, L; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Bel, J; Bottini, D; Branchini, E; Cappi, A; Coupon, J; de la Torre, S; Di Porto, C; Fritz, A; Franzetti, P; Fumana, M; Granett, B R; Guennou, L; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fevre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Małek, K; Marulli, F; McCracken, H J; Mellier, Y; Moscardini, L; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the first public data release of VIPERS to investigate environmental effects in galaxy evolution between $z\\sim0.5$ and $0.9$. The large number of spectroscopic redshifts over an area of about $10\\,\\mathrm{deg}^2$ provides a galaxy sample with high statistical power. The accurate redshift measurements, with $\\sigma_z = 0.00047(1+z_\\mathrm{spec})$, allow us to robustly isolate galaxies living in the lowest- and highest-density environments, as defined in terms of spatial 3D density contrast. We estimate the stellar mass function (SMF) of galaxies residing in these two environments, and constrain its high-mass end with unprecedented precision. We find that the galaxy SMF in the densest regions has a different shape than that measured at low densities, with an enhancement of massive galaxies and a hint of a flatter (less negative) slope at $z<0.8$. We normalise each SMF to the comoving volume occupied by the corresponding environment, and relate estimates from different redshift bins. We observe an...

  14. Resolved properties of high-redshift lensed galaxies seen with MUSE

    Patricio, Vera; Richard, Johan; Verhamme, Anne; Christensen, Lise; Lagattuta, David; Clément, Benjamin; Mahler, Guillaume

    2015-08-01

    Spatially resolved properties of high redshift galaxies provide important insights into galaxy formation processes. However, with the current instrumentation we have been limited to the analysis of the Lyman alpha line and UV continuum through long-slit observations of individual galaxies or stacking. Combining the power of the newly commissioned integral field spectrograph MUSE on VLT with strong gravitational lensing, it is now possible to spatially probe the rest-frame UV properties of individual high-z galaxies.I will present the study of a 109 M⊙ galaxy at z = 3.5 strongly lensed by the SMACS2031 cluster for which we were able to obtain 2D resolved spatial information of Lyman alpha, and, for the fist time, CIII] emission. The exceptional signal to noise of the data also allows the study of the UV continuum as well as emission and absorption lines rarely measured at these redshifts. We compare the spatial Lyman alpha information and continuum properties with radiative transfer models, resulting in a unique view of an individual high-z galaxy.Additionally, I will present the first results from a sample of 8 high redshift (z = 0.7 - 1.5) extended lensed arcs in the Frontier Fields, also observed with MUSE.With this sample, wederive gas kinematics from both emission and absorption lines, as well as properties of resolved stellar populations.

  15. The Connection Between Galaxies and Intergalactic Absorption Lines at Redshift 2

    Adelberger, K L; Steidel, C C; Pettini, M; Erb, D K; Reddy, N A

    2005-01-01

    Absorption-line spectroscopy of 23 background QSOs and numerous background galaxies has let us measure the spatial distribution of metals and neutral hydrogen around 1044 UV-selected galaxies at redshifts 1.8260 km/s) and produces very strong absorption lines (N_CIV >> 10^14 cm^-2) in the spectra of background objects. Absorption with an average column density of N_CIV ~ 10^14 cm^-2 extends to 80 kpc, a radius large enough to imply that most strong intergalactic CIV absorption is associated with star-forming galaxies like those in our sample. We find that the galaxy-CIV cross-correlation length increases with CIV column density and is similar to the galaxy-galaxy length (r_0 ~ 4 h^-1 Mpc) for N_CIV > 10^12.5 cm^-2. Distortions in the redshift-space galaxy-CIV correlation function on small scales may imply that some of the CIV systems have large peculiar velocities. Four of the five detected OVI absorption systems in our sample lie within 400 proper kpc of a known galaxy. Strong Lyman-a absorption is produced ...

