WorldWideScience

Sample records for 2d meso-scale coulombic

  1. A Finite Element Method for Solving 2D Contact Problems with Coulomb Friction and Bilateral Constraints

    Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Based on the plenty method, this paper describes a numerical method for 2D non-smooth contact problems with Coulomb friction and bilateral constraints and its application to the simulation of statics and dynamics for a frictional translational joint. Comparison is made with results obtained using a finite element program, ANSYS.

  2. One particle properties in the 2D Coulomb problem. Luttinger-Ward variational approach

    Agnihotri, M.P.

    2007-04-27

    In this work, we have studied the 2D Coulomb problem. We used the Luttinger-Ward variational principle to determine the self-energy {sigma} in ring approximation. The use of an ansatz for {sigma} enables us to perform the frequency sums (integrals as T {yields} 0) analytically. Compared to the usual procedure of iterating the self consistency equation with free Green's function as starting points, the present approach is superior. It works for higher density parameter r{sub s} (low density) where the iteration already fails to converge. The motivation of the present work is the quantum Hall system at filling factor 1/2. The Luttinger-Ward procedure is a rather powerful method in particular if combined with an analytical ansatz for {sigma}. The computation performed here for 2DEG has to be seen as a first step: There, the experiment shows the features of a free Fermion system that is interpreted as a system of Composite Fermions. If one studies the self energy of the Composite Fermions in an conserved approximation that corresponds to the ring approximation, one encounters a self consistency equation. However, an iterative solution of this equation meets with a complication: Instead of the polarization part {pi}{sub 00}, in the case of the Composite Fermion there appears the longitudinal polarization part {pi}{sub LL} that has an additional factor (2k + q){sup 2} under the k integral. This integral converges only after the frequency integral is performed. It is highly difficult to reproduce this numerically. Here, the Luttinger-Ward variational approach applied to the 2D Coulomb problem in the present work looks promising. For the 2D Coulomb problem, in the ring approximation for the LW thermodynamic potential, that already leads to a formidable integral equation that has to be studied numerically. (orig.)

  3. One particle properties in the 2D Coulomb problem. Luttinger-Ward variational approach

    In this work, we have studied the 2D Coulomb problem. We used the Luttinger-Ward variational principle to determine the self-energy Σ in ring approximation. The use of an ansatz for Σ enables us to perform the frequency sums (integrals as T → 0) analytically. Compared to the usual procedure of iterating the self consistency equation with free Green's function as starting points, the present approach is superior. It works for higher density parameter rs (low density) where the iteration already fails to converge. The motivation of the present work is the quantum Hall system at filling factor 1/2. The Luttinger-Ward procedure is a rather powerful method in particular if combined with an analytical ansatz for Σ. The computation performed here for 2DEG has to be seen as a first step: There, the experiment shows the features of a free Fermion system that is interpreted as a system of Composite Fermions. If one studies the self energy of the Composite Fermions in an conserved approximation that corresponds to the ring approximation, one encounters a self consistency equation. However, an iterative solution of this equation meets with a complication: Instead of the polarization part Π00, in the case of the Composite Fermion there appears the longitudinal polarization part ΠLL that has an additional factor (2k + q)2 under the k integral. This integral converges only after the frequency integral is performed. It is highly difficult to reproduce this numerically. Here, the Luttinger-Ward variational approach applied to the 2D Coulomb problem in the present work looks promising. For the 2D Coulomb problem, in the ring approximation for the LW thermodynamic potential, that already leads to a formidable integral equation that has to be studied numerically. (orig.)

  4. Meso-scale wind variability. Final report

    Larsen, S.; Larsen, X.; Vincent, C.; Soerensen, P.; Pinson, P.; Trombe, P.-J.; Madsen, H.; Cutululis, N.

    2011-11-15

    The project has aimed to characterize mesoscale meteorological phenomenon for the North Sea and the Inner Danish waters, and additionally aimed on improving the predictability and quality of the power production from offshore windfarms. The meso-scale meteorology has been characterized with respect to the physical processes, climatology, spectral characteristics and correlation properties based on measurements from wind farms, satellite data (SAR) and mesoscale numerical modeling (WRF). The abilities of the WRF model to characterize and predict relevant mesoscale phenomenon has been proven. Additionally application of statistical forecasting, using a Markov switching approach that can be related to the meteorological conditions, to analyze and short term predict the power production from an offshore wind farms have been documented. Two PhD studies have been conducted in connection with the project. The project has been a cooperative project between Risoe DTU, IMM DTU, DONG Energy, Vattenfall and VESTAS. It is registered as Energinet.dk, project no. 2007-1-7141. (Author)

  5. Onset of meso-scale turbulence in living fluids

    Doostmohammadi, Amin; Thijssen, Kristian; Yeomans, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Meso-scale turbulence is an innate phenomenon, distinct from inertial turbulence, that spontaneously occurs at zero-Reynolds number in fluidized biological systems. This spatio-temporal disordered flow radically changes nutrient and molecular transport in living fluids and can strongly affect the collective behaviour in prominent biological processes, including biofilm formation, morphogenesis and cancer invasion. Despite its crucial role in such physiological processes, understanding meso-scale turbulence and any relation to classical inertial turbulence remains obscure. Here, we show how the motion of active matter along a micro-channel transitions to meso-scale turbulence through the evolution of disordered patches (active puffs) from an absorbing state of flow vortex-lattices. We demonstrate that the critical behaviour of this transition to meso-scale turbulence in a channel belongs to the directed percolation universality class. This finding bridges our understanding of the onset of zero-Reynolds number ...

  6. Unifying Inference of Meso-Scale Structures in Networks.

    Birkan Tunç

    Full Text Available Networks are among the most prevalent formal representations in scientific studies, employed to depict interactions between objects such as molecules, neuronal clusters, or social groups. Studies performed at meso-scale that involve grouping of objects based on their distinctive interaction patterns form one of the main lines of investigation in network science. In a social network, for instance, meso-scale structures can correspond to isolated social groupings or groups of individuals that serve as a communication core. Currently, the research on different meso-scale structures such as community and core-periphery structures has been conducted via independent approaches, which precludes the possibility of an algorithmic design that can handle multiple meso-scale structures and deciding which structure explains the observed data better. In this study, we propose a unified formulation for the algorithmic detection and analysis of different meso-scale structures. This facilitates the investigation of hybrid structures that capture the interplay between multiple meso-scale structures and statistical comparison of competing structures, all of which have been hitherto unavailable. We demonstrate the applicability of the methodology in analyzing the human brain network, by determining the dominant organizational structure (communities of the brain, as well as its auxiliary characteristics (core-periphery.

  7. Micro- and meso-scale effects of forested terrain

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Sogachev, Andrey;

    2011-01-01

    scales are the height of the planetary boundary layer and the Monin-Obukhov length, which both are related to the energy balance of the surface. Examples of important micro- and meso-scale effects of forested terrain are shown using data and model results from recent and ongoing experiments. For micro...

  8. Meso-scale modeling of a forested landscape

    Dellwik, Ebba; Arnqvist, Johan; Bergström, Hans;

    2014-01-01

    Meso-scale models are increasingly used for estimating wind resources for wind turbine siting. In this study, we investigate how the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model performs using standard model settings in two different planetary boundary layer schemes for a forested landscape and how...

  9. Process intensification using a meso-scale oscillatory flow reactor

    Reis, N.; A.A. Vicente; Teixeira, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Meso-technologies are currently triggering a paradigm change in the design of chemical and biochemical processes. Mass and heat transfer rates can readily be maximised in smaller, sustainable, cheaper and safer plants, whilst virtually reducing the design of (bio) process unit operations to the intrinsic kinetics of the system. A novel meso-scale reactor running with oscillatory flow mixing was recently developed in the University of Minho in collaboration with the University o...

  10. Modelling Meso-Scale Diffusion Processes in Stochastic Fluid Bio-Membranes

    Rafii-Tabar, H

    1999-01-01

    The space-time dynamics of rigid inhomogeneities (inclusions) free to move in a randomly fluctuating fluid bio-membrane is derived and numerically simulated as a function of the membrane shape changes. Both vertically placed (embedded) inclusions and horizontally placed (surface) inclusions are considered. The energetics of the membrane, as a two-dimensional (2D) meso-scale continuum sheet, is described by the Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian, with the membrane height function treated as a stochastic process. The diffusion parameter of this process acts as the link coupling the membrane shape fluctuations to the kinematics of the inclusions. The latter is described via Ito stochastic differential equation. In addition to stochastic forces, the inclusions also experience membrane-induced deterministic forces. Our aim is to simulate the diffusion-driven aggregation of inclusions and show how the external inclusions arrive at the sites of the embedded inclusions. The model has potential use in such emerging fields as...

  11. A computerized method to estimate friction coefficient from orientation distribution of meso-scale faults

    Sato, Katsushi

    2016-08-01

    The friction coefficient controls the brittle strength of the Earth's crust for deformation recorded by faults. This study proposes a computerized method to determine the friction coefficient of meso-scale faults. The method is based on the analysis of orientation distribution of faults, and the principal stress axes and the stress ratio calculated by a stress tensor inversion technique. The method assumes that faults are activated according to the cohesionless Coulomb's failure criterion, where the fluctuations of fluid pressure and the magnitude of differential stress are assumed to induce faulting. In this case, the orientation distribution of fault planes is described by a probability density function that is visualized as linear contours on a Mohr diagram. The parametric optimization of the function for an observed fault population yields the friction coefficient. A test using an artificial fault-slip dataset successfully determines the internal friction angle (the arctangent of the friction coefficient) with its confidence interval of several degrees estimated by the bootstrap resampling technique. An application to natural faults cutting a Pleistocene forearc basin fill yields a friction coefficient around 0.7 which is experimentally predicted by the Byerlee's law.

  12. MICRO-SEISMOMETERS VIA ADVANCED MESO-SCALE FABRICATION

    Garcia, Caesar A; Onaran, Guclu; Avenson, Brad; Hall, Neal

    2014-11-07

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) seek revolutionary sensing innovations for the monitoring of nuclear detonations. Performance specifications are to be consistent with those obtainable by only an elite few products available today, but with orders of magnitude reduction in size, weight, power, and cost. The proposed commercial innovation calls upon several technologies including the combination of meso-scale fabrication and assembly, photonics-based displacement / motion detection methods, and the use of digital control electronics . Early Phase II development has demonstrated verified and repeatable sub 2ng noise floor from 3Hz to 100Hz, compact integration of 3-axis prototypes, and robust deployment exercises. Ongoing developments are focusing on low frequency challenges, low power consumption, ultra-miniature size, and low cross axis sensitivity. We are also addressing the rigorous set of specifications required for repeatable and reliable long-term explosion monitoring, including thermal stability, reduced recovery time from mass re-centering and large mechanical shocks, sensitivity stability, and transportability. Successful implementation will result in small, hand-held demonstration units with the ability to address national security needs of the DOE/NNSA. Additional applications envisioned include military/defense, scientific instrumentation, oil and gas exploration, inertial navigation, and civil infrastructure monitoring.

  13. Interpreting Temperature Strain Data from Meso-Scale Clathrate Experiments

    Leeman, John R [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Ulrich, Shannon M [ORNL; Elwood Madden, Megan [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Gas hydrates are important in global climate change, carbon sequestra- tion, and seafloor stability. Currently, formation and dissociation pathways are poorly defined. We present a new approach for processing large amounts of data from meso-scale experiments, such as the LUNA distributed sensing system (DSS) in the seafloor process simulator (SPS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DSS provides a proxy for temperature measurement with a high spatial resolution allowing the heat of reaction during gas hydrate formation/dissociation to aid in locating clathrates in the vessel. The DSS fibers are placed in the sediment following an Archimedean spiral design and then the position of each sensor is solved by iterating over the arc length formula with Newtons method. The data is then gridded with 1 a natural neighbor interpolation algorithm to allow contouring of the data. The solution of the sensor locations is verified with hot and cold stimulus in known locations. An experiment was preformed with a vertically split column of sand and silt. The DSS system clearly showed hydrate forming in the sand first, then slowly creeping into the silt. Similar systems and data processing techniques could be used for monitoring of hydrates in natural environments or in any situation where a hybrid temperature/strain index is useful. Further ad- vances in fiber technology allow the fiber to be applied in any configuration and the position of each sensor to be precisely determined making practical applications easier.

  14. Meso-scale modeling of a forested landscape

    Meso-scale models are increasingly used for estimating wind resources for wind turbine siting. In this study, we investigate how the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model performs using standard model settings in two different planetary boundary layer schemes for a forested landscape and how this performance is changed when enhancing the roughness by a factor four in one of the schemes. The model simulations were evaluated using data from a 138 m tall mast in southeastern Sweden, where an experiment with six sonic anemometers and standard meteorological instrumentation was performed 2010-2012. The land cover around the mast is dominated by forest and for the most common wind direction, the forest extends more than 200 km from the mast. The two low-roughness simulations showed differences both in terms of estimated wind resource and wind shear. The simulation with enhanced roughness results in an improved correlation with measured data for near-neutral situations in the observed height range, whereas the correlation is deteriorated relative to the standard setup for stable atmospheric stratifications for heights above approximately 80 m. The inclusion of the displacement height in the post-processing of the results is also discussed

  15. Meso-scale flume test for laboratory weathering of oil

    When oil is spilled at sea, several weathering processes can occur simultaneously. These processes can either be studied isolated in small-scale laboratory investigations or in connection with experimental field trials with oil at sea. To get the opportunity to study these processes simultaneously, under controlled conditions, a meso-scale flume basin was constructed. The basin is ca 9 m long and 0.5 m wide and made of plexiglass. When filled with sea water to a depth of 0.4 m, the volume is ca 1,750 liters. Three water pumps are installed at the bottom of the basin to achieve a basic and uniform circulation of the water. Adjustable fans and wave generator can provide a variety of wind and wave conditions in the basin. A sunlamp is used to provide radiation for artifical photolysis if photooxidation of the oil is desired. The whole basin is located in a temperature-adjustable cooling room. Examples of test results on evaporative loss, water uptake, viscosity, and natural dispersion of North Sea crudes are presented. 6 refs., 6 figs

  16. Flame dynamics of a meso-scale heat recirculating combustor

    Vijayan, V.; Gupta, A.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The dynamics of premixed propane-air flame in a meso-scale ceramic combustor has been examined here. The flame characteristics in the combustor were examined by measuring the acoustic emissions and preheat temperatures together with high-speed cinematography. For the small-scale combustor, the volume to surface area ratio is small and hence the walls have significant effect on the global flame structure, flame location and flame dynamics. In addition to the flame-wall thermal coupling there is a coupling between flame and acoustics in the case of confined flames. Flame-wall thermal interactions lead to low frequency flame fluctuations ({proportional_to}100 Hz) depending upon the thermal response of the wall. However, the flame-acoustic interactions can result in a wide range of flame fluctuations ranging from few hundred Hz to few kHz. Wall temperature distribution is one of the factors that control the amount of reactant preheating which in turn effects the location of flame stabilization. Acoustic emission signals and high-speed flame imaging confirmed that for the present case flame-acoustic interactions have more significant effect on flame dynamics. Based on the acoustic emissions, five different flame regimes have been identified; whistling/harmonic mode, rich instability mode, lean instability mode, silent mode and pulsating flame mode. (author)

  17. Probabilistic flood damage modelling at the meso-scale

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on flood risk management and adaptation are usually based on risk analyses. Such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments. Most damage models have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood damage models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we show how the model BT-FLEMO (Bagging decision Tree based Flood Loss Estimation MOdel) can be applied on the meso-scale, namely on the basis of ATKIS land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany. The application of BT-FLEMO provides a probability distribution of estimated damage to residential buildings per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight other damage models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official damage data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of damage estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation model BT-FLEMO is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. Reference: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64.

  18. Formation of low-level meso-scale southwest jet during seasonal rainfall

    赵平; 周秀骥

    2001-01-01

    The meso-scale feature and energy budget of a low-level southwest jet were analyzed using the data collected during the heavy rainfall events that occurred between July 20 ~ 27, 1998 over the basin of the Changjiang.And the dynamic mechanism for the formation and maintenance of the meso-scale low-level jet under the condition of the low-level heterogeneous large-scale south wind was investigated using a shallow water model. The results can explain the mechanism of the formation of the meso-scale jet in this event and the importance of the heterogeneous large-scale horizontal motion in the formation of the meso-scale jet.

  19. Atmospheric Delay Reduction using Ray Tracing Technique through Meso-scale Numerical Weather Data for Space Geodesy

    Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Hobiger, Thomas; Shoji, Yoshinori; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Tesuro

    2010-05-01

    We have been developing a state-of-art tool to estimate the atmospheric path delays by ray-tracing through meso-scale analysis (MANAL data) data with 10km grid interval, which is operationally used for numerical weather prediction by Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The tools, which we have named 'KAshima RAytracing Tools (KARAT)', are capable of calculating total slant delays and ray-bending angles considering real atmospheric phenomena. The KARAT can estimate atmospheric slant delays by three different calculation schemes. These are (1) a piece-wise linear propagation, (2) an analytical 2-D ray-propagation model by Thayer, and (3) a 3-D Eikonal solver. By computing GPS PPP solutions for 57 GPS sites of the GEONET (GPS Earth Observation Network System) operated by Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) of Japan it could be shown that KARAT performs slightly better than results based on the Global Mapping Function (GMF) and the Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1), whereas for the latter two also linear gradient models had to be applied. The grid interval of the MANAL data was updated from 10km to 5km on April 7, 2009. In addition, on October 27, 2009 the JMA started data assimilation of zenith wet delay obtained by the GEONET for meso-scale numerical weather prediction. We are now evaluating impacts of data scheme improvements and assimilation strategy change on the slant delay reduction. We will include these preliminary results in our presentation.

  20. Statistical characteristics of meso-scale vortex effects on the track of a tropical cyclone

    This paper examines initial meso-scale vortex effects on the motion of a tropical cyclone (TC) in a system where coexisting two components of TC and meso-scale vortices with a barotropic vorticity equation model. The initial meso-scale vortices are generated stochastically by employing Reinaud's method. The 62 simulations are performed and analysed in order to understand the statistical characteristics of the effects. Results show that the deflection of the TC track at t = 24 h induced by the initial meso-scale vortices ranges from 2 km to 37 km with the mean value of 13.4 km. A more significant deflection of the TC track can be reduced when several initial meso-scale vortices simultaneously appear in a smaller TC circulation area. It ranges from 22 km to 37 km with the mean value of 28 km, this fact implies that the initial meso-scale vortices-induced deflection may not be neglected sometimes. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  1. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Dolman, A. J.; M. A. Silva Dias; J.-C. Calvet; Ashby, M.; A. S. Tahara; C. Delire; Kabat, P.; Fisch, G. A.; Nobre, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling th...

  2. LOT, a meso scale mechanistic tool for Porous Asphalt mixture design; winter damage and LOT validation

    Huurman, M.; Mo, L.T.; Woldekidan, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    By assignment of the Centre for Transport and Navigation (DVS) of the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management the Delft University of Technology developed LOT. LOT is a Lifetime Optimisation Tool for Porous Asphalt, PA, based on meso scale structural modelling. LOT sees an asp

  3. An endoscopic capsule robot: a meso-scale engineering case study

    A number of unique challenges arise in fabricating and assembling complex mechanisms at the meso-scale (hundreds of microns to centimetres). In general, for a complex multi-part mechanism at this length scale, no single machining technique can produce all the necessary parts—or often even a single individual part. Towards developing a comprehensive set of 'best practices' for combining multiple precision micromachining operations at the meso-scale, we present a case study on fabricating and assembling an endoscopic capsule robot. Existing passive imaging capsules have proven exceptionally useful in the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, and robotic capsules promise to enhance their diagnostic capabilities and enable non-invasive treatment delivery. In this case study, we describe the fabrication of a robotic capsule (2.6 cm3 in volume) containing a complex mechanism consisting of 72 components, each of which requires a variety of meso- or even micro-scale features. We describe the manufacturing processes used to produce these components and features (combinations of high precision, multiply refixtured computer numerical control processes, sink and wire electro discharge machining, laser cutting, etc). These results contribute to the emerging framework of best practices in meso-scale design and manufacture, illustrating ways to effectively combine several processes to produce a complex meso-scale device

  4. Information processing in micro and meso-scale neural circuits during normal and disease states

    Luongo, Francisco

    Neural computation can occur at multiple spatial and temporal timescales. The sum total of all of these processes is to guide optimal behaviors within the context of the constraints imposed by the physical world. How the circuits of the brain achieves this goal represents a central question in systems neuroscience. Here I explore the many ways in which the circuits of the brain can process information at both the micro and meso scale. Understanding the way information is represented and processed in the brain could shed light on the neuropathology underlying complex neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia. Chapter 2 establishes an experimental paradigm for assaying patterns of microcircuit activity and examines the role of dopaminergic modulation on prefrontal microcircuits. We find that dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor activation results in an increase in spontaneous activity while dopamine type 1 (D1) activation does not. Chapter 3 of this dissertation presents a study that illustrates how cholingergic activation normally produces what has been suggested as a neural substrate of attention; pairwise decorrelation in microcircuit activity. This study also shows that in two etiologicall distinct mouse models of autism, FMR1 knockout mice and Valproic Acid exposed mice, this ability to decorrelate in the presence of cholinergic activation is lost. This represents a putative microcircuit level biomarker of autism. Chapter 4 examines the structure/function relationship within the prefrontal microcircuit. Spontaneous activity in prefrontal microcircuits is shown to be organized according to a small world architecture. Interestingly, this architecture is important for one concrete function of neuronal microcircuits; the ability to produce temporally stereotyped patterns of activation. In the final chapter, we identify subnetworks in chronic intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings using pairwise electrode coherence and dimensionality reduction

  5. Analysis of roping of aluminum sheet materials based on the meso-scale moving window approach

    The moving-window method, on which a meso-scale roping model is based, is proposed to bridge the spatial gap between the grain-scale of the individual orientations and the macro-scale of the surface roping. The mesoscopic roping model is applied to numerically analyze the roping propensity in an AA6016 aluminum metal sheet under uniaxial tensile testing. The measured electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data are directly incorporated into the meso-scale roping model, in which the full constraints Taylor polycrystal plasticity model is used to simulate the r-value and then the thickness change for each window. The roping wavelength and amplitude are sought by assuming that roping is caused by the existence of mesoscopic volumes with contrasting textures. The simulated surface profiles are compared quantitatively with experimental measurements. The effect of the window size is discussed

  6. Development of meso-scale milling machine tool and its performance analysis

    Hongtao LI; Xinmin LAI; Chengfeng LI; Zhongqin LIN; Jiancheng MIAO; Jun NI

    2008-01-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of current technologies for meso-scale manufacturing such as MEMS and ultra precision machining, this paper focuses on the investigations on the meso milling process with a miniaturized machine tool. First, the related technologies for the process mechanism studies are investigated based on the analysis of the characteristics of the meso milling process. An overview of the key issues is presented and research approaches are also proposed. Then, a meso-scale milling machine tool system is developed. The subsystems and their specifications are described in detail. Finally, some tests are conducted to evaluate the performance of the system. These tests consist of precision measurement of the positioning subsystem, the test for machining precision evaluation, and the experiments for machining mechanical parts with com-plex features. Through test analysis, the meso milling process with a miniaturized machine tool is proved to be feasible and applicable for meso manufacturing.

  7. The POMME meso-scale analyses of the circulation in the NE Atlantic

    Reverdin, G.; Assenbaum, M.; Caniaux, G.; Gaillard, F.; Giordani, H.; L'Herminier, P.; Memery, L.; Prieur, L.

    2003-04-01

    The Programme "Ocean Multidisciplinaire Meso Echelle" (POMME) seeks to understand the impact of meso-scale dynamics on mode water formation and subduction, and on the seasonal evolution of the water mass characteristics and biological activity in the NE Atlantic ocean (15-20W, 38-45N). The one-year field work, achieved in the autumn 2001, was based on three 6-week cruises with two vessels, nine moorings equipped with current-meters and other instruments, including four with sediment traps, and over 100 drifters and subsurface floats, as well as intensive meteorological measurements. Some of these floats and drifters were deployed during earlier cruises starting in October 1999 which provide a pluri-annual context. A significant meso-scale signal was observed in this low-energy region. A few coherent structures were identified which contribute to the horizontal transport of heat, salinity, stratification and tracers. These meso-scales also contribute to the distorsion of late-winter mixed layer depth that is primarily controlled by the air-sea buoyancy fluxes. Different analyses of the surface flow, temperature and salinity and of their evolution over a year will be presented. The water mass displacements and particle dispersion are also tentatively quantified that are compared to the actual subsurface float displacements and hydrographic parrays. The analyses are also used to illustrate the distorsion caused by advection on passive tracers (stirring of the large-scale horizontal gradient by the meso-scale eddies). How this varies with the vertical and what are the layers which contribute to the meridional heat and freshwater transport by the eddies will be explored. Areas of trapped flow in coherent eddies are tentatively identified, as well as areas favorable for the development of filaments.

  8. Modeling heterogeneous materials failure: 3D meso-scale models with embedded discontinuities

    Benkemoun, Nathan; Hautefeuille, Martin; Colliat, Jean-Baptiste; Ibrahimbegovic, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    We present a meso-scale model for failure of heterogeneous quasi-brittle materials. The model problem of heterogeneous materials that is addressed in detail is based on two-phase 3D representation of reinforced heterogeneous materials, such as concrete, where the inclusions are melt within the matrix. The quasi-brittle failure mechanisms are described by the spatial truss representation, which is defined by the chosen Voronoi mesh. In order to explicitly incorporate heterogeneities with no ne...

