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Sample records for 27-kiloton water target

  1. A long baseline RICH with a 27-kiloton water target and radiator for detection of neutrino oscillations

    Ypsilantis, T.; Seguinot, J.; Zichichi, A.

    1997-01-01

    A 27 kt water volume is investigated as a target for a long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso. Charged secondaries from the neutrino interactions produce Cherenkov photons in water which are imaged as rings by a spherical mirror. The photon detector elements are 14 400 photomultipliers (PM`s) of 127 mm diameter or 3600 HPD`s of 250 mm diameter with single photon sensitivity. A coincidence signal of about 300 pixel elements in time with the SPS beam starts readout in bins of 1 ns over a period of 128 ns. Momentum, direction, and velocity of hadrons and mucons are determined from the width, center, and radius of the rings, respectively. Momentum is measured if multiple scattering dominates the ring width, as is the case for most of the particles of interest. Momentum, direction, and velocity of hadrons and muons are determined from the width, center, and radius of the rings, respectively. Momentum is measured if multiple scattering dominates the ring width, as is the case for most of the particles of interest. Momentum resolutions of 1-10%, mass resolutions of 5-50 MeV, and direction resolutions of < 1 mrad are achievable. Thresholds in water for muons, pions, kaons, and protons are 0.12, 0.16, 0.55, and 1.05 GeV/c, respectively. Electrons and gammas can be measured with energy resolution {sigma}{sub E}/E{approx}8.5%/{radical}E(GeV) and with direction resolution {approx} 1 mrad. The detector can be sited either inside a Gran Sasso tunnel or above ground because it is directional and the SPS beam is pulsed; thus the rejection of cosmic ray background is excellent.

  2. Kansas Water Quality Action Targeting System (KATS)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This system is a revision of the original KATS system developed in 1990 as a tool to aid resource managers target Kansas valuable and vulnerable water resources for...

  3. Pyrographite water-cooled target analysis

    This report presents a study of two pyrographic water-cooled targets planned for use in the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. A steady-state thermal stress analysis was done that included a parameter study on the physical and numerical variables that affect the problem. The maximum target temperatures and stresses were calculated and compared for a variety of conditions. The comparisons show that the 0.6-cm half-width fin target proposed for the A-2 line is the most vulnerable of the targets analyzed

  4. Targeting and design of chilled water network

    Highlights: • Minimum flowrate targeting for chilled water network. • Mixed series/parallel configuration of chilled water-using units. • Integrated cooling and chilled water networks. - Abstract: Chilled water is a common cooling agent used in various industrial, commercial and institutional facilities. In conventional practice, chilled water is distributed via chilled water networks (CHWNs) in parallel configuration to provide required air conditioning and/or equipment cooling in the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In this paper, process integration approach based on pinch analysis technique is used to address energy efficiency issues in the CHWN system for grassroots design problem. Graphical and algebraic targeting techniques are developed to identify the minimum chilled water flowrate needed to remove a given amount of heat load from the CHWN. Doing this leads to higher chilled water return temperature and enhanced energy efficiency of the HVAC system. A recent proposed network design technique is extended to synthesize the CHWN in a mixed series/parallel configuration. A novel concept of integrated cooling and chilled water networks (IWN) is also proposed in this work, with its targeting and design techniques presented. Hypothetical examples and an industrial case study are solved to elucidate the proposed approaches

  5. Enhancing sector data management to target the water poor

    Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate data management as the basis of effective performance reporting is crucial if sector institutions are to track whether they achieve their objectives. This paper shows how a post process of readily available data to construct water poverty maps can be used to identify effectively the most water poor communities, and thus improve the targeting of sector development policies and projects. To this end, water poverty takes its definition from the Water Poverty Index, which combin...

  6. Saturation conditions in elongated single-cavity boiling water targets

    Steyn, G. F.; Vermeulen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is shown that a very simple model reproduces the pressure versus beam current characteristics of elongated single-cavity boiling water targets for 18F production surprisingly well. By fitting the model calculations to measured data, values for a single free parameter, namely an overall heat-transfer coefficient, have been extracted for several IBA Nirta H218O targets. IBA recently released details on their new Nirta targets that have a conical shape, which constitutes an im...

  7. Monitoring Water Targets in the Post-2015 Development Goals

    Lawford, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Water Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) provides a comprehensive approach to developing water services in a way that ensures social equity, health, well-being and sustainability for all. In particular, the water goal includes targets related to sanitation, wastewater, water quality, water efficiency, integrated water management and ecosystems (details to be finalized in September 2015). As part of its implementation, methods to monitor target indicators must be developed. National governments will be responsible for reporting on progress toward these targets using national data sets and possibly information from global data sets that applies to their countries. Oversight of this process through the use of global data sets is desirable for encouraging the use of standardized information for comparison purposes. Disparities in monitoring due to very sparse data networks in some countries can be addressed by using geospatially consistent data products from space-based remote sensing. However, to fully exploit these data, capabilities will be needed to downscale information, to interpolate and assimilate data both in time and space, and to integrate these data with socio-economic data sets, model outputs and survey data in a geographical information system framework. Citizen data and other non-standard data types may also supplement national data systems. A comprehensive and integrated analysis and dissemination system is needed to enable the important contributions that satellites could make to achieving Water SDG targets. This presentation will outline the progress made in assessing the needs for information to track progress on the Water SDG, options for meeting these needs using existing data infrastructure, and pathways for expanding the role of Earth observations in SDG monitoring. It will also discuss the potential roles of Future Earth's Sustainable Water Futures Programme (SWFP) and the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in coordinating these efforts.

  8. Penetration of Granular Projectiles into a Water Target

    González-Gutiérrez, Jorge; J. L. Carrillo-Estrada; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The penetration of low-speed projectiles into a water target has been studied in the last several years to understand the physics behind the formation and collapse of cavities. In such studies, the projectiles employed were solid bodies or liquid drops. Here we report similar impact experiments using granular projectiles, with the aim to investigate how the morphology of the cavities is determined by the balance between the dynamic pressure exerted by the fluid and the cohesive strength of th...

  9. A Simple Methodology for Targeting of Water Minimization

    This paper presents the load problem table (LPT) a numerical technique to establish the minimum water, wastewater targets and the pinch locations for continuous water using processes. The LPT has been adapted from the numerical technique problem table analysis (PT A) in heat integration and composition interval table (CIT) in mass integration . The LPT which is tabulated in nature, has overcome the tedious graphical drawing exercise and inaccuracy problem associated with graphical technique. The broad applicability and ease of implementation of LPT are shown and verified through the solution of several previous case studies published in earlier literature includes mass transfer based as well as the non mass transfer based water using operation and problems with multiple pinch points. In addition, the LPT procedure is characterized by its simplicity and can be implemented by hand calculations

  10. Examination of four-sodium-water reaction target tubes

    Lee, W.T.

    1970-06-26

    Metallurgical examinations and evaluations were performed on a group of four target tubes from Atomic Power Development Associates (APDA) Rig 10. This group included two 2/sup 1///sub 4/ Cr--1 Mo ferritic steel tubes, one Type 304 SS, and one Incoloy 800 tube. These tubes had been exposed to small leaks of water in 600/sup 0/F sodium. Metallographic data indicate that the material loss (wastage) was primarily due to impact (or erosion) of liquid particles. No evidence of corrosion was found in the wasted areas of any target tubes. Minor corrosion was observed on the outside diameter of the austenitic stainless-steel tubes only in areas away from impact; no corrosion was detected on the outside diameter of the ferritic steel tubes. Hardness measurements and microstructural analyses revealed that the maximum temperature may have reached 1600/sup 0/F in the wasted areas. This localized temperature increase appeared to enhance the wastage process for all target tubes regardless of composition. Surface grain elongation and plastic deformation lines were observed in wasted areas, as well as in other areas. However, their cause(s) cannot be ascertained with respect to deformation due to water-jet impact, or deformation due to fabrication and handling, or both. Based on the volumetric measurements of the wastage zones produced, Incoloy 800 (tube No. 21) exhibited greater resistance to water-jet impact/erosion (penetration depth approximately 0.011 in. in 570 sec), while 2/sup 1///sub 4/ Cr--1 Mo ferritic steel displayed the least (depth of penetration 0.064 in. in 21 sec).

  11. Integrated targeted and non-targeted analysis of water sample extracts with micro-scale UHPLC–MS

    Dominik Deyerling; Karl-Werner Schramm

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive method is introduced to detect selected pharmaceutical residues and polar pesticides with UHPLC–MS in water samples of different origin. Active or passive water sampling was combined with a laboratory solid-phase extraction cleanup and stable isotope dilution analysis. Recovery experiments demonstrated that the internal standard correction performed well for the compensation of matrix effects. Besides, the original targeted analysis approach was expanded by non-target analysis of ...

  12. Recycling heterogeneous americium targets in a boiling water reactor

    One of the limiting contributors to the heat load constraint for a long term spent fuel repository is the decay of americium-241. A possible option to reduce the heat load produced by Am-241 is to eliminate it via transmutation in a light water reactor thermal neutron environment, in particular, by taking advantage of the large thermal fission cross section of Am-242 and Am-242m. In this study we employ lattice loading optimization techniques to define the loadings and arrangements of fuel pins with blended americium and uranium oxide in boiling water reactor bundles, specifically, by defining the incineration of pre-loaded americium as an objective function to maximize americium transmutation. Subsequently, the viability of these optimized lattices is tested by assembling them into bundles with Am-spiked fuel pins and by loading these bundles into realistic three-dimensional BWR core-wide simulations that model multiple reload cycles and observe standard operational constraints. These simulations are possible via our collaboration with the Westinghouse Electric Co. which facilitates the use of industrial-caliber design tools such as the PHOENIX-4/POLCA-7 sequence and the Core Master 2 GUI work environment for fuel management. The resulting analysis confirms the ability to axially uniformly eliminating roughly 90% of the pre-loaded inventory of recycled Am-241 in BWR bundles with heterogeneous target pins. This high level of incineration was achieved within three to four 18-month operational cycles, which is equivalent to a typical in-core residence time of a BWR bundle.

  13. The Costs of Meeting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

    Hutton, Guy; Varughese, Mili

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated goal for water has recently been endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly as part of the sustainable development goal (SDG) framework. This study provides an assessment of the global costs of meeting the WASH-related targets of Goal #6. The targets assessed include achieving universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all (target 6.1), achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and ending open defecation (target 6...

  14. Essentials and Targets of Water Resources Management in Kenya

    Fresh water comprises of 3% of the global waters and the rest is saline and not suitable for consumption without subjecting it to expensive treatment. Water is associated with development since civilization started in areas where water was easily accessible. However, much of the 3% is locked up in the ice caps. Water scarcity in any community is associated with abject poverty. The ecosystem functions of water and it's interactions with other environmental resources are least appreciated which has contributed to over exploitation, misuse, contamination, impairment and degradation of water bodies and their catchments. Over-exploitation of ground water in some coastal areas has in turn led to of seawater into freshwater aquifers and therefore making the water from aquifers unaccessible due to salinity

  15. Methods of targeting animal sources of fecal pollution in water

    In this chapter, proposed chemical and biological MST indicators for the determination of animal fecal sources are discussed. The biological indicators are grouped based on the phylogenetic description of the proposed target (eukarya, bacteria, and virus). A comprehensive descrip...

  16. Water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at LAMPF: design and operation

    Design considerations and actual operating experience are reported for water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Emphasis is placed on the use of finite element computer calculations to determine target temperatures and stresses, which can then be evaluated to judge the usefulness of a particular design. Consideration is also given to the swelling of the target following irradiation, and to the measures taken to prolong target lifetime

  17. A niobium water target for routine production of [F-18]Fluoride with a MC 17 cyclotron

    Siikanen, J.; Ohlsson, T.; Medema, J.; Van-Essen, J.; Sandell, A.

    2013-01-01

    A [F-18]Fluoride water target was constructed for a Scanditronix MC 17 cyclotron, without a beam line, with a typical wide beam of similar to 30 x 5 mm(2). Niobium was used as target chamber material. One hour irradiation with 45 mu A protons yields about 110 GBq [F-18] Fluoride. The saturation yiel

  18. Indirectly water-cooled production target at J-PARC hadron facility

    After the radioactive material leak accident at the J-PARC hadron experimental facility on May 23, 2013, we designed a new production target, which is capable of a primary proton beam with the energy of 30 GeV and power of 50 kW. It is made of gold and cooled by water through a copper block. For the countermeasures of the recurrence of the accident, the target is enclosed by an airtight chamber and helium gas is circulated to monitor the target soundness. In this paper, technical details of the new target design are presented. (author)

  19. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to ...

  20. Meeting drinking water and sanitation targets of MDGs. Water use & competition in sub-Saharan Africa

    Hoek van der, Marjolijn

    2006-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation is of vital importance for human beings. Improving the access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation in developing countries is therefore one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be me

  1. Mathematical optimisation of drainage and economic land use for target water and salt yields

    Nordblom, Thomas L.; Hume, Iain H.; Bathgate, Andrew D.; Reynolds, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Land managers in upper catchments are being asked to make expensive changes in land use, such as by planting trees, to attain environmental service targets, including reduced salt loads in rivers, to meet needs of downstream towns, farms and natural habitats. End-of-valley targets for salt loads have sometimes been set without a quantitative model of cause and effect regarding impacts on water yields, economic efficiency or distribution of costs and benefits among stakeholders. This paper pre...

  2. Risk determination method for accidental water basin contamination based on risk source coupling with sensitive targets.

    Li, Zongfeng; Zeng, Bo; Zhou, Tinggang; Li, Guowei; Zhu, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Accidental water basin pollution seriously threatens human health and ecological security, but rapid, effective methods for evaluating this threat are lacking. This paper aims to develop a risk evaluation method for basin accidents by coupling the risk source with sensitive targets to evaluate the zone accident risk levels of basins and prevent the accidental environmental pollution of water. This method incorporates the interplay between risk sources and sensitive targets by evaluating the zone risk levels of water environments from different sources, effectiveness of the risk source control mechanisms, vulnerability of sensitive targets and spatial and temporal relationships between these sources and targets. Using the Three Gorges Reservoir region as an example, a risk system for water basin pollution incidents consisting of a risk indicator quantification system, a risk zoning method and a verification method for the zoning results is developed and implemented. The results were verified in a field investigation, which showed that the risk zoning model provides rapid, effective and reliable zoning results. This research method could serve as a theoretical reference and technological support for evaluating water basin accident risks. Furthermore, the results are useful for evaluating and protecting the aquatic environments in the Three Gorges Reservoir region. PMID:26207430

  3. TARGET ANALYSIS OF SUZHOU CREEK REHABILITATION PROJECT STAGE II:BASED ON WATER QUALITY MODEL

    LIAO Zhen-liang; XU Zu-xin

    2004-01-01

    The Suzhou Creek is a seriously polluted tidal river in Shanghai. The Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation Project was launched in 1998, and the total investment will surpass 10 billion yuan RMB. It is important to assess the effectiveness of the project and ascertain its targets. In this study, by analyzing the achievements of Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation Project (Stage I) and its remaining problems, the main tasks of the Project Stage II are proposed. These works are wastewater interception, sediment dredging, bidirectional water diversion, and reconstruction of municipal pump stations. The water quality model established with USEPA's WASP is employed to analyze the quantitative targets of the Project Stage II. In the Project Stage II, the water quality of mainstream and tributaries will be improved continuously, the valus of CODCr, BOD5, DO in the mainstream will steadily attain Class IV according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard, and the ecological environment of Suzhou Creek with continuously recover.

  4. Methicillin-Resistant Bacteria Inhabiting Surface Waters Monitored by mecA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes.

    Seyedmonir, Elnaz; Yilmaz, Fadime; Icgen, Bulent

    2016-08-01

    Part of a 20-60 kb staphylococcal chromosome cassette called mecA encodes low-affinity penicillin-binding protein PBP2a and causes methicillin resistance. Among all methicillin-resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen and main concern worldwide. Although the origin of the mecA is not very well-defined, mecA homologues are also ubiquitous in methicillin-resistant non-staphylococcal bacteria. Due to the dissemination of methicillin resistance through the transmission of mecA gene among staphylococcal and non-staphylococcal bacteria inhabiting surface waters, there is a need to monitor mecA gene in these waters for public health safety. Therefore, this study aimed at monitoring mecA harboring bacteria inhabiting surface waters by using fluorescently labelled mecA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Under the hybridization conditions of 55 % formamide and 0.020 M NaCl at 46°C, the oligonucleotide probe used in the study showed high hybridization stringency to the mecA gene targeted. The strong linear relationships observed between the signal intensity and the target gene were used to assess the population dynamics of mecA harboring isolates over a 2-year-period. The results indicated that mecA-targeted oligonucleotide probes can be effectively used for in situ monitoring of methicillin resistant isolates inhabiting surface waters. PMID:27156085

  5. Water target for large [18F-] fluoride production at lower cost

    In this presentation authors present experimental results use of [18O]water target for large [18F-] fluoride production at lower cost. It is concluded: Method is safe, reliable, plugable; 10 Ci produced with 80 μA single beam; Cost per Ci reduced by 40 %; Double production in 2 hours

  6. Water chemistry control for the target/blanket region of the accelerator production of tritium

    High-energy particle interactions in the various components of the target/blanket region of the Accelerator Production of Tritium lead to heat generation and deposition. Heavy-water and light-water systems are used to cool the target/blanket system and associated equipment. Structural materials include Inconel alloy 718, aluminum-clad lead rods, aluminum tubes containing helium-3 and tritium gas, and stainless steel components. Proper coolant chemistry is required to maximize neutron production, minimize corrosion of components, and minimize activity buildup. Corrosion-related phenomena and development of coolant and moderator corrosion control for both power and defense fission reactors has been studied extensively over the past 50 years. Less is known, however, about cooling systems for accelerators where a variety of transient chemical species and spallation products may be formed. The following provides a discussion on the issues that need to be addressed for proper water chemistry control for the APT system

  7. The geometrical acoustic method for calculating the echo of targets submerged in a shallow water waveguide

    CHEN Yan; TANG Weilin; FAN Wei; FAN Jun

    2012-01-01

    A geometrical acoustic method based on image-source method and physicM acoustic method was developed to calculate the echo of targets submerged in the shallow water waveguide. The incident rays and the scattering rays are reflected by two boundaries for many times, and then the back rays become countless. The total backscattering field is obtained through summing up the scattering field produced by each combination of incident rays and back rays. The echo of the 10m-radius pressure release sphere in Pekeris waveguide with the range is calculated by the geometrical acoustic method. Compared with the results calculated by the wave acoustic method in the available literature, it shows that both are in accordance on average value and descend trend. The following results indicate that the difference between Effective Target Strength (ETS) in shallow water and the Target Strength (TS) in free space for spheres and certain other rounded objects is small. However, the ETS of some targets such as cone-shaped is quite different from TS in free space, which can lead to large errors in estimating a target's scattering property using traditional sonar equation. Compared with the method of wave acoustics, the geometrical acoustic method not only has the definite physical meaning but also can calculate the echo of complex objects in shallow water waveguide.

  8. Experiments on D-T neutron source characteristics of an FNS high speed water cooled target

    The D-T neutron source is essential for the fusion neutronics experiments and it is of importance to characterize the source conditions in order to perform the experiment as well as analysis with high accuracy. A fast water cooled D-T target system at the end of the 80deg beam line of FNS accelerator was installed for the fusion blanket integral experiments. The target assembly has a rather complex and tight structure in order to reduce high heat production due to high incident d+ beam current at the target position. It is expected that the target structure influences the neutron spectrum and angular distributions of the neutrons emitted from the assembly. Prior to successive blanket neutronics experiments, measurements have been carried out on the source characteristics. The angular distribution of the neutron fluxes on horizontal, vertical and axial planes were measured with the foil activation technique. The angular distribution was also measured by an NE213 scintillation counter using a dual rotatable deck. The angles dependent neutron spectra around the target were obtained with TOF technique. Experimental results were discussed on the basis of the nuclear reaction kinematics for 3T(d,n)4He by taking the target structure into account. As a result, it was proved that the structure of the assembly affects significantly the neutron emission character. The experimental data obtained will be used for verification of analytical calculation of D-T source. (author)

  9. Rural:urban inequalities in post 2015 targets and indicators for drinking-water

    Disparities in access to drinking water between rural and urban areas are pronounced. Although use of improved sources has increased more rapidly in rural areas, rising from 62% in 1990 to 81% in 2011, the proportion of the rural population using an improved water source remains substantially lower than in urban areas. Inequalities in coverage are compounded by disparities in other aspects of water service. Not all improved sources are safe and evidence from a systematic review demonstrates that water is more likely to contain detectable fecal indicator bacteria in rural areas. Piped water on premises is a service enjoyed primarily by those living in urban areas so differentiating amongst improved sources would exacerbate rural:urban disparities yet further. We argue that an urban bias may have resulted due to apparent stagnation in urban coverage and the inequity observed between urban and peri-urban areas. The apparent stagnation at around 95% coverage in urban areas stems in part from relative population growth – over the last two decades more people gained access to improved water in urban areas. There are calls for setting higher standards in urban areas which would exacerbate the already extreme rural disadvantage. Instead of setting different targets, health, economic, and human rights perspectives, We suggest that the focus should be kept on achieving universal access to safe water (primarily in rural areas) while monitoring progress towards higher service levels, including greater water safety (both in rural and urban areas and among different economic strata)

  10. Rural:urban inequalities in post 2015 targets and indicators for drinking-water

    Bain, R.E.S. [The Water Institute at UNC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wright, J.A. [Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Christenson, E. [The Water Institute at UNC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Bartram, J.K., E-mail: jbartram@unc.edu [The Water Institute at UNC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Disparities in access to drinking water between rural and urban areas are pronounced. Although use of improved sources has increased more rapidly in rural areas, rising from 62% in 1990 to 81% in 2011, the proportion of the rural population using an improved water source remains substantially lower than in urban areas. Inequalities in coverage are compounded by disparities in other aspects of water service. Not all improved sources are safe and evidence from a systematic review demonstrates that water is more likely to contain detectable fecal indicator bacteria in rural areas. Piped water on premises is a service enjoyed primarily by those living in urban areas so differentiating amongst improved sources would exacerbate rural:urban disparities yet further. We argue that an urban bias may have resulted due to apparent stagnation in urban coverage and the inequity observed between urban and peri-urban areas. The apparent stagnation at around 95% coverage in urban areas stems in part from relative population growth – over the last two decades more people gained access to improved water in urban areas. There are calls for setting higher standards in urban areas which would exacerbate the already extreme rural disadvantage. Instead of setting different targets, health, economic, and human rights perspectives, We suggest that the focus should be kept on achieving universal access to safe water (primarily in rural areas) while monitoring progress towards higher service levels, including greater water safety (both in rural and urban areas and among different economic strata)

  11. Methodology for estimation of potential for solar water heating in a target area

    Proper estimation of potential of any renewable energy technology is essential for planning and promotion of the technology. The methods reported in literature for estimation of potential of solar water heating in a target area are aggregate in nature. A methodology for potential estimation (technical, economic and market potential) of solar water heating in a target area is proposed in this paper. This methodology links the micro-level factors and macro-level market effects affecting the diffusion or adoption of solar water heating systems. Different sectors with end uses of low temperature hot water are considered for potential estimation. Potential is estimated at each end use point by simulation using TRNSYS taking micro-level factors. The methodology is illustrated for a synthetic area in India with an area of 2 sq. km and population of 10,000. The end use sectors considered are residential, hospitals, nursing homes and hotels. The estimated technical potential and market potential are 1700 m2 and 350 m2 of collector area, respectively. The annual energy savings for the technical potential in the area is estimated as 110 kW h/capita and 0.55 million-kW h/sq. km. area, with an annual average peak saving of 1 MW. The annual savings is 650-kW h per m2 of collector area and accounts for approximately 3% of the total electricity consumption of the target area. Some of the salient features of the model are the factors considered for potential estimation; estimation of electrical usage pattern for typical day, amount of electricity savings and savings during the peak load. The framework is general and enables accurate estimation of potential of solar water heating for a city, block. Energy planners and policy makers can use this framework for tracking and promotion of diffusion of solar water heating systems. (author)

  12. Financial and Strategic Analysis of Potential M&A Targets in the Indian Water Industry

    Rajaram, Ganesan

    2012-01-01

    Metito Utilities Limited (MUL) is a Middle East based Water Treatment Company with a growth rate of 20% CAGR. The company‟s vision is to become a leading player in water and wastewater industry in emerging markets, such as: India, China and Africa. Metito specifically aspires to be a $700 million company and have a diversified risk and market share in developing nations within a span of five years. The company is keen on abiding by its vision and is looking for a potential acquisition target ...

  13. Direct measurement of a proton beam passing through a water target by the induced change in the water conductivity

    A water target for use in a neutrino experiment at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility was constructed with monitors to measure the transient change in water conductivity induced by the passage of the proton beam. This novel monitoring technique permitted a direct measure of the 800-MeV incident proton beam inside the target and gave a measure of the beam alignment. The conductivity persisted over many milliseconds and exhibited an exponential time decay after the beam pulse ended with a characteristic time constant consistent with the production and recombination of OH- and H3O+ ions in the water. Though the concentration of these ions was observed to increase linearly with the incident proton current, when compared to the formation of ion-pairs by direct energy loss of the incident protons, the process producing the more stable conduction ions observed in this experiment was found to be many orders of magnitude less efficient. The cause of this inefficiency is not understood, but suggests one or more intermediate processes are involved in their production

  14. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Guy Hutton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  15. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  16. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  17. Targeted nano analysis of water and ions in the nucleus using cryo-correlative microscopy.

    Nolin, Frédérique; Ploton, Dominique; Wortham, Laurence; Tchelidze, Pavel; Bobichon, Hélène; Banchet, Vincent; Lalun, Nathalie; Terryn, Christine; Michel, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The cell nucleus is a crowded volume in which the concentration of macromolecules is high. These macromolecules sequester most of the water molecules and ions which, together, are very important for stabilization and folding of proteins and nucleic acids. To better understand how the localization and quantity of water and ions vary with nuclear activity, it is necessary to study them simultaneously by using newly developed cell imaging approaches. Some years ago, we showed that dark-field cryo-Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-STEM) allows quantification of the mass percentages of water, dry matter, and elements (among which are ions) in freeze-dried ultrathin sections. To overcome the difficulty of clearly identifying nuclear subcompartments imaged by STEM in ultrathin cryo-sections, we developed a new cryo correlative light and STEM imaging procedure. This combines fluorescence imaging of nuclear GFP-tagged proteins to identify, within cryo ultrathin sections, regions of interest which are then analyzed by STEM for quantification of water and identification and quantification of ions. In this chapter we describe the new setup we have developed to perform this cryo-correlative light and STEM imaging approach, which allows a targeted nano analysis of water and ions in nuclear compartments. PMID:25311128

  18. Laser-induced synthesis and decay of Tritium under exposure of solid targets in heavy water

    Barmina, E. V.; Timashev, S. F.; Shafeev, G. A.

    2016-03-01

    The processes of laser-assisted synthesis of Tritium nuclei and their laser-induced decay in cold plasma in the vicinity of solid targets (Au, Ti, Se, etc.) immersed into heavy water are experimentally realized at peak laser intensity of 1010-1013 W/cm2. Initial stages of Tritium synthesis and their laser-induced beta-decay are interpreted on the basis of non-elastic interaction of plasma electrons having kinetic energy of 5-10 eV with nuclei of Deuterium and Tritium, respectively.

  19. Water jet flow simulation and lithium free surface flow experiments for the IFMIF target

    Ida, M. E-mail: ida@ifmif.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Horiike, H.; Akiba, M.; Ezato, K.; Iida, T.; Inoue, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Muroga, T.; Nakamura, Hideo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hiroo; Suzuki, A.; Takeuchi, H.; Uda, N.; Yamaoka, N

    2002-12-01

    A water jet experiment was performed to investigate the influences of nozzle inner wall roughness on the free surface stability of water flow, which simulates the lithium (Li) target jet flow of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). The effect of a cover gas was investigated further as a possible candidate for the interfacial wave growth because of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The results showed that the jet interfacial roughness was insensitive to the cover gas pressure, but it increased with the wall roughness because of the development of a boundary layer along the wall. This effect was found to be significant when the velocity was higher than 10 m/s. Utilizing these results, a Li open flow experiment is being planned by modifying the Li Loop at Osaka University.

  20. Water jet flow simulation and lithium free surface flow experiments for the IFMIF target

    A water jet experiment was performed to investigate the influences of nozzle inner wall roughness on the free surface stability of water flow, which simulates the lithium (Li) target jet flow of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). The effect of a cover gas was investigated further as a possible candidate for the interfacial wave growth because of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The results showed that the jet interfacial roughness was insensitive to the cover gas pressure, but it increased with the wall roughness because of the development of a boundary layer along the wall. This effect was found to be significant when the velocity was higher than 10 m/s. Utilizing these results, a Li open flow experiment is being planned by modifying the Li Loop at Osaka University

  1. Monitoring of heavy water flow in a 'cannelloni' spallation target through fluctuation analysis of measured temperatures

    A simple and reliable technique of heavy water flow rate monitoring in a 'cannelloni' spallation target is described in this paper. The Swiss Spallation Neutron Source (SINQ) is a large scale facility for matter scattering at Paul Scherrer Institute; neutrons are produced in the spallation target composed of a bundle of zircaloy rods filled with lead. A beam of high speed protons strikes the rods. Neutrons and a large amount of thermal power (up to 800 kW) are produced by spallation reaction. Cooling is essential for safe and proper work of the target. Redundancy of all the monitoring systems is considered beneficial for overall safety of the facility. The paper below introduces an alternative way for coolant (heavy water, D2O) flow monitoring by measurement of propagation of thermal transient fronts in the target. Several data processing methods are analyzed. The heavy water (D2O) circulates between the bundle of rods and a heat exchanger. The proton beam current is not fully stable - as a rule there are at least 4 – 6 beam trips occurring during one hour of the target operation. These proton beam trips lead to a rapid change in heat release in the target spallation zone and corresponding change in the cooling water temperature. Such temperature fluctuation front arise in the water flow from the target's spallation zone towards the heat exchanger. The target cooling loop is equipped with several thermocouples placed along the heavy water flow path; the thermocouples are connected to a data acquisition system, which records the signals. The thermocouples placed at different distances downstream the target spallation zone react one by one to the passage of a temperature fluctuation front. Thus the water flow rate can be calculated based on time difference between the moments this temperature front been detected at different time by sequently placed thermocouples. (author)

  2. Spatial targeting of conservation tillage to improve water quality and carbon retention benefits

    Conservation tillage reduces soil erosion and improves water quality in agricultural watersheds. However, the benefits of conservation tillage in carbon sequestration are the subject of controversy. Public funds are provided to farms to encourage the adoption of conservation tillage. Given the economic costs, the targeting of areas likely to achieve the greatest environmental benefits has become an important policy-making issue. A geographic information system (GIS) based modelling framework which integrated hydrologic, soil organic matter, and farm models to evaluate the spatial targeting of conservation tillage was presented. A case study applying the framework in the Fairchild Creek watershed in Ontario indicated that targeting conservation tillage based on sediment abatement goals can achieve comparable carbon retention benefits in terms of the percentage reduction of base carbon losses. Targeted subcatchments for conservation tillage varied across the watershed based on benefit to cost ratios. Conservation tillage patterns based on carbon retention goals showed similar results to sediment abatement goals but slight differences were observed because of different carbon content in the soils. The results indicated that sediment abatement may be used as an indicator in setting up program goals. The impacts of conservation programs can then be evaluated based on calibrated and validated hydrologic models in conjunction with monitoring data. Results also showed that setting carbon retention may lead to higher costs in order to achieve corresponding sediment abatement benefits. Carbon retention may not be suitable for setting as a stand-alone environmental goal for conservation programs because of the difficulties in verifying the impacts and the discrepancies between carbon and sediment benefits. It was concluded that the modelling results have important policy implications for the design of conservation stewardship programs that aim to achieve environmental

  3. Integrated targeted and non-targeted analysis of water sample extracts with micro-scale UHPLC–MS

    Dominik Deyerling

    2015-01-01

    • The filtering of database hits for two criteria (exact mass and partition coefficient significantly reduced the list of suspects and at the same time rendered it possible to perform non-target analysis with lower mass accuracy (no lock-spray in the range of 20–500 ppm.

