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Sample records for 2d laterally dispersive

  1. 2-D model for pollutant dispersion at the coastal outfall off Paradip

    Suryanarayana, A.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.; Gouveia, A.D

    Simulation of dispersion of the effluent discharge has been carried out using 2-D Model to verify the advection and diffusion of the pollutant patch of the proposed effluent disposal off Paradip, Orissa, India. The simulation of dispersion...

  2. Lateral dispersion of the saltating particles

    Lukerchenko, Nikolay; Keita, Ibrahima

    Pskov : PGPI, 2009, s. 13-15. ISBN 978-5-91116-096-5. [Mezhdunarodnajanauchnaja konferencija Matematicheskije metody v nauke i technologijach /22./. Pskov (RU), 25.05.2009-30.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : saltation * lateral dispersion * particle-bed collision Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  3. DisPerSE: robust structure identification in 2D and 3D

    Sousbie, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    We present the DIScrete PERsistent Structures Extractor (DisPerSE), an open source software for the automatic and robust identification of structures in 2D and 3D noisy data sets. The software is designed to identify all sorts of topological structures, such as voids, peaks, sources, walls and filaments through segmentation, with a special emphasis put on the later ones. Based on discrete Morse theory, DisPerSE is able to deal directly with noisy datasets using the concept of persistence (a measure of the robustness of topological features) and can be applied indifferently to various sorts of data-sets defined over a possibly bounded manifold : 2D and 3D images, structured and unstructured grids, discrete point samples via the delaunay tesselation, Healpix tesselations of the sphere, ... Although it was initially developed with cosmology in mind, various I/O formats have been implemented and the current version is quite versatile. It should therefore be useful for any application where a robust structure iden...

  4. Lateral critical Casimir force in 2D Ising strip with inhomogeneous walls

    Nowakowski, Piotr; Napiórkowski, Marek

    2014-08-01

    We analyze the lateral critical Casimir force acting between two planar, chemically inhomogeneous walls confining an infinite 2D Ising strip of width M. The inhomogeneity of each of the walls has size N1; they are shifted by the distance L along the strip. Using the exact diagonalization of the transfer matrix, we calculate the lateral critical Casimir force and discuss its properties, in particular its scaling close to the 2D bulk critical point, as a function of temperature, surface magnetic field, and the geometric parameters M, N1, L. We determine the magnetization profiles which display the formation of the bridge joining the inhomogeneities on the walls and establish the relation between the characteristic properties of the lateral Casimir force and magnetization morphologies. We check numerically that breaking of the bridge is related to the inflection point of the lateral force.

  5. Is digit ratio (2D:4D) a reliable pointer to speech laterality?

    Hudson, John M; Hodgson, Jessica C

    2016-03-15

    The relative length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D ratio) is sexually dimorphic and a retrospective biomarker of prenatal hormonal exposure. Low ratios indicate higher prenatal testosterone (pT) and lower estrogen exposure, whereas the reverse pattern is associated with high ratios. Elevated levels of pT exposure have long been thought to modulate hemispheric specialisation; subsequently many studies use the 2D:4D ratio as a proxy index for pT to examine the effects of prenatal hormonal exposure on lateralised cognitive abilities. Here we used Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and digit ratio to investigate whether pT has an influence on speech laterality. We tested 34 right and 14 left handed adults. Our results indicate that speech representation is unrelated to digit characteristics and therefore purportedly pT. We discuss these findings in relation to androgen theories of lateralisation. PMID:26747206

  6. High Luminescence White LEDs Prepared with 2D Island-Pattern of Quantum Dots Dispersed Photopolymer Films

    Hyun-Guk Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the reabsorption loss among different size quantum dots (QDs is a critical issue in the QD based white LEDs, we proposed and fabricated new film structure of 2D island-patterns consisting of separate green and red QDs dispersed photopolymer patterns in a zigzag form. A small air-gap such as 60 μm between QD islands helps to control the optical path at the interface to reduce the lateral reabsorption loss to enhance the optical efficiency of white LED. The 2D island-patterns of QD phosphor film were fabricated using a UV imprinting process and compared the optical efficiency with the other QD film structure prepared with same QD concentrations and thicknesses such as a mixed and separately layered QD structure. Experimental and simulation analysis were performed to confirm the better optical efficiency from the 2D island-patterns of QD films due to the reduced reabsorption loss. High luminescence white LED was finally realized with 2D island-patterns of QD film, resulting in a luminous efficiency of 62.2 lm/W and CRI of 83 with CCT of 4537 K at the operation current of 60 mA.

  7. Analytical characteristics of wavelength dispersive XRF imaging with straight polycapillary and 2D detector

    XRF imaging is analytical method to obtain 2D elemental distribution by using XRF. One of the typical methods of XRF imaging is scanning XRF imaging using micro X-ray beam. For this method, energy dispersive detector is used. However, in energy dispersive scanning XRF imaging, since the sample is scanned with a fixed micro X-ray beam, this method needs long measurement time to obtain elemental images of a wide area. The alternative method for performing XRF imaging in a shorter time is a projection XRF imaging. For this method, incident X-ray is irradiated to a sample in a wide area and fluorescence X-ray is detected by 2D detector. However, since 2D detector has no energy resolution, there is a problem that the identification of the elements can not be performed. Therefore, we proposed the projection XRF imaging combined with wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). In this paper, we discuss WD-XRF imaging using straight polycapillary and X-ray CCD camera. (author)

  8. Simultaneous elastic parameter inversion in 2-D/3-D TTI medium combined later arrival times

    Bai, Chao-ying; Wang, Tao; Yang, Shang-bei; Li, Xing-wang; Huang, Guo-jiao

    2016-04-01

    Traditional traveltime inversion for anisotropic medium is, in general, based on a "weak" assumption in the anisotropic property, which simplifies both the forward part (ray tracing is performed once only) and the inversion part (a linear inversion solver is possible). But for some real applications, a general (both "weak" and "strong") anisotropic medium should be considered. In such cases, one has to develop a ray tracing algorithm to handle with the general (including "strong") anisotropic medium and also to design a non-linear inversion solver for later tomography. Meanwhile, it is constructive to investigate how much the tomographic resolution can be improved by introducing the later arrivals. For this motivation, we incorporated our newly developed ray tracing algorithm (multistage irregular shortest-path method) for general anisotropic media with a non-linear inversion solver (a damped minimum norm, constrained least squares problem with a conjugate gradient approach) to formulate a non-linear inversion solver for anisotropic medium. This anisotropic traveltime inversion procedure is able to combine the later (reflected) arrival times. Both 2-D/3-D synthetic inversion experiments and comparison tests show that (1) the proposed anisotropic traveltime inversion scheme is able to recover the high contrast anomalies and (2) it is possible to improve the tomographic resolution by introducing the later (reflected) arrivals, but not as expected in the isotropic medium, because the different velocity (qP, qSV and qSH) sensitivities (or derivatives) respective to the different elastic parameters are not the same but are also dependent on the inclination angle.

  9. Dispersion enhancement and damping by buoyancy driven flows in 2D networks of capillaries

    D'Angelo, Maria Veronica; Allain, Catherine; Rosen, Marta; Hulin, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a small relative density difference on the displacement of two miscible liquids is studied experimentally in transparent 2D networks of micro channels. Both stable displacements in which the denser fluid enters at the bottom of the cell and displaces the lighter one and unstable displacements in which the lighter fluid is injected at the bottom and displaces the denser one are realized. Except at the lowest mean flow velocity U, the average $C(x,t)$ of the relative concentration satisfies a convection-dispersion equation. The dispersion coefficient is studied as function of the relative magnitude of fluid velocity and of the velocity of buoyancy driven fluid motion. A model is suggested and its applicability to previous results obtained in 3D media is discussed.

  10. Efficient and Scalable Production of 2D Material Dispersions using Hexahydroxytriphenylene as a Versatile Exfoliant and Dispersant.

    Liu, Gang; Komatsu, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    Thin-layer 2D materials have been attracting enormous interest, and various processes have been investigated to obtain these materials efficiently. In view of their practical applications, the most desirable source for the preparation of these thin-layer materials is the pristine bulk materials with stacked layers, such as pristine graphite. There are many options in terms of conditions for the exfoliation of thin-layer materials, and these include wet and dry processes, with or without additives, and the kind of solvent. In this context, we found that the versatile exfoliant hexahydroxytriphenylene works efficiently for the exfoliation of typical 2D materials such as graphene, MoS2 , and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) by both wet and dry processes by using sonication and ball milling, respectively, in aqueous and organic solvents. As for graphene, stable dispersions with relatively high concentrations (up to 0.28 mg mL(-1) ) in water and tetrahydrofuran were obtained from graphite in the presence of hexahydroxytriphenylene by a wet process with the use of bath sonication and by a dry process involving ball milling. Especially, most of the graphite was exfoliated and dispersed as thin-layer graphene in both aqueous and organic solvents through ball milling, even on a large scale (47-86 % yield). In addition, the exfoliant was easily removed from the precipitated composite by heat treatment without disturbing the graphene structure. Bulk MoS2 and h-BN were also exfoliated by both wet and dry processes. Similar to graphene, dispersions of MoS2 and h-BN of high concentrations in water and DMF were produced in high yields through ball milling. PMID:26918302

  11. Transient electromagnetic wave propagation in laterally discontinuous, dispersive media

    Egorov, Igor; Kristensson, Gerhard; Weston, Vaughan H

    1996-01-01

    This paper concerns propagation of transient electromagnetic waves in laterally discontinuous dispersive media. The approach, used here, employs a component decomposition of all fields. Specifically, the propagation operator that maps a transverse field on one plane to another plane is specified. Expansion of this mapping near the wave front determines the precursor or forerunner of the problem.

  12. Specific binding and laterality of human extrastriatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors in late onset type 1 alcoholic patients.

    Kuikka, J T; Repo, E; Bergström, K A; Tupala, E; Tiihonen, J

    2000-09-29

    Late onset type 1 alcoholism has been suggested to be associated with decreased dopaminergic transmission. Our hypothesis was that late onset type 1 alcoholics have also abnormal extrastriatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor distribution. We performed binding, heterogeneity and laterality analysis of extrastriatal and striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors in nine late onset male alcoholics and in 12 age-matched healthy males. A radioligand, [(123)I]epidepride was used in high resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Specific binding of epidepride in the left temporal pole was significantly (Pepidepride distribution observed in control males (0.89+/-0.19 vs. 1.10+/-0.19; P<0.05). The results suggest that the specific binding of dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors in late type 1 alcoholics is decreased and its laterality in the temporal brain is altered from normal. PMID:10996449

  13. Comparison of 2D and 3D wavelet features for TLE lateralization

    Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Elisevich, Kost; Patel, Suresh

    2004-04-01

    Intensity and volume features of the hippocampus from MR images of the brain are known to be useful in detecting the abnormality and consequently candidacy of the hippocampus for temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. However, currently, intracranial EEG exams are required to determine the abnormal hippocampus. These exams are lengthy, painful and costly. The aim of this study is to evaluate texture characteristics of the hippocampi from MR images to help physicians determine the candidate hippocampus for surgery. We studied the MR images of 20 epileptic patients. Intracranial EEG results as well as surgery outcome were used as gold standard. The hippocampi were manually segmented by an expert from T1-weighted MR images. Then the segmented regions were mapped on the corresponding FLAIR images for texture analysis. We calculate the average energy features from 2D wavelet transform of each slice of hippocampus as well as the energy features produced by 3D wavelet transform of the whole hippocampus volume. The 2D wavelet transform is calculated both from the original slices as well as from the slices perpendicular to the principal axis of the hippocampus. In order to calculate the 3D wavelet transform we first rotate each hippocampus to fit it in a rectangular prism and then fill the empty area by extrapolating the intensity values. We combine the resulting features with volume feature and compare their ability to distinguish between normal and abnormal hippocampi using linear classifier and fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Experimental results show that the texture features can correctly classify the hippocampi.

  14. Layered and Laterally Constrained 2D Inversion of Time Domain Induced Polarization Data

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Ramm, James; Auken, Esben; Binley, A.; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    transform of a complex resistivity forward response and the inversion extracts the spectral information of the time domain measures in terms of the Cole-Cole parameters. The developed forward code and inversion algorithm use the full time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate......In a sedimentary environment, quasi-layered models often represent the actual geology more accurately than smooth minimum-structure models. We have developed a new layered and laterally constrained inversion algorithm for time domain induced polarization data. The algorithm is based on the time...

  15. Electromagnetic induction by finite wavenumber source fields in 2-D lateral heterogeneities - The transverse electric mode

    Hermance, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction in a laterally homogeneous earth is analyzed in terms of a source field with finite dimensions. Attention is focused on a time-varying two-dimensional current source directed parallel to the strike of a two-dimensional anomalous structure within the earth, i.e., the E-parallel mode. The spatially harmonic source field is expressed as discontinuities in the magnetic (or electric) field of the current in the source. The model is applied to describing the magnetic gradients across megatectonic features, and may be used to predict the magnetic fields encountered by a satellite orbiting above the ionosphere.

  16. Tidally induced lateral dispersion of the Storfjorden overflow plume

    F. Wobus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the flow of brine-enriched shelf water from Storfjorden (Svalbard into Fram Strait and onto the western Svalbard Shelf using a regional set-up of NEMO-SHELF, a 3-D numerical ocean circulation model. The model is set up with realistic bathymetry, atmospheric forcing, open boundary conditions and tides. The model has 3 km horizontal resolution and 50 vertical levels in the sh-coordinate system which is specially designed to resolve bottom boundary layer processes. In a series of modelling experiments we focus on the influence of tides on the propagation of the dense water plume by comparing results from tidal and non-tidal model runs. Comparisons of non-tidal to tidal simulations reveal a hotspot of tidally induced horizontal diffusion leading to the lateral dispersion of the plume at the southernmost headland of Spitsbergen which is in close proximity to the plume path. As a result the lighter fractions in the diluted upper layer of the plume are drawn into the shallow coastal current that carries Storfjorden water onto the western Svalbard Shelf, while the dense bottom layer continues to sink down the slope. This bifurcation of the plume into a diluted shelf branch and a dense downslope branch is enhanced by tidally induced shear dispersion at the headland. Tidal effects at the headland are shown to cause a net reduction in the downslope flux of Storfjorden water into the deep Fram Strait. This finding contrasts previous results from observations of a dense plume on a different shelf without abrupt topography.

  17. Analysis of dryout behaviour in laterally non-homogeneous debris beds using the MEWA-2D code

    The present study analyses the impact of lateral non-homogeneities on the coolability of heated, initially water filled debris beds. Debris beds which may be formed in a postulated severe accident in light water reactors can not be expected to have a homogeneous structure. Lateral non-homogeneities are given e.g. already by a variation in height as in a heap of debris. Internally, less porous or more porous region may occur, the latter even as downcomer-like structures are considered to favour supply of water to the bed and thus coolability. In previous work it has been shown that such non-homogeneities are often strongly enhancing coolability, as compared to earlier investigations on laterally homogeneous beds. The present contribution aims at extending the view by analysing further cases of non-homogeneities with the MEWA-2D code. Especially, effects of capillary forces are considered in contrast to earlier analysis. Part of the paper deals with specific experiments performed in the POMECO facility at KTH in which a laterally stratified debris bed has been considered, whereby especially a strong jump of porosity, from 0.26 to 0.38, has been established. Astonishingly, under top as well as bottom flooding, dryout in these experiments occurred first in the lateral layer with higher porosity. Understanding is now provided by the effect of capillary forces: water is drawn from this layer to the less porous one. This effect improves the cooling in the less porous layer while it reduces coolability of the more porous layer. No real loop behaviour of inflow via the higher porosities with subsequent upflow in the less porous layer establishes here, in contrast to expectations. Other cases (different lateral heating in an otherwise homogeneous bed, closed downcomer in a homogeneous bed and heap-like debris) show, on the other hand, strongly improved coolability by such loops establishing due to the lateral differences in void and the corresponding pressure differences

  18. Pore scale mixing and macroscopic solute dispersion regimes in polymer flows inside 2D model networks

    D'Angelo, M V; Allain, C; Hulin, J P; Angelo, Maria Veronica D'; Auradou, Harold; Allain, Catherine; Hulin, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    A change of solute dispersion regime with the flow velocity has been studied both at the macroscopic and pore scales in a transparent array of capillary channels using an optical technique allowing for simultaneous local and global concentration mappings. Two solutions of different polymer concentrations (500 and 1000 ppm) have been used at different P\\'eclet numbers. At the macroscopic scale, the displacement front displays a diffusive spreading: for $Pe \\leq 10$, the dispersivity $l\\_d$ is constant with $Pe$ and increases with the polymer concentration; for $Pe > 10$, $l\\_d$ increases as $Pe^{1.35}$ and is similar for the two concentrations. At the local scale, a time lag between the saturations of channels parallel and perpendicular to the mean flow has been observed and studied as a function of the flow rate. These local measurements suggest that the change of dispersion regime is related to variations of the degree of mixing at the junctions. For $Pe \\leq 10$, complete mixing leads to pure geometrical di...

  19. 2D Cross Sectional Analysis and Associated Electrochemistry of Composite Electrodes Containing Dispersed Agglomerates of Nanocrystalline Magnetite, Fe₃O₄.

    Bock, David C; Kirshenbaum, Kevin C; Wang, Jiajun; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2015-06-24

    When electroactive nanomaterials are fully incorporated into an electrode structure, characterization of the crystallite sizes, agglomerate sizes, and dispersion of the electroactive materials can lend insight into the complex electrochemistry associated with composite electrodes. In this study, composite magnetite electrodes were sectioned using ultramicrotome techniques, which facilitated the direct observation of crystallites and agglomerates of magnetite (Fe3O4) as well as their dispersal patterns in large representative sections of electrode, via 2D cross sectional analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Further, the electrochemistry of these electrodes were recorded, and Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) was used to determine the distribution of oxidation states of the reduced magnetite. Unexpectedly, while two crystallite sizes of magnetite were employed in the production of the composite electrodes, the magnetite agglomerate sizes and degrees of dispersion in the two composite electrodes were similar to each other. This observation illustrates the necessity for careful characterization of composite electrodes, in order to understand the effects of crystallite size, agglomerate size, and level of dispersion on electrochemistry. PMID:26024206

  20. A nonlocal finite difference scheme for simulation of wave propagation in 2D models with reduced numerical dispersion

    Martowicz, A.; Ruzzene, M.; Staszewski, W. J.; Rimoli, J. J.; Uhl, T.

    2014-03-01

    The work deals with the reduction of numerical dispersion in simulations of wave propagation in solids. The phenomenon of numerical dispersion naturally results from time and spatial discretization present in a numerical model of mechanical continuum. Although discretization itself makes possible to model wave propagation in structures with complicated geometries and made of different materials, it inevitably causes simulation errors when improper time and length scales are chosen for the simulations domains. Therefore, by definition, any characteristic parameter for spatial and time resolution must create limitations on maximal wavenumber and frequency for a numerical model. It should be however noted that expected increase of the model quality and its functionality in terms of affordable wavenumbers, frequencies and speeds should not be achieved merely by denser mesh and reduced time integration step. The computational cost would be simply unacceptable. The authors present a nonlocal finite difference scheme with the coefficients calculated applying a Fourier series, which allows for considerable reduction of numerical dispersion. There are presented the results of analyses for 2D models, with isotropic and anisotropic materials, fulfilling the planar stress state. Reduced numerical dispersion is shown in the dispersion surfaces for longitudinal and shear waves propagating for different directions with respect to the mesh orientation and without dramatic increase of required number of nonlocal interactions. A case with the propagation of longitudinal wave in composite material is studied with given referential solution of the initial value problem for verification of the time-domain outcomes. The work gives a perspective of modeling of any type of real material dispersion according to measurements and with assumed accuracy.