  9. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    A. J. Dolman

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  10. Numerical framework for modeling of cementitious composites at the meso-scale

    Jerábek, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The application of composite materials as a building material has been constantly growing in popularity during the last decades. Composite materials combine several material components to allow for an optimal utilization of their favorable properties. The focus of this work is the modeling of the cementitious composites at the extit{meso-scale}. In particular, the motivation of the thesis is to model textile reinforced concrete, a new composite material combining a high-strength textile reinf...

  11. Mesos-scale modeling of irradiation in pressurized water reactor concrete biological shields

    Le Pape, Yann [ORNL; Huang, Hai [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2016-01-01

    Neutron irradiation exposure causes aggregate expansion, namely radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE). The structural significance of RIVE on a portion of a prototypical pressurized water reactor (PWR) concrete biological shield (CBS) is investigated by using a meso- scale nonlinear concrete model with inputs from an irradiation transport code and a coupled moisture transport-heat transfer code. RIVE-induced severe cracking onset appears to be triggered by the ini- tial shrinkage-induced cracking and propagates to a depth of > 10 cm at extended operation of 80 years. Relaxation of the cement paste stresses results in delaying the crack propagation by about 10 years.

  12. Meso-scale simulation of shocked particle laden flows and construction of metamodels

    Sen, Oishik; Davis, Sean; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2015-06-01

    In a typical multi-scale modeling problem, such as shock interaction with a dusty gas, information needs to be communicated between disparate length scales, for example between the system scale (order of meters) and the particle scale (order of microns). For the passage of a shock through a cloud of particles, the particle-gas interphase transfer terms in the macro-scale equations are typically based on empirical models of the drag force around a single particle embedded in a shocked flow. Often physical experiments to construct empirical models are restricted in parameter space and difficult or even impossible to perform for a wide range of parameters (Mach number, solid fraction, Reynolds numbers etc.). The goal of the current work is to use high-resolution meso-scale computational experiments as surrogates to physical experiments; a metamodeling approach is developed to ``lift'' information from the particle scale to the macro-scale. The research compares different metamodeling techniques and demonstrates the efficient use of metamodels to close the macro-scale equations; the meso-scale simulations provide a numerical drag law which can be readily used as a source term in macro-scale governing equations. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant Number FA9550-12-1-0115 and the National Science Foundation under Grant Number DMS-115631.

  13. Meso-scale wrinkled coatings to improve heat transfers of surfaces facing ambient air

    Meso-scale (micrometer-to submillimeter-scale) wrinkled surfaces coated on steel sheets used in outdoor storage and transport facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids were discovered to efficiently increase convective heat transfer between ambient air and the surface. The radiative and convective heat transfer coefficients of various wrinkled surfaces, which were formed by coating steel sheets with several types of shrinkable paints, were examined. The convective heat transfer coefficient of a surface colder than ambient air monotonically changed with average height difference and interval distance of the wrinkle undulation, where the proportions were 0.0254 and 0.0054 W/m2/K/μm, respectively. With this wrinkled coating, users can lower the possibility of condensation and reduce rust and maintenance cost of facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids. From the point of view of manufacturers, this coating method can be easily adapted to conventional manufacturing processes. - Highlights: • Various wrinkled surfaces were fabricated by a practical process. • Topographical effect on convection was parameterized separately from radiation. • Meso-scale wrinkled coatings increased convective heat transfer with ambient air. • Maintenance cost of outdoor steel sheets due to condensation can be reduced

  14. MODELING OF MESO-SCALE STRUCTURES IN PARTICLE-FLUID SYSTEMS: THE EMMS/CFD APPROACH

    Ning; Yang; Wei; Wang; Wei; Ge; Jinghai; Li

    2005-01-01

    Meso-scale structures existing in the form of particle-rich clusters, streamers or strands in circulating fluidized beds, and of ascending bubble plumes and descending liquid-rich vortices in bubble columns and slurry-bed reactors, as commonly observed, have played an important role in the macro-scale behavior of particle-fluid systems. These meso-scale structures span a wide range of length and time scales, and their origin, evolution and influence are still far from being well understood.Recent decades have witnessed the emergence of computer simulation of particle-fluid systems based on computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. However, strictly speaking these models are far from mature and the complex nature of particle-fluid systems arising from the meso-scale structures has been posing great challenges to investigators. The reason may be that the current two-fluid models (TFM) are derived either from continuum mechanics by using different kinds of averaging techniques for the conservation equations of single-phase flow, or from the kinetic theory of gases in which the assumption of molecular chaos is employed, thereby losing sight of the meso-scale heterogeneity at the scale of computational cells and leading to inaccurate calculation of the interaction force between particles and fluids. For example, the overall drag force for particles in a cell is usually calculated from the empirical Wen & Yu/Ergun correlations,which should be suspected since these correlations were originally derived from homogeneous systems.Schemes to solve this problem for gas-particles systems may be classified into four categories. First, one could capture the detailed meso-scale structure information at the cell scale by employing the so-called direct numerical simulation (DNS) (Hu, 1996), the pseudo-particle modeling (PPM) (Ge & Li, 2003), or the Lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) to track the interface between gas and particles. Second, refinement of the computational meshes may

  15. Resolving meso-scale seabed variability using reflection measurements from an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Holland, Charles W; Nielsen, Peter L; Dettmer, Jan; Dosso, Stan

    2012-02-01

    Seabed geoacoustic variability is driven by geological processes that occur over a wide spectrum of space-time scales. While the acoustics community has some understanding of horizontal fine-scale geoacoustic variability, less than O(10(0)) m, and large-scale variability, greater than O(10(3)) m, there is a paucity of data resolving the geoacoustic meso-scale O(10(0)-10(3)) m. Measurements of the meso-scale along an ostensibly "benign" portion of the outer shelf reveal three classes of variability. The first class was expected and is due to horizontal variability of layer thicknesses: this was the only class that could be directly tied to seismic reflection data. The second class is due to rapid changes in layer properties and/or boundaries, occurring over scales of meters to hundreds of meters. The third class was observed as rapid variations of the angle/frequency dependent reflection coefficient within a single observation and is suggestive of variability at scales of meter or less. Though generally assumed to be negligible in acoustic modeling, the second and third classes are indicative of strong horizontal geoacoustic variability within a given layer. The observations give early insight into possible effects of horizontal geoacoustic variability on long-range acoustic propagation and reverberation. PMID:22352482

  16. Optical Turbulence simulations with meso-scale models. Towards a new ground-based astronomy era

    Masciadri, Elena

    The optical turbulence characterization made with atmospherical meso-scale models for astronomical applications is a relatively recent approach (first studies have been published in the ninety). Simulations retrieved from such models can be fundamental for the optimization of the AO techniques and characterization and selection of astronomical sites. In most cases, simulations and measurements provide complementary information on turbulence features. The potentialities related to the numerical approach and the most fundamental scientific challenges related to meso-scale atmospheric models rely upon the possibility (1) to describe a 3D map of the CN2 in a region around a telescope, (2) to forecast the optical turbulence i.e. to know with some hours in advance the state of the turbulence conditions above an astronomical site and (3) to perform a climatology of the optical turbulence extended over decades. The forecast of the optical turbulence is a fundamental requirement for the optimization of the management of the scientific programs to be carried out at ground-based telescopes foci. Ground-based astronomy will remain competitive with respect to the space-based one only if telescopes management will be performed taking advantage of the best turbulence conditions. The future of new ground- based telescopes generation relies therefore upon the success of these studies. No other tool of investigation with comparable potentialities can be figured out at present to achieve these 3 scientific goals. However, these highly challenging goals are associated to an intrinsic difficulty in parameterizing a physical process such as turbulence evolving at spatial and temporal scales smaller than what usually resolved by a meso-scale model. In this talk I will summarize the main results and progress achieved so far in this field since the ninety and I will present the most important scientific goals for the near and far future research. I will conclude with a brief presentation

  17. Isolation of nano-meso scale detergent resistant membrane that has properties expected of lipid 'rafts'.

    Morris, Roger J; Jen, Angela; Warley, Alice

    2011-03-01

    This review assesses problems that confound attempts to isolate 'raft' domains from cell membranes, focusing in particular upon the isolation of detergent resistant membrane (DRM). Despite its widespread use, this technique is rightly viewed with skepticism by many membrane biochemists and biophysics for reasons that include the inability to isolate DRMs at 37°C, the temperature at which their lipids are supposed to be ordered and so exclude detergents. If solubilization is done in an ionic buffer that preserves the lamellar phase of the metastable inner leaflet lipids, DRMs can readily be isolated at 37°C, and these have many properties expected of lipid rafts. However, to date these DRMs have remained somewhat larger than current concepts of rafts. We describe an adaptation of this method that purifies nano-meso scale DRMs, and could be a significant step towards purifying the membrane of individual 'rafts'. PMID:21214574

  18. The impact of forest regeneration on streamflow in 12 meso-scale humid tropical catchments

    H. E. Beck

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although regenerating forests make up an increasingly large portion of humid tropical landscapes, comparatively little is known of their water use and effects on streamflow (Q. Since the 1950s the island of Puerto Rico has experienced widespread abandonment of pastures and agricultural lands, followed by forest regeneration. This paper examines the possible impacts of forest regeneration on several Q metrics for 12 meso-scale catchments (23–346 km2; mean precipitation 1720–3422 mm yr−1 with long (33–51 yr and simultaneous records for Q, precipitation (P, potential evapotranspiration (PET, and land cover. A simple spatially-lumped, conceptual rainfall-runoff model that uses daily P and PET time series as inputs (HBV-light was used to simulate Q for each catchment. Annual time series of observed and simulated values of four Q metrics were calculated. A least-squares trend was fitted through annual time series of the residual difference between observed and simulated time series of each Q metric. From this the total cumulative change  was calculated, representing the change in each metric after controlling for climate variability and water storage carry-over effects between years. Negative values of  were found for most catchments and Q metrics, suggesting enhanced actual evapotranspiration overall following forest regeneration. However, correlations between changes in urban or forest area and values of  were insignificant (p ≥ 0.389 for all Q metrics. This suggests there is no convincing evidence that changes in the chosen Q metrics in these Puerto Rican catchments can be ascribed to changes in urban or forest area. The present results are in line with previous studies of meso- and macro-scale (sub-tropical catchments, which generally found no significant change in Q that can be attributed to changes in forest cover. Possible explanations for the apparent lack of a clear signal may include: errors in the land-cover, climate, Q

  19. A new meso-scale discrete element model to study deposit differences in tsunamis and storms

    Cheng, W.; Weiss, R.

    2014-12-01

    A fundamental question in tsunami and storm studies is how to differentiate their deposits, which is key to the understanding of past events. Currently, there is no consistent differences due to wide variability of causative forces, topography, sediment source and post-depositional changes. One avenue to resolve these issues can potentially be numerical modeling. Conventional depth-averaged models help us learn general interactions between flow and sediments, but fail to reproduce small-scale depositional structures. We present a new meso-scale sediment transport model. The goal is to advance our knowledge of characteristic differences between storm and tsunami deposits and their relationship with the hydrodynamic processes in tsunamis and storms. Our transport model is based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM). While it is ideal to model every single sediment grains, contemporary computational power will be quickly exhausted due to the scale of interest. Therefore we employ the meso-scale method where a particle represents a group of grains. The volume of each particle is determined dynamically based on pickup rate from the bed and transport rate at the boundaries. During transport, it is assumed that the particle does not change. The motion of particles is governed by Newton's Second Law, with wave motion superimposed on its settling velocities. Hindered settling is implemented to allow interactions between particles through changes of local sediment concentration. Particles are deposited when they reach the bed, and merged into the top layer. Deposits consist of layers that are of the same constant thickness. Bed avalanching could occur where slope exceeds a certain threshold. The Nonlinear Shallow Water Equation (NSWE) is employed to model hydrodynamics. The system of NSWE is solved with a second-order upwind FVM numerical scheme. Wetting and drying is also implemented to handle inundation. In order to couple the depth integrated NSWE with DEM, a velocity

  20. Integration of rotational algorithms into dissipative particle dynamics: modeling polyaromatic hydrocarbons on the meso-scale

    Zhang, Sheng-Fei; Xu, Jun-Bo; Wen, Hao; Bhattacharjee, Subir

    2011-08-01

    Heavy crude oil consists of thousands of compounds, a significant fraction of which have fairly large molecular weights and complex structures. Our work aims at constructing a meso-scale platform to explore this complex fluid in terms of microstructure, phase behavior, stability and rheology. In the present study, we focus on the treatment of the structures of fused aromatic rings as rigid body fragments in fractions such as asphaltenes and resins. To derive the rotational motion of rigid bodies in a non-conservative force field, we conduct a comparison of three rigid body rotational algorithms integrated into a standard dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation. The simulation results confirm the superiority of the Quaternion method. To ease any doubt concerning the introduction of rigid bodies into DPD, the performance of the Quaternion method was tested carefully. Finally, the aggregation dynamics of asphaltene in very diluted toluene was investigated. The nanoaggregates are found to experience forming, breaking up and reforming. The sizes of the asphaltene monomer and nanoaggregate are identified. The diffusion coefficient of diluted asphaltene in toluene is similar to that found experimentally. All these results verify the rotational algorithm and encourage us to extend this platform to study the rheological and colloidal characteristics of heavy crude oils in the future.

  1. Development of an Efficient Meso- scale Multi-phase Flow Solver in Nuclear Applications

    Lee, Taehun [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States)

    2015-10-20

    The proposed research aims at formulating a predictive high-order Lattice Boltzmann Equation for multi-phase flows relevant to nuclear energy related application - namely, saturated and sub-cooled boiling in reactors, and liquid- liquid mixing and extraction for fuel cycle separation. An efficient flow solver will be developed based on the Finite Element based Lattice Boltzmann Method (FE- LBM), accounting for phase-change heat transfer and capable of treating multiple phases over length scales from the submicron to the meter. A thermal LBM will be developed in order to handle adjustable Prandtl number, arbitrary specific heat ratio, a wide range of temperature variations, better numerical stability during liquid-vapor phase change, and full thermo-hydrodynamic consistency. Two-phase FE-LBM will be extended to liquid–liquid–gas multi-phase flows for application to high-fidelity simulations building up from the meso-scale up to the equipment sub-component scale. While several relevant applications exist, the initial applications for demonstration of the efficient methods to be developed as part of this project include numerical investigations of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomena in nuclear reactor fuel bundles, and liquid-liquid mixing and interfacial area generation for liquid-liquid separations. In addition, targeted experiments will be conducted for validation of this advanced multi-phase model.

  2. Mucin aggregation from a rod-like meso-scale model

    Moreno, Nicolas; Perilla, Jairo E.; Colina, Coray M.; Lísal, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics, a meso-scale particle-based model, was used to study the aggregation of mucins in aqueous solutions. Concentration, strength of the mucin-water interactions, as well as the effects of size, shape, and composition of the model molecules were studied. Model proteins were represented as rod-like objects formed by coarse-grained beads. In the first model, only one type of beads formed the mucin. It was found that all the surfaces were available to form aggregates and the conformation of the aggregates was a function of the strength of the mucin-water interaction. With this model, the number of aggregates was unaffected by the initial position of the mucins in the simulation box, except for the lowest mucin concentration. In a more refined mucin model, two kinds of beads were used in the molecule in order to represent the existence of cysteine-like terminal groups in the actual molecule. With this new scheme, aggregation took place by the interaction of the terminal groups between model molecules. The kinetic analysis of the evolution of the number of aggregates with time was also studied for both mucin models.

  3. Modelling daily sediment yield from a meso-scale catchment, a case study in SW Poland

    Keesstra, S. D.; Schoorl, J.; Temme, A. J. A. M.

    2009-07-01

    For management purposes it is important to be able to assess the sediment yield of a catchment. however, at this moment models designed for estimating sediment yield are only capable to give either very detailed storm-based information or year averages. The storm-based models require input data that are not available for most catchment. However, models that estimate yearly averages, ignore a lot of other detailed information, like daily discharge and precipitation data. There are currently no models available that model sediment yield on the temporal scale of one day and the spatial scale of a meso-scale catchment, without making use of very detailed input data. To fill this scientific and management gap, landscape evolution model LAPSUS has been adapted to model sediment yield on a daily basis. This model has the water balance as a base. To allow calibration with the discharge at the outlet, a subsurface flow module has been added to the model. (Author) 12 refs.

  4. Evaluation of Test Methods for Triaxially Braided Composites using a Meso-Scale Finite Element Model

    Zhang, Chao

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of triaxially braided composite is complicate due to the nonuniformity of deformation within the unit cell as well as the possibility of the freeedge effect related to the large size of the unit cell. Extensive experimental investigation has been conducted to develop more accurate test approaches in characterizing the actual mechanical properties of the material we are studying. In this work, a meso-scale finite element model is utilized to simulate two complex specimens: notched tensile specimen and tube tensile specimen, which are designed to avoid the free-edge effect and free-edge effect induced premature edge damage. The full field strain data is predicted numerically and compared with experimental data obtained by Digit Image Correlation. The numerically predicted tensile strength values are compared with experimentally measured results. The discrepancy between numerically predicted and experimentally measured data, the capability of different test approaches are analyzed and discussed. The presented numerical model could serve as assistance to the evaluation of different test methods, and is especially useful in identifying potential local damage events.

  5. Meso-scale magnetic signatures for nuclear reactor steel irradiation embrittlement monitoring

    Suter, J. D.; Ramuhalli, P.; McCloy, J. S.; Xu, K.; Hu, S.; Li, Y.; Jiang, W.; Edwards, D. J.; Schemer-Kohrn, A. L.; Johnson, B. R.

    2015-03-01

    Verifying the structural integrity of passive components in light water and advanced reactors will be necessary to ensure safe, long-term operations of the existing U.S. nuclear fleet. This objective can be achieved through nondestructive condition monitoring techniques, which can be integrated with plant operations to quantify the "state of health" of structural materials in real-time. While nondestructive methods for monitoring many classes of degradation (such as fatigue or stress corrosion cracking) are relatively advanced, this is not the case for degradation caused by irradiation. The development of nondestructive evaluation technologies for these types of degradation will require advanced materials characterization techniques and tools that enable comprehensive understanding of nuclear reactor material microstructural and behavioral changes under extreme operating environments. Irradiation-induced degradation of reactor steels causes changes in their microstructure that impacts their micro-magnetic properties. In this paper, we describe preliminary results of integrating advanced material characterization techniques with meso-scale computational models. In the future, this will help to provide an interpretive understanding of the state of degradation in structural materials. Microstructural data are presented from monocrystalline Fe and are correlated with variable-field magnetic force microscopy and micro-magnetic measurements. Ongoing research is focused on extending the measurements and models on thin films to gain insights into the structural state of irradiated materials and the resulting impact on magnetic properties. Preliminary conclusions from these correlations are presented, and next steps described.

  6. Meso scale MEMS inertial switch fabricated using an electroplated metal-on-insulator process

    In this work, we report on a novel simple yet robust two-mask metal-on-insulator (MOI) process and illustrate its implementation for the fabrication of a meso scale MEMS inertial switch. The devices were fabricated of a ∼40 µm thick layer of nickel electrodeposited on top of a 4 µm thick thermal field oxide (TOX) covering a single crystal silicon wafer. A 40 µm thick layer of KMPR® resist was used as a mold and allowed the formation of high-aspect-ratio (1:5) metal structures. The devices were released by the sacrificial etching of the TOX layer in hydrofluoric acid. The fabricated devices were mounted in a ceramic enclosure and were characterized using both an electromagnet shaker and a drop tester. The functionality of the switch, aimed to trigger an electrical circuit when subjected to an acceleration pulse with amplitude of 300 g and duration of 200 µs, was demonstrated experimentally and the performance targets were achieved. The experimental results were consistent with the model predictions obtained through finite element simulations. (paper)

  7. A regression-based approach to tolerance values forecasting in micro/meso-scale for micro non-monolithic components

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Wei, Xingping; Li, Jun; Zhao, Shiping

    2013-10-01

    Compared to the function-oriented tolerancing rules for micro monolithic components, the lack of specific tolerancing rules for micro non-monolithic ones results in difficulties in bulk production and quality assurance. In order to regulate micro non-monolithic components in micro/meso-scale, a mathematical model of power function is adopted to forecast the tolerance values of nominal sizes in 10~10,000 microns by the linearized regression analysis. The goodness-of-fit qualifies the regression with the power function model and the forecasting results are reasonable in the view of relative accuracy. It is hoped that the improved numerical value table of tolerance can provide some beneficial proposals for the establishment of new tolerancing rules for micro non-monolithic components in micro/meso-scale.

  8. Meso-scale circulation at the intermediate-depth east of Mindanao observed by Argo profiling floats

    2010-01-01

    The meso-scale circulation at the intermediate depth east of Mindanao is studied using Argo profiling floats observations. The trajectories and the parking-depth velocities of Argo floats show that the intermediate-depth circulation east of Mindanao contains significant meso-scale features that are highly variable both in space and in time. Both cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies at the intermediate depth (1000–2000 m) are indicated by the trajectories east of Mindanao. The mean tangential velocities of these eddies are about 10 cm/s at 2000 m and over 20 cm/s at 1000 m, which indicates that the geostrophic calculation may contain large errors due to the vigorous eddy activity at the reference levels. The analyses also suggest that these eddies might play an important role in mass and vorticity balances of the intermediate-depth circulation east of Mindanao.

  9. FE-modeling of damage of twill carbon/epoxy composite on meso-scale, materials characterization and experimental verification

    Xu, Jian; Lomov, Stepan; Verpoest, Ignaas; Daggumati, Subbareddy; Van Paepegem, Wim; Degrieck, Joris; Olave, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this work is to evaluate the damage in twill carbon/epoxy composites on meso-scale level (fabric unit cell level). Averaged stiffness, Poisson ratios of pre- and post damage phase are calculated based on numerical homogenization technique with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs). The static strengths and initiation of the damage are calculated and validated by experiments. The anisotropic stiffness degradation model is implemented into Abaqus (R) UMAT. The algorithm of quasi-static dam...

  10. Meso-scale modeling of chloride diffusion in concrete with consideration of effects of time and temperature

    Li-cheng WANG; Tamon UEDA

    2009-01-01

    A meso-scale truss network model was developed to predict chloride diffusion in concrete.The model regards concrete as a three-phase composite of mortar matrix,coarse aggregates,and the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the mortar matrix and the aggregates.The diffusion coefficient of chloride in the mortar and the ITZ can be analytically determined with only the water-to-cement ratio and volume fraction of fine aggregates.Fick's second law of diffusion was used as the governing equation for chloride diffusion in a homogenous medium (e.g.,mortar);it was discretized and applied to the truss network model.The solution procedure of the truss network model based on the diffusion law and the meso-scale composite structure of concrete is outlined.Additionally,the dependence of the diffusion coefficient of chloride in the mortar and the ITZ on exposure duration and temperature is taken into account to illustrate their effect on chloride diffusion coefficient.The numerical results show that the exposure duration and environmental temperature play important roles in the diffusion rate of chloride ions in concrete.It is also concluded that the meso-scale truss network model can be applied to chloride transport analysis of damaged (or cracked) concrete.

  11. An investigation into feasibility of impingement heat transfer and acoustic abatement of meso scale synthetic jets

    While synthetic jets have found more applications in controlling fluid flow especially in aerospace applications, more recently they captured a lot of attention for the thermal management of electronics. While the jet sizes vary and may be large for microfluidic applications, it is preferred that they should be in the meso scale range for removing heat from electronics components. Current study focuses on the heat transfer and acoustic aspects of the small-scale synthetic jets. Synthetic jets designed and developed at the General Electric Global Research Center can provide peak air velocities in excess of 90 m/s from a 1 mm hydraulic diameter rectangular orifice. The jets are driven by a sine wave with an operating frequency of between 3 and 4.5 kHz, providing the highest thermal performance for the current jets. An infrared thermal imaging technique was used to acquire fine scale temperature measurements. Two heater sizes have been studied in the current study to understand the effect of the characteristic length. Several parameters are varied to find the change in the heat transfer rates with the jet location, driving voltage, driving frequency, and heater power. Heat transfer enhancements over the specific heater sizes are presented for the same jet. It is found that the enhancement can be between 4 and 10 times depends on the heater size showing that smaller sizes provide the best jet effectiveness. It is also noted that jet noise can be as large at 73 dB, but possible abatement techniques can decrease this noise level as low as to 30 dB

  12. A meso-scale layer-specific structural constitutive model of the mitral heart valve leaflets.

    Zhang, Will; Ayoub, Salma; Liao, Jun; Sacks, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    Fundamental to developing a deeper understanding of pathophysiological remodeling in mitral valve (MV) disease is the development of an accurate tissue-level constitutive model. In the present work, we developed a novel meso-scale (i.e. at the level of the fiber, 10-100μm in length scale) structural constitutive model (MSSCM) for MV leaflet tissues. Due to its four-layer structure, we focused on the contributions from the distinct collagen and elastin fiber networks within each tissue layer. Requisite collagen and elastin fibrous structural information for each layer were quantified using second harmonic generation microscopy and conventional histology. A comprehensive mechanical dataset was also used to guide model formulation and parameter estimation. Furthermore, novel to tissue-level structural constitutive modeling approaches, we allowed the collagen fiber recruitment function to vary with orientation. Results indicated that the MSSCM predicted a surprisingly consistent mean effective collagen fiber modulus of 162.72MPa, and demonstrated excellent predictive capability for extra-physiological loading regimes. There were also anterior-posterior leaflet-specific differences, such as tighter collagen and elastin fiber orientation distributions (ODF) in the anterior leaflet, and a thicker and stiffer atrialis in the posterior leaflet. While a degree of angular variance was observed, the tight valvular tissue ODF also left little room for any physically meaningful angular variance in fiber mechanical responses. Finally, a novel fibril-level (0.1-1μm) validation approach was used to compare the predicted collagen fiber/fibril mechanical behavior with extant MV small angle X-ray scattering data. Results demonstrated excellent agreement, indicating that the MSSCM fully captures the tissue-level function. Future utilization of the MSSCM in computational models of the MV will aid in producing highly accurate simulations in non-physiological loading states that can

  13. Meso-scale variability of coastal suprabenthic communities in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean)

    Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Badalamenti, F.; D'Anna, G.; Pipitone, C.; Azzurro, E.; Rumolo, P.; Sprovieri, M.