  4. Emission spectroscopy of laser ablation plume: Composition analysis of a target in water

    Emission spectra of the laser ablation plume formed by the irradiation of Cu65/Zn35 binary alloy in water at the room temperature with 150-ns pulsed laser were measured. The spectra were analyzed by comparing with the theoretical calculation based on the assumption that self-absorption effect is negligible and that the same temperature can be applied to Cu atoms and Zn atoms in the plume. The calculation reproduced the spectra very well and gave reasonable temperature as a best-fit parameter. However, the best-fit value of the Cu atomic density relative to Zn is significantly low compared with the target composition. Care should be taken to perform in situ LIBS in liquid due to the complicated plume formation mechanism and dynamics of material intake into the plume.

  5. Synthesis of ceramic nanoparticles by ultrafast laser ablation of solid targets in water.

    Moreno, Pablo; Méndez, Cruz; García, Ana; Torchia, Gustavo; Delgado, Diego; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Arias, Isabel; Roso, Luis

    2006-07-01

    We report production of nanoparticles of several advanced ceramics (Si3N4, SiC, AlN, and Al2O3) by ablation with femtosecond laser pulses of solid targets submerged in deionized water. The products withstand comparison with commercial nanoparticle suspensions obtained by other techniques as they are analyzed by means of transmission electron microscopy. As compared with metal nanoparticles produced with the same technique, we have found that the overall dependence of mean sizes and distribution widths on the laser fluence is similar. We explain why it is difficult to synthetize very small (<5 nm) and monodisperse particles in terms of ablation mechanism and discuss the aplicability of the technique for industrial production. PMID:17025109

  6. Characterisation in water experiments of a 'detached flow' free surface spallation target

    In the development of accelerator driven systems, ADS, free surface lead-bismuth spallation targets are considered as promising solutions due to their possibility for compactness, their lifetime, and their ability to transport the heat deposited by the proton beam away from the spallation zone. Experiments to characterise the hydraulics of the targets are needed to allow the validation of numerical models and to improve the design. Such experiments have been performed in water on a new concept labelled 'detached flow' geometry. This name was chosen because the liquid undergoes a free fall between the nozzle exit where the main free surface (that separating the void of the beam line from the liquid) is created and a second free surface downstream. The void surrounding the liquid jet plays the role of a buffer. The experiments show that a very stable main free surface with a small recirculation is obtained using this geometry thanks to the presence of the second free surface and the nozzle geometry. The experiments confirm that the level of the second free surface has no influence on the characteristics of the main free surface, improving the main free surface control. The influences of the mass flow rate and of the inlet velocity are evaluated. The free surface level rises linearly with an increase in mass flow rate. The recirculation zone is also stronger in this case. The opposite is found when the mass flow rate is decreased. For all mass flow rates studied, a stable free surface is obtained. Moreover, the outer shape of the liquid jet is similar at all mass flow rates. It is only dictated by the nozzle exit angle. Increasing slightly the inlet velocity for a given mass flow rate has a positive effect on the recirculation stability. The 'detached flow' target is a promising design for ADS.

  7. Non-target screening with high-resolution mass spectrometry : critical review using a collaborative trial on water analysis

    Schymanski, Emma L.; Singer, Heinz P.; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Onghena, Matthias; et al.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In this article, a dataset from a collaborative non-target screening trial organised by the NORMAN Association is used to review the state-of-the-art and discuss future perspectives of non-target screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry in water analysis. A total of 18 institutes from 12 European countries analysed an extract of the same water sample collected from the River Danube with either one or both of liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detec...

  8. Design and construction of a water target system for harvesting radioisotopes at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    A liquid water target system for harvesting radioisotopes at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) was designed and constructed as the initial step in proof-of-principle experiments to harvest useful radioisotopes from the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). FRIB will be a new national user facility for nuclear science, to be completed in 2020, at which radioisotopes will be collected synergistically from the water in cooling-loops for the primary beam dump that cycle the water at flow rates in excess of hundreds of gallons per minute. As part of the development of radiochemical expertise required to harvest long-lived radioisotopes of interest in this environment, the water target system described here was constructed and successfully used to collect a test beam of relativistic 24Na ions produced at the NSCL. Future studies will involve collecting interesting transition metal isotopes such as 67Cu from less purified secondary projectile fragment beams

  9. Non-target screening with high-resolution mass spectrometry: critical review using a collaborative trial on water analysis.

    Schymanski, Emma L; Singer, Heinz P; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Ipolyi, Ildiko M; Oswald, Peter; Krauss, Martin; Schulze, Tobias; Haglund, Peter; Letzel, Thomas; Grosse, Sylvia; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Bletsou, Anna; Zwiener, Christian; Ibáñez, María; Portolés, Tania; de Boer, Ronald; Reid, Malcolm J; Onghena, Matthias; Kunkel, Uwe; Schulz, Wolfgang; Guillon, Amélie; Noyon, Naïke; Leroy, Gaëla; Bados, Philippe; Bogialli, Sara; Stipaničev, Draženka; Rostkowski, Pawel; Hollender, Juliane

    2015-08-01

    In this article, a dataset from a collaborative non-target screening trial organised by the NORMAN Association is used to review the state-of-the-art and discuss future perspectives of non-target screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry in water analysis. A total of 18 institutes from 12 European countries analysed an extract of the same water sample collected from the River Danube with either one or both of liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection. This article focuses mainly on the use of high resolution screening techniques with target, suspect, and non-target workflows to identify substances in environmental samples. Specific examples are given to emphasise major challenges including isobaric and co-eluting substances, dependence on target and suspect lists, formula assignment, the use of retention information, and the confidence of identification. Approaches and methods applicable to unit resolution data are also discussed. Although most substances were identified using high resolution data with target and suspect-screening approaches, some participants proposed tentative non-target identifications. This comprehensive dataset revealed that non-target analytical techniques are already substantially harmonised between the participants, but the data processing remains time-consuming. Although the objective of a "fully-automated identification workflow" remains elusive in the short term, important steps in this direction have been taken, exemplified by the growing popularity of suspect screening approaches. Major recommendations to improve non-target screening include better integration and connection of desired features into software packages, the exchange of target and suspect lists, and the contribution of more spectra from standard substances into (openly accessible) databases. Graphical Abstract Matrix of identification approach versus identification confidence. PMID:25976391

  10. Developing a multi-pollutant conceptual framework for the selection and targeting of interventions in water industry catchment management schemes.

    Bloodworth, J W; Holman, I P; Burgess, P J; Gillman, S; Frogbrook, Z; Brown, P

    2015-09-15

    In recent years water companies have started to adopt catchment management to reduce diffuse pollution in drinking water supply areas. The heterogeneity of catchments and the range of pollutants that must be removed to meet the EU Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) limits make it difficult to prioritise areas of a catchment for intervention. Thus conceptual frameworks are required that can disaggregate the components of pollutant risk and help water companies make decisions about where to target interventions in their catchments to maximum effect. This paper demonstrates the concept of generalising pollutants in the same framework by reviewing key pollutant processes within a source-mobilisation-delivery context. From this, criteria are developed (with input from water industry professionals involved in catchment management) which highlights the need for a new water industry specific conceptual framework. The new CaRPoW (Catchment Risk to Potable Water) framework uses the Source-Mobilisation-Delivery concept as modular components of risk that work at two scales, source and mobilisation at the field scale and delivery at the catchment scale. Disaggregating pollutant processes permits the main components of risk to be ascertained so that appropriate interventions can be selected. The generic structure also allows for the outputs from different pollutants to be compared so that potential multiple benefits can be identified. CaRPow provides a transferable framework that can be used by water companies to cost-effectively target interventions under current conditions or under scenarios of land use or climate change. PMID:26172105

  11. Effects of ligands with different water solubilities on self-assembly and properties of targeted nanoparticles

    Valencia, Pedro M.; Hanewich-Hollatz, Mikhail H.; Gao, Weiwei; Karim, Fawziya; Langer, Robert; Karnik, Rohit; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2011-01-01

    The engineering of drug-encapsulated targeted nanoparticles (NPs) has the potential to revolutionize drug therapy. A major challenge for the smooth translation of targeted NPs to the clinic has been developing methods for the prediction and optimization of the NP surface composition, especially when targeting ligands (TL) of different chemical properties are involved in the NP self-assembly process. Here we investigated the self-assembly and properties of two different targeted NPs decorated ...

  12. Experimental water studies of flowing part hydrodynamics of liquid-metallic target

    Beznosov, A V; Meluzov, A G; Khokhlov, D I; Orlov, Y I; Levchenko, Y D

    2000-01-01

    The investigations into the rate measurements in the field of release of energy of the liquid-metallic target, as well as into the effect of certain geometric characteristics of the target on hydrodynamics in this field, were conducted. The most favorable values of the separate geometric parameters of the target were determined from the results of the works and the conclusions about the compliance of the target construction with the requirements that could be imposed as a whole were made

  13. Compendium of federal Financial Assistance Programs: Targeting programs for state and local ground-water protection

    1990-09-01

    Contents: agricultural conservation; agricultural education/technical assistance; agricultural pollution control; agricultural research; community development; drinking water protection; emergency water assistance; environmental protection; farm ownership credit; hazardous waste management; pesticides control; rural development; solid waste management; superfund; toxic substances; underground storage tanks; water pollution control; and water resources development.

  14. Experimental study of hydrodynamics of target system construction with liquid metallic coolant on water models

    This paper is about experimental study of hydrodynamics of target system construction with a spherical beam window (membrane). The visualization of current and current velocity fields in energy release area was considered. The findings are used to optimize the geometrical characteristics of target system. Also report contains the information about functioning accelerator-driven system, description it principle circuit and description of basic requirements what the target design should satisfy. (authors)

  15. Ejection Behavior During Variation of Impact Energy and Target Water Saturation — The MEMIN Project

    Sommer, F. D.; Reiser, F.; Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Kenkmann, T.; Deutsch, A.

    2012-03-01

    Ejection behavior in experimental impacts into sandstone was analysed and specific characteristics were identified with changes in target pore space saturation, projectile velocity, and projectile mass.

  16. Radionuclides in the Cooling Water Systems for the NuMi Beamline and the Antiproton Production Target Station at Fermilab

    Matsumura, Hiroshi; Bessho, Kotaro; Sekimoto, Shun; Yashima, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Oishi, Koji; Boehnlein, David; Lauten, Gary; Leveling, Anthony; Mokhov, Nikolai; Vaziri, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    At the 120-GeV proton accelerator facilities of Fermilab, USA, water samples were collected from the cooling water systems for the target, magnetic horn1, magnetic horn2, decay pipe, and hadron absorber at the NuMI beamline as well as from the cooling water systems for the collection lens, pulse magnet and collimator, and beam absorber at the antiproton production target station, just after the shutdown of the accelerators for a maintenance period. Specific activities of {\\gamma} -emitting radionuclides and 3H in these samples were determined using high-purity germanium detectors and a liquid scintillation counter. The cooling water contained various radionuclides depending on both major and minor materials in contact with the water. The activity of the radionuclides depended on the presence of a deionizer. Specific activities of 3H were used to estimate the residual rates of 7Be. The estimated residual rates of 7Be in the cooling water were approximately 5% for systems without deionizers and less than 0.1% f...

  17. Influences of target geometry on the microdosimetry of alpha particles in water

    Application of microdosimetric concepts to radiation exposure situations requires knowledge of the single-event density function, f1 (z) , where z denotes specific energy imparted to target matter. Multiple-event density functions are calculated by taking convolutions of f1(z) with itself with the overall specific energy density function is then found by employing a compound Poisson process involving single and multiple-event spectra. The fl(z), depends strongly on the geometric details of a the source, target, and all intermediate matter. While most past applications of microdosimetry have been represented targets as spheres, may be better modeled as prolate or oblate spheroids. Using a ray-tracing technique coupled with a continuous-slowing-down approximation, methods are developed and presented for calculating single-event density functions for spheroidal targets irradiated by alpha-emitting point sources. Computational methods are incorporated into a fortran computer code entitled SEROID (single-event density functions for spheroids), which is listed in this paper. This was used to generate several single-event density functions, along with related means and standard deviations in specific energy, for spheroidal targets irradiated by alpha particles. Targets of varying shapes and orientations are examined. Results for non-spherical targets are compared to spherical targets of equal volume in order to assess influences which target geometry has on single-event quantities. From these comparisons it is found that both target shape and orientation are important in adequately characterizing the quantities examined in this study; over-simplifying the target geometry can lead to substantial error

  18. Targeted monitoring for human pharmaceuticals in vulnerable source and final waters

    Boxall, Alistair B.A.; Monteiro, Sara C.; Fussell, Richard; Williams, Richard J.; Bruemer, Janine; Greenwood, Richard; Bersuder, Phillipe

    2012-01-01

    A range of pharmaceuticals has been detected in soils, surface waters and groundwaters across the world. While the reported concentrations are generally low (i.e. sub μg l-1 in surface waters), the substances have been observed throughout the year across a variety of hydrological, climatic and land-use settings. As a result, questions have been raised over the potential for pharmaceuticals in surface waters to enter drinking water supplies and to affect consumers. In a previous Drinking Wa...

  19. Water budget considerations regarding groundwater extraction targets in the Calera Aquifer watershed, Mexico

    Groundwater extraction from the Calera Aquifer in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico, for irrigation, urban, and industrial uses has increased over recent decades to unsustainable levels. An annual, watershed-scale water budget analysis was conducted to identify alternative water conservation and water...

  20. Copper matrix composites as heat sink materials for water-cooled divertor target

    Jeong-Ha You

    2015-01-01

    According to the recent high heat flux (HHF) qualification tests of ITER divertor target mock-ups and the preliminary design studies of DEMO divertor target, the performance of CuCrZr alloy, the baseline heat sink material for DEMO divertor, seems to only marginally cover the envisaged operation regime. The structural integrity of the CuCrZr heat sink was shown to be affected by plastic fatigue at 20 MW/m². The relatively high neutron irradiation dose expected for the DEMO divertor target is ...

  1. Water soluble nanoporous nanoparticle for in vivo targeted drug delivery and controlled release in B cells tumor context.

    De Angelis, F; Pujia, A; Falcone, C; Iaccino, E; Palmieri, C; Liberale, C; Mecarini, F; Candeloro, P; Luberto, L; de Laurentiis, A; Das, G; Scala, G; Di Fabrizio, E

    2010-10-01

    Multitasking nanoparticles are gaining great attention for smart drug delivery systems. The exploration of the nano-scale opens new concrete opportunities for revealing new properties and undiscovered cell-particle interactions. Here we present a biodegradable nanoporous silicon nanoparticle that can be successfully employed for in vivo targeted drug delivery and sustained release. The bare nanoporous nanocarriers can be accurately designed and fabricated with an effective control of porosity, surface chemistry and particle size, up to a few nm. The proposed nanoparticles exhibit several remarkable features including high payload, biodegradability, no toxicity, and multiple loading in water without the need of additional chemical reagents at room temperature. The targeting strategy is based on phage display technology that was successfully used to discover cell surface binding peptide for murine B lymphoma A20 cell line. The peptide used in combination with the nanoporous nanoparticles allows an efficient in vivo targeting, a sustained release and a sensible therapeutic effect. PMID:20835434

  2. Structured hydrological analysis for targeting fallow evaporation to improve water productivity at the irrigation system level

    S. Khan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides results of an application of a holistic systematic approach of water accounting using remote sensing and GIS coupled with ground water modeling to evaluate water saving options by tracking non-beneficial evaporation in the Liuyuankou Irrigation System (LIS of China. Groundwater rise is a major issue in the LIS, where groundwater levels have risen alarmingly close to the ground surface (within 1 m near the Yellow River. The lumped water balance analysis showed high fallow evaporation losses and which need to be reduced for improving water productivity.

    The seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETs was estimated by applying the SEBAL algorithm for eighteen NOAA AVHRR-12 images over the year of 1990–1991. This analysis was aided by the unsupervised land use classification applied to two Landsat 5 TM images of the study area. SEBAL results confirmed that a significant amount (116.7 MCM of water can be saved by reducing ETs from fallow land which will result in improved water productivity at the irrigation system. The water accounting indicator (for the analysis period shows that the process fraction per unit of depleted water (PFdepleted is 0.52 for LIS, meaning that 52% of the depleted water is consumed by agricultural crops and 48% is lost through non-process depletion.

    Finally, the groundwater modeling was applied to simulate three land use and water management interventions to assess their effectiveness for both water savings and impact on the groundwater in LIS. MODFLOW's Zone Budget code calculates the groundwater budget of user-specified subregions, the exchange of flows between subregions and also calculates a volumetric water budget for the entire model at the end of each time step. The simulation results showed that fallow evaporation could be reduced between 14.2% (25.51 MCM and 45.3% (81.36 MCM by interventions such as canal lining and ground

  3. Niobium-based sputtered thin films for Corrosion Protection of proton-irradiated liquid water targets for [18F] production

    Skliarova, H.; Azzolini, O.; Dousset, O.; Johnson, R.R.; V. Palmieri

    2013-01-01

    Chemically inert Coatings on Havar entrance foils of the targets for [18F] production via proton irradiation of enriched water at pressurized conditions are needed to decrease the amount of ionic contaminants released from Havar. In order to find the most effective protective coatings, the Nb-based coating microstructure and barrier properties have been correlated with deposition parameters as: substrate temperature, applied bias, deposition rate and sputtering gas pressure. Aluminated quartz...

  4. Solving Water Crisis through Understanding of Hydrology and Human Systems: a Possible Target

    Montanari, A.

    2014-12-01

    While the majority of the Earth surface is still in pristine conditions, the totality of the hydrological systems that are relevant to humans are human impacted, with the only exception of small headwater catchments. In fact, the limited transferability of water in space and time implies that water withdrawals from natural resources take place where and when water is needed. Therefore, hydrological systems are impacted where and when humans are, thereby causing a direct perturbation of all water bodies that are relevant to society. The current trend of population dynamics and the current status of water systems are such that the above impact will be not sustainable in the near future, therefore causing a water emergency that will be extended to all intensively populated regions of the world, with relevant implications on migration fluxes, political status and social security. Therefore mitigation actions are urgently needed, whose planning needs to be based on improved interpretations of the above impact. Up to recent times, hydrologists mainly concentrated their research on catchments where the human perturbation is limited, to improve our understanding of pristine hydrology. There were good motivations for this focus: given the relevant uncertainty affecting hydrological modeling, and the even greater uncertainty involved in societal modeling, hydrologists made an effort to separate hydrological and human dynamics. Nowadays, the urgency of the above need to mitigate the global water crisis through improved water resources management calls for a research attempt to bridge water and social sciences. The relevant research question is how to build operational models in order to fully account for the interactions and feedbacks between water resources systems and society. Given that uncertainty estimation is necessary for the operational application of model results, one of the crucial issues is how to quantify uncertainty by means of suitable assumptions. This talk

  5. Dissolved oxygen - A target indicator in determining use of the Gulf of Kachchh waters

    Desa, E.; Zingde, M.D.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; DeSousa, S.N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    .05 -6.86 mgl sup(-1)), whereas near-shore waters show wider variations (3.5 -7.8 mgl sup(-1)). The DO concentration levels in the Gulf waters are close to saturation, varying from 75.4%to 108.6%, which is much higher than the 60%saturation level set...

  6. Corrosion of target and structural materials in water irradiated by an 800 MeV proton beam

    Radiation enhanced, aqueous corrosion of solid neutron-targets such as tungsten or tantalum, or target cladding or structural materials such as superalloys and stainless steels, is a significant concern in accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. In this paper we briefly describe our current methods for control and in situ monitoring of corrosion in accelerator cooling water loops. Using floating, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we have measured the corrosion rates of aluminum 6061, copper, Inconel 718, and 304L stainless steel in the flow loop of a water target irradiated by a μamp, 800 MeV proton beam. Impedance spectroscopy allows us to model the corrosion process of a material as an equivalent electrical circuit. Thus the polarization resistance, which is inversely proportional to the corrosion rate, can be extracted from the frequency response of a metal specimen. During a three month period, without the use of corrosion mitigation techniques, we observed increases of several orders of magnitude in the water conductivity and the corrosion rates. The increase in corrosion is at least partially attributed to a build up of peroxide in our pseudo-closed loop system. In this paper we also briefly describe our second generation experiments, scheduled to begin in late 1996. In these experiments we plan to measure the corrosion rates of tungsten, tantalum, Inconel 718, 316L and 304L stainless steel, HT-9 austenitic stainless steel, and aluminum 5053. Two or three electrode probes of each material are being placed directly in the proton beam, in a high neutron flux region, or a significant distance from the high radiation area. We will be measuring corrosion rates, changes in pH and conductivity, and we will be establishing parameters for filtration and mitigation of corrosion. We will also discuss our ideas for making in situ measurements of water radiolysis using optical and laser diagnostic techniques

  7. Copper matrix composites as heat sink materials for water-cooled divertor target

    Jeong-Ha You

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent high heat flux (HHF qualification tests of ITER divertor target mock-ups and the preliminary design studies of DEMO divertor target, the performance of CuCrZr alloy, the baseline heat sink material for DEMO divertor, seems to only marginally cover the envisaged operation regime. The structural integrity of the CuCrZr heat sink was shown to be affected by plastic fatigue at 20 MW/m². The relatively high neutron irradiation dose expected for the DEMO divertor target is another serious concern, as it would cause significant embrittlement below 250 °C or irradiation creep above 350 °C. Hence, an advanced design concept of the divertor target needs to be devised for DEMO in order to enhance the HHF performance so that the structural design criteria are fulfilled for full operation scenarios including slow transients. The biggest potential lies in copper-matrix composite materials for the heat sink. In this article, three promising Cu-matrix composite materials are reviewed in terms of thermal, mechanical and HHF performance as structural heat sink materials. The considered candidates are W particle-reinforced, W wire-reinforced and SiC fiber-reinforced Cu matrix composites. The comprehensive results of recent studies on fabrication technology, design concepts, materials properties and the HHF performance of mock-ups are presented. Limitations and challenges are discussed.

  8. Bioavailable nanoparticles obtained in laser ablation of a selenium target in water

    The process of producing colloidal solutions of selenium nanoparticles in water using the laser ablation method is described. The prospects of using nanoparticles of elementary selenium as a nutrition source of this microelement are discussed. (nanoparticles)

  9. Bone as a Possible Target of Chemical Toxicity of Natural Uranium in Drinking Water

    Kurttio, Päivi; Komulainen, Hannu; Leino, Aila; Salonen, Laina; Auvinen, Anssi; Saha, Heikki

    2004-01-01

    Uranium accumulates in bone, affects bone metabolism in laboratory animals, and when ingested in drinking water increases urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate, important components in the bone structure. However, little is known about bone effects of ingested natural uranium in humans. We studied 146 men and 142 women 26–83 years of age who for an average of 13 years had used drinking water originating from wells drilled in bedrock, in areas with naturally high uranium content. Biochemi...

  10. Routine quality control of recycled target [18O]water by capillary electrophoresis and gas chromatography

    Recycling of [18O]water for [18F]fluoride production can be accomplished with reliable results. We have developed sensitive, robust, and rapid analyses of impurities in [18O]water. Anions were quantitated by capillary electrophoresis and organic residuals were quantitated by gas chromatography using methods with excellent reproducibility and linearity. Kryptofix 222 (K-222) was quantitated by a sensitive LC-MS-MS technique. Isotopic composition was determined by GC-MS with satisfactory accuracy and precision. These methods were employed to evaluate recovered [18O]water purified by a novel electrolysis method. 2-[18F]FDG yields using purified [18O]water with very low levels of impurities are indistinguishable from newly purchased [18O]water. High (> 300 ppm) carbonate concentration reduces the fluoride trapping efficiency of QMA. The analyses of anions, organics, and isotopic enrichment were applied routinely for quality control of [18O]water to predict a satisfactory outcome of 2-[18F]FDG production

  11. Reduced nighttime transpiration is a relevant breeding target for high water-use efficiency in grapevine.

    Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Eric; Christophe, Angélique; Gallo, Agustina; Gago, Pilar; Pantin, Florent; Doligez, Agnès; Simonneau, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Increasing water scarcity challenges crop sustainability in many regions. As a consequence, the enhancement of transpiration efficiency (TE)-that is, the biomass produced per unit of water transpired-has become crucial in breeding programs. This could be achieved by reducing plant transpiration through a better closure of the stomatal pores at the leaf surface. However, this strategy generally also lowers growth, as stomatal opening is necessary for the capture of atmospheric CO2 that feeds daytime photosynthesis. Here, we considered the reduction in transpiration rate at night (En) as a possible strategy to limit water use without altering growth. For this purpose, we carried out a genetic analysis for En and TE in grapevine, a major crop in drought-prone areas. Using recently developed phenotyping facilities, potted plants of a cross between Syrah and Grenache cultivars were screened for 2 y under well-watered and moderate soil water deficit scenarios. High genetic variability was found for En under both scenarios and was primarily associated with residual diffusion through the stomata. Five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected that underlay genetic variability in En Interestingly, four of them colocalized with QTLs for TE. Moreover, genotypes with favorable alleles on these common QTLs exhibited reduced En without altered growth. These results demonstrate the interest of breeding grapevine for lower water loss at night and pave the way to breeding other crops with this underexploited trait for higher TE. PMID:27457942

  12. Use of GIS Technology in Surface Water Monitoring fro Targeted Policy Intervention in a Mountainous Catchment in Romania

    Giali, Gabriela; Schneider, Petra

    2015-04-01

    USE OF GIS TECHNOLOGY IN SURFACE WATER MONITORING FOR TARGETED POLICY INTERVENTION IN A MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENT IN ROMANIA The collection of information on surface water quality is a specific activity that takes place systematically and regularly at regional and national scale, and it is important for the assessment of the water quality as well as for water management policy-making. A data base information management using a Geographical Information System (GIS) forms an important aspect of environmental management, which provides the frame for processing and visualisation of water monitoring data and information as well as for the optimisation of monitoring concepts. This paper presents an architecture performed by a GIS which provides a grafic database and attributes the nesessary measurements of the water quality to different sections of the mountainous catchment of the Suceava river in the north of Romania. With this approach the location of the water sampling points can be optimised in terms of the selection and setting of the river sections. To facilitate the setting of the sampling locations in the various sections of water sampling in the river, the presented GIS system provides to the user different information layers with combined or isolated data according to the objectives. In the frame of the research were created 5 layers of information in the basin under study, underlying the determination of a new information layer, namely the "Hydrografic Network Graded to Hydrographic Sections". Practically, in the studied basin were established 8 sections for water sampling locations, and the water quality characterization was done by the consideration of 15 quality indicators. The GIS system presented in this research is a valuable, useful and adaptable to land use changes data base that can be exploited by any number of combinations, its capabilities justify it's role as "tool to support decision making." With this characteristics it supports the policy-making of

  13. Comparing the Selection and Placement of Best Management Practices in Improving Water Quality Using a Multiobjective Optimization and Targeting Method

    Li-Chi Chiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Suites of Best Management Practices (BMPs are usually selected to be economically and environmentally efficient in reducing nonpoint source (NPS pollutants from agricultural areas in a watershed. The objective of this research was to compare the selection and placement of BMPs in a pasture-dominated watershed using multiobjective optimization and targeting methods. Two objective functions were used in the optimization process, which minimize pollutant losses and the BMP placement areas. The optimization tool was an integration of a multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA and a watershed model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool—SWAT. For the targeting method, an optimum BMP option was implemented in critical areas in the watershed that contribute the greatest pollutant losses. A total of 171 BMP combinations, which consist of grazing management, vegetated filter strips (VFS, and poultry litter applications were considered. The results showed that the optimization is less effective when vegetated filter strips (VFS are not considered, and it requires much longer computation times than the targeting method to search for optimum BMPs. Although the targeting method is effective in selecting and placing an optimum BMP, larger areas are needed for BMP implementation to achieve the same pollutant reductions as the optimization method.

  14. Thermo-acoustic Sound Generation in the Interaction of Pulsed Proton and Laser Beams with a Water Target

    Lahmann, R; Graf, K; Hößl, J; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Mecke, K; Schwemmer, S

    2015-01-01

    The generation of hydrodynamic radiation in interactions of pulsed proton and laser beams with matter is explored. The beams were directed into a water target and the resulting acoustic signals were recorded with pressure sensitive sensors. Measurements were performed with varying pulse energies, sensor positions, beam diameters and temperatures. The obtained data are matched by simulation results based on the thermo-acoustic model with uncertainties at a level of 10%. The results imply that the primary mechanism for sound generation by the energy deposition of particles propagating in water is the local heating of the medium. The heating results in a fast expansion or contraction and a pressure pulse of bipolar shape is emitted into the surrounding medium. An interesting, widely discussed application of this effect could be the detection of ultra-high energetic cosmic neutrinos in future large-scale acoustic neutrino detectors. For this application a validation of the sound generation mechanism to high accur...

  15. Improved algorithms in the CE-QUAL-W2 water-quality model for blending dam releases to meet downstream water-temperature targets

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Buccola, Norman L.

    2015-01-01

    Water-quality models allow water resource professionals to examine conditions under an almost unlimited variety of potential future scenarios. The two-dimensional (longitudinal, vertical) water-quality model CE-QUAL-W2, version 3.7, was enhanced and augmented with new features to help dam operators and managers explore and optimize potential solutions for temperature management downstream of thermally stratified reservoirs. Such temperature management often is accomplished by blending releases from multiple dam outlets that access water of different temperatures at different depths. The modified blending algorithm in version 3.7 of CE-QUAL-W2 allows the user to specify a time-series of target release temperatures, designate from 2 to 10 floating or fixed-elevation outlets for blending, impose minimum and maximum head and flow constraints for any blended outlet, and set priority designations for each outlet that allow the model to choose which outlets to use and how to balance releases among them. The modified model was tested with a variety of examples and against a previously calibrated model of Detroit Lake on the North Santiam River in northwestern Oregon, and the results compared well. These updates to the blending algorithms will allow more complicated dam-operation scenarios to be evaluated somewhat automatically with the model, with decreased need for multiple model runs or preprocessing of model inputs to fully characterize the operational constraints.