  1. Generation of a pseudo-2D shear-wave velocity section by inversion of a series of 1D dispersion curves

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves utilizes a multichannel recording system to estimate near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities from high-frequency Rayleigh waves. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity (vS) section is constructed by aligning 1D models at the midpoint of each receiver spread and using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. The receiver spread length sets the theoretical lower limit and any vS structure with its lateral dimension smaller than this length will not be properly resolved in the final vS section. A source interval smaller than the spread length will not improve the horizontal resolution because spatial smearing has already been introduced by the receiver spread. In this paper, we first analyze the horizontal resolution of a pair of synthetic traces. Resolution analysis shows that (1) a pair of traces with a smaller receiver spacing achieves higher horizontal resolution of inverted S-wave velocities but results in a larger relative error; (2) the relative error of the phase velocity at a high frequency is smaller than at a low frequency; and (3) a relative error of the inverted S-wave velocity is affected by the signal-to-noise ratio of data. These results provide us with a guideline to balance the trade-off between receiver spacing (horizontal resolution) and accuracy of the inverted S-wave velocity. We then present a scheme to generate a pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section with high horizontal resolution using multichannel records by inverting high-frequency surface-wave dispersion curves calculated through cross-correlation combined with a phase-shift scanning method. This method chooses only a pair of consecutive traces within a shot gather to calculate a dispersion curve. We finally invert surface-wave dispersion curves of synthetic and real-world data. Inversion results of both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that

  2. Compact optical true time delay beamformer for a 2D phased array antenna using tunable dispersive elements.

    Ye, Xingwei; Zhang, Fangzheng; Pan, Shilong

    2016-09-01

    A hardware-compressive optical true time delay architecture for 2D beam steering in a planar phased array antenna is proposed using fiber-Bragg-grating-based tunable dispersive elements (TDEs). For an M×N array, the proposed system utilizes N TDEs and M wavelength-fixed optical carriers to control the time delays. Both azimuth and elevation beam steering are realized by programming the settings of the TDEs. An experiment is carried out to demonstrate the delay controlling in a 2×2 array, which is fed by a wideband pulsed signal. Radiation patterns calculated from the experimentally measured waveforms at the four antennas match well with the theoretical results. PMID:27607946

  3. Communication: nanosecond folding dynamics of an alpha helix: time-dependent 2D-IR cross peaks observed using polarization-sensitive dispersed pump-probe spectroscopy.

    Panman, Matthijs R; van Dijk, Chris N; Meuzelaar, Heleen; Woutersen, S

    2015-01-28

    We present a simple method to measure the dynamics of cross peaks in time-resolved two-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy. By combining suitably weighted dispersed pump-probe spectra, we eliminate the diagonal contribution to the 2D-IR response, so that the dispersed pump-probe signal contains the projection of only the cross peaks onto one of the axes of the 2D-IR spectrum. We apply the method to investigate the folding dynamics of an alpha-helical peptide in a temperature-jump experiment and find characteristic folding and unfolding time constants of 260 ± 30 and 580 ± 70 ns at 298 K. PMID:25637962

  4. Communication: Nanosecond folding dynamics of an alpha helix: Time-dependent 2D-IR cross peaks observed using polarization-sensitive dispersed pump-probe spectroscopy

    Panman, Matthijs R.; van Dijk, Chris N.; Meuzelaar, Heleen; Woutersen, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple method to measure the dynamics of cross peaks in time-resolved two-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy. By combining suitably weighted dispersed pump-probe spectra, we eliminate the diagonal contribution to the 2D-IR response, so that the dispersed pump-probe signal contains the projection of only the cross peaks onto one of the axes of the 2D-IR spectrum. We apply the method to investigate the folding dynamics of an alpha-helical peptide in a temperature-jump experiment and find characteristic folding and unfolding time constants of 260 ± 30 and 580 ± 70 ns at 298 K.

  5. Lateral Dispersion of Pollutants in a Very Stable Atmosphere - The Effect of Meandering

    Kristensen, Leif; Jensen, Niels Otto; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1981-01-01

    A model based on single particle diffusion is introduced to account for the effect of “meandering” on lateral plume dispersion in a very stable atmosphere. It is assumed that small scale atmospheric turbulence is absent, so that only large horizontal eddies are effective. A formula for the lateral....... Meteorological data from Risø and the small island Sprogø have been analysed in order to identify all situations in which the atmosphere is so stable that small scale turbulence cannot exist. The purpose is to see in how many of these situations meandering is also absent. The results show that, as a rule...

  6. Lateral Dispersion of Pollutants in a Very Stable Atmosphere - The Effect of Meandering

    Kristensen, Leif; Jensen, Niels Otto; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1981-01-01

    A model based on single particle diffusion is introduced to account for the effect of “meandering” on lateral plume dispersion in a very stable atmosphere. It is assumed that small scale atmospheric turbulence is absent, so that only large horizontal eddies are effective. A formula for the lateral...... standard deviation σy as function of observation time, distance from source, mean wind speed, lateral turbulence intensity, and scale of the atmospheric motion is derived. Climatological time series of temperature lapse rates, wind speeds, and wind directions can be used as input to calculate σy....... Meteorological data from Risø and the small island Sprogø have been analysed in order to identify all situations in which the atmosphere is so stable that small scale turbulence cannot exist. The purpose is to see in how many of these situations meandering is also absent. The results show that, as a rule...

  7. Laser Acoustic Imaging of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) Lateral Mode Dispersion

    Ken L. Telschow

    2004-07-01

    A laser acoustic imaging microscope has been developed that measures acoustic motion with high spatial resolution without scanning. Images are recorded at normal video frame rates and heterodyne principles are used to allow operation at any frequency from Hz to GHz. Fourier transformation of the acoustic amplitude and phase displacement images provides a direct quantitative determination of excited mode wavenumbers at any frequency. Results are presented at frequencies near the first longitudinal thickness mode (~ 900 MHz) demonstrating simultaneous excitation of lateral modes with nonzero wavenumbers in an electrically driven AlN thin film acoustic resonator. Images combined at several frequencies form a direct visualization of lateral mode dispersion relations for the device under test allowing mode identification and a direct measure of specific lateral mode properties. Discussion and analysis of the results are presented in comparison with plate wave modeling of these devices taking account for material anisotropy and multilayer films.

  8. Pilot experiments of the particles dispersion study in the flow over a rough lateral tilted bed

    Lukerchenko, Nikolay; Keita, Ibrahima

    Vol. Sekcija 3. Saratov : Saratovskij gosudarstvennyj techničeskij universitet, 2010, s. 91-92. ISBN 978-5-7433-2254-1. [Meždunarodnaja naučnaja konferencija Matematičeskije metody v technike i technologijach /23./. Saratov (RU), 22.06.2010-25.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : lateral tilted bed * particle dispersion * deviation of the particle trajectory Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  9. Design and Analysis of a 2D-PhotonicCrystal Fiber Structure with Ultra-Flattened Dispersion and Single Mode Operation over a Wide Range of Wavelength

    Sandhir K Singh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A photonic crystal fiber (PCF presents a new way to guide light. The air holes in the fiber work as a cladding, but provide much more flexibility in the design. In this work, the plane-wave expansion technique for generating and analyzing photonic band structures is used. The simple 2D XY array with a hexagonal cross-sectional pattern of air holes in a silicon fiber is analysed for calculating parameters such as mode effective index, dispersion and single mode operation over wide wavelength range. The results of a design sample presented in this article, showing the better result to analyze this new class of fiber. This fiber can be used for biomedical application, spectroscopy, and super continuum generation.

  10. Quantitative Determination of Lateral Mode Dispersion in Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators through Laser Acoustic Imaging

    Ken Telschow; John D. Larson III

    2006-10-01

    Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators are useful for many signal processing applications. Detailed knowledge of their operation properties are needed to optimize their design for specific applications. The finite size of these resonators precludes their use in single acoustic modes; rather, multiple wave modes, such as, lateral wave modes are always excited concurrently. In order to determine the contributions of these modes, we have been using a newly developed full-field laser acoustic imaging approach to directly measure their amplitude and phase throughout the resonator. This paper describes new results comparing modeling of both elastic and piezoelectric effects in the active material with imaging measurement of all excited modes. Fourier transformation of the acoustic amplitude and phase displacement images provides a quantitative determination of excited mode amplitude and wavenumber at any frequency. Images combined at several frequencies form a direct visualization of lateral mode excitation and dispersion for the device under test allowing mode identification and comparison with predicted operational properties. Discussion and analysis are presented for modes near the first longitudinal thickness resonance (~900 MHz) in an AlN thin film resonator. Plate wave modeling, taking account of material crystalline orientation, elastic and piezoelectric properties and overlayer metallic films, will be discussed in relation to direct image measurements.

  11. An effective method to suppress numerical dispersion in 2D acoustic and elastic modelling using a high-order Padé approximation

    In this paper, we propose a method that can effectively reduce the numerical dispersion for solving the acoustic and elastic-wave equations. The method is a fourth-order Padé approximation scheme, in which the time difference operator is a rational function and a block tridiagonal system needs to be solved at each step. On the one hand, to efficiently solve a large linear system of equations we propose an explicit method for this implicit algrithom. On the other hand, to approximate the high-order spatial derivatives we use an eighth-order stereo-modelling method using wavefield displacements and their gradients simultaneously. For this new method, we investigate some mathematical properties including the stability, errors and the numerical dispersion relationship for 1D and 2D cases. We also present numerical results computed by the Padé approximation and compare them with the eighth-order Lax–Wendroff correction method and the eighth-order staggered-grid method. Numerical results show that the high-order Padé approximation scheme can effectively suppress the numerical dispersion caused by discretizing the wave equations when coarse spatial grids are used or models have strong velocity contrasts between adjacent grids. In contrast to other high-order finite-difference methods, the new method takes substantially less computational time and requires less memory because large spatial and time increments can be used. Thus the high-order Padé approximation method can potentially be used to solve large-scale wave propagation problems and seismic tomography based on the wave equations. (paper)

  12. Novel Image Metrics for Retrieval of the Lateral Resolution in Line Scan-Based 2D LA-ICPMS Imaging via an Experimental-Modeling Approach.

    van Elteren, Johannes Teun; Izmer, Andrei; Šelih, Vid Simon; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-07-19

    The quality of elemental image maps obtained via line scan-based LA-ICPMS is a function of the temporal response of the entire system, governed by the design of the system and mapping and acquisition conditions used, next to the characteristics of the sample. To quantify image degradation, ablation targets with periodic gratings are required for the construction of a modulation transfer function (MTF) and subsequent determination of the lateral resolution as a function of image noise and contrast. Since such ablation targets, with suitable matrix composition, are not readily available, computer-generated periodic gratings were virtually ablated via a computational process based on a two-step discrete-time convolution procedure using empirical/experimental input data. This experimental-modeling procedure simulates LA-ICPMS imaging based on two consecutive processes, viz., LA sampling (via ablation crater profiles [ACP]) and aerosol washout/transfer/ICPMS measurement (via single pulse responses [SPR]). By random selection of experimental SPRs from a large database for each individual pulse during the simulation, the convolution procedure simulates an accurate elemental image map of the periodic gratings with realistic (proportional or flicker) noise. This facilitates indirect retrieval of the experimental lateral resolution for the matrix targeted without performing actual line scanning on periodic gratings. PMID:27349804

  13. In-situ database toolbox for short-term dispersion model validation in macro-tidal seas, application for 2D-model

    Bailly du Bois, P.; Dumas, F.; Solier, L.; Voiseux, C.

    2012-03-01

    Appropriate field data are required to check the reliability of hydrodynamic models simulating the dispersion of soluble substances in the marine environment. This study deals with the collection of physical measurements and soluble tracer data intended specifically for this kind of validation. The intensity of currents as well as the complexity of topography and tides around the Cap de La Hague in the centre of the English Channel make it one of the most difficult areas to represent in terms of hydrodynamics and dispersion. Controlled releases of tritium—in the form of HTO—are carried out in this area by the AREVA-NC plant, providing an excellent soluble tracer. A total of 14,493 measurements were acquired to track dispersion in the hours and days following a release. These data, supplementing previously gathered data and physical measurements (bathymetry, water-surface levels, Eulerian and Lagrangian current studies) allow us to test dispersion models from the hour following release to periods of several years which are not accessible with dye experiments. The dispersion characteristics are described and methods are proposed for comparing models against measurements. An application is proposed for a 2 dimensions high-resolution numerical model. It shows how an extensive dataset can be used to build, calibrate and validate several aspects of the model in a highly dynamic and macrotidal area: tidal cycle timing, tidal amplitude, fixed-point current data, hodographs. This study presents results concerning the model's ability to reproduce residual Lagrangian currents, along with a comparison between simulation and high-frequency measurements of tracer dispersion. All physical and tracer data are available at . This tool for validation of models in macro-tidal seas is intended to be an open and evolving resource, which could provide a benchmark for dispersion-model validation.

  14. Axial-bundle phases--new modes of 2D, 3D, and helical columnar self-assembly in liquid crystalline phases of bolaamphiphiles with swallow tail lateral chains.

    Prehm, Marko; Liu, Feng; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran; Tschierske, Carsten

    2011-04-01

    Two series of polyphilic molecules composed of a rigid and linear p-terphenyl core, terminated at both ends with polar glycerol groups capable of hydrogen bonding, and two branched swallow tail-type lateral chains, composed of a fluorinated and a nonfluorinated branch or two fluorinated branches, were synthesized and investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) with respect to their self-assembly in thermotropic liquid crystalline (LC) phases. Hexagonal columnar phases were formed by all molecules, at least at the highest temperature. In these phases the columns are composed of a core of aromatic rods and an aliphatic shell. The aromatic rods form bundles which are rotationally averaged and lie parallel to the column long axis. This unique organization is proven by different optical and XRD methods. The aromatic and glycerol groups inside the rod bundles are segregated into alternating segments. Depending on temperature and molecular structure, long-range intercolumnar correlation of this periodicity could take place, leading to a 3D-ordered LC phase with rhombohedral R ̄3m symmetry. The bundles are embedded in the matrix of the lateral chains, which is divided into fluoroalkyl- and aliphatic-rich regions. In the 2D columnar phase the fluorinated regions take the form of either straight columns running along the edges of the hexagonal Voronoi cells or, for compounds with a higher degree of fluorination, fuse to a hexagonal honeycomb enclosing the aromatic cores. In the R ̄3m phase the fluorine-rich chains are preferentially found along right- and left-handed helices wound around the 3(1) screw axes between the main aromatic columns. PMID:21391683

  15. 2D solar modeling

    Ventura, P; Li, L; Sofia, S; Basu, S; Demarque, P

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the cyclic variation of the total solar irradiance is one of the most challenging targets of modern astrophysics. These studies prove to be essential also for a more climatologic issue, associated to the global warming. Any attempt to determine the solar components of this phenomenon must include the effects of the magnetic field, whose strength and shape in the solar interior are far from being completely known. Modelling the presence and the effects of a magnetic field requires a 2D approach, since the assumption of radial symmetry is too limiting for this topic. We present the structure of a 2D evolution code that was purposely designed for this scope; rotation, magnetic field and turbulence can be taken into account. Some preliminary results are presented and commented.

  16. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  17. 2d index and surface operators

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role

  18. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs...

  19. Lectures on 2D gravity and 2D string theory

    This report the following topics: loops and states in conformal field theory; brief review of the Liouville theory; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity I: path integral approach; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity II: canonical approach; states in 2D string theory; matrix model technology I: method of orthogonal polynomials; matrix model technology II: loops on the lattice; matrix model technology III: free fermions from the lattice; loops and states in matrix model quantum gravity; loops and states in the C=1 matrix model; 6V model fermi sea dynamics and collective field theory; and string scattering in two spacetime dimensions

  20. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates

  1. 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikat

    Smolander, Aku

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan erilaisia 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoita. Aluksi luodaan yleiskatsaus animoinnin historiaan ja tekniikoihin piirtämisestä mallintamiseen. Alkukatsauksen jälkeen tutkitaan 2D-hahmon suunnittelua ja liikkeitä koskevia sääntöjä. Hahmoanimaation liikkeissä huomionarvoisia asioita ovat muun muassa ajastus, liioittelu, ennakointi ja painovoima. Seuraavaksi perehdytään itse 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoihin. Tavoitteena on selvittää, tutkia ja vertailla ...

  2. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  3. Accretion Disks Phase Transitions 2-D or not 2-D?

    Abramowicz, M A; Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, Marek Artur; Bjornsson, Gunnlaugur; Igumenshchev, Igor V.

    2000-01-01

    We argue that the proper way to treat thin-thick accretion-disk transitions should take into account the 2-D nature of the problem. We illustrate the physical inconsistency of the 1-D vertically integrated approach by discussing a particular example of the convective transport of energy.

  4. 2D-Oide effect

    Blanco, O R; Bambade, P

    2015-01-01

    The Oide effect considers the synchrotron radiation in the final focusing quadrupole and it sets a lower limit on the vertical beam size at the Interaction Point, particularly relevant for high energy linear colliders. The theory of the Oide effect was derived considering only the radiation in the focusing plane of the magnet. This article addresses the theoretical calculation of the radiation effect on the beam size consider- ing both focusing and defocusing planes of the quadrupole, refered to as 2D-Oide. The CLIC 3 TeV final quadrupole (QD0) and beam parameters are used to compare the theoretical results from the Oide effect and the 2D-Oide effect with particle tracking in PLACET. The 2D-oide demonstrates to be important as it increases by 17% the contribution to the beam size. Further insight into the aberrations induced by the synchrotron radiation opens the possibility to partially correct the 2D-Oide effect with octupole magn

  5. SES2D user's manual

    SES2D is an interactive graphics code designed to generate plots of equation of state data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Group T-4 computer libraries. This manual discusses the capabilities of the code. It describes the prompts and commands and illustrates their use with a sample run

  6. Design optimization of a 2D prompt-gamma measurement system for proton dose verification

    To verify in-vivo proton dose distribution, a 2-dimensional (2D) prompt-gamma measurement system, comprised of a multi-hole collimation system, a 2D array of CsI(Tl) scintillators, and a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PS-PMT), is under development. In the present study, to determine the optimal dimension of the measurement system, we employed a series of Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNPX code. To effectively measure the high-energy prompt gammas while minimizing background gammas, we determined the collimator hole size, collimator thickness, and scintillator length to be 0.4 x 0.4 cm2, 15 cm, and 5 cm, respectively. Thereafter, the performance of the optimized measurement system was estimated for monoenergetic proton pencil beams. The peak locations of the prompt-gamma distributions for 80- and 150-MeV proton beams were clearly distinguished, and the correlation between the beam range and the peak location was confirmed by using the measurement system. For a 200-MeV proton beam, however, the peak location could not be determined due to the dominance of background gammas and the lateral dispersion of the proton beam at the end of the beam range. Based on these simulation results, a prototype 2D prompt-gamma measurement system currently is under construction and, upon completion, will be tested with therapeutic proton beams.

  7. Estimating 2-D Vector Velocities Using Multidimensional Spectrum Analysis

    Oddershede, Niels; Løvstakken, Lasse; Torp, Hans;

    2008-01-01

    . Later, it was shown that this approach could also be used for finding the lateral velocity component by also including a lateral sampling. A single velocity component would then be concentrated along a plane in the 3-D Fourier space, tilted according to the 2 velocity components. This paper presents 2...... minimum variance approach. Based on this plane, the axial and lateral velocity components are estimated. Several phantom measurements, for flow-to-depth angles of 60, 75, and 90 degrees, were performed. Multiple parallel lines were beamformed simultaneously, and 2 different receive apodization schemes......Wilson (1991) presented an ultrasonic wide-band estimator for axial blood flow velocity estimation through the use of the 2-D Fourier transform. It was shown how a single velocity component was concentrated along a line in the 2-D Fourier space, where the slope was given by the axial velocity...

  8. Head First 2D Geometry

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  9. 2D-animaatiotuotannon optimointi

    Saturo, Reetta

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on tutkia 2D-animaatiotuotannon optimoinnin mahdollisuuksia tiukan tuotantoaikataulun vaatimuksissa. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan kahta asiakasprojektia, jotka on toteutettu pienellä tuotantotiimillä. Työkaluna animaatioissa on käytetty pääosin Adoben After Effects -ohjelmistoa. Tutkielman alussa esitellään animaatiotuotannot, joiden tuloksena syntyi kaksi lyhyttä mainoselokuvaa. Sen jälkeen käydään läpi animaatioelokuvan tuotantoprosessia vaiheittain ja tark...