    2011-02-01

    Meso-scale spatial variability of coastal suprabenthic communities inhabiting muddy bottoms at 50-80 m depth in three gulfs of northern Sicily (Western Mediterranean) was here investigated. Although similar as concerns the hydrological and oceanographic conditions, the three areas, that encompass a large portion of the continental shelf (135 km), are characterized by different geo-morphological features. In addition, they are subjected to different trawl fishery pressures. The Gulf of Castellammare is a semi-enclosed bay, where the trawling activity has been banned since 1990. The Gulf of Termini Imerese and the Gulf of Sant'Agata are open areas, subjected to high trawl fishing intensity. In terms of density, gammarid amphipods showed differences among the three gulfs; in terms of biomass, cumaceans and amphipods were more abundant in the Gulf of Castellammare than in the other two areas. Multivariate analyses provided evidence for separation of suprabenthic assemblages between the Gulf of Castellammare and the other two gulfs. The Gulf of Castellammare seemed to host the most diversified and stable community according to α- and β-diversity indices. In the same way the low value of δ 13C vs. δ 15N correlation found in the gulf of Castellammare, which evidences the occurrence of several food sources, supports the idea of a higher stability in the semi-enclosed, trawl-ban area. In the other two areas δ 13C vs. δ 15N correlations were high, suggesting the existence of a pelagic source sustaining the suprabenthic communities. This is also confirmed by the lower δ 13C concentrations found in suprabenthic species. Taking into account the homogeneous oceanographic conditions among gulfs, other factors, such as geo-morphology and trawling pressure should be involved in the observed differences among the three areas in terms of assemblage structure, diversity, and trophodynamics of suprabenthic communities.

  14. The meso-scale characteristics of Typhoon Morakot(2009) revealed from polarimetric radar analyses

    Wang, T. C.; Tang, Y.; Radar Meteorology Lab.

    2010-12-01

    and differential reflectivity (Zdr) column also illustrated the vigorous accretion process. The vorticity budget study and the thermodynamic retrievals of these hot towers may provide more understanding of the relation between the convections and the strong meso scale jets to reveal the precipitation mechanisms of devastating rainbands.

  15. Thermal performance of a meso-scale liquid-fuel combustor

    Research highlights: → Demonstrated successful combustion of liquid fuel-air mixtures in a novel meso-scale combustor. → Flame quenching was eliminated using heat recirculation in a swiss roll type combustor that also extended the flammability limits. → Liquid fuel was rapidly vaporized with the use of hot narrow channel walls that eliminated the need of a fuel atomizer. → Maximum power density of the combustor was estimated to be about 8.5 GW/m3 and heat load in the range of 50-280W. → Overall efficiency of the combustor was estimated in the range of 12 to 20%. - Abstract: Combustion in small scale devices poses significant challenges due to the quenching of reactions from wall heat losses as well as the significantly reduced time available for mixing and combustion. In the case of liquid fuels there are additional challenges related to atomization, vaporization and mixing with the oxidant in the very short time-scale liquid-fuel combustor. The liquid fuel employed here is methanol with air as the oxidizer. The combustor was designed based on the heat recirculating concept wherein the incoming reactants are preheated by the combustion products through heat exchange occurring via combustor walls. The combustor was fabricated from Zirconium phosphate, a ceramic with very low thermal conductivity (0.8 W m-1 K-1). The combustor had rectangular shaped double spiral geometry with combustion chamber in the center of the spiral formed by inlet and exhaust channels. Methanol and air were introduced immediately upstream at inlet of the combustor. The preheated walls of the inlet channel also act as a pre-vaporizer for liquid fuel which vaporizes the liquid fuel and then mixes with air prior to the fuel-air mixture reaching the combustion chamber. Rapid pre-vaporization of the liquid fuel by the hot narrow channel walls eliminated the necessity for a fuel atomizer. Self-sustained combustion of methanol-air was achieved in a chamber volume as small as 32.6 mm3. The

  16. Meso-Scale Modeling of Spall in a Heterogeneous Two-Phase Material

    Springer, Harry Keo [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-07-11

    The influence of the heterogeneous second-phase particle structure and applied loading conditions on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material was investigated. Quantitative metallography, three-dimensional (3D) meso-scale simulations (MSS), and small-scale spall experiments provided the foundation for this study. Nodular ductile iron (NDI) was selected as the model two-phase material for this study because it contains a large and readily identifiable second- phase particle population. Second-phase particles serve as the primary void nucleation sites in NDI and are, therefore, central to its ductile spall response. A mathematical model was developed for the NDI second-phase volume fraction that accounted for the non-uniform particle size and spacing distributions within the framework of a length-scale dependent Gaussian probability distribution function (PDF). This model was based on novel multiscale sampling measurements. A methodology was also developed for the computer generation of representative particle structures based on their mathematical description, enabling 3D MSS. MSS were used to investigate the effects of second-phase particle volume fraction and particle size, loading conditions, and physical domain size of simulation on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material. MSS results reinforce existing model predictions, where the spall strength metric (SSM) logarithmically decreases with increasing particle volume fraction. While SSM predictions are nearly independent of applied load conditions at lower loading rates, which is consistent with previous studies, loading dependencies are observed at higher loading rates. There is also a logarithmic decrease in SSM for increasing (initial) void size, as well. A model was developed to account for the effects of loading rate, particle size, matrix sound-speed, and, in the NDI-specific case, the probabilistic particle volume fraction model. Small-scale spall experiments were designed

  17. Neutrally stratified flow modelling over complex terrain at meso-scale: open-cut coal mine study

    Nosek, Štěpán; Jaňour, Zbyněk; Jurčáková, Klára; Kellnerová, Radka; Kukačka, Libor

    Liberec : Technical University of Liberec, 2012 - (Vít, T.; Dančová, P.; Novotný, P.), s. 518-523 ISBN 978-80-7372-912-7. [Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2012 /7./. Hradec Králové (CZ), 20.11.2012-23.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : air pollution * atmospheric boundary layer * laminar-turbulent analogy * meso-scale Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  18. Meso-scale modeling of chloride diffusion in concrete with consideration of effects of time and temperature

    Li-cheng WANG; Ueda, Tamon

    2009-01-01

    A meso-scale truss network model was developed to predict chloride diffusion in concrete. The model regards concrete as a three-phase composite of mortar matrix, coarse aggregates, and the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the mortar matrix and the aggregates. The diffusion coefficient of chloride in the mortar and the ITZ can be analytically determined with only the water-to-cement ratio and volume fraction of fine aggregates. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used as the governing ...

  19. Case study on the three-dimensional structure of meso-scale eddy in the South China Sea based on a high-resolution model

    XIA Changshui; JUNG KyungTae; WANG Guansuo; YIN Xunqiang; GUO Jingsong

    2016-01-01

    Meso-scale eddies are important features in the South China Sea (SCS). The eddies with diameters of 50–200 km can greatly impact the transport of heat, momentum, and tracers. A high-resolution wave-tide-circulation coupled model was developed to simulate the meso-scale eddy in the SCS in this study. The aim of this study is to examine the model ability to simulate the meso-scale eddy in the SCS without data assimilations The simulated Sea Surface Height (SSH) anomalies agree with the observed the AVISO SSH anomalies well. The simulated subsurface temperature profiles agree with the CTD observation data from the ROSE (Responses of Marine Hazards to climate change in the Western Pacific) project. The simulated upper-ocean currents also agree with the main circulation based on observations. A warm eddy is identified in winter in the northern SCS. The position and domain of the simulated eddy are confirmed by the observed sea surface height data from the AVISO. The result shows that the model has the ability to simulate the meso-scale eddy in the SCS without data assimilation. The three-dimensional structure of the meso-scale eddy in the SCS is analyzed using the model result. It is found that the eddy center is tilted vertically, which agrees with the observation. It is also found that the velocity center of the eddy does not coincide with the temperature center of the eddy. The result shows that the model has the ability to simulate the meso-scale eddy in the SCS without data assimilations. Further study on the forming mechanism and the three-dimensional structure of the meso-scale eddies will be carried out using the model result and cruise observation data in the near future.

  20. Meso-scale hypervelocity cratering experiments (MEMIN project): Characterization of projectile material

    Domke, Isabelle; Deutsch, Alex; Hecht, Lutz; Kenkmann, Thomas; Berndt, Jasper

    2010-05-01

    The DFG-funded "MEMIN" (multidisciplinary experimental and modelling impact crater research network) research group is aimed at a better understanding of the impact cratering process by combining (i) numerical modelling of crater formation, (ii) investigation of terrestrial craters and (iii) meso-scale hypervelocity impact experiments using the large two-stage light gas gun at the Ernst-Mach-Institute (EMI; Efringen-Kirchen, Germany). In the framework of MEMIN, 1 cm-sized projectiles of the steel SAE 4130 (mass of 4.1 g) have been fired with a velocity of ~ 5.3 km s-1 onto blocks of Seeberger sandstone (size 100 x 100 x 50 cm, grain size 169+/-8 μm; porosity 12-20 vol.%). One goal of MEMIN is to document, analyze, and understand the fate of the projectile and its distribution between crater and ejecta; hence, the use of well-analyzed projectile material is mandatory. For this purpose, we use optical, and electron microscopy, electron microprobe (WWU, and MfN), and LA-ICP-MS microanalysis (WWU). Currently we evaluate which steel or iron meteorite is adequate for the intended use. Important properties of a projectile are (i) textural and chemical homogeneity, (ii) clear chemical distinction to the target sandstone, (iii) presence of elements such as Co, Ni, Cr, PGE that as "meteoritic component" are used in terrestrial craters to trace projectile matter, and characterize the type of the projectile (i.e., meteorite group), and finally (iv) mechanical properties that guarantee stability during sphere production, launch and flight. Strong chemical differences to the target material and geochemical homogeneity of the projectile will allow detection of small volumes of projectile matter by high spatial resolution in-situ analysis with the LA-ICP-MS. Steel SAE 4130 is heterogeneous at the 100-µm scale and has low trace element contents. In future, we plan the use of the alloyed heat treatable steel D290-1 as projectile as its texture is quite homogenous at the scale of

  1. Design and fabrication of a meso-scale stirling engine and combustor.

    Echekki, Tarek (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Haroldsen, Brent L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Krafcik, Karen L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Morales, Alfredo Martin (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Mills, Bernice E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Liu, Shiling (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Lee, Jeremiah C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Karpetis, Adionos N. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Chen, Jacqueline H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ceremuga, Joseph T. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hekmuuaty, Michelle A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-01

    Power sources capable of supplying tens of watts are needed for a wide variety of applications including portable electronics, sensors, micro aerial vehicles, and mini-robotics systems. The utility of these devices is often limited by the energy and power density capabilities of batteries. A small combustion engine using liquid hydrocarbon fuel could potentially increase both power and energy density by an order of magnitude or more. This report describes initial development work on a meso-scale external combustion engine based on the Stirling cycle. Although other engine designs perform better at macro-scales, we believe the Stirling engine cycle is better suited to small-scale applications. The ideal Stirling cycle requires efficient heat transfer. Consequently, unlike other thermodynamic cycles, the high heat transfer rates that are inherent with miniature devices are an advantage for the Stirling cycle. Furthermore, since the Stirling engine uses external combustion, the combustor and engine can be scaled and optimized semi-independently. Continuous combustion minimizes issues with flame initiation and propagation. It also allows consideration of a variety of techniques to promote combustion that would be difficult in a miniature internal combustion engine. The project included design and fabrication of both the engine and the combustor. Two engine designs were developed. The first used a cylindrical piston design fabricated with conventional machining processes. The second design, based on the Wankel rotor geometry, was fabricated by through-mold electroforming of nickel in SU8 and LIGA micromolds. These technologies provided the requisite precision and tight tolerances needed for efficient micro-engine operation. Electroformed nickel is ideal for micro-engine applications because of its high strength and ductility. A rotary geometry was chosen because its planar geometry was more compatible with the fabrication process. SU8 lithography provided rapid

  2. Flood risk analysis in Wallonia: micro (and meso-)scale approaches

    Dewals, Benjamin; Detrembleur, Sylvain; Archambeau, Pierre; Erpicum, Sébastien; Pirotton, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Flood risk analysis has been undertaken in Wallonia in the framework of several national and international research projects. The analysis relies on a micro-scale procedure, which involves • hazard modelling by means of detailed 2D inundation modelling • as well as processing of high resolution topographic and land use database for vulnerability modelling. The inundation modelling is conducted using the fully dynamic flow model WOLF 2D, entirely developed at the University of Liege...

  3. Valuing Soft Components in Agricultural Water Management Interventions in Meso-Scale Watersheds: A Review and Synthesis

    Jennie Barron

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Meso-scale watershed management (1-10,000 km2 is receiving growing attention as the spatial scale where policy in integrated water resource management (IWRM goes into operational mode. This is also where aggregated field-level agricultural water management (AWM interventions may result in externalities. But there is little synthesised 'lessons learned' on the costs and benefits of interventions at this scale. Here we synthesise selected cases and meta-analyses on the investment cost in 'soft components' accompanying AWM interventions. The focus is on meso-scale watersheds in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. We found very few cases with benefit-to-cost evaluation at full project level, or separate costing of hard and soft components. The synthesis suggests higher development success rates in communities with an initial level of social capital, where projects were implemented with cost- and knowledge-sharing between involved stakeholders, and where one or more 'agents of change' were present to facilitate leadership and communications. There is a need to monitor and evaluate both the external and the internal gains and losses in a more systematic manner to help development agents and other investors to ensure wiser and more effective investments in AWM interventions and watershed management.

  4. From meso-scale to micro scale LES modelling: Application by a wake effect study for an offshore wind farm

    Maché M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study is to present the first step of the development of a methodology that aims to merge the gap between meso scale and micro scale modelling. WRF simulations have been carried out in order to consider global wind conditions over a meso scale area of the future wind farm. A statistical analysis of the global wind data over several years has been carried out to initiate the work for the Saint Nazaire site. A focus was made on two wind regimes: the most common wind typical of the site's location and the extreme winds over the period. The WRF results were then used as initial conditions for a micro scale simulation carried out by a non-stationary large-eddy simulation (SOWFA tool based OpenFOAM solver that computes the flow around 2 turbines. Turbulence statistics were computed and analyzed. Fields of skewness and flatness show found that the distribution of turbulence becomes more homogeneous after the second turbine, while turbulence intensity increases.

  5. CO2 budgeting at the regional scale using a Lagrangian experimental strategy and meso-scale modeling

    C. Gerbig

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An atmospheric Lagrangian experiment for regional CO2 budgeting with aircraft measurements took place during the CarboEurope Regional Experiment campaign (CERES in south-western France, in June, 2005. The atmospheric CO2 aircraft measurements taken upstream and downstream of an active and homogeneous pine forest revealed a CO2 depletion in the same air mass. This field experiment is analyzed with a meteorological meso-scale model interactively coupled with a surface scheme, allowing plant assimilation, ecosystem respiration, CO2 anthropogenic emissions and sea fluxes. First, the model is carefully validated against observations close to the surface and in the atmospheric boundary layer. Then, the carbon budget is evaluated using the numerous CERES observations and as well as the modeling results in order to estimate the relative contribution of each physical process. A good agreement is shown in terms of the estimation of the regional CO2 surface flux by the Eulerian meso-scale model budget and by the observations at the surface flux sites. A Lagrangian estimation of regional CO2 surface flux from aircraft observations is more difficult due to several sources of uncertainty. In our case, probable errors are due to the determination of CO2 vertical profile measurements and owing to the difficulties in monitoring the meteorological condition evolution during several hours.

  6. Quantum defect theory for Coulomb and other potentials in the framework of configuration interaction and implementation to the calculation of 2 D and 2 F o perturbed spectra of Al

    In continuation of our earlier work on the ab initio calculation of perturbed spectra and on a corresponding quantum defect theory (QDT), we discuss certain essential characteristics having to do with the unification of the continuous and the discrete spectra via the formal and practical construction of smooth quantities without invoking the pair of analytic forms of regular and irregular functions. The theory and its computational methodology are in the framework of configuration interaction (CI), and its structure shows how wavefunctions and properties of excited states of atoms and molecules can be computed provided one uses reliable zero-order basis functions, regardless of whether the relevant potential is, asymptotically, Coulombic or some other type. The mathematical connection with smooth reaction matrices in the discrete spectrum is demonstrated via the Mittag-Leffler theorem for the construction of analytic functions. We compare results for the quantum defects and fine structure from the present theory, as implemented by Komninos et al ( 1995 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 28 2049 , 1996 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29 L193 ), of the Al spectra of 2 D symmetry (strongly perturbed) and of 2 F o symmetry (weakly perturbed), with the recently reported measurements on high-lying states ( Dyubko et al 2003 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 36 3797 and 4827 ), as well as with those of Eriksson and Isberg (1963 Ark. Fys. 23 527) for the low-lying states. The comparison reveals for the first time very good agreement between theory and experiment for both series. In addition, predictions for the other states of the series are made. Previous computations of the quantum defects of the 2 D spectrum, in general, do not agree among themselves while they deviate from the experimental values

  7. A dual theory of price and value in a meso-scale economic model with stochastic profit rate

    Greenblatt, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of commodity price determination in a market-based, capitalist economy has a long and contentious history. Neoclassical microeconomic theories are based typically on marginal utility assumptions, while classical macroeconomic theories tend to be value-based. In the current work, I study a simplified meso-scale model of a commodity capitalist economy. The production/exchange model is represented by a network whose nodes are firms, workers, capitalists, and markets, and whose directed edges represent physical or monetary flows. A pair of multivariate linear equations with stochastic input parameters represent physical (supply/demand) and monetary (income/expense) balance. The input parameters yield a non-degenerate profit rate distribution across firms. Labor time and price are found to be eigenvector solutions to the respective balance equations. A simple relation is derived relating the expected value of commodity price to commodity labor content. Results of Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with the stochastic price/labor content relation.

  8. Meso-scale obstructions to stability of 1D center manifolds for networks of coupled differential equations with symmetric Jacobian

    Epperlein, J.; Do, A. L.; Gross, T.; Siegmund, S.

    2013-10-01

    A linear system ẋ=Ax, A∈R, x∈Rn, with rkA=n-1, has a one-dimensional center manifold Ec={v∈Rn:Av=0}. If a differential equation ẋ=f(x) has a one-dimensional center manifold Wc at an equilibrium x∗ then Ec is tangential to Wc with A=Df(x∗) and for stability of Wc it is necessary that A has no spectrum in C+, i.e. if A is symmetric, it has to be negative semi-definite. We establish a graph theoretical approach to characterize semi-definiteness. Using spanning trees for the graph corresponding to A, we formulate meso-scale conditions with certain principal minors of A which are necessary for semi-definiteness. We illustrate these results by the example of the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators.

  9. Investigating short-pulse shock initiation in HMX-based explosives with reactive meso-scale simulations

    We performed reactive meso-scale simulations of short-pulse experiments to study the influence of flyer velocity and pore structure on shock initiation of LX-10 (95wt% HMX, 5wt% Viton A). Our calculations show that the reaction evolution fit a power law relationship in time and increases with increasing porosity, decreasing pore size, and increasing flyer velocity. While heterogeneous shock initiation modes, dependent on hot spot mechanisms, are predicted at lower flyer velocities, mixed heterogeneous-homogeneous shock initiation modes, less dependent on hot spots, are predicted at higher velocities. These studies are important because they enable the development of predictive shock initiation models that incorporate complex microstructure and can be used to optimize performance-safety characteristics of explosives.

  10. Tracer experiment data sets for the verification of local and meso-scale atmospheric dispersion models including topographic effects

    Software and data for nuclear energy applications are acquired, tested and distributed by several information centres; in particular, relevant computer codes are distributed internationally by the OECD/NEA Data Bank (France) and by ESTSC and EPIC/RSIC (United States). This activity is coordinated among the centres and is extended outside the OECD area through an arrangement with the IAEA. This article proposes more specifically a scheme for acquiring, storing and distributing atmospheric tracer experiment data (ATE) required for verification of atmospheric dispersion models especially the most advanced ones including topographic effects and specific to the local and meso-scale. These well documented data sets will form a valuable complement to the set of atmospheric dispersion computer codes distributed internationally. Modellers will be able to gain confidence in the predictive power of their models or to verify their modelling skills. (au)

  11. Combined macro-meso scale modeling of sintering. Part II, Mesoscale simulations

    TIKARE,VEENA; OLEVSKY,EUGENE A.; BRAGINSKY,MICHAEL V.

    2000-05-23

    A mesoscale kinetic Monte Carlo model is presented to simulate microstructural evolution during sintering of 2D complex microstructures which evolves by grain growth, pore migration and densification. No assumptions about the geometry of the evolving microstructure are made. The results of these simulations are used to generate sintering stress and normalize viscous bulk modulus for use in continuum level simulation of sintering. The advantage of these simulations is that they can be used to generate more accurate parameters as various assumptions regarding geometry and transport mechanism are made. The previous companion paper used the results from the mesoscale simulations to simulate shrinkage and warpage in sintering of bilayer ceramics.

  12. A concurrent precursor inflow method for LES of atmospheric boundary layer flows with variable inflow direction for coupling with meso-scale models

    Munters, Wim; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan

    2014-11-01

    In order to incorporate multiple scales of meteorological phenomena in atmospheric simulations, subsequent nesting of meso-scale models is often used. However, the spatial and temporal resolution in such models is too coarse to resolve the three-dimensional turbulent eddies that are characteristic for atmospheric boundary layer flows. This motivates the development of tools to couple meso-scale models to Large-Eddy Simulations (LES), in which turbulent fluctuations are explicitly resolved. A major challenge in this area is the spin-up region near the inlet of the LES in which the flow has to evolve from a RANS-like inflow, originating from the meso-scale model, to a fully turbulent velocity field. We propose a generalized concurrent precursor inflow method capable of imposing boundary conditions for time-varying inflow directions. The method is based on a periodic fully-developed precursor boundary-layer simulation that is dynamically rotated with the wind direction that drives the main LES. In this way realistic turbulent inflow conditions are applied while still retaining flexibility to dynamically adapt to meso-scale variations in wind directions. Applications to wind simulations with varying inflow directions, and comparisons to conventional coupling methods are shown. Work supported by ERC (ActiveWindFarms, Grant No: 306471). CM is supported by NSF (Grant No. 1243482).

  13. Permeability of fiber reinforcements for liquid composite molding: Sequential multi-scale investigations into numerical flow modeling on the micro- and meso-scale

    Luchini, Timothy John Franklin

    Composites are complex material mixtures, known to have high amounts of variability, with unique properties at the micro-, meso-, and macro-scales. In the context of advanced textile composite reinforcements, micro-scale refers to aligned fibers and toughening agents in a disordered arrangement; meso-scale is the woven, braided, or stitched fabric geometry (which compacts to various volume fractions); and macro-scale is the component or sub-component being produced for a mechanical application. The Darcy-based permeability is an important parameter for modeling and understanding the flow profile and fill times for liquid composite molding. Permeability of composite materials can vary widely from the micro- to macro-scales. For example, geometric factors like compaction and ply layup affect the component permeability at the meso- and macro-scales. On the micro-scale the permeability will be affected by the packing arrangement of the fibers and fiber volume fraction. On any scale, simplifications to the geometry can be made to treat the fiber reinforcement as a porous media. Permeability has been widely studied in both experimental and analytical frameworks, but less attention has focused on the ability of numerical tools to predict the permeability of reinforced composite materials. This work aims at (1) predicting permeability at various scales of interest and (2) developing a sequential, multi-scale, numerical modeling approach on the micro- and meso-scales. First, a micro-scale modeling approach is developed, including a geometry generation tool and a fluids-based numerical permeability solver. This micro-scale model included all physical fibers and derived the empirical permeability constant directly though numerical simulation. This numerical approach was compared with literature results for perfect packing arrangements, and the results were shown to be comparable with previous work. The numerical simulations described here also extended these previous

  14. Applicability of a high-resolution meso-scale meteorological model to a near-field-scale atmospheric dispersion problem

    This study examines the feasibility of numerical simulations using a meso-scale meteorological model (NuWFAS: Numerical Weather Forecasting and Analysis System) for a near-field-scale atmospheric dispersion problem. A series of observation data from a field tracer experiment was used for the validation of the model. In the experiments, the tracer was released from a tower at a height of 95 m. The receptors were located on the arc lines with distances from the source of 400, 750, 1500, and 3000 m. The numerical simulations were implemented with two different minimum spatial resolutions of 100 m and 300 m. The meteorological fields were reproduced with a reasonable accuracy, showing the less dependency on the mesh sizes of the simulation. The dispersion fields were also less dependent on the spatial resolutions except for the stable atmospheric conditions. In stable conditions, the smaller spatial resolution leads to the higher surface concentrations due to the larger turbulent diffusions. In most cases, the predicted surface concentrations agreed with the observation within the factor of ten. However, the simulation tends to underestimate the surface concentrations in stable conditions, whereas it overestimates in unstable conditions. Our study revealed that the limitation of the model in estimating the turbulent diffusion coefficients for thermally stratified conditions is the one cause of these trends. The current model underestimates the influences of atmospheric stability, which is one of the most important factors for the near-field-scale atmospheric dispersion. (author)

  15. Continuous formation of N-chloro-N,N-dialkylamine solutions in well-mixed meso-scale flow reactors

    A. John Blacker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous flow synthesis of a range of organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines is described using either a bespoke meso-scale tubular reactor with static mixers or a continuous stirred tank reactor. Both reactors promote the efficient mixing of a biphasic solution of N,N-dialkylamine in organic solvent, and aqueous sodium hypochlorite to achieve near quantitative conversions, in 72–100% in situ yields, and useful productivities of around 0.05 mol/h with residence times from 3 to 20 minutes. Initial calorimetric studies have been carried out to inform on reaction exotherms, rates and safe operation. Amines which partition mainly in the organic phase require longer reaction times, provided by the CSTR, to compensate for low mass transfer rates in the biphasic system. The green metrics of the reaction have been assessed and compared to existing procedures and have shown the continuous process is improved over previous procedures. The organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines produced continuously will enable their use in tandem flow reactions with a range of nucleophilic substrates.