  16. Stability of contamination-free gold and silver nanoparticles produced by nanosecond laser ablation of solid targets in water

    Highlights: ► Au and Ag colloids were prepared by nanosecond laser ablation of solids in water. ► The alteration of the produced colloids during one month was investigated. ► Optical transmission spectra of the samples were measured from 350 to 800 nm. ► TEM measurements were made of as-prepared colloids and on the 30-th day. ► Zeta potential measurements were performed of as-prepared samples. - Abstract: Preparation of noble metal nanoparticle (NPs) colloids using pulsed laser ablation in water has an inherent advantage compared to the different chemical methods used, especially when biological applications of the colloids are considered. The fabrication method is simple and the NPs prepared in this way are contamination free. The method of laser ablation of a solid target in water is applied in the present work in order to obtain gold and silver NP colloids. The experiment was preformed by using the fundamental wavelength (1064 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser system. The target immersed in double distilled water was irradiated for 20 min by laser pulses with duration of 15 ns and repetition rate of 10 Hz. The sedimentation and aggregation of NPs in the colloids, stored at constant temperature, as a function of the time after preparation were investigated. The analyses are based on optical transmission spectroscopy in UV and vis regions. The change of the plasmon resonance wavelength as a function of time was studied. Zeta potential measurement was also utilized to measure the charge of the NPs in the colloids. The size distribution of the NPs and its change in time was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). On the basis of the results obtained, the optimal conditions of post fabrication manipulation with gold and silver colloids are defined in view of producing stable NPs with a narrow size distribution.

  17. Stability of contamination-free gold and silver nanoparticles produced by nanosecond laser ablation of solid targets in water

    Nikov, R.G., E-mail: rosen_nikov@abv.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nikolov, A.S.; Nedyalkov, N.N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Dimitrov, I.G. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Institute of Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Street, bl. 25, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Atanasov, P.A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Alexandrov, M.T. [Institute of Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Street, bl. 25, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au and Ag colloids were prepared by nanosecond laser ablation of solids in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alteration of the produced colloids during one month was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical transmission spectra of the samples were measured from 350 to 800 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM measurements were made of as-prepared colloids and on the 30-th day. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zeta potential measurements were performed of as-prepared samples. - Abstract: Preparation of noble metal nanoparticle (NPs) colloids using pulsed laser ablation in water has an inherent advantage compared to the different chemical methods used, especially when biological applications of the colloids are considered. The fabrication method is simple and the NPs prepared in this way are contamination free. The method of laser ablation of a solid target in water is applied in the present work in order to obtain gold and silver NP colloids. The experiment was preformed by using the fundamental wavelength (1064 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser system. The target immersed in double distilled water was irradiated for 20 min by laser pulses with duration of 15 ns and repetition rate of 10 Hz. The sedimentation and aggregation of NPs in the colloids, stored at constant temperature, as a function of the time after preparation were investigated. The analyses are based on optical transmission spectroscopy in UV and vis regions. The change of the plasmon resonance wavelength as a function of time was studied. Zeta potential measurement was also utilized to measure the charge of the NPs in the colloids. The size distribution of the NPs and its change in time was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). On the basis of the results obtained, the optimal conditions of post fabrication manipulation with gold and silver colloids are defined in view of producing stable NPs with a narrow size distribution.

  18. Analysis of a Partial MOX Core Design with Tritium Targets for Light Water Reactors

    Anistratov, Dmitriy Y. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Adams, Marvin L. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-04-19

    This report constitutes tangible and verifiable deliverable associated with the task To study the effects of using WG MOX fuel in tritium-producing LWR” of the subproject Water Reactor Options for Disposition of Plutonium. The principal investigators of this subproject are Naeem M. Abdurrahman of the University of Texas at Austin and Marvin L. Adams of Texas A&M University. This work was sponsored by the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium.

  19. Functionalized Silica Nanoparticles As an Alternative Platform for Targeted Drug-Delivery of Water Insoluble Drugs.

    de Oliveira, Luciane França; Bouchmella, Karim; Gonçalves, Kaliandra de Almeida; Bettini, Jefferson; Kobarg, Jörg; Cardoso, Mateus Borba

    2016-04-01

    The selective action of drugs in tumor cells is a major problem in cancer therapy. Most chemotherapy drugs act nonspecifically and damage both cancer and healthy cells causing various side effects. In this study, the preparation of a selective drug delivery system, which is able to act as a carrier for hydrophobic and anticancer drugs is reported. Amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles loaded with curcumin were successfully synthesized via sol-gel approach and duly characterized. Thereafter, the targeting ligand, folate, was covalently attached to amino groups of nanoparticle surface through amide bond formation. The cytotoxic effect of nanoparticles on prostate cancer cells line was evaluated and compared to normal cells line (prostate epithelial cell). Cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that folate-functionalized nanoparticles were significantly cytotoxic to tumor cells, whereas normal cells were much less affected by the presence of these structures. PMID:26930039

  20. Targeted metabolomics of Gammarus pulex following controlled exposures to selected pharmaceuticals in water.

    Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Miller, Thomas H; Bury, Nicolas R; Tauler, Romà; Barron, Leon P

    2016-08-15

    The effects of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) on aquatic organisms represent a significant current concern. Herein, a targeted metabolomics approach using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) is presented to characterise concentration changes in 29 selected metabolites following exposures of aquatic invertebrates, Gammarus pulex, to pharmaceuticals. Method performance revealed excellent linearity (R(2)>0.99), precision (0.1-19%) and lower instrumental limits of detection (0.002-0.20ng) for all metabolites studied. Three pharmaceuticals were selected representing the low, middle and high range of measured acute measured toxicities (of a total of 26 compounds). Gammarids were exposed to both the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) of triclosan (0.1 and 0.3mgL(-1)), nimesulide (0.5 and 1.4mgL(-1)) and propranolol (100 and 153mgL(-1)) over 24h. Quantitative metabolite profiling was then performed. Significant changes in metabolite concentrations relative to controls are presented and display distinct clustered trends for each pharmaceutical. Approximately 37% (triclosan), 33% (nimesulide) and 46% (propranolol) of metabolites showed statistically significant time-related effects. Observed changes are also discussed with respect to internal concentrations of the three pharmaceuticals measured using a method based on pulverised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and LC-MS/MS. Potential metabolic pathways that may be affected by such exposures are also discussed. This represents the first study focussing on quantitative, targeted metabolomics of this lower trophic level benthic invertebrate that may elucidate biomarkers for future risk assessment. PMID:27110989

  1. Sediment color tool for targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for the installation of shallow drinking water tubewells.

    Hossain, Mohammed; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Frape, Shaun K; Jacks, Gunnar; Islam, M Mainul; Rahman, M Moklesur; von Brömssen, Mattias; Hasan, M Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin

    2014-09-15

    In rural Bangladesh, drinking water supply mostly comes from shallow hand tubewells installed manually by the local drillers, the main driving force in tubewell installation. This study was aimed at developing a sediment color tool on the basis of local driller's perception of sediment color, arsenic (As) concentration of tubewell waters and respective color of aquifer sediments. Laboratory analysis of 521 groundwater samples collected from 144 wells during 2009 to 2011 indicate that As concentrations in groundwater were generally higher in the black colored sediments with an average of 239 μg/L. All 39 wells producing water from red sediments provide safe water following the Bangladesh drinking water standard for As (50 μg/L) where mean and median values were less than the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L. Observations for off-white sediments were also quite similar. White sediments were rare and seemed to be less important for well installations at shallow depths. A total of 2240 sediment samples were collected at intervals of 1.5m down to depths of 100 m at 15 locations spread over a 410 km(2) area in Matlab, Bangladesh and compared with the Munsell Color Chart with the purpose of direct comparison of sediment color in a consistent manner. All samples were assigned with Munsell Color and Munsell Code, which eventually led to identify 60 color shade varieties which were narrowed to four colors (black, white, off-white and red) as perceived and used by the local drillers. During the process of color grouping, participatory approach was considered taking the opinions of local drillers, technicians, and geologists into account. This simplified sediment color tool can be used conveniently during shallow tubewell installation and thus shows the potential for educating local drillers to target safe aquifers on the basis of the color characteristics of the sediments. PMID:24984232

  2. Fabrication of optimized oil-water separation devices through the targeted treatment of silica meshes

    Crick, Colin R.; Tunali Ozkan, Feyza; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2015-10-01

    Efficient oil-water separation is achieved using an optimized superhydrophobic material, generated by the zeolitic roughening and subsequent hydrophobic surface treatment of silica filter membranes. The material is both highly rough and intrinsically hydrophobic, resulting in superhydrophobic membranes which show a substantial affinity for hydrophobic solvents and oils. The membranes are syringe-mounted, suction pressure is applied and the selective collection of oil is achieved. The membranes are extremely robust, which is a result of the zeolitic roughening process, they possess small pores (0.7 μm), as a result these devices can perform complete separation and operate at a range of suction pressures. The devices could be readily used in a range of real-world applications, including oil spill clean-up and industrial filters.

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Properties of an Acoustic Wave Induced by Laser Ablation of a Solid Target in Water-Confined Plasma Propulsion

    Acoustic waves generated in nanosecond pulsed-laser ablation of a solid target in both air and water-confined environments were measured experimentally. It was found that the amplitude of the acoustic wave tended to decrease with an increase in water thickness. The waves were analyzed by means of fast Fourier transform. It was shown that there are several frequency components in the acoustic waves with the dominant frequency shifting from high frequency to low frequency as the thickness of the water layer increases. Furthermore, strong acoustic pressure led to enhancement of the coupling of the laser energy to the target in laser plasma propulsion. (plasma technology)

  4. Non-targeted evaluation of selectivity of water-compatible class selective adsorbents for the analysis of steroids in wastewater.

    Kopperi, Matias; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2016-05-12

    Selective adsorbents for solid-phase extraction are needed to meet the low concentration requirements of new environmental quality standard directives, especially for the analysis of estrogens in wastewater. In this work, bulk polymerization procedures were first optimized for the synthesis of non-imprinted polymers (NIP) with low non-specific adsorption of nonpolar compounds in aqueous environments. Water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were then synthetized by increasing the selectivity of the polymer towards steroids with a testosterone template (average imprinting factor > 10). In addition, the affinity of synthetized entrapped β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymers (ECD) towards steroids was clarified. The polymers were applied to the extraction of spiked wastewater effluent samples and their performance compared to commercially available adsorbents. The selectivity of the studied adsorbents was evaluated utilizing liquid chromatography ‒ mass spectrometry as well as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography ‒ time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Affinity between adsorbents and steroids as well as matrix removal potential were measured with targeted methodologies, and two novel non-targeted methodologies were proposed to quantitatively measure adsorbent selectivity by utilizing chemometrics. Semi-quantitative selectivity was measured from the ratio of peak areas between steroidal and other compounds. Semi-qualitative selectivity was calculated from the ratio between the number of tentatively identified steroidal and other compounds. The synthetized polymers provided good matrix removal potential (ion suppression 15-30%) and semi-qualitative selectivity (∼4 units) compared to the commercial adsorbents (ion suppression 45-80%, selectivity < 3 units). Simple non-targeted approaches provided a novel method of quantifying the selectivity of extraction. PMID:27114222

  5. Interaction of a converging laser beam with a Ag colloidal solution during the ablation of a Ag target in water

    Resano-Garcia, Amandine; Battie, Yann; Naciri, Aotmane En; Chaoui, Nouari

    2016-05-01

    We studied the nanosecond laser-induced shape modifications of Ag colloids exposed to a converging laser beam during the ablation of a Ag target in water. To this end, we performed a series of laser ablation experiments in which the laser energy was varied while all other parameters were kept constant. In addition to transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the shape distribution of the Ag nanoparticles was determined by modelling the extinction spectra of the final colloidal solutions using theoretical calculations based on shape distributed effective medium theory (SDEMT). From these calculations, two physical parameters named sphericity and dispersity were introduced and used to gauge the evolution of the shape distribution of the particles. As the laser energy on the target was increased from 5 to 20 mJ/pulse, an apparently abrupt modification of the shape distribution of the particles was evidenced by both TEM and SDEMT calculations. This change is explained in terms of competitive fragmentation, growth and reshaping processes. On the basis the heating–melting–vaporization model, we demonstrate how the competition between these processes, occurring at different locations of the converging beam, determines the shape distribution of the final product. We highlight the relevance of the fluence gradient along the beam path and the laser interaction volume on the laser-induced modifications of the suspended particles during the ablation process.

  6. Water window” compact, table-top laser plasma soft X-ray sources based on a gas puff target

    Wachulak, P. W.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Rudawski, P.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.

    2010-05-01

    We have developed compact, high repetition, table-top soft-X-ray sources, based on a gas puff target, emitting in "water window" spectral range at λ = 2.88 nm from nitrogen gas target or, in 2-4 nm range of wavelengths, from argon gas target. Double stream gas puff target was pumped optically by commercial Nd:YAG laser, energy 0.74 J, pulse time duration 4 ns. Spatial distribution of laser-produced plasma was imaged using a pinhole camera. Using transmission grating spectrometer, argon and nitrogen emission spectra were obtained, showing strong emission in the "water window" spectral range. Using AXUV100 detector the flux measurements of the soft-X-ray pulses were carried out and are presented. These debris free sources are table-top alternative for free electron lasers and synchrotron installations. They can be successfully employed in microscopy, spectroscopy and metrology experiments among others.

  7. Uniform line focus and multi-target coupling for the creation of near water window Nickel like x-ray laser

    To demonstrate high gain saturated amplification in soft x-ray lasing, uniform and long amplification medium must be created by novel focusing and target set-up technique. We report on the cylindrical lens array and multi target coupling system for creating uniform line focus. Through these methods, series of x-ray lasing with the wavelength towards the water window are obtained at the GekkoXII Nd glass laser facility in ILE, Osaka University. (author)

  8. Niobium-based sputtered thin films for corrosion protection of proton-irradiated liquid water targets for [18F] production

    Chemically inert coatings on Havar® entrance foils of the targets for [18F] production via proton irradiation of enriched water at pressurized conditions are needed to decrease the amount of ionic contaminants released from Havar®. In order to find the most effective protective coatings, the Nb-based coating microstructure and barrier properties have been correlated with deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, applied bias, deposition rate and sputtering gas pressure. Aluminated quartz used as a substrate allowed us to verify the protection efficiency of the desirable coatings as diffusion barriers. Two modelling corrosion tests based on the extreme susceptibility of aluminum to liquid gallium and acid corrosion were applied. Pure niobium coatings have been found to be less effective barriers than niobium–titanium coatings. But niobium oxide films, according to the corrosion tests performed, showed superior barrier properties. Therefore multi-layered niobium–niobium oxide films have been suggested, since they combine the high thermal conductivity of niobium with the good barrier properties of niobium oxide. (paper)

  9. 3D PIC simulations of electron beams created via reflection of intense laser light from a water target

    Ngirmang, Gregory K; Feister, Scott; Morrison, John T; Chowdhury, Enam A; Frische, Kyle; Roquemore, W M

    2015-01-01

    We present 3D Particle-in-Cell (PIC) modeling of an ultra-intense laser experiment by the Extreme Light group at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) using the PIC code LSP. This is the first time PIC simulations have been performed in 3D for this experiment which involves an ultra-intense, short-pulse (30 fs) laser interacting with a water jet target at normal incidence. These 3D PIC simulation results are compared to results from 2D(3$v$) PIC simulations for both $5.4\\cdot10^{17}$ W cm$^{-2}$ and $3\\cdot10^{18}$ W cm$^{-2}$ intensities. Comparing the 2D(3$v$) and 3D simulation results, the laser-energy-to-ejected-electron-energy conversion efficiencies were comparable, but the angular distribution of ejected electrons show interesting differences with qualitative differences at higher intensity. An analytic plane-wave model is provided that provides some explanation for the angular distribution and energies of ejected electrons in the 2D(3$v$) simulations. We also performed a 3D simulation with circular...

  10. Managing multiple diffuse pressures on water quality and ecological habitat: Spatially targeting effective mitigation actions at the landscape scale.

    Joyce, Hannah; Reaney, Sim

    2015-04-01

    Catchment systems provide multiple benefits for society, including: land for agriculture, climate regulation and recreational space. Yet, these systems also have undesirable externalities, such as flooding, and the benefits they create can be compromised through societal use. For example, agriculture, forestry and urban land use practices can increase the export of fine sediment and faecal indicator organisms (FIO) delivered to river systems. These diffuse landscape pressures are coupled with pressures on the in stream temperature environment from projected climate change. Such pressures can have detrimental impacts on water quality and ecological habitat and consequently the benefits they provide for society. These diffuse and in-stream pressures can be reduced through actions at the landscape scale but are commonly tackled individually. Any intervention may have benefits for other pressures and hence the challenge is to consider all of the different pressures simultaneously to find solutions with high levels of cross-pressure benefits. This research presents (1) a simple but spatially distributed model to predict the pattern of multiple pressures at the landscape scale, and (2) a method for spatially targeting the optimum location for riparian woodland planting as mitigation action against these pressures. The model follows a minimal information requirement approach along the lines of SCIMAP (www.scimap.org.uk). This approach defines the critical source areas of fine sediment diffuse pollution, rapid overland flow and FIOs, based on the analysis of the pattern of the pressure in the landscape and the connectivity from source areas to rivers. River temperature was modeled using a simple energy balance equation; focusing on temperature of inflowing and outflowing water across a catchment. The model has been calibrated using a long term observed temperature record. The modelling outcomes enabled the identification of the severity of each pressure in relative rather

  11. Water

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  12. Targeting and valuing conservation investments in support of a water fund: linking upstream land management with downstream services in the Upper Tana catchment, Kenya

    Bryant, B. P.; Droogers, P.; Hunink, J.; Vogl, A.; Wolny, S.

    2014-12-01

    We apply an integrated modeling framework to both target and value watershed management interventions in the Upper Tana watershed, which provides municipal water, irrigation water, and hydropower services to Nairobi and surrounding areas. The analysis begins by applying an index model approach that incorporates existing land use and land surface characteristics to prioritize the type and location of conservation investments in different subbasins, subject to budget constraints and stakeholder concerns (Resource Investment Optimization System -- RIOS). We then run the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the RIOS-identified investment scenarios to produce spatially explicit scenarios that simulate changes in water yield and suspended sediment. Finally, we link those biophysical outputs to monetary and non-monetary human well-being metrics for multiple benefit streams, including: Reduced water treatment costs, increased hydropower production, and crop yield benefits for upstream farmers in the conservation area. The viability of a payment for watershed services scheme is discussed, with attention to the various components of value assessed and to dependencies on water management approaches. While other studies have examined links between land use and the provision of hydrologic services, this study is novel in that it presents an integrated analysis that targets interventions in a decision context and then relies on calibrated, process-based, biophysical models to demonstrate the return on those investments considering multiple (and sometimes competing) hydrological services, doing so at a sub-annual time-scale.

  13. Chlorination of bisphenol A: non-targeted screening for the identification of transformation products and assessment of estrogenicity in generated water.

    Bourgin, Marc; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Monteau, Fabrice; Leroy, Gaëla; Barritaud, Lauriane; Chachignon, Mathilde; Ingrand, Valérie; Roche, Pascal; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    Besides the performance of water treatments on the removal of micropollutants, concern about the generation of potential biologically active transformation products has been growing. Thus, the detection and structural elucidation of micropollutants transformation products have turned out to be major issues to evaluate comprehensively the efficiency of the processes implemented for drinking water treatment. However, most of existing water treatment studies are carried out at the bench scale with high concentrations and simplified conditions and thus do not reflect realistic conditions. Conversely, this study describes a non-targeted profiling approach borrowed from metabolomic science, using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry, in order to reveal potential chlorination products of bisphenol A (BPA) in real water samples spiked at 50μgL(-1). Targeted measurements first evidenced a fast removal of BPA (>99%) by chlorination with sodium hypochlorite (0.8mgL(-1)) within 10min. Then, the developed differential global profiling approach enabled to reveal 21 chlorination products of BPA. Among them, 17 were brominated compounds, described for the first time, demonstrating the potential interest of this innovative methodology applied to environmental sciences. In parallel to the significant removal of BPA, the estrogenic activity of water samples, evaluated by ER-CALUX assay, was found to significantly decrease after 10min of chlorination. These results confirm that chlorination is effective at removing BPA in drinking water and they may indicate that the generated compounds have significantly lower estrogenic activity. PMID:24206834

  14. Combining Natural Attenuation Capacity and use of Targeted Technological Mitigation Measures for Reducing Diffuse Nutrient Emissions to Surface Waters: The Danish Way

    Kronvang, B.; Højberg, A. L.; Hoffmann, C. C.; Windolf, J.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.

    2015-12-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emissions to surface waters are a high priority environmental problem worldwide for protection of water resources in times of population growth and climate change. As clean water is a scarce resource the struggle for reducing nutrient emissions are an ongoing issue for many countries and regions. Since the mid1980s a wide range of national regulatory general measures have been implemented to reduce land based nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings of the Danish aquatic environment. These measures have addressed both point source emissions and emissions from diffuse sources especially from agricultural production. Following nearly 4 decades of combating nutrient pollution our surface waters such as lakes and estuaries are only slowly responding on the 50% reduction in N and 56% reduction in P. Therefore, the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Danish surface waters still call for further reductions of N and P loadings. Therefore, a new era of targeted implemented measures was the outcome of a Commission on Nature and Agriculture established by the Danish Government in 2013. Their White Book points to the need of increased growth and better environment through more targeted and efficient regulation using advanced technological mitigation methods that are implemented intelligently according to the local natural attenuation capacity for nutrients in the landscape. As a follow up a national consensus model for N was established chaining existing leaching, 3D groundwater and surface water models that enable a calculation of the N dynamics and attenuation capacity within a scale of 15 km2. Moreover, several research projects have been conducted to investigate the effect of a suite of targeted mitigation measures such as restored natural wetlands, constructed wetlands, controlled drainage, buffer strips and constructed buffer strips. The results of these studies will be shared in this presentation.

  15. Comparative experimental and numerical analysis of the hydraulic behaviour of free-surface flow in the water experiment of the XT-ADS windowless spallation target

    If the long-living actinides contained in nuclear waste are subjected to an intense neutron flux, nuclear reactions convert them into less toxic short living actinides. This process, called transmutation, may be accomplished by Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The required neutron flux is generated by bombarding a spallation target with high energy protons emerging from an accelerator. In the windowless target currently developed in the Integrated Project EUROTRANS of the European Community the target material is HLM (heavy liquid metal). The HLM flows downwards through a concentric nozzle surrounding the beam tube and forms a conical free surface which is subjected to the beam current. The thermal-hydraulics of the target must ensure that the high amount of heat deposited into the HLM can be safely removed. The current target design was developed by a close interaction of numerical and experimental studies resulting in a profound understanding of the hydraulic behavior. The water experiment built at UCL (Belgium)) has similar geometry and dimensions as the XT-ADS spallation target. The experimental results are used to validate the numerical methods that will be used in the analysis of the real HLM target. In the current paper the experimental results obtained from the water experiment are compared to numerical results obtained by applying Volume of Fluid methods in combination with cavitation models. The comparison covers the nominal flow case corresponding to a flow rate of 10 l/s and sensitivity study of free surface level to various flow rates and outlet conditions. Numerical results where obtained from the Computational Fluid Dynamics code STAR-CD. This code is selected for its capability to predict sharper free surfaces compared to other CFD codes implemented in the target study. Numerical and experimental results show good agreement, so that the numerical model is considered validated. The results demonstrate that the hydraulic behaviour of the target

  16. Antiproton Target

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  17. Synthesis of the Danish Experience with Combating Nutrient Pollution of Surface Waters: The Old Regulatory Approach and a New Targeted Approach Utilising the Natural Attenuation Capacity in Landscapes

    Kronvang, Brian; Windolf, Jørgen; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Tornbjerg, Henrik; Højberg, Anker; Rieman, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emissions to surface waters are a high priority environmental problem worldwide for protection of water resources in times of population growth and climate change. As clean water is a scarce resource the struggle for reducing nutrient emissions are an ongoing issue for many countries and regions. Since the mid1980s a wide range of national regulatory general measures have been implemented to reduce land based nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings of the Danish aquatic environment. These measures have addressed both point source emissions and emissions from diffuse sources especially from agricultural production. Following nearly 4 decades of combating nutrient pollution our surface waters such as lakes and estuaries are only slowly responding on the 50% reduction in N and 56% reduction in P. Therefore, the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Danish surface waters still call for further reductions of N and P loadings. Introduction of a new paradigm of targeted implemented measures was the proposed outcome of a Commission on Nature and Agriculture established by the Danish Government in 2013. Their White Book points to the need of increased growth and better environment through more targeted and efficient regulation using advanced technological mitigation methods that are implemented intelligently according to the local natural attenuation capacity for nutrients in the landscape. As a follow up a national consensus model for N was established chaining existing leaching, 3D groundwater and surface water models. The new model concept enables a calculation of the N dynamics and attenuation capacity within a scale of 15 km2. Moreover, several research projects have been conducted to investigate the effect of a suite of targeted mitigation measures such as restored natural wetlands, constructed wetlands, controlled drainage and intelligent buffer zones. The outcome of six Danish management plans for nutrient load

  18. Evidence of independent action of neurohypophyseal peptides on osmotic water flow and active sodium transport in the same target organ: studies on RANA esculenta skin and bladder (1961)

    Neurohypophyseal peptides produce on the skin and bladder of certain amphibia simultaneous increases of the passive osmotic permeability to water and active transport of sodium. The present work shows that oxytocin and two of its analogues arginine-8-oxytocin (arginine vasotocin) and lysine-8-oxytocin (lysine vasotocin) may produce the same increase of water permeability, while stimulating in quite different ways the sodium transport. This is the case for both skin and bladder. In other words, there is no correlation between natriferic and hydro-osmotic activities. The results are interpreted as evidence that neurohypophyseal hormones act on not one, as previously assumed, but two targets, inside the same epithelial cell. (author)

  19. Treatment of produced water:targeting dissolved compounds to meet a zero harmful discharge in oil and gas production

    Scurtu, Ciprian Teodor

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of dissolved compounds are discharged into the sea with the producedwater generated from the offshore oil and gas platforms. Some of these compounds are toxic to the environment, having important contributions to the environmental impact factors (EIF) calculated for produced water discharges. No performance standards currently exist for the removal of dissolved compounds from produced water. However, the overall goals for oil, natural components and chemicals in produced water re...

  20. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes

    Nyman, J.A.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable.

  1. Pathways to Progress : Transitioning to Country-Led Service Delivery Pathways to Meet Africa's Water Supply and Sanitation Targets

    African Ministers' Council on Water

    2011-01-01

    The African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW) commissioned the production of a second round of Country Status Overviews (CSOs) to better understand what underpins progress in water supply and sanitation and what its member governments can do to accelerate that progress across countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Based on the extensive in-country diagnostics, analysis, and stakeholder co...

  2. The impact of future carbon dioxide emission reduction targets on U.S. electric sector water use

    Cameron, Colin MacKay

    The U.S. electric sector's reliance on water makes it vulnerable to the impacts of climate change on water resources. Here we analyze how constraints on U.S. energy system carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions could affect water withdrawal and consumption in the U.S. electric sector through 2055. We use simulations of the EPA's U.S. 9-region (EPAUS9r) MARKAL least-cost optimization energy systems model with updated water use factors for electricity generating technologies. Model results suggest CO2 constraints could force the retirement of old power plants and drive increased use of low water-use renewable and nuclear power as well as natural gas CCS plants with more advanced cooling systems. These changes in electric sector technology mix reduce water withdrawal in all scenarios but increase water consumption in aggressive scenarios. Decreased electric sector water withdrawal would likely reduce electric sector vulnerability to climate change, but the rise in consumption could increase competition with other users.

  3. csrR, a Paralog and Direct Target of CsrA, Promotes Legionella pneumophila Resilience in Water

    Abbott, Zachary D.; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul; Michele S Swanson

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Critical to microbial versatility is the capacity to express the cohort of genes that increase fitness in different environments. Legionella pneumophila occupies extensive ecological space that includes diverse protists, pond water, engineered water systems, and mammalian lung macrophages. One mechanism that equips this opportunistic pathogen to adapt to fluctuating conditions is a switch between replicative and transmissive cell types that is controlled by the broadly conserved regu...

  4. Experimental and numerical study on the flow pattern of the ADS windowless spallation target with a second free surface downstream using model fluid water

    Xiong, Zhenqin, E-mail: zqxiong@sjtu.edu.cn; Gu, Hanyang; Gong, Shenjie

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A windowless spallation target with a buffer tank is tested. • Shape of the main free surface is recorded. • Streamline is obtained with the planar laser induced fluorescence method. • Stability of free surface is improved by the buffer tank. • Flow structure is simulated using RNG k-e turbulence model and VOF model. - Abstract: The windowless spallation targets are a promising design solution for accelerator driven system (ADS) due to their extended life compared to the spallation targets with a window. Keeping the stability of the free surface and reducing the recirculation zone is one of the key tasks for the design of a windowless spallation target. A windowless spallation target with a second free surface downstream (which is a buffer used to stabilize the main free surface of the flow) is studied experimentally and numerically using water at atmospheric pressure. By using planar laser induced fluorescence technique (LIF), the flow pattern inside the target zone is visualized for Reynolds numbers varying between 3.5 × 10{sup 4} and 7.0 × 10{sup 4} and pressure differences from 100 to 804 Pa. The experimental results reveal that the stability of the free surface is improved by adding a buffer in the downstream thus making it easier to control the height of the surface. The effect of the pressure difference between the void above the second free surface (high pressure side) and beam pipe (low pressure side) on the flow pattern is analyzed, as well as the inlet flow rate. The height of the surface length decreases with an increase in the pressure difference. The formation of the spallation zone is simulated with Fluent using the LES turbulence model and VOF model. The interface predicted agrees well with the experimental results.

  5. Experimental and numerical study on the flow pattern of the ADS windowless spallation target with a second free surface downstream using model fluid water

    Highlights: • A windowless spallation target with a buffer tank is tested. • Shape of the main free surface is recorded. • Streamline is obtained with the planar laser induced fluorescence method. • Stability of free surface is improved by the buffer tank. • Flow structure is simulated using RNG k-e turbulence model and VOF model. - Abstract: The windowless spallation targets are a promising design solution for accelerator driven system (ADS) due to their extended life compared to the spallation targets with a window. Keeping the stability of the free surface and reducing the recirculation zone is one of the key tasks for the design of a windowless spallation target. A windowless spallation target with a second free surface downstream (which is a buffer used to stabilize the main free surface of the flow) is studied experimentally and numerically using water at atmospheric pressure. By using planar laser induced fluorescence technique (LIF), the flow pattern inside the target zone is visualized for Reynolds numbers varying between 3.5 × 104 and 7.0 × 104 and pressure differences from 100 to 804 Pa. The experimental results reveal that the stability of the free surface is improved by adding a buffer in the downstream thus making it easier to control the height of the surface. The effect of the pressure difference between the void above the second free surface (high pressure side) and beam pipe (low pressure side) on the flow pattern is analyzed, as well as the inlet flow rate. The height of the surface length decreases with an increase in the pressure difference. The formation of the spallation zone is simulated with Fluent using the LES turbulence model and VOF model. The interface predicted agrees well with the experimental results

  6. Crater geometry characterization of Al targets irradiated by single pulse and pulse trains of Nd:YAG laser in ambient air and water

    High intensities laser pulses are capable to generate a crater when irradiating metal targets. In such condition, after each irradiation significant ablation occurs on the target surface and as a result a crater is formed. The crater characterization is very important specifically for some applications such as micromachining. In this paper, the crater formation in metal targets was studied experimentally. The planar aluminum 5052 targets were irradiated by frequency doubled (532 nm), Q-switched Nd:YAG (∼6 ns) laser beam in ambient air and distilled water. A crater was produced after each irradiation and it was characterized by an optical microscope. Different laser intensities as well as pulse trains were applied for crater formation. The effects of laser characteristics in crater geometry were examined. The depth of the craters was measured by optical microscope and the diameter (width) was characterized by processing of the crater image. The results were explained in terms of ablation threshold and plasma shielding. The results show that the crater geometry extremely depends on the laser pulse intensity, the number of laser pulses, and ambient.