  10. 2D SIMPLIFIED SERVO VALVE

    2003-01-01

    A novel pilot stage valve called simplified 2D valve, which utilizes both rotary and linear motions of a single spool, is presented.The rotary motion of the spool incorporating hydraulic resistance bridge, formed by a damper groove and a crescent overlap opening, is utilized as pilot to actuate linear motion of the spool.A criterion for stability is derived from the linear analysis of the valve.Special experiments are designed to acquire the mechanical stiffness, the pilot leakage and the step response.It is shown that the sectional size of the spiral groove affects the dynamic response and the stiffness contradictorily and is also very sensitive to the pilot leakage.Therefore, it is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless, it is possible to sustain the dynamic response at a fairly high level, while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.

  11. Personalized 2D color maps

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  12. Learn Unity for 2D game development

    Thorn, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The only Unity book specifically covering 2D game development Written by Alan Thorn, experience game developer and author of seven books on game programming Hands-on examples of all major aspects of 2D game development using Unity

  13. Dispersed Indeterminacy

    Fayngold, Moses

    2013-01-01

    A state of a single particle can be represented by a quantum blob in the corresponding phase space, or a patch (granule) in its 2-D subspace. Its area is frequently stated to be no less than, implying that such a granule is an indivisible quantum of the 2-D phase space. But this is generally not true, as is evident, for instance, from representation of some states in the basis of innately discrete observables like angular momentum. Here we consider some dispersed states involving the evanescent waves different from that in the total internal reflection. Such states are represented by a set of separated granules with individual areas, but with the total indeterminacy . An idealized model has a discrete Wigner function and is described by a superposition of eigenstates with eigenvalues and forming an infinite periodic array of dots on the phase plane. The question about the total indeterminacy in such state is discussed. We argue that the eigenstates corresponding to the considered EW cannot be singled out by a...

  14. The next nearest neighbor effect on the 2D materials properties

    Ahmed, Maher

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effect of introducing next nearest neighbor (NNN) hopping to the 2D materials was studied using the graphene 2D honeycomb two sublattice as an example. It is found that introducing NNN to the 2D materials removes the symmetry around the Fermi level and shifts it, at a small value of NNN hopping. This effect increases with increasing NNN hopping. If the NNN hopping becomes competitive with nearest neighbor (NN) hopping, the dispersion relations of the 2D materials changes com...

  15. Surface modelling for 2D imagery

    Lieng, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Vector graphics provides powerful tools for drawing scalable 2D imagery. With the rise of mobile computers, of different types of displays and image resolutions, vector graphics is receiving an increasing amount of attention. However, vector graphics is not the leading framework for creating and manipulating 2D imagery. The reason for this reluctance of employing vector graphical frameworks is that it is difficult to handle complex behaviour of colour across the 2D domain. ...

  16. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    Wei Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (rediscovery of various two dimensional (2D materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  17. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  18. UNITS IN $F_2D_{2p}$

    Kaur, Kuldeep; Khan, Manju

    2012-01-01

    Let $p$ be an odd prime, $D_{2p}$ be the dihedral group of order 2p, and $F_{2}$ be the finite field with two elements. If * denotes the canonical involution of the group algebra $F_2D_{2p}$, then bicyclic units are unitary units. In this note, we investigate the structure of the group $\\mathcal{B}(F_2D_{2p})$, generated by the bicyclic units of the group algebra $F_2D_{2p}$. Further, we obtain the structure of the unit group $\\mathcal{U}(F_2D_{2p})$ and the unitary subgroup $\\mathcal{U}_*(F_...

  19. Bedform characterization through 2D spectral analysis

    Lefebvre, Alice; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Winter, Christian

    energetic peak of the 2D spectrum was found and its energy, frequency and direction were calculated. A power-law was fitted to the average of slices taken through the 2D spectrum; its slope and y-intercept were calculated. Using these results the test area was morphologically classified into 4 distinct...... characteristics using twodimensional (2D) spectral analysis is presented and tested on seabed elevation data from the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea, where large compound bedforms are found. The bathymetric data were divided into 20x20 m areas on which a 2D spectral analysis was applied. The most...

  20. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    Elena Purcaru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution – DNA2DBC – DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.

  1. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    Purcaru, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution - DNA2DBC - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.

  2. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables

  3. 2D NMR studies of biomolecules

    The work described in this thesis comprises two related subjects. The first part describes methods to derive high-resolution structures of proteins in solution using two-dimensional (2-D) NMR. The second part describes 2-D NMR studies on the interaction between proteins and DNA. (author). 261 refs.; 52 figs.; 23 tabs

  4. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...

  5. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  6. Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials

    Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin

    Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.

  7. Inertial solvation in femtosecond 2D spectra

    Hybl, John; Albrecht Ferro, Allison; Farrow, Darcie; Jonas, David

    2001-03-01

    We have used 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy to investigate polar solvation. 2D spectroscopy can reveal molecular lineshapes beneath ensemble averaged spectra and freeze molecular motions to give an undistorted picture of the microscopic dynamics of polar solvation. The transition from "inhomogeneous" to "homogeneous" 2D spectra is governed by both vibrational relaxation and solvent motion. Therefore, the time dependence of the 2D spectrum directly reflects the total response of the solvent-solute system. IR144, a cyanine dye with a dipole moment change upon electronic excitation, was used to probe inertial solvation in methanol and propylene carbonate. Since the static Stokes' shift of IR144 in each of these solvents is similar, differences in the 2D spectra result from solvation dynamics. Initial results indicate that the larger propylene carbonate responds more slowly than methanol, but appear to be inconsistent with rotational estimates of the inertial response. To disentangle intra-molecular vibrations from solvent motion, the 2D spectra of IR144 will be compared to the time-dependent 2D spectra of the structurally related nonpolar cyanine dye HDITCP.

  8. The development and testing of a 2D laboratory seismic modelling system for heterogeneous structure investigations

    Mo, Yike; Greenhalgh, Stewart A.; Robertsson, Johan O. A.; Karaman, Hakki

    2015-05-01

    Lateral velocity variations and low velocity near-surface layers can produce strong scattered and guided waves which interfere with reflections and lead to severe imaging problems in seismic exploration. In order to investigate these specific problems by laboratory seismic modelling, a simple 2D ultrasonic model facility has been recently assembled within the Wave Propagation Lab at ETH Zurich. The simulated geological structures are constructed from 2 mm thick metal and plastic sheets, cut and bonded together. The experiments entail the use of a piezoelectric source driven by a pulse amplifier at ultrasonic frequencies to generate Lamb waves in the plate, which are detected by piezoelectric receivers and recorded digitally on a National Instruments recording system, under LabVIEW software control. The 2D models employed were constructed in-house in full recognition of the similitude relations. The first heterogeneous model features a flat uniform low velocity near-surface layer and deeper dipping and flat interfaces separating different materials. The second model is comparable but also incorporates two rectangular shaped inserts, one of low velocity, the other of high velocity. The third model is identical to the second other than it has an irregular low velocity surface layer of variable thickness. Reflection as well as transmission experiments (crosshole & vertical seismic profiling) were performed on each model. The two dominant Lamb waves recorded are the fundamental symmetric mode (non-dispersive) and the fundamental antisymmetric (flexural) dispersive mode, the latter normally being absent when the source transducer is located on a model edge but dominant when it is on the flat planar surface of the plate. Experimental group and phase velocity dispersion curves were determined and plotted for both modes in a uniform aluminium plate. For the reflection seismic data, various processing techniques were applied, as far as pre-stack Kirchhoff migration. The

  9. 2D supergravity in p+1 dimensions

    Gustafsson, H.; Lindstrom, U.

    1998-01-01

    We describe new $N$-extended 2D supergravities on a $(p+1)$-dimensional (bosonic) space. The fundamental objects are moving frame densities that equip each $(p+1)$-dimensional point with a 2D ``tangent space''. The theory is presented in a $[p+1, 2]$ superspace. For the special case of $p=1$ we recover the 2D supergravities in an unusual form. The formalism has been developed with applications to the string-parton picture of $D$-branes at strong coupling in mind.

  10. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    Elena Purcaru; Cristian Toma

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution – DNA2DBC – DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features ...

  11. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date

  12. Beltrami States in 2D Electron Magnetohydrodynamics

    Shivamoggi, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Hamiltonian formulations along with the Poisson brackets for two-dimensional (2D) electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) flows are developed. These formulations are used to deduce the Beltrami states for 2D EMHD flows. In the massless electron limit, the EMHD Beltrami states reduce to the force-free states, though there is no force-free Beltrami state in the general EMHD case.

  13. 2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers

    Robert I. Woodward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2.

  14. Matrix models and 2-D gravity

    In these lectures, I shall focus on the matrix formulation of 2-d gravity. In the first one, I shall discuss the main results of the continuum formulation of 2-d gravity, starting from the first renormalization group calculations which led to the concept of the conformal anomaly, going through the Polyakov bosonic string and the Liouville action, up to the recent results on the scaling properties of conformal field theories coupled to 2-d gravity. In the second lecture, I shall discuss the discrete formulation of 2-d gravity in term of random lattices, and the mapping onto random matrix models. The occurrence of critical points in the planar limit and the scaling limit at those critical points will be described, as well as the identification of these scaling limits with continuum 2-d gravity coupled to some matter field theory. In the third lecture, the double scaling limit in the one matrix model, and its connection with continuum non perturbative 2-d gravity, will be presented. The connection with the KdV hierarchy and the general form of the string equation will be discuted. In the fourth lecture, I shall discuss the non-perturbative effects present in the non perturbative solutions, in the case of pure gravity. The Schwinger-Dyson equations for pure gravity in the double scaling limit are described and their compatibility with the solutions of the string equation for pure gravity is shown to be somewhat problematic

  15. 2-D DOA Estimation Based on 2D-MUSIC%基于2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计

    康亚芳; 王静; 张清泉; 行小帅

    2014-01-01

    This paper discussed the performance of classical two-dimensional DOA estimation with 2D-MUSIC, based on the mathematical model of planar array and 2D-MUSIC DOA estimation, Taking uniform planar array for example, comput-er simulation experiment was carried for the effect of three kinds of different parameters on 2-D DOA estimation, and the simulation results were analyzed. And also verification test about the corresponding algorithm performance under the differ-ent parameters was discussed.%利用经典的2D-MUSIC算法对二维阵列的DOA估计进行了研究,在平面阵列数学模型以及2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计模型基础上,以均匀平面阵列为例,对3种不同参数的DOA估计进行了计算机仿真,分析了仿真结果。得出了在不同参数变化趋势下DOA估计的相应变化情况。

  16. 2-D analysis of Ge implanted SiO2 surfaces by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    2-D elemental distribution of Ge in silicon oxide substrates with differing implantation doses of between 3 x 1016 cm-2 and 1.5 x 1017 cm-2 has been investigated by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Spectral emission intensity has been optimized with respect to time, crater size, ablation depth and laser energy. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) have been utilized to obtain crater depth, morphology and elemental composition of the sample material, respectively. LIBS spectral data revealed the possibility of performing 2-D distribution analysis of Ge atoms in silicon oxide substrate. EDX analysis results confirmed that LIBS is capable to detect Ge atoms at concentrations lower than 0.2% (atomic). LIBS as a fast semi-quantitative analysis method with 50 μm lateral and 800 nm depth resolution has been evaluated. Results illustrate the potential use of LIBS for rapid, on-line assessment of the quality of advanced technology materials during the manufacturing process

  17. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  18. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  19. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.

    Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program. PMID:25430247

  20. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W., E-mail: cwdomier@ucdavis.edu; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  1. Surface Tension Components Based Selection of Cosolvents for Efficient Liquid Phase Exfoliation of 2D Materials.

    Shen, Jianfeng; Wu, Jingjie; Wang, Man; Dong, Pei; Xu, Jingxuan; Li, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xiang; Yuan, Junhua; Wang, Xifan; Ye, Mingxin; Vajtai, Robert; Lou, Jun; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-05-01

    A proper design of direct liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) for 2D materials as graphene, MoS2 , WS2 , h-BN, Bi2 Se3 , MoSe2 , SnS2 , and TaS2 with common cosolvents is carried out based on considering the polar and dispersive components of surface tensions of various cosolvents and 2D materials. It has been found that the exfoliation efficiency is enhanced by matching the ratio of surface tension components of cosolvents to that of the targeted 2D materials, based on which common cosolvents composed of IPA/water, THF/water, and acetone/water can be designed for sufficient LPE process. In this context, the library of low-toxic and low-cost solvents with low boiling points for LPE is infinitely enlarged when extending to common cosolvents. Polymer-based composites reinforced with a series of different 2D materials are compared with each other. It is demonstrated that the incorporation of cosolvents-exfoliated 2D materials can substantially improve the mechanical and thermal properties of polymer matrices. Typically, with the addition of 0.5 wt% of such 2D material as MoS2 nanosheets, the tensile strength and Young's modulus increased up to 74.85% and 136.97%, respectively. The different enhancement effect of 2D materials is corresponded to the intrinsic properties and LPE capacity of 2D materials. PMID:27059403

  2. Path integral quantization of 2 D- gravity

    2 D- gravity is investigated using the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The equations of motion and the action integral are obtained as total differential equations in many variables. The integrability conditions, lead us to obtain the path integral quantization without any need to introduce any extra un-physical variables. (author)

  3. Port Adriano, 2D-Model tests

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Meinert, Palle; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU). The objective of the tests was: To identify cross section design which restrict the overtopping to acceptable levels and to record the...

  4. Baby universes in 2d quantum gravity

    Ambjorn, J.; S. Jain; G. Thorleifsson

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the fractal structure of $2d$ quantum gravity, both for pure gravity and for gravity coupled to multiple gaussian fields and for gravity coupled to Ising spins. The roughness of the surfaces is described in terms of baby universes and using numerical simulations we measure their distribution which is related to the string susceptibility exponent $\\g_{string}$.

  5. Horns Rev II, 2-D Model Tests

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), on behalf of Energy E2 A/S part of DONG Energy A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was: to investigate the combined influence of the pile...

  6. ORION, Post-processor for Finite Elements Program NIKE2D and DYNA2D

    Description of program or function: ORION is an interactive post- processor for the analysis programs NIKE2D (NESC 9923), DYNA2D (NESC 9910), TOPAZ, TOPAZ2D (NESC9801), GEM2D (NESC9679), and TACO2D. ORION reads the binary plot data files generated by the two- dimensional finite element programs used at LLNL. Contours and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has the capability to plot color fringes, contour lines, vector plots, principal stress lines, deformed meshes and material outlines, time histories, reaction forces along constraint boundaries, interface pressures along slide lines, and user-supplied labels

  7. A New Method for Detecting Goaf Area of Coal Mine :2D Microtremor Profiling Technique

    Xu, P.; Ling, S.; Guo, H.; Shi, W.; Li, S.; Tian, B.

    2012-12-01

    A goaf area is referred to as a cavity where coal has been removed or mined out. These cavities will change the original geostress equilibrium of stratigraphic system and cause local geostress focusing or concentration. Consequently, the surrounding rock of a goaf may be deformed, fractured, displaced and caved resulting from the combined effect of gravity and geostress. In the cases of little or no effective mining control, widespread cracks, fractures and even subsidence of the rock mass above the goaf will not only lead to groundwater depletion, farmland destruction and deterioration of ecological environment, but also present a serious threat to the mining safety, engineering construction, and even people's lives and property. So, it is important to locate the boundary of the goaf and to evaluate its stability in order to provide the basis for comprehensive control in the latter period of mining. This article attempts to explore a new geophysical method - 2D microtremor profiling technique for goaf detection and mapping. 2D microtremor profiling technique is based on the microtremor array theory (Aki, 1957; Ling, 1994; Okada, 2003) utilizing spatial autocorrelation analysis to obtain Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves for apparent S-wave velocity (Vx) calculation (Ling & Miwa, 2006;Xu et al.,2012). A laterally continuous S-wave velocity section can then be obtained through data interpolation. The final result will be used for interpreting lateral changes in lithology and geological structures. Let's take a case study in Henan Province of China as an example. The coal seams in the survey area were about 150 ~ 250m deep. A triple-circular array was adopted for acquiring microtremor data, with the observation radius in 20, 40 and 80m, respectively, and a sampling the interval of 50m. We observed the following characteristics of the goaf area from the microtremor Vx section: (1) obvious low pseudo velocity anomaly corresponding to limestone layer below the goaf; (2

  8. Force-chain identification in quasi-2D granular systems

    Zhang, Ling; Wu, Jun-Qi; Zhang, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the properties of force-chains is essential in understanding the physical and mechanical properties of granular materials. The key is to identify force-chains. In this study, we describe a systematic method to identify individual force-chains in 2D granular systems under different external load-pure shear or isotropic compression, where bi-disperse photo-elastic particles were used in order to measure vector contact forces between particles. Using this method, we studied the statistics of force-chain size distribution in these two systems: in pure shear, the distribution shows a fat tail that deviates from an exponential distribution function, whereas in isotropic compression, the distribution decays exponentially. In addition, we also investigated the dependence of various force-chain statistics on two main parameters defined in the force-chain identification algorithm.

  9. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  10. Lagrangian statistics in laboratory 2D turbulence

    Xia, Hua; Francois, Nicolas; Punzmann, Horst; Shats, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Turbulent mixing in liquids and gases is ubiquitous in nature and industrial flows. Understanding statistical properties of Lagrangian trajectories in turbulence is crucial for a range of problems such as spreading of plankton in the ocean, transport of pollutants, etc. Oceanic data on trajectories of the free-drifting instruments, indicate that the trajectory statistics can often be described by a Lagrangian integral scale. Turbulence however is a state of a flow dominated by a hierarchy of scales, and it is not clear which of these scales mostly affect particle dispersion. Moreover, coherent structures often coexist with turbulence in laboratory experiments [1]. The effect of coherent structures on particle dispersion in turbulent flows is not well understood. Recent progress in scientific imaging and computational power made it possible to tackle this problem experimentally. In this talk, we report the analysis of the higher order Lagrangian statistics in laboratory two-dimensional turbulence. Our results show that fluid particle dispersion is diffusive and it is determined by a single measurable Lagrangian scale related to the forcing scale [2]. Higher order moments of the particle dispersion show strong self-similarity in fully developed turbulence [3]. Here we introduce a new dispersion law that describes single particle dispersion during the turbulence development [4]. These results offer a new way of predicting dispersion in turbulent flows in which one of the low energy scales are persistent. It may help better understanding of drifter Lagrangian statistics in the regions of the ocean where small scale coherent eddies are present [5]. Reference: 1. H. Xia, H. Punzmann, G. Falkovich and M. Shats, Physical Review Letters, 101, 194504 (2008) 2. H. Xia, N. Francois, H. Punzmann, and M. Shats, Nature Communications, 4, 2013 (2013) 3. R. Ferrari, A.J. Manfroi , W.R. Young, Physica D 154 111 (2001) 4. H. Xia, N. Francois, H. Punzmann and M. Shats, submitted (2014

  11. Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics

    Zhou, Weidong; Zhao, Deyin; Shuai, Yi-Chen; Yang, Hongjun; Chuwongin, Santhad; Chadha, Arvinder; Seo, Jung-Hun; Wang, Ken X.; Liu, Victor; Ma, Zhenqiang; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to a conventional symmetric Lorentzian resonance, Fano resonance is predominantly used to describe asymmetric-shaped resonances, which arise from the constructive and destructive interference of discrete resonance states with broadband continuum states. This phenomenon and the underlying mechanisms, being common and ubiquitous in many realms of physical sciences, can be found in a wide variety of nanophotonic structures and quantum systems, such as quantum dots, photonic crystals, plasmonics, and metamaterials. The asymmetric and steep dispersion of the Fano resonance profile promises applications for a wide range of photonic devices, such as optical filters, switches, sensors, broadband reflectors, lasers, detectors, slow-light and non-linear devices, etc. With advances in nanotechnology, impressive progress has been made in the emerging field of nanophotonic structures. One of the most attractive nanophotonic structures for integrated photonics is the two-dimensional photonic crystal slab (2D PCS), which can be integrated into a wide range of photonic devices. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an in depth review of the progress made in the general area of Fano resonance photonics, focusing on the photonic devices based on 2D PCS structures. General discussions are provided on the origins and characteristics of Fano resonances in 2D PCSs. A nanomembrane transfer printing fabrication technique is also reviewed, which is critical for the heterogeneous integrated Fano resonance photonics. The majority of the remaining sections review progress made on various photonic devices and structures, such as high quality factor filters, membrane reflectors, membrane lasers, detectors and sensors, as well as structures and phenomena related to Fano resonance slow light effect, nonlinearity, and optical forces in coupled PCSs. It is expected that further advances in the field will lead to more significant advances towards 3D integrated photonics, flat

  12. DEPTH-AVERAGED 2-D CALCULATION OF FLOW AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN CURVED CHANNELS

    Weiming WU; Sam S. Y. WANG

    2004-01-01

    The helical flow significantly affects the flow, sediment transport and morphological evolution in curved channels. A semi-empirical formula is proposed to determine the cross-stream distribution of the helical flow intensity in the developed regions of a channel bend. It is then used to evaluate the dispersion terms in the depth-averaged 2-D momentum equations and suspended-load transport equation as well as the bed-load transport angle, thus enhancing the depth-averaged 2-D model to account for the effect of helical flow. The tests in several experimental and field cases show that the enhanced depth-averaged 2-D model can much more reasonably predict the shifting of main flow from inner bank to outer bank, the erosion along outer bank and deposition along inner bank than the depth-averaged 2-D model without considering this effect.