  16. Continuous formation of N-chloro-N,N-dialkylamine solutions in well-mixed meso-scale flow reactors.

    Blacker, A John; Jolley, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    The continuous flow synthesis of a range of organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines is described using either a bespoke meso-scale tubular reactor with static mixers or a continuous stirred tank reactor. Both reactors promote the efficient mixing of a biphasic solution of N,N-dialkylamine in organic solvent, and aqueous sodium hypochlorite to achieve near quantitative conversions, in 72-100% in situ yields, and useful productivities of around 0.05 mol/h with residence times from 3 to 20 minutes. Initial calorimetric studies have been carried out to inform on reaction exotherms, rates and safe operation. Amines which partition mainly in the organic phase require longer reaction times, provided by the CSTR, to compensate for low mass transfer rates in the biphasic system. The green metrics of the reaction have been assessed and compared to existing procedures and have shown the continuous process is improved over previous procedures. The organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines produced continuously will enable their use in tandem flow reactions with a range of nucleophilic substrates. PMID:26734089

  17. Aerosol impact on atmospheric meso-scale circulation over the Baltic region: A HARMONIE model case study and verification versus radar data

    Palamarchuk, Iuliia; Mahura, Alexander; Ivanov, Sergiy; Ruban, Igor; Pavlova, Hanna

    2015-04-01

    An important goal in operational weather forecasting is an accurate prediction of precipitation on meso-scales. This demands, among the others, detailed representation of aerosol impact on the troposphere. Various direct, semi-direct and indirect effects of aerosols lead to significant changes in amount and distribution of precipitation, especially for weak patterns. Features of the atmosphere sensitivity to aerosols is studied employing the HARMONIE (Hirlam Aladin Regional/Meso-scale Operational NWP In Europe) model. Numerical experiments are performed for the Baltic region during the BaltRad experiment (August 2010). The focus of the study is the life-time of convective cells along with feedbacks from aerosols toward meteorological parameters, physical and dynamical mechanisms responsible for developing of precipitation forecast features, direct and indirect aerosol effects. Numerical results are verified by comparing model microphysics fields versus radar reflectivity.

  18. Up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models from objects to land use units at the meso-scale

    Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Flood risk management increasingly relies on risk analyses, including loss modelling. Most of the flood loss models usually applied in standard practice have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel multi-variable models significantly improve loss estimation on the micro-scale and may also be advantageous for large-scale applications. However, more input parameters also reveal additional uncertainty, even more in upscaling procedures for meso-scale applications, where the parameters need to be estimated on a regional area-wide basis. To gain more knowledge about challenges associated with the up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models the following approach is applied: Single- and multi-variable micro-scale flood loss models are up-scaled and applied on the meso-scale, namely on basis of ATKIS land-use units. Application and validation is undertaken in 19 municipalities, which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany by comparison to official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB).In the meso-scale case study based model validation, most multi-variable models show smaller errors than the uni-variable stage-damage functions. The results show the suitability of the up-scaling approach, and, in accordance with micro-scale validation studies, that multi-variable models are an improvement in flood loss modelling also on the meso-scale. However, uncertainties remain high, stressing the importance of uncertainty quantification. Thus, the development of probabilistic loss models, like BT-FLEMO used in this study, which inherently provide uncertainty information are the way forward.

  19. No Habitat Selection during Spring Migration at a Meso-Scale Range across Mosaic Landscapes: A Case Study with the Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola)

    Crespo, Ariñe; Rodrigues, Marcos; Telletxea, Ibon; Ibáñez, Rubén; Díez, Felipe; Tobar, Joseba F.; Arizaga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Success of migration in birds in part depends on habitat selection. Overall, it is still poorly known whether there is habitat selection amongst landbird migrants moving across landscapes. Europe is chiefly covered by agro-forestry mosaic landscapes, so migratory species associated to either agricultural landscapes or woodland habitats should theoretically find suitable stopover sites along migration. During migration from wintering to breeding quarters, woodcocks (Scolopax rusticola) tagged with PTT satellite-tracking transmitters were used to test for the hypothesis that migrants associated to agro-forest habitats have no habitat selection during migration, at a meso-scale level. Using a GIS platform we extracted at a meso-scale range habitat cover at stopover localities. Results obtained from comparisons of soil covers between points randomly selected and true stopover localities sites revealed, as expected, the species may not select for particular habitats at a meso-scale range, because the habitat (or habitats) required by the species can be found virtually everywhere on their migration route. However, those birds stopping over in places richer in cropland or mosaic habitats including both cropland and forest and with proportionally less closed forest stayed for longer than in areas with lower surfaces of cropland and mosaic and more closed forest. This suggests that areas rich in cropland or mosaic habitat were optimal. PMID:27002975

  20. In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed - Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test Summary Report

    The DOE Office of Environmental management (DOE EM) faces the challenge of decommissioning thousands of excess nuclear facilities, many of which are highly contaminated. A number of these excess facilities are massive and robust concrete structures that are suitable for isolating the contained contamination for hundreds of years, and a permanent decommissioning end state option for these facilities is in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD option is feasible for a limited, but meaningfull number of DOE contaminated facilities for which there is substantial incremental environmental, safety, and cost benefits versus alternate actions to demolish and excavate the entire facility and transport the rubble to a radioactive waste landfill. A general description of an ISD project encompasses an entombed facility; in some cases limited to the blow-grade portion of a facility. However, monitoring of the ISD structures is needed to demonstrate that the building retains its structural integrity and the contaminants remain entombed within the grout stabilization matrix. The DOE EM Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-13) Program Goal is to develop a monitoring system to demonstrate long-term performance of closed nuclear facilities using the ISD approach. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has designed and implemented the In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed (ISDSN-MSTB) to address the feasibility of deploying a long-term monitoring system into an ISD closed nuclear facility. The ISDSN-MSTB goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of installing and operating a remote sensor network to assess cementitious material durability, moisture-fluid flow through the cementitious material, and resulting transport potential for contaminate mobility in a decommissioned closed nuclear facility. The original ISDSN-MSTB installation and remote sensor network operation was demonstrated in FY 2011-12 at the ISDSN-MSTB test cube

  1. In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed - Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test Summary Report

    Serrato, M. G.

    2013-09-27

    The DOE Office of Environmental management (DOE EM) faces the challenge of decommissioning thousands of excess nuclear facilities, many of which are highly contaminated. A number of these excess facilities are massive and robust concrete structures that are suitable for isolating the contained contamination for hundreds of years, and a permanent decommissioning end state option for these facilities is in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD option is feasible for a limited, but meaningfull number of DOE contaminated facilities for which there is substantial incremental environmental, safety, and cost benefits versus alternate actions to demolish and excavate the entire facility and transport the rubble to a radioactive waste landfill. A general description of an ISD project encompasses an entombed facility; in some cases limited to the blow-grade portion of a facility. However, monitoring of the ISD structures is needed to demonstrate that the building retains its structural integrity and the contaminants remain entombed within the grout stabilization matrix. The DOE EM Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-13) Program Goal is to develop a monitoring system to demonstrate long-term performance of closed nuclear facilities using the ISD approach. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has designed and implemented the In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed (ISDSN-MSTB) to address the feasibility of deploying a long-term monitoring system into an ISD closed nuclear facility. The ISDSN-MSTB goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of installing and operating a remote sensor network to assess cementitious material durability, moisture-fluid flow through the cementitious material, and resulting transport potential for contaminate mobility in a decommissioned closed nuclear facility. The original ISDSN-MSTB installation and remote sensor network operation was demonstrated in FY 2011-12 at the ISDSN-MSTB test cube

  2. Dispersion of radionuclides and radiological dose computation over a meso-scale domain using weather forecast and CFD model

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), as a tool, is successfully being applied in different application fields involving fluid flow problems mainly because of the versatile nature of the equations involved to accommodate domain specific phenomena. Application of CFD in atmospheric flow and pollutant dispersion problems has been the focus of professionals in the field of environment and risk, the reasons being the availability of more specific input data in addition to the high end computational resources in the recent times. Atmospheric flow field at a given site is generally driven by the large scale weather system, within which local scale site specific flow field is embedded due to the local topographic effects and also due to the non-homogeneity of the surface conditions. The Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, such as MM5, are ideally suited for predicting 3-dimensional flow field conditions over a regional scale or meso-scale range; however, it may give poor forecast for local flow conditions due to the coarse resolution of the model. On the contrary, CFD based models are well suited for generating local scale flow fields, using locally measured data, however, they lack information about the large scale flow field in which the local scale flow field is embedded. Thus, it was felt that proper coupling of the two may give more realistic flow filed simulation as well as pollutant dispersion for the site under consideration. Moreover, the NWP model being predictive, coupling of the NWP with CFD based local scale model could be a very effective tool for analyzing the consequences of accidental releases in advance and can help in emergency preparedness of the industry under consideration. This paper discusses an effort made to generate an interface between a CFD based dispersion model (Fluidyn-PANEPR) and a meso-scale meteorological model (MM5) to cater to the problems of the kind as discussed above. The NWP model MM5 takes initial and boundary conditions data

  3. Modeling the water isotopes in Greenland precipitation 1959-2001 with the meso-scale model REMO-iso

    Sjolte, J.; Hoffmann, G.; Johnsen, S. J.; Vinther, B. M.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Sturm, C.

    2011-09-01

    Ice core studies have proved the δ18O in Greenland precipitation to be correlated to the phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). This subject has also been investigated in modeling studies. However, these studies have either had severe biases in the δ18O levels, or have not been designed to be compared directly with observations. In this study we nudge a meso-scale climate model fitted with stable water isotope diagnostics (REMO-iso) to follow the actual weather patterns for the period 1959-2001. We evaluate this simulation using meteorological observations from stations along the Greenland coast, and δ18O from several Greenland ice core stacks and Global Network In Precipitation (GNIP) data from Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard. The REMO-iso output explains up to 40% of the interannual δ18O variability observed in ice cores, which is comparable to the model performance for precipitation. In terms of reproducing the observed variability the global model, ECHAM4-iso performs on the same level as REMO-iso. However, REMO-iso has smaller biases in δ18O and improved representation of the observed spatial δ18O-temperature slope compared to ECHAM4-iso. Analysis of the main modes of winter variability of δ18O shows a coherent signal in Central and Western Greenland similar to results from ice cores. The NAO explains 20% of the leading δ18O pattern. Based on the model output we suggest that methods to reconstruct the NAO from Greenland ice cores employ both δ18O and accumulation records.

  4. Structure and Properties of Nano- and Meso-Scale Materials Prepared by Designed Self-Assembly of Nanoparticles

    Lukach, Ariella

    The work presented in this thesis explores the homo- and co-assembly process, structural characteristics and properties of nano- and meso-scale, one- and three-dimensional structures composed of nanoscale building blocks. In chapter 3, we developed a method for terminating the colloidal polymerization process of gold nanorods by post-assembly photocrosslinking of polymer ligands. By functionalizing gold nanorods with a hydrophobic polymer containing pendant double bonds, we were able to compartmentalize a hydrophobic photoinitiator. We could then suppress the association ability of the polymer ligands by covalently crosslinking them using photoirradiation. The averaged aggregation number of the polymers could be predicted from the kinetics of molecular step-growth polymerization. Furthermore, we found that following crosslinking, the inert-rod distance reduced, and the nanorod co-linearity increased, both allowing for better electromagnetic coupling between the nanorods. In chapter 4, we further explored the resemblance between colloidal and molecular polymerization reactions by applying strategies from molecular copolymerization to the co-assembly of gold nanorods with different dimensions into random and block copolymer structures (plasmonic copolymers). The approach was extended to the co-assembly of random copolymers of gold and palladium nanorods. We showed that the formation of random copolymers is achieved regardless of the composition, size, or concentration if both co-monomers are present at the beginning of the copolymerization. Block copolymers were prepared by combining one pre-polymer with the second monomer, or two pre-polymers. A kinetic model validated and further expanded the kinetic theories developed for molecular copolymerization reactions. Chapters 5 and 6 explore a bottom-up method to produce composite materials from spherical nanoparticles with different core-composition, surface-characteristics, and concentrations and cellulose nanocrystals

  5. Assessing impact of climate and land use change on water quality in two contrasting meso-scale catchments in Poland

    Marcinkowski, Pawel; Kardel, Ignacy; Ksiezniak, Marta; Berezowski, Tomasz; Okruszko, Tomasz; Mezghani, Abdelkader; Dobler, Andreas; Piniewski, Mikolaj

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Narew (4280 km2) and the Barycz (5520 km2) are two Polish, meso-scale, lowland catchments, contrasting in terms of land use, water management and water quality. Semi-distributed process-based SWAT model was applied in both catchments for assessment of climate change impact on selected water quality parameters. The model setup was developed based on high-resolution inputs, e.g. 5 km gridded precipitation and temperature dataset and 30 m Landsat8-based land cover map. Multi-site calibration and validation against observed discharge, sediment loads and nutrients loads (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) gave predominantly satisfactory goodness-of-fit measures which enabled further model use for scenario analysis. Impact of land use on water quality can be assessed by comparing nutrients loads and concentrations simulated for the current conditions between two contrasting catchments. Both specific loads and concentrations of major nitrogen and phosphorous forms were on average 80-100% higher in the Barycz than in the Upper Narew catchment. This is a result of more intensive agricultural practices taking place in the Barycz, unlike the Upper Narew where agriculture is mostly extensive. Large parts of the Barycz catchment have been designed as the Nitrates Vulnerable Zones and since 2007 there are legal restrictions concerning agricultural practices in these areas. Nine GCM-RCM runs projected to the year 2100 for RCP 4.5 and 8.5 provided within the EURO-CORDEX experiment were first bias-corrected using quantile mapping method and then used as an ensemble of climate change scenarios in SWAT. Precipitation projections were largely consistent in showing an increasing precipitation trend, present particularly in winter and spring, in both catchments. This clearly affected the hydrological and biogeochemical cycle and resulted in higher projected water yield, increased erosion, and elevated nitrogen and phosphorus emission to water bodies. The rate of change caused

  6. Simulation of atmospheric temperature inversions over greater cairo using the MM5 Meso-Scale atmospheric model

    Air pollution episodes have been recorded in Cairo, during the fall season, since 1999, as a result of specific meteorological conditions combined with large quantity of pollutants created by several ground-based sources. The main reason for the smog-like episodes (black clouds) is adverse weather conditions with low and variable winds, high humidity and strong temperature inversions in the few-hundred meters above the ground. The two important types of temperature inversion affecting the air pollution are surface or ground (radiation) inversion and subsidence (elevated) inversion. The surface temperature inversion is associated with a rapid decrease in the ground surface temperature with the simultaneous existence of warm air in the lower troposphere. The inversion develops at dusk and continues until the surface warms again the following day. Pollutants emitted during the night are caught under this inversion lid.Subsidence inversion forms when warm air masses move over colder air masses. The inversion develops with a stagnating high-pressure system (generally associated with fair weather). Under these conditions, the pressure gradient becomes progressively weaker so that winds become light. These light winds greatly reduce the horizontal transport and dispersion of pollutants. At the same time, the subsidence inversion acts as a barrier to the vertical dispersion of the pollutants. In this study, the Penn State/NCAR meso -scale model (MM5) is used to simulate the temperature inversion phenomenon over Greater Cairo region during the fall season of 2004. Accurate computations of the heat transfer at the surface are needed to capture this phenomenon. This can only be achieved by high-resolution simulations in both horizontal and vertical directions. Hence, for accurate simulation of the temperature inversion over Greater Cairo, four nested domains of resolutions of 27 km, 9 km, 3 km and 1 km, respectively, were used in the horizontal planes. Furthermore, 42 levels

  7. Identification of runoff generation processes using hydrometric and tracer methods in a meso-scale catchment in Rwanda

    O. Munyaneza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of dominant runoff generation processes in the meso-scale Migina catchment (257.4 km2 in Southern Rwanda was improved using analysis of hydrometric data and tracer methods. The paper examines the use of hydrochemical and isotope parameters for separating streamflow into different runoff components by investigating two flood events occurred during the rainy season "Itumba" (March–May over the period of 2 yr at two gauging stations. Dissolved silica (SiO2, electrical conductivity (EC, deuterium (2H, oxygen-18 (18O, major anions (Cl and SO42− and major cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were analyzed during the events. 2H, 18O, Cl and SiO2 were finally selected to assess the different contributing sources using mass balance equations and end member mixing analysis for two- and three-component hydrograph separation models. The results obtained applying two-component hydrograph separations using dissolved silica and chloride as tracers are generally in line with the results of three-component separations using dissolved silica and deuterium. Subsurface runoff is dominating the total discharge during flood events, More than 80% of the discharge was generated by subsurface runoff for both events. This is supported by observations of shallow groundwater responses in the catchment (depth 0.2–2 m, which show fast infiltration of rainfall water during events. Consequently, shallow groundwater and contributes to subsurface stormflow and baseflow generation. This dominance of subsurface contributions is also in line with the observed low runoff coefficient values (16.7–44.5% for both events. Groundwater recharge during the wet seasons leads to a perennial river system, and wet season recharge is isotopically characterising all discharge components.

  8. Identification of runoff generation processes using hydrometric and tracer methods in a meso-scale catchment in Rwanda

    O. Munyaneza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of dominant runoff generation processes in the meso-scale Migina catchment (257.4 km2 in southern Rwanda was improved using analysis of hydrometric data and tracer methods. The paper examines the use of hydrochemical and isotope parameters for separating streamflow into different runoff components by investigating two flood events which occurred during the rainy season "Itumba" (March–May over a period of 2 yr at two gauging stations. Dissolved silica (SiO2, electrical conductivity (EC, deuterium (2H, oxygen-18 (18O, major anions (Cl and SO2−4 and major cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were analyzed during the events. 2H, 18O, Cl and SiO2 were finally selected to assess the different contributing sources using mass balance equations and end member mixing analysis for two- and three-component hydrograph separation models. The results obtained by applying two-component hydrograph separations using dissolved silica and chloride as tracers are generally in line with the results of three-component separations using dissolved silica and deuterium. Subsurface runoff is dominating the total discharge during flood events. More than 80% of the discharge was generated by subsurface runoff for both events. This is supported by observations of shallow groundwater responses in the catchment (depth 0.2–2 m, which show fast infiltration of rainfall water during events. Consequently, shallow groundwater contributes to subsurface stormflow and baseflow generation. This dominance of subsurface contributions is also in line with the observed low runoff coefficient values (16.7 and 44.5% for both events. Groundwater recharge during the wet seasons leads to a perennial river system. These results are essential for better water resources planning and management in the region, which

  9. Characterisation of stable isotopes to identify residence times and runoff components in two meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Tekleab, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; S. Uhlenbrook

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin, as more than 70% of total Nile water flow originates from the Ethiopian highlands. Stable isotope compositions in precipitation, spring water and streamflow were analysed (i) to characterise the spatial...

  10. Characterisation of stable isotopes to identify residence times and runoff components in two meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Tekleab, S.; Wenninger, J.; S. Uhlenbrook

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin, as more than 70% of total Nile water flow originates from the Ethiopian highlands. Stable isotope compositions in precipitation, spring water and streamflow were analysed (i) to charac...

  11. Identifying residence times and streamflow generation processes using δ18O and δ2H in meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    Teklaeb, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin. Stable isotope composition in precipitation, spring water and streamflow were analyzed (i) to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of water fluxes; (ii) to estimate the mean residence time o...

  12. Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects

    A. Hodzic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account a MODIS-derived daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are put into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that the simulated wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (130 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of the smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3–8 August 2003 showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Although there was a fairly good spatial agreement with satellite data (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.4 to 0.9, the temporal variability of AOT data at specific AERONET locations was not well captured by the model. Statistical analyses of model-simulated AOT data at AERONET ground stations showed a significant decrease in the model biases suggesting that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat

  13. Electrical Characteristics, Electrode Sheath and Contamination Layer Behavior of a Meso-Scale Premixed Methane-Air Flame Under AC/DC Electric Fields

    Chen, Qi; Yan, Limin; Zhang, Hao; Li, Guoxiu

    2016-05-01

    Electrical characteristics of a nozzle-attached meso-scale premixed methane-air flame under low-frequency AC (0-4300 V, 0-500 Hz) and DC (0-3300 V) electric fields were studied. I-V curves were measured under different experimental conditions to estimate the magnitude of the total current 100-102 μA, the electron density 1015-1016 m‑3 and further the power dissipation ≤ 0.7 W in the reaction zone. At the same time, the meso-scale premixed flame conductivity 10‑4-10‑3 Ω‑1·m‑1 as a function of voltage and frequency was experimentally obtained and was believed to represent a useful order-of magnitude estimate. Moreover, the influence of the collision sheath relating to Debye length (31–98 μm) and the contamination layer of an active electrode on measurements was discussed, based on the combination of simulation and theoretical analysis. As a result, the electrode sheath dimension was evaluated to less than 0.5 mm, which indicated a complex effect of the collision sheath on the current measurements. The surface contamination effect of an active electrode was further analyzed using the SEM imaging method, which showed elements immigration during the contamination layer formation process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51376021), and the Fundamental Research Fund for Major Universities (No. 2013JBM079)

  14. Combined meso-scale modeling and experimental investigation of the effect of mechanical damage on the transport properties of cementitious composites

    Raghavan, Balaji; Niknezhad, Davood; Bernard, Fabrice; Kamali-Bernard, Siham

    2016-09-01

    The transport properties of cementitious composites such as concrete are important indicators of their durability, and are known to be heavily influenced by mechanical loading. In the current work, we use meso-scale hygro-mechanical modeling with a morphological 3D two phase mortar-aggregate model, in conjunction with experimentally obtained properties, to investigate the coupling between mechanical loading and damage and the permeability of the composite. The increase in permeability of a cylindrical test specimen at 28% aggregate fraction during a uniaxial displacement-controlled compression test at 85% of the peak load was measured using a gas permeameter. The mortar's mechanical behavior is assumed to follow the well-known compression damaged plasticity (CDP) model with isotropic damage, at varying thresholds, and obtained from different envelope curves. The damaged intrinsic permeability of the mortar evolves according to a logarithmic matching law with progressive loading. We fit the matching law parameters to the experimental result for the test specimen by inverse identification using our meso-scale model. We then subject a series of virtual composite specimens to quasi-static uniaxial compressive loading with varying boundary conditions to obtain the simulated damage and strain evolutions, and use the damage data and the previously identified parameters to determine the evolution of the macroscopic permeability tensor for the specimens, using a network model. We conduct a full parameter study by varying aggregate volume fraction, granulometric distribution, loading/boundary conditions and "matching law" parameters, as well as for different strain-damage thresholds and uniaxial loading envelope curves. Based on this study, we propose Avrami equation-based upper and lower bounds for the evolution of the damaged permeability of the composite.

  15. Diagnostic values of cerebrospinal fluid t-tau and Aβ42 using Meso Scale Discovery assays for Alzheimer’s disease

    Pan, Catherine; Korff, Ané; Galasko, Douglas; Ginghina, Carmen; Peskind, Elaine; Li, Ge; Quinn, Joseph; Montine, Thomas J.; Cain, Kevin; Shi, Min; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) recently established electrochemiluminescence-based assays to measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau (t-tau) and amyloid beta 1–42 peptide (Aβ42) that can aid in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The goal of this investigation is to independently evaluate this platform and establish cut-off values of these biomarkers for AD diagnosis. Objective To validate the analytical and clinical performance of the MSD t-tau and Aβ42 kits and propose diagnostic cut-off values for the field. Methods The analytical performance of the CSF t-tau and Aβ42 assays was determined, followed by assessment of diagnostic performance of CSF t-tau, Aβ42 and t-tau/Aβ42 in three clinically characterized cohorts. Results Both MSD assays demonstrated consistent and stable analytical performance, as well as resistance to several important pre-analytic variables. Diagnostically, t-tau/Aβ42 performed the best. Conclusions Our results independently confirm the analytical and clinical performance of the MSD CSF t-tau and Aβ42 assays. Based on a large, multi-center, clinically diagnosed cohort, we propose for the first time candidate diagnostic cut-offs for MSD measured CSF t-tau, Aβ42 and t-tau/Aβ42. However, these values needs to be refined as more subjects are included and the assays are tested by other laboratories. PMID:25613100

  16. Large-eddy simulation of turbulent winds during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by coupling with a meso-scale meteorological simulation model

    Nakayama, H.; Takemi, T.; Nagai, H.