  7. Elaboration and characterization of bimetallic nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation of Ni75Pd25 and Au75Ag25 targets in water

    A YAG laser operating at the second harmonic wavelength (532 nm, 10 Hz, 8 ns and 40 mJ) was used to elaborate bimetallic nanoparticles by laser ablation of Ni75Pd25 and Au75Ag25 targets in water. TEM-EDX, UV-Vis spectroscopy and PIXE measurements were performed to obtain information on their mean sizes, size distributions and chemical composition as a function of the time of laser ablation. The surface of the laser impacted regions of the targets were characterized by RBS in order to check their composition after the laser ablation. The so-obtained bimetallic nanoparticles always show a homogeneous composition. However, while the composition of Au-Ag nanoparticles was found to be very similar to the one of the alloy target, the composition of the Ni-Pd nanoparticles can be different from the nominal composition of the alloy target. Segregation phenomena can be invoked to explain the difference between the Ni-Pd nanoparticles and the Au-Ag nanoparticles compositions obtained in the same conditions. However, an influence of chemical reactions occurring in the high pressure plasma created locally at liquid-solid interface (called 'reactive quenching') cannot be completely ruled out.

  8. Suspect screening and target quantification of multi-class pharmaceuticals in surface water based on large-volume injection liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Vergeynst, Leendert; Van Langenhove, Herman; Joos, Pieter; Demeestere, Kristof

    2014-04-01

    The ever-growing number of emerging micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals requests rapid and sensitive full-spectrum analytical techniques. Time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (TOF-HRMS) is a promising alternative for the state-of-the-art tandem mass spectrometry instruments because of its ability to simultaneously screen for a virtually unlimited number of suspect analytes and to perform target quantification. The challenge for such suspect screening is to develop a strategy, which minimizes the false-negative rate without restraining numerous false-positives. At the same time, omitting laborious sample enrichment through large-volume injection ultra-performance liquid chromatography (LVI-UPLC) avoids selective preconcentration. A suspect screening strategy was developed using LVI-UPLC-TOF-MS aiming the detection of 69 multi-class pharmaceuticals in surface water without the a priori availability of analytical standards. As a novel approach, the screening takes into account the signal-intensity-dependent accurate mass error of TOF-MS, hereby restraining 95 % of the measured suspect pharmaceuticals present in surface water. Application on five Belgian river water samples showed the potential of the suspect screening approach, as exemplified by a false-positive rate not higher than 15 % and given that 30 out of 37 restrained suspect compounds were confirmed by the retention time of analytical standards. Subsequently, this paper discusses the validation and applicability of the LVI-UPLC full-spectrum HRMS method for target quantification of the 69 pharmaceuticals in surface water. Analysis of five Belgian river water samples revealed the occurrence of 17 pharmaceuticals in a concentration range of 17 ng L(-1) up to 3.1 μg L(-1). PMID:24633561

  9. A quantitative and comparative study of radionuclidic and chemical impurities in water samples irradiated in a niobium target with Havar vs. niobium-sputtered Havar as entrance foils

    Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A. [Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta Cancer Board, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada)], E-mail: Miguel.Avila-Rodriguez@utu.fi; Wilson, John S.; McQuarrie, Steve A. [Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta Cancer Board, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Enriched and natural abundance water samples were irradiated in a niobium (Nb) chamber target with Havar and Nb-sputtered Havar foils. Irradiations were performed with 17.5 MeV protons at currents from 35 to 100 {mu}A lasting for 1-2.5 h. Radionuclidic and chemical (cationic) impurities were determined via gamma spectroscopy and ICP-MS, respectively. Anionic impurities were evaluated by ion chromatography. Impurities in water samples irradiated with the Havar-Nb foils were much lower than the samples irradiated with an unmodified Havar foil. No significant differences were observed in the impurity levels between samples of H{sub 2}{sup 18}O-enriched and natural abundance water. Radionuclidic impurities were observed to decrease after 3-4 irradiations on a fresh Havar entrance foil, and reached a constant value for subsequent irradiations with the same integrated current. For targets covered with Havar foil, radionuclidic impurities were found to be proportional to the beam-integrated current regardless of the beam power and, unexpectedly, dependant of the beam power when using a Havar-Nb foil.

  10. A quantitative and comparative study of radionuclidic and chemical impurities in water samples irradiated in a niobium target with Havar vs. niobium-sputtered Havar as entrance foils.

    Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A; Wilson, John S; McQuarrie, Steve A

    2008-12-01

    Enriched and natural abundance water samples were irradiated in a niobium (Nb) chamber target with Havar and Nb-sputtered Havar foils. Irradiations were performed with 17.5MeV protons at currents from 35 to 100microA lasting for 1-2.5h. Radionuclidic and chemical (cationic) impurities were determined via gamma spectroscopy and ICP-MS, respectively. Anionic impurities were evaluated by ion chromatography. Impurities in water samples irradiated with the Havar-Nb foils were much lower than the samples irradiated with an unmodified Havar foil. No significant differences were observed in the impurity levels between samples of H(2)(18)O-enriched and natural abundance water. Radionuclidic impurities were observed to decrease after 3-4 irradiations on a fresh Havar entrance foil, and reached a constant value for subsequent irradiations with the same integrated current. For targets covered with Havar foil, radionuclidic impurities were found to be proportional to the beam-integrated current regardless of the beam power and, unexpectedly, dependant of the beam power when using a Havar-Nb foil. PMID:18539469

  11. A quantitative and comparative study of radionuclidic and chemical impurities in water samples irradiated in a niobium target with Havar vs. niobium-sputtered Havar as entrance foils

    Enriched and natural abundance water samples were irradiated in a niobium (Nb) chamber target with Havar and Nb-sputtered Havar foils. Irradiations were performed with 17.5 MeV protons at currents from 35 to 100 μA lasting for 1-2.5 h. Radionuclidic and chemical (cationic) impurities were determined via gamma spectroscopy and ICP-MS, respectively. Anionic impurities were evaluated by ion chromatography. Impurities in water samples irradiated with the Havar-Nb foils were much lower than the samples irradiated with an unmodified Havar foil. No significant differences were observed in the impurity levels between samples of H218O-enriched and natural abundance water. Radionuclidic impurities were observed to decrease after 3-4 irradiations on a fresh Havar entrance foil, and reached a constant value for subsequent irradiations with the same integrated current. For targets covered with Havar foil, radionuclidic impurities were found to be proportional to the beam-integrated current regardless of the beam power and, unexpectedly, dependant of the beam power when using a Havar-Nb foil

  12. Mesophyll conductance to CO2 and Rubisco as targets for improving intrinsic water use efficiency in C3 plants.

    Flexas, J; Díaz-Espejo, A; Conesa, M A; Coopman, R E; Douthe, C; Gago, J; Gallé, A; Galmés, J; Medrano, H; Ribas-Carbo, M; Tomàs, M; Niinemets, Ü

    2016-05-01

    Water limitation is a major global constraint for plant productivity that is likely to be exacerbated by climate change. Hence, improving plant water use efficiency (WUE) has become a major goal for the near future. At the leaf level, WUE is the ratio between photosynthesis and transpiration. Maintaining high photosynthesis under water stress, while improving WUE requires either increasing mesophyll conductance (gm ) and/or improving the biochemical capacity for CO2 assimilation-in which Rubisco properties play a key role, especially in C3 plants at current atmospheric CO2 . The goals of the present analysis are: (1) to summarize the evidence that improving gm and/or Rubisco can result in increased WUE; (2) to review the degree of success of early attempts to genetically manipulate gm or Rubisco; (3) to analyse how gm , gsw and the Rubisco's maximum velocity (Vcmax ) co-vary across different plant species in well-watered and drought-stressed conditions; (4) to examine how these variations cause differences in WUE and what is the overall extent of variation in individual determinants of WUE; and finally, (5) to use simulation analysis to provide a theoretical framework for the possible control of WUE by gm and Rubisco catalytic constants vis-à-vis gsw under water limitations. PMID:26297108

  13. Recent advancements in the "water-window" microscopy with laser-plasma SXR source based on a double stream gas-puff target

    Wachulak, P. W.

    2016-09-01

    An overview of our recent developments, regarding "water-window" soft X-ray (SXR) microscopy based on a laser-plasma double stream gas puff target sources is presented. The work, presented herein, describes two approaches to SXR microscopy. The first one is a low spatial resolution, achromatic SXR microscopy, employing Wolter type-I objective. The second one is a nanometer spatial resolution SXR microscopy, with the use of a Fresnel zone plate objective, for imaging various objects with quasimonochromatic light, emitted from a double stream gas puff target based short wavelength source. The developments regarding both systems are presented, as well as the possible applications, for which the SXR microscope was already employed. Such compact, table-top size, laboratory type microscopy setups may be employed in the near future for complementary-like studies to other, often used, microscopy techniques.

  14. csrR, a Paralog and Direct Target of CsrA, Promotes Legionella pneumophila Resilience in Water

    Abbott, Zachary D.; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Critical to microbial versatility is the capacity to express the cohort of genes that increase fitness in different environments. Legionella pneumophila occupies extensive ecological space that includes diverse protists, pond water, engineered water systems, and mammalian lung macrophages. One mechanism that equips this opportunistic pathogen to adapt to fluctuating conditions is a switch between replicative and transmissive cell types that is controlled by the broadly conserved regulatory protein CsrA. A striking feature of the legionellae surveyed is that each of 14 strains encodes 4 to 7 csrA-like genes, candidate regulators of distinct fitness traits. Here we focus on the one csrA paralog (lpg1593) that, like the canonical csrA, is conserved in all 14 strains surveyed. Phenotypic analysis revealed that long-term survival in tap water is promoted by the lpg1593 locus, which we name csrR (for “CsrA-similar protein for resilience”). As predicted by its GGA motif, csrR mRNA was bound directly by the canonical CsrA protein, as judged by electromobility shift and RNA-footprinting assays. Furthermore, CsrA repressed translation of csrR mRNA in vivo, as determined by analysis of csrR-gfp reporters, csrR mRNA stability in the presence and absence of csrA expression, and mutation of the CsrA binding site identified on the csrR mRNA. Thus, CsrA not only governs the transition from replication to transmission but also represses translation of its paralog csrR when nutrients are available. We propose that, during prolonged starvation, relief of CsrA repression permits CsrR protein to coordinate L. pneumophila’s switch to a cell type that is resilient in water supplies. PMID:26060275

  15. Water

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  16. Nonionic, water self-dispersible "hairy-rod" poly(p-phenylene)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer/carbon nanotube conjugates for targeted cell imaging.

    Yuksel, Merve; Colak, Demet Goen; Akin, Mehriban; Cianga, Ioan; Kukut, Manolya; Medine, E Ilker; Can, Mustafa; Sakarya, Serhan; Unak, Perihan; Timur, Suna; Yagci, Yusuf

    2012-09-10

    The generation and fabrication of nanoscopic structures are of critical technological importance for future implementations in areas such as nanodevices and nanotechnology, biosensing, bioimaging, cancer targeting, and drug delivery. Applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in biological fields have been impeded by the incapability of their visualization using conventional methods. Therefore, fluorescence labeling of CNTs with various probes under physiological conditions has become a significant issue for their utilization in biological processes. Herein, we demonstrate a facile and additional fluorophore-free approach for cancer cell-imaging and diagnosis by combining multiwalled CNTs with a well-known conjugated polymer, namely, poly(p-phenylene) (PP). In this approach, PP decorated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was noncovalently (π-π stacking) linked to acid-treated CNTs. The obtained water self-dispersible, stable, and biocompatible f-CNT/PP-g-PEG conjugates were then bioconjugated to estrogen-specific antibody (anti-ER) via -COOH functionalities present on the side-walls of CNTs. The resulting conjugates were used as an efficient fluorescent probe for targeted imaging of estrogen receptor overexpressed cancer cells, such as MCF-7. In vitro studies and fluorescence microscopy data show that these conjugates can specifically bind to MCF-7 cells with high efficiency. The represented results imply that CNT-based materials could easily be fabricated by the described approach and used as an efficient "fluorescent probe" for targeting and imaging, thereby providing many new possibilities for various applications in biomedical sensing and diagnosis. PMID:22866988

  17. Water-soluble derivatives of chitosan as a target delivery system of 99mTc to some organs in vivo for nuclear imaging and biodistribution

    Carboxymethyl chitosan, (CMC), and N-lauryl-carboxymethyl chitosan (LCMC), have been prepared as water soluble derivatives of chitosan. These biodegradable chitosan derivatives were characterized and investigated for nuclear imaging and body distribution. They were labeled with 99mTc to use them as targeted delivery to some organs in vivo for nuclear imaging and to follow their biodistribution within the body. The factors controlling the labeling efficiency have been investigated. The percent labeling yield was determined by using ascending paper chromatographic technique. In vivo biodistribution studies of radiolabeled chitosan derivatives were carried out in groups of female Wistar rats, the body distribution profile in rat was recorded by gamma scintigraphy and the biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled compounds in each organ was calculated as a percentage of the injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g). It has been found that the biodistribution of the two compounds and the pattern of their liver uptake were markedly different. The present study demonstrates a high potential approach for liver imaging using 99mTc-LCMC. An intriguing finding of this study was that the three samples were excreted rapidly via the kidneys because of the water-soluble nature of chitosan derivatives. This suggests that water-soluble chitosan derivatives are good polymeric carriers for radioactive element that overcomes accumulation in the body. Moreover, the easy and inexpensive availability of chitosan could be beneficial for applications in scintigraphic imaging. (author)

  18. Stage-Specific Changes in the Water, Na+, Cl- and K+ Contents of Organelles during Apoptosis, Demonstrated by a Targeted Cryo Correlative Analytical Approach.

    Nolin, Frédérique; Michel, Jean; Wortham, Laurence; Tchelidze, Pavel; Banchet, Vincent; Lalun, Nathalie; Terryn, Christine; Ploton, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated changes in the levels of several ions during apoptosis, but a few recent studies have reported conflicting results concerning the changes in water content in apoptotic cells. We used a correlative light and cryo-scanning transmission electron microscopy method to quantify water and ion/element contents simultaneously at a nanoscale resolution in the various compartments of cells, from the onset to the end of apoptosis. We used stably transfected HeLa cells producing H2B-GFP to identify the stages of apoptosis in cells and for a targeted elemental analysis within condensed chromatin, nucleoplasm, mitochondria and the cytosol. We found that the compartments of apoptotic cells contained, on average, 10% more water than control cells. During mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, we observed a strong increase in the Na+ and Cl- contents of the mitochondria and a strong decrease in mitochondrial K+ content. During the first step in apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), Na+ and Cl- levels decreased in all cell compartments, but remained higher than those in control cells. Conversely, during the second step of AVD, Na+ and Cl- levels increased considerably in the nucleus and mitochondria. During these two steps of AVD, K+ content decreased steadily in all cell compartments. We also determined in vivo ion status during caspase-3 activity and chromatin condensation. Finally, we found that actinomycin D-tolerant cells had water and K+ contents similar to those of cells entering apoptosis but lower Na+ and Cl- contents than both cells entering apoptosis and control cells. PMID:26866363

  19. Stage-Specific Changes in the Water, Na+, Cl- and K+ Contents of Organelles during Apoptosis, Demonstrated by a Targeted Cryo Correlative Analytical Approach.

    Frédérique Nolin

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated changes in the levels of several ions during apoptosis, but a few recent studies have reported conflicting results concerning the changes in water content in apoptotic cells. We used a correlative light and cryo-scanning transmission electron microscopy method to quantify water and ion/element contents simultaneously at a nanoscale resolution in the various compartments of cells, from the onset to the end of apoptosis. We used stably transfected HeLa cells producing H2B-GFP to identify the stages of apoptosis in cells and for a targeted elemental analysis within condensed chromatin, nucleoplasm, mitochondria and the cytosol. We found that the compartments of apoptotic cells contained, on average, 10% more water than control cells. During mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, we observed a strong increase in the Na+ and Cl- contents of the mitochondria and a strong decrease in mitochondrial K+ content. During the first step in apoptotic volume decrease (AVD, Na+ and Cl- levels decreased in all cell compartments, but remained higher than those in control cells. Conversely, during the second step of AVD, Na+ and Cl- levels increased considerably in the nucleus and mitochondria. During these two steps of AVD, K+ content decreased steadily in all cell compartments. We also determined in vivo ion status during caspase-3 activity and chromatin condensation. Finally, we found that actinomycin D-tolerant cells had water and K+ contents similar to those of cells entering apoptosis but lower Na+ and Cl- contents than both cells entering apoptosis and control cells.

  20. Direct Solvent-Derived Polymer-Coated Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanodots with High Water Solubility for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Glioma.

    Wang, Yi; Meng, Ying; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Chengyi; Shi, Wei; Chen, Jian; Wang, Jianxin; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-08-01

    Cancer imaging requires biocompatible and bright contrast-agents with selective and high accumulation in the tumor region but low uptake in normal tissues. Herein, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP)-derived polymer-coated nitrogen-doped carbon nanodots (pN-CNDs) with a particle size in the range of 5-15 nm are prepared by a facile direct solvothermal reaction. The as-prepared pN-CNDs exhibit stable and adjustable fluorescence and excellent water solubility. Results of a cell viability test (CCK-8) and histology analysis both demonstrate that the pN-CNDs have no obvious cytotoxicity. Most importantly, the pN-CNDs can expediently enter glioma cells in vitro and also mediate glioma fluorescence imaging in vivo with good contrast via elevated passive targeting. PMID:25808813

  1. Target Tracking in Robot Water Polo Game%机器人水球比赛中的目标跟踪

    张君华; 石红; 工若鹏; 谢广明

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to the shortage of the existent multiple visional targets tracking technology of the robot water polo game, a local target tracking method is presented based on CamShift algorithm, which is with adaptive ability and active adjustability. Firstly, the basic CamShift algorithm is introduced. Then, the tacking method is improved by including autonomous white balance adjusting and adaptive optimization. Moreover, for the five possible cases which may lead to wrong tracking, correcting mechanism are given in detail. The experiment results show that the obtained method is valid and satisfied for real time image process.%针对原有机器人水球比赛的视频多目标跟踪技术的不足,提出一种基于CamShift算法的带有自适应能力和主动纠错能力的局域目标跟踪方法.通过介绍基本的CamShift算法,并引入自动白平衡调节和自适应能力的优化处理对跟踪方法进行改进,对跟踪过程中可能出现的5种可能错误情形提出具体纠错方案.实验结果表明:该方法有效且算法处理速度能达到实时图像处理的要求.

  2. One-pot fabrication of silver nanocrystals using Nicandra physalodes: A novel route for mosquito vector control with moderate toxicity on non-target water bugs.

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Khater, Hanem F; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) as vectors for important diseases and parasites causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic pesticides against Culicidae leads to resistance and environmental concerns. Therefore, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. In this research, Nicandra physalodes-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was conducted, in order to control larval populations of three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Biofabricated Ag NPs were characterized using UV-vis spectrophotometry, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, and TEM analyses. Ag NPs were highly toxic against the three mosquito vectors. Maximum efficacy was detected against A. stephensi (LC50=12.39μg/mL), followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50=13.61μg/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=14.79μg/mL). Interestingly, Ag NPs were safer for the non-target aquatic organism Diplonychus indicus sharing the same aquatic habitats of mosquito larvae. LC50 and LC90 values were 1032.81 and 19,076.59μg/mL, respectively. Overall, our results highlight that N. physalodes-fabricated Ag NPs are a promising for development of eco-friendly larvicides against mosquito vectors, with negligible toxicity against non-target aquatic water bugs. PMID:27473981

  3. 基于取淡与流量控制的压咸调度方案研究%Pearl River Water Diversion Research Based on Drinking Water Supply Target and Flow Control

    刘斌; 刘丽诗; 吴炜; 闻平; 黄宇铭

    2013-01-01

    Pearl River Delta is characterized by the staggered distribution of rivers network and estuarine system,which is different from the other estuaries of the world.The salty water intrusion in this area is also different as the complex hydrodynamic system.At the same time,Pearl River Delta has a large population and active economic activities,the population affected by salty water intrusion is over 10 million,and the affected daily water supply is over 10million m3.Thus,Pearl River Water Resources Commission of MWR has implemented water diversion for 8 years since 2005,the flow for repelling salty water intrusion can not be less than 1 800m3/s at the Wuzhou station.Based on the relationship between the salty tide and runoff,this paper made an analysis and put forward a new water diversion scheme based on the drinking water supply target and flow controlling.%珠江三角洲素有“三江汇流、八门出海”之称,河网、河口系统之复杂在世界上首屈一指,咸潮活动也因复杂的水动力系统表现出异于世界其他河口的特点.同时,珠江三角洲人口众多、经济活动活跃,受咸潮影响人口超过1 000万人、取水规模超过1 000×104m3/d.为此,珠江防总从2005年起已连续8次实施了水量调度,提出了梧州压咸流量不低于1 800 m3/s的单一控制指标,保障了供水安全.在8次水量调度的基础上,根据咸潮与径流、潮汐的响应关系,分3个流量级提出了基于平岗泵站和联石湾水闸取淡目标的西江+北江压咸补淡调度方案.

  4. Three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of electron beams created via reflection of intense laser light from a water target

    Ngirmang, Gregory K.; Orban, Chris; Feister, Scott; Morrison, John T.; Frische, Kyle D.; Chowdhury, Enam A.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2016-04-01

    We present 3D Particle-in-Cell (PIC) modeling of an ultra-intense laser experiment by the Extreme Light group at the Air Force Research Laboratory using the Large Scale Plasma (LSP) PIC code. This is the first time PIC simulations have been performed in 3D for this experiment which involves an ultra-intense, short-pulse (30 fs) laser interacting with a water jet target at normal incidence. The laser-energy-to-ejected-electron-energy conversion efficiency observed in 2D(3v) simulations were comparable to the conversion efficiencies seen in the 3D simulations, but the angular distribution of ejected electrons in the 2D(3v) simulations displayed interesting differences with the 3D simulations' angular distribution; the observed differences between the 2D(3v) and 3D simulations were more noticeable for the simulations with higher intensity laser pulses. An analytic plane-wave model is discussed which provides some explanation for the angular distribution and energies of ejected electrons in the 2D(3v) simulations. We also performed a 3D simulation with circularly polarized light and found a significantly higher conversion efficiency and peak electron energy, which is promising for future experiments.

  5. WST11, a novel water-soluble bacteriochlorophyll derivative; cellular uptake, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and vascular-targeted photodynamic activity using melanoma tumors as a model.

    Mazor, Ohad; Brandis, Alexander; Plaks, Vicki; Neumark, Eran; Rosenbach-Belkin, Varda; Salomon, Yoram; Scherz, Avigdor

    2005-01-01

    WST11 is a novel negatively charged water-soluble palladium-bacteriochlorophyll derivative that was developed for vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) in our laboratory. The in vitro results suggest that WST11 cellular uptake, clearance and phototoxicity are mediated by serum albumin trafficking. In vivo, WST11 was found to clear rapidly from the circulation (t1/2=1.65 min) after intravenous bolus injection in the mouse, whereas a longer clearance time (t1/2=7.5 min) was noted in rats after 20 min of infusion. The biodistribution of WST11 in mouse tissues indicates hepatic clearance (t1/2=20 min), with minor (kidney, lung and spleen) or no intermediary accumulation in other tissues. As soon as 1 h after injection, WST11 had nearly cleared from the body of the mouse, except for a temporal accumulation in the lungs from which it cleared within 40 min. On the basis of these results, we set the VTP protocol for a short illumination period (5 min), delivered immediately after WST11 injection. On subjecting M2R melanoma xenografts to WST11-VTP, we achieved 100% tumor flattening at all doses and a 70% cure with 9 mg/kg and a light exposure dose of 100 mW/cm2. These results provide direct evidence that WST11 is an effective agent for VTP and provide guidelines for further development of new candidates. PMID:15623318

  6. Technology strategy for deepwater and subsea production systems 2008 update; Technology Target Areas; TTA7 - Deep water and subsea prodution technology

    2008-07-01

    Executive summary 'Deepwater and Subsea Production Systems' has been identified as one of the eight new Technology Target Areas (TTAs) in Norway's technology strategy for the Oil and Gas sector. This TTA covers deepwater floating production systems, subsea systems (except subsea processing technologies which are addressed by TTA6) and arctic development systems (in both shallow and deepwater). The total hydrocarbon reserves worldwide, which are enabled by the technologies under this TTA exceed 400 billion boe which, itself exceeds the proven reserves of Saudi Arabia. For deepwater developments the long term technical challenge is to develop flexible and adaptive systems which are better able to cope with subsurface uncertainties e.g. compartmentalisation and provide required access to the reservoir to enable successful recovery. More specific medium term challenges relate to developing solutions for harsh environmental conditions such as those offshore Norway and to develop cost effective methods of installing subsea hardware in deep and ultra deep water without requiring expensive crane vessels. For subsea systems the challenge is to develop solutions for ultra deepwater without increasing costs, so that Norway's leading export position in this area can be maintained and strengthened. Considering developments in the arctic, Norwegian industry is already well placed through its familiarity with arctic climate, close relationship with Russia and involvement in Sakhalin II. As we move to water depth beyond about 150m use of Gravity Base Structures (GBS) becomes very expensive or non-feasible and we need to consider other solutions. Subsea-to-beach could be an attractive solution but we need to resolve challenges related to long distance tie backs, flow assurance, uneven terrain, etc. There is also a specific need to develop floating systems capable of drilling and production in an arctic environment. To address the above technical challenges the

  7. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  8. Sputter target

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  9. Target capture and target ghosts

    Auerbach, Steven P.

    1996-05-01

    Optimal detection methods for small targets rely on whitened matched filters, which convolve the measured data with the signal model, and whiten the result with the noise covariance. In real-world implementations of such filters, the noise covariance must be estimated from the data, and the resulting covariance estimate may be corrupted by presence of the target. The resulting loss in SNR is called 'target capture'. Target capture is often thought to be a problem only for bright targets. This presentation shows that target capture also arises for dim targets, leading to an SNR loss which is independent of target strength and depends on the averaging method used to estimate the noise covariance. This loss is due to a 'coherent beat' between the true noise and that portion of the estimated noise covariance due to the target. This beat leads to 'ghost targets', which diminish the target SNR by producing a negative target ghost at the target's position. A quantitative estimate of this effect will be given, and shown to agree with numerical results. The effect of averaging on SNR is also discussed for data scenes with synthetic injected targets, in cases where the noise covariance is estimated using 'no target' data. For these cases, it is shown that the so-called 'optimal' filter, which uses the true noise covariance, is actually worse than a 'sub-optimal' filter which estimates the noise from scene. This apparent contradiction is resolved by showing that the optimal filter is best if the same filter is used for many scenes, but is outperformed by a filter adapted to a specific scene.

  10. Ethoprophos fate on soil–water interface and effects on non-target terrestrial and aquatic biota under Mediterranean crop-based scenarios

    Leitão, Sara; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Van den Brink, Paul J; Ribeiro, R.; Cerejeira, M. José; Sousa, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the environmental fate of the insecticide and nematicide ethoprophos in the soil–water interface following the pesticide application in simulated maize and potato crops under Mediterranean agricultural conditions, particularly of irrigation. Focus was given to the soil–water transfer pathways (leaching and runoff), to the pesticide transport in soil between pesticide application (crop row) and non-application areas (between crop rows), as well as to toxic eff...

  11. From leaf to whole-plant water use efficiency (WUE in complex canopies: Limitations of leaf WUE as a selection target

    Hipólito Medrano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant water use efficiency (WUE is becoming a key issue in semiarid areas, where crop production relies on the use of large volumes of water. Improving WUE is necessary for securing environmental sustainability of food production in these areas. Given that climate change predictions include increases in temperature and drought in semiarid regions, improving crop WUE is mandatory for global food production. WUE is commonly measured at the leaf level, because portable equipment for measuring leaf gas exchange rates facilitates the simultaneous measurement of photosynthesis and transpiration. However, when those measurements are compared with daily integrals or whole-plant estimates of WUE, the two sometimes do not agree. Scaling up from single-leaf to whole-plant WUE was tested in grapevines in different experiments by comparison of daily integrals of instantaneous water use efficiency [ratio between CO2 assimilation (AN and transpiration (E; AN/E] with midday AN/E measurements, showing a low correlation, being worse with increasing water stress. We sought to evaluate the importance of spatial and temporal variation in carbon and water balances at the leaf and plant levels. The leaf position (governing average light interception in the canopy showed a marked effect on instantaneous and daily integrals of leaf WUE. Night transpiration and respiration rates were also evaluated, as well as respiration contributions to total carbon balance. Two main components were identified as filling the gap between leaf and whole plant WUE: the large effect of leaf position on daily carbon gain and water loss and the large flux of carbon losses by dark respiration. These results show that WUE evaluation among genotypes or treatments needs to be revised.

  12. From leaf to whole-plant water use efficiency(WUE)in complex canopies:Limitations of leaf WUE as a selection target

    Hipólito; Medrano; Magdalena; Tomás; Sebastià; Martorell; aume; Flexas; Esther; Hernández; Joan; Rosselló; Alicia; Pou; José-Mariano; Escalona; Josefina; Bota

    2015-01-01

    Plant water use efficiency(WUE) is becoming a key issue in semiarid areas, where crop production relies on the use of large volumes of water. Improving WUE is necessary for securing environmental sustainability of food production in these areas. Given that climate change predictions include increases in temperature and drought in semiarid regions,improving crop WUE is mandatory for global food production. WUE is commonly measured at the leaf level, because portable equipment for measuring leaf gas exchange rates facilitates the simultaneous measurement of photosynthesis and transpiration. However,when those measurements are compared with daily integrals or whole-plant estimates of WUE, the two sometimes do not agree. Scaling up from single-leaf to whole-plant WUE was tested in grapevines in different experiments by comparison of daily integrals of instantaneous water use efficiency [ratio between CO2assimilation(AN) and transpiration(E); AN/E] with midday AN/E measurements, showing a low correlation, being worse with increasing water stress. We sought to evaluate the importance of spatial and temporal variation in carbon and water balances at the leaf and plant levels. The leaf position(governing average light interception) in the canopy showed a marked effect on instantaneous and daily integrals of leaf WUE. Night transpiration and respiration rates were also evaluated, as well as respiration contributions to total carbon balance. Two main components were identified as filling the gap between leaf and whole plant WUE: the large effect of leaf position on daily carbon gain and water loss and the large flux of carbon losses by dark respiration. These results show that WUE evaluation among genotypes or treatments needs to be revised.

  13. Targeted Learning

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  14. Mussel production and Water Framework Directive targets in the Limfjord, Denmark: an integrated assessment for use in system-based management

    Dinesen, Grete E.; Timmermann, K.; Roth, E.; Markager, S.; Ravn-Jonsen, L.; Hjorth, M.; Holmer, M.; Støttrup, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    Water Framework Directive (WFD). Cuts in nutrient loadings do not necessarily result in corresponding reductions in eutrophication impacts or in improving primary and higher trophic-level production. Similarly, the socioeconomic consequences of a mussel fishery and aquaculture production are complex and...... in an annual profit loss of ~€6.2 million. Scenario simulation of the introduction of one, two, three, and four mussel culture farms of ~19 ha showed that the introduction of line-mussels would decrease the biomass of wild mussels both in shallow and deep waters, affecting the catch and profit of...

  15. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    The bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from DNA extracts of 12 samples and compared to clone libraries previously generated using RNA extracts from the same samples. Phylogenetic analysis of 761 DNA-based ...