  13. 2-D geometrical analysis of deformation

    Engineering structures such as dams, bridges, high rise buildings, etc. are subject to deformation. Deformation survey is therefore necessary to determine the magnitude and direction of such movements for the purpose of safety assessment. In this study, a strategy for two-step analyses for deformation survey rising the two dimensional (2-D) geodetic method has been developed, consisting of independent least squares estimation (LSE) of each epoch followed by deformation detection. Important aspects on LSE include global and local testing. In deformation detection, the following aspects were implemented; datum definition by the user. determination of stable datum points, geometrical analysis of deformation and graphic presentation. The developed strategy has been implemented in three computer programs, COMPUT, DEFORM and STRANS. Tests carried out with simulated and known data show that the developed strategy and programs are applicable for 2-D geometrical detection of deformation. (Author)

  14. Branes in the 2D black hole

    Ribault, Sylvain E-mail: ribault@mth.kcl.ac.uk; Schomerus, Volker

    2004-02-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of branes in the Euclidean 2D black hole (cigar). In particular, exact boundary states and annulus amplitudes are provided for D0-branes which are localized at the tip of the cigar as well as for two families of extended D1 and D2-branes. Our results are based on closely related studies for the Euclidean AdS3 model and, as predicted by the conjectured duality between the 2D black hole and the sine-Liouville model, they share many features with branes in Liouville theory. New features arise here due to the presence of closed string modes which are localized near the tip of the cigar. The paper concludes with some remarks on possible applications to exact tachyon condensation and matrix models. (author)

  15. Branes in the 2D black hole

    Ribault, S; Ribault, Sylvain; Schomerus, Volker

    2004-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of branes in the Euclidean 2D black hole (cigar). In particular, exact boundary states and annulus amplitudes are provided for D0-branes which are localized at the tip of the cigar as well as for two families of extended D1 and D2-branes. Our results are based on closely related studies for the Euclidean AdS3 model and, as predicted by the conjectured duality between the 2D black hole and the sine-Liouville model, they share many features with branes in Liouville theory. New features arise here due to the presence of closed string modes which are localized near the tip of the cigar. The paper concludes with some remarks on possible applications to exact tachyon condensation and matrix models.

  16. Branes in the 2D black hole

    We present a comprehensive analysis of branes in the Euclidean 2D black hole (cigar). In particular, exact boundary states and annulus amplitudes are provided for D0-branes which are localized at the tip of the cigar as well as for two families of extended D1 and D2-branes. Our results are based on closely related studies for the Euclidean AdS3 model and, as predicted by the conjectured duality between the 2D black hole and the sine-Liouville model, they share many features with branes in Liouville theory. New features arise here due to the presence of closed string modes which are localized near the tip of the cigar. The paper concludes with some remarks on possible applications to exact tachyon condensation and matrix models. (author)

  17. The band structure of carbonmonoxide on 2-D Au islands on graphene

    Katsiev, Khabiboulakh

    2014-06-01

    The dispersion of the occupied molecular orbitals of carbon monoxide adsorbed on Au 2D islands, vapor-deposited on graphene/Ru(0 0 0 1), is seen to be wave vector dependent, as revealed by angle-resolved photoemission. The band dispersion is similar to CO monolayers adsorbed on many single crystal metal surfaces. Thus not only are the adsorbed gold islands on graphene flat and crystalline, as evident in the dispersion of the Au d-states, but the CO molecular adlayer is both molecular and ordered as well. The experimental angle-resolved photoemission combined with model calculations of the occupied CO band structure, suggest that, in spite of being a very weakly bound adsorbate, the CO adlayer on Au 2D islands on graphene is strongly hybridized to the Au layer. . © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  19. 2D materials: Graphene and others

    Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.

  20. 2D-Tasks for Cognitive Rehabilitation

    Caballero Hernandez, Ruth; Martinez Moreno, Jose Maria; García Molina, A.; Ferrer Celma, S.; Solana Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Carrion, R.; Fernandez Casado, E.; Pérez Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Gomez Pulido, A.; Anglès Tafalla, C.; Cáceres Taladriz, César; Ferre Vergada, M.; Roig Rovira, Teresa; Garcia Lopez, P.; Tormos Muñoz, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological Rehabilitation is a complex clinic process which tries to restore or compensate cognitive and behavioral disorders in people suffering from a central nervous system injury. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Biomedical Engineering play an essential role in this field, allowing improvement and expansion of present rehabilitation programs. This paper presents a set of cognitive rehabilitation 2D-Tasks for patients with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). These t...

  1. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials

    Lien, Derhsien

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  2. TRANSITION FROM 2D TO 3D WITH GEOGEBRA

    MARIA MIHAILOVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the definition of projection plane, its importance for the geometry constructions used in civil engineering and comparative analysis of three opportunities for creating a three dimensional basis, used in drawing such a plane. First method consists of transforming affine and orthonormal coordinates and its application in GeoGebra is presented. Second method, using combination of spherical and polar coordinates in space, is introduced. The third suggested method is an application of descriptive geometry for transforming 2D to 3D and a new method of forming a plane of projection, which will be used later in the reviewed example below. The example shows how GeoGebra software can be used in technical drawing used in civil engineering.

  3. Improving Morphology Operation for 2D Hole Filling Algorithm

    Mokhtar M. Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available object detection may result with some noises, the correct detecting of such object plays a major role for later recognition steps, the interior noise of the object must be removed, the morphological operations are used successfully for this purpose, these morphological operations are applied for 2D holes filling using dilation operation, in this paper we have enhanced this algorithm to get better and faster version that will reduce the processing time dramatically by using a dynamic marker, we have applied two kind of markers with different structuring elements but same size which is 3x3, the processing time is reduced and our algorithm reduced the processing time of the original algorithm down to one third, the results also enhanced since there are some cases missed by the extant version of morphological operations holes filling algorithm

  4. Improving Morphology Operation for 2D Hole Filling Algorithm

    Mokhtar M. Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Object detection may result with some noises, the correct detecting of such object plays a majorrole for later recognition steps, the interior noise of the object must be removed, themorphological operations are used successfully for this purpose, these morphological operationsare applied for 2D holes filling using dilation operation, in this paper we have enhanced thisalgorithm to get better and faster version that will reduce the processing time dramatically byusing a dynamic marker, we have applied two kind of markers with different structuring elementsbut same size which is 3x3 and those markers are used according to the structure of the subwindowof the object, the processing time is reduced, and our algorithm reduces this timeapproximately to one third, the results also enhanced since there are some cases missed by theextant version of morphological operations holes filling algorithm.

  5. Ab initio modeling of 2D layered organohalide lead perovskites

    Fraccarollo, Alberto; Cantatore, Valentina; Boschetto, Gabriele; Marchese, Leonardo; Cossi, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    A number of 2D layered perovskites A2PbI4 and BPbI4, with A and B mono- and divalent ammonium and imidazolium cations, have been modeled with different theoretical methods. The periodic structures have been optimized (both in monoclinic and in triclinic systems, corresponding to eclipsed and staggered arrangements of the inorganic layers) at the DFT level, with hybrid functionals, Gaussian-type orbitals and dispersion energy corrections. With the same methods, the various contributions to the solid stabilization energy have been discussed, separating electrostatic and dispersion energies, organic-organic intralayer interactions and H-bonding effects, when applicable. Then the electronic band gaps have been computed with plane waves, at the DFT level with scalar and full relativistic potentials, and including the correlation energy through the GW approximation. Spin orbit coupling and GW effects have been combined in an additive scheme, validated by comparing the computed gap with well known experimental and theoretical results for a model system. Finally, various contributions to the computed band gaps have been discussed on some of the studied systems, by varying some geometrical parameters and by substituting one cation in another's place.

  6. The effects of aging on haptic 2D shape recognition.

    Overvliet, Krista E; Wagemans, J; Krampe, Ralf T

    2013-12-01

    We use the image-mediation model (Klatzky & Lederman, 1987) as a framework to investigate potential sources of adult age differences in the haptic recognition of two-dimensional (2D) shapes. This model states that the low-resolution, temporally sequential, haptic input is translated into a visual image, which is then reperceived through the visual processors, before it is matched against a long-term memory representation and named. In three experiments we tested groups of 12 older (mean age 73.11) and three groups of 12 young adults (mean age 22.80) each. In Experiment 1 we confirm age-related differences in haptic 2D shape recognition, and we show the typical age × complexity interaction. In Experiment 2 we show that if we facilitate the visual translation process, age differences become smaller, but only with simple shapes and not with the more complex everyday objects. In Experiment 3 we target the last step in the model (matching and naming) for complex stimuli. We found that age differences in exploration time were considerably reduced when this component process was facilitated by providing a category name. We conclude that the image-mediation model can explain adult-age differences in haptic recognition, particularly if the role of working memory in forming the transient visual image is considered. Our findings suggest that sensorimotor skills thought to rely on peripheral processes for the most part are critically constrained by age-related changes in central processing capacity in later adulthood. PMID:23978010

  7. Some Aspects of Turbulent Relative Particle Dispersion

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, several aspects of the turbulent relative particle dispersion are considered, many of which are motivated by laboratory experiment and numerical simulation results. These are, * spatial intermittency effects, (a) reduction of relative particle dispersion in 3D; (b) prevalence of power-law scaling of relative particle dispersion in 2D enstrophy cascade; * quasi-geostrophic aspects exhibiting an enhanced relative particle dispersion in the baroclinic regime and a negative eddy-viscosity development for some insight into this aspect; * reduction of relative particle dispersion and prevalence of the ballistic regime due to compressibility effects.

  8. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    Mutlu, Z; Wu, RJ; Wickramaratne, D.; Shahrezaei, S; Liu, C; Temiz, S; Patalano, A; M Ozkan; Lake, RK; Mkhoyan, KA; Ozkan, CS

    2016-01-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2...

  9. 2D vector-cyclic deformable templates

    Schultz, Nette; Conradsen, Knut

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the theory of deformable templates is a vector cycle in 2D is described. The deformable template model originated in (Grenander, 1983) and was further investigated in (Grenander et al., 1991). A template vector distribution is induced by parameter distribution from transformation...... matrices applied to the vector cycle. An approximation in the parameter distribution is introduced. The main advantage by using the deformable template model is the ability to simulate a wide range of objects trained by e.g. their biological variations, and thereby improve restoration, segmentation and...

  10. Limit theorems for 2D invasion percolation

    Damron, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We prove limit theorems and variance estimates for quantities related to ponds and outlets for 2D invasion percolation. We first exhibit several properties of a sequence (O(n)) of outlet variables, the n-th of which gives the number of outlets in the box centered at the origin of side length 2^n. The most important of these properties describe the sequence's renewal structure and exponentially fast mixing behavior. We use these to prove a central limit theorem and strong law of large numbers for (O(n)). We then show consequences of these limit theorems for the pond radii and outlet weights.

  11. Instant HTMl5 2D platformer

    Temple, Aidan

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. The step-by-step approach taken by this book will show you how to develop a 2D HTML5 platformer-based game that you will be able to publish to multiple devices.This book is great for anyone who has an interest in HTML5 games development, and who already has a basic to intermediate grasp on both the HTML markup and JavaScript programming languages. Therefore, due to this requirement, the book will not discuss the inner workings of either of these languages but will instead attempt to

  12. Interparticle attraction in 2D complex plasmas

    Kompaneets, Roman; Ivlev, Alexei V

    2015-01-01

    Complex (dusty) plasmas allow experimental studies of various physical processes occurring in classical liquids and solids by directly observing individual microparticles. A major problem is that the interaction between microparticles is generally not molecular-like. In this Letter, we propose how to achieve a molecular-like interaction potential in laboratory 2D complex plasmas. We argue that this principal aim can be achieved by using relatively small microparticles and properly adjusting discharge parameters. If experimentally confirmed, this will make it possible to employ complex plasmas as a model system with an interaction potential resembling that of conventional liquids.

  13. Interparticle Attraction in 2D Complex Plasmas

    Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.

    2016-03-01

    Complex (dusty) plasmas allow experimental studies of various physical processes occurring in classical liquids and solids by directly observing individual microparticles. A major problem is that the interaction between microparticles is generally not molecularlike. In this Letter, we propose how to achieve a molecularlike interaction potential in laboratory 2D complex plasmas. We argue that this principal aim can be achieved by using relatively small microparticles and properly adjusting discharge parameters. If experimentally confirmed, this will make it possible to employ complex plasmas as a model system with an interaction potential resembling that of conventional liquids.

  14. 1D and 2D site amplification effects at Tarcento (Friuli, NE Italy), 30 years later

    Cauzzi, Carlo; Faccioli, Ezio; Costa, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    A temporary accelerometer network has been installed in Tarcento (Friuli, NE Italy), a small town heavily hit by the 1976-1977 Friuli earthquake sequence, as a part of an ongoing research project aimed at ground motion simulation and generation of shakemaps in the near-field of an earthquake. The network operated from October 2008 to April 2010 and consisted of three K2 accelerographs with internal Episensor, distributed over a linear array of about 1.5 km length. Tarcento town had been chosen, at the end of the 1970s, as the ideal site for a pilot microzonation study, the first of this kind in Italy, in which a substantial number of field (and laboratory) tests were carried out in order to assess the mechanical properties of local alluvium deposits and their complex (3D) geometrical configuration. The data from the temporary network, illustrated herein, allow for proper verification and review of some of the quantitative predictions formulated in the 1980 study. As argued in the discussion section, we also believe that the data are apt to provide valuable information of more general interest on the complex seismic response of alluvium-filled valleys, and we show therein how the observations can be interpreted in the light of presently available parametric simulation studies and simplified criteria for handling basin amplification effects.

  15. Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.

    Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel

    2015-08-19

    The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072

  16. Comments on Thermalization in 2D CFT

    de Boer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D CFT. In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a BTZ black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering $c < 1$ theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect o...

  17. Photocurrent spectroscopy of 2D materials

    Cobden, David

    Confocal photocurrent measurements provide a powerful means of studying many aspects of the optoelectronic and electrical properties of a 2D device or material. At a diffraction-limited point they can provide a detailed absorption spectrum, and they can probe local symmetry, ultrafast relaxation rates and processes, electron-electron interaction strengths, and transport coefficients. We illustrate this with several examples, once being the photo-Nernst effect. In gapless 2D materials, such as graphene, in a perpendicular magnetic field a photocurrent antisymmetric in the field is generated near to the free edges, with opposite sign at opposite edges. Its origin is the transverse thermoelectric current associated with the laser-induced electron temperature gradient. This effect provides an unambiguous demonstration of the Shockley-Ramo nature of long-range photocurrent generation in gapless materials. It also provides a means of investigating quasiparticle properties. For example, in the case of graphene on hBN, it can be used to probe the Lifshitz transition that occurs due to the minibands formed by the Moire superlattice. We also observe and discuss photocurrent generated in other semimetallic (WTe2) and semiconducting (WSe2) monolayers. Work supported by DoE BES and NSF EFRI grants.

  18. 2D Simulations of the Line-Driven Instability in Hot-Star Winds: II. Approximations for the 2D Radiation Force

    Dessart, L; Dessart, Luc

    2005-01-01

    We present initial attempts to include the multi-dimensional nature of radiation transport in hydrodynamical simulations of the small-scale structure that arises from the line-driven instability in hot-star winds. Compared to previous 1D or 2D models that assume a purely radial radiation force, we seek additionally to treat the lateral momentum and transport of diffuse line-radiation, initially here within a 2D context. A key incentive is to study the damping effect of the associated diffuse line-drag on the dynamical properties of the flow, focusing particularly on whether this might prevent lateral break-up of shell structures at scales near the lateral Sobolev angle of ca. $1^{\\rm o}$. We first explore nonlinear simulations that cast the lateral diffuse force in the simple, local form of a parallel viscosity. Second, to account for the lateral mixing of radiation associated with the radial driving, we next explore models in which the radial force is azimuthally smoothed over a chosen scale. Third, to accou...

  19. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is

  20. Numerical Modeling of Laterally Loaded Piles

    S. T. Kok; B. B.k. Huat

    2008-01-01

    Design of laterally loaded piles due to soil movement relies on a number of theoretical and numerical approaches. However, the magnitude of soil movement is difficult to estimate with reasonable confidence and accuracy. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) offers an excellent alternative to study pile-soil interaction and piles response under lateral loading due to soil movement. This research presents published analytical results and case history modeled in a 2D finite element environment in the ca...

  1. Area preserving diffeomorphisms and 2-d gravity

    La, H S

    1995-01-01

    Area preserving diffeomorphisms of a 2-d compact Riemannian manifold with or without boundary are studied. We find two classes of decompositions of a Riemannian metric, namely, h- and g-decomposition, that help to formulate a gravitational theory which is area preserving diffeomorphism (SDiffM-) invariant but not necessarily diffeomorphism invariant. The general covariance of equations of motion of such a theory can be achieved by incorporating proper Weyl rescaling. The h-decomposition makes the conformal factor of a metric SDiffM-invariant and the rest of the metric invariant under conformal diffeomorphisms, whilst the g-decomposition makes the conformal factor a SDiffM scalar and the rest a SDiffM tensor. Using these, we reformulate Liouville gravity in SDiffM invariant way. In this context we also further clarify the dual formulation of Liouville gravity introduced by the author before, in which the affine spin connection is dual to the Liouville field.

  2. Locality constraints and 2D quasicrystals

    The plausible assumption that long-range interactions between atoms are negligible in a quasicrystal leaks to the study of tilings that obey constraints on the local configurations of tiles. The theory of such constraints (called matching rules) for 2D quasicrystal tilings is reviewed here. Different types of matching rules are defined and examples of tilings obeying them are given where known. The role of tile decoration is discussed and is shown to be significant in at least two cases (octagonal and dodecagonal duals of periodic 4-grids and 6-grids). A new result is introduced: a constructive procedure is described for generating weak matching rules for tilings with N-fold symmetry, for any N that is either a prime number or twice a prime number. The physics associated with weak matching rules, results on local growth rules, and the case of icosahedral symmetry are all briefly discussed. (author). 29 refs, 4 figs

  3. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  4. Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States

    Kolkovska, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem \\varepsilon propto k_ bot 1 - ξ with the function f being either f(u) =a|u|p-1u or f(u) =a|u|pu+b|u|2pu. The numerical evaluation of ground states is based on the shooting method applied to an equivalent dynamical system. A combination of fourth order Runge-Kutta method and Hermite extrapolation formula is applied to solving the resulting initial value problem. The efficiency of this procedure is demonstrated in the 1D case, where the maximal difference between the exact and numerical solution is ≈ 10-11 for a discretization step 0:00025. As a major application, we evaluate numerically the critical energy constant. This constant is defined as a functional of the ground state and is used in the study of the 2D Boussinesq equations.