    2015-06-01

    A significant amount of radioactive material was accidentally discharged into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant from 12 March 2011, which produced high contaminated areas over a wide region in Japan. In conducting regional-scale atmospheric dispersion simulations, the computer-based nuclear emergency response system WSPEEDI-II developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency was used. Because this system is driven by a meso-scale meteorological (MM) model, it is difficult to reproduce small-scale wind fluctuations due to the effects of local terrain variability and buildings within a nuclear facility that are not explicitly represented in MM models. In this study, we propose a computational approach to couple an LES-based CFD model with a MM model for detailed simulations of turbulent winds with buoyancy effects under real meteorological conditions using turbulent inflow technique. Compared to the simple measurement data, especially, the 10 min averaged wind directions of the LES differ by more than 30 degrees during some period of time. However, distribution patterns of wind speeds, directions, and potential temperature are similar to the MM data. This implies that our coupling technique has potential performance to provide detailed data on contaminated area in the nuclear accidents.

  17. Microstructural Evolution at Micro/Meso-Scale in an Ultrafine-Grained Pure Aluminum Processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing with Subsequent Annealing Treatment

    Jie Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro-forming with ultrafine-grained (UFG materials is a promising direction for the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS components due to the improved formability, good surface quality, and excellent mechanical properties it provides. In this paper, micro-compression tests were performed using UFG pure aluminum processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP with subsequent annealing treatment. Microstructural evolution was investigated by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results show that microstructural evolutions during compression tests at the micro/meso-scale in UFG pure Al are absolutely different from the coarse-grained (CG materials. A lot of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs and recrystallized fine grains are formed inside of the original large grains in CG pure aluminum after micro-compression. By contrast, ultrafine grains are kept with few sub-grain boundaries inside the grains in UFG pure aluminum, which are similar to the original microstructure before micro-compression. The surface roughness and coordinated deformation ability can be signmicrostructure; micro/meso-forming; ultrafine grains; ECAP; aluminumificantly improved with UFG pure aluminum, which demonstrates that the UFG materials have a strong potential application in micro/meso-forming.

  18. Numerical modeling of gaseous fission product transport at the meso-scale: A multi-physics mechanical response of fuel pin swelling

    Meso-scale simulation of microstructural evolution in fast reactor fuels offers an intermediate perspective between atomistic simulation and macro-scale continuum models. The polycrystalline nature of the fuel and clad is modeled explicitly with heat transfer, deformation, and fracture treated within a grain-level based continuum framework. Grain boundaries are idealized as mobile, sharp dividing surfaces that move in response to mechanical, thermal, misorientation, inclination and bulk defect driving forces. Vacancies and dislocations are accounted for using evolving density fields, and fission product bubbles are tracked as they nucleate, move and coalesce. The mechanical response of the microstructure is treated with a dislocation-based plasticity in which the effects of microstructure length scales are captured by a non-local evaluation of material hardness using deformation gradients. This simulation strategy permits the study of thermal transients on pin microstructure and the clad response, a setting in which there is currently a dearth of experimental data. To facilitate meso-scale fuels modeling, we have developed a new hybrid paradigm which couples a time calibrated Monte Carlo (cMC) strategy for modeling grain boundary motion and bubble transport at the meso-scale with a deterministic continuum mechanics method for the mechanical stresses. Atomic level physics (e.g. heat transfer, vacancy and atomic specie transport) are modeled using diffusion theory with diffusivities as functions of both temperature and mechanical strain. This paradigm is illustrated in the following figure A particle-and-cell algorithm, the material point method (MPM), is used to compute the continuum level thermo-mechanical state. This particle based continuum method was chosen to facilitate efficient coupling with the kinetic based cMC strategy. In this cMC strategy, the probability for realizing a given fluctuation based evolution event is based on the potential for localized free

  19. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  20. Coulomb drag in coherent mesoscopic systems

    Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2001-01-01

    random matrix theory, or by numerical simulations. We show that Coulomb drag is sensitive to localized states. which usual transport measurements do not probe. For chaotic 2D systems we find a vanishing average drag, with a nonzero variance. Disordered 1D wires show a finite drag, with a large variance...

  1. Evaluation of the performance of a meso-scale NWP model to forecast solar irradiance on Reunion Island for photovoltaic power applications

    Kalecinski, Natacha; Haeffelin, Martial; Badosa, Jordi; Periard, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Solar photovoltaic power is a predominant source of electrical power on Reunion Island, regularly providing near 30% of electrical power demand for a few hours per day. However solar power on Reunion Island is strongly modulated by clouds in small temporal and spatial scales. Today regional regulations require that new solar photovoltaic plants be combined with storage systems to reduce electrical power fluctuations on the grid. Hence cloud and solar irradiance forecasting becomes an important tool to help optimize the operation of new solar photovoltaic plants on Reunion Island. Reunion Island, located in the South West of the Indian Ocean, is exposed to persistent trade winds, most of all in winter. In summer, the southward motion of the ITCZ brings atmospheric instabilities on the island and weakens trade winds. This context together with the complex topography of Reunion Island, which is about 60 km wide, with two high summits (3070 and 2512 m) connected by a 1500 m plateau, makes cloudiness very heterogeneous. High cloudiness variability is found between mountain and coastal areas and between the windward, leeward and lateral regions defined with respect to the synoptic wind direction. A detailed study of local dynamics variability is necessary to better understand cloud life cycles around the island. In the presented work, our approach to explore the short-term solar irradiance forecast at local scales is to use the deterministic output from a meso-scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, AROME, developed by Meteo France. To start we evaluate the performance of the deterministic forecast from AROME by using meteorological measurements from 21 meteorological ground stations widely spread around the island (and with altitudes from 8 to 2245 m). Ground measurements include solar irradiation, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, air temperature, precipitation and pressure. Secondly we study in the model the local dynamics and thermodynamics that

  2. Meso-scale on-road vehicle emission inventory approach: a study on Dhaka City of Bangladesh supporting the 'cause-effect' analysis of the transport system.

    Iqbal, Asif; Allan, Andrew; Zito, Rocco

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to develop an emission inventory (EI) approach and conduct an inventory for vehicular sources in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. A meso-scale modelling approach was adopted for the inventory; the factors that influence the emissions and the magnitude of emission variation were identified and reported on, which was an innovative approach to account emissions unlike the conventional inventory approaches. Two techniques for the emission inventory were applied, viz. (i) a combined top-down and bottom-up approach that considered the total vehicle population and the average diurnal on-road vehicle speed profile in the city and (ii) a bottom-up approach that accounted for road link-specific emissions of the city considering diurnal traffic volume and speed profiles of the respective roads. For the bottom-up approach, road link-specific detailed data were obtained through field survey in 2012, where mid-block traffic count of the day, vehicle speed profile, road network and congestion data were collected principally. The emission variances for the change in transport system characteristics (like change in fuel type, AC usage pattern, increased speed and reduced congestion/stopping) were predicted and analysed in this study; congestion influenced average speed of the vehicles, and fuel types in the vehicles were identified as the major stressors. The study performance was considered reasonable when comparing with the limited number of similar studies conducted earlier. Given the increasing trend of private vehicles each year coupled with increasing traffic congestion, the city is under threat of increased vehicular emissions unless a good management strategy is implemented. Although the inventory is conducted for Dhaka and the result may be important locally, the approach adopted in this research is innovative in nature to be followed for conducting research on other urban transport systems. PMID:26857254

  3. Meso-scale modelling of directional solidification and comparison with in situ X-ray radiographic observations made during the MASER-12 XRMON microgravity experiment

    Highlights: •Mesoscopic simulation of in situ X-ray monitored solidification in microgravity. •Extent and magnitude of undercooled zone ahead of dendrite front predicted. •Dynamic thermal response of new XRMON-GF Bridgman furnace analysed. -- Abstract: Computational modelling of advanced solidification processes has made considerable advances over the last half century, with ever increasing levels of modelling complexity. There is, therefore, an increasing need for state of the art experimental investigation to provide suitable validation for these model predictions. In situ X-ray radiography has become a powerful tool for solidification experimentation. Using either synchrotron or microfocus X-ray sources, thin samples, encased in X-ray transparent crucibles, can be directionally or isothermally solidified, allowing for direct real time observation of dynamic solidification phenomena. This paper presents the results of a meso-scale Front Tracking simulation of a directional solidification experiment, performed using an Al–20 wt.% Cu alloy, carried out under microgravity conditions on board the MASER 12 sounding rocket. The sample was mounted in a Bridgman type gradient furnace and solidified using a prescribed cooling regime with a constant gradient, thus promoting directional solidification in the field of view. The actual thermal gradient in the sample was found to be lower than the nominal thermal gradient, as set/recorded by thermocouples embedded in the heater elements. The adjusted thermal data were supplied as inputs to the Front Tracking model and good agreement was then observed between the model predictions and the in situ observations. The extent and amplitude of the undercooled zone ahead of the columnar front was predicted based on analytical growth kinetics laws and the results were also compared to analytical models of columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) prediction

  4. Optimizing hydraulic cleaning techniques for oiled coarse sediment beaches: immediate and one year post-treatment results of the meso-scale field trials

    Project objectives were to determine the biological effects on inter-tidal biota associated with hydraulic cleaning techniques, and to develop data on the environmentally optimum combination of hydraulic parameters. Initial field operations of the meso-scale field trials were completed in June 1997, and a post-treatment biological recovery assessment was made in June 1998, results of which are presented in this paper. The field trial included collection of groups of colonized cobbles from a donor beach in British Columbia, doused with Bunker C oil and treated at various combinations of water pressure and temperature. Various species of algae, barnacles, limpets and snails were monitored. Hydraulic cleaning parameters examined were various water pressures and temperatures. Biological observations of abundance and mortality were made prior to treatment, immediately after treatment and one year after treatment. Increasing mortalities were observed immediately after treatment among the barnacles with higher water pressures and temperatures. Mortality was also greater in barnacle and algae species at all treatment levels one year after treatment. In the case of barnacles, there was no significant difference between mortality rates after one year due to differences in pressure or temperature, oiled control or untreated oiled control. Based on these results it was concluded that after one year, there was no detectable benefit or detrimental effects to barnacles or algae from performing hydraulic washing apart from the effects of oiling alone and/or natural variations in environmental conditions. Some evidence was found that hydraulic washing of oiled cobbles at high temperatures may have negative effect on recruitment of barnacles. The relative effects of the various treatment levels appeared to be more severe one year after treatment for most species examined.15 refs., 9 figs

  5. Design of a meso-scale poly-axial testing device for examining the role of anisotropic stress on fluid flow in fractured rock

    Gosselin, M. J.; Boutt, D. F.

    2005-12-01

    Fluid flow in the shallow crust (meters) is not typically sensitive to the low magnitude crustal stress conditions present. Fractured rocks, unlike porous sedimentary rocks, in this respect are unique since most un-cemented fractures are compliant at lower stress states and fracture apertures can be strongly influenced by the loading. As a result, fracture permeability of the rocks can be strongly dependent on depth and loading conditions (e.g. residual tectonic stresses). This has implications for depth of flow systems and connections between deeper and shallower systems. This paper presents the design of a poly-axial testing apparatus for testing the role of low magnitude (flow and transport properties of fractured rock on meso-scale samples of fractured rock. A "true-triaxial" stress state will allow a more accurate description of shallow crustal conditions and isolation of the role of these stresses on fluid flow. Previous investigations into stress induced anisotropic conditions in fractured rocks have used traditional triaxial stress conditions to simulate crustal conditions. We constructed a frame with 6 loading pistons, two on each axis, which will be capable of stressing a cubic sample in 3 independent directions, thus creating a more realistic 3D stress state in the rock. The frame allows access to the sample on all sides. Six separate platens isolate each face of the sample permitting the measurement of fluid pressure response to off axis loading. The platens are designed to transfer the loads to the sample while allowing fluid flow monitoring and sampling. Design considerations also include geophysical characterization of the sample through both ultrasonic and NMR testing. We hope to quantify the relationships between stress fields and fluid flow through the fractured rock for low crustal stresses. Specifically we expect to be able to more completely quantify the aperture reduction on a fractured surface when a stress is not applied normal to the

  6. Simulation of the aerosol effect on the microphysical properties of shallow stratocumulus clouds over East Asia using a bin-based meso-scale cloud model

    Choi, I.-J.; Iguchi, T.; Kim, S.-W.; Yoon, S.-C.; Nakajima, T.

    2010-10-01

    A bin-based meso-scale cloud model has been employed to explore the aerosol influence on the cloud microphysical properties and precipitation efficiency of shallow stratocumulus in East Asia in March 2005. We newly constructed aerosol size distributions and hygroscopicity parameters for five aerosol species that reproduced observed aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations in the target period, and thereby used in model simulation of the cloud microphysical properties and precipitation efficiency. It is found that the simulated results were satisfactorily close to the satellite-based observation. Significant effects of aerosols as well as of the meteorological condition were found in the simulated cloud properties and precipitation as confirmed by comparing maritime and polluted aerosol cases and by a sensitivity test with interchanging the aerosol conditions for two cases. Cloud droplets in the polluted condition tended to exhibit relatively narrower cloud drop spectral widths with a bias toward smaller droplet sizes than those in maritime condition, supporting the dispersion effect. The polluted aerosol condition also had a tendency of thinner and higher cloud layers than maritime aerosol condition under relatively humid meteorological condition, possibly due to enhanced updraft. In our cases, vertical structures of cloud droplet number and size were affected predominantly by the change in aerosol conditions, whereas in the structures of liquid water content and cloud fraction were influenced by both meteorological and aerosol conditions. Aerosol change made little differences in cloud liquid water, vertical cloud structure, and updraft/downdraft velocities between the maritime and polluted conditions under dry atmospheric condition. Quantitative evaluations of the sensitivity factor between aerosol and cloud parameters revealed a large sensitivity values in the target area compared to the previously reported values, indicating the strong

  7. Coulomb Energy of Nuclei

    Shaginyan, V. R.

    2002-01-01

    The density functional determining the Coulomb energy of nuclei is calculated to the first order in $e^2$. It is shown that the Coulomb energy includes three terms: the Hartree energy; the Fock energy; and the correlation Coulomb energy (CCE), which contributes considerably to the surface energy, the mass difference between mirror nuclei, and the single-particle spectrum. A CCE-based mechanism of a systematic shift of the single-particle spectrum is proposed. A dominant contribution to the CC...

  8. Ion Coulomb Crystals

    Thompson, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Ion Coulomb crystals (ICC), formed by atomic ions at low temperatures in radiofrequency and Penning ion traps, are structures that have remarkable properties and many applications. Images of Coulomb crystals are striking and reveal the crystal structure, which arises from a balance between the trapping forces acting on the ions and their mutual Coulomb repulsion. Applications of these structures range from frequency standards and quantum simulation through to measurement of the cross sections of chemical reactions of ions.

  9. Characterisation of stable isotopes to identify residence times and runoff components in two meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Tekleab, S.; Wenninger, J.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-06-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin, as more than 70% of total Nile water flow originates from the Ethiopian highlands. Stable isotope compositions in precipitation, spring water and streamflow were analysed (i) to characterise the spatial and temporal variations of water fluxes; (ii) to estimate the mean residence time of water using a sine wave regression approach; and (iii) to identify runoff components using classical two-component hydrograph separations on a seasonal timescale. The results show that the isotopic composition of precipitation exhibits marked seasonal variations, which suggests different sources of moisture generation for the rainfall in the study area. The Atlantic-Indian Ocean, Congo basin, Upper White Nile and the Sudd swamps are the potential moisture source areas during the main rainy (summer) season, while the Indian-Arabian and Mediterranean Sea moisture source areas during little rain (spring) and dry (winter) seasons. The spatial variation in the isotopic composition is influenced by the amount effect as depicted by moderate coefficients of determination on a monthly timescale (R2 varies from 0.38 to 0.68) and weak regression coefficients (R2 varies from 0.18 to 0.58) for the altitude and temperature effects. A mean altitude effect accounting for -0.12‰/100 m for 18O and -0.58‰/100 m for 2H was discernible in precipitation isotope composition. Results from the hydrograph separation on a seasonal timescale indicate the dominance of event water, with an average of 71 and 64% of the total runoff during the wet season in the Chemoga and Jedeb catchments, respectively. Moreover, the stable isotope compositions of streamflow samples were damped compared to the input function of

  10. Role of synoptic- and meso-scales on the evolution of the boundary-layer wind profile over a coastal region: the near-coast diurnal acceleration

    Jiménez, Pedro A.; de Arellano, Jordi Vilà-Guerau; Dudhia, Jimy; Bosveld, Fred C.

    2016-02-01

    The contributions of synoptic- and meso-scales to the boundary layer wind profile evolution in a coastal environment are examined. The analysis is based on observations of the wind profile within the first 200 m of the atmosphere continuously recorded during a 10 year period (2001-2010) at the 213-m meteorological tower at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR, The Netherlands). The analysis is supported by a numerical experiment based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model performed at high horizontal resolution of 2 km and spanning the complete observational period (10 years). Results indicate that WRF is able to reproduce the inter-annual wind variability but with a tendency to be too geostrophic. At seasonal scales, we find a differentiated behavior between Winter and Summer seasons with the Spring and Autumn transition periods more similar to the Summer and Winter modes, respectively. The winter momentum budget shows a weak intradiurnal variability. The synoptic scale controls the shape of the near surface wind profile that is characterized by weaker and more ageostrophic winds near the surface than at higher altitudes within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) as a result of the frictional turning. In turn, during summer, mesoscale circulations associated with the differential heating of land and sea become important. As a result, the PBL winds show a stronger intradiurnal component that is characterized by an oscillation of the near surface winds around the geostrophic direction with the maximum departure in the afternoon. Although also driven by thermal land-sea differences, this mesoscale component is not associated with the classical concept of a sea-breeze front. It originates from the thermal expansion of the boundary layer over land and primarily differs from the sea-breeze in its propagation speed resulting in a wind rotation far ahead of any coastal front. We refer to it as the near-coast diurnal acceleration (NCDA

  11. Identifying residence times and streamflow generation processes using δ18O and δ2H in meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    S. Tekleab

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O and deuterium (2H were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2 and Jedeb (296 km2 south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin. Stable isotope composition in precipitation, spring water and streamflow were analyzed (i to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of water fluxes; (ii to estimate the mean residence time of water using a sine wave regression approach; and (iii to identify runoff components using classical two component hydrograph separations at a seasonal time scale. The results show that the isotopic composition of precipitation exhibit marked seasonal variations, which suggests different sources of moisture generation for the rainfall in the study area. The Atlantic–Indian ocean, Congo basin, and the Sud swamps are the likely the potential moisture source areas during the main rainy (summer season. While, the Indian–Arabian, and Mediterranean Sea moisture source areas during little rain (spring, and dry (winter seasons. The spatial variation of the isotopic composition is affected by the amount effect and to less extent by altitude and temperature effects. A mean altitude effect of −0.12‰ (100 m−1 for 18O and −0.58‰ (100 m−1 for 2H were discernable in precipitation isotope composition. The seasonal variations of the isotopic signature of the spring water exhibit a damped response as compared to the river waters, which shows that the spring water has longer residence times than the river water. Results from the hydrograph separation at a seasonal time scale indicate the dominance of event water with an average of 71% and 64% of the total runoff during the wet season in the Chemoga and Jedeb catchment, respectively. The stable isotope compositions of streamflow samples were damped compared to the input function of precipitation for both catchments

  12. Incorporating expert knowledge in calibrating a complex hydrological conceptual model: A FLEX-TOPO case study for a central European meso-scale catchment

    Gharari, Shervan; Hrachowitz, Markus; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gao, Hongkai; Euser, Tanja; Savenije, Huub

    2013-04-01

    Catchments are open systems meaning that it is impossible to find out the exact boundary conditions of the real system spatially and temporarily. Therefore models are essential tools in capturing system behavior spatially and extrapolating it temporarily for prediction. In recent years conceptual models have been in the center of attention rather than so called physically based models which are often over-parameterized and encounter difficulties for up-scaling of small scale processes. Conceptual models however are heavily dependent on calibration as one or more of their parameters can typically not be physically measured at the catchment scale. Parallel to the evolution of modeling attempts, our understanding of rainfall/runoff models increased due to improvements of measurement techniques. Heavily instrumented catchments have been studied, and measured system responses have been modeled for testing a priori hypothesis of system function. Although our understanding of how catchments may work has increased the lessons learned from the case specific studies remain locally valid and are not widely used in model calibration and development. In this study we try to constrain parameters of a complex conceptual model built on landscape units classified according to their hydrological functions, based on our logical considerations and general lessons from previous studies across the globe for the Luxembourgish meso-scale Wark catchment. The classified landscapes were used to assign different model structures to the individual hydrological response units. As an example deep percolation was defined as dominant process for plateaus, while rapid subsurface flow as dominant process for hillslope, and saturation overland flow as dominant process for wetlands. The modeled runoffs from each hydrological unit were combined in a parallel set-up to proportionally contribute to the total catchment runoff. The hydrological units are, in addition, linked by a common groundwater

  13. Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    We present a theory for Coulomb drug between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... average drag for chaotic 2D-systems and dominating fluctuations of drag between quasi-ballistic wires with almost ideal transmission....

  14. Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime

    Mortensen, N.A.; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2002-01-01

    We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... average drag for chaotic 2D-systems and dominating fluctuations of drag between quasi-ballistic wires with almost ideal transmission....

  15. Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2002-01-01

    We present a theory for Coulomb drug between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... average drag for chaotic 2D-systems and dominating fluctuations of drag between quasi-ballistic wires with almost ideal transmission....

  16. Coulomb energy of nuclei

    The density functional determining the Coulomb energy of nuclei is calculated to the first order in e2. It is shown that the Coulomb energy includes three terms: the Hartree energy; the Fock energy; and the correlation Coulomb energy (CCE), which contributes considerably to the surface energy, the mass difference between mirror nuclei, and the single-particle spectrum. A CCE-based mechanism of a systematic shift of the single-particle spectrum is proposed. A dominant contribution to the CCE is shown to come from the surface region of nuclei. The CCE effect on the calculated proton drip line is examined, and the maximum charge Z of nuclei near this line is found to decrease by 2 or 3 units. The effect of Coulomb interaction on the effective proton mass is analyzed

  17. Coulomb Energy of Nuclei

    Shaginyan, V R

    2001-01-01

    The density functional determining the Coulomb energy of nuclei is calculated to the first order in $e^2$. It is shown that the Coulomb energy includes three terms: the Hartree energy; the Fock energy; and the correlation Coulomb energy (CCE), which contributes considerably to the surface energy, the mass difference between mirror nuclei, and the single-particle spectrum. A CCE-based mechanism of a systematic shift of the single-particle spectrum is proposed. A dominant contribution to the CCE is shown to come from the surface region of nuclei. The CCE effect on the calculated proton drip line is examined, and the maximum charge $Z$ of nuclei near this line is found to decrease by 2 or 3 units. The effect of Coulomb interaction on the effective proton mass is analyzed.

  18. Coulomb Drag in Graphene

    Tse, Wang-Kong; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Sarma, S. Das

    2007-01-01

    We study the Coulomb drag between two single graphene sheets in intrinsic and extrinsic graphene systems with no interlayer tunneling. The general expression for the nonlinear susceptibility appropriate for single-layer graphene systems is derived using the diagrammatic perturbation theory, and the corresponding exact zero-temperature expression is obtained analytically. We find that, despite the existence of a non-zero conductivity in an intrinsic graphene layer, the Coulomb drag between int...

  19. Adventures in Coulomb Gauge

    Greensite, J.; Olejnik, S.

    2003-09-26

    We study the phase structure of SU(2) gauge theories at zero and high temperature, with and without scalar matter fields, in terms of the symmetric/broken realization of the remnant gauge symmetry which exists after fixing to Coulomb gauge. The symmetric realization is associated with a linearly rising color Coulomb potential (which we compute numerically), and is a necessary but not sufficient condition for confinement.

  20. Adventures in Coulomb Gauge

    We study the phase structure of SU(2) gauge theories at zero and high temperature, with and without scalar matter fields, in terms of the symmetric/broken realization of the remnant gauge symmetry which exists after fixing to Coulomb gauge. The symmetric realization is associated with a linearly rising color Coulomb potential (which we compute numerically), and is a necessary but not sufficient condition for confinement.

  1. Characteristics of Coulomb fission

    Oberacker, Volker; Greiner, Walter; Kruse, Hans; Pinkston, William T.

    2006-01-01

    Within an extended semiquantal theory we perform large-sized coupled-channel calculations involving 260 collective levels for Coulomb fission of 238U. Differential Coulomb fission cross sections are studied as a function of bombarding energy and impact parameter for several projectiles. In the Xe + U case, total cross sections are also given. We find a strong dependence on projectile charge number, PCF(180°)∼(Zp)6 in the region 50≤Zp≤92 for a fixed ratio E/ECoul, which might...

  2. Coulomb drag in topological insulator films

    Liu, Hong; Liu, Weizhe Edward; Culcer, Dimitrie

    2016-05-01

    We study Coulomb drag between the top and bottom surfaces of topological insulator films. We derive a kinetic equation for the thin-film spin density matrix containing the full spin structure of the two-layer system, and analyze the electron-electron interaction in detail in order to recover all terms responsible for Coulomb drag. Focusing on typical topological insulator systems, with a film thicknesses d up to 6 nm, we obtain numerical and approximate analytical results for the drag resistivity ρD and find that ρD is proportional to T2d-4 na-3/2 np-3/2 at low temperature T and low electron density na,p, with a denoting the active layer and p the passive layer. In addition, we compare ρD with graphene, identifying qualitative and quantitative differences, and we discuss the multi-valley case, ultra thin films and electron-hole layers.