  16. Ethoprophos fate on soil-water interface and effects on non-target terrestrial and aquatic biota under Mediterranean crop-based scenarios.

    Leitão, Sara; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Van den Brink, Paul J; Ribeiro, Rui; José Cerejeira, M; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the environmental fate of the insecticide and nematicide ethoprophos in the soil-water interface following the pesticide application in simulated maize and potato crops under Mediterranean agricultural conditions, particularly of irrigation. Focus was given to the soil-water transfer pathways (leaching and runoff), to the pesticide transport in soil between pesticide application (crop row) and non-application areas (between crop rows), as well as to toxic effects of the various matrices on terrestrial and aquatic biota. A semi-field methodology mimicking a "worst-case" ethoprophos application (twice the recommended dosage for maize and potato crops: 100% concentration v/v) in agricultural field situations was used, in order to mimic a possible misuse by the farmer under realistic conditions. A rainfall was simulated under a slope of 20° for both crop-based scenarios. Soil and water samples were collected for the analysis of pesticide residues. Ecotoxicity of soil and aquatic samples was assessed by performing lethal and sublethal bioassays with organisms from different trophic levels: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Although the majority of ethoprophos sorbed to the soil application area, pesticide concentrations were detected in all water matrices illustrating pesticide transfer pathways of water contamination between environmental compartments. Leaching to groundwater proved to be an important transfer pathway of ethoprophos under both crop-based scenarios, as it resulted in high pesticide concentration in leachates from Maize (130µgL(-1)) and Potato (630µgL(-1)) crop scenarios, respectively. Ethoprophos application at the Potato crop scenario caused more toxic effects on terrestrial and aquatic biota than at the Maize scenario at the recommended dosage and lower concentrations. In both crop-based scenarios, ethoprophos moved with the irrigation water flow to the

  17. Derivation of supply curves for catchment water effluents meeting specific salinity concentration targets in 2050: linking farm and catchment level models or “Footprints on future salt / water planes”

    Nordblom, Thomas L.; Bathgate, Andrew D.; Young, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The salt burden in a stream reflects the blend of salty and fresh flows from different soil areas in its catchment. Depending not only on long-run rainfall, water yields from a soil are also determined by land cover: lowest if the area is forested and greatest if cleared. Water yields under agro-forestry, lucerne pasture, perennial grass pasture, and annual pasture or cropping options span the range of water yields between the extremes of forested and cleared lands. This study explores quanti...

  18. The target programme for water pollution control up to year 2005. The impact to alternative pollution load levels on inland waterways; Vesiensuojelun tavoitteet vuoteen 2005. Vaihtoehtoisten kuormitustasojen vaikutukset sisaevesissae

    Marttunen, M. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    The publication presents waterway-specific pollution loading surveys connected with the target programme for water pollution control up to 2005 and the results of a survey concerning inland waters. The work evaluates and compares the magnitude and significance of future pollution loads from various sources on the state of the waterway and assesses the impact on the condition of the waterway of two alternative pollution loading levels. The survey was conducted on 24 lakes or parts thereof and 10 rivers. Sixteen of these are subject to loading from the pulls and paper industry. The waterways selected for examination were especially ones for which relatively recent loading analyses were available and to which water quality models have been applied. The general classification of fitness for use was used as a benchmark for changes occurring in the water quality of the waterways. The findings show that particularly the large waterway systems can be moved into a higher fitness for use class by reducing substantially the nutrient loading. Significant improvement in the condition of eutrophic lakes and coastal rivers with their internal loads is difficult. (orig.) 26 refs.

  19. Mussel Production and Water Framework Directive Targets in the Limfjord, Denmark: an Integrated Assessment for Use in System-Based Management

    Morten Hjorth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of human activities often conflict with nature conservation requirements and integrated assessments are necessary to build reliable scenarios for management. In the Limfjord, Denmark's largest estuary, nutrient loading reductions are necessary to fulfill EU regulations criteria, such as the Water Framework Directive (WFD. Cuts in nutrient loadings do not necessarily result in corresponding reductions in eutrophication impacts or in improving primary and higher trophic-level production. Similarly, the socioeconomic consequences of a mussel fishery and aquaculture production are complex and hard to predict. This study focuses on the usefulness of a System Approach Framework (SAF implementation for stakeholder understanding of complex systems and development of sustainable management. Ecological-social-economic (ESE model simulations clearly demonstrated the potential problems of WFD implementation for mussel fishers and mussel farmers. Simulation of mussel fishery closures resulted in a tenfold increase in the hitherto fishable mussel biomass and a similar decrease in the biomass of shallow-water mussels and medium-sized ones in deep water. A total closure of the mussel fishery could result in an annual profit loss of ~€6.2 million. Scenario simulation of the introduction of one, two, three, and four mussel culture farms of ~19 ha showed that the introduction of line-mussels would decrease the biomass of wild mussels both in shallow and deep waters, affecting the catch and profit of fishers. The SAF, which included consultation with stakeholders at all stages, differs from the traditional public consultation process in that (1 communication was verbal and multilateral, (2 discussion among stakeholders was facilitated, and (3 stakeholder opinions and priorities formed the focus of the ESE assessment.

  20. Production Target Design Report

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  1. Accelerator target

    Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Koehler, Conrad (Miller Place, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  2. Target Housing Material Options

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    With gas cooling, heat transfer coefficients are low compared to water. The benefit of gas from a heat transfer point of view is that there is really no upper temperature limit for the coolant, as compared to water, which is limited ultimately by the critical point, and in practice the critical heat flux. In our case with parallel flow channels, water is limited to even lower operating limits by nucleate boiling. So gas can get as hot as the containment material will allow, but to get the density and heat transfer up to something reasonable, we must also increase pressure, thus increasing stress on the containment, namely the front and back faces. We are designing to ASME BPVC, which, for most materials allows a maximum stress of UTS/3. So we want the highest possible UTS. For reference, the front face stress in the 12 mm target at 300 psi was about 90 MPa. The inconel 718 allowable stress at 900°C is 1/3 of 517 or 172 MPa. So we are in a very safe place, but the uTS is dropping rapidly with temperature above 900°C. As we increase target diameter, the challenge will be to keep the stress down. We are probably looking at keeping the allowable at or above the present value, and at as high a temperature as possible.

  3. On the total nitrogen balance and water quality controllable target in Taihu Lake%太湖湖体总氮平衡及水质可控目标

    胡开明; 逄勇; 王华

    2012-01-01

    通过对2007~2010年环太湖水文巡测及降水调查,进行了湖体总氮平衡分析,在充分调查现有与规划的各类型污染源总量控制工程措施的基础上,量化出具有空间分布的流域总氮污染削减率,利用构建的太湖流域及湖体水环境数学模型模拟污染削减后的太湖湖体总氮浓度场,并提出水质可控目标.结果表明:太湖出入水量共127.8亿m3,其中通过降水进入太湖的水量为24.9亿m3,占入湖总水量的19.5%;全年总氮收支量达到4.47万t,其中通过干湿沉降进入太湖的总氮量为0.70万t,占入湖总通量的15.5%,可见干湿沉降进入太湖的污染物不容忽视,其变化趋势与太湖地区降水特征相关性较好.同时通过模型推算,定出2015年太湖湖体不同功能区总氮的可控目标,整个湖体平均值约为2.3mg/L,为太湖总量控制提供科学依据.%The analysis of total nitrogen balance in Taihu Lake is conducted using 2007-2010 patrol hydrometric and precipitation data. An investigation is carried out on the existing and planned engineering measures for controlling the total amount of pollutants entering Taihu Lake from multiple sources. Based on both analysis and investigation, a spatial and temporal reduction plan for total nitrogen loading from the Taihu Lake basin is proposed. A mathematical model for simulating lake water environmental problems is developed. The distribution of total nitrogen concentration in the lake is obtained using the model after the implementation of the engineering measures, and a controllable target is thus proposed. The result shows that the total volume of inflow and outflow in Taihu Lake reaches a value of 127.8×108 m including 24.9×108 m3 of precipitation that accounts for 19. 5% of the total inflow. The annual exchange of total nitrogen loads is 4.47×104 t including 0.07×104 t of wet and dry deposition that can account for 15. 5% of the total nitrogen loads. Thus, the nitrogen

  4. Target Awareness: Lupus

    ... Target Awareness: Lupus Jan. 15, 2009 Target Awareness: Lupus Target Awareness: Lupus provides a brief overview of ... Email Print Tags for this Story treatments symptoms Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  5. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Full Text Available ... Target Awareness: Lupus Jan. 15, 2009 Target Awareness: Lupus Target Awareness: Lupus provides a brief overview of ... Email Print Tags for this Story treatments symptoms Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  6. Target factory in perspective

    A target factory diagram has been constructed for an analysis of the shell coating process system in relation to target production. The number of deposition units needed to achieve the coating requirements will be a major target production operating cost

  7. Remote examination and disassembly of a biomedical target at LASL

    Group CMB-14 at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory examines a failed water-cooled biomedical pion-production target used in the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The target had developed a water leak during service. During investigation of the failure, the target was pressurized in water first to locate the leak generally and second to pinpoint it after the target was partially disassembled. Samples from the target were examined by a metallograph, a scanning electron microscope, an electron and an ion microprobe, and an x-ray diffractometer

  8. INSPTRAX - The Inspection Targeting, Planning and Tracking Database

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The INSPTRAX System tracks Air, RCRA, and Water inspection targeting, planning and tracking information. It is used by the the Air, RCRA, and Water programs to...

  9. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  10. Effective neutron targets

    Because of the lack of a free neutron target, deuterium targets have been used extensively in studying the neutron structure. The unique spin structure of the 3He ground state wave function and the recent developments in laser technologies made polarized 3He targets widely used in many experiments from neutron electromagnetic form factor studies to nucleon spin structure function measurements at all major electron accelerator facilities. In this talk, the current status of the polarized 3He targets will be reviewed. The author will focus on neutron electromagnetic form factor studies using polarized 3He targets. The polarized nucleon spin structure function measurements using polarized 3He targets will also be discussed

  11. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  12. Preliminary investigation of solid target geometry

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro; Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shafiqul, I.M.; Tsuji, Nobumasa; Okamoto, Hutoshi; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki; Hayashi, Katsumi

    1997-11-01

    In this report, we introduce the developing plan for a solid metal target structure. Supposing tantalum as the target material, the temperature distribution and the maximum thermal stress in a tantalum plate of a solid metal target was evaluated under a water cooling condition, using the heat generation rate calculated with the JAERI`s neutron transport code. The calculation results showed that the water velocity was higher than 10 m/s in order to cool the 3mm-thick target plate down to 200degC when the target surface was smooth and heat transfer rate was calculated with the Dittus-Boelter equation. In this case, the maximum thermal stress is 50 MPa at the target plate surface. The coolant water flow distribution in a target vessel was also evaluated for ISIS-type flow channels and the parallel flow channels. In the ISIS-type flow channels, at least 25mm height of the coolant plenum is needed for a uniform flow distribution. The maximum flow velocity difference between the flow gaps in the parallel flow channels was 30%. A heat transfer augmentation experiment was conducted using ribbed-surface flow channel. The heat transfer rate was confirmed to increase up to twice the value of that for a smooth surface. (author)

  13. Price level targeting

    Shukayev, Malik; Ueberfeldt, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Various papers have suggested that Price-Level targeting is a welfare improving policy relative to Inflation targeting. From a practical standpoint, this raises an important yet unanswered question: What is the optimal price index to target? This paper derives the optimal price level targeting index defined over the eight main components of the Consumer Price Index. It finds that such an index places a heavier weight, relative to the expenditure weight, on sectors with slow price adjustments....

  14. Multilayer polymer microspot targets

    Last year the authors reported on the development of a seeded microspot x-ray diagnostic target. This target consisted of a 300-μm-diam, 2-μm-thick disk of silicon or sulfur-seeded hydrocarbon polymer nested tightly in a hole in a 2-μm-thick film of pure hydrocarbon polymer. This year they extended our work on the microspot target, fully encapsulating the microspot in what they call the multilayer polymer microspot target

  15. Target Price Accuracy

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown) 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio). However, target price accuracy is positive...

  16. The Targeting of Advertising

    Ganesh Iyer; David Soberman; J. Miguel Villas-Boas

    2005-01-01

    An important question that firms face in advertising is developing effective media strategy. Major improvements in the quality of consumer information and the growth of targeted media vehicles allow firms to precisely target advertising to consumer segments within a market. This paper examines advertising strategy when competing firms can target advertising to different groups of consumers within a market. With targeted advertising, we find that firms advertise more to consumers who have a st...

  17. TARGET COSTING FUNCTIONS

    Dimi OFILEANU

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the concept of Target Costing. Based on the characteristics of Target Costing, identified in specialized literature, the article presents its main advantages and disadvantages. Also, a comparison is being made between Target Cost and Traditional Cost (in its traditional form, the cost represents an independent variable on the basis of which the sell price is established; and in the Target Cost form the cost represents a dependent variable which is determined on ...

  18. An actionable climate target

    Geden, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The Paris Agreement introduced three mitigation targets. In the future, the main focus should not be on temperature targets such as 2 or 1.5 °C, but on the target with the greatest potential to effectively guide policy: net zero emissions.

  19. Water Privitization : Causes And Consequences

    K. Naresh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Since water has been emerging central point in all spheres of development and social sector, similar response has also emerged from academic as well as developmental politics. Further, scarcity of fresh and clean water leads to emergence of new water business which targeted to reach nearly 2 billion consumers who are estimated as short of fresh water consumption. International markets were already proposed and pushed by world body like WTO to privatize water. Water privatization is a short ha...

  20. Water, Water Everywhere

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  1. Quantitative targeting maps based on experimental investigations for a branched tube model in magnetic drug targeting

    Gitter, K., E-mail: kurt.gitter@tu-dresden.de [TU Dresden, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Odenbach, S. [TU Dresden, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Magnetic drug targeting (MDT), because of its high targeting efficiency, is a promising approach for tumour treatment. Unwanted side effects are considerably reduced, since the nanoparticles are concentrated within the target region due to the influence of a magnetic field. Nevertheless, understanding the transport phenomena of nanoparticles in an artery system is still challenging. This work presents experimental results for a branched tube model. Quantitative results describe, for example, the net amount of nanoparticles that are targeted towards the chosen region due to the influence of a magnetic field. As a result of measurements, novel drug targeting maps, combining, e.g. the magnetic volume force, the position of the magnet and the net amount of targeted nanoparticles, are presented. The targeting maps are valuable for evaluation and comparison of setups and are also helpful for the design and the optimisation of a magnet system with an appropriate strength and distribution of the field gradient. The maps indicate the danger of accretion within the tube and also show the promising result of magnetic drug targeting that up to 97% of the nanoparticles were successfully targeted. - Highlights: > Quantitative targeting maps summarise a series of measurements. > Targeting maps combine quantitative data, magnetic volume forces and magnet position. > Here, up to 97% of injected particles were targeted towards the tumour region. > High concentration of injected ferrofluid brings the danger of accretion. > Low miscibility of ferrofluid by water modelling the blood flow is detected.

  2. Targeted cancer therapies

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  3. Polarized targets and beams

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  4. Concept design of a radioactive ion beam thick target

    The concept design procedure of a thick target used in generating Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) is described. The harsh terms of target material and temperature condition for this purpose are discussed, and several kinds of candidate target materials are listed. Design of a carbon target matrix and its water cooling heat-sink system, and calculation of three-dimensional temperature distributions of the target system are given. The result shows that the thick target has a capacity to receive proton beam of power up to 14 kW, meanwhile its temperature can be maintained at 1300∼2000 degree C. (3 refs., 6 figs.)

  5. GWAS and drug targets

    Cao, Chen; Moult, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a large number of links between genome variation and complex disease. Among other benefits, it is expected that these insights will lead to new therapeutic strategies, particularly the identification of new drug targets. In this paper, we evaluate the power of GWAS studies to find drug targets by examining how many existing drug targets have been directly 'rediscovered' by this technique, and the extent to which GWAS results may ...

  6. Deuterium high pressure target

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  7. Inertial Confinement fusion targets

    Hendricks, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  8. Deuterium High Pressure Target

    Perevozchikov, V; Vinogradov, Yu I; Vikharev, M D; Ganchuk, N S; Golubkov, A N; Grishenchkin, S K; Demin, A M; Demin, D L; Zinov, V G; Kononenko, A A; Lobanov, V N; Malkov, I L; Yukhimchuk, S A

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm^3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system.

  9. The ISOLDE target robots

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  10. Moving Target Defense

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  11. Target Window Reliability

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  12. Target Assembly Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  13. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  14. Bayesian multiple target tracking

    Streit, Roy L

    2013-01-01

    This second edition has undergone substantial revision from the 1999 first edition, recognizing that a lot has changed in the multiple target tracking field. One of the most dramatic changes is in the widespread use of particle filters to implement nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian trackers. This book views multiple target tracking as a Bayesian inference problem. Within this framework it develops the theory of single target tracking, multiple target tracking, and likelihood ratio detection and tracking. In addition to providing a detailed description of a basic particle filter that implements

  15. The Target Visitation Problem

    Hildenbrandt, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The thesis considers the target visitation problem, a combinatorial optimization problem, which merges the classical traveling salesman problem with the linear ordering problem. In more detail, we are looking for a tour which visits a set of targets and which is optimal with respect to two different aspects: On the one hand, we have given a travel cost from each target to every other. On the other hand, we have preference values which tell us how much we would like to visit one target before ...

  16. Aquaporins as potential drug targets

    Fang WANG; Xue-chao FENG; Yong-ming LI; Hong YANG; Tong-hui MA

    2006-01-01

    The aquaporins (AQP) are a family of integral membrane proteins that selectively transport water and,in some cases,small neutral solutes such as glycerol and urea.Thirteen mammalian AQP have been molecularly identified and localized to various epithelial,endothelial and other tissues.Phenotype studies of transgenic mouse models of AQP knockout,mutation,and in some cases humans with AQP mutations have demonstrated essential roles for AQP in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology,including urinary concentrating function,exocrine glandular fluid secretion,brain edema formation,regulation of intracranial and intraocular pressure,skin hydration,fat metabolism,tumor angiogenesis and cell migration.These studies suggest that AQP may be potential drug targets for not only new diuretic reagents for various forms of pathological water retention,but also targets for novel therapy of brain edema,inflammatory disease,glaucoma,obesity,and cancer.However,potent AQP modulators for in vivo application remain to be discovered.

  17. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit rand

  18. Pure HD polarized targets

    The HD polarized target project is now ready to use a target in a physics experiment. This must be done in early 1998 at LEGS (BNL). The IPN cryogenic group takes its part in this venture by doing the transfer and in-beam cryostats. (authors)

  19. The CNGS target

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  20. Targeted therapy in lymphoma

    Cavalli Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Discovery of new treatments for lymphoma that prolong survival and are less toxic than currently available agents represents an urgent unmet need. We now have a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma, such as aberrant signal transduction pathways, which have led to the discovery and development of targeted therapeutics. The ubiquitin-proteasome and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways are examples of pathological mechanisms that are being targeted in drug development efforts. Bortezomib (a small molecule protease inhibitor and the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus, everolimus, and ridaforolimus are some of the targeted therapies currently being studied in the treatment of aggressive, relapsed/refractory lymphoma. This review will discuss the rationale for and summarize the reported findings of initial and ongoing investigations of mTOR inhibitors and other small molecule targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphoma.

  1. Flow mapping for ESS horizontal target

    Takeda, Y.; Kikura, H.; Taishi, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Flow behaviour for ESS horizontal target is studied experimentally using two dimensional water model. A velocity field of stationary flow in reaction zone has been obtained. Three dimensional effect was also studied as a spanwise flow structure. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  2. AA antiproton production target

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  3. Targeted therapies for cancer

    ... to be untrue. Possible side effects from targeted therapies include: Diarrhea Liver problems Skin problems such as rash, dry skin, and nail changes Problems with blood clotting and wound healing High blood pressure As with any treatment, you ...

  4. Delivering Universal and Sustainable Water Services

    Menzies, Iain

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated goal for water has recently been endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly as part of the sustainable development goal (SDG) framework. This study provides an assessment of the global costs of meeting the WASH-related targets of Goal #6. The targets assessed include achieving universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all (target 6.1), achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and ending open defecation (target 6...

  5. SETI target selection.

    Latham, D. W.; Soderblom, D. R.

    1995-06-01

    The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey consists of two complementary elements: a Sky Survey of the entire sky to a moderate level of sensitivity; and a Targeted Search of nearby stars, one at a time, to a much deeper level of sensitivity. The authors propose strategies for target selection with two goals: to improve the chances of successful detection of signals from technical civilizations that inhabit planets around solar-type stars, and to minimize the chances of missing signals from unexpected sites.

  6. High pressure gas target

    Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B.

    2012-12-01

    Compact, high pressure, high current gas target features all metal construction and semi-automatic window assembly change. The unique aspect of this target is the domed-shaped window. The Havar alloy window is electron beam welded to a metal ring, thus forming one, interchangeable assembly. The window assembly is sealed by knife-edges locked by a pneumatic toggle allowing a quick, in situ window change.

  7. An ISOLDE target unit

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  8. Radar target detection simulation

    Tarig Ibrahim Osman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard radar detection process requires that the sensor output is compared to a predetermined threshold. The threshold is selected based on a-priori knowledge available and/or certain assumptions. However, any knowledge and/or assumptions become in adequate due to the presence of multiple targets with varying signal return and usually non stationary background. Thus, any predetermined threshold may result in either increased false alarm rate or increased track loss. Even approaches where the threshold is adaptively varied will not perform well in situations when the signal return from the target of interest is too low compared to the average level of the background .Track-before-detect techniques eliminate the need for a detection threshold and provide detecting and tracking targets with lower signal-to-noise ratios than standard methods. However, although trackbefore-detect techniques eliminate the need for detection threshold at sensor's signal processing stage, they often use tuning thresholds at the output of the filtering stage .This paper presents a computerized simulation model for target detection process. Moreover, the proposed model method is based on the target motion models, the output of the detection process can easily be employed for maneuvering target tracking.

  9. The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center) target system

    During the summer of 1985, we replaced the WNR T-shaped target/moderator scheme with the LANSCE split-target/flux-trap-moderator design. The intent of this 'LANSCE upgrade' was to increase (to 12) the number of neutron beam lines serviced simultaneously, and to enhance the target area shielding and target system to accept 200 μA of 800-MeV protons. The four LANSCE moderators consist of three (chilled) water moderators, and a liquid hydrogen (20 K) moderator. The LANSCE target is machinable tungsten

  10. Investigation of tokamak solid-divertor target options

    Analysis of survival constraints on the design of solid targets for tokamak bundle divertors is presented. Previous target design efforts are reviewed. Considerations of heat removal, surface erosion, and fatigue life are included in a generalized design window methodology which facilitates target selection. Using subcooled water as coolant, eight possible target materials are evaluated for use in tubular and plate targets as substrates, coatings, and claddings. Subject to the severe environment of the tokamak plasma, the most promising conventional designs are identified. A thermally bonded, mechanically unbonded laminated design is proposed and evaluated as a target design well suited to the divertor target environment. Due to fatigue and sputtering erosion this configuration has limited life, but appears to constitute an upper bound for the capabilities of a solid target design. Needs for experimental work are identified

  11. The Sinuous Target

    Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    We report on the concept for a target material comprised of a multitude of interlaced wires of small dimension. This target material concept is primarily directed at high-power neutrino targets where the thermal shock is large due to small beam sizes and short durations; it also has applications to other high-power targets, particularly where the energy deposition is great or a high surface area is preferred. This approach ameliorates the problem of thermal shock by engineering a material with high strength on the micro-scale, but a very low modulus of elasticity on the meso-scale. The low modulus of elasticity is achieved by constructing the material of spring-like wire segments much smaller than the beam dimension. The intrinsic bends of the wires will allow them to absorb the strain of thermal shock with minimal stress. Furthermore, the interlaced nature of the wires provides containment of any segment that might become loose. We will discuss the progress on studies of analogue materials and fabrication techniques for sinuous target materials.

  12. Targeted assets risk analysis.

    Bouwsema, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessments utilising the consolidated risk assessment process as described by Public Safety Canada and the Centre for Security Science utilise the five threat categories of natural, human accidental, technological, human intentional and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE). The categories of human intentional and CBRNE indicate intended actions against specific targets. It is therefore necessary to be able to identify which pieces of critical infrastructure represent the likely targets of individuals with malicious intent. Using the consolidated risk assessment process and the target capabilities list, coupled with the CARVER methodology and a security vulnerability analysis, it is possible to identify these targeted assets and their weaknesses. This process can help emergency managers to identify where resources should be allocated and funding spent. Targeted Assets Risk Analysis (TARA) presents a new opportunity to improve how risk is measured, monitored, managed and minimised through the four phases of emergency management, namely, prevention, preparation, response and recovery. To reduce risk throughout Canada, Defence Research and Development Canada is interested in researching the potential benefits of a comprehensive approach to risk assessment and management. The TARA provides a framework against which potential human intentional threats can be measured and quantified, thereby improving safety for all Canadians. PMID:23615063

  13. Inflation Forecast Targeting: Implementing and Monitoring Inflation Targets

    Lars E.O. Svensson

    1996-01-01

    Inflation targeting is shown to imply inflation forecast targeting: the central bank's inflation forecast becomes an intermediate target. Inflation forecast targeting simplifies both implementing and monitoring of monetary policy. The inflation forecast is actually an ideal intermediate target: it is most correlated with the goal, easier to control than the goal, more observable than the goal, and very transparent. Money growth targeting generally leads to higher inflation variability than in...

  14. Laser ablation of carbon targets placed in a liquid

    Antipov, A. A.; Arakelyan, S. M.; Garnov, S. V.; Kutrovskaya, S. V.; Kucherik, A. O.; Nogtev, D. S.; Osipov, A. V.

    2015-08-01

    We report experimental results on laser formation of carbon nanostructures produced during irradiation of a target placed in water. We have performed comparative experiments on laser heating of carbon targets by millisecond and femtosecond laser pulses. It is shown that under different conditions of laser irradiation of targets made of schungite, glassy carbon and pyrolytic graphite, different morphological types of micro- and nanostructured carbon are formed.

  15. Setting reference targets

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  16. Modelling Recycling Targets

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses...... how the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish...

  17. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  18. Phoenix Color Targets

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Targeted polypeptide degradation

    Church, George M.; Janse, Daniel M.

    2008-05-13

    This invention pertains to compositions, methods, cells and organisms useful for selectively localizing polypeptides to the proteasome for degradation. Therapeutic methods and pharmaceutical compositions for treating disorders associated with the expression and/or activity of a polypeptide by targeting these polypeptides for degradation, as well as methods for targeting therapeutic polypeptides for degradation and/or activating therapeutic polypeptides by degradation are provided. The invention provides methods for identifying compounds that mediate proteasome localization and/or polypeptide degradation. The invention also provides research tools for the study of protein function.

  20. Fine target of deuterium

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  1. AA antiproton production target

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  2. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  3. Major Targets for 2010

    2010-01-01

    @@ This year, the main targets we have set for economic and social development are: increasing GDP by approximately 8 percent, creating jobs for more than 9 million people, keeping the urban registered unemployment rate no higher than 4.6 percent, holding the rise in consumer prices to around 3 percent, and improving the balance of payments.

  4. 12. Target fabrication

    This series of papers presents the requirements and critical issues for IFE (inertial fusion energy) target fabrication and injection. The critical issues for target fabrication are: -) ability to fabricate target capsules and hohlraums, -) ability to fabricate them economically, and -) ability to fabricate, assemble, fill and layer at the required rate. Potential fabrication processes or methodologies include: micro-encapsulation (for foam shells and thick ablators), phase-inversion technique (for CH foams), super-fast cooling techniques, emulsion technique, injection molding (for higher density foam shells), sputter coating (for density high-Z coating), permeation (for DT filling) and cryogenic fluidized beds (for layering of individual capsules). The cooling-induced deformation (CID) of polystyrene shells is characterized in detail (2 papers). Another paper deals with the fabrication of hollow pellets with high Z metal oxide coating of the inner surface. In order to achieve high density compression in laser experiments, the non-contact suspension of pellets is required, Japanese teams propose 2 ways to get it: magnetic suspension and the use of electromagnetic force. The last paper summarizes the major steps in cost reduction that will be taken to economically supply targets for IFE power plants. (A.C.)

  5. Target Chamber Manipulator

    Tantillo, Anthony; Watson, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    A system has been developed to allow remote actuation of sensors in a high vacuum target chamber used with a particle accelerator. Typically, sensors of various types are placed into the target chamber at specific radial and angular positions relative to the beam line and target. The chamber is then evacuated and the experiments are performed for those sensor positions. Then, the chamber is opened, the sensors are repositioned to new angles or radii, and the process is repeated, with a separate pump-down cycle for each set of sensor positions. The new sensor positioning system allows scientists to pre-set the radii of up to a dozen sensors, and then remotely actuate their angular positions without breaking the vacuum of the target chamber. This reduces the time required to reposition sensors from 6 hours to 1 minute. The sensors are placed into one of two tracks that are separately actuated using vacuum-grade stepping motors. The positions of the sensors are verified using absolute optical rotary encoders, and the positions are accurate to 0.5 degrees. The positions of the sensors are electronically recorded and time-stamped after every change. User control is through a GUI using LabVIEW.

  6. ISOLDE back on target

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  7. Enhanced target factor analysis.

    Rostami, Akram; Abdollahi, Hamid; Maeder, Marcel

    2016-03-10

    Target testing or target factor analysis, TFA, is a well-established soft analysis method. TFA answers the question whether an independent target test vector measured at the same wavelengths as the collection of spectra in a data matrix can be excluded as the spectrum of one of the components in the system under investigation. Essentially, TFA cannot positively prove that a particular test spectrum is the true spectrum of one of the components, it can, only reject a spectrum. However, TFA will not reject, or in other words TFA will accept, many spectra which cannot be component spectra. Enhanced Target Factor Analysis, ETFA addresses the above problem. Compared with traditional TFA, ETFA results in a significantly narrower range of positive results, i.e. the chance of a false positive test result is dramatically reduced. ETFA is based on feasibility testing as described in Refs. [16-19]. The method has been tested and validated with computer generated and real data sets. PMID:26893084

  8. The targets of curcumin.

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S; Huang, Shile

    2011-03-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-kB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer's disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here. PMID:20955148

  9. Beamed Energy Propulsion by Means of Target Ablation

    This paper describes hundreds of pendulum tests examining the beamed energy conversion efficiency of different metal targets coated with multiple liquid enhancers. Preliminary testing used a local laser with photographic paper targets, with no liquid, water, canola oil, or methanol additives. Laboratory experimentation was completed at Wright-Patterson AFB using a high-powered laser, and ballistic pendulums of aluminum, titanium, or copper. Dry targets, and those coated with water, methanol and oil were repeatedly tested in laboratory conditions. Results were recorded on several high-speed digital video cameras, and the conversion efficiency was calculated. Paper airplanes successfully launched using BEP were likewise recorded

  10. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  11. Low energy electron scattering from polyatomic targets

    Khakoo, Murtadha A; Muse, John; Campbell, Colin [Department of Physics, California State University, Fullerton, CA 92834 (United States); Lopes, Maria Cristina A; Silva, Helen [Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora-MG, CEP 36036-330 (Brazil); Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent, E-mail: mkhakoo@fullerton.ed [A. A. Noyes Laboratory of Chemical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Low energy elastic electron scattering cross-sections from water and several alcohols are presented. This paper addresses accurately measuring quantitative differential elastic scattering cross-sections, using the relative flow method with an aperture source, and focuses on the long range dipole interaction of the scattering electron with these polar targets. The electron-dipole interaction dominates the scattering for these molecules and contributes significantly to their integral elastic cross-sections.