  5. 2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992). To...... extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92......-0042. Furthermore, Task IA will give the design diagram for Tetrapod breakwaters without a superstructure. The more complete research results on Dolosse can certainly give some insight into the behaviour of Tetrapods armour layer of the breakwaters with superstructure. The main part of the experiment was on the...

  6. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  7. A Fundamental Approach to the Simulation of Flow and Dispersion in Fractured Media

    Miller, J.D.

    1983-12-15

    Fracture systems may be generalized in terms of number and orientation of sets of parallel fractures and the distribution of length, width, thickness and separation. Borehole measurements may be used to particularize these parameters for a specific site. Global flow and dispersion in an aquifer occur in the interconnected fractures and may be related to specific fracture elements. A fluid dynamics code named SALE has been used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for laminar flow in these elemental geometries. A marker particle calculation has been added to characterize longitudinal dispersion due to the velocity profile across the fracture and lateral dispersion due to flow disturbances at junctions. Local flow and dispersion in the matrix occur in the finer fracture structure and are evaluated using porous media approaches. These results or models are integrated in a 2D isothermal reservoir simulator named FRACSL. Discrete fractures are superimposed on the edges or diagnoals of rectangular grid elements. Water may flow from node to node through the matrix or through the fracture. The heads are found by iterating for the distribution which conserves the appropriate local mass. Marker particles are used to monitor the tracer dispersion due to motion in the fractures, in the matrix and between the two. Results are given showing flow and dispersion in an orthogonal junction and in a sample fractured reservoir.

  8. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data interpretation

    Paras R Pujari; Rambhatla G Sastry

    2003-03-01

    Using analytic signal method, interpretation of pole-pole secondary electric potentials due to 2D conductive/resistive prisms is presented. The estimated parameters are the location, lateral extent or width and depth to top surface of the prism. Forward modelling is attempted by 2D-Finite Difference method. The proposed stabilised analytic signal algorithm (RES2AS) uses Tikhonov's regularization scheme and FFT routines. The algorithm is tested on three theoretical examples and field data from the campus of Roorkee University. The stability of RES2AS is also tested on synthetic error prone secondary pole-pole potential data.

  9. Cluster Model for Wave-Like Motions of a 2D Vertically Vibrated Granular System

    The fact that trapezoid clusters exist in 2D vertically vibrated granular systems leads us to construct a cluster model, in which wave-like motions are explained as the result of cluster-plate and cluster-cluster collisions. By analyzing the collision of one cluster with the plate in detail, we deduce a basic equation from velocity relationship, which could be separated into two correlative equations: one relates wave-like motion with exciting acceleration, and we call it the excitation condition; the other relates wavelength with exciting frequency, viz., the dispersion relation. The theoretical results are in agreement with the experimental ones, which supports the idea of the cluster model. Moreover, from the cluster model, we also predict a possibility of abnormal dispersion relation of a 2D granular system. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  10. Local 2D-2D tunneling in high mobility electron systems

    Pelliccione, Matthew; Sciambi, Adam; Bartel, John; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Lilly, Michael; Bank, Seth; Gossard, Arthur

    2012-02-01

    Many scanning probe techniques have been utilized in recent years to measure local properties of high mobility two-dimensional (2D) electron systems in GaAs. However, most techniques lack the ability to tunnel into the buried 2D system and measure local spectroscopic information. We report scanning gate measurements on a bilayer GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure that allows for a local modulation of tunneling between two 2D electron layers. We call this technique Virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (VSTM) [1,2] as the influence of the scanning gate is analogous to an STM tip, except at a GaAs/AlGaAs interface instead of a surface. We will discuss the spectroscopic capabilities of the technique, and show preliminary results of measurements on a high mobility 2D electron system.[1] A. Sciambi, M. Pelliccione et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 132103 (2010).[2] A. Sciambi, M. Pelliccione et al., Phys. Rev. B 84, 085301 (2011).

  11. Seepage Analysis of Upper Gotvand Dam Concerning Gypsum Karstification (2D and 3D Approaches)

    Sadrekarimi, Jamshid; Kiyani, Majid; Fakhri, Behnam;

    2011-01-01

    model locates the phreatic surface somewhat higher than the 2D model. This means that the 2D model estimates lower pore water pressure pattern in comparison with the 3D model. These may be attributed to the fact that with 2D model the lateral components of vectors of seepage velocity are ignored. In the......Upper Gotvand Dam is constructed on the Karun River at the south west of Iran. In this paper, 2D and 3D models of the dam together with the foundation and abutments were established, and several seepage analyses were carried out. Then, the gypsum veins that are scattered throughout the foundation...... ground were included in the models, and the seepage pattern, considering the dissolution law of gypsum, was analyzed. It was disclosed that the discharge fluxes obtained from 2D and 3D analyses are not similar, and the discharge flux in 3D model is about four times that of the 2D model. Also, the 3D...

  12. Imagens em 2D e 3D geradas pela TC Cone-Beam e radiografias convencionais: qual a mais confiável? 2D / 3D Cone-Beam CT images or conventional radiography: which is more reliable?

    Carolina Perez Couceiro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a confiabilidade de identificação dos pontos visualizados sobre radiografias cefalométricas convencionais e sobre imagens geradas pela Tomografia Computadorizada Cone-Beam em 2D e 3D. MÉTODOS: o material constou de imagens obtidas através do tomógrafo computadorizado Cone-Beam, em norma lateral, em 2D e 3D, impressas em papel fotográfico; e radiografias cefalométricas laterais, realizadas na mesma clínica radiológica e no mesmo dia, de dois pacientes pertencentes aos arquivos do Curso de Especialização em Ortodontia da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF. Dez alunos do Curso de Especialização em Ortodontia da UFF identificaram pontos de referência sobre papel de acetato transparente e foram feitas medições das seguintes variáveis cefalométricas: ANB, FMIA, IMPA, FMA, ângulo interincisal, 1-NA (mm e ¯1-NB (mm. Em seguida, foram calculadas médias aritméticas, desvios-padrão e coeficientes de variância de cada variável para os dois pacientes. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: os valores das medições realizadas a partir de imagens em 3D apresentaram menor dispersão, sugerindo que essas imagens são mais confiáveis quanto à identificação de alguns pontos cefalométricos. Entretanto, como as imagens em 3D impressas utilizadas no presente estudo não permitiram a visualização de pontos intracranianos, torna-se necessário que softwares específicos sejam elaborados para que esse tipo de exame possa se tornar rotineiro na clínica ortodôntica.OBJECTIVE: To compare the reliability of two different methods used for viewing and identifying cephalometric landmarks, i.e., (a using conventional cephalometric radiographs, and (b using 2D and 3D images generated by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography. METHODS: The material consisted of lateral view 2D and 3D images obtained by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography printed on photo paper, and lateral cephalometric radiographs, taken in the same

  13. Dispersion Forces

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  14. Face recognition method based on 2D-PCA and 2D-LDA%基于2D-PCA和2D-LDA的人脸识别方法

    温福喜; 刘宏伟

    2007-01-01

    提出了基于2D-PCA、2D-LDA两种特征采用融合分类器的人脸识别方法.首先提取人脸图像的2D-PCA和2D-LDA特征,对不同特征在决策层对分类器进行融合.在ORL人脸库上的试验结果表明,分类器决策层融合方法在识别性能上优于2D-PCA和2D-LDA,更具有鲁棒性.

  15. Self-assembled 2D WSe2 thin films for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Prévot, Mathieu S.; Guijarro, Néstor; Sivula, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    WSe2—a layered semiconductor that can be exfoliated into atomically thin two-dimensional sheets—offers promising characteristics for application in solar energy conversion. However, the lack of controllable, cost-effective methods to scalably fabricate homogeneous thin films currently limits practical application. Here we present a technique to prepare controlled thin films of 2D WSe2 from dispersions of solvent-exfoliated few-layer flakes. Flake self-assembly at a liquid/liquid interface (fo...

  16. 2D PIC simulations of collisional transport of relativistic electrons in dense plasma

    Héron A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report results of a series of simulations about electron transport in plasma close to solid density performed with a collisional 2D3V PIC code and compare the results to published ones obtained using hybrid codes. We show that the dispersion of energetic particles remains similar to the one observed in the collisionless case and discuss and compare our results in the light of hybrid codes.

  17. Ion Transport in 2-D Graphene Nanochannels

    Xie, Quan; Foo, Elbert; Duan, Chuanhua

    2015-11-01

    Graphene membranes have recently attracted wide attention due to its great potential in water desalination and selective molecular sieving. Further developments of these membranes, including enhancing their mass transport rate and/or molecular selectivity, rely on the understanding of fundamental transport mechanisms through graphene membranes, which has not been studied experimentally before due to fabrication and measurement difficulties. Herein we report the fabrication of the basic constituent of graphene membranes, i.e. 2-D single graphene nanochannels (GNCs) and the study of ion transport in these channels. A modified bonding technique was developed to form GNCs with well-defined geometry and uniform channel height. Ion transport in such GNCs was studied using DC conductance measurement. Our preliminary results showed that the ion transport in GNCs is still governed by surface charge at low concentrations (10-6M to 10-4M). However, GNCs exhibits much higher ionic conductances than silica nanochannels with the same geometries in the surface-charge-governed regime. This conductance enhancement can be attributed to the pre-accumulation of charges on graphene surfaces. The work is supported by the Faculty Startup Fund (Boston University, USA).

  18. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950

  19. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water.

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  20. 2D DIGITAL SIMPLIFIED FLOW VALVE

    Ruan Jian; Li Sheng; Pei Xiang; Burton R; Ukrainetz P; Bitner D

    2004-01-01

    The 2D digital simplified flow valve is composed of a pilot-operated valve designed with both rotary and linear motions of a single spool,and a stepper motor under continual control.How the structural parameters affect the static and dynamic characteristics of the valve is first clarified and a criterion for stability is presented.Experiments are designed to test the performance of the valve.It is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless,it is possible to maintain the dynamic response at a fairly high level,while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.One of the features of the digital valve is stage control.In stage control the nonlinearities,such as electromagnetic saturation and hysteresis,are greatly reduced.To a large extent the dynamic response of the valve is decided by the executing cycle of the control algorithm.

  1. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  2. 2D manifold-independent spinfoam theory

    A number of background-independent quantization procedures have recently been employed in 4D nonperturbative quantum gravity. We investigate and illustrate these techniques and their relation in the context of a simple 2D topological theory. We discuss canonical quantization, loop or spin network states, path integral quantization over a discretization of the manifold, spin foam formulation and the fully background-independent definition of the theory using an auxiliary field theory on a group manifold. While several of these techniques have already been applied to this theory by Witten, the last one is novel: it allows us to give a precise meaning to the sum over topologies, and to compute background-independent and, in fact, 'manifold-independent' transition amplitudes. These transition amplitudes play the role of Wightman functions of the theory. They are physical observable quantities, and the canonical structure of the theory can be reconstructed from them via a C* algebraic GNS construction. We expect an analogous structure to be relevant in 4D quantum gravity

  3. Resolution Independent 2D Cartoon Video Conversion

    MSF. Fayaza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel system for vectorizing 2D raster cartoon. The output videos are the resolution independent, smaller in file size. As a first step, input video is segment to scene thereafter all processes are done for each scene separately. Every scene contains foreground and background objects so in each and every scene foreground background classification is performed. Background details can occlude by foreground objects but when foreground objects move its previous position such occluded details exposed in one of the next frame so using that frame can fill the occluded area and can generate static background. Classified foreground objects are identified and the motion of the foreground objects tracked for this simple user assistance is required from those motion details of foreground object’s animation generated. Static background and foreground objects segmented using K-means clustering and each and every cluster’s vectorized using potrace. Using vectored background and foreground object animation path vector video regenerated.

  4. Collective spin excitations in 2D paramagnet with dipole interaction

    Tsiberkin, Kirill

    2016-02-01

    The collective spin excitations in the unbounded 2D paramagnetic system with dipole interactions are studied. The model Hamiltonian includes Zeeman energy and dipole interaction energy, while the exchange vanishes. The system is placed into a constant uniform magnetic field which is orthogonal to the lattice plane. It provides the equilibrium state with spin ordering along the field direction, and the saturation is reached at zero temperature. We consider the deviations of spin magnetic moments from its equilibrium position along the external field. The Holstein-Primakoff representation is applied to spin operators in low-temperature approximation. When the interaction between the spin waves is negligible and only two-magnon terms are taken into account, the Hamiltonian diagonalisation is possible. We obtain the dispersion relation for spin waves in the square and hexagonal honeycomb lattice. Bose-Einstein statistics determine the average number of spin deviations, and total system magnetization. The lattice structure does not influence on magnetization at the long-wavelength limit. The dependencies of the relative magnetization and longitudinal susceptibility on temperature and external field intensity are found. The internal energy and specific heat of the Bose gas of spin waves are calculated. The collective spin excitations play a significant role in the properties of the paramagnetic system at low temperature and strong external magnetic field.

  5. Topological phase transition in 2D porous media flows

    Waisbord, Nicolas; Stoop, Norbert; Kantsler, Vasily; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Dunkel, Jorn; Guasto Team; Dunkel Team; Kantsler Team

    2015-11-01

    Since the establishment of Darcy's law, analysis of porous-media flows has focused primarily on linking macroscopic transport properties, such as mean flow rate and dispersion, to the pore statistics of the material matrix. Despite intense efforts to understand the fluid velocity statistics from the porous-media structure, a qualitative and quantitative connection remains elusive. Here, we combine precisely controlled experiments with theory to quantify how geometric disorder in the matrix affects the flow statistics and transport in a quasi-2D microfluidic channel. Experimentally measured velocity fields for a range of different microstructure configurations are found to be in excellent agreement with large-scale numerical simulations. By successively increasing the matrix disorder, we study the transition from periodic flow structures to transport networks consisting of extended high-velocity channels. Morse-Smale complex analysis of the flow patterns reveals a topological phase transition that is linked to a qualitative change in the physical transport properties. This work demonstrates that topological flow analysis provides a mathematically well-defined, broadly applicable framework for understanding and quantifying fluid transport in complex geometries.

  6. VAM2D: Variably saturated analysis model in two dimensions

    This report documents a two-dimensional finite element model, VAM2D, developed to simulate water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. Both flow and transport simulation can be handled concurrently or sequentially. The formulation of the governing equations and the numerical procedures used in the code are presented. The flow equation is approximated using the Galerkin finite element method. Nonlinear soil moisture characteristics and atmospheric boundary conditions (e.g., infiltration, evaporation and seepage face), are treated using Picard and Newton-Raphson iterations. Hysteresis effects and anisotropy in the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity can be taken into account if needed. The contaminant transport simulation can account for advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, linear equilibrium sorption, and first-order degradation. Transport of a single component or a multi-component decay chain can be handled. The transport equation is approximated using an upstream weighted residual method. Several test problems are presented to verify the code and demonstrate its utility. These problems range from simple one-dimensional to complex two-dimensional and axisymmetric problems. This document has been produced as a user's manual. It contains detailed information on the code structure along with instructions for input data preparation and sample input and printed output for selected test problems. Also included are instructions for job set up and restarting procedures. 44 refs., 54 figs., 24 tabs

  7. Mesophases in nearly 2D room-temperature ionic liquids.

    Manini, N; Cesaratto, M; Del Pópolo, M G; Ballone, P

    2009-11-26

    Computer simulations of (i) a [C(12)mim][Tf(2)N] film of nanometric thickness squeezed at kbar pressure by a piecewise parabolic confining potential reveal a mesoscopic in-plane density and composition modulation reminiscent of mesophases seen in 3D samples of the same room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). Near 2D confinement, enforced by a high normal load, as well as relatively long aliphatic chains are strictly required for the mesophase formation, as confirmed by computations for two related systems made of (ii) the same [C(12)mim][Tf(2)N] adsorbed at a neutral solid surface and (iii) a shorter-chain RTIL ([C(4)mim][Tf(2)N]) trapped in the potential well of part i. No in-plane modulation is seen for ii and iii. In case ii, the optimal arrangement of charge and neutral tails is achieved by layering parallel to the surface, while, in case iii, weaker dispersion and packing interactions are unable to bring aliphatic tails together into mesoscopic islands, against overwhelming entropy and Coulomb forces. The onset of in-plane mesophases could greatly affect the properties of long-chain RTILs used as lubricants. PMID:19886615

  8. Dispersed catalysts for co-processing and coal liquefaction

    Bockrath, B.; Parfitt, D.; Miller, R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The basic goal is to improve dispersed catalysts employed in the production of clean fuels from low value hydrocarbons. The immediate objective is to determine how the properties of the catalysts may be altered to match the demands placed on them by the properties of the feedstock, the qualities of the desired end products, and the economic constraints put upon the process. Several interrelated areas of the application of dispersed catalysts to co-processing and coal conversion are under investigation. The first involves control of the selectivity of MoS{sub 2} catalysts for HDN, HDS, and hydrogenation of aromatics. A second area of research is the development and use of methods to evaluate dispersed catalysts by means of activity and selectivity tests. A micro-flow reactor has been developed for determining intrinsic reactivities using model compounds, and will be used to compare catalysts prepared in different ways. Micro-autoclaves will also be used to develop data in batch experiments at higher partial pressures of hydrogen. The third area under investigation concerns hydrogen spillover reactions between MoS{sub 2} catalysts and carbonaceous supports. Preliminary results obtained by monitoring H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} exchange reactions with a pulse-flow microreactor indicate the presence of spillover between MoS{sub 2} and a graphitic carbon. A more complete study will be made at a later stage of the project. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  9. Identification of novel CYP2D7-2D6 hybrids: non-functional and functional variants

    Andrea Gaedigk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic expression of CYP2D6 contributes to the wide range of activity observed for this clinically important drug metabolizing enzyme. In this report we describe novel CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid genes encoding non-functional and functional CYP2D6 protein and a CYP2D7 variant that mimics a CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene. Five kb long PCR products encompassing the novel genes were entirely sequenced. A quantitative assay probing in different gene regions was employed to determine CYP2D6 and 2D7 copy number variations and the relative position of the hybrid genes within the locus was assessed by long-range PCR. In addition to the previously known CYP2D6*13 and *66 hybrids, we describe three novel non-functional CYP2D7-2D6 hybrids with gene switching in exon 2 (CYP2D6*79, intron 2 (CYP2D6*80 and intron 5 (CYP2D6*67. A CYP2D7-specific T-ins in exon 1 causes a detrimental frame shift. One subject revealed a CYP2D7 conversion in the 5’-flanking region of a CYP2D6*35 allele, was otherwise unaffected (designated CYP2D6*35B. Finally, three DNAs revealed a CYP2D7 gene with a CYP2D6-like region downstream of exon 9 (designated CYP2D7[REP6]. Quantitative copy number determination, sequence analyses and long-range PCR mapping were in agreement and excluded the presence of additional gene units. Undetected hybrid genes may cause over-estimation of CYP2D6 activity (CYP2D6*1/*1 vs *1/hybrid, etc, but may also cause results that may interfere with the genotype determination. Detection of hybrid events, ‘single’ and tandem, will contribute to more accurate phenotype prediction from genotype data.

  10. Finite state models of constrained 2d data

    Justesen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers a class of discrete finite alphabet 2D fields that can be characterized using tools front finite state machines and Markov chains. These fields have several properties that greatly simplify the analysis of 2D coding methods.......This paper considers a class of discrete finite alphabet 2D fields that can be characterized using tools front finite state machines and Markov chains. These fields have several properties that greatly simplify the analysis of 2D coding methods....