  16. Spatially Resolved Velocity Maps of Halo Gas Around Two Intermediate-redshift Galaxies

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Sharon, Keren; Johnson, Sean D; Nair, Preethi; Liang, Cameron J

    2013-01-01

    Absorption-line spectroscopy of multiply-lensed QSOs near a known foreground galaxy provides a unique opportunity to go beyond the traditional one-dimensional application of QSO probes and establish a crude three-dimensional (3D) map of halo gas around the galaxy that records the line-of-sight velocity field at different locations in the gaseous halo. Two intermediate-redshift galaxies are targeted in the field around the quadruply-lensed QSO HE0435-1223 at redshift z=1.689, and absorption spectroscopy along each of the lensed QSOs is carried out in the vicinities of these galaxies. One galaxy is a typical, star-forming L* galaxy at z=0.4188 and projected distance of rho=50 kpc from the lensing galaxy. The other is a super-L* barred spiral at z=0.7818 and rho=33 kpc. Combining known orientations of the quadruply-lensed QSO to the two foreground galaxies with the observed MgII absorption profiles along individual QSO sightlines has for the first time led to spatially resolved kinematics of tenuous halo gas on ...

  17. Galaxies at redshifts 5 to 6 with systematically low dust content and high [C II] emission.

    Capak, P L; Carilli, C; Jones, G; Casey, C M; Riechers, D; Sheth, K; Carollo, C M; Ilbert, O; Karim, A; LeFevre, O; Lilly, S; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V; Yan, L

    2015-06-25

    The rest-frame ultraviolet properties of galaxies during the first three billion years of cosmic time (redshift z > 4) indicate a rapid evolution in the dust obscuration of such galaxies. This evolution implies a change in the average properties of the interstellar medium, but the measurements are systematically uncertain owing to untested assumptions and the inability to detect heavily obscured regions of the galaxies. Previous attempts to measure the interstellar medium directly in normal galaxies at these redshifts have failed for a number of reasons, with two notable exceptions. Here we report measurements of the forbidden C ii emission (that is, [C II]) from gas, and the far-infrared emission from dust, in nine typical star-forming galaxies about one billion years after the Big Bang (z ≈ 5-6). We find that these galaxies have thermal emission that is less than 1/12 that of similar systems about two billion years later, and enhanced [C II] emission relative to the far-infrared continuum, confirming a strong evolution in the properties of the interstellar medium in the early Universe. The gas is distributed over scales of one to eight kiloparsecs, and shows diverse dynamics within the sample. These results are consistent with early galaxies having significantly less dust than typical galaxies seen at z < 3 and being comparable in dust content to local low-metallicity systems. PMID:26108853

  18. Dusty star-forming galaxies at high redshift

    Far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength surveys have now established the important role of dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) in the assembly of stellar mass and the evolution of massive galaxies in the Universe. The brightest of these galaxies have infrared luminosities in excess of 1013L⊙ with implied star-formation rates of thousands of solar masses per year. They represent the most intense starbursts in the Universe, yet many are completely optically obscured. Their easy detection at submm wavelengths is due to dust heated by ultraviolet radiation of newly forming stars. When summed up, all of the dusty, star-forming galaxies in the Universe produce an infrared radiation field that has an equal energy density as the direct starlight emission from all galaxies visible at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. The bulk of this infrared extragalactic background light emanates from galaxies as diverse as gas-rich disks to mergers of intense starbursting galaxies. Major advances in far-infrared instrumentation in recent years, both space-based and ground-based, has led to the detection of nearly a million DSFGs, yet our understanding of the underlying astrophysics that govern the start and end of the dusty starburst phase is still in nascent stage. This review is aimed at summarizing the current status of DSFG studies, focusing especially on the detailed characterization of the best-understood subset (submillimeter galaxies, who were summarized in the last review of this field over a decade ago, Blain et al., 2002), but also the selection and characterization of more recently discovered DSFG populations. We review DSFG population statistics, their physical properties including dust, gas and stellar contents, their environments, and current theoretical models related to the formation and evolution of these galaxies

  19. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The blue galaxy fraction and implications for the Butcher-Oemler effect