  3. 2D solar modeling

    Ventura, P; Li, L; Sofia, S; Basu, S; Demarque, P

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the cyclic variation of the total solar irradiance is one of the most challenging targets of modern astrophysics. These studies prove to be essential also for a more climatologic issue, associated to the global warming. Any attempt to determine the solar components of this phenomenon must include the effects of the magnetic field, whose strength and shape in the solar interior are far from being completely known. Modelling the presence and the effects of a magnetic field requires a 2D approach, since the assumption of radial symmetry is too limiting for this topic. We present the structure of a 2D evolution code that was purposely designed for this scope; rotation, magnetic field and turbulence can be taken into account. Some preliminary results are presented and commented.

  4. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  5. Coulomb drag in graphene

    Hwang, E. H.; Sarma, S. Das

    2011-01-01

    We calculate theoretically the Coulomb drag resistivity for two graphene monolayers spatially separated by a distance "$d$". We show that the frictional drag induced by inter-layer electron-electron interaction goes asymptotically as $T^2/n^3$ and $T^2 \\ln(n)/n$ in the high-density ($k_F d \\gg 1$) and low-density ($k_F d \\ll 1$) limits, respectively.

  6. Holographic Coulomb branch vevs

    Skenderis, K; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika

    2006-01-01

    We compute holographically the vevs of all chiral primary operators for supergravity solutions corresponding to the Coulomb branch of N=4 SYM and find exact agreement with the corresponding field theory computation. Using the dictionary between 10d geometries and field theory developed to extract these vevs, we propose a gravity dual of a half supersymmetric deformation of N=4 SYM by certain irrelevant operators.

  7. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    Fortov, Vladimir E.; Golden, Kenneth I.; Norman, Genri E.

    2006-04-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS) which was held during the week of 20 24 June 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The Moscow conference was the tenth in a series of conferences. The previous conferences were organized as follows. 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (organized by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (organized by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, NY, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) After 1995 the name of the series was changed from `Strongly Coupled Plasmas' to the present name in order to extend the topics of the conferences. The planned frequency for the future is once every three years. The purpose of these conferences is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of research accomplishments and ideas relating to a variety of plasma liquid and condensed matter systems, dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Strongly coupled Coulomb systems encompass diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphasis as new discoveries and new methods appear. This year, sessions were organized for invited presentations and posters on dense plasmas and warm matter, astrophysics and dense hydrogen, non-neutral and ultracold plasmas, dusty plasmas, condensed matter 2D and layered charged-particle systems, Coulomb liquids, and statistical theory of SCCS. Within

  8. Coulomb pair-creation

    Electron-positron pair production in strong Coulomb fields is outlined. It is shown that the singular behaviour of the adiabatic basis can be removed if solutions of the time dependent external field Dirac equation are used as a basis to expand the fermion field operator. This latter 'asymptotic basis' makes it possible to introduce Feynman-propagator. Applying the reduction technique, the computation of all of the basic quantities can be reduced to the solution of an integral equation. The positron spectrum for separable potential model with Lorentzian time dependence and for potential jump is analyzed in the pole approximation. (author)

  9. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs...

  10. 一次西南涡特大暴雨的中尺度诊断分析%A meso-scale diagnostic analysis of torrential rain caused by a southwest vortex in China

    辜旭赞; 徐明

    2012-01-01

    采用LAPS中尺度分析模式大气资料,对2008年7月一次西南涡暴雨过程进行天气学降水运动的中尺度诊断计算与分析。诊断计算包括:可降水量、层结不稳定能量、对流可降水量、水汽权重平均风速、水汽通量散度、云水、云冰总量及其通量散度和垂直速度与凝结函数降水率等。结果表明:"西南涡—切变线"系统的暴雨发生在暖湿气团与变性冷气团之间的中尺度风场辐合上升运动区,中尺度雨团发生在层结不稳定的暖湿气团一侧。计算的中尺度垂直运动与凝结函数降水率场,降水率为暴雨到特大暴雨。计算的水汽通量辐合降水率与凝结函数降水率不会完全重合,且水汽通量辐合既可致中尺度"雨",又可成大尺度"云",并且云水、云冰通量辐合/辐散,可解释为它们的"正"/"负"碰并增长,而碰并增长产生水凝物增量(降水率)促成大暴雨。因此,在凝结函数降水率场中产生的中、小尺度对流雨团,加上水汽与云水、云冰通量辐合及其碰并增长,并且借助层结不稳定能量释放和可能产生的强迫"次级环流"及水汽与云水、云冰输送,是"西南涡—切变线"系统造成襄樊特大暴雨的天气学成因。%Based on the atmospheric data from LAPS(local analysis and prediction system),a torrential rain process caused by a southwest vortex in July 2008 in China was analyzed.The probable precipitation,instable energy of stratification,convective precipitable precipitation,mean wind speed of water vapor weight,water vapor flux divergence,the total cloud water and cloud ice and its flux divergence,vertical velocity and condensation function precipitation rates and so on were calculated and diagnosed.The results indicate that the torrential rain from"a southwest vortex shear line system"occurs in the ascending areas due to meso-scale wind field convergence between the warm-wet air mass

  11. Evaluation of Cloud Microphysics Simulated using a Meso-Scale Model Coupled with a Spectral Bin Microphysical Scheme through Comparison with Observation Data by Ship-Borne Doppler and Space-Borne W-Band Radars

    Iguchi, T.; Nakajima, T.; Khain, A. P.; Saito, K.; Takemura, T.; Okamoto, H.; Nishizawa, T.; Tao, W.-K.

    2012-01-01

    Equivalent radar reflectivity factors (Ze) measured by W-band radars are directly compared with the corresponding values calculated from a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic meso-scale model coupled with a spectral-bin-microphysical (SBM) scheme for cloud. Three case studies are the objects of this research: one targets a part of ship-borne observation using 95 GHz Doppler radar over the Pacific Ocean near Japan in May 2001; other two are aimed at two short segments of space-borne observation by the cloud profiling radar on CloudSat in November 2006. The numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations reproduce general features of vertical structures of Ze and Doppler velocity. A main problem in the reproducibility is an overestimation of Ze in ice cloud layers. A frequency analysis shows a strong correlation between ice water contents (IWC) and Ze in the simulation; this characteristic is similar to those shown in prior on-site studies. From comparing with the empirical correlations by the prior studies, the simulated Ze is overestimated than the corresponding values in the studies at the same IWC. Whereas the comparison of Doppler velocities suggests that large-size snowflakes are necessary for producing large velocities under the freezing level and hence rules out the possibility that an overestimation of snow size causes the overestimation of Ze. Based on the results of several sensitivity tests, we conclude that the source of the overestimation is a bias in the microphysical calculation of Ze or an overestimation of IWC. To identify the source of the problems needs further validation research with other follow-up observations.

  12. Intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation of Fe-52

    Yurkewicz, KL; Bazin, D.; Brown, BA; Campbell, CM; Church, JA; Dinca, DC; A. Gade; Glasmacher, T.(National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, United States); Honma, M.; Mizusaki, T.; Mueller, WF; Olliver, H; Otsuka, Taka; Riley, LA; Terry, Jr., Jeffrey H.

    2004-01-01

    The nucleus 52 Fe with s N = Z =26 d has been investigated using intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics. A reduced transition probability of B s E 2;0 1 + ! 2 1 + d = 817 s 102 d e 2 fm 4 to the first excited 2 + state at 849.0 ( 5 ) keV was deduced. The increase in excitation strength B s E 2 " d with respect to the even-mass neighbor 54...

  13. Coulomb interactions within halo EFT

    Preliminary results of an effective field theory applied to nuclear cluster systems are presented, where Coulomb interactions play a significant role. Presented at the 20th Few-Body Conference, Pisa, Italy, 10-14 September 2007. (author)

  14. Lectures on 2D gravity and 2D string theory

    This report the following topics: loops and states in conformal field theory; brief review of the Liouville theory; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity I: path integral approach; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity II: canonical approach; states in 2D string theory; matrix model technology I: method of orthogonal polynomials; matrix model technology II: loops on the lattice; matrix model technology III: free fermions from the lattice; loops and states in matrix model quantum gravity; loops and states in the C=1 matrix model; 6V model fermi sea dynamics and collective field theory; and string scattering in two spacetime dimensions

  15. 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikat

    Smolander, Aku

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan erilaisia 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoita. Aluksi luodaan yleiskatsaus animoinnin historiaan ja tekniikoihin piirtämisestä mallintamiseen. Alkukatsauksen jälkeen tutkitaan 2D-hahmon suunnittelua ja liikkeitä koskevia sääntöjä. Hahmoanimaation liikkeissä huomionarvoisia asioita ovat muun muassa ajastus, liioittelu, ennakointi ja painovoima. Seuraavaksi perehdytään itse 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoihin. Tavoitteena on selvittää, tutkia ja vertailla ...

  16. 一个锢囚状中尺度对流系统的多尺度结构分析%An analysis of the multi-scale structure and evolution of a meso-scale occluding convective system

    易笑园; 李泽椿; 姚学祥; 王红艳; 孙晓磊

    2011-01-01

    The composite Doppler radar data at the Beijing, Tianjin and Qinhuangdao stations, the satellite data, the automatic meteorological observing stations data and the NCEP 1° × 1° reanalysis data were used to analyze the multi-scale structure and evolution of a meso-scale occluding convective system in the east part of the Huabei plain, which caused severe heavy rainfall on 18 July 2007. The methods of the meso-scale filtering, the 4DVAR single Doppler radar retrieval, and the horizontal and vertical section analyses were employed in this paper. The results show that firstly, this MaCS experienced 3 phases including the intialization and developing, the maturation and the dissipation. The cold cloud top of the MαCS changed from an elongated top to a circle one with only single center again to a polygon top with several centers as shown in the satellite images. It is seen from the radar data that a meso-scale convective system under the cold top was a occluding squall-line mesoscale convective system, whose two cross meso-β-scale line-squall convective systems were composed of several MγCSs arranged in the form of a line with independent strong radar reflectivity center and life-cycle. In the occluding phase of the MaCS the active MγCSs caused local severe rainfall. In the occluded phase, those MγCSs were closely organized together so as to make their edges become obscured with the occluded point corresponding to the cold cloud top center of the MαCS. In the dissipation phase, with the pattern of crossing disappearing and cloud top dropping, the radar echo-top and the reflectivity both showed an eddy feature. Secondly, severe ascending motion existed in the MαCS whose center appears from 600 hPa to 500 hPa. At the height of 200 hPa, an anti-cyclonic circulation had an effect on the shape of cold cloud top. At the height of 700 hPa, the cold air flow brought by the cyclonic circulation weakened physically the intensity of MαCS. Thirdly, the structure and

  17. Approach to spatialize local to long-range atmospheric metal input (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb) in epiphytic lichens over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France).

    Barre, Julien P G; Deletraz, Gaëlle; Frayret, Jérôme; Pinaly, Hervé; Donard, Olivier F X; Amouroux, David

    2015-06-01

    Geographically based investigations into atmospheric bio-monitoring usually provide information on concentration or occurrence data and spatial trends of specific contaminants over a specified study area. In this work, an original approach based on geographic information system (GIS) was used to establish metal contents (Hg, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in epiphytic lichens from 90 locations as atmospheric bio-monitors over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France). This approach allows the integration of the heterogeneity of the territory and optimization of the sampling sites based on both socioeconomical and geophysical parameters (hereafter defined as urban, industrial, agricultural, and forested areas). The sampling strategy was first evaluated in several sites (n = 15) over different seasons and years in order to follow the temporal variability of the atmospheric metal input in lichens. The results demonstrate that concentration ranges remain constant over different sampling periods in "rural" areas (agricultural and forested). Higher variability is observed in the "anthropized" urban and industrial areas in relation to local atmospheric inputs. In this context, metal concentrations in lichens over the whole study show that (1) Hg and Cd are homogeneous over the whole territory (0.14 ± 0.04 and 0.38 ± 0.26 mg/kg, respectively), whereas (2) Cu and Pb are more concentrated in "anthropized" areas (9.3 and 11.9 mg/kg, respectively) than in "rural" ones (6.8 and 6.0 mg/kg, respectively) (Kruskall-Wallis, K(Cu) = 13.7 and K(Pb) = 9.7, p contamination source over a wider geographic scale. A multiple linear regression model was applied to give an integrated spatialization of the data. This showed significant relationships for Pb and Cu (adjusted r (2) of 0.39 and 0.45, respectively), especially with regards to variables such as industry and road densities (source factors) and elevation or water balance (remote factors). These

  18. Sub-electron Charge Relaxation via 2D Hopping Conductors

    Kinkhabwala, Yusuf A.; Likharev, Konstantin K.

    2005-01-01

    We have extended Monte Carlo simulations of hopping transport in completely disordered 2D conductors to the process of external charge relaxation. In this situation, a conductor of area $L \\times W$ shunts an external capacitor $C$ with initial charge $Q_i$. At low temperatures, the charge relaxation process stops at some "residual" charge value corresponding to the effective threshold of the Coulomb blockade of hopping. We have calculated the r.m.s$.$ value $Q_R$ of the residual charge for a...

  19. Coulomb explosion of "hot spot"

    Oreshkin, V I; Chaikovsky, S A; Artyomov, A P

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed and estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.

  20. Attractive Coulomb interaction of two-dimensional Rydberg excitons

    Shahnazaryan, V.; Shelykh, I. A.; Kyriienko, O.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze theoretically the Coulomb scattering processes of highly excited excitons in the direct-band-gap semiconductor quantum wells. We find that contrary to the interaction of ground-state excitons, the electron and hole exchange interaction between excited excitons has an attractive character both for s - and p -type two-dimensional (2D) excitons. Moreover, we show that similar to the three-dimensional highly excited excitons, the direct interaction of 2D Rydberg excitons exhibits van der Waals-type long-range interaction. The results predict the linear growth of the absolute value of exchange interaction strength with an exciton principal quantum number and point the way towards enhancement of optical nonlinearity in 2D excitonic systems.

  1. Coulomb interactions in particle beams

    This book develops analytical and computer models for beams in which Coulomb interactions are important. The research into the different phenomena of Coulomb interactions in particle beams is stimulated by developments in the field of electron beam lithography for VLSI electronics. The standard theory of charged particle optics breaks down for intense beams in which interactions between particles are significant. This monograph is devoted to the theory of these intense beams, which are not only used in VLSI electronics but also in scanning electron microscopes. The theory is also applicable to focused ion beams, which are used in VLSI mask repair

  2. Renormalization in Coulomb gauge QCD

    Research highlights: → The Hamiltonian in the Coulomb gauge of QCD contains a non-linear Christ-Lee term. → We investigate the UV divergences from higher order graphs. → We find that they cannot be absorbed by renormalization of the Christ-Lee term. - Abstract: In the Coulomb gauge of QCD, the Hamiltonian contains a non-linear Christ-Lee term, which may alternatively be derived from a careful treatment of ambiguous Feynman integrals at 2-loop order. We investigate how and if UV divergences from higher order graphs can be consistently absorbed by renormalization of the Christ-Lee term. We find that they cannot.

  3. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  4. Accretion Disks Phase Transitions 2-D or not 2-D?

    Abramowicz, M A; Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, Marek Artur; Bjornsson, Gunnlaugur; Igumenshchev, Igor V.

    2000-01-01

    We argue that the proper way to treat thin-thick accretion-disk transitions should take into account the 2-D nature of the problem. We illustrate the physical inconsistency of the 1-D vertically integrated approach by discussing a particular example of the convective transport of energy.

  5. Entropic Corrections to Coulomb's Law

    Hendi, S. H.; Sheykhi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Two well-known quantum corrections to the area law have been introduced in the literatures, namely, logarithmic and power-law corrections. Logarithmic corrections, arises from loop quantum gravity due to thermal equilibrium fluctuations and quantum fluctuations, while, power-law correction appears in dealing with the entanglement of quantum fields in and out the horizon. Inspired by Verlinde's argument on the entropic force, and assuming the quantum corrected relation for the entropy, we propose the entropic origin for the Coulomb's law in this note. Also we investigate the Uehling potential as a radiative correction to Coulomb potential in 1-loop order and show that for some value of distance the entropic corrections of the Coulomb's law is compatible with the vacuum-polarization correction in QED. So, we derive modified Coulomb's law as well as the entropy corrected Poisson's equation which governing the evolution of the scalar potential ϕ. Our study further supports the unification of gravity and electromagnetic interactions based on the holographic principle.

  6. Semi-Smooth Newton Method for Solving 2D Contact Problems with Tresca and Coulomb Friction

    Kristina Motyckova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with contact problems for two elastic bodies with friction. After the description of the problem we present its discretization based on linear or bilinear finite elements. The semi--smooth Newton method is used to find the solution, from which we derive active sets algorithms. Finally, we arrive at the globally convergent dual implementation of the algorithms in terms of the Langrange multipliers for the Tresca problem. Numerical experiments conclude the paper.

  7. 2D-Oide effect

    Blanco, O R; Bambade, P

    2015-01-01

    The Oide effect considers the synchrotron radiation in the final focusing quadrupole and it sets a lower limit on the vertical beam size at the Interaction Point, particularly relevant for high energy linear colliders. The theory of the Oide effect was derived considering only the radiation in the focusing plane of the magnet. This article addresses the theoretical calculation of the radiation effect on the beam size consider- ing both focusing and defocusing planes of the quadrupole, refered to as 2D-Oide. The CLIC 3 TeV final quadrupole (QD0) and beam parameters are used to compare the theoretical results from the Oide effect and the 2D-Oide effect with particle tracking in PLACET. The 2D-oide demonstrates to be important as it increases by 17% the contribution to the beam size. Further insight into the aberrations induced by the synchrotron radiation opens the possibility to partially correct the 2D-Oide effect with octupole magn

  8. SES2D user's manual

    SES2D is an interactive graphics code designed to generate plots of equation of state data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Group T-4 computer libraries. This manual discusses the capabilities of the code. It describes the prompts and commands and illustrates their use with a sample run

  9. Coulomb dissociation of N,2120

    Röder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Caamaño, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkäll, Joakim; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Datta Pramanik, Ushasi; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, Luis M.; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhäuser, Roman; Göbel, Kathrin; Golubev, Pavel; Gonzalez Diaz, D.; Hagdahl, Julius; Heftrich, Tanja; Heil, Michael; Heine, Marcel; Heinz, Andreas; Henriques, Ana; Holl, Matthias; Ickert, G.; Ignatov, Alexander; Jakobsson, Bo; Johansson, Hâkan; Jonson, Björn; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Kanungo, Rituparna; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Knöbel, Ronja; Kröll, Thorsten; Krücken, Reiner; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurz, Nikolaus; Labiche, Marc; Langer, Christoph; Le Bleis, Tudi; Lemmon, Roy; Lepyoshkina, Olga; Lindberg, Simon; Machado, Jorge; Marganiec, Justyna; Mostazo Caro, Magdalena; Movsesyan, Alina; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Nilsson, Thomas; Nociforo, Chiara; Panin, Valerii; Paschalis, Stefanos; Perea, Angel; Petri, Marina; Pietri, S.; Plag, Ralf; Prochazka, A.; Rahaman, Md. Anisur; Rastrepina, Ganna; Reifarth, Rene; Ribeiro, Guillermo; Ricciardi, M. Valentina; Rigollet, Catherine; Riisager, Karsten; Rossi, Dominic; Sanchez del Rio Saez, Jose; Savran, Deniz; Scheit, Heiko; Simon, Haik; Sorlin, Olivier; Stoica, V.; Streicher, Branislav; Taylor, Jon; Tengblad, Olof; Terashima, Satoru; Thies, Ronja; Togano, Yasuhiro; Uberseder, Ethan; Van de Walle, J.; Velho, Paulo; Volkov, Vasily; Wagner, Andreas; Wamers, Felix; Weick, Helmut; Weigand, Mario; Wheldon, Carl; Wilson, G.; Wimmer, Christine; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, Philip; Yakorev, Dmitry; Zhukov, Mikhail; Zilges, Andreas; Zuber, Kai; R3B Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N,2120 are reported. Relativistic N,2120 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a kinematically complete experiment. Using the detailed balance theorem, the 19N (n ,γ )20N and 20N (n ,γ ) 21N excitation functions and thermonuclear reaction rates have been determined. The 19 (n ,γ )20N rate is up to a factor of 5 higher at T <1 GK with respect to previous theoretical calculations, leading to a 10% decrease in the predicted fluorine abundance.

  10. Coulomb interactions in Ga LMIS

    Radlička, Tomáš; Lencová, Bohumila

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 5 (2008), s. 445-454. ISSN 0304-3991 Grant ostatní: EC 5RP(XE) G5RD-CT-2000-00344 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : liquid-metal ion sources * Coulomb interactions * energy width * virtual source size Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.629, year: 2008

  11. Head First 2D Geometry

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  12. 2D-animaatiotuotannon optimointi

    Saturo, Reetta

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on tutkia 2D-animaatiotuotannon optimoinnin mahdollisuuksia tiukan tuotantoaikataulun vaatimuksissa. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan kahta asiakasprojektia, jotka on toteutettu pienellä tuotantotiimillä. Työkaluna animaatioissa on käytetty pääosin Adoben After Effects -ohjelmistoa. Tutkielman alussa esitellään animaatiotuotannot, joiden tuloksena syntyi kaksi lyhyttä mainoselokuvaa. Sen jälkeen käydään läpi animaatioelokuvan tuotantoprosessia vaiheittain ja tark...

  13. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

  14. 2D SIMPLIFIED SERVO VALVE

    2003-01-01

    A novel pilot stage valve called simplified 2D valve, which utilizes both rotary and linear motions of a single spool, is presented.The rotary motion of the spool incorporating hydraulic resistance bridge, formed by a damper groove and a crescent overlap opening, is utilized as pilot to actuate linear motion of the spool.A criterion for stability is derived from the linear analysis of the valve.Special experiments are designed to acquire the mechanical stiffness, the pilot leakage and the step response.It is shown that the sectional size of the spiral groove affects the dynamic response and the stiffness contradictorily and is also very sensitive to the pilot leakage.Therefore, it is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless, it is possible to sustain the dynamic response at a fairly high level, while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.

  15. Personalized 2D color maps

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  16. Extended Kepler–Coulomb quantum superintegrable systems in three dimensions

    The quantum Kepler–Coulomb system in three dimensions is well known to be second order superintegrable, with a symmetry algebra that closes polynomially under commutators. This polynomial closure is also typical for second order superintegrable systems in 2D and for second order systems in 3D with nondegenerate (four-parameter) potentials. However, the degenerate three-parameter potential for the 3D Kepler–Coulomb system (also second order superintegrable) is an exception, as its symmetry algebra does not close polynomially. The 3D four-parameter potential for the extended Kepler–Coulomb system is not even second order superintegrable, but Verrier and Evans (2008 J. Math. Phys. 49 022902) showed it was fourth order superintegrable, and Tanoudis and Daskaloyannis (2011 arXiv:11020397v1) showed that, if a second fourth order symmetry is added to the generators, the symmetry algebra closes polynomially. Here, based on the Tremblay, Turbiner and Winternitz construction, we consider an infinite class of quantum extended Kepler–Coulomb three- and four-parameter systems indexed by a pair of rational numbers (k1, k2) and reducing to the usual systems when k1 = k2 = 1. We show these systems to be superintegrable of arbitrarily high order and determine the structure of their symmetry algebras. We demonstrate that the symmetry algebras close algebraically; only for systems admitting extra discrete symmetries is polynomial closure achieved. Underlying the structure theory is the existence of raising and lowering operators, not themselves symmetry operators or even defined independent of basis, that can be employed to construct the symmetry operators and their structure relations. (paper)

  17. Coulomb-Blockade Oscillations in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Houten, van, H.; Beenakker, C. W. J.; Staring, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    I. Introduction (Preface, Basic properties of semiconductor nanostructures). II. Theory of Coulomb-blockade oscillations (Periodicity of the oscillations, Amplitude and lineshape). III. Experiments on Coulomb-blockade oscillations (Quantum dots, Disordered quantum wires, Relation to earlier work on disordered quantum wires). IV. Quantum Hall effect regime (The Aharonov-Bohm effect in a quantum dot, Coulomb blockade of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, Experiments on quantum dots, Experiments on disor...

  18. Learn Unity for 2D game development

    Thorn, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The only Unity book specifically covering 2D game development Written by Alan Thorn, experience game developer and author of seven books on game programming Hands-on examples of all major aspects of 2D game development using Unity

  19. Coulomb correction calculations of pp Bremsstrahlung

    The effects of the Coulomb interaction upon the photon cross section and analyzing power from pp Bremsstrahlung have been studied in detail. Off-shell properties of the Coulomb T matrices have been considered but the associated, Coulomb modified, hadronic T matrices are important elements in any analyses of low energy, forward proton scattering data. At the lowest energy considered (5 MeV), the full calculations gave cross sections that were half the size of those found without Coulomb effects or with a simple model approximation to them. With increasing energy, the cross sections varied to those characteristic of magnetic interaction dominance and the specific differences due to Coulomb effects diminished. 47 refs., 7 figs

  20. Coulomb Potentials between Spherical and Deformed Nuclei

    ZHANG Gao-Long; LE Xiao-Yun; LIU Zu-Hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coulomb potentials for spherical-deformed reaction partners are calculated in terms of the double folding model as well as the conventional formulas. Our results show that the Coulomb potentials calculated with different approaches have quite different behaviours in the internal region of the potential. Because fusion process is sensitive to the barrier height and the internal part of the potential, the fusion excitation function, especially the fusion barrier distribution, should provide a strict test of the interaction potentiaLs. Therefore, we calculate the fusion excitation function and barrier distribution for the 16O+154 Sm system with different versions of the Coulomb potentials, in comparison with the experimental results. It is found that the fusion excitation function and barrier distribution of 16 O+154 Sm are obviously different for the different versions of the Coulomb potentials.By means of this comparison, we may conclude that the double folding model with the accurate approximate form can provide rather reasonable Coulomb potentials.