  11. Ultrasonic 2D matrix PVDF transducer

    Ptchelintsev, A.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2000-05-01

    During the past decade a substantial amount of work has been done in the area of ultrasonic imaging technology using 2D arrays. The main problems arising for the two-dimensional matrix transducers at megahertz frequencies are small size and huge count of the elements, high electrical impedance, low sensitivity, bad SNR and slower data acquisition rate. The major technological difficulty remains the high density of the interconnect. To solve these problems numerous approaches have been suggested. In the present work, a 24×24 elements (24 transmit+24 receive) matrix and a switching board were developed. The transducer consists of two 52 μm PVDF layers each representing a linear array of 24 elements placed one on the top of the other. Electrodes in these two layers are perpendicular and form the grid of 0.5×0.5 mm pitch. The layers are bonded together with the ground electrode being monolithic and located between the layers. The matrix is backed from the rear surface with an epoxy composition. During the emission, a linear element from the emitting layer generates a longitudinal wave pulse propagating inside the test object. Reflected pulses are picked-up by the receiving layer. During one transmit-receive cycle one transmit element and one receive element are selected by corresponding multiplexers. These crossed elements emulate a small element formed by their intersection. The present design presents the following advantages: minimizes number of active channels and density of the interconnect; reduces the electrical impedance of the element improving electrical matching; enables the transmit-receive mode; due to the efficient backing provides bandwidth and good time resolution; and, significantly reduces the electronics complexity. The matrix can not be used for the beam steering and focusing. Owing to this impossibility of focusing, the penetration depth is limited as well by the diffraction phenomena.

  12. Polynomial solution of 2D Kalman-Bucy filtering problem

    Sebek, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 2D version of the Kalman-Bucy filtering problem is formulated and then solved via 2D polynomial methods. The optimal filter is restricted to be a linear causal system. The design procedure is shown to consist of one 2D spectral factorization equation only. In fact, it works for n-D signals (n>2)

  13. Polynomial solution of 2D Kalman-Bucy filtering problem

    Sebek, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 2D version of the Kalman-Bucy filtering problem is formulated and then solved via 2D polynomial methods. The optimal filter is restricted to be a linear causal system. The design procedure is shown to consist of one 2D spectral factorization equation only. In fact, it works for n-D signals (n>2) as well.

  14. FEM-2D, 2-D MultiGroup Diffusion in X-Y Geometry

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: FEM-2D solves the two-dimensional diffusion equation in x-y geometry. This is done by the finite elements method. 2 - Method of solution: FEM-2D uses triangular elements with first and second order Lagrange approximations. The systems equations are formulated in multigroup form and solved by Cholesky procedure which operates only on nonzero elements. Various acceleration techniques are available for the outer iteration. Fluxes along various lines and rates in arbitrary zones may be output. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The code uses variable dimensioning. Thus, the problem size is restricted by the largest array which usually is the systems matrix. Fluxes of all groups are kept in memory. This might become another restrictive data set for a large number of groups. The validity of the results is restricted by the approximations used. FEM-2D requires a finite element net which allows the approximation of fluxes by at most parabolas. The node distribution should be more dense in areas of heavy flux changes (near absorbers or the reflector)

  15. DNTM/R2D, 2-D Transport in X-Y Geometry

    1 - Description of program or function: DNTM/R2D solves the neutron transport equation in two-dimensional X-Y geometry by the discrete nodal transport method. Source and eigenvalue problems can be solved. As compared to the two-dimensional nodal transport code DNTM/2D, the following new improved features are included: - Anisotropic scattering is considered. The order of anisotropic scattering is from P0 to P3. - The cross section input format is the same as for ANISN. Multi- group cross section libraries such as DLC-37 and DLC-BUGLE-80 can be used. 2 - Method of solution: DNTM/R2D uses the discrete nodal transport method. Anisotropic scattering is treated using Legendre expansion. Order of interior flux approximation is 2. Plane leakage approximation of surface flux is used. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of: anisotropic scattering order = 3; material composition = 20; energy groups = 2; angular quadrature = 8; zones = 30. When coarse-mesh re-balancing is used, the maximum number of coarse meshes is 12 in each direction. If the computer permits some arrays can be enlarged to reduce the above restrictions

  16. Stability Test for 2-D Continuous-Discrete Systems

    2002-01-01

    Models of 2-D continuous-discrete systems are introduced, which can be used to describe some complex systems. Different from classical 2-D continuous systems or 2-D discrete systems, the asymptotic stability of the continuous-discrete systems is determined by Hurwitz-Schur stability (hybrid one) of 2-D characteristic polynomials of the systems. An algebraic algorithm with simpler test procedure for Hurwitz-Schur stability test of 2-D polynomials is developed. An example to illustrate the applications of the test approach is provided.

  17. Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials

    Lambert, Joseph G.

    In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in

  18. CYP2D7 sequence variation interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 genotyping

    Amanda K Riffel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35 which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696 SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe

  19. Chemical dispersants

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  20. Lateral orientation (image)

    A lateral orientation is a position away from the midline of the body. For instance, the arms are lateral to the ... ears are lateral to the head. A medial orientation is a position toward the midline of the ...

  1. Justification for change in AXAIR dispersion coefficients

    AXAIR is the primary dose assessment code used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to predict doses following hypothetical releases of relatively short durations. The atmospheric dispersion coefficients currently used in AXAIR are analytical expressions developed to fit the curves in the Turner Workbook as referred to in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.145. This report explores the ramifications and benefits of changing the dispersion coefficients to a combination of Pasquill's lateral dispersion coefficients and Briggs' vertical dispersion coefficients. The differences in the dispersion coefficients have a minor effect on the relative air concentrations for stability classes A--D, but a significant difference is seen for classes E, F, and G

  2. Dispersal and air entrainment in unconfined dilute pyroclastic density currents

    Andrews, Benjamin J.

    2014-09-01

    Unconfined scaled laboratory experiments show that 3D structures control the behavior of dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) during and after liftoff. Experiments comprise heated and ambient temperature 20 μm talc powder turbulently suspended in air to form density currents within an unobstructed 8.5 × 6 × 2.6-m chamber. Comparisons of Richardson, thermal Richardson, Froude, Stokes, and settling numbers and buoyant thermal to kinetic energy densities show good agreement between experimental currents and dilute PDCs. The experimental Reynolds numbers are lower than those of PDCs, but the experiments are fully turbulent; thus, the large-scale dynamics are similar between the two systems. High-frequency, simultaneous observation in three orthogonal planes shows that the currents behave very differently than previous 2D (i.e., confined) currents. Specifically, whereas ambient temperature currents show radial dispersal patterns, buoyancy reversal, and liftoff of heated currents focuses dispersal along narrow axes beneath the rising plumes. The aspect ratios, defined as the current length divided by a characteristic width, are typically 2.5-3.5 in heated currents and 1.5-2.5 in ambient temperature currents, reflecting differences in dispersal between the two types of currents. Mechanisms of air entrainment differ greatly between the two currents: entrainment occurs primarily behind the heads and through the upper margins of ambient temperature currents, but heated currents entrain air through their lateral margins. That lateral entrainment is much more efficient than the vertical entrainment, >0.5 compared to ˜0.1, where entrainment is defined as the ratio of cross-stream to streamwise velocity. These experiments suggest that generation of coignimbrite plumes should focus PDCs along narrow transport axes, resulting in elongate rather than radial deposits.

  3. Functional characterization of a first avian cytochrome P450 of the CYP2D subfamily (CYP2D49.

    Hua Cai

    Full Text Available The CYP2D family members are instrumental in the metabolism of 20-25% of commonly prescribed drugs. Although many CYP2D isoforms have been well characterized in other animal models, research concerning the chicken CYP2Ds is limited. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel CYP2D enzyme (CYP2D49 was cloned from the chicken liver for the first time. The CYP2D49 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 502 amino acids that shared 52%-57% identities with other CYP2Ds. The gene structure and neighboring genes of CYP2D49 are conserved and similar to those of human CYP2D6. Additionally, similar to human CYP2D6, CYP2D49 is un-inducible in the liver and expressed predominantly in the liver, kidney and small intestine, with detectable levels in several other tissues. Metabolic assays of the CYP2D49 protein heterologously expressed in E. coli and Hela cells indicated that CYP2D49 metabolized the human CYP2D6 substrate, bufuralol, but not debrisoquine. Moreover, quinidine, a potent inhibitor of human CYP2D6, only inhibited the bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation activity of CYP2D49 to a negligible degree. All these results indicated that CYP2D49 had functional characteristics similar to those of human CYP2D6 but measurably differed in the debrisoquine 4'-hydroxylation and quinidine inhibitory profile. Further structure-function investigations that employed site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the importance of Val-126, Glu-222, Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in keeping the enzymatic activity of CYP2D49 toward bufuralol as well as the importance of Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in maintaining the conformation of CYP2D49 protein. The current study is only the first step in characterizing the metabolic mechanism of CYP2D49; further studies are still required.

  4. MAZE, Input Generator for Program DYNA2D and NIKE2D

    Description of program or function: MAZE is an interactive input generator for two-dimensional finite element codes. MAZE has three phases. In the first phase, lines and parts are defined. The first phase is terminated by the 'ASSM' or 'PASSM' command which merges all parts. In the second phase, boundary conditions may be specified, slide-lines may be defined, parts may be merged to eliminate nodes along common interfaces, boundary nodes may be moved for graded zoning, the mesh may be smoothed, and load curves may be defined. The second phase is terminated by the 'WBCD' command which causes MAZE to write the output file as soon as the 'T' terminate command is typed. In the third phase, material properties may be defined. Commands that apply to the first phase may not be used in the second or third; likewise, commands that apply in the second may not be used in the first and third, or commands that apply in the third in the first and second. Nine commands - TV, Z, GSET, PLOTS, GRID, NOGRID, FRAME, NOFRAME, and RJET are available in all phases. Comments may be added anywhere in the input stream by prefacing the comment with 'C'. Any DYNA2D or NIKE2D material and equation-of- state model may be defined via the MAT and EOS commands respectively. Maze may be terminated after phase two; it is not necessary to define the materials

  5. Spectral synthesis provides 2-D videos on a 1-D screen with 360{\\deg}-visibility and mirror-immunity

    Grusche, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Spatial-light-modulator (SLM)-based tunable sources have complex setups. A simpler setup, comprising an SLM-projector and a dispersive element, synthesizes light as effectively, based on a Superposition of Newtonian Spectra (SNS). As a generalization of SNS, two-dimensional (2-D) grayscale videos are spectrally encoded on a one-dimensional (1-D), translucent screen, and viewed through another dispersive element. This Projected-Image Circumlineascopy (PICS) produces semitransparent, rainbow-coloured, virtual 2-D videos that face every viewer anywhere around the 1-D screen. They are invariant under reflection of the 1-D screen in mirrors parallel to it. SNS bandwidth and PICS image geometry are calculated using geometric optics and Dispersion Diagrams.

  6. Surface Approximation Using the 2D FFENN Architecture

    Panagopoulos S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new two-dimensional feed-forward functionally expanded neural network (2D FFENN used to produce surface models in two dimensions is presented. New nonlinear multilevel surface basis functions are proposed for the network's functional expansion. A network optimization technique based on an iterative function selection strategy is also described. Comparative simulation results for surface mappings generated by the 2D FFENN, multilevel 2D FFENN, multilayered perceptron (MLP, and radial basis function (RBF architectures are presented.

  7. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino; Zamarin, Marco; Ukhanova, Ann

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square const...

  8. Stochastic precision analysis of 2D cardiac strain estimation in vivo

    Ultrasonic strain imaging has been applied to echocardiography and carries great potential to be used as a tool in the clinical setting. Two-dimensional (2D) strain estimation may be useful when studying the heart due to the complex, 3D deformation of the cardiac tissue. Increasing the framerate used for motion estimation, i.e. motion estimation rate (MER), has been shown to improve the precision of the strain estimation, although maintaining the spatial resolution necessary to view the entire heart structure in a single heartbeat remains challenging at high MERs. Two previously developed methods, the temporally unequispaced acquisition sequence (TUAS) and the diverging beam sequence (DBS), have been used in the past to successfully estimate in vivo axial strain at high MERs without compromising spatial resolution. In this study, a stochastic assessment of 2D strain estimation precision is performed in vivo for both sequences at varying MERs (65, 272, 544, 815 Hz for TUAS; 250, 500, 1000, 2000 Hz for DBS). 2D incremental strains were estimated during left ventricular contraction in five healthy volunteers using a normalized cross-correlation function and a least-squares strain estimator. Both sequences were shown capable of estimating 2D incremental strains in vivo. The conditional expected value of the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (E(SNRe|ε)) was used to compare strain estimation precision of both sequences at multiple MERs over a wide range of clinical strain values. The results here indicate that axial strain estimation precision is much more dependent on MER than lateral strain estimation, while lateral estimation is more affected by strain magnitude. MER should be increased at least above 544 Hz to avoid suboptimal axial strain estimation. Radial and circumferential strain estimations were influenced by the axial and lateral strain in different ways. Furthermore, the TUAS and DBS were found to be of comparable precision at similar MERs. (paper)

  9. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino;

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... of the Markov random field defined by the 2-D constraint is estimated to be (upper bounded by) 0.8570 bits/symbol using the iterative technique of Belief Propagation on 2 £ 2 finite lattices. Based on combinatorial bounding techniques the maximum entropy for the constraint was determined to be 0.848....

  10. Importance of Overpressure in 2D Gas Hydrate Modeling

    Hauschildt, J.; Unnithan, V.

    2005-12-01

    Numerical models for sub-seafloor gas hydrate formation [1],[2],[3] which describe the driving fluid transport processes only in the vertical direction, restrict the computationally expensive problem to one dimension. This assumption is only valid in regions where permeable sediments induce no overpressure and where there is little lateral variation of physical properties and boundary conditions. Local accumulations of gas hydrates or authigenic carbonates can significantly reduce the porosity and permeability. In combination with topographic and structural features, subtle but important deviations from the 1D model are considered to occur. This poster shows results obtained from a 2D finite difference model developed for describing the evolution of the gas hydrate zone in structurally complex areas. The discretisation of the terms governing the thermodynamic and transport processes is implemented explicitely in time for the advection and diffusion processes, but implicitely for phase transitions. Although the time scales for transport and phase transitions can differ by several orders of magnitude, this scheme allows for an efficient computation for model runs both over the system's equilibration period in the order of 107 yr or to resolve the effects of sea-level changes within 103 yr. A sensitivity analysis confines the parameter space relevant for hydrate formation influenced by lateral fluid flow, and results for the predicted deviations from a multi-1D model for high gas hydrate fractions and fluid flow rates are presented. References [1] M.K. Davie and B.A. Buffett. Sources of methane for marine gas hydrate: inferences from a comparison of observations and numerical models. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 206:51-63, 2003. [2] W. Xu and C. Ruppell. Predicting the occurrence, distribution, and evolution of methane hydrate in porous marine sediments. Journal of Geohphysical Research, (B3):5081-5095, 1999. [3] J.B. Klauda and S.I. Sandler. Predictions of

  11. Dipolar structures in colloidal magnetite dispersions

    Klokkenburg, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Dipolar structures in liquid colloidal dispersions comprising well-defined magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with a permanent magnetic dipole moment are analyzed on a single-particle level by in situ cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (2D). Compared to conventional ferrofluids, these dispersio

  12. Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung

    Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth

    Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.

  13. 2D Four-Channel Perfect Reconstruction Filter Bank Realized with the 2D Lattice Filter Structure

    Sezen S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel orthogonal 2D lattice structure is incorporated into the design of a nonseparable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction filter bank. The proposed filter bank is obtained by using the polyphase decomposition technique which requires the design of an orthogonal 2D lattice filter. Due to constraint of perfect reconstruction, each stage of this lattice filter bank is simply parameterized by two coefficients. The perfect reconstruction property is satisfied regardless of the actual values of these parameters and of the number of the lattice stages. It is also shown that a separable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction lattice filter bank can be constructed from the 1D lattice filter and that this is a special case of the proposed 2D lattice filter bank under certain conditions. The perfect reconstruction property of the proposed 2D lattice filter approach is verified by computer simulations.

  14. An Incompressible 2D Didactic Model with Singularity and Explicit Solutions of the 2D Boussinesq Equations

    Chae, Dongho; Constantin, Peter; Wu, Jiahong

    2014-09-01

    We give an example of a well posed, finite energy, 2D incompressible active scalar equation with the same scaling as the surface quasi-geostrophic equation and prove that it can produce finite time singularities. In spite of its simplicity, this seems to be the first such example. Further, we construct explicit solutions of the 2D Boussinesq equations whose gradients grow exponentially in time for all time. In addition, we introduce a variant of the 2D Boussinesq equations which is perhaps a more faithful companion of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations than the usual 2D Boussinesq equations.

  15. Ultrathin 2D Photodetectors Utilizing Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown WS2 With Graphene Electrodes.

    Tan, Haijie; Fan, Ye; Zhou, Yingqiu; Chen, Qu; Xu, Wenshuo; Warner, Jamie H

    2016-08-23

    In this report, graphene (Gr) is used as a 2D electrode and monolayer WS2 as the active semiconductor in ultrathin photodetector devices. All of the 2D materials are grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and thus pose as a viable route to scalability. The monolayer thickness of both electrode and semiconductor gives these photodetectors ∼2 nm thickness. We show that graphene is different to conventional metal (Au) electrodes due to the finite density of states from the Dirac cones of the valence and conduction bands, which enables the photoresponsivity to be modulated by electrostatic gating and light input control. We demonstrate lateral Gr-WS2-Gr photodetectors with photoresponsivities reaching 3.5 A/W under illumination power densities of 2.5 × 10(7) mW/cm(2). The performance of monolayer WS2 is compared to bilayer WS2 in photodetectors and we show that increased photoresponsivity is achieved in the thicker bilayer WS2 crystals due to increased optical absorption. This approach of incorporating graphene electrodes in lateral TMD based devices provides insights on the contact engineering in 2D optoelectronics, which is crucial for the development of high performing ultrathin photodetector arrays for versatile applications. PMID:27440384

  16. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes....... Numerical results for the capacities are presented....

  17. 2D gravity, random surfaces and all that

    I review the recent progress in 2d gravity and discuss the new numerical simulations for 2d gravity and for random surfaces in d>2. The random surface theories of interest in d>2 have extrinsic curvature terms, and for a finite value of the extrinsic curvature coupling there seems to be a second order phase transition where the string tension scales. (orig.)

  18. Symmetries and solvable models for evaporating 2D black holes

    Cruz Muñoz, José Luis; Navarro-Salas, José; Navarro Navarro, Miguel; Talavera, C. F.

    1997-01-01

    We study the evaporation process of a 2D black hole in thermal equilibrium when the ingoing radiation is suddenly switched off. We also introduce global symmetries of generic 2D dilaton gravity models which generalize the extra symmetry of the CGHS model. © Elsevier Science B.V

  19. Van der Waals stacked 2D layered materials for optoelectronics

    Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Qixing; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhuo; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2016-06-01

    The band gaps of many atomically thin 2D layered materials such as graphene, black phosphorus, monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and hBN range from 0 to 6 eV. These isolated atomic planes can be reassembled into hybrid heterostructures made layer by layer in a precisely chosen sequence. Thus, the electronic properties of 2D materials can be engineered by van der Waals stacking, and the interlayer coupling can be tuned, which opens up avenues for creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical properties. Early studies suggest that van der Waals stacked 2D materials work exceptionally well, dramatically enriching the optoelectronics applications of 2D materials. Here we review recent progress in van der Waals stacked 2D materials, and discuss their potential applications in optoelectronics.

  20. An acoustic wave equation for pure P wave in 2D TTI media

    Zhan, Ge

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a pure P wave equation for an acoustic 2D TTI media is derived. Compared with conventional TTI coupled equations, the resulting equation is unconditionally stable due to the complete isolation of the SV wave mode. To avoid numerical dispersion and produce high quality images, the rapid expansion method REM is employed for numerical implementation. Synthetic results validate the proposed equation and show that it is a stable algorithm for modeling and reverse time migration RTM in a TTI media for any anisotropic parameter values. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  1. Optimal 25-Point Finite-Difference Subgridding Techniques for the 2D Helmholtz Equation

    Tingting Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an optimal 25-point finite-difference subgridding scheme for solving the 2D Helmholtz equation with perfectly matched layer (PML. This scheme is second order in accuracy and pointwise consistent with the equation. Subgrids are used to discretize the computational domain, including the interior domain and the PML. For the transitional node in the interior domain, the finite difference equation is formulated with ghost nodes, and its weight parameters are chosen by a refined choice strategy based on minimizing the numerical dispersion. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate that the newly proposed schemes can produce highly accurate seismic modeling results with enhanced efficiency.