    De Propris, R; Peacock, J; Couch, W; Driver, S; Balogh, M; Baldry, I K; Baugh, C; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bridges, T J; Cannon, R; Cole, S; Collins, C; Cross, N; Dalton, G B; Efstathiou, G P; Ellis, R; Frenk, C; Glazebrook, K; Hawkins, E; Jackson, C; Lahav, O; Lewis, I; Lumsden, S; Maddox, S; Madgwick, D; Norberg, P; Percival, W; Peterson, B; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K; Propris, Roberto De; Colless, Matthew; Peacock, John; Couch, Warrick; Driver, Simon; Balogh, Michael; Baldry, Ivan; Baugh, Carlton; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bridges, Terry; Cannon, Russell; Cole, Shaun; Collins, Chris; Cross, Nicholas; Dalton, Gavin; Efstathiou, George; Ellis, Richard; Frenk, Carlos; Glazebrook, Karl; Hawkins, Edward; Jackson, Carole; Lahav, Ofer; Lewis, Ian; Lumsden, Stuart; Maddox, Steve; Madgwick, Darren; Norberg, Peder; Percival, Will; Peterson, Bruce; Sutherland, Will; Taylor, Keith

    2004-01-01

    We derive the fraction of blue galaxies in a sample of clusters at z < 0.11 and the general field at the same redshift. The value of the blue fraction is observed to depend on the luminosity limit adopted, cluster-centric radius and, more generally, local galaxy density, but it does not depend on cluster properties. Changes in the blue fraction are due to variations in the relative proportions of red and blue galaxies but the star formation rate for these two galaxy groups remains unchanged. Our results are most consistent with a model where the star formation rate declines rapidly and the blue galaxies tend to be dwarfs and do not favour mechanisms where the Butcher-Oemler effect is caused by processes specific to the cluster environment.

  20. Constraints on dark energy from H II starburst galaxy apparent magnitude versus redshift data

    In this Letter we use H II starburst galaxy apparent magnitude versus redshift data from Siegel et al. (2005) to constrain dark energy cosmological model parameters. These constraints are generally consistent with those derived using other data sets, but are not as restrictive as the tightest currently available constraints.

  1. CLASH: Photometric redshifts with 16 HST bands in galaxy cluster fields

    Jouvel, S; Lahav, O; Seitz, S; Molino, A; Coe, D; Postman, M; Moustakas, L; Benìtez, N; Rosati, P; Balestra, I; Grillo, C; Bradley, L; Fritz, A; Kelson, D; Koekemoer, A M; Lemze, D; Medezinski, E; Mercurio, A; Moustakas, J; Nonino, M; Scodeggio, M; Zheng, W; Zitrin, A; Bartelmann, M; Bouwens, R; Broadhurst, T; Donahue, M; Ford, H; Graves, G; Infante, L; Jimenez-Teja, Y; Lazkoz, R; Melchior, P; Meneghetti, M; Merten, J; Ogaz, S; Umetsu, K

    2013-01-01

    The Cluster Lensing And Supernovae survey with Hubble (CLASH) is an Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Multi-Cycle Treasury program observing 25 massive galaxy clusters. CLASH observations are carried out in 16 bands from UV to NIR to derive accurate and reliable estimates of photometric redshifts. We present the CLASH photometric redshifts and study the photometric redshift accuracy of the arcs in more detail for the case of MACS1206.2-0847. We use the publicly available Le Phare and BPZ photometric redshift codes on 17 CLASH galaxy clusters. Using Le Phare code for objects with StoN>=10, we reach a precision of 3%(1+z) for the strong lensing arcs, which is reduced to 2.4%(1+z) after removing outliers. For galaxies in the cluster field the corresponding values are 4%(1+z) and 3%(1+z). Using mock galaxy catalogues, we show that 3%(1+z) precision is what one would expect from the CLASH photometry when taking into account extinction from dust, emission lines and the finite range of SEDs included in the photo-z templa...