  1. Effect of Coulomb collision on the negative ion extraction mechanism in negative ion sources

    To improve the H− ion beam optics, it is necessary to understand the energy relaxation process of surface produced H− ions in the extraction region of Cs seeded H− ion sources. Coulomb collisions of charged particles have been introduced to the 2D3V-PIC (two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle-in-cell) model for the H− extraction by using the binary collision model. Due to Coulomb collision, the lower energy part of the ion energy distribution function of H− ions has been greatly increased. The mean kinetic energy of the surface produced H− ions has been reduced to 0.65 eV from 1.5 eV. It has been suggested that the beam optics of the extracted H− ion beam is strongly affected by the energy relaxation process due to Coulomb collision

  2. The Coulombic Lattice Potential of Ionic Compounds: The Cubic Perovskites.

    Francisco, E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents coulombic models representing the particles of a system by point charges interacting through Coulomb's law to explain coulombic lattice potential. Uses rubidium manganese trifluoride as an example of cubic perovskite structure. Discusses the effects on cluster properties. (CW)

  3. Coulomb continuum effects in molecular interference

    We study analytically the interference in photoionization of molecules by monochromatic and attosecond x-ray pulses. Using the hydrogen molecule ion as a test case, we obtain simple analytical factors describing the Coulomb continuum molecular interference. We show how chirped attosecond pulse with a frequency-dependent phase and broad bandwidth creates the continuous photoelectron spectra. Due to the long-range Coulomb forces, the plane wave interference patterns are strongly modified by two-centre Coulomb continuum even at large internuclear distances. (letter to the editor)

  4. Coulomb potentials in two and three dimensions under periodic boundary conditions

    Tyagi, Sandeep

    2004-01-01

    A method to sum over logarithmic potential in 2D and Coulomb potential in 3D with periodic boundary conditions in all directions is given. We consider the most general form of unit cells, the rhombic cell in 2D and the triclinic cell in 3D. For the 3D case, this paper presents a generalization of Sperb's work [R. Sperb, Mol. Simulation, \\textbf{22}, 199-212(1999)]. The expressions derived in this work converge extremely fast in all region of the simulation cell. We also obtain results for sla...

  5. Coulomb Friction Driving Brownian Motors

    We review a family of models recently introduced to describe Brownian motors under the influence of Coulomb friction, or more general non-linear friction laws. It is known that, if the heat bath is modeled as the usual Langevin equation (linear viscosity plus white noise), additional non-linear friction forces are not sufficient to break detailed balance, i.e. cannot produce a motor effect. We discuss two possibile mechanisms to elude this problem. A first possibility, exploited in several models inspired to recent experiments, is to replace the heat bath's white noise by a “collisional noise”, that is the effect of random collisions with an external equilibrium gas of particles. A second possibility is enlarging the phase space, e.g. by adding an external potential which couples velocity to position, as in a Klein—Kramers equation. In both cases, non-linear friction becomes sufficient to achieve a non-equilibrium steady state and, in the presence of an even small spatial asymmetry, a motor effect is produced. (general)

  6. Two dimensional graphene nanogenerator by coulomb dragging: Moving van der Waals heterostructure

    Harvesting energy from environment is the current focus of scientific community. Here, we demonstrate a graphene nanogenerator, which is based on moving van der Waals heterostructure formed between graphene and two dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO). This nanogenerator can convert mechanical energy into electricity with a voltage output of around 10 mV. Systematic experiments reveal the generated electricity originates from the coulomb interaction induced momentum transfer between 2D GO and holes in graphene. 2D boron nitride was also demonstrated to be effective in the framework of moving van der Waals heterostructure nanogenerator. This investigation of nanogenerator based on the interaction between 2D macromolecule materials will be important to understand the origin of the flow-induced potential in nanomaterials and may have great potential in practical applications

  7. Two dimensional graphene nanogenerator by coulomb dragging: Moving van der Waals heterostructure

    Zhong, Huikai; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Zhiqian; Zhang, Shengjiao; Xu, Zhijuan [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Hongsheng; Lin, Shisheng, E-mail: shishenglin@zju.edu.cn [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Harvesting energy from environment is the current focus of scientific community. Here, we demonstrate a graphene nanogenerator, which is based on moving van der Waals heterostructure formed between graphene and two dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO). This nanogenerator can convert mechanical energy into electricity with a voltage output of around 10 mV. Systematic experiments reveal the generated electricity originates from the coulomb interaction induced momentum transfer between 2D GO and holes in graphene. 2D boron nitride was also demonstrated to be effective in the framework of moving van der Waals heterostructure nanogenerator. This investigation of nanogenerator based on the interaction between 2D macromolecule materials will be important to understand the origin of the flow-induced potential in nanomaterials and may have great potential in practical applications.

  8. Surface modelling for 2D imagery

    Lieng, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Vector graphics provides powerful tools for drawing scalable 2D imagery. With the rise of mobile computers, of different types of displays and image resolutions, vector graphics is receiving an increasing amount of attention. However, vector graphics is not the leading framework for creating and manipulating 2D imagery. The reason for this reluctance of employing vector graphical frameworks is that it is difficult to handle complex behaviour of colour across the 2D domain. ...

  9. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    Wei Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (rediscovery of various two dimensional (2D materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  10. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conductivity in 2D complex Yukawa liquids

    The thermal conductivity in strongly coupled complex dusty plasma liquids (SCCDPLs) has been investigated through an improved homogenous nonequilibrium molecular simulation (HNEMS) method, for the first time. The HNEMS method has been employed for two-dimensional (2D) Yukawa systems in a canonical ensemble. The thermal conductivities with suitable normalizations (plasma and Einstein frequencies), in the value of low force field strength, have been computed for a wide range of plasma state points of Coulomb coupling (---) and screening strength (---). The new simulation results are found to obey the simple analytical temperature scaling law. The present HNEMS results are in generally with parts of earlier HNEMS, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) and experimental data in the literature for the 2D and there-dimensional (3D) SCCDPLs. It is shown that the HNEMS method can be used to estimate the thermal conductivity very effectively and to understand the fundamental behaviours in 2D Yukawa systems. (author)

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conductivity in 2D complex Yukawa liquids

    The thermal conductivity in strongly coupled complex dusty plasma liquids (SCCDPLs) has been investigated through an improved homogenous nonequilibrium molecular simulation (HNEMS) method, for the first time. The HNEMS method has been employed for two-dimensional (2D) Yukawa systems in a canonical ensemble. The thermal conductivities with suitable normalizations (plasma and Einstein frequencies), in the value of low force field strength, have been computed for a wide range of plasma state points of Coulomb coupling (Γ) and screening strength (κ). The new simulation results are found to obey the simple analytical temperature scaling law. The present HNEMS results are in generally with parts of earlier HNEMS, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) and experimental data in the literature for the 2D and there-dimensional (3D) SCCDPLs. It is shown that the HNEMS method can be used to estimate the thermal conductivity very effectively and to understand the fundamental behaviours in 2D Yukawa systems

  13. UNITS IN $F_2D_{2p}$

    Kaur, Kuldeep; Khan, Manju

    2012-01-01

    Let $p$ be an odd prime, $D_{2p}$ be the dihedral group of order 2p, and $F_{2}$ be the finite field with two elements. If * denotes the canonical involution of the group algebra $F_2D_{2p}$, then bicyclic units are unitary units. In this note, we investigate the structure of the group $\\mathcal{B}(F_2D_{2p})$, generated by the bicyclic units of the group algebra $F_2D_{2p}$. Further, we obtain the structure of the unit group $\\mathcal{U}(F_2D_{2p})$ and the unitary subgroup $\\mathcal{U}_*(F_...

  14. Bedform characterization through 2D spectral analysis

    Lefebvre, Alice; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Winter, Christian

    energetic peak of the 2D spectrum was found and its energy, frequency and direction were calculated. A power-law was fitted to the average of slices taken through the 2D spectrum; its slope and y-intercept were calculated. Using these results the test area was morphologically classified into 4 distinct...... characteristics using twodimensional (2D) spectral analysis is presented and tested on seabed elevation data from the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea, where large compound bedforms are found. The bathymetric data were divided into 20x20 m areas on which a 2D spectral analysis was applied. The most...

  15. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    Elena Purcaru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution – DNA2DBC – DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.

  16. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    Purcaru, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution - DNA2DBC - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.

  17. Coulomb dissociation at nonrelativistic and relativistic energies

    The author studies the breakup of deuterons on nuclei in the framework of DWBA theories which are based on the spectator model. The discrepancies for heavy targets are explained by the mechanism of the Coulomb dissociation. (HSI)

  18. Coulomb Interaction Does Not Spread Instantaneously

    Tzontchev, R I; Rivera-Juarez, J M

    2000-01-01

    The experiment is described which shows that Coulomb interaction spreads with a limit velocity and thus this kind of interaction cannot be considered as so called "instantaneous action at a distance".

  19. Aspects of Confinement in Coulomb Gauge

    Greensite, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    I present some new results regarding confinement as it appears in Coulomb gauge. It is found that: i) a recently proposed Yang-Mills vacuum wavefunctional in temporal gauge and 2+1 dimensions yields a Coulomb-gauge ghost propagator and linear Coulomb potential in good agreement with lattice Monte Carlo results; ii) adding a few constituent gluons to heavy quark-antiquark states brings the interaction energy much closer to that of the static quark potential, and suggests the beginnings of gluon-chain formation at roughly one fermi; iii) a perturbative approach to Faddeev-Popov eigenvalues indicates that the zero eigenvalue at the Gribov horizon may occur either at, or away from, p=0, depending on the gauge choice and spacetime dimension. This last result may be relevant to the qualitatively different infrared behavior of the ghost propagator in Coulomb and Landau gauges.

  20. Quarks in Coulomb gauge perturbation theory

    Popovici, C; Reinhardt, H

    2008-01-01

    Coulomb gauge quantum chromodynamics within the first order functional formalism is considered. The quark contributions to the Dyson-Schwinger equations are derived and one-loop perturbative results for the two-point functions are presented.

  1. Numerical path integration with Coulomb potential

    Myrheim, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for quantum Monte Carlo simulation is presented, based on discretization of the action in the path integral, and a Gaussian averaging of the potential, which works well e.g. with the Coulomb potential.

  2. Comments on Coulomb pairing in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Huber, D L

    2013-01-01

    Recently reported anomalies in the double-photonionization spectra of aromatic molecules such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and coronene are attributed to Coulomb-pair resonances of pi electrons.

  3. On the modelling of Coulomb friction

    Cull, S. J.; Tucker, R. W.

    1999-03-01

    This paper analyses two different representations of Coulomb friction in the context of a dynamic simulation of the torsional vibrations of a driven drill-string. A simple model is used to compare the relative merits of a piecewise analytic approach using a discontinuous friction profile to a numerical integration using a smooth nonlinear representation of the Coulomb friction. In both cases the effects of viscous damping on the excitation of torsional relaxation oscillations are exhibited.

  4. Cavity QED experiments with ion Coulomb crystals

    Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan; Albert, Magnus; Drewsen, Michael

    Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained.......Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained....

  5. 16O Coulomb decomposition project '93

    The adaptability of magnetic analyzers in Japan to this research project was compared and investigated, and the Coulomb decomposition process and the experimental conditions for 16O were examined. By the measurement of the delayed-α spectrum in 16N decay, a new restriction was set to the E1 reaction rate of 12C(α, γ)16O reaction. Hereafter, the research on the E2 reaction rate is urgently needed. There is large expectation for the Coulomb decomposition reaction of 16O as the probe especially sensitive to the E2 reaction rate of the important reaction for celestial body physics. At the meeting held on July 30, the RIKEN SMART spectrometer (F2) was judged as optimal, and its merits are explained. Also a demerit is pointed out. The ion optic parameters of the SMART F2 are shown. In the meeting held on December 17, investigation was carried out on α-12C coincidence count rate and projectile fragmentation background, Coulomb decomposition process and focal plane detector. The reaction cross section of Coulomb E2 excitation was evaluated by Monte Carlo method. As to the possibility of applying Coulomb decomposition process under the circumstance that nuclear force and Coulomb force compete, the new direction was indicated. The experimental plan is shown. (K.I.)

  6. Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge

    In this thesis we study the Yang-Mills vacuum structure by using the functional Schroedinger picture in Coulomb gauge. In particular we discuss the scenario of colour confinement, which was originally formulated by Gribov. After a short introduction, we recall some basic aspects of Yang-Mills theories, its canonical quantization in the Weyl gauge and the functional Schroedinger picture. We then consider the minimal Coulomb gauge and the Gribov problem of the gauge theory. The gauge fixing of the Coulomb gauge is done by using the Faddeev-Popov method, which enables the resolution of the Gauss law - the constraint on physical states. In the third chapter, we variationally solve the stationary Yang-Mills Schroedinger equation in Coulomb gauge for the vacuum state. Therefor we use a vacuum wave functional, which is strongly peaked at the Gribov horizon. The vacuum energy functional is calculated and minimized resulting in a set of coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations for the gluon energy, the ghost and Coulomb form factors and the curvature in gauge orbit space. Using the angular approximation these integral equations have been solved analytically in both the infrared and the ultraviolet regime. The asymptotic analytic solutions in the infrared and ultraviolet regime are reasonably well reproduced by the full numerical solutions of the coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations. In the fourth chapter, we investigate the dependence of the Yang-Mills wave functional in Coulomb gauge on the Faddeev-Popov determinant. (orig.)

  7. Coulomb interactions in particle beams

    This thesis presents a theoretical description of the Coulomb interaction between identical charged particles (electrons or ions) in focussed beam. The charge-density effects as well as the various statistical interaction effects, known as the Boersch effect and the 'trajectory displacement effect', are treated. An introductory literature survey is presented from which the large differences in theoretical approach appear. Subsequently the methods are investigated which are used in studies of comparable problems in plasma physics and stellar dynamics. These turn out to be applicable to particle beams only for certain extreme conditions. The approach finally chosen in this study is twofold. On the one hand use is made of a semi-analytical model in which the statistical and dynamical aspects of the N-particle problem are reduced to two-particle problem. This model results in a number of explicit equations in the experimental parameters, with ties of the beam can be determined directly. On the other hand use has been made of a purely numerical Monte Carlo model in which the kinematical equations of an ensemble interacting particles with 'at random' chosen starting conditions are solved exactly. This model does not lead to general expressions, but yields a specific numerical prediction for each simulated experimental situation. The results of both models appear to agree well mutually. This yields a consistent theory which complements the existing knowledge of particle optics and which allow the description of systems in which the interaction between particles can not be neglected. The predictions of this theory are qualitatively and quantitatively compared with those from some other models, recently reported in literature. (author). 256 refs.; 114 figs.; 1180 schemes; 5 tabs

  8. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables

  9. 2D NMR studies of biomolecules

    The work described in this thesis comprises two related subjects. The first part describes methods to derive high-resolution structures of proteins in solution using two-dimensional (2-D) NMR. The second part describes 2-D NMR studies on the interaction between proteins and DNA. (author). 261 refs.; 52 figs.; 23 tabs

  10. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...

  11. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  12. Observation of multistep Coulomb excitation during ion-atom collisions

    Well below the Coulomb barrier energies two colliding nuclei may share the energy via electromagnetic interactions and it can lead to excite the nuclear states of one or both the participating nuclei. This long range Coulombic interaction leading to nuclear excitation is called Coulomb excitation. In the present work, we have studied heavy ion induced Coulomb excitation process in 12C nuclei at the sub-Coulomb barrier energies using x-ray spectroscopy technique in combination with the nuclear techniques.

  13. Discussion About the Magnetic Field Dimensionality, Invariant Axis Condition, and Coulomb Gauge to Solve the Grad-Shafranov Equation

    González, A. Ojeda; Prestes, A.; Laurindo Sousa, A. Nilson

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the relationship between the Coulomb gauge, the existence of an invariant axis, and the dimensionality (2-D or 2frac {1}{2}-D) of the magnetic field in a mathematical-physical formalism that leads us to the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation. In the literature, we found that a 2-D magnetic structure is used as a prerequisite to derive the GS equation from the Vlasov equation. However, other consulted works are based on a 2frac {1}{2}-D (two-and-a-half) magnetic structure as a prerequisite to derive the GS equation from the balance of forces between the pressure gradient and the magnetic force, respectively. We replaced the magnetic vector potential on Ampère's equation and used the Coulomb gauge to obtain a system of three Poisson equations, one for each component. We also used the same procedure explained above, but without the Coulomb gauge. Comparing z-component in both equation systems, we concluded that there are two possible solutions. We suggest using a 2frac {1}{2}-D magnetic field configuration instead of a 2-D, when working with kinetic theory or magnetostatic equilibrium to derive the GS equation. We clarified that there is no relationship between the Coulomb gauge and the magnetic field dimensionality. In this problem, the invariant axis condition is imposed, which means that ěc {nabla }\\cdot ěc {A} is independent of z, i.e., ěc {nabla }\\cdot ěc {A} could have any value in which an invariant axis is a sufficient condition to obtain the GS equation.

  14. Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials

    Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin

    Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.

  15. Inertial solvation in femtosecond 2D spectra

    Hybl, John; Albrecht Ferro, Allison; Farrow, Darcie; Jonas, David

    2001-03-01

    We have used 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy to investigate polar solvation. 2D spectroscopy can reveal molecular lineshapes beneath ensemble averaged spectra and freeze molecular motions to give an undistorted picture of the microscopic dynamics of polar solvation. The transition from "inhomogeneous" to "homogeneous" 2D spectra is governed by both vibrational relaxation and solvent motion. Therefore, the time dependence of the 2D spectrum directly reflects the total response of the solvent-solute system. IR144, a cyanine dye with a dipole moment change upon electronic excitation, was used to probe inertial solvation in methanol and propylene carbonate. Since the static Stokes' shift of IR144 in each of these solvents is similar, differences in the 2D spectra result from solvation dynamics. Initial results indicate that the larger propylene carbonate responds more slowly than methanol, but appear to be inconsistent with rotational estimates of the inertial response. To disentangle intra-molecular vibrations from solvent motion, the 2D spectra of IR144 will be compared to the time-dependent 2D spectra of the structurally related nonpolar cyanine dye HDITCP.

  16. Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb method for the fast evaluation of Coulomb integrals

    Kurashige, Yuki; Nakajima, Takahito; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2007-04-01

    The authors propose a new linear-scaling method for the fast evaluation of Coulomb integrals with Gaussian basis functions called the Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb (GFC) method. In this method, the Coulomb potential is expanded in a basis of mixed Gaussian and finite-element auxiliary functions that express the core and smooth Coulomb potentials, respectively. Coulomb integrals can be evaluated by three-center one-electron overlap integrals among two Gaussian basis functions and one mixed auxiliary function. Thus, the computational cost and scaling for large molecules are drastically reduced. Several applications to molecular systems show that the GFC method is more efficient than the analytical integration approach that requires four-center two-electron repulsion integrals. The GFC method realizes a near linear scaling for both one-dimensional alanine α-helix chains and three-dimensional diamond pieces.

  17. 2D supergravity in p+1 dimensions

    Gustafsson, H.; Lindstrom, U.

    1998-01-01

    We describe new $N$-extended 2D supergravities on a $(p+1)$-dimensional (bosonic) space. The fundamental objects are moving frame densities that equip each $(p+1)$-dimensional point with a 2D ``tangent space''. The theory is presented in a $[p+1, 2]$ superspace. For the special case of $p=1$ we recover the 2D supergravities in an unusual form. The formalism has been developed with applications to the string-parton picture of $D$-branes at strong coupling in mind.

  18. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    Elena Purcaru; Cristian Toma

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution – DNA2DBC – DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features ...

  19. Investigating the evolution of gravel bar at river confluence during flood events using a 2D many-fraction river morphodynamic model

    Chen, Y.; Wu, F.; Ecohydraulics Lab.

    2010-12-01

    The knowledge of river morphology is fundamental and useful information for engineering and habitat restoration purposes. Many interesting phenomena such as armoring and downstream fining significantly affect the quality of riverine habitats. These phenomena could be even more devastating when they occur during the extreme flood events. Therefore, the development of meso-scale bedforms during flood events and the change in their sediment composition have become important topics of study. However, the complex interactions between flood flow, nonuniform particles and sediment transport make these problems difficult to tackle. In this study, we develop a 2D (two-dimensional) many-fraction FE (finite element) morphodynamic model to investigate the evolution of gravel bar during flood events. The proposed model adopts the characteristic dissipative Galerkin (CDG) scheme such that the convection-dominated bar evolution can be computed without numerical instabilities. A two-year record of DEM (digital elevation model) is obtained by airborne Lidar at the confluence of the Xin-Dian River (Taiwan), which is used to verify the model results. The proposed model is further applied to determine the best operation scheme of the Feitsui reservoir for mitigating blockage of river confluence by the gravel bar and sustaining the bed composition favorable to the river biota.

  20. Mesophases in nearly 2D room-temperature ionic liquids.

    Manini, N; Cesaratto, M; Del Pópolo, M G; Ballone, P

    2009-11-26

    Computer simulations of (i) a [C(12)mim][Tf(2)N] film of nanometric thickness squeezed at kbar pressure by a piecewise parabolic confining potential reveal a mesoscopic in-plane density and composition modulation reminiscent of mesophases seen in 3D samples of the same room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). Near 2D confinement, enforced by a high normal load, as well as relatively long aliphatic chains are strictly required for the mesophase formation, as confirmed by computations for two related systems made of (ii) the same [C(12)mim][Tf(2)N] adsorbed at a neutral solid surface and (iii) a shorter-chain RTIL ([C(4)mim][Tf(2)N]) trapped in the potential well of part i. No in-plane modulation is seen for ii and iii. In case ii, the optimal arrangement of charge and neutral tails is achieved by layering parallel to the surface, while, in case iii, weaker dispersion and packing interactions are unable to bring aliphatic tails together into mesoscopic islands, against overwhelming entropy and Coulomb forces. The onset of in-plane mesophases could greatly affect the properties of long-chain RTILs used as lubricants. PMID:19886615

  1. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date

  2. Beltrami States in 2D Electron Magnetohydrodynamics

    Shivamoggi, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Hamiltonian formulations along with the Poisson brackets for two-dimensional (2D) electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) flows are developed. These formulations are used to deduce the Beltrami states for 2D EMHD flows. In the massless electron limit, the EMHD Beltrami states reduce to the force-free states, though there is no force-free Beltrami state in the general EMHD case.

  3. 2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers

    Robert I. Woodward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2.

  4. Convection and motion in 2-d embankments under cyclic boundary conditions

    Evesque, P.

    2005-01-01

    The motion of grains in a 2d embankment under periodic horizontal forcing is studied theoretically using Coulomb-type modelling. Periodic conditions are used to determined the inclination of the free surface. It is shown that no periodic solution can be found in some domain of the bulk- and wall- friction parameters larger than 30 degrees. When a stable periodic solution exists, we show that the finite amplitude of motion leads to generate a flow localised (i) at the free surface, (ii) near t...

  5. 2d index and surface operators

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role

  6. Matrix models and 2-D gravity

    In these lectures, I shall focus on the matrix formulation of 2-d gravity. In the first one, I shall discuss the main results of the continuum formulation of 2-d gravity, starting from the first renormalization group calculations which led to the concept of the conformal anomaly, going through the Polyakov bosonic string and the Liouville action, up to the recent results on the scaling properties of conformal field theories coupled to 2-d gravity. In the second lecture, I shall discuss the discrete formulation of 2-d gravity in term of random lattices, and the mapping onto random matrix models. The occurrence of critical points in the planar limit and the scaling limit at those critical points will be described, as well as the identification of these scaling limits with continuum 2-d gravity coupled to some matter field theory. In the third lecture, the double scaling limit in the one matrix model, and its connection with continuum non perturbative 2-d gravity, will be presented. The connection with the KdV hierarchy and the general form of the string equation will be discuted. In the fourth lecture, I shall discuss the non-perturbative effects present in the non perturbative solutions, in the case of pure gravity. The Schwinger-Dyson equations for pure gravity in the double scaling limit are described and their compatibility with the solutions of the string equation for pure gravity is shown to be somewhat problematic

  7. Coulomb interaction in few-nucleon systems

    Mathematical aspects of scattering quantum theory are considered. A brief review of methods proposed for solution of the following problems is presented: a) description of properties of resolvant nucleus for the operator of energy of three charged particles system, 2) definition of total system of Coulomb wave functions, 3) definition of unitary Coulomb scattering operator, 4) study of singularity of its nucleus, 5) establishing of relation between stationary and non stationary formulations of the scattering theory. The solution of these problems is obtained by means of a new form of Faddeev integral equations. The equations are formulated and studied in configuration space

  8. Orbital Ordering Induced by Direct Coulomb Repulsion

    HUANG Yuan-Yie; ZHANG Yu-Heng

    2011-01-01

    We consider the covalence characters of the 3d electron with the eg orbital freedoms and put forward a new mechanism of the orbital ordering (OO) based on the direct coulomb repulsion in this article. The results show that the orbital-orbital interaction (OO-I) between the adjacent ions in 180-degree configuration is dominated by the superexchange energy accompanied by a weak orbital-spin coupling, and the OO-I in 90-degree configuration is monitored by the oxygen on-site coulomb repulsion. The ferro-OO is the stable ground state for the one-dimensional chain in the case of the 90-degree configuration.