  12. Polarization discrimination between repeater false-target and radar target

    SHI LongFei; WANG XueSong; XIAO ShunPing

    2009-01-01

    High fidelity repeater false-target badly affects a radar system's detecting, tracking, and data processing. It is an available approach of confronting false-target for radar that discriminates firstly and then eliminates. Whereas for the technique progress about the repeater false-target jam, it is more and more difficult to discriminate this jam in the time-domain, frequency-domain, or space-domain. The technique using polarization information to discriminate the target and false-target is discussed in this paper. With the difference that false-target signal vector's polarization ratio is fixed and target echo signal vector's polarization ratio is variational along with radar transmission signal's polarization, we transform the discrimination problem to beeline distinguish problem in the 2-dim complex space. The distributing characteristic expression of the false-target discrimination statistic is constructed, with which the discrimination ratio of false-target is analyzed. For the target case, the decomposed model of target scattering matrix and the concept of distinguish quantity are proposed. Then, the discrimination ratio of target can be forecasted according to target distinguish quantity. Thus, the performance of discrimination method has been analyzed integrally. The simulation results demonstrate the method in this paper is effective on the discrimination of target and false-target.

  13. Evolution with Drifting Targets

    Kanade, Varun; Vaughan, Jennifer Wortman

    2010-01-01

    We consider the question of the stability of evolutionary algorithms to gradual changes, or drift, in the target concept. We define an algorithm to be resistant to drift if, for some inverse polynomial drift rate in the target function, it converges to accuracy 1 -- \\epsilon , with polynomial resources, and then stays within that accuracy indefinitely, except with probability \\epsilon , at any one time. We show that every evolution algorithm, in the sense of Valiant (2007; 2009), can be converted using the Correlational Query technique of Feldman (2008), into such a drift resistant algorithm. For certain evolutionary algorithms, such as for Boolean conjunctions, we give bounds on the rates of drift that they can resist. We develop some new evolution algorithms that are resistant to significant drift. In particular, we give an algorithm for evolving linear separators over the spherically symmetric distribution that is resistant to a drift rate of O(\\epsilon /n), and another algorithm over the more general prod...

  14. Physics of polarized targets

    Niinikoski, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  15. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz;

    2003-01-01

    determination two ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory...... determination of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used for......For the deep space asteroid mission, Bering, the main goal is the detection and tracking of near Earth objects (NEOs) and asteroids. One of the key science instruments is the 0.3-m telescope used for imaging and tracking of the detected asteroidal objects. For efficient use of the observation time...

  16. Target momentum measurement in laser plasma propulsion using two probe beams

    A new method to measure the target velocity in laser plasma propulsion is proposed. By this method, the target velocity can be directly measured. The target thickness and the probe beam have no effects on measurement results. Compared with theoretical result, the error of experimental result is less than 2%. Furthermore, using this method, target momentum generation in laser-ablation water under different ambient temperatures is measured. Results show that the target momentum increases as the temperature decreases. (authors)

  17. Careful price level targeting

    Waters , George A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a class of interest rate rules that respond to public expectations and to lagged variables. Varying levels of commitment correspond to varying degrees of response to lagged output and targeting of the price level. If the response rises (unintentionally) above the optimal level, the outcome deteriorates severely. Hence, the optimal level of commitment is sensitive to the method of expectations formation and partial commitment is the robust, optimal policy.

  18. Targeting fragile X

    Gantois, Ilse; Kooy, R. Frank

    2002-01-01

    Ten years after the identification of the gene responsible for fragile X syndrome, recent studies have revealed a list of mRNAs bound by the fragile X gene product and have identified specific sequences required for the interaction between the fragile X protein and its targets. These results are a breakthrough in understanding why absence of the fragile X protein leads to mental retardation.

  19. Water Saving for Development

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  20. Inflation targeting and core inflation

    Julie Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...

  1. Water Recycling in Australia

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  2. Integrated water quality, emergy and economic evaluation of three bioremediation treatment systems for eutrophic water

    This study was targeted at finding one or more environmentally efficient, economically feasible and ecologically sustainable bioremediation treatment modes for eutrophic water. Three biological species, i.e. water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), loach (Misgurus anguillicaudatus) and ...

  3. Water scarcity challenges to business

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-01-01

    The growing scarcity of freshwater due to rising water demands and a changing climate is increasingly seen as a major risk for the global economy. Consumer awareness, private sector initiatives, governmental regulation and targeted investments are urgently needed to move towards sustainable water us

  4. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  5. Low intensity beam target unit

    1976-01-01

    This is a wheel fitted with many targets around its periphery (each with three longitudinally arranged thin rods) of which one is placed into the beam via a rotation of the wheel. Upstream of each target is placed a luminescent screen, aligbed on each target axis and viewed with a TV camera, to make sure that one is hitting the target. This target unit was probably used to study target's behaviour (like beam heating). Gualtiero Del Torre stands on the left, Pierre Gerdil on the right.

  6. Water citizenship

    Paerregaard, Karsten; Stensrud, Astrid Bredholt; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of Peru’s new water law and discusses how it produces new forms of water citizenship. Inspired by the global paradigm of “integrated water resources management,” the law aims to include all citizens in the management of the country’s water resources...... by embracing a “new water culture.” We ask what forms of water citizenship emerge from the new water law and how they engage with local water practices and affect existing relations of inequality. We answer these questions ethnographically by comparing previous water legislation and how the new law currently...... is negotiated and contested in three localities in Peru’s southern highlands. We argue that the law creates a new water culture that views water as a substance that is measurable, quantifiable, and taxable, but that it neglects other ways of valuing water. We conclude that water citizenship emerges from...

  7. Some Issues in Inflation Targeting

    Andrew Haldane

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the operational issues relevant to the implementation of an inflation-targeting regime. In particular it focuses on: whether inflation targeting is 'new'; whether (and how) the forward-looking nature of inflation-targeting helps to prevent instabilities in inflation; whether inflation-targeting potentially destabilises output; and whether it requires too much knowledge on the part of the authorities. The paper argues that none of these propositions is in general c...

  8. Targeting of Antibodies using Aptamers

    Missailidis, Sotiris

    2003-01-01

    The chapter presents a methodology for the rapid selection of aptamers against antibody targets. It is a detailed account of the various methodological steps that describe the selection of aptamers, including PCR steps, buffers to be used, target immobilisation, partitioning and amplification of aptamers, clonning and sequencing, to results in high affinity and specificity ligands for the chosen target antibody.

  9. STRATEGIES (LEVELS) OF TARGET MARKET

    Ramakrishna Mohan Rao Munaga

    2015-01-01

    Generally target marketing can be carried out in several different levels. They are Target-Market Strategies or Mass (Undifferentiated) Marketing: Choosing the Number of Markets to Target, Multi segment (Differentiated) Marketing, Concentrated Marketing or Niche Marketing, Micro Marketing or Single or Individual Marketing. Firms that compete in the global marketplace can use any combination of the segmenting strategies or none at all.

  10. After treat-to-target

    Wakefield, Richard J; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Naredo, Esperanza;

    2012-01-01

    rheumatologists who have recently formed a research network - the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI) group. The statement proposes that targeting therapy to PD activity provides superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone and introduces the rationale for a new randomised trial using...

  11. After treat-to-target

    Wakefield, Richard J; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Naredo, Esperanza;

    2012-01-01

    rheumatologists who have recently formed a research network--the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI) group. The statement proposes that targeting therapy to PD activity provides superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone and introduces the rationale for a new randomised trial using...

  12. Targets for heavy ion fusion

    This paper describes some of the basic principles of fusion target implosions, using some simple targets designed for irradiation by ion beams. Present estimates are that ion beams with 1-5 MJ, and 100-500 TW will be required to ignite high gain targets. (orig.)

  13. ORION laser target diagnostics

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  14. ORION laser target diagnosticsa)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.; Wright, M. J.; Hood, B. A.; Kemshall, P.

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  15. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics. PMID:23126904

  16. Fluoridated Water

    ... Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  17. Parasites: Water

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  18. Coconut Water

    Agua de Coco, Asian Coconut Water, Coconut Drink, Coconut Fruit Water, Coconut H2O, Coconut Juice, Coconut Palm Water, Coconut Rehydration Solution, Cocos nucifera, Eau de Coco, Eau de Coco Verte, ...

  19. Water pollution

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  20. SNS second target station moderator performance update

    In its first years of operations of its first target station, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is working towards a facility upgrade by a megawatt-class second target station operated at 20 Hz repetition rate, which is intended to complement the existing ORNL neutron sources, the first SNS target station and the HFIR reactor, with high-intensity cold neutron beams.The first round of optimization calculations converged on larger-volume cylindrical para-hydrogen moderators placed in wing configuration on top and bottom of a flat mercury target, premoderated by layers of ambient water and surrounded by beryllium reflector. The metric of these optimization calculations was time-averaged and energy-integrated neutron brightness below 5 meV with the requirement to be able to serve 20 ports with neutrons. A summary of these calculations will be given including lessons learned from the variety of simulated configurations and detailed neutron performance characteristics like spectral intensities, emission time distributions, local variations of moderator brightness at the viewed areas, and sensitivity of the optimization metric to optimized parameters for the most promising configuration.

  1. Conceptual studies for a mercury target circuit

    Sigg, B. [ETH Nuclear Engineering Lab., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-06-01

    For the now favored target design of the European Spallation Source project, i.e. the version using mercury as target material, a basic concept of the primary system has been worked out. It does not include a detailed design of the various components of the target circuit, but tries to outline a feasible solution for the system. Besides the removal of the thermal power of about 3MW produced in the target by the proton beam, the primary system has to satisfy a number of other requirements related to processing, safety, and operation. The basic proposal uses an electromagnetic pump and a mercury-water intermediate heat excanger, but other alternatives are also being discussed. Basic safety requirements, i.e. protection against radiation and toxic mercury vapours, are satisfied by a design using an air-tight primary system containment, double-walled tubes in the intermediate heat exchanger, a fail-safe system for decay heat removal, and a remote handling facility for the active part of the system. Much engineering work has still to be done, because many details of the design of the mercury and gas processing systems remain to be clarified, the thermal-hydraulic components need further optimisation, the system for control and instrumentation is only known in outline and a through safety analysis will be required.

  2. Water-soluble polymers for recovery of metal ions from aqueous streams

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    A process of selectively separating a target metal contained in an aqueous solution by contacting the aqueous solution containing a target metal with an aqueous solution including a water-soluble polymer capable of binding with the target metal for sufficient time whereby a water-soluble polymer-target metal complex is formed, and, separating the solution including the water-soluble polymer-target metal complex from the solution is disclosed.

  3. Injected nanocrystals for targeted drug delivery

    Yi Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystals are pure drug crystals with sizes in the nanometer range. Due to the advantages of high drug loading, platform stability, and ease of scaling-up, nanocrystals have been widely used to deliver poorly water-soluble drugs. Nanocrystals in the blood stream can be recognized and sequestered as exogenous materials by mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS cells, leading to passive accumulation in MPS-rich organs, such as liver, spleen and lung. Particle size, morphology and surface modification affect the biodistribution of nanocrystals. Ligand conjugation and stimuli-responsive polymers can also be used to target nanocrystals to specific pathogenic sites. In this review, the progress on injected nanocrystals for targeted drug delivery is discussed following a brief introduction to nanocrystal preparation methods, i.e., top-down and bottom-up technologies.

  4. Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    Fan Zhang; Xunxun Xu; Tingting Li; Zhonghua Liu

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a central role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable neurons and other cells and are targeted by commonly used local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants. They are also common targets of neurotoxins including shellfish toxins. Shellfish toxins are a variety of toxic secondary metabolites produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates in both marine and fresh water systems, which can acc...

  5. Malaysian water sector reform : policy and performance

    Kim, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    One of the measures that can help developing countries in meeting Target 10 of the Millennium  Development Goals – halving the number of people without access to water and adequate sanitation  by 2015 – is through a water sector reform. In this research the Malaysian water sect

  6. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes (64Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  7. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    Dearling, J.L

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ({sup 64}Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective {sup 64}Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective {sup 64}Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential

  8. Targeted nanodrugs for cancer therapy: prospects and challenges.

    Bottini, Massimo; Sacchetti, Cristiano; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Bellucci, Stefano; Magrini, Andrea; Rosato, Nicola; Bottini, Nunzio

    2014-01-01

    The recent advent of nanomedicine holds potential to revolutionize cancer therapy. This innovative discipline has paved the way for the emergence of a new class of drugs based on nanoengineered particles. These "nanodrugs" are designed to greatly enhance drug therapeutic indices. First-generation nanodrugs consisted of conventional anti-cancer drugs loaded into/onto nanoengineered particles (nanocarriers) devoid of targeting features (non-targeted nanodrugs). Non-targeted nanodrugs have provided the opportunity to carry large amounts of drugs, including poorly water-soluble and/or permeable drugs, to several types of tumors, improving the therapeutic index with respect to comparable free drugs. Although effective, the primary delivery mechanism of non-targeted nanodrugs was through passive tissue accumulation, due to pathophysiological differences between tumor-associated and healthy vessels, and through non-specific targeting of cell subsets, posing the danger of off-target binding and effects. Recently, the therapeutic indices of certain anti-cancer drugs were further improved by attaching targeting ligands to nanodrugs (targeted-nanodrugs). Targeted-nanodrugs selectively bind to cognate receptors expressed on target cells and enter cells more efficiently than non-targeted formulations. Although these advancements have been sufficiently beneficial to place targeted-nanodrugs into clinical development for use in cancer therapy, they also come at a price. The addition of ligands to drug-loaded nanocarriers often leads to additional synthesis steps and costs, and more complex biological performance relative to ligand-devoid nanodrugs. Here, we will discuss the benefits and challenges facing the addition of targeting features to nanodrugs for cancer therapy. PMID:24730253

  9. One shot, one kill: the forces delivered by archer fish shots to distant targets.

    Burnette, Morgan F; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A

    2015-10-01

    Archer fishes are skillful hunters of terrestrial prey, firing jets of water that dislodge insects perched on overhead vegetation. In the current investigation, we sought an answer to the question: are distant targets impractical foraging choices? Targets far from the shooter might not be hit with sufficient force to cause them to fall. However, observations from other investigators show that archer fish fire streams of water that travel in a non-ballistic fashion, which is thought to keep on-target forces high, even to targets that are several body lengths distant from the fish. We presented targets at different distances and investigated three aspects of foraging behavior: (i) on-target forces, (ii) shot velocity, (iii) a two-target choice assay to determine if fish would show any preference for downing closer targets or more distant targets. In general, shots from our fish (Toxotes chatareus) showed a mild decrease (less than 15% on average) in on-target forces at our most distant target offered (5.8 body lengths) with respect to the closest target offered (2.3 body lengths). One individual in our investigation showed slightly, but significantly, greater on-target forces as target distance increased. Forces on the furthest targets offered were found to double that of attachment forces for 200mg insects, even for individuals whose on-target forces showed mild decreases with increases in target distance. High-speed video analysis of jet impact with the target revealed that the shot was traveling in a non-ballistic manner, even to our most distant target offered, corroborating previous suppositions that on-target forces should remain high. Fish were able to accomplish this without large changes to shot velocity, but we did find evidence that the water jets appeared to differ in the timing of their acceleration as target distance increased. Our two-target choice experiment revealed that fish show preference for downing the closer target first, even though impact

  10. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pulliam, Elias Noel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  11. Molecularly targeted therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    Full text: It is generally agreed that current focus of nuclear medicine development should be on molecular imaging and therapy. Though, the widespread use of the terminology 'molecular imaging' is quite recent, nuclear medicine has used molecular imaging techniques for more than 20 years ago. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced for the internal therapy of malignant and inflammatory lesions in nuclear medicine. In the field of bio/medical imaging, nuclear medicine is one of the disciplines which has the privilege of organized and well developed chemistry/ pharmacy section; radio-chemistry/radiopharmacy. Fundamental principles have been developed more than 40 years ago and advanced research is going well into postgenomic era. The genomic revolution and dramatically increased insight in the molecular mechanisms underlying pathology have led to paradigm shift in drug development. Likewise does in the nuclear medicine. Here, the author will present current clinical and pre-clinical therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on molecular targets such as membrane-bound receptors, enzymes, nucleic acids, sodium iodide symporter, etc, in correlation with fundamentals of radiopharmacy. (author)

  12. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  13. CBI students: target hit!

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    The students on the third Challenge Based Innovation (CBI) @CERN course have been working on their society-oriented projects since September. Last Thursday, 10 December, they finally presented all their proofs-of-concept and prototypes to a packed audience at IdeaSquare.   CBI students presenting their projects at IdeaSquare (Image: Carlos Yarza/IED Barcelona). Twenty-seven students from four universities and over ten countries have been working on the CERN CBI course since last September. Labour mobility, food safety, literacy and water safety are the four projects that the students have been working on. Thanks to help and inspiration from a wide range of people working at CERN, especially in the Knowledge Transfer group, the students have redefined and focused their original challenges and have developed four concepts to solve societal challenges: * Team Bohr developed a concept for encouraging labour mobility and talent exchange in Europe, combining data analysis and existing online ...

  14. ICF target positioning robot system

    Based on the function analysis of target positioner for inertial confinement fusion, a kind of ICF target positioning robot system is designed to realize the adjustment and the alignment of a target. The robot system includes a target storage sub-system, a target exchange subsystem, a target transport subsystem and a 6-degree of freedom precision parallel robot subsystem, the structure and principle of every subsystem are dissertated. The system realizes micro scale position by parallel structure which is in the front of the system, and has the advantages of low mass, high stiffness, small cone angle, small volume and high precision. The robot system can position a target into a very small micro scale scope around the center of the target chamber whose diameter is several meters, the precision of the position reaches micro scale. Motion parameter of the positioning robot system has been tested. Experiment proves that the robot system has realized precision target position and target exchange on the condition of vacuum. (authors)

  15. Windowless target: Design of the XT-ADS spallation target

    The design of the XT-ADS spallation target is performed within the European integrated project EUROTRANS (FP6 Contract FI6W-516520) that has started in April 2005. At the current status of the spallation target design process, the boundary conditions for the spallation target loop with respect to the XT-ADS performance requirements and the design of the subcritical core and primary system have been established. The next steps will concentrate on further development of the spallation target nozzle, the vacuum and spallation product confinement system and the pumping, LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) and cooling system

  16. Application of small diameter nozzles systems for cyclotron targets cooling

    In the present work estimating calculations of cadmium targets cooling conditions under proton beam irradiation are cited. Irradiation conditions and targets parameters are as follows: a) proton initial energy - 16 MeV, beam current - 20 μA; b) metallic cadmium layer thickness - 660 μm; target diameter - 9 mm, it squire - 0.64 cm2; c) vanadium substrate thickness, on which the cadmium layer is fixed - 200 μm; d) proton energy losses in the target - 15 MeV, heat release in the cadmium layer - 300 W, heat release on the target surface - 471 W·cm-2; e) proton energy losses in the substrate - 1 MeV, heat release in vanadium - 15 W. For the calculation the system of 7 nozzles was selected. It is noted, that cooling change by single jet of nozzle systems with small diameter provides to heat transfer coefficient increase and sharply reduces (into 3 times) water flow

  17. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  18. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  19. Oxide Fiber Targets at ISOLDE

    Köster, U; Carminati, D; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Correia, J G; Crepieux, B; Dietrich, M; Elder, K; Fedosseev, V; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Fynbo, H O U; Georg, U; Giles, T; Joinet, A; Jonsson, O C; Kirchner, R; Lau, C; Lettry, Jacques; Maier, H J; Mishin, V I; Oinonen, M; Peräjärvi, K; Ravn, H L; Rinaldi, T; Santana-Leitner, M; Wahl, U; Weissman, L

    2003-01-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxyde fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some contact points. The experience with various oxyde fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process or by burning commercial gas lantern mantle cloth. In the future a beryllia fiber target could be used to produce...

  20. The OLYMPUS Internal Hydrogen Target

    Bernauer, J C; Ciullo, G; Henderson, B S; Ihloff, E; Kelsey, J; Lenisa, P; Milner, R; Schmidt, A; Statera, M

    2014-01-01

    An internal hydrogen target system was developed for the OLYMPUS experiment at DESY, in Hamburg, Germany. The target consisted of a long, thin-walled, tubular cell within an aluminum scattering chamber. Hydrogen entered at the center of the cell and exited through the ends, where it was removed from the beamline by a multistage pumping system. A cryogenic coldhead cooled the target cell to counteract heating from the beam and increase the density of hydrogen in the target. A fixed collimator protected the cell from synchrotron radiation and the beam halo. A series of wakefield suppressors reduced heating from beam wakefields. The target system was installed within the DORIS storage ring and was successfully operated during the course of the OLYMPUS experiment in 2012. Information on the design, fabrication, and performance of the target system is reported.

  1. Target support for inertial confinement fusion

    General Atomics (GA) plays an important industrial support role for the US Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in the area of target technology. This includes three major activities: target fabrication support, target handling systems development, and target chamber design. The work includes target fabrication for existing ICF experiments, target and target system development for future experiments, and target research and target chamber design for experiments on future machines, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  2. Target properties and nuclear data

    The influence of the properties of the target on nuclear data was shown. In the case of targets consisting of fissionable material, this influence was demonstrated in experiments involving fission cross-section, average number of neutrons, and prompt fission neutron spectrum. The experimental methods for determining certain corrections were analysed. The method of tritium density determination for a solid target used as neutron source was likewise demonstrated. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  3. 'Inflation Targeting and Inflation Persistence'

    George J. Bratsiotis; Jakob Madsen; Christopher Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the adoption of an inflation target reduces the persistence of inflation. We develop the theoretical literature on inflation persistence by introducing a Taylor rule for monetary policy into a model of persistence and showing that inflation targets reduce inflation persistence. We investigate changes in the time series properties of inflation in seven countries that introduced inflation targets in the late 1980s or early 1990s. We find that the persistenc...

  4. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    Michael W. Klein; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  5. Target repurposing for neglected diseases

    Pollastri, Michael P.; Campbell, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases are an enormous burden to global health and since drug discovery is costly, those infectious diseases that affect the developing world are often not pursued by commercial drug-discovery efforts. Therefore, pragmatic means by which new therapeutics can be discovered are needed. One such approach is target repurposing, where pathogen targets are matched with homologous human targets that have been pursued for drug discovery for other indications. In many cases, the medicinal...

  6. Targeting Nominal Income: A Note

    Kenneth D. West

    1986-01-01

    This paper compares nominal income and monetary targets in a standard aggregate demand - aggregate supply framework. If the desirability of policies is measured by their effect on the unconditional variance of output, nominal income targeting is preferable if and only if the aggregate elasticity of demand for real balances is greater than one. This is precisely the opposite of the condition that in Bean (1984) is sufficient to make nominal income targeting preferable.This points out the impor...

  7. Nominal Income and Inflation Targeting

    Arayssi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a macro- economic model in the area of monetary policy game theory is extended to one-sided dismissal rules concerning observed nominal output and inflation targets for the central banker. These rules specify firing the central banker if some observed policy targets have been exceeded. Such rules are shown to reduce inflationary bias if the central banker perceives her reappointment chances as being strong and is preferred to discretionary monetary policy. Various policy targets...

  8. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure results in a simple prioritized list of right ascension, declination, proper motion and intensity of each prospective target. The telescope itself has a dedicated ASC Camera Head Unit (CHU) mounted on...

  9. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented

  10. Image characterization and target recognition in the surf zone environment

    Nevis, Andrew J.

    1996-05-01

    The surf zone environment represents a very difficult challenge for electro-optic surveillance programs. Data from these programs have been shown to contain dense clutter from vegetation, biological factors (fish), and man-made objects, and is further complicated by the water to land transition which has a significant impact on target signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Also, targets can be geometrically warped from the sea surface and by occlusion from sand and breaking waves. The Program Executive Office Mine Warfare (PMO-210) recently sponsored a test under the Magic Lantern Adaptation (MLA) program to collect surf zone data. Analysis of the data revealed a dilemma for automatic target recognition algorithms; threshold target features high enough to reduce high false alarm rates from land clutter or low enough to detect and classify underwater targets. Land image typically have high SNR clutter with crisp edges while underwater images have lower SNR clutter with blurred edges. In an attempt to help distinguish between land and underwater images, target feature thresholds were made to vary as a function of the SNR of image features within images and as a function of a measure of the edge crispness of the image features. The feasibility of varying target feature thresholds to reduce false alarm rates was demonstrated on a target recognition program using a small set of MLA data. Four features were developed based on expected target shape and resolution: a contrast difference measure between circular targets and their local backgrounds, a signal-to-noise ratio, a normalized correlation, and a target circularity measure. Results showed a target probability of detection and classification (Pdc) of 50 - 78% with false alarms per frame of less than 4%.

  11. Limits of Inflation Targeting Strategy

    Aura Niculescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the trade-off between output volatility and the variability of the inflation rate around its target (Romanian case. The optimal choice for National Bank of Romania (NBR, in our opinion, is the flexible inflation targeting. For this purpose, NBR must explain the loss function and the optimal monetary policy rule. We then argued that this Romanian authority – NBR – can substantially improve its credibility under inflation targeting policy regime by becoming more accountable and transparent. Is the direct inflation targeting the best choice for the monetary policy regime in Romanian economy?

  12. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  13. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2003-01-01

    's pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target is...... inside the telescope FOV. During the telescope observation time, the ASC will constantly control the folding mirror to correctly position the target at the center of the telescope, basically performing a standard telescope tracking service. The telescope will alter the initial target acquisition track...

  14. Visible Light Activated Photocatalytic Water Polishing System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal targets development of a LED light activated photocatalytic water polishing system that enables reduction of organic impurities (TOC and...

  15. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase.

    Jäger, Kathrin; Walter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT), which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination methods, and

  16. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    Jäger, Kathrin; Walter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT), which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination methods, and

  17. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    Kathrin Jäger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT, which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination

  18. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    Haering, Kathryn C.; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  19. THz polarization difference imaging of aqueous targets

    Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Ramirez, Lucia; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes the basic design, implementation, and testing of a polarization difference imaging system for use on aqueous targets. The ultimate performance limitation of THz imaging in many active areas of research is clutter from surface geometry. While the signal to nose ratio (SNR) of standard THz imaging systems is quite large, the signal to clutter ratio (SCR) often faced in an imaging application is orders of magnitude lower and, in many cases, lower than the contrast to noise (CNR) resulting in imagery where the contrast mechanism of interest does not significantly contribute to the overall observed contrast. To overcome these limitations we develop a system that uses a circularly polarized source and linearly polarized detectors to acquire images of transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) reflectivities of the target over the same field of view. Geletin based tissue mimicking phantoms are fabricated with spatially varying water content and modified with a range of surface topologies and surface roughness. TE and TM images are combined to yield self-calibrated clutter-suppressed images. The resulting image indicates that the imaging field clutter affected both polarization channels nearly equally allowing the system to resolve differences in phantom water content. This design is a step toward windowless THz imaging capability critical for clinical translation where patient imaging is dominated by clutter.

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no

  1. Branding water.

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  2. LAMPF polarized 13C targets

    Ethylene glycol, 1-butanol, and toluene highly enriched in 13C have been used at LAMPF to produce dynamically polarized 13C targets for scattering experiments with protons and pions. Preparation of the materials and characteristic properties of these targets are described. 17 refs., 1 fig

  3. High performance inertial fusion targets

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  4. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS...

  5. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards this...

  6. Targeted anti-cancerous therapies

    Crowning decades of efforts in fundamental and applied research, the first generation of targeted anti cancerous drugs is now on the market. Drugs coming from a new approach, conceived from molecular knowledge of cancer and directed against beforehand identified targets. In theory: a miracle of precision and technical success. In practice: a new sources of questions and new problems. (N.C.)

  7. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    Li Zheng Dong; He Wu Liang; Pei Chun Lan; Peng Wen; SongChen; Zheng Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  8. High-Purity Chromium Targets

    Rudoy, A.; Milman, Yu.; Korzhova, N.

    1995-01-01

    A procedure for producing large-scale chromium ingots by means of induction-arc melting was developed. From the high-purity, low-alloyed chromium ingots obtained, chromium targets were produced by of thermoplastic treatment techniques. The method of electron-beam evaporation of high-purity chromium was also used for production of targets.

  9. Nominal GDP: Target or Benchmark?

    Hetzel, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Some observers have argued that the Federal Reserve would best fulfill its mandate by adopting a target for nominal gross domestic product (GDP). Insights from the monetarist tradition suggest that nominal GDP targeting could be destabilizing. However, adopting benchmarks for both nominal and real GDP could offer useful information about when monetary policy is too tight or too loose.

  10. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  11. ISOLDE target zone control room

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  12. From water to energy: The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    Galan-del-Castillo, Elena [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Velazquez, Esther, E-mail: evelalo@upo.e [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector.

  13. From water to energy. The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    Elena, Galan-del-Castillo [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Esther, Velazquez [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector. (author)

  14. The proteome targets of intracellular targeting antimicrobial peptides.

    Shah, Pramod; Hsiao, Felix Shih-Hsiang; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been considered well-deserving candidates to fight the battle against microorganisms due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Several studies have suggested that membrane disruption is the basic mechanism of AMPs that leads to killing or inhibiting microorganisms. Also, AMPs have been reported to interact with macromolecules inside the microbial cells such as nucleic acids (DNA/RNA), protein synthesis, essential enzymes, membrane septum formation and cell wall synthesis. Proteins are associated with many intracellular mechanisms of cells, thus protein targets may be specifically involved in mechanisms of action of AMPs. AMPs like pyrrhocoricin, drosocin, apidecin and Bac 7 are documented to have protein targets, DnaK and GroEL. Moreover, the intracellular targeting AMPs are reported to influence more than one protein targets inside the cell, suggesting for the multiple modes of actions. This complex mechanism of intracellular targeting AMPs makes them more difficult for the development of resistance. Herein, we have summarized the current status of AMPs in terms of their mode of actions, entry to cytoplasm and inhibition of macromolecules. To reveal the mechanism of action, we have focused on AMPs with intracellular protein targets. We have also included the use of high-throughput proteome microarray to determine the unidentified AMP protein targets in this review. PMID:26648572

  15. Oxide fiber targets at ISOLDE

    Köster, U.; Bergmann, U.C.; Carminati, D.; Catherall, R.; Cederkäll, J.; Correia, J.G.; Crepieux, B.; Dietrich, M.; Elder, K.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Fraile, L.; Franchoo, S.; Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall; Georg, U.; Giles, T.; Joinet, A.; Jonsson, Olle; Lau, Ch.; Lettry, J.; Oinonen, M.; Peräjärvi, K.; Ravn, H.L.; Rinaldi, T.; Santana-Leitner, M.; Weissman, L.; Mishin, V.I.; Kirchner, R.; Maier, H.J.; Wahl, U.; Rinaldi Barkat, Tania

    2003-01-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxide fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some...... contact points. The experience with various oxide fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils......, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process...

  16. Target-Searching on Percolation

    2005-01-01

    We study target-searching processes on a percolation, on which a hunter tracks a target by smelling odors it emits. The odor intensity is supposed to be inversely proportional to the distance it propagates. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed on a 2-dimensional bond-percolation above the threshold. Having no idea of the location of the target, the hunter determines its moves only by random attempts in each direction. For lager percolation connectivity p (>~) 0.90, it reveals a scaling law for the searching time versus the distance to the position of the target. The scaling exponent is dependent on the sensitivity of the hunter. For smaller p, the scaling law is broken and the probability of finding out the target significantly reduces. The hunter seems trapped in the cluster of the percolation and can hardly reach the goal.