  2. Compact Groups of Galaxies with Complete Spectroscopic Redshifts in the Local Universe

    Sohn, Jubee; Geller, Margaret J; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Rines, Kenneth J; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Gwang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical analysis of compact groups provides important tests of models of compact group formation and evolution. By compiling 2066 redshifts from FLWO/FAST, from the literature, and from SDSS DR12 in the fields of compact groups in \\citet{McC09}, we construct the largest sample of compact groups with complete spectroscopic redshifts in the redshift range $0.01 < z < 0.22$. This large redshift sample shows that the interloper fraction in the \\citet{McC09} compact group candidates is $\\sim 42\\%$. A secure sample of 332 compact groups includes 192 groups with four or more member galaxies and 140 groups with three members. The fraction of early-type galaxies in these compact groups is 62\\%, slightly higher than for the original Hickson compact groups. The velocity dispersions of early- and late-type galaxies in compact groups change little with groupcentric radius; the radii sampled are less than $100 ~h^{-1}$ kpc, smaller than the radii typically sampled by members of massive clusters of galaxies. The phy...

  3. Gravitational Redshift of Galaxies in Clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Sadeh, Iftach; Feng, Low Lerh; Lahav, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    The gravitational redshift effect allows one to directly probe the gravitational potential in clusters of galaxies. Following up on Wojtak et al. [Nature (London) 477, 567 (2011)], we present a new measurement. We take advantage of new data from the tenth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We compare the spectroscopic redshift of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with that of galaxies at the outskirts of clusters, using a sample w...

  4. Photometry and Photometric Redshifts of Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South Nicmos Field

    Chen, H W; Lanzetta, K M; Pascarelle, S M; Pütter, R C; Yahata, N; Yahil, A; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Pascarelle, Sebastian M.; Puetter, Richard C.; Yahata, Noriaki; Yahil, Amos

    1998-01-01

    We present an electronic catalog of infrared and optical photometry and photometric redshifts of 323 galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South NICMOS field at http://www.ess.sunysb.edu/astro/hdfs/home.html. The analysis is based on infrared images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope using the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrograph and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph together with optical images obtained with the Very Large Telescope. The infrared and optical photometry is measured by means of a new quasi-optimal photometric technique that fits model spatial profiles of the galaxies determined by Pixon image reconstruction techniques to the images. In comparison with conventional methods, the new technique provides higher signal-to-noise-ratio measurements and accounts for uncertainty correlations between nearby, overlapping neighbors. The photometric redshifts are measured by means of our redshift likelihood technique, incorporating six spectrophotometric templates which, by comparison...

  5. SHELS: A complete galaxy redshift survey with R ≤ 20.6

    Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Kurtz, Michael J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dell' Antonio, Ian P. [Department of Physics, Brown University, Box 1843, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Zahid, Harus Jabran, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: hhwang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: dfabricant@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mkurtz@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: ian@het.brown.edu, E-mail: jabran@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The SHELS (Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey) is a complete redshift survey covering two well-separated fields (F1 and F2) of the Deep Lens Survey to a limiting R = 20.6. Here we describe the redshift survey of the F2 field (R.A.{sub 2000} = 09{sup h}19{sup m}32.4 and decl.{sub 2000} = +30°00'00''). The survey includes 16,294 new redshifts measured with the Hectospec on the MMT. The resulting survey of the 4 deg{sup 2} F2 field is 95% complete to R = 20.6, currently the densest survey to this magnitude limit. The median survey redshift is z = 0.3; the survey provides a view of structure in the range 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 0.6. An animation displays the large-scale structure in the survey region. We provide a redshift, spectral index D {sub n}4000, and stellar mass for each galaxy in the survey. We also provide a metallicity for each galaxy in the range 0.2 galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, and redshift. The known evolutionary and stellar mass dependent properties of the galaxy population are cleanly evident in the data. We also show that the mass-metallicity relation previously determined from these data is robust to the analysis approach.

  6. QUEST FOR COSMOS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTERPARTS USING CARMA AND VLA: IDENTIFYING THREE HIGH-REDSHIFT STARBURST GALAXIES

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F1m > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, ∼10''-30'', resolution. All three sources—AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8—are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution (∼2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z ∼> 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 ± 1.2, 1.9+0.9–0.5, and ∼4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of ∼> 1000 M☉ yr–1and IR luminosities of ∼1013 L☉ consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z ∼ 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  7. QUEST FOR COSMOS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTERPARTS USING CARMA AND VLA: IDENTIFYING THREE HIGH-REDSHIFT STARBURST GALAXIES