  2. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not surprisingly, playing tennis or other racquet sports can ...

  3. Sexuality in Later Life

    ... raquo Sexuality in Later Life Heath and Aging Sexuality in Later Life What Are Normal Changes? What ... Depression can be treated. What Else May Cause Sexuality Problems? Surgery. Many of us worry about having ...

  4. DYNA-2D, 2-D Hydrodynamic Finite Elements Method Program with Interactive Rezoning

    1 - Description of program or function: DYNA2D is an explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding with friction along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning with no need for transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 4-node solid elements, and the equations-of-motion are integrated by the central difference method. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic-plastic, thermo- elastic-plastic, soil and crushable foam, linear visco-elastic, rubber, isotropic elastic-plastic, and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The latter two models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 60,000 elements (Cray 1), 5,000 elements (CDC7600)

  5. Targeted fluorescence imaging enhanced by 2D materials: a comparison between 2D MoS2 and graphene oxide.

    Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng

    2016-08-01

    Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples. PMID:27378648

  6. Two-qubit parity meters in 3D and 2D circuit QED

    Dicarlo, Leonardo

    2014-03-01

    Non-demolition measurements of multi-qubit observables and feedback control conditioned on their outcomes are essential for quantum error correction. We present two implementations of two-qubit parity meters in circuit QED. In 3D, we match the dispersive coupling of two qubits to a common cavity to encode parity in the transmission of an applied microwave pulse. In 2D, we first encode the parity of two data qubits in the computational state of an ancillary qubit using resonant interactions, and subsequently project the ancilla using a dedicated, dispersively-coupled resonator. A key advantage of this second scheme is the protection of data qubits from dephasing by measurement photons. First applications of these parity meters include probabilistic entanglement by measurement, and deterministic entanglement using digital feedback control. Current efforts target the implementation of measurement-based bit-flip error correction. Research funded by NWO, FOM, and the European projects SOLID and SCALEQIT.

  7. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  8. Dispersal Timing: Emigration of Insects Living in Patchy Environments.

    Lakovic, Milica; Poethke, Hans-Joachim; Hovestadt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal is a life-history trait affecting dynamics and persistence of populations; it evolves under various known selective pressures. Theoretical studies on dispersal typically assume 'natal dispersal', where individuals emigrate right after birth. But emigration may also occur during a later moment within a reproductive season ('breeding dispersal'). For example, some female butterflies first deposit eggs in their natal patch before migrating to other site(s) to continue egg-laying there. How breeding compared to natal dispersal influences the evolution of dispersal has not been explored. To close this gap we used an individual-based simulation approach to analyze (i) the evolution of timing of breeding dispersal in annual organisms, (ii) its influence on dispersal (compared to natal dispersal). Furthermore, we tested (iii) its performance in direct evolutionary contest with individuals following a natal dispersal strategy. Our results show that evolution should typically result in lower dispersal under breeding dispersal, especially when costs of dispersal are low and population size is small. By distributing offspring evenly across two patches, breeding dispersal allows reducing direct sibling competition in the next generation whereas natal dispersal can only reduce trans-generational kin competition by producing highly dispersive offspring in each generation. The added benefit of breeding dispersal is most prominent in patches with small population sizes. Finally, the evolutionary contests show that a breeding dispersal strategy would universally out-compete natal dispersal. PMID:26132493

  9. Dispersal Timing: Emigration of Insects Living in Patchy Environments.

    Milica Lakovic

    Full Text Available Dispersal is a life-history trait affecting dynamics and persistence of populations; it evolves under various known selective pressures. Theoretical studies on dispersal typically assume 'natal dispersal', where individuals emigrate right after birth. But emigration may also occur during a later moment within a reproductive season ('breeding dispersal'. For example, some female butterflies first deposit eggs in their natal patch before migrating to other site(s to continue egg-laying there. How breeding compared to natal dispersal influences the evolution of dispersal has not been explored. To close this gap we used an individual-based simulation approach to analyze (i the evolution of timing of breeding dispersal in annual organisms, (ii its influence on dispersal (compared to natal dispersal. Furthermore, we tested (iii its performance in direct evolutionary contest with individuals following a natal dispersal strategy. Our results show that evolution should typically result in lower dispersal under breeding dispersal, especially when costs of dispersal are low and population size is small. By distributing offspring evenly across two patches, breeding dispersal allows reducing direct sibling competition in the next generation whereas natal dispersal can only reduce trans-generational kin competition by producing highly dispersive offspring in each generation. The added benefit of breeding dispersal is most prominent in patches with small population sizes. Finally, the evolutionary contests show that a breeding dispersal strategy would universally out-compete natal dispersal.

  10. Introduction to game physics with Box2D

    Parberry, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Written by a pioneer of game development in academia, Introduction to Game Physics with Box2D covers the theory and practice of 2D game physics in a relaxed and entertaining yet instructional style. It offers a cohesive treatment of the topics and code involved in programming the physics for 2D video games. Focusing on writing elementary game physics code, the first half of the book helps you grasp the challenges of programming game physics from scratch, without libraries or outside help. It examines the mathematical foundation of game physics and illustrates how it is applied in practice thro

  11. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F., E-mail: sfkry@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Bosca, Ryan [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); O’Daniel, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  12. Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments

    Luiz H. K. Queiroz Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively.

  13. The NH$_2$D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations

    Daniel, F.; Coudert, L. H.; Punanova, A.; Harju, J.; Faure, A.; Roueff, E.; Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Güsten, R.; Pon, A.; Pineda, J E

    2016-01-01

    The 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines of ortho and para--NH$_2$D (o/p-NH$_2$D), respectively at 86 and 110 GHz, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure due to the nitrogen ($^{14}$N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one which is taken into account in the NH$_2$D column density estimates. We investigate how the inclusion of the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) n...

  14. Materials for Flexible, Stretchable Electronics: Graphene and 2D Materials

    Kim, Sang Jin; Choi, Kyoungjun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Yuna; Hong, Byung Hee

    2015-07-01

    Recently, 2D materials have been intensively studied as emerging materials for future electronics, including flexible electronics, photonics, and electrochemical energy storage devices. Among representative 2D materials (such as graphene, boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides) that exhibit extraordinary properties, graphene stands out in the flexible electronics field due to its combination of high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, high specific surface area, high optical transparency, excellent mechanical flexibility, and environmental stability. This review covers the synthesis, transfer, and characterization methods of graphene and 2D materials and graphene's application to flexible devices as well as comparison with other competing materials.

  15. Kalman Filter for Generalized 2-D Roesser Models

    SHENG Mei; ZOU Yun

    2007-01-01

    The design problem of the state filter for the generalized stochastic 2-D Roesser models, which appears when both the state and measurement are simultaneously subjected to the interference from white noise, is discussed. The wellknown Kalman filter design is extended to the generalized 2-D Roesser models. Based on the method of "scanning line by line", the filtering problem of generalized 2-D Roesser models with mode-energy reconstruction is solved. The formula of the optimal filtering, which minimizes the variance of the estimation error of the state vectors, is derived. The validity of the designed filter is verified by the calculation steps and the examples are introduced.

  16. Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments

    Queiroz Junior, Luiz H. K., E-mail: professorkeng@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Giraudeau, Patrick [Universite de Nantes (France). CNRS, Chimie et Interdisciplinarite: Synthese, Analyse, Modelisation

    2013-09-01

    Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively. (author)

  17. 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    Classen, I. G. J. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Donne, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E. [Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Park, H. K. [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Munsat, T. [University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.

  18. Lateral flow strip assay

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  19. SALE-2D, 2-D Fluid Flow, Navier Stokes Equation Using Lagrangian or Eulerian Method

    1 - Description of problem or function: SALE2D calculates two- dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude results from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program. 2 - Method of solution: The basic hydrodynamic part of each cycle of SALE is divided into three phases. Phase 1 is a typical explicit Lagrangian calculation in which the velocity field is updated by the effects of all forces. Phase 2 is a Newton-Raphson iteration that provides time-advanced pressures and velocities. It is used for calculations in the low-speed and even completely incompressible regimes. Phase 3 performs all the advective flux calculations. It is required for runs that are Eulerian or contain some other form of mesh rezoning. A powerful feature of SALE is the ease with which different phases can be combined to suit the requirements of individual problems

  20. Chemical vapour deposition: Transition metal carbides go 2D

    Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-11-01

    The unique properties of 2D materials, such as graphene or transition metal dichalcogenides, have been attracting much attention in the past decade. Now, metallically conductive and even superconducting transition metal carbides are entering the game.

  1. Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

    Perkins, William A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-05-18

    The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.

  2. Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic

    Jian-Hua Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements. Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcodes under different backgrounds. The experimental results show that this approach can process different kinds of 2-D barcodes under varying lighting conditions adaptively. Compared with other conventional methods, our proposed approach does a better job in processing 2-D barcode under non-uniform illumination.

  3. Recent developments in 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials for sensing

    Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Late, Dattatray J.; Morgan, Hywel; Rout, Chandra Sekhar

    2015-08-01

    Two dimensional layered inorganic nanomaterials (2D-LINs) have recently attracted huge interest because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties and potential technological applications. The properties of these layered materials can be tuned via both physical and chemical processes. Some 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials like MoS2, WS2 and SnS2 have been recently developed and employed in various applications, including new sensors because of their layer-dependent electrical properties. This article presents a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the application of 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials as sensors. Some of the salient features of 2D materials for different sensing applications are discussed, including gas sensing, electrochemical sensing, SERS and biosensing, SERS sensing and photodetection. The working principles of the sensors are also discussed together with examples.

  4. Colloidal Dispersions

    Russel, W. B.; Saville, D. A.; Schowalter, W. R.

    1992-03-01

    The book covers the physical side of colloid science from the individual forces acting between submicron particles suspended in a liquid through the resulting equilibrium and dynamic properties. The relevant forces include Brownian motion, electrostatic repulsion, dispersion attraction, both attraction and repulsion due to soluble polymer, and viscous forces due to relative motion between the particles and the liquid. The balance among Brownian motion and the interparticle forces decides the questions of stability and phase behavior. Imposition of external fields produces complex effects, i.e. electrokinetic phenomena (electric field), sedimentation (gravitational field), diffusion (concentration/chemical potential gradient), and non-Newtonian rheology (shear field). The treatment aims to impart a sound, quantitative understanding based on fundamental theory and experiments with well-characterized model systems. This broad grasp of the fundamentals lends insight and helps to develop the intuitive sense needed to isolate essential features of technological problems and design critical experiments. Some exposure to fluid mechanics, statistical mechanics, and electricity and magnetism is assumed, but each subject is reintroduced in a self-contained manner.

  5. Penetration of tungsten-alloy rods into composite ceramic targets: Experiments and 2-D simulations

    A series of terminal ballistics experiments, with scaled tungsten-alloy penetrators, was performed on composite targets consisting of ceramic tiles glued to thick steel backing plates. Tiles of silicon-carbide, aluminum nitride, titanium-dibroide and boron-carbide were 20-80 mm thick, and impact velocity was 1.7 km/s. 2-D numerical simulations, using the PISCES code, were performed in order to simulate these shots. It is shown that a simplified version of the Johnson-Holmquist failure model can account for the penetration depths of the rods but is not enough to capture the effect of lateral release waves on these penetrations

  6. Asymptotic Solutions of Detonation Propagation in a 2D Circular Arc.

    Short, Mark; Meyer, Chad; Quirk, James

    2015-11-01

    The large pressure of the product gas generated by detonating high explosives causes lateral motion of the explosive at the material interface between the explosive and its confinement. In turn, this leads to streamline divergence and curvature of the detonation front (typically in a divergent fashion). The propagation of a detonation front in a given geometry depends on the amount of curvature generated. Here we describe an asymptotic analysis of detonation propagation in a 2D circular arc, examining dependencies of the motion on the size of the inner and outer arc radii, and the relation between the detonation velocity and curvature for different types of explosive.

  7. The relation between Euclidean and Lorentzian 2D quantum gravity

    Ambjørn, J.; Correia, J; Kristjansen, C.; Loll, R.

    2006-01-01

    Starting from 2D Euclidean quantum gravity, we show that one recovers 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity by removing all baby universes. Using a peeling procedure to decompose the discrete, triangulated geometries along a one-dimensional path, we explicitly associate with each Euclidean space-time a (generalized) Lorentzian spacetime. This motivates a map between the parameter spaces of the two theories, under which their propagators get identified. In two dimensions, Lorentzian quantum gravity ca...

  8. The Branching of Graphs in 2-d Quantum Gravity

    Harris, M. G.

    1996-01-01

    The branching ratio is calculated for three different models of 2d gravity, using dynamical planar phi-cubed graphs. These models are pure gravity, the D=-2 Gaussian model coupled to gravity and the single spin Ising model coupled to gravity. The ratio gives a measure of how branched the graphs dominating the partition function are. Hence it can be used to estimate the location of the branched polymer phase for the multiple Ising model coupled to 2d gravity.

  9. 2d quantum gravity and black hole formation

    The quantum integral of generic 2d quantum gravity can be performed exactly. The equivalence of dilaton theories to 2d theories with torsion and the use of a light cone gauge are crucial. Scalar matter can be treated perturbatively. A generalization of the Polyakov action emerges. For scattering of scalars in a flat background already in the tree approximation for the first time the intermediate formation of a black hole is observed in an ab initio quantum gravity computation

  10. Sparse Non-negative Matrix Factor 2-D Deconvolution

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution (NMF2D) model, which decomposes a matrix into a 2-dimensional convolution of two factor matrices. This model is an extension of the non-negative matrix factor deconvolution (NMFD) recently introduced by Smaragdis (2004). We derive and ...... this form of factorization. The developed algorithms have been used for source separation and music transcription....

  11. Excitation of 2D plasmons in Cs/W(110)

    Benemanskaya, G V; Frank-Kamenetskaya, G E

    2001-01-01

    One studied the evolution of surface photoemission spectra for Cs/W(110) system at metastable Cs coatings exceeding monolayer. One showed possibility to observe 2D plasmons by means of threshold photoemission spectroscopy. One detected three photoemission peaks characterized by complicated behavior depending on Cd adsorption dose. The nature of peaks may be related to plasmon photoinduced excitation in quasi-2D Cs clusters, surface Cs plasmon and interface Cs-W plasmon

  12. QSAR Models for P-450 (2D6) Substrate Activity

    Ringsted, Tine; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov;

    2009-01-01

    activity relationship (QSAR) modelling systems. They cross validated (leave-groups-out) with concordances of 71%, 81% and 82%, respectively. Discrete organic European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) chemicals were screened to predict an approximate percentage of CYP 2D6...... substrates. These chemicals are potentially present in the environment. The biological importance of the CYP 2D6 and the use of the software mentioned above were discussed....

  13. Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic

    Jian-Hua Li; Yi-Wen Wang; Yi Chen; Meng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations) are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements). Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcode...

  14. Phase Behavior of 2D Charged Hydrophobic Colloids in Flat and Curved Space

    Kelleher, Colm; Guerra, Rodrigo; Chaikin, Paul

    Charged hydrophobic colloids, when dispersed in oil with a relatively high dielectric constant, can become highly charged. In the presence of an interface with a conducting aqueous phase, particles bind strongly to the interface via image-charge attraction. At sufficiently high density, these charged interfacial particles self-organize into a 2D repulsive (Wigner) crystalline solid phase, while at lower densities, the particles form a 2D fluid. By observing samples prepared at different densities, we can probe various points in the phase diagram of this soft 2D material, and compare our results with applicable theory and simulations. In this talk, we present two sets of experiments we have performed on this system: first, we show how we can use gravity as an external force to create a controlled density gradient, and thereby directly measure the equation of state and other quantities of interest. Second, we discuss how, by observing particles which are bound to the surface of spherical droplets, we can explore how the presence of finite background curvature affects the phase behavior of the system.

  15. A 2D wavenumber domain phase model for ground moving vehicles in synthetic aperture radar imagery

    In this paper, fundamental phase characteristics of moving vehicles in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are reviewed. A 2D phase model for a moving point scatterer is expressed in terms of range and azimuth wavenumbers. The moving point scatterer impulse response is then the 2D Fourier transform of the associated complex sinusoid. Numerical computation of the 2D phase for arbitrary relative radar-point scatter motion is organized as a composition of functions expressing time, frequency and angle in terms of wavenumber vectors. An analytic model for the phase is subsequently derived in the special case that the Doppler cone angle is 90°. With that model it is observed that the map from velocity and acceleration to quadratic phase is not one-to-one and therefore the associated inverse problem is ill-posed. An example of moving vehicle Doppler energy dispersion and corresponding phase measured in clutter suppressed SAR image data is provided. Clutter suppression is achieved by application of spacetime adaptive processing. (paper)

  16. Sparse Non-negative Tensor 2D Deconvolution (SNTF2D) for multi channel time-frequency analysis

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N.

    2006-01-01

    We recently introduced two algorithms for sparse non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution (SNMF2D) that are useful for single channel source separation and music transcription. We here extend this approach to the analysis of the log-frequency spectrograms of a multichannel recording. The model...... algorithms are demonstrated to successfully identify the components of both artificially generated as well as real stereo music....

  17. A Self-Limiting Electro-Ablation Technique for the Top-Down Synthesis of Large-Area Monolayer Flakes of 2D Materials

    Das, Saptarshi; Bera, Mrinal K.; Tong, Sheng; Narayanan, Badri; Kamath, Ganesh; Mane, Anil; Paulikas, Arvydas P.; Antonio, Mark R.; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Roelofs, Andreas K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of an electrochemical process that converts two dimensional layered materials of arbitrary thicknesses into monolayers. The lateral dimensions of the monolayers obtained by the process within a few seconds time at room temperature were as large as 0.5 mm. The temporal and spatial dynamics of this physical phenomenon, studied on MoS2 flakes using ex-situ AFM imaging, Raman mapping, and photoluminescence measurements trace the origin of monolayer formation to a substrate-assisted self-limiting electrochemical ablation process. Electronic structure and atomistic calculations point to the interplay between three essential factors in the process: (1) strong covalent interaction of monolayer MoS2 with the substrate; (2) electric-field induced differences in Gibbs free energy of exfoliation; (3) dispersion of MoS2 in aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide. This process was successful in obtaining monolayers of other 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, like WS2 and MoTe2 as well. PMID:27323877

  18. Development of the Borehole 2-D Seismic Tomography Software Using MATLAB

    Nugraha, A. D.; Syahputra, A.; Fatkhan, F.; Sule, R.; Hendriyana, A.

    2011-12-01

    We developed 2-D borehole seismic tomography software that we called "EARTHMAX-2D TOMOGRAPHY" to image subsurface physical properties including P-wave and S-wave velocities between two boreholes. We used Graphic User Interface (GUI) facilities of MATLAB programming language to create the software. In this software, we used travel time of seismic waves from source to receiver by using pseudo bending ray tracing method as input for tomography inversion. We can also set up a model parameterization, initial velocity model, ray tracing processes, conduct borehole seismic tomography inversion, and finally visualize the inversion results. The LSQR method was applied to solve of tomography inversion solution. We provided the Checkerboard Test Resolution (CTR) to evaluate the model resolution of the tomography inversion. As validation of this developed software, we tested it for geotechnical purposes. We then conducted data acquisition in the "ITB X-field" that is located on ITB campus. We used two boreholes that have a depth of 39 meters. Seismic wave sources were generated by impulse generator and sparker and then they were recorded by borehole hydrophone string type 3. Later on, we analyzed and picked seismic arrival time as input for tomography inversion. As results, we can image the estimated weathering layer, sediment layer, and basement rock in the field depicted by seismic wave structures. More detailed information about the developed software will be presented. Keywords: borehole, tomography, earthmax-2D, inversion

  19. Failure Mechanism of True 2D Granular Flows

    Nguyen, Cuong T; Fukagawa, R

    2015-01-01

    Most previous experimental investigations of two-dimensional (2D) granular column collapses have been conducted using three-dimensional (3D) granular materials in narrow horizontal channels (i.e., quasi-2D condition). Our recent research on 2D granular column collapses by using 2D granular materials (i.e., aluminum rods) has revealed results that differ markedly from those reported in the literature. We assume a 2D column with an initial height of h0 and initial width of d0, a defined as their ratio (a =h0/d0), a final height of h , and maximum run-out distance of d . The experimental data suggest that for the low a regime (a 0.65), the ratio of a to (d-d0)/d0, h0/h , or d/d0 is expressed by power-law relations. In particular, the following power-function ratios (h0/h=1.42a^2/3 and d/d0=4.30a^0.72) are proposed for every a >0.65. In contrast, the ratio (d-d0)/d0=3.25a^0.96 only holds for 0.651.5. In addition, the influence of ground contact surfaces (hard or soft beds) on the final run-out distance and destru...