  17. Target animacy influences gorilla handedness.

    Forrester, Gillian S; Leavens, David A; Quaresmini, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the unimanual actions of a biological family group of twelve western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) using a methodological approach designed to assess behavior within social context from a bottom-up perspective. Measures of both the lateralization of unimanual actions (left, right) and the target of the action (animate, inanimate) were assessed during dual, synchronized video observations of naturalistic behavior. This paper demonstrates a corelationship between handedness and the animate quality of the target object. Analyses demonstrated a significant interaction between lateralized unimanual actions and target animacy and a right-hand bias for actions directed toward inanimate targets. We suggest that lateralized motor preference reflects the different processing capabilities of the left and right hemispheres, as influenced by the emotive (animate) and/or functional (inanimate) characteristics of the target, respectively. PMID:21562817

  18. Water Pollution

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  19. Water world

    Harrison, Lynda

    2011-03-15

    Water is an important element in oilsands operations: three barrels of water are required to produce one barrel of oil; therefore, companies have to implement technologies to reduce their use of water and increase reuse. To do so, several technologies are available: the use of both heavy to light (HTL) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) eliminates the need for sour water disposal facilities; chemistry optimization enhances the phase separation of water and oil; and steam blowdown reduces the need for makeup water. Then to dispose of this water, companies can use disposal wells, landfills or salt caverns. Oilsand operators are implementing different processes in order to reduce their water use and their footprint at the same time.

  20. Water-Trapped Worlds

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Although tidally-locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO2 as dayside ocean basins dry-up. Water-tr...

  1. Water and sanitation to reduce child mortality : the impact and cost of water and sanitation infrastructure

    Gunther, Isabel; Fink, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Using household survey data, this paper estimates the mortality impact of improved water and sanitation access in order to evaluate the potential contribution of water and sanitation investment toward achieving the child mortality targets defined in Millennium Development Goal 4. The authors find that the average mortality reduction achievable by investment in water and sanitation infrastr...

  2. Water Pollution

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  3. Water Pollution

    ... phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute fresh or salt water. You can help protect your water supply: Don't pour household products such as cleansers, beauty products, medicines, auto fluids, paint, and lawn care ...

  4. Water Ways

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water…

  5. A small molecule nanodrug consisting of amphiphilic targeting ligand-chemotherapy drug conjugate for targeted cancer therapy.

    Mou, Quanbing; Ma, Yuan; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue

    2016-05-28

    Targeted drug delivery is a broadly applicable approach for cancer therapy. However, the nanocarrier-based targeted delivery system suffers from batch-to-batch variation, quality concerns and carrier-related toxicity issues. Thus, to develop a carrier-free targeted delivery system with nanoscale characteristics is very attractive. Here, a novel targeting small molecule nanodrug self-delivery system consisting of targeting ligand and chemotherapy drug was constructed, which combined the advantages of small molecules and nano-assemblies together and showed excellent targeting ability and long blood circulation time with well-defined structure, high drug loading ratio and on-demand drug release behavior. As a proof-of-concept, lactose (Lac) and doxorubicin (DOX) were chosen as the targeting ligand and chemotherapy drug, respectively. Lac and DOX were conjugated through a pH-responsive hydrazone group. For its intrinsic amphiphilic property, Lac-DOX conjugate could self-assemble into nanoparticles in water. Both in vitro and in vivo assays indicated that Lac-DOX nanoparticles exhibited enhanced anticancer activity and weak side effects. This novel active targeting nanodrug delivery system shows great potential in cancer therapy. PMID:27040815

  6. Water Saving Strategies & Ecological Modernisation

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten;

    2005-01-01

    ; however, the paper challenges the way this perspective is developed by Ecological Mod-ernisation scholars. Empirically, the paper draws on case studies from the Copenhagen region, where wa-ter saving activities have resulted in a radical decrease of water consumption in house-holds - from 168 l....../capita/day in the 80s to 125 l/capita/day in 2002. A series of different strategies, targets and tools have been implemented: Emphasizing demand side instead of supply side, using and communicating indicators, formulating goals for reducing water consumption and developing learning processes in water management......Drawing on case studies of water saving campaigns and new collaborations, the pa-per will serve, on the one hand, as an interpretation of the water saving strategy in Co-penhagen in the light of Ecological Modernisation, and on the other hand, as a critical discussion of Ecological Modernisation as...

  7. Preparation of thin nuclear targets

    Thin film backings, sources and targets are needed for many applications in low energy nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry experiments. A survey of techniques used in the preparation of nuclear targets is first briefly discussed. These are classified as chemical, mechanical and physical preparations. Vacuum evaporation, being the most generally used technique, is discussed in detail. It is highly desirable to monitor the film thickness and control the deposition rate during evaporation and to measure the final target thickness after deposition has concluded. The relative merits of various thickness measuring techniques are described. Stages in the fabrication and mounting of self-supporting foils are described in detail, with emphasis given to the preparation of thin self-supporting carbon foils used as target backings and stripper foils. Various target backings, and the merits of the more generally used release agents are described in detail. The preparations of more difficult elemental targets are discussed, and a comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  8. Target gene delivery from targeting ligand conjugated chitosan-PEI copolymer for cancer therapy.

    Nam, Joung-Pyo; Nah, Jae-Woon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we designed a novel carrier which was having low cytotoxicity, site-specific target function, and high transfection efficiency using low molecular weight water soluble O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCh), branched low molecular weight poly(ethyleneimine) (bPEI), and targeting ligand (epitope type, HER-2/neu). OCMCh/bPEI/targeting ligand, HPOCP copolymer, and targeting ligand-modified polyamphoteric polymer, and were prepared by chemical reaction and characterized by (1)H NMR and FT-IR. The binding affinity, protecting efficiency, and releasing ability of gene/HPOCP polyplex were confirmed by gel retardation assay. The pDNA(pEGFP)/HPOCP polyplexes showed high gene transfection efficiency in HCT 119 cell. In addition, siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes formed spherical shape and have particle sizes from 100 to 300nm. The siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes have lower cytotoxicity than PEI in the all of siRNA concentrations ranging from 0 to 2μg/μL in HEK 293 cells. The cell viability of siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes was performed in SK-Br3 cells with VEGF siRNA or BCL2 siRNA. In addition, confocal laser-scanning microscopy and flow cytometry assay were performed for cellular localization and cellular uptake efficiency of siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes. The results of the present study demonstrate that HPOCP copolymer is a good candidate as gene delivery carriers for gene delivery system or gene therapy. PMID:26453863

  9. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads;

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined...... by the evolutes of the actual spiral or target wave. With the use of Gaussian smoothing, a robust method is developed that permits the identification of targets and spirals foci independently of the wave profile. Examples of an analysis of long image sequences from experiments with the Belousov...

  10. Mycothiol: a promising antitubercular target.

    Nilewar, S S; Kathiravan, M K

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the world's second commonest cause of death next to HIV/AIDS. The increasing emergence of multi drug resistance and the recalcitrant nature of persistent infections pose an additional challenge for the treatment of TB. Due to the development of resistance to conventional antibiotics there is a need for new therapeutic strategies to combat M. tuberculosis. One such target is Mycothiol (MSH), a major low molecular-mass thiol in mycobacteria, an important cellular anti-oxidant. MSH is present only in actinomycetes and hence is a good target. This review explores mycothiol as a potential target against tuberculosis and various research ongoing worldwide. PMID:24368170

  11. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry

  12. The water needed to have Italians eat pasta and pizza

    Aldaya, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Problems of freshwater scarcity and pollution are related to water use by farmers, industries and households. The term ‘water users’ has always been interpreted as ‘those who apply water for some purpose’. As a result, governments responsible for water resources management have traditionally targete

  13. The internal target assembly for the cyclotron AIC-144

    To enhance the amounts (activities) of isotopes produced on the isochronous cyclotron AIC-144 in Cracow, a new internal target assembly has been designed and built in the Institute. The internal space of the target head is efficiently cooled with water. Metallic supports with materials for irradiations are loaded mechanically to the transition chamber which is further connected with the vacuum chamber of the cyclotron. The radial movement of the target head as well as the vertical and horizontal movements of the target support are operated with 3 stepper motors. To reduce radiation risk for the personnel, hand operations have been almost eliminated owing to full automation by OMRON industrial controllers. The assembly has been recently tested for 9 possible breakdown stats, and passed all of them in the simulated activation conditions. (author)

  14. Targeted therapy: tailoring cancer treatment

    Min Yan; Quentin Qiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Targeted therapies include small-molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies,have made treatment more tumor-specific and less toxic,and have opened new possibilities for tailoring cancer treatment.Nevertheless,there remain several challenges to targeted therapies,including molecular identification,drug resistance,and exploring reliable biomarkers.Here,we present several selected signaling pathways and molecular targets involved in human cancers including Aurora kinases,PI3K/mTOR signaling,FOXO-FOXM1 axis,and MDM2/MDM4-p53 interaction.Understanding the molecular mechanisms for tumorigenesis and development of drug resistance will provide new insights into drug discovery and design of therapeutic strategies for targeted therapies.

  15. Heavy flavors at fixed target

    The current situation of Heavy Flavor physics at fixed target experiments is reviewed. High statistics charm production and decay data are summarized and new results on beauty physics are presented. (author)

  16. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  17. Special hydrogen target (Prop. 210)

    This guide contains a description of the electrical control and automatic vacuum systems for the Special Hydrogen Target (Prop. 210) together with the flow diagram and the mimic control panel layout for the system. (U.K.)

  18. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    Much of the research in laser fusion has been done using simple ball on-stalk targets filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The targets operated in the exploding pusher mode in which the laser energy was delivered in a very short time (approx. 100 ps or less) and was absorbed by the glass wall of the target. The high energy density in the glass literally exploded the shell with the inward moving glass compressing the DT fuel to high temperatures and moderate densities. Temperatures achieved were high enough to produce DT reactions and accompanying thermonuclear neutrons and alpha particles. The primary criteria imposed on the target builders were: (1) wall thickness, (2) sphere diameter, and (3) fuel in the sphere

  19. IUCF liquid hydrogen target system

    A liquid hydrogen or deuterium target system is described for use with intermediate energy light ion beams at IUCF. In its present use as a production target for polarized neutrons, the target cell is mounted within the beamline. Thus, certain safety features are required which prevent a possible hydrogen explosion inside the beamline or the cyclotron. These safety devices include an acoustical delay line which slows the hydrogen gas shock wave and a fast valve which closes before any large volume of escaping gas reaches it. Other safety interlocks to reduce the chances of target cell breakage and to quickly shut off ignition sources are discussed. A device involving a variable heat load which is coupled directly to the cryocondenser and is used to continually monitor and stabilize the pressure and temperature of the liquid hydrogen is described here

  20. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  1. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  2. Targeting cancer with peptide aptamers

    Seigneuric, Renaud; Gobbo, Jessica; Colas, Pierre; Garrido, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    A major endeavour in cancer chemotherapy is to develop agents that specifically target a biomolecule of interest. There are two main classes of targeting agents: small molecules and biologics. Among biologics (e.g.: antibodies), DNA, RNA but also peptide aptamers are relatively recent agents. Peptide aptamers are seldom described but represent attractive agents that can inhibit a growing panel of oncotargets including Heat Shock Proteins. Potential pitfalls and coming challenges towards succe...

  3. Proactive Steering Toward Oriented Targets

    Boulic, R

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a real-time steering controller ensuring the reach of a (possible mobile) target position and orientation, without requiring to build/update the full trajectory to that target. We name it the funnelling control. The final orientation is achieved through the continuous adjustment of the heading direction. This control mode is proactive in the sense that it anticipates the success/failure of the reach and adjusts the desired speed accordingly. Both features rely on an...

  4. Plug Off: Target Group Perception

    Kortbaek, Allan; Neubauer, Nathalie; Carreras, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This project is a study of how a sample of defined target group of a campaign, build meaning through their introduction to such a campaign. With ethno-methodology as a focal point within the overlying context of discourse psychology and more importantly, social constructivism, the aim is to analyze how a defined target group make sense of a proto awareness raising campaign. Proto in this case denotes a planned communication effort in the form of a campaign encouraging responsible use of wirel...

  5. A Theory of Child Targeting

    Donni, Olivier; Bargain, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    There is a large empirical literature on policy measures targeted at children but surprisingly very little theoretical foundation to ground the debate on the optimality of the different instruments. In the present paper, we examine the merit of targeting children through two general policies, namely selective commodity taxation and cash transfer to family with children. We consider a household that comprises an adult and a child. The household behavior is described by the ma...

  6. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  7. Twenty years of inflation targeting

    David Baqaee; Christie Smith

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, in conjunction with Northwestern University’s Centre for International Economics and Development (CIED), hosted a monetary policy conference to mark the 20th anniversary of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act. Passed in December 1989, the Act was one of the seminal events in the development of inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. As of 2009, 26 countries have explicitly adopted inflation targeting, including Canada, the UK, Austral...

  8. Inflation Targeting in Latin America

    Vittorio Corbo; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes Latin America’s recent experience with the use of inflation targeting (IT) while the region has made substantial progress toward eradicating high inflation. The paper assesses the implementation and results of inflation targeting in Latin America from a broad perspective. It starts by reviewing the issues relevant for the choice of exchange-rate regimes and monetary frameworks, documenting the evolution of exchange rate and monetary regimes in Latin America during the last...

  9. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  10. Symmetric solid target transport system

    Tomov, D.; Lawrence, L; Gaehle, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The expansion of our PET isotope production with a new TR-19 cyclotron necessitated a suitable solid target transport system. None of the known existing and proposed solid target transport systems (STTS) was able to meet the technical and budget requirements of the MIR cyclotron facility [5]. A unique carrier design allowed us to develop a fully automated 50.8 mm inner diameter pneumatic tube STTS with an in-hot-cell compact form factor receiving station. The cyclotron or v...

  11. Ion stopping in heated targets

    Ion stopping departs from classical, cold material values as the target material heats to appreciable ionization levels. The authors are investigating this phenomenon experimentally on the Proto I accelerator with a radial, Applied-B field ion diode. When the beam is focused to 0.5 TW/cm3 on thin aluminum foil targets the time-resolved departure from cold stopping is clear. Their observations and early interpretations will be presented. 9 references, 9 figures

  12. Design of the solid target structure and the study on the coolant flow distribution in the solid target using the 2-dimensional flow analysis

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Terada, Atsuhiko; Ishikura, Shuichi; Teshigawara, Makoto; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kaminaga, Masaki; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Susuki, Akira

    1999-11-01

    A solid target cooled by heavy water is presently under development under the Neutron Science Research Project of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Target plates of several millimeters thickness made of heavy metal are used as the spallation target material and they are put face to face in a row with one to two millimeters gaps in between though which heavy water flows, as the coolant. Based on the design criteria regarding the target plate cooling, the volume percentage of the coolant, and the thermal stress produced in the target plates, we conducted thermal and hydraulic analysis with a one dimensional target plate model. We choosed tungsten as the target material, and decided on various target plate thicknesses. We then calculated the temperature and the thermal stress in the target plates using a two dimensional model, and confirmed the validity of the target plate thicknesses. Based on these analytical results, we proposed a target structure in which forty target plates are divided into six groups and each group is cooled using a single pass of coolant. In order to investigate the relationship between the distribution of the coolant flow, the pressure drop, and the coolant velocity, we conducted a hydraulic analysis using the general purpose hydraulic analysis code. As a result, we realized that an uniform coolant flow distribution can be achieved under a wide range of flow velocity conditions in the target plate cooling channels from 1 m/s to 10 m/s. The pressure drop along the coolant path was 0.09 MPa and 0.17 MPa when the coolant flow velocity was 5 m/s and 7 m/s respectively, which is required to cool the 1.5 MW and 2.5 MW solid targets. (author)

  13. Water Filter

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  14. Target assignment for security officers to K targets (TASK)

    A probabilistic algorithm is developed to provide an optimal Target Assignment for Security officers to K targets (TASK) using a maximin criterion. Under the assumption of only a limited number (N) of security officers, the TASK computer model determines deployment assignments which maximize the system protection against sabotage by an adversary who may select any link in the system, including the weakest, for the point of attack. Applying the TASK model to a hypothetical nuclear facility containing a nine-level building reveals that aggregate targets covering multiple vital areas should be utilized to reduce the number of possible target assignments to a value equal to or only slightly larger than N. The increased probability that a given aggregate target is covered by one or more security officers offsets the slight decrease in interruption probability due to its occurring earlier in the adversary's path. In brief, the TASK model determines the optimal maximin deployment strategy for limited numbers of security officers and calculates a quantitative measure of the resulting system protection

  15. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  16. Fast Water

    2008-01-01

    Beijing’s Water Cube tailor made for swimming success The water in the Water Cube pool is tranquil now. The predatory power of American Michael Phelps churning his way to an unprecedented eighth gold medal in the men’s 4x100 meters medley relay, took swimming to new heights. And there is no doubt that Beijing’s bubbleshaped aquatics center helped in the process of the 21 new world swimming records.

  17. Water systems

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surfaces have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  18. Water systems

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surface have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  19. Supercritical water

    Marcus, Yizhak

    2012-01-01

    Discover the many new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent Drawing from thousands of original research articles, this book reviews and summarizes what is currently known about the properties and uses of supercritical water. In particular, it focuses on new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent, including the catalytic conversion of biomass into fuels and the oxidation of hazardous materials. Supercritical Water begins with an introduction that defines supercritical fluids in general. It then defines supercritical wa

  20. Water underground

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  1. Water Filters

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  2. Africa - Ebbing Water, Surging Deficits : Urban Water Supply in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Banerjee, Sudeshna; Skilling, Heather; Foster, Vivien; Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Morella, Elvira; Chfadi, Tarik

    2008-01-01

    With only 56 percent of the population enjoying access to safe water, Sub-Saharan Africa lags behind other regions in terms of access to improved water sources. Based on present trends, it appears that the region is unlikely to meet the target of 75 percent access to improved water by 2015, as specified in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The welfare implications of safe water canno...

  3. LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center) target system performance

    The authors measured neutron beam fluxes at LANSCE using gold foil activation techniques. They did an extensive computer simulation of the as-built LANSCE Target/Moderator/Reflector/Shield geometry. They used this mockup in a Monte Carlo calculation to predict LANSCE neutronic performance for comparison with measured results. For neutron beam fluxes at 1 eV, the ratio of measured data to calculated varies from ∼0.6-0.9. The computed 1 eV neutron leakage at the moderator surface is 3.9 x 1010 n/eV-sr-s-μA for LANSCE high-intensity water moderators. The corresponding values for the LANSCE high-resolution water moderator and the liquid hydrogen moderator are 3.3 and 2.9 x 1010, respectively. LANSCE predicted moderator intensities (per proton) for a tungsten target are essentially the same as ISIS predicted moderator intensities for a depleted uranium target. The calculated LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal (E 13 n/cm2-s. The unique LANSCE split-target/flux-trap-moderator system is performing exceedingly well. The system has operated without a target or moderator change for over three years at nominal proton currents of 25 μA of 800-MeV protons. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  4. LANSCE [Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center] target system performance

    We measured neutron beam fluxes at LANSCE using gold foil activation techniques. We did an extensive computer simulation of the as-built LANSCE Target/Moderator/Reflector/Shield geometry. We used this mockup in a Monte Carlo calculation to predict LANSCE neutronic performance for comparison with measured results. For neutron beam fluxes at 1 eV, the ratio of measured data to calculated varies from ∼0.6-0.9. The computed 1 eV neutron leakage at the moderator surface is 3.9 x 1010 n/eV-sr-s-μA for LANSCE high-intensity water moderators. The corresponding values for the LANSCE high-resolution water moderator and the liquid hydrogen moderator are 3.3 and 2.9 x 1010, respectively. LANSCE predicted moderator intensities (per proton) for a tungsten target are essentially the same as ISIS predicted moderator intensities for a depleted uranium target. The calculated LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal (E 13 n/cm2-s. The unique LANSCE split-target/flux-trap-moderator system is performing exceedingly well. The system has operated without a target or moderator change for over three years at nominal proton currents of ∼25 μA of 800-MeV protons. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Economic instruments for water management

    Jaime Echeverría

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to water management in Costa Rica have an economic origin. Partly, as a consequence of a natural condition of water richness, as well as the concept of public service with fees that don´t promote neither investment nor efficiency of water resource use. Solutions must be targeted toward the economic conditions generating pollution, little efficiency, and lesser infiltration area. Water social cost regarding its use and pollution must be recognized and paid. The water user fee and pollution fee represent a step forward. A higher application of this kind of instruments will generate profit-benefit to the economy and might encourage the protection of the environment and natural resources.

  6. Well fracturing with produced water

    Well fracturing with produced water was discussed with particular reference to fracturing basics such as formation rock, notably sandstone, carbonate, coal, and shale; accumulation of oil and gas; and surface operations. Several illustrations were provided. Issues regarding horizontal wells were also discussed with reference to the reasons behind drilling horizontal wells and the reasons for longitudinal and transverse fracs. Issues regarding the volume of frac water were also outlined. Fluid selection criteria were outlined in terms of formation rock compatibility; cleanup; pumping pressures; safety requirements; proppant transport; viscosity; and economics. Water is considered to be the best fluid choice for most fracture treatments because it is cheap, safe, environmentally friendly, widely available and very compatible with surface facilities. Water issues were also discussed. It was concluded that water conservation targets have been met, with higher profits. tabs., figs.

  7. Ejection behavior characteristics in experimental cratering in sandstone targets

    Sommer, Frank; Reiser, Fiona; Dufresne, Anja; Poelchau, Michael H.; Hoerth, Tobias; Deutsch, Alex; Kenkmann, Thomas; Thoma, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Within the frame of the MEMIN research unit (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Numerical Impact Research Network), impact experiments on sandstone targets were carried out to systematically study the influence of projectile mass, velocity, and target water saturation on the cratering and ejection processes. The projectiles were accelerated with two-stage light-gas guns (Ernst-Mach-Institute) onto fine-grained targets (Seeberger sandstone) with about 23% porosity. Collection of the ejecta on custom-designed catchers allowed determination of particle shape, size distribution, ejection angle, and microstructures. Mapping of the ejecta imprints on the catcher surface enabled linking of the different patterns to ejection stages observed on high-speed videos. The increase in projectile mass from 0.067 to 7.1 g correlates with an increase in the total ejected mass; ejecta angles, however, are similar in range for all experiments. The increase in projectile velocity from 2.5 to 5.1 km s-1 correlates with a total ejecta mass increase as well as in an increase in comminution efficiency, and a widening of the ejecta cone. A higher degree of water saturation of the target yields an increase in total ejecta mass up to 400% with respect to dry targets, higher ejecta velocity, and a steeper cone. These data, in turn, suggest that the reduced impedance contrast between the quartz grains of the target and the pores plays a primary role in the ejecta mass increase, while vaporization of water determines the ejecta behavior concerning ejecta velocity and particle distribution.

  8. CPHD filter derivation for extended targets

    Orguner, Umut

    2010-01-01

    This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies in targeted therapy

    Beata Powroźnik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy is a new therapeutic method consisting in the inhibition of specific molecular pathways. In modern therapy, the key role is played by monoclonal antibodies, included in the group of biological agents. The success of molecularly targeted therapy is to define the proper “molecular target”, selecting the right drug active against a specific “target” and selecting a group of patients who benefit from treatment. Introduction of targeted therapy resulted in improved results of the treatment of many serious and chronic diseases. In general, targeted molecular therapies have good toxicity profiles, but some patients are exquisitely sensitive to these drugs and can develop particular and severe toxicities. Patient selection and proper monitoring significantly decrease the risk of life-threatening adverse events. Data concerning late side effects are still unavailable because of the short follow-up of molecularly targeted therapy. Currently in the U.S. and Europe there are approximately 31 registered therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, while 160 are subjected to clinical trials. This paper presents an overview of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies currently used in therapy and the present state of knowledge about them. 

  10. Coconut Water

    ... the grated meat of a mature coconut. Coconut water is commonly used as a beverage and as a solution for treating dehydration ... experts suggest that the electrolyte composition in coconut water is not adequate to be used as a rehydration solution.

  11. Water Pollution

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  12. Water tower

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  13. Design of the OMEGA Laser Target Chamber Tritium Removal System

    Preparations are currently underway at the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) to conduct direct drive laser implosion campaigns with inertial confinement fusion targets containing deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic ice layers. The OMEGA Cryogenic Target Handling System will fill plastic targets with high-pressure DT (150 MPa) at 300 to 500 K, cool them down to cryogenic temperature (<25 K), form the DT ice layer, and transport the targets to the OMEGA laser target chamber. Targets will then be shot with the 60-beam 30-kJ OMEGA laser. A tritium removal system has been designed to remove tritium from effluents associated with operation of the target chamber and its associated diagnostic antechambers, vacuum pumping systems, and target insertion systems. The design of the target chamber tritium removal system (TCTRS) is based on catalytic oxidation of DT and tritiated methane to tritiated water (DTO), followed by immobilization of DTO on molecular sieves. The design of the TCTRS presented a challenge due to the low tritium release limits dictated by the tritium license at UR/LLE. Aspen Plus, a commercial software package intended for the simulation and design of chemical processing systems operating at steady state, was used to simulate and design the TCTRS. A second commercial software package, Aspen ADSIM, was used to simulate and design the TCTRS molecular sieve beds, which operate at unsteady state. In this paper, we describe the design of the TCTRS and the benefits that were realized by use of the Aspen Plus and Aspen ADSIM software packages

  14. The impact of CT window settings on the contouring of a moving target: A phantom study

    Highlights: • We analysed the impact of window level on contouring of moving targets. • We assessed the data by using a water filled phantom and different CT-scan acquisitions. • Cranio-caudal tumor motion will lead to underestimation of target volumes in the slow 3D-CT. • Even if lung windowing is used, reevaluation of the contoured target in different planes is necessary

  15. Experience with primary water cleaning and waste water treatment plant in nuclear power stations with pressurised and boiling water reactors

    Powder resin alluvial filtration using structured filter layers permits constantly improving adaption of the water treatment technology to even the most demanding problem situations - particularly in the field of primary water and waste water treatment in nuclear power stations. From experience in operation the authors show the advantages of this technique compared to other techniques, which can be deduced from theoretical concepts, taking into account the various target figures decisive in operating nuclear power stations. (orig.)

  16. Groundwater Waters

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  17. Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration

    Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.

  18. Target-Centric Network Modeling

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence...... reporting formats, along with a tested process that facilitates the production of a wide range of analytical products for civilian, military, and hybrid intelligence environments. Readers will learn how to perform the specific actions of problem definition modeling, target network modeling, and...... collaborative sharing in the process of creating a high-quality, actionable intelligence product. The case studies reflect the complexity of twenty-first century intelligence issues by dealing with multi-layered target networks that cut across political, economic, social, technological, and military issues...

  19. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target.

    Nikolay, Rainer; Schmidt, Sabine; Schlömer, Renate; Deuerling, Elke; Nierhaus, Knud H

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors. PMID:27240412

  20. Target identification by image analysis.

    Fetz, V; Prochnow, H; Brönstrup, M; Sasse, F

    2016-05-01

    Covering: 1997 to the end of 2015Each biologically active compound induces phenotypic changes in target cells that are characteristic for its mode of action. These phenotypic alterations can be directly observed under the microscope or made visible by labelling structural elements or selected proteins of the cells with dyes. A comparison of the cellular phenotype induced by a compound of interest with the phenotypes of reference compounds with known cellular targets allows predicting its mode of action. While this approach has been successfully applied to the characterization of natural products based on a visual inspection of images, recent studies used automated microscopy and analysis software to increase speed and to reduce subjective interpretation. In this review, we give a general outline of the workflow for manual and automated image analysis, and we highlight natural products whose bacterial and eucaryotic targets could be identified through such approaches. PMID:26777141

  1. Integrin Targeted Delivery of Radiotherapeutics

    Zhaofei Liu, Fan Wang, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radionuclide therapy, which is based on the selective delivery of a sufficient radiation dose to tumors without significantly affecting normal tissues, is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Integrins, a family of cell adhesion molecules, play key roles during tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Among all the integrins, αvβ3 seems to be the most important in the process of tumor angiogenesis. Integrin αvβ3 is highly expressed on activated endothelial cells, new-born vessels as well as some tumor cells, but is not present in resting endothelial cells and most normal organ systems, making it a suitable target for anti-tumor therapy. In this review, we summarize the current development and applications of antibody-, peptide-, and other ligand-based integrin targeted radiotherapeutics for tumor radiation therapy.

  2. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-12-31

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. Inflation Targeting at 20 - Achievements and Challenges

    Scott Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of inflation targeting frameworks and macroeconomic performance under inflation targeting. Inflation targeting frameworks are generally quite similar across countries, and a broad consensus has developed in favor of "flexible" inflation targeting. The evidence shows that, although inflation target ranges are missed frequently in most countries, the inflation and growth performance under inflation targeting compares very favorably with performance under alternat...

  4. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  5. Thermal hydraulics of accelerator driven system windowless targets

    Bruno ePanella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the fluid dynamics of the windowless spallation target of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS is presented. Several target mockup configurations have been investigated: the first one was a symmetrical target, that was made by two concentric cylinders, the other configurations are not symmetrical. In the experiments water has been used as hydraulic equivalent to lead-bismuth eutectic fluid. The experiments have been carried out at room temperature and flow rate up to 24 kg/s. The fluid velocity components have been measured by an ultrasound technique. The velocity field of the liquid within the target region either for the approximately axial-symmetrical configuration or for the not symmetrical ones as a function of the flow rate and the initial liquid level is presented. A comparison of experimental data with the prediction of the finite volume FLUENT code is also presented. Moreover the results of a 2D-3D numerical analysis that investigates the effect on the steady state thermal and flow fields due to the insertion of guide vanes in the windowless target unit of the EFIT project ADS nuclear reactor are presented, by analysing both the cold flow case (absence of power generation and the hot flow case (nominal power generation inside the target unit.

  6. Low-Density Materials for Use in Inertial Fusion Targets

    Low-density polymer foams have been an integral part of targets used in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. Target designs are unique in the ICF program, and targets are made on an individual basis. Costs for these targets are high due to the time required to machine, assemble, and characterize each target. To produce targets in high volume and at low cost, a polymer system is required that is amenable to scale up. High internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polystyrene is a robust system that offers great flexibility in terms of tailoring the density and incorporating metal dopants. Emulsions used to fabricate HIPE foams currently are made in a batch process. With the use of metering pumps for both the water and oil phases, emulsions can be produced in a continuous process. This not only makes these foams potential candidates for direct-drive capsules, but high-Z dopants can be metered in making these foams attractive for hohlraum components in indirect-drive systems. Preparation of HIPE foams are discussed for both direct-drive and indirect-drive systems

  7. Water resources

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Water Purification

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  9. USING OPTIMAL FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR CHAOS TARGETING

    PENG ZHAO-WANG; ZHONG TING-XIU

    2000-01-01

    Since the conventional open-loop optimal targeting of chaos is very sensitive to noise, a close-loop optimal targeting method is proposed to improve the targeting performance under noise. The present optimal targeting model takes into consideration both precision and speed of the targeting procedure. The parameters, rather than the output, of the targeting controller, are directly optimized to obtain optimal chaos targeting. Analysis regarding the mechanism is given from physics aspect and numerical experiment on the Hénon map is carried out to compare the targeting performance under noise between the close-loop and the open-loop methods.