  9. Testing of Coulomb-Volkov functions

    A time-dependent generalization of the Siegert theorem is applied to test the accuracy of the Coulomb-Volkov functions (CVFs) widely used for the description of electron motion in a laser field combined with the Coulomb field of the atomic core. Free-free transitions in the case of arbitrary elliptic polarization of the electromagnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the ratio between the strength of the light wave electric field and its frequency (in atomic units) has crucial importance for estimation of the CVF accuracy. (author)

  10. 2-D DOA Estimation Based on 2D-MUSIC%基于2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计

    康亚芳; 王静; 张清泉; 行小帅

    2014-01-01

    This paper discussed the performance of classical two-dimensional DOA estimation with 2D-MUSIC, based on the mathematical model of planar array and 2D-MUSIC DOA estimation, Taking uniform planar array for example, comput-er simulation experiment was carried for the effect of three kinds of different parameters on 2-D DOA estimation, and the simulation results were analyzed. And also verification test about the corresponding algorithm performance under the differ-ent parameters was discussed.%利用经典的2D-MUSIC算法对二维阵列的DOA估计进行了研究,在平面阵列数学模型以及2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计模型基础上,以均匀平面阵列为例,对3种不同参数的DOA估计进行了计算机仿真,分析了仿真结果。得出了在不同参数变化趋势下DOA估计的相应变化情况。

  11. Efficient evaluation of the Coulomb force in the Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb method

    Kurashige, Yuki; Nakajima, Takahito; Sato, Takeshi; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2010-06-01

    We propose an efficient method for evaluating the Coulomb force in the Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb (GFC) method, which is a linear-scaling approach for evaluating the Coulomb matrix and energy in large molecular systems. The efficient evaluation of the analytical gradient in the GFC is not straightforward as well as the evaluation of the energy because the SCF procedure with the Coulomb matrix does not give a variational solution for the Coulomb energy. Thus, an efficient approximate method is alternatively proposed, in which the Coulomb potential is expanded in the Gaussian and finite-element auxiliary functions as done in the GFC. To minimize the error in the gradient not just in the energy, the derived functions of the original auxiliary functions of the GFC are used additionally for the evaluation of the Coulomb gradient. In fact, the use of the derived functions significantly improves the accuracy of this approach. Although these additional auxiliary functions enlarge the size of the discretized Poisson equation and thereby increase the computational cost, it maintains the near linear scaling as the GFC and does not affects the overall efficiency of the GFC approach.

  12. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang;

    1997-01-01

    A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is...

  13. Bound - states for truncated Coulomb potentials

    Odeh, Maen; Mustafa, Omar

    2000-01-01

    The pseudoperturbative shifted - $l$ expansion technique PSLET is generalized for states with arbitrary number of nodal zeros. Bound- states energy eigenvalues for two truncated coulombic potentials are calculated using PSLET. In contrast with shifted large-N expansion technique, PSLET results compare excellently with those from direct numerical integration.

  14. Module of System Galactica with Coulomb's Interaction

    Smulsky, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    The system Galactica of free access is supplemented module for the Coulomb interaction. It is based on a high-precision method for solving differential equations of motion of N charged particles. The paper presents all the theoretical and practical issues required to use this module of system Galactica so that even the beginning researcher could study the motion of particles, atoms and molecules.

  15. On Confinement in Coulomb Gauge QCD

    Full text: We study the quark propagator in Coulomb gauge QCD and employ the corresponding results to calculate meson properties. We demonstrate a mechanism how color non-singlets as e.g. diquarks in the color anti-triplet state are confined. (author)

  16. BRST invariance in Coulomb gauge QCD

    Andrasi, A

    2015-01-01

    In the Coulomb gauge, the Hamiltonian of QCD contains terms of order h^2, identified by Christ and Lee, which are non-local but instantaneous. The question is addressed how these terms fit in with BRST invariance. Our discussion is confined to the simplest, O(g^4), example.

  17. BRST invariance in Coulomb gauge QCD

    Andraši, A.; Taylor, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    In the Coulomb gauge, the Hamiltonian of QCD contains terms of order ħ2, identified by Christ and Lee, which are non-local but instantaneous. The question is addressed how do these terms fit in with BRST invariance. Our discussion is confined to the simplest, O(g4) , example.

  18. Dynamical features of Coulomb-fission

    Fission following quasielastic scattering was investigated in the reactions 208Pb -> 238U below the Coulomb Barrier and 7.5 MeV/u 238U -> 238U at scattering angles forward of the grazing angle (870). A kinematically complete analysis of 3-body coincidences was carried out measuring position and time-of-flight of the scattered projectile-like particle and 2 fission fragments in large parallel plate detectors. In the reaction 208Pb -> 238U, measured at backward angles, the slope of the differential cross section at 5.4 MeV/u is in qualitative agreement with the theoretical expectation for Coulomb-fission. The angular distribution of the fission fragments, measured with respect to the semisector axis (apex line towards the projectile), is close to 1/sinTHETA and does not show any of the significant structures predicted by several theories. The anisotropy is smaller in all other coordinate systems investigated. The fission probability in the reaction 238U -> 238U, measured down to 5x10-4 at THETAsub(cm)=540 (corresponding to 75% Esub(cb) at the distance of closest approach) as well as the low excitation energy 0 as expected for Coulomb-fission. The absence of a detectable final state Coulomb interaction yields a lower limit of 1-2x10-20s for the lifetime of the fissioning nucleus. (orig./HSI)

  19. Coulomb functions with complex angular momenta

    The subroutine CCOULM calculates regular and irregular Coulomb functions and their derivatives associated with complex angular momenta. This program may thus be used, for example, in locating Regge poles that appear in atomic and nuclear scattering problems. The calculation utilized the asymptotic expansion method of Froeberg. (Auth.)

  20. Coulomb drag in coherent mesoscopic systems

    Mortensen, Niels Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2001-01-01

    We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means, such as the...

  1. Coulomb effects on the transport properties of quantum dots in strong magnetic field

    We investigate the transport properties of quantum dots placed in strong magnetic field using a quantum-mechanical approach based on the 2D tight-binding Hamiltonian with direct Coulomb interaction and the Landauer-Buettiker (LB) formalism. The electronic transmittance and the Hall resistance show Coulomb oscillations and also prove multiple addition processes. We identify this feature as the 'bunching' of electrons observed in recent experiments and give an elementary explanation in terms of spectral characteristics of the dot. The spatial distribution of the added electrons may distinguish between edge and bulk states and it has specific features for bunched electrons. The dependence of the charging energy on the number of electrons is discussed for strong magnetic field. The crossover from the tunneling to quantum Hall regime is analyzed in terms of dot-lead coupling. (author)

  2. Nonlocal Coulomb interaction in the two-dimensional spin-1/2 Falicov–Kimball model

    S K Bhowmick; N K Ghosh

    2012-02-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) extended Falicov–Kimball model has been studied to observe the role of nonlocal Coulomb interaction (nc) using an exact diagonalization technique. The f-state occupation ($n^f$), the f–d intersite correlation function (fd), the specific heat (), entropy () and the specific heat coefficient () have been examined. Nonlocal Coulomb interaction-induced discontinuous insulator-to-metal transition occurs at a critical f-level energy. More ordered state is obtained with the increase of nc. In the specific heat curves, two-peak structure as well as a singlepeak structure appears. At low-temperature region, a sharp rise in the specific heat coefficient is observed. The peak value of shifts to the higher temperature region with nc.

  3. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  4. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  5. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.

    Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program. PMID:25430247

  6. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W., E-mail: cwdomier@ucdavis.edu; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  7. Coulomb blockade in monolayer MoS2 single electron transistor

    Lee, Kyunghoon; Kulkarni, Girish; Zhong, Zhaohui

    2016-03-01

    Substantial effort has been dedicated to understand the intrinsic electronic properties of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). However, electron transport study on monolayer MoS2 has been challenging to date, especially at low temperatures due to large metal/semiconductor junction barriers. Herein, we report the fabrication and characterization of the monolayer MoS2 single-electron transistor. High performance devices are obtained through the use of low work function metal (zinc) contact and a rapid thermal annealing step. Coulomb blockade is observed at low temperatures and is attributed to single-electron tunneling via two tunnel junction barriers. The nature of Coulomb blockade is also investigated by temperature-dependent conductance oscillation measurement. Our results hold promise for the study of novel quantum transport phenomena in 2D semiconducting atomic layer crystals.Substantial effort has been dedicated to understand the intrinsic electronic properties of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). However, electron transport study on monolayer MoS2 has been challenging to date, especially at low temperatures due to large metal/semiconductor junction barriers. Herein, we report the fabrication and characterization of the monolayer MoS2 single-electron transistor. High performance devices are obtained through the use of low work function metal (zinc) contact and a rapid thermal annealing step. Coulomb blockade is observed at low temperatures and is attributed to single-electron tunneling via two tunnel junction barriers. The nature of Coulomb blockade is also investigated by temperature-dependent conductance oscillation measurement. Our results hold promise for the study of novel quantum transport phenomena in 2D semiconducting atomic layer crystals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08954a

  8. Trap, ignition, and diffusion combustion characteristics of active carb on micro-particles at a meso-scale studied by optical tweezers%介观尺度下活性炭微粒的光镊捕捉、点火和扩散燃烧特性研究

    黄雪峰; 李盛姬; 周东辉; 赵冠军; 王关晴; 徐江荣

    2014-01-01

    为探索介观尺度下固体燃料微粒的燃烧现象,本文提出采用光镊工具对活性炭微粒进行捕捉、悬浮、定位,再通过激光点燃,研究其着火及扩散燃烧特性.介观尺度燃烧室中,光镊捕捉7.0µm活性炭微粒的最低捕捉功率为3.2 mW,捕捉速率范围为103.7-70.0µm/s;活性炭微粒在静止气流中的最低点火功率为3.2 mW,颗粒的等效粒径、周长、面积和圆形度对最低点火功率影响甚微,点火延迟时间约48 ms,提高点火功率,点火延迟时间缩短,最小点火延迟时间小于6 ms;活性炭在着火后先发生无焰燃烧,紧接着发生有焰燃烧,无焰燃烧的扩散燃烧速率满足粒径平方直线规律,其燃烧速率范围为15.0-8.0µm/s;有焰燃烧的火焰面积和强度随燃烧时间发生闪烁,其闪烁频率约29.1 Hz.对于粒径为3.0µm的活性炭微粒,从加热到完全燃烧殆尽所需时间约0.648 s.结果表明:对于聚焦后的高能激光束点燃活性炭微粒的着火属于联合着火模式,在挥发份析出之前,活性炭非均相着火而发生无焰燃烧,挥发份析出后被点燃发生均相着火,火焰面始终保持圆形.%To study combustion characteristics of solid fuels at the meso-scale, this paper presents a study on trap, ignition, and diffusion combustion characteristics of active carbon micro-particles at a meso-scale by optical tweezers. In the meso-scale combustor, minimum trap power for active carbon micro-particles with a diameter of 7.0 µm is 3.2 mW, and the trap velocity is in the range of 103.7-70.0 µm/s. The active carbon micro-particles in static air flow can be ignited when the laser power is 3.2 mW. The effective diameter, perimeter, area and roundness of the particles have little effect on the minimum power for ignition. The ignition delay time is∼48 ms for active carbon micro-particles with a diameter of 3.0 µm, and it will decrease till below 6 ms with increasing laser power. After ignited

  9. Relativistic study of the energy-dependent Coulomb potential including Coulomb-like tensor interaction

    Hamzavi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The exact Dirac equation for the energy-dependent Coulomb (EDC) potential including a Coulomb-like tensor (CLT) potential has been studied in the presence of spin and pseudospin (p-spin) symmetries with arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number The energy eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions are obtained in the framework of asymptotic iteration method (AIM). Some numerical results are obtained in the presence and absence of EDC and CLT potentials.

  10. Sensor Craft Control Using Drone Craft with Coulomb Propulsion System

    Joe, Hyunsik

    2005-01-01

    The Coulomb propulsion system has no exhaust plume impingement problem with neighboring spacecraft and does not contaminate their sensors because it requires essentially no propellant. It is suitable to close formation control on the order of dozens of meters. The Coulomb forces are internal forces of the formation and they influence all charged spacecraft at the same time. Highly nonlinear and strongly coupled equations of motion of Coulomb formation makes creating a Coulomb control method a...

  11. Spin diffusion in doped semiconductors: the role of Coulomb interactions

    D'Amico, Irene; Vignale, Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    We examine the effect of the Coulomb interaction on the mobility and diffusion of spin packets in doped semiconductors. We find that the diffusion constant is reduced, relative to its non-interacting value, by the combined effect of Coulomb-enhanced spin susceptibility and spin Coulomb drag. In ferromagnetic semiconductors, the spin diffusion constant vanishes at the ferromagnetic transition temperature.

  12. Path integral quantization of 2 D- gravity

    2 D- gravity is investigated using the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The equations of motion and the action integral are obtained as total differential equations in many variables. The integrability conditions, lead us to obtain the path integral quantization without any need to introduce any extra un-physical variables. (author)

  13. Port Adriano, 2D-Model tests

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Meinert, Palle; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU). The objective of the tests was: To identify cross section design which restrict the overtopping to acceptable levels and to record the...

  14. Baby universes in 2d quantum gravity

    Ambjorn, J.; S. Jain; G. Thorleifsson

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the fractal structure of $2d$ quantum gravity, both for pure gravity and for gravity coupled to multiple gaussian fields and for gravity coupled to Ising spins. The roughness of the surfaces is described in terms of baby universes and using numerical simulations we measure their distribution which is related to the string susceptibility exponent $\\g_{string}$.

  15. Horns Rev II, 2-D Model Tests

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), on behalf of Energy E2 A/S part of DONG Energy A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was: to investigate the combined influence of the pile...

  16. Meso-scale controlled motion for a microfluidic drop ejector.

    Galambos, Paul C.; Givler, Richard C.; Pohl, Kenneth Roy; Czaplewski, David A.; Luck, David L.; Braithwaite, Mark J.; Atwood, Clinton L.; Benavides, Gilbert Lawrence

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this LDRD was to develop a uniquely capable, novel droplet solution based manufacturing system built around a new MEMS drop ejector. The development all the working subsystems required was completed, leaving the integration of these subsystems into a working prototype still left to accomplish. This LDRD report will focus on the three main subsystems: (1) MEMS drop ejector--the MEMS ''sideshooter'' effectively ejected 0.25 pl drops at 10 m/s, (2) packaging--a compact ejector package based on a modified EMDIP (Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package--SAND2002-1941) was fabricated, and (3) a vision/stage system allowing precise ejector package positioning in 3 dimensions above a target was developed.

  17. Borneo vortex and meso-scale convective rainfall

    S. Koseki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated how the Borneo vortex develops over the equatorial South China Sea under cold surge conditions in December during the Asian winter monsoon. Composite analysis using reanalysis and satellite datasets has revealed that absolute vorticity and water vapour are transported by strong cold surges from upstream of the South China Sea to around the equator. Rainfall is correspondingly enhanced over the equatorial South China Sea. A semi-idealized experiment reproduced the Borneo vortex over the equatorial South China Sea during a "perpetual" cold surge. The Borneo vortex is manifested as a meso-α cyclone with a comma-shaped rainband in the northeast sector of the cyclone. Vorticity budget analysis showed that the growth of the meso-α cyclone was achieved mainly by vortex stretching. The comma-shaped rainband consists of clusters of meso-β scale rainfall patches. The warm and wet cyclonic southeasterly flow meets with the cold and dry northeasterly surge forming a confluence front in the northeastern sector of the cyclone. Intense upward motion and heavy rainfall result both due to the low-level convergence and the favourable thermodynamic profile at the confluence front. At both meso-α and meso-β scales, the convergence is ultimately caused by the deviatoric strain in the confluence wind pattern but is much enhanced by nonlinear self-enhancement dynamics.

  18. On the Differences Between the Drucker-Prager Criterion and Exact Implementation of the Mohr-Coulomb Criterion in FEM Calculations

    Clausen, Johan; Andersen, Lars; Damkilde, Lars

    This paper compares calculation results obtained with the Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager material models. The models are implemented in a finite element code and the exact models are used, i.e. no rounding of yield surface corners or apices is performed. Results for both 2D and 3D calculations are...

  19. 2D scattering of unpolarized beams of electrons by charged nanomagnets

    Senbeta, Teshome, E-mail: teshearada@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Mal' nev, V.N., E-mail: vnmalnev@aau.edu.et [Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2012-07-15

    2D spin-dependent scattering of slow unpolarized beams of electrons by charged nanomagnets is analyzed in the Born approximation. The obtained scattering lengths are larger than those from the neutral nanomagnets approximately by one order. It is shown that for particular parameters of the system it is possible to polarize completely the scattered electrons in a narrow range of scattering angles. The most suitable system for realization of these effects is 2D Si electron gas with immersed nanomagnets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study 2D spin dependent electron scattering by charged nanomagnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The applicability of the Born approximation to the problem is discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unpolarized incident beams used to obtain completely polarized scattered electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study shows peculiarities of 2D spin dependent scattering enhanced by Coulomb potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result obtained can be used as one method of controlling spin currents.

  20. ORION, Post-processor for Finite Elements Program NIKE2D and DYNA2D

    Description of program or function: ORION is an interactive post- processor for the analysis programs NIKE2D (NESC 9923), DYNA2D (NESC 9910), TOPAZ, TOPAZ2D (NESC9801), GEM2D (NESC9679), and TACO2D. ORION reads the binary plot data files generated by the two- dimensional finite element programs used at LLNL. Contours and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has the capability to plot color fringes, contour lines, vector plots, principal stress lines, deformed meshes and material outlines, time histories, reaction forces along constraint boundaries, interface pressures along slide lines, and user-supplied labels

  1. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  2. Manifestation of nuclear cluster structure in Coulomb sums

    Buki, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    Experimental Coulomb sum values of 6^Li and 7^Li nuclei have been obtained, extending the earlier reported momentum transfer range of Coulomb sums for these nuclei up to q = 0.750 ... 1.625 fm^-1. The dependence of the Coulomb sums on the momentum transfers of 6^Li and 7^Li is shown to differ substantially from similar dependences for all the other nuclei investigated. Relationship between the nuclear cluster structure and Coulomb sums has been considered. The momentum transfer value, above which the Coulomb sum becomes constant, is found to be related to the cluster isolation parameter x, which characterizes the degree of nuclear clusterization.

  3. Determination of the absolute configuration of a chiral epoxide using foil induced Coulomb explosion imaging

    Herwig, P.; Zawatzky, K.; Schwalm, D.; Grieser, M.; Heber, O.; Jordon-Thaden, B.; Krantz, C.; Novotný, O.; Repnow, R.; Schurig, V.; Vager, Z.; Wolf, A.; Trapp, O.; Kreckel, H.

    2015-09-01

    We have applied the method of foil-induced Coulomb Explosion Imaging (FCEI) to determine the handedness of a homochiral sample of the compound trans-2,3-dideuterooxirane C2OH2D2. We determined the compound to be of the (R, R)-econfiguration with a statistical significance of 5σ. As the molecular sample was chemically linked to the stereochemical reference standard glyceraldehyde, our assignment constitutes an independent verification of the absolute handedness of all compounds linked to this reference substance.

  4. Coulomb interaction in Eliashberg theory of superconductivity

    Davydov, Arkady; Sanna, Antonio [Max-Planck-Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Eliashberg theory of superconductivity allows to describe materials with strong pairing interaction. In the non magnetic case it leads to a system of coupled integral multidimensional equations. Computational costs are usually reduced by an isotropic limit, and by restricting the Coulomb interaction to the use of one single parameter, μ{sup *}, often chosen to give the experimental T{sub c}. In this work we present the parameter-free approach in which the screened Coulomb interaction fully accounted within the Random Phase Approximation, entering the Eliashberg's equations on the same footing as the phononic interaction. We will compare this approach with Density Functional Theory for Superconductors where the corresponding approximation leads to a good agreement with experiments.

  5. Coulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons

    Maghrebi, M F; Bienias, P; Choi, S; Martin, I; Firstenberg, O; Lukin, M D; Büchler, H P; Gorshkov, A V

    2015-01-01

    We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasi-bound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wavefunction resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.

  6. Coulomb interaction in Eliashberg theory of superconductivity

    The Eliashberg theory of superconductivity allows to describe materials with strong pairing interaction. In the non magnetic case it leads to a system of coupled integral multidimensional equations. Computational costs are usually reduced by an isotropic limit, and by restricting the Coulomb interaction to the use of one single parameter, μ*, often chosen to give the experimental Tc. In this work we present the parameter-free approach in which the screened Coulomb interaction fully accounted within the Random Phase Approximation, entering the Eliashberg's equations on the same footing as the phononic interaction. We will compare this approach with Density Functional Theory for Superconductors where the corresponding approximation leads to a good agreement with experiments.

  7. Feynman rules for Coulomb gauge QCD

    The Coulomb gauge in nonabelian gauge theories is attractive in principle, but beset with technical difficulties in perturbation theory. In addition to ordinary Feynman integrals, there are, at 2-loop order, Christ–Lee (CL) terms, derived either by correctly ordering the operators in the Hamiltonian, or by resolving ambiguous Feynman integrals. Renormalization theory depends on the sub-graph structure of ordinary Feynman graphs. The CL terms do not have a sub-graph structure. We show how to carry out renormalization in the presence of CL terms, by re-expressing these as ‘pseudo-Feynman’ integrals. We also explain how energy divergences cancel. - Highlights: ► In Coulomb gauge QCD, we re-express Christ–Lee terms in the Hamiltonian as pseudo-Feynman integrals. ► This gives a subgraph structure, and allows the ordinary renormalization process. ► It also leads to cancellation of energy-divergences.

  8. Coulomb Bound States of Strongly Interacting Photons

    Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M. J.; Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Büchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasibound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wave function resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.

  9. Coulomb dissociation of $^{20,21}$N

    Röder, Marko; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J G; Burgunder, G; Caamano, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkall, Joakim; Chakraborty, S; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Pramanik, Ushasi Datta; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A; Farinon, F; Fraile, Luis M; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhäuser, Roman; Göbel, Kathrin; Golubev, Pavel; Diaz, Diego Gonzalez; Hagdahl, Julius; Heftrich, Tanja; Heil, Michael; Heine, Marcel; Heinz, Andreas; Henriques, Ana; Holl, Matthias; Ickert, G; Ignatov, Alexander; Jakobsson, Bo; Johansson, Hakan; Jonson, Björn; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Kanungo, Rituparna; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Knöbel, Ronja; Kröll, Thorsten; Krücken, Reiner; Kurcewicz, J; Kurz, Nikolaus; Labiche, Marc; Langer, Christoph; Bleis, Tudi Le; Lemmon, Roy; Lepyoshkina, Olga; Lindberg, Simon; Machado, Jorge; Marganiec, Justyna; Caro, Magdalena Mostazo; Movsesyan, Alina; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Nilsson, Thomas; Nociforo, Chiara; Panin, Valerii; Paschalis, Stefanos; Perea, Angel; Petri, Marina; Pietri, S; Plag, Ralf; Prochazka, A; Rahaman, Md Anisur; Rastrepina, Ganna; Reifarth, Rene; Ribeiro, Guillermo; Ricciardi, M Valentina; Rigollet, Catherine; Riisager, Karsten; Rossi, Dominic; Saez, Jose Sanchez del Rio; Savran, Deniz; Scheit, Heiko; Simon, Haik; Sorlin, Olivier; Stoica, V; Streicher, Branislav; Taylor, Jon; Tengblad, Olof; Terashima, Satoru; Thies, Ronja; Togano, Yasuhiro; Uberseder, Ethan; Van de Walle, J; Velho, Paulo; Volkov, Vasily; Wagner, Andreas; Wamers, Felix; Weick, Helmut; Weigand, Mario; Wheldon, Carl; Wilson, G; Wimmer, Christine; Winfield, J S; Woods, Philip; Yakorev, Dmitry; Zhukov, Mikhail; Zilges, Andreas; Zuber, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role for the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on $^{20,21}$N are reported. Relativistic $^{20,21}$N ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a kinematically complete experiment. Using the detailed balance theorem, the $^{19}\\mathrm{N}(\\mathrm{n},\\gamma)^{20}\\mathrm{N}$ and $^{20}\\mathrm{N}(\\mathrm{n},\\gamma)^{21}\\mathrm{N}$ excitation functions and thermonuclear reaction rates have been determined. The $^{19}\\mathrm{N}(\\mathrm{n},\\gamma)^{20}\\mathrm{N}$ rate is up to a factor of 5 higher at $T<1$\\,GK with respect to previous theoretical calculations, leading to a 10\\,\\% decrease in the predicted fluorine abundance.

  10. Coulomb dissociation studies for astrophysical thermonuclear reactions

    Motobayashi, T. [Dept. of Physics, Rikkyo Univ., Toshima, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    The Coulomb dissociation method was applied to several radiative capture processes of astrophysical interest. The method has an advantage of high experimental efficiency, which allow measurements with radioactive nuclear beams. The reactions {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O and {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B are mainly discussed. They are the key reaction in the hot CNO cycle in massive stars and the one closely related to the solar neutrino problem, respectively. (orig.)