  20. The NH$_2$D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations

    Daniel, F; Punanova, A; Harju, J; Faure, A; Roueff, E; Sipilä, O; Caselli, P; Güsten, R; Pon, A; Pineda, J E

    2016-01-01

    The 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines of ortho and para--NH$_2$D (o/p-NH$_2$D), respectively at 86 and 110 GHz, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure due to the nitrogen ($^{14}$N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one which is taken into account in the NH$_2$D column density estimates. We investigate how the inclusion of the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) nucleus affects the analysis of the rotational lines of NH$_2$D. We present 30m IRAM observations of the above mentioned lines, as well as APEX o/p-NH$_2$D observations of the 1$_{01}$-0$_{00}$ lines at 333 GHz. The hyperfine spectra are first analyzed with a line list that only includes the hyperfine splitting due to the $^{14}$N nucleus. We find inconsistencies between the line widths of the 1$_{01}$-0$_{00}$ and 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines, the latter being larger by a factor of $\\sim$1.6$\\pm0.3$. Such a large difference is...

  1. Ultrafast 2D NMR: An Emerging Tool in Analytical Spectroscopy

    Giraudeau, Patrick; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy is widely used in chemical and biochemical analyses. Multidimensional NMR is also witnessing increased use in quantitative and metabolic screening applications. Conventional 2D NMR experiments, however, are affected by inherently long acquisition durations, arising from their need to sample the frequencies involved along their indirect domains in an incremented, scan-by-scan nature. A decade ago, a so-called ultrafast (UF) approach was proposed, capable of delivering arbitrary 2D NMR spectra involving any kind of homo- or heteronuclear correlation, in a single scan. During the intervening years, the performance of this subsecond 2D NMR methodology has been greatly improved, and UF 2D NMR is rapidly becoming a powerful analytical tool experiencing an expanded scope of applications. This review summarizes the principles and main developments that have contributed to the success of this approach and focuses on applications that have been recently demonstrated in various areas of analytical chemistry—from the real-time monitoring of chemical and biochemical processes, to extensions in hyphenated techniques and in quantitative applications.

  2. KOREAN MOBILE OPERATORS' VALUE MAP FOR LTE D2D

    Taisiya Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Managing the wireless data traffic is a main concern for mobile network operators in Information of Things (IoT environment. Long Term Evolution Device to Device (LTE D2D is regarding as a solution for the spectrum problem. It will bring an impact on providers and the whole mobile environment. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the role of key players, who share spectrum with mobile operators, and to present the value map of relationship among Korean mobile operators and other key players in LTE D2D discovery (commercial channel, as complicated relationships of key players are expected. Then, this study suggests scenario for ‘Targeted Advertising’ service of LTE D2D. LTE D2D is early discussion stage and scenario has limitation of specific business model. However, results of this study are significant for the present stage and provide implications for future researches on strategies for LTE D2D environment.

  3. Dosimetric evaluation of a 2D pixel ionization chamber for implementation in clinical routine

    In this paper we present the results of a dosimetric evaluation of a 2D ionization chamber array with the objective of its implementation for quality assurance in clinical routine. The pixel ionization chamber MatriXX (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Germany) consists of 32 x 32 chambers with a distance of 7.6 mm between chamber centres. The effective depth of measurement under the surface of the detector was determined. The dose and energy dependence, the behaviour of the device during its initial phase and its time stability as well as the lateral response of a single chamber of the detector in cross-plane and diagonal directions were analysed. It could be shown, that the detector's response is linear with dose and energy independent. Taking the lateral response into account, two different dose profiles, for a pyramidal and an IMRT dose distribution, were applied to compare the data generated by a treatment planning system with measurements. From these investigations it can be concluded that the detector is a suitable device for quality assurance and 2D dose verifications

  4. Emerging Methods for Producing Monodisperse Graphene Dispersions

    Green, Alexander A.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    With the recent burst of activity surrounding solution phase production of graphene, comparatively little progress has been made towards the generation of graphene dispersions with tailored thickness, lateral area, and shape. The polydispersity of graphene dispersions, however, can lead to unpredictable or non-ideal behavior once they are incorporated into devices, since the properties of graphene vary as a function of its structural parameters. In this brief perspective, we overview the prob...

  5. Measuring the equation of state for a 2D colloidal membrane: A microfluidic approach to buffer exchange

    Balchunas, Andrew; Cabanas, Rafael; Fraden, Seth; Dogic, Zvonimir

    Previous work has shown that monodisperse rod-like colloidal particles, such as a filamentous bacteriophage, self assemble into a 2D monolayer smectic in the presence of a non-adsorbing depleting polymer. These structures have the same functional form of bending rigidity and lateral compressibility as conventional lipid bi-layers, so we name the monolayer smectic a colloidal membrane. We have developed a microfluidic device such that the osmotic pressure acting on a colloidal membrane may be controlled via a full in situ buffer exchange. Rod density within individual colloidal membranes was measured as a function of osmotic pressure and a first order phase transition, from 2D fluid to 2D solid, was observed. kon and koff rates of rod to membrane binding were measured by lowering the osmotic pressure until membrane evaporation occurred.

  6. Statistical mechanics on a 2D-random surface

    Various geometrical models first defined in the Euclidean plane or on a regular lattice have been briefly reviewed, including self-avoiding walks, random walk intersections, percolation and Ising clusters. These systems embody infinite sets of field operators defined in a natural way from the (fractal) geometry of these fluctuating critical systems. Their scaling behavior can be linked to that of associated conformal field theories. These systems can also all be redefined on a random lattice or surface, instead of on a regular 2D lattice. They are then coupled to ''quantum gravity'', and live on the ''world-sheet''. The fact that all their new exponents on a random surface can then be related to those in the usual 2D-plane, although now well known in string theory, is worth publicizing in this Physics in 2D conference. We illustrate it by some exact solutions in the case of polymers and branched polymers (animals) on a random fluid surface. (author)

  7. Effective viscosity of 2D suspensions - Confinement effects

    Peyla, Philippe; Priem, Stephane; Vincent, Doyeux; Farutin, Alexander; Ismail, Mourad

    2014-11-01

    We study the rheology of a sheared 2D suspension of non-Brownian disks in presence of walls. Although, it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension, provides valuable insights and helps to understand 3D results. For instance, we examine the role of particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in determining the rheology of confined sheared suspensions. In addition we evaluate the intrinsic viscosity as well as the contribution of hydrodynamic interactions to the dissipation as a function of a wide range of confinements. Thanks to the direct visualisation of the whole 2D Stokes flow, we are able to give a clear interpretation about the rheology of semi-dilute confined suspensions.

  8. S-duality and 2d Topological QFT

    Gadde, Abhijit; Rastelli, Leonardo; Razamat, Shlomo S

    2009-01-01

    We study the superconformal index for the class of N=2 4d superconformal field theories recently introduced by Gaiotto. These theories are defined by compactifying the (2,0) 6d theory on a Riemann surface with punctures. We interpret the index of the 4d theory associated to an n-punctured Riemann surface as the n-point correlation function of a 2d topological QFT living on the surface. Invariance of the index under generalized S-duality transformations (the mapping class group of the Riemann surface) translates into associativity of the operator algebra of the 2d TQFT. In the A_1 case, for which the 4d SCFTs have a Lagrangian realization, the structure constants and metric of the 2d TQFT can be calculated explicitly in terms of elliptic gamma functions. Associativity then holds thanks to a remarkable symmetry of an elliptic hypergeometric beta integral, proved very recently by van de Bult.

  9. 2D growth processes: SLE and Loewner chains

    Bauer, Michel [Service de Physique Theorique de Saclay, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France) and Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)]. E-mail: michel.bauer@cea.fr; Bernard, Denis [Service de Physique Theorique de Saclay, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France) and Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)]. E-mail: denis.bernard@cea.fr

    2006-10-15

    This review provides an introduction to two dimensional growth processes. Although it covers a variety of processes such as diffusion limited aggregation, it is mostly devoted to a detailed presentation of stochastic Schramm-Loewner evolutions (SLE) which are Markov processes describing interfaces in 2D critical systems. It starts with an informal discussion, using numerical simulations, of various examples of 2D growth processes and their connections with statistical mechanics. SLE is then introduced and Schramm's argument mapping conformally invariant interfaces to SLE is explained. A substantial part of the review is devoted to reveal the deep connections between statistical mechanics and processes, and more specifically to the present context, between 2D critical systems and SLE. Some of the remarkable properties of SLE are explained, together with the tools for computing with it. This review has been written with the aim of filling the gap between the mathematical and the physical literature on the subject.

  10. 2D bifurcations and Newtonian properties of memristive Chua's circuits

    Marszalek, W.; Podhaisky, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two interesting properties of Chua's circuits are presented. First, two-parameter bifurcation diagrams of Chua's oscillatory circuits with memristors are presented. To obtain various 2D bifurcation images a substantial numerical effort, possibly with parallel computations, is needed. The numerical algorithm is described first and its numerical code for 2D bifurcation image creation is available for free downloading. Several color 2D images and the corresponding 1D greyscale bifurcation diagrams are included. Secondly, Chua's circuits are linked to Newton's law φ ''= F(t,φ,φ')/m with φ=\\text{flux} , constant m > 0, and the force term F(t,φ,φ') containing memory terms. Finally, the jounce scalar equations for Chua's circuits are also discussed.

  11. 2D materials for photon conversion and nanophotonics

    Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.

    2015-09-01

    The field of two-dimensional (2D) materials has the potential to enable unique applications across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. While 2D-layered materials hold promise for next-generation photon-conversion intrinsic limitations and challenges exist that shall be overcome. Here we discuss the intrinsic limitations as well as application opportunities of this new class of materials, and is sponsored by the NSF program Designing Materials to Revolutionize and Engineer our Future (DMREF) program, which links to the President's Materials Genome Initiative. We present general material-related details for photon conversion, and show that taking advantage of the mechanical flexibility of 2D materials by rolling MoS2/graphene/hexagonal boron nitride stack to a spiral solar cell allows for solar absorption up to 90%.

  12. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-09-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.

  13. Design and Realization of Dynamic Obstacle on URWPSSim2D

    Xiao Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation system is charged with the strategy validation and dual team meets, and as the 2-dimensional simulation platform for underwater robotic fish game, URWPGSim2D is the assigned platform for Chinese underwater robot contest and Robot cup underwater program. By now on URWPGSim2D, there is only static obstacles,thus short of changeableness. In order to improve the changeableness and innovation of robotic fish contest, to extend the space for the programming of contest strategy, and to increase the interest, this paper study the design of dynamic obstacles on URWPGSim2D, and design and implement two kinds of dynamic obstacles, which are the evadible dynamic obstacle and the forcing dribbling obstacle.  

  14. CYP2D6 genotype determination in the Danish population

    Brøsen, K; Nielsen, P N; Brusgaard, K;

    1994-01-01

    CYP2D6 genotyping was carried out by XbaI restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and polymerase chain reaction in 168 healthy Danish volunteers, 77 extensive metabolizers (EM) and 91 poor metabolizers (PM) of sparteine. All EM were genotyped correctly as heterozygous or homozygous for.......11-9.10). The median difference was 0.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.02-0.16). CYP2D6 phenotyping is a promising tool in tailoring the individual dose of tricyclic antidepressants, some neuroleplics and some antiarrhythmics. However if the genotype test could be improved with regard to both sensitivity in PM...... and the ability to predict CYP2D6 activity in EM then it would be of even greater clinical value in therapeutic drug monitoring. Udgivelsesdato: 1994-null...

  15. 2-D Coda and Direct Wave Attenuation Tomography in Northern Italy

    Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Gok, R; Phillips, W S; Malagnini, L

    2007-10-17

    A 1-D coda method was proposed by Mayeda et al. (2003) in order to obtain stable seismic source moment-rate spectra using narrowband coda envelope measurements. That study took advantage of the averaging nature of coda waves to derive stable amplitude measurements taking into account all propagation, site, and Sto-coda transfer function effects. Recently this methodology was applied to micro earthquake data sets from three sub-regions of northern Italy (i.e., western Alps, northern Apennines and eastern Alps). Since the study regions were small, ranging between local-to-near-regional distances, the simple 1-D path assumptions used in the coda method worked very well. The lateral complexity of this region would suggest, however, that a 2-D path correction might provide even better results if the datasets were combined, especially when paths traverse larger distances and complicated regions. The structural heterogeneity of northern Italy makes the region ideal to test the extent to which coda variance can be reduced further by using a 2-D Q tomography technique. The approach we use has been developed by Phillips et al. (2005) and is an extension of previous amplitude ratio techniques to remove source effects from the inversion. The method requires some assumptions such as isotropic source radiation which is generally true for coda waves. Our results are compared against direct Swave inversions for 1/Q and results from both share very similar attenuation features that coincide with known geologic structures. We compare our results with those derived from direct waves as well as some recent results from northern California obtained by Mayeda et al. (2005) which tested the same tomographic methodology applied in this study to invert for 1/Q. We find that 2-D coda path corrections for this region significantly improve upon the 1-D corrections, in contrast to California where only a marginal improvement was observed. We attribute this difference to stronger lateral

  16. EEG simulation by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators

    Research highlights: → ANN of 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for EEG simulation. → An inverse problem solution (PRCGA) is proposed. → Good matching between the simulated and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. - Abstract: An artificial neuronal network composed by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for brain waves (EEG) simulation. For the inverse problem solution a parallel real-coded genetic algorithm (PRCGA) is proposed. In order to conduct thorough comparison between the simulated and target signal characteristics, a spectrum analysis of the signals is undertaken. A good matching between the theoretical and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. Numerical results of calculations are presented and discussed.

  17. Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD

    Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D...... Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils....

  18. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    Pachón, Leonardo A. [Grupo de Física Atómica y Molecular, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Marcus, Andrew H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Oregon Center for Optics, Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States); Aspuru-Guzik, Alán [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  19. CH2D+, the Search for the Holy Grail

    Roueff, Evelyne; Gerin, Maryvonne; Lis, Dariusz C.; Wootten, Alwyn; Marcelino, Nuria; Cernicharo, Jose; Tercero, Belen

    2013-10-01

    CH2D+, the singly deuterated counterpart of CH3+, offers an alternative way to mediate formation of deuterated species at temperatures of several tens of Kelvin, as compared to the release of deuterated species from grains. We report a longstanding observational search for this molecular ion, whose rotational spectroscopy is not yet completely secure. We summarize the main spectroscopic properties of this molecule and discuss the chemical network leading to the formation of CH2D+, with explicit account of the ortho/para forms of H2, H3+, and CH3+. Astrochemical models support the presence of this molecular ion in moderately warm environments at a marginal level.

  20. CH2D+, the Search for the Holy Grail

    Roueff, E; Lis, D C; Wootten, A; Marcelino, N; cernicharo, J; Tercero, B

    2013-01-01

    CH2D+, the singly deuterated counterpart of CH3+, offers an alternative way to mediate formation of deuterated species at temperatures of several tens of K, as compared to the release of deuterated species from grains. We report a longstanding observational search for this molecular ion, whose rotational spectroscopy is not yet completely secure. We summarize the main spectroscopic properties of this molecule and discuss the chemical network leading to the formation of CH2D+, with explicit account of the ortho/para forms of H2, H3+ and CH3+. Astrochemical models support the presence of this molecular ion in moderately warm environments at a marginal level.

  1. Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD

    This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils

  2. Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control

    Pellenard, Bertrand

    2011-12-01

    We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse initial tiling of the 2D domain, enforces each of the desirable mesh quality criteria (size, shape, orientation, degree, regularity) one at a time, in an order designed not to undo previous enhancements. Our experiments demonstrate how well our resulting quadrangle meshes conform to a wide range of input sizing and orientation fields.

  3. 2D-ACAR investigations of PPT aramid fibres

    2D-ACAR spectra of PPT (poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide)) fibres which contain structural elongated open spaces in the crystallographic unit cell show a p-Ps peak with an elliptical cross-section and side lobes. Peak broadening suggests dimensions of ∝14-17 by 7-9 A for the open spaces and indicates some penetration of Ps into the interlayer spacing. The side lobes can be related to projected reciprocal lattice points and indicate Ps delocalization. 2D-ACAR has also been used to study the evolution of water release from the open spaces. (orig.)

  4. SKIMO: corto de animación 2D

    VALERO BALLESTER, AIDA AMPARO

    2015-01-01

    El siguiente Trabajo Final de Grado llamado “Skimo” consiste en un teaser de animación 2D enfocado a ser finalizado el próximo año durante la realización del Diploma en Animación de personajes 2D del Máster de animación. Realizado en solitario como reto personal durante el curso presente, siendo la primera vez que trabajaba la animación. Para este proyecto he realizado toda la preproducción (layout, animática, storyboard, diseño de personajes, fondos, etc), animación en pape...

  5. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed

  6. Nomenclature for human CYP2D6 alleles.

    Daly, A K; Brockmöller, J; Broly, F; Eichelbaum, M; Evans, W E; Gonzalez, F J; Huang, J D; Idle, J R; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Ishizaki, T; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Meyer, U A; Nebert, D W; Steen, V M; Wolf, C R; Zanger, U M

    1996-06-01

    To standardize CYP2D6 allele nomenclature, and to conform with international human gene nomenclature guidelines, an alternative to the current arbitrary system is described. Based on recommendations for human genome nomenclature, we propose that alleles be designated by CYP2D6 followed by an asterisk and a combination of roman letters and arabic numerals distinct for each allele with the number specifying the key mutation and, where appropriate, a letter specifying additional mutations. Criteria for classification as a separate allele and protein nomenclature are also presented. PMID:8807658

  7. Self-dual strings and 2D SYM

    Hosomichi, Kazuo; Lee, Sungjay

    2015-01-01

    We study the system of M2-branes suspended between parallel M5-branes using ABJM model with a natural half-BPS boundary condition. For small separation between M5-branes, the worldvolume theory is shown to reduce to a 2D super Yang-Mills theory with some similarity to q-deformed Yang-Mills theory. The gauge coupling is related to the position of the branes in an interesting manner. The theory is considerably different from the 2D theory proposed for multiple "M-strings". We make a detailed comparison of elliptic genus of the two descriptions and find only a partial agreement.

  8. Self-dual Strings and 2D SYM

    Hosomichi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We study the system of M2-branes suspended between parallel M5-branes using ABJM model with a natural half-BPS boundary condition. For small separation between M5-branes, the worldvolume theory is shown to reduce to a 2D N=(4,4) super Yang-Mills theory with some similarity to q-deformed Yang-Mills theory. The gauge coupling is related to the position of the branes in an interesting manner. The theory is considerably different from the 2D theory proposed for multiple "M-strings". We make a detailed comparison of elliptic genus of the two descriptions and find only a partial agreement.

  9. Synthesis of 2D materials in arc plasmas

    In this article we review recent efforts focused on synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) materials in an arc-plasma based process with particular focus on graphene. We present state-of-the-art experimental data on various attempts to employ the arc plasma technique for the graphene synthesis and consider growth mechanisms including precipitation, surface-catalyzed processes and a substrate-independent approach. The potential of arc synthesis for the growth of other types of 2D materials and future prospects are discussed. (review article)

  10. A novel improved method for analysis of 2D diffusion relaxation data—2D PARAFAC-Laplace decomposition

    Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T.; Engelsen, Søren B.

    2007-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2- D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T2- D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T2- D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D = 3 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 and T2 = 180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D = 10 -9 m 2 s -1, T2 = 10 ms and D = 3 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1, T2 = 13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it