    Smolcic, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching b. Muenchen (Germany); Navarrete, F.; Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institut for Astronomy, Auf dem Huegel 71, Bonn D-53121 (Germany); Aravena, M.; Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ilbert, O. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Universite de Provence, CNRS, BP 8, Traverse du Siphon, F-13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Yun, M. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Salvato, M.; Finoguenov, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); McCracken, H. J. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Diener, C. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zrich, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Wilson, G. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Riechers, D. A.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F{sub 1m} > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, {approx}10''-30'', resolution. All three sources-AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8-are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution ({approx}2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z {approx}> 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 {+-} 1.2, 1.9{sup +0.9}{sub -0.5}, and {approx}4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of {approx}> 1000 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}and IR luminosities of {approx}10{sup 13} L{sub Sun} consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z {approx} 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  8. Morphological Classification of High-redshift Massive Galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA Field

    Guan-wen, Fang; Zhong-yang, Ma; Xu, Kong

    2016-04-01

    Utilizing the multi-band photometric data of the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey)/UltraVISTA (Ultra-deep Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) field and the high-resolution HST WFC3 (Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3) near-infrared images in the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) field, we have selected 362 galaxies with the redshifts of 1≤ z ≤3 and the stellar masses of M* ≥ 1010.5M⊙, and made the classification study on the morphologies of these massive galaxies. The results from the UVJ ((U-V) vs (V-J)) two-color diagram classification, visual classification, non-model based classification (Gini coefficient G and moment index M20), and model based classification (Sérsic index n) are in good agreement with each other. Compared with the star-forming galaxies (SFGs), the quiescent galaxies (QGs) defined by the UVJ two-color diagram exhibit the compact elliptical structures, and generally have larger n and G, but smaller M20 and galaxy's effective radius re. The evolution of galaxy size with the redshift is obvious for various QG and SFG samples defined by the different classification systems (two-color diagram classification system, model and non-model based classification systems), and this evolutionary tendency is stronger for QGs in comparison with SFGs, independent to the selection of galaxy classification methods.

  9. High redshift galaxies and the Lyman-alpha forest in a CDM universe

    Croft, R A C; Springel, V; Westover, M; White, M; Croft, Rupert A.C.; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker; Westover, Michael; White, Martin

    2002-01-01

    We use a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of a cold dark matter universe to investigate theoretically the relationship between high redshift galaxies and the Lyman=alpha forest at redshift z=3. Galaxies in the simulation are surrounded by halos of hot gas, which nevertheless contain enough neutral hydrogen to cause a Ly-alpha flux decrement, its strength increasing with galaxy mass. A comparison with recent observational data by Adelberger et. al on the Ly-alpha forest around galaxies reveals that actual galaxies may have systematically less Ly-alpha absorption within 1 Mpc of them than our simulated galaxies. In order to investigate this possibility, we add several simple prescriptions for galaxy feedback on the IGM to the evolved simulation. These include the effect of photoionizing background radiation coming from galactic sources, galactic winds whose only effect is to deposit thermal energy into the IGM, and another, kinetic model for winds, which are assumed to evacuate cavities in the IGM around ga...

  10. Clumpy galaxies at z~0.6: kinematics, stability, and comparison with analogs at other redshifts

    Puech, M

    2010-01-01

    Distant clumpy galaxies are thought to be Jeans-unstable disks, and an important channel for the formation of local galaxies, as suggested by recent spatially-resolved kinematic observations of z~2 galaxies. I study the kinematics of clumpy galaxies at z~0.6, and compare their properties with those of counterparts at higher and lower redshifts. I selected a sample of 11 clumpy galaxies at z~0.6 from the representative sample of emission line, intermediate-mass galaxies IMAGES. Selection was based on rest-frame UV morphology from HST/ACS images, mimicking the selection criteria commonly used at higher redshifts. Their spatially-resolved kinematics were derived in the frame of the IMAGES survey, using the VLT/FLAMES-GIRAFFE multi-integral field spectrograph. For those showing large-scale rotation, I derived the Toomre Q parameter, which characterizes the stability of their gaseous and stellar phases. I find that the fraction of UV-selected clumpy galaxies at z~0.6 is 20+/-12%. Roughly half of them (45+/-30%) ha...