  10. Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Partha Ray

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX. SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

  11. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio;

    2003-01-01

    telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...

  12. Target selection for direct marketing.

    Bult, Jan Roelf

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis we concentrated on the use ol direct mail for targeting potential buyers. The major characteristics that influences the success of a plomotional direct mail campaign are the of-fbr,the communication elements, the timing or sequence of these communication elements, and the list of cus

  13. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references.

  14. Tumor targeting via integrin ligands

    HorstKessler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells.

  15. Target-point formation control

    Mou, Shaoshuai; Cao, Ming; Morse, A. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new distributed feedback strategy is proposed for controlling a rigid, acyclic formation of kinematic point-modeled mobile autonomous agents in the plane. The strategy makes use of a new concept called a "target point" and is applicable to any two-dimensional, acyclic formation whose

  16. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references

  17. High power neutron production targets

    Wender, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  18. Cooling of the ISIS target

    The paper describes the methods used to analyse and predict cooling of the uranium target of the ISIS facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory by means of a combination of computer models (using the PHOENICS finite difference package) and practical tests. (author)

  19. Multi beam laser target illumination

    In order to compress matter to high densities by the application of intense pulses of laser energy it is necessary for the implosion of the target to be both stable and spherical. This imposes certain constraints on the uniformity of illumination of the target, and, this in turn places requirements on the illuminating optics and the laser beam quality. This report discusses the uniformity of illumination of a spherical target as provided by a variety of optical systems and for different numbers of laser beams and beam profiles. The results are compared with similar conclusions obtained by other workers. An alternative presentation of the calculations is given which is believed to be a more realistic estimate of the uniformity. Comments are made on the approximations that have been assumed and the results likely to be obtained from the full treatment are discussed. The effects of this non-uniform illumination on the target implosion are considered using the linear theory of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Finally, comments are made on other factors of a more practical nature which also govern the final choice of illumination system and the scope of experiments made possible by such a system. (author)

  20. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: saliba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl{sub x} dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of {sup 235}U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  1. Toward targeted hypertension screening guidelines

    van Buuren, S; Boshuizen, HC; Reijneveld, SA

    2006-01-01

    Background. guidelines for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension vary widely between countries. Part Of this variation can be attributed to systematic differences between Populations, but little is known about the way in which guidelines should be targeted to the population of interest.

  2. Polarized Sources, Targets and Polarimetry

    Ciullo, Guiseppe; Contalbrigo, Marco; Lenisa, P.

    2011-01-01

    Remarks on the history of workshops on "spin tools" / E. Steffens -- Polarized proton beams in RHIC / A. Zelenski -- The COSY/Julich polarized H[symbol] and D[symbol] ion source / O. Felden -- The new source of polarized ions for the JINR accelerator complex / V. V. Fimushkin -- Resonance effects in nuclear dichroism - an inexpensive source of tensor-polarized deuterons / H. Seyfarth -- Polarized electrons and positrons at the MESA accelerator / K. Aulenbacher -- Status report of the Darmstadt polarized electron injector / Y. Poltoratska -- The Mott polarimeter at MAMI / V. Tioukine -- Proton polarimetry at the relativistic heavy ion collider / Y. Makdisi -- Polarisation and polarimetry at HERA / B. Sobloher -- Polarisation measurement at the ILC with a Compton polarimeter / C. Bartels -- Time evolution of ground motion-dependent depolarisation at linear colliders / A. Hartin -- Electron beam polarimetry at low energies and its applications / R. Barday -- Polarized solid targets: recent progress and future prospects / C. D. Keith -- HD gas distillation and analysis for HD frozen spin targets / A. D'Angelo -- Electron spin resonance study of hydrogen and alkyl free radicals trapped in solid hydrogen aimed for dynamic nuclear polarization of solid HD / T. Kumada -- Change of ultrafast nuclear-spin polarization upon photoionization by a short laser pulse / T. Nakajima -- Radiation damage and recovery in polarized [symbol]NH[symbol] ammonia targets at Jefferson lab / J. D. Maxwell.Polarized solid proton target in low magnetic field and at high temperature / T. Uesaka -- Pulse structure dependence of the proton spin polarization rate / T. Kawahara -- Proton NMR in the large COMPASS [symbol]NH[symbol] target / J. Koivuniemi -- DNP with TEMPO and trityl radicals in deuterated polystyrene / L. Wang -- The CLIC electron and positron polarized sources / L. Rinolfi -- Status of high intensity polarized electron gun at MIT-Bates / E. Tsentalovich -- Target section for spin

  3. Targeted multi-pinhole SPECT

    Small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with focused multi-pinhole collimation geometries allows scanning modes in which large amounts of photons can be collected from specific volumes of interest. Here we present new tools that improve targeted imaging of specific organs and tumours, and validate the effects of improved targeting of the pinhole focus. A SPECT system with 75 pinholes and stationary detectors was used (U-SPECT-II). An XYZ stage automatically translates the animal bed with a specific sequence in order to scan a selected volume of interest. Prior to stepping the animal through the collimator, integrated webcams acquire images of the animal. Using sliders, the user designates the desired volume to be scanned (e.g. a xenograft or specific organ) on these optical images. Optionally projections of an atlas are overlaid semiautomatically to locate specific organs. In order to assess the effects of more targeted imaging, scans of a resolution phantom and a mouse myocardial phantom, as well as in vivo mouse cardiac and tumour scans, were acquired with increased levels of targeting. Differences were evaluated in terms of count yield, hot rod visibility and contrast-to-noise ratio. By restricting focused SPECT scans to a 1.13-ml resolution phantom, count yield was increased by a factor 3.6, and visibility of small structures was significantly enhanced. At equal noise levels, the small-lesion contrast measured in the myocardial phantom was increased by 42%. Noise in in vivo images of a tumour and the mouse heart was significantly reduced. Targeted pinhole SPECT improves images and can be used to shorten scan times. Scan planning with optical cameras provides an effective tool to exploit this principle without the necessity for additional X-ray CT imaging. (orig.)

  4. Water Fibers

    Douvidzon, Mark L; Martin, Leopoldo L; Carmon, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Fibers constitute the backbone of modern communication and are used in laser surgeries; fibers also genarate coherent X-ray, guided-sound and supercontinuum. In contrast, fibers for capillary oscillations, which are unique to liquids, were rarely considered in optofluidics. Here we fabricate fibers by water bridging an optical tapered-coupler to a microlensed coupler. Our water fibers are held in air and their length can be longer than a millimeter. These hybrid fibers co-confine two important oscillations in nature: capillary- and electromagnetic-. We optically record vibrations in the water fiber, including an audio-rate fundamental and its 3 overtones in a harmonic series, that one can hear in soundtracks attached. Transforming Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems [MEMS] to Micro-Electro-Capillary-Systems [MECS], boosts the device softness by a million to accordingly improve its response to minute forces. Furthermore, MECS are compatible with water, which is a most important liquid in our world.

  5. The water needed to have Italians eat pasta and pizza

    Aldaya, M.M.; A.Y. Hoekstra

    2009-01-01

    Problems of freshwater scarcity and pollution are related to water use by farmers, industries and households. The term ‘water users’ has always been interpreted as ‘those who apply water for some purpose’. As a result, governments responsible for water resources management have traditionally targeted their policies towards those water users. Recently, however, it has been shown that this approach is limited. Final consumers, retailers, traders and all sorts of businesses active along the supp...

  6. NETWORK BASED BUSINESS MODEL INNOVATION TARGETING THE BOP MARKET

    Ravn, Jacob; Kroghstrup Nielsen, Martin; Lindgren, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Through innovation of products, process and business models targeting the needs of 4 billion poor people living at "the base of pyramid" (BoP) (Prahalad & Hart 2002) in developing countries the private sector can actively support poverty alleviation and at the same time reach new untouched market...... countries seems to show up in the literature: The technological line - exemplified by the - exemplified by the Life Straw business model - a high tech "straw" consisting of 12 chemical filters to purify water - an example of technology driven innovation to meet the BoP demands for clean water (Kandachar...

  7. Water supply

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  8. Biofuel impacts on water.

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  9. Development of target system for production of I-123 in Cyclotron 30

    This work was mainly focused on the development of target system for production of I-123 in Cyclotron 30. We have analyzed the original I-123 target system which is constructed by company in Canada and designed with solid works 3D CAD program. We have designed newly by changing cooling method of straight line into spiral line. We look forward to increase the cooling efficiency by decreasing water resistance inside the target chamber. The target system also is made by modular method which is possible to change target quickly. So, the radiation exposure to engineers when exchanging target will be minimized. Only KIRAMS can produce I-123 radiopharmaceuticals in Korea. So we need to acquire techniques not only supplementing drawbacks of the existing target, but also minimizing the radiation exposure during maintenance of target. The new water cooling system will hold the pressure of the target constantly. This will enhance the yield of I-123. The first development of Xe-124 target in Korea will result in more distributed environment of I-123 to diagnose thyroid gland cancer

  10. Water management

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division has been technically responsible for technical assistance projects aimed at improving water management practices in the following developing Member States: Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, Costa Rica, Egypt, Greece, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lebanon, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Republic of Korea, Romania, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, Uganda and Zambia. The Division has also contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of water use through the implementation of three 5-year co-ordinated research programmes. Participants from eight to 15 countries have conducted research towards a common goal of improving nuclear techniques in water-use efficiency studies and developing practices to increase the food produced from a unit of irrigation water or rainfall. In many cases this was the first time such techniques have been used in the above countries. It was thus necessary to provide expert assistance to train local counterparts in the safe and efficient use of the equipment. Training courses have also been held in more advanced countries to familiarize young scientists from developing countries with the most modern techniques in soil/water research. Results obtained through the nuclear techniques aided research programmes will, when applied in farmers' fields on irrigated land, lead to increased yields, to reduced losses of nutrients through leaching below the rooting zone, and to conserving soil through avoiding the accumulation of salts close to the soil surface. Under rainfed agriculture, research results would help controlling erosion, conserving water, and ensuring sustained production at acceptable yield levels

  11. Targeting targeted agents: open issues for clinical trial design

    Giannarelli Diana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecularly targeted agents for the treatment of solid tumors had entered the market in the last 5 years, with a great impact upon both the scientific community and the society. Many randomized phase III trials conducted in recent years with new targeted agents, despite previous data coming from preclinical research and from phase II trials were often promising, have produced disappointingly negative results. Some other trials have actually met their primary endpoint, demonstrating a statistically significant result favouring the experimental treatment. Unfortunately, with a few relevant exceptions, this advantage is often small, if not negligible, in absolute terms. The difference between statistical significance and clinical relevance should always be considered when translating clinical trials' results in the practice. The reason why this 'revolution' did not significantly impact on cancer treatment to displace chemotherapy from the patient' bedside is in part due to complicated, and in many cases, unknown, mechanisms of action of such drugs; indeed, the traditional way the clinical investigators were used to test the efficacy of 'older' chemotherapeutics, has become 'out of date' from the methodological perspective. As these drugs should be theoretically tailored upon featured bio-markers expressed by the patients, the clinical trial design should follow new rules based upon stronger hypotheses than those developed so far. Indeed, the early phases of basic and clinical drug development are crucial in the correct process which is able to correctly identify the target (when present. Targeted trial designs can result in easier studies, with less, better selected, and supported by stronger proofs of response evidences, patients, in order to not waste time and resources.

  12. Water and environment news. No. 19

    The integral role of water in international development has been acknowledged during the last two decades, with several international initiatives specifying goals that include water-related issues. The United Nations proclaimed the period 2005-2015 as the International Decade for Action, (Water for Life), to place a greater focus on water. It recommits countries to achieve the water-related targets of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation from the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development as well as the United Nations Millennium Development Goals set in 2000. The IAEA, through its Water Resources Programme, is responding to global water issues, providing its Member States with science-based information and technical skills to better understand and manage their water resources

  13. Gated viewing for target detection and target recognition

    Steinvall, Ove K.; Olsson, Hakan; Bolander, Goeran; Groenwall, Christina A.; Letalick, Dietmar

    1999-05-01

    Gated viewing using short pulse lasers and fast cameras offers many new possibilities in imaging compared with passive EO imaging. Among these we note ranging capability, large target-to-background contrast also in low visibility, good penetration capability trough obscurants and vegetation as well as through shadows in buildings, cars, etc. We also note that short wavelength laser systems have better angular resolution than long-wave infrared systems of the same aperture size. This gives an interesting potential of combined IR and laser systems for target detection and classification. Beside military applications civilian applications of gated viewing for search and rescue as well as vehicle enhanced vision and other applications are in progress. This presentation investigates the performance for gated viewing systems during different atmospheric conditions, including obscurants and gives examples of experimental data. The paper also deals with signal processing of gated viewing images for target detection. This is performed in two steps. First, image frames containing information of interest are found. In a second step those frames are investigated further to evaluate if man-made objects are present. In this step a sequence of images (video frames) are set up as a 3-D volume to incorporate spatial information. The object will then be detected using a set of quadrature filters operating on the volume.

  14. Activation of sweeping magnets in Tevatron II standardized target piles

    As designs of the primary targeting schemes for the new Tevatron II slow spill beams progress, it is becoming clear that a standardized form for these schemes is emerging. The general form consists of a production target (usually about 30 cm of beryllium having a diameter from 0.64 to 1.27 cm) followed by from one to three of the new Tevatron II H frame magnets recently developed by D. Eartly. These magnets sweep the unused primary proton beam onto a massive steel beam dump containing a core of material capable of dispersing the energy of the beam along with a hole for transmitting the secondary beam desired at experimental targets. Typical primary proton intensities at such production targets are planned to be in the range of 3 x 1012 to 5 x 1012 protons per spill. If one assumes such operation during a run of 4000 hours per year, 60 spills per hour, the integrated beam is seen to be approximately 1 x 1018 per year targetted at a rate of 7/0 x 1010 protons/sec during the run. It is clear, from experience, that such beam intensities require that the water used to cool the beam dump must be in a closed loop system both to protect personnel during operations from the external radiation exposure rate due to short lived radionuclides (e.g., 11C and 7Be) and to protect against release of significant activities of tritium into surface waters. It is not certain that a closed loop system is required for the sweeping magnets. This TM reports on a calculation designed to evaluate this potential problem, the expected dose rates external to such magnets, and the total activity which will be contained in them and the target

  15. Crater morphology in sandstone targets: The MEMIN impact parameter study

    Dufresne, Anja; Poelchau, Michael H.; Kenkmann, Thomas; Deutsch, Alex; Hoerth, Tobias; SchńFer, Frank; Thoma, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Hypervelocity (2.5-7.8 km s-1) impact experiments into sandstone were carried out to investigate the influence of projectile velocity and mass, target pore space saturation, target-projectile density contrast, and target layer orientation on crater size and shape. Crater size increases with increasing projectile velocity and mass as well as with increasing target pore space saturation. Craters in water-saturated porous targets are generally shallower and larger in volume and in diameter than craters from equivalent impacts into dry porous sandstone. Morphometric analyses of the resultant craters, 5-40 cm in diameter, reveal features that are characteristic of all of our experimental craters regardless of impact conditions (I) a large central depression within a fragile, light-colored central part, and (II) an outer spallation zone with areas of incipient spallation. Two different mechanical processes, grain fragmentation and intergranular tensile fracturing, are recorded within these crater morphologies. Zone (I) approximates the shape of the transient crater formed by material compression, displacement, comminution, and excavation flow, whereas (II) is the result of intergranular tensile fracturing and spallation. The transient crater dimensions are reconstructed by fitting quadric parabolas to crater profiles from digital elevation models. The dimensions of this transient and of the final crater show the same trends: both increase in volume with increasing impact energy, and with increasing water saturation of the target pore space. The relative size of the transient crater (in percent of the final crater volume) decreases with increasing projectile mass and velocity, signifying a greater contribution of spallation on the final crater size when projectile mass and velocity are increased.

  16. Progress of gene targeting in mouse

    2001-01-01

    Gene targeting is a powerful approach of study- ing the genefunction in vivo. Specific genetic modifications, including simple gene disruption, point mutations, large chromosomal deletions and rearrangements, targeted incor- poration of foreign genes, could be introduced into the mouse genome by gene targeting. Recent studies make it possible to do the gene targeting with temporal and spatial control.

  17. Water stress and water wars

    Pryor, Frederic L.

    2007-01-01

    This essay argues three propositions: (1) by 2025 roughly one third of the world’s population will be living in countries which are water-stressed, at least by conventional criteria; (2) nevertheless, macro evidence does not portend that the world will be unable to feed its growing population at that time; (3) interstate armed conflicts over water, which were not very important in the last quarter of the twentieth century, seem unlikely to become more intense in the coming decades, especially...

  18. Targeted Learning in Healthcare Research.

    Gruber, Susan

    2015-12-01

    The increasing availability of Big Data in healthcare encourages investigators to seek answers to big questions. However, nonparametric approaches to analyzing these data can suffer from the curse of dimensionality, and traditional parametric modeling does not necessarily scale. Targeted learning (TL) combines semiparametric methodology with advanced machine learning techniques to provide a sound foundation for extracting information from data. Predictive models, variable importance measures, and treatment benefits and risks can all be addressed within this framework. TL has been applied in a broad range of healthcare settings, including genomics, precision medicine, health policy, and drug safety. This article provides an introduction to the two main components of TL, targeted minimum loss-based estimation and super learning, and gives examples of applications in predictive modeling, variable importance ranking, and comparative effectiveness research. PMID:27441404

  19. CNOOC Lifts 2011 Production Target

    2011-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), China's top offshore oil and gas producer, has lifted its 2011 production target by up to 11 percent as new projects at home and overseas come on stream.The offshore oil giant, with a market capitalization of about US$105 billion, said in a statement released in late January 2011 that it aimed to produce between 355 and 365 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE).Oil prices climbed 15 percent in 2010 on the back of expectations that a global economic recovery will drive the demand.Analysts are similarly bullish for 2011, predicting crude prices to trade at around US$100 for the year.CNOOC, the smallest of China's triumvirate of energy companies that also includes CNPC and Sinopee, said it targeted US$8.8 billion in capital expenditure for 2011.

  20. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Jacqueline Stark

    2014-05-01

    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  1. Geometric characterization of macroshell targets

    We are investigating methods of fabricating and characterizing large diameter, thin-walled glass capsules for Inertial Fusion (IF) experiments. Dimensional requirements for the capsules specify diameters of two to ten millimeters and a wide range of aspect ratios (diameter/wall). These shells are larger in diameter than shells made in drop towers. Because of their larger size, they have been given the designation, macroshell. Glass macroshell targets are transparent, seamless, fuel containers which are currently used in beta-heating experiments at KMSF. The capsules are also potentially useful for neutron production experiments with IF drivers like Nova. The technology developed to fabricate these fuel containers may be useful in the fabrication of polymer shells necessary for the proposed Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF); some work with polymers has started. Accurate target characterization is essential to ensure the accurate measurement of fuel layers produced by radioactively induced sublimation of cyrogenically cooled deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. 3 refs., 4 figs

  2. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC are...... considered to play a central role for the provocation of primary immune responses by vaccination. A rational way of improving the potency and safety of new and already existing vaccines could therefore be to direct vaccines specifically to DC. There is a need for developing multifunctional vaccine drug...... delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC....

  3. Anticancer Agents Targeted to Sirtuins

    Tomohiro Kozako

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent deacetylases of which there are seven isoforms (SIRT1–7. Sirtuin activity is linked to gene expression, lifespan extension, neurodegeneration, and age-related disorders. Numerous studies have suggested that sirtuins could be of great significance with regard to both antiaging and tumorigenesis, depending on its targets in specific signaling pathways or in specific cancers. Recent studies have identified small chemical compounds that modulate sirtuins, and these modulators have enabled a greater understanding of the biological function and molecular mechanisms of sirtuins. This review highlights the possibility of sirtuins, especially SIRT1 and SIRT2, for cancer therapy targets, and focuses on the therapeutic potential of sirtuin modulators both in cancer prevention and treatment.

  4. Nanodelivery System for Mitochondrial Targeting

    Yoong, Sia Lee; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2014-02-01

    Mitochondria are indispensable in cellular functions such as energy production and death execution. They are emerging as intriguing therapeutic target as their dysregulation was found to be monumental in diseases such as neurodegenerative disease, obesity, and cancer etc. Despite tremendous interest being focused on therapeutically intervening mitochondrial function, few mito-active drugs were successfully developed, particularly due to challenges in delivering active compound to this organelle. In this review, effort in utilizing nanotechnology for targeted mitochondrial delivery of compound is expounded based on the nature of the nanomaterial used. The advantage and potential offered are discussed alongside the limitation. Finally the review is concluded with perspectives of the application of nanocarrier in mitochondrial medicine, given the unresolved concern on potential complications.

  5. Electronic warfare target location methods

    Poisel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a

  6. Chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells

    Liu, Haiguang; Lv, Lin; Yang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conventional chemotherapy is the main treatment for cancer and benefits patients in the form of decreased relapse and metastasis and longer overall survival. However, as the target therapy drugs and delivery systems are not wholly precise, it also results in quite a few side effects, and is less efficient in many cancers due to the spared cancer stem cells, which are considered the reason for chemotherapy resistance, relapse, and metastasis. Conventional chemotherapy limitations and the cance...

  7. Aptamers and aptamer targeted delivery

    Yan, Amy C.; Levy, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    When aptamers first emerged almost two decades ago, most were RNA species that bound and tagged or inhibited simple target ligands. Very soon after, the ‘selectionologists’ developing aptamer technology quickly realized more potential for the aptamer. In recent years, advances in aptamer techniques have enabled the use of aptamers as small molecule inhibitors, diagnostic tools and even therapeutics. Aptamers are now being employed in novel applications. We review, herein, some of the recent a...

  8. Therapeutic targeting of Janus kinases

    Pesu, Marko; Laurence, Arian; Kishore, Nandini; Zwillich, Sam; Chan, Gary; O’Shea, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Cytokines play pivotal roles in immunity and inflammation, and targeting cytokines and their receptors is an effective means of treating such disorders. Type I and II cytokine receptors associate with Janus family kinases (JAKs) to effect intracellular signaling. These structurally unique protein kinases play essential and specific roles in immune cell development and function. One JAK, JAK3, has particularly selective functions. Mutations of this kinase underlie severe combined immunodeficie...

  9. Targeted advertising in magazine markets

    Chandra, Ambarish; Kaiser, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    We examine the scope and value of targeted advertising in the magazine industry. We use data on reader characteristics at individual media, in contrast to previous work that has needed to infer this information from aggregate data. Our results show a strong relationship between subscriber characteristics and advertising prices. Advertisers clearly value more homogenous groups of readers, measured according to income, gender and age. Our results explain recent trends of declining advertising e...

  10. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is...... summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression....

  11. Target Advertising and Market Transparency

    Stühmeier, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of increased transparency over online news sources, e.g. due to news aggregators, on online news outlets and the advertising industry. The role of news aggregators is controversially discussed, where the discussion widely points on user side effect. The present paper widens the discussion on the advertising side and shows that aggregators can help to better target advertising messages to a more homogenous group of users and, in turn, may both benefit advertiser...

  12. Philippines; Preparations for Inflation Targeting

    Piyabha Kongsamut

    2001-01-01

    The Philippines is planning to shift toward adoption of an inflation targeting framework in 2001. This paper reviews key policy issues in this context, describes various operational and technical preparations, and presents an empirical analysis of the factors driving inflation. Among the key policy requirements, while central bank independence appears assured, the exchange rate has been allowed to fluctuate largely freely, and the authorities are embarking on a medium-term plan for fiscal con...

  13. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range. F...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....

  14. Inflation Targeting in Latin America

    Barajas, Adolfo; Steiner, Roberto; Villar, Leonardo; Pabon, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of conventional Taylor rules for Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru shows that central banks increase their repo rate in response to increases in the output gap and, except in Peru, to deviations of inflation expectations from target. Using a Markov-Switching methodology, it is found that, in the presence of external shocks, Chile, Colombia and Peru temporarily abandoned their conventional reaction function. The Taylor Rule is expanded and variables are included related to exchange r...

  15. Inflation Targeting in Dollarized Economies

    Leonardo Leiderman; Rodolfo Maino; Eric Parrado

    2006-01-01

    The shift to inflation targeting has contributed to the relatively low inflation observed in some emerging market economies although, as noted by many economists, the preconditions required for a successful implementation were not in place. The existence of managed exchange rate regimes, a narrow base of domestic nominal financial assets, the lack of market instruments to hedge exchange rate risks, together with fear of floating and dollarization, have been stressed as factors that might weak...

  16. Targeting the lysosome in cancer

    Piao, Shengfu; Amaravadi, Ravi K.

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound intracellular organelles that receive macromolecules delivered by endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy for degradation and recycling. Over the last decade, advances in lysosome research have established a broad role for the lysosome in the pathophysiology of disease. In this review, we highlight the recent discoveries in lysosome biology, with an emphasis on their implications for cancer therapy. We focus on targeting the lysosome in cancer by exploring lysoso...

  17. Toward targeted hypertension screening guidelines

    Buuren, S. van; Boshuizen, HC; Reijneveld, SA

    2006-01-01

    Background. guidelines for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension vary widely between countries. Part Of this variation can be attributed to systematic differences between Populations, but little is known about the way in which guidelines should be targeted to the population of interest. Optimal guidelines should have high yield and low complexity. The goal is to fit procedures for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension optimally to a specific population. Methods. Simu...

  18. Anticancer Agents Targeted to Sirtuins

    Tomohiro Kozako; Takayoshi Suzuki; Makoto Yoshimitsu; Naomichi Arima; Shin-ichiro Honda; Shinji Soeda

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent deacetylases of which there are seven isoforms (SIRT1–7). Sirtuin activity is linked to gene expression, lifespan extension, neurodegeneration, and age-related disorders. Numerous studies have suggested that sirtuins could be of great significance with regard to both antiaging and tumorigenesis, depending on its targets in specific signaling pathways or in specific cancers. Recent studies have identified small chemical compounds that m...

  19. Target fragmentation at intermediate energies

    We report the results of measurements of the average target fragment momenta and energies in the interaction of 12.0 and 18.4 MeV/u 160, and 45.4 and 83.8 MeV/u 12C with 197Au. We compare these data with previously published studies of the interaction of 380 MeV/u 20Ne and 400 and 2100 MeV/u 12C with 197Au

  20. Cancer Immunotherapy of Targeting Angiogenesis

    JianmeiHou; LingTian; YuquanWei

    2004-01-01

    Tumor growth and metastasis are angiogenesis-dependent. Anti-angiogenic therapy may be a useful approach to cancer therapy. This review discussed tumor angiogenesis and immunotherapy of targeting tumor angiogenesis from two main aspects: (1) active vaccination to induce effective anti-angiogenesis immunity; (2) passive immunotherapy with anti-pro-angiogenic molecules relevant antibody. Evidence from the recent years suggested that anti-angiogenic therapy should be one of the most promising approaches to cancer therapy.

  1. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  2. Water analysis

    This is the twenty-first biennial review of the inorganic and organic analytical chemistry of water. The format of this review differs somewhat from previous reviews in this series - the most recent of which appeared in Analytical Chemistry in April 1983. Changes in format have occurred in the presentation of material concerning review articles and the inorganic analysis of water sections. Organic analysis of water sections are organized as in previous reviews. Review articles have been compiled and tabulated in an Appendix with respect to subject, title, author(s), citation, and number of references cited. The inorganic water analysis sections are now grouped by constituent using the periodic chart; for example, alkali, alkaline earth, 1st series transition metals, etc. Within these groupings the references are roughly grouped by instrumental technique; for example, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, etc. Multiconstituent methods for determining analytes that cannot be grouped in this manner are compiled into a separate section sorted by instrumental technique. References used in preparing this review were compiled from nearly 60 major journals published during the period from October 1982 through September 1984. Conference proceedings, most foreign journals, most trade journals, and most government publications are excluded. References cited were obtained using the American Chemical Society's Chemical Abstracts for sections on inorganic analytical chemistry, organic analytical chemistry, water, and sewage waste. Cross-references of these sections were also included. 860 references

  3. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  4. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  5. Fixed-Target Electron Accelerators

    A tremendous amount of scientific insight has been garnered over the past half-century by using particle accelerators to study physical systems of sub-atomic dimensions. These giant instruments begin with particles at rest, then greatly increase their energy of motion, forming a narrow trajectory or beam of particles. In fixed-target accelerators, the particle beam impacts upon a stationary sample or target which contains or produces the sub-atomic system being studied. This is in distinction to colliders, where two beams are produced and are steered into each other so that their constituent particles can collide. The acceleration process always relies on the particle being accelerated having an electric charge; however, both the details of producing the beam and the classes of scientific investigations possible vary widely with the specific type of particle being accelerated. This article discusses fixed-target accelerators which produce beams of electrons, the lightest charged particle. As detailed in the report, the beam energy has a close connection with the size of the physical system studied. Here a useful unit of energy is a GeV, i.e., a giga electron-volt. (ne GeV, the energy an electron would have if accelerated through a billion volts, is equal to 1.6 x 10-10 joules.) To study systems on a distance scale much smaller than an atomic nucleus requires beam energies ranging from a few GeV up to hundreds of GeV and more

  6. Strategies for SETI target selection

    Latham, David W.; Soderblom, David R.

    1993-08-01

    The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey consists of two complementary elements: a Sky Survey of the entire sky to a moderate level of sensitivity; and a Targeted Search of nearby stars, one at a time, to a much deeper level of sensitivity. In this paper we present a strategy for target selection and observing. The strategy has two goals: to improve the chances of successful detection of signals from technical civilizations that inhabit planets around solar- type stars, and to minimize the chances of missing signals from unexpected sites. For the main Targeted Search survey of approximately 1000 nearby solar-type stars, we argue that the selection criteria should be heavily biased by what we know about the origin and evolution of life here on earth. We propose that observations of stars with stellar companions orbiting near the habitable zone should be de-emphasized, because such companions would prevent the formation of habitable planets. We also propose that observations of stars younger than about three billion years should be de-emphasized in favor of older stars, because our own technical civilization took longer than three billion years to evolve here on earth.

  7. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens. PMID:26332195

  8. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    Wollack, Edward J; Rinehart, Stephan A

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, $R \\le 0.003$, from $800-4,800\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(12-2\\,\\mu$m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to $400-10,000\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(25-1\\,\\mu$m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to $R \\le 0.02$ at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to $\\sim4\\,$K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials -- Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder -- are character...

  9. Drug targeting to the brain.

    Pardridge, William M

    2007-09-01

    The goal of brain drug targeting technology is the delivery of therapeutics across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), including the human BBB. This is accomplished by re-engineering pharmaceuticals to cross the BBB via specific endogenous transporters localized within the brain capillary endothelium. Certain endogenous peptides, such as insulin or transferrin, undergo receptor-mediated transport (RMT) across the BBB in vivo. In addition, peptidomimetic monoclonal antibodies (MAb) may also cross the BBB via RMT on the endogenous transporters. The MAb may be used as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry across the BBB large molecule pharmaceuticals, including recombinant proteins, antibodies, RNA interference drugs, or non-viral gene medicines. Fusion proteins of the molecular Trojan horse and either neurotrophins or single chain Fv antibodies have been genetically engineered. The fusion proteins retain bi-functional properties, and both bind the BBB receptor, to trigger transport into brain, and bind the cognate receptor inside brain to induce the pharmacologic effect. Trojan horse liposome technology enables the brain targeting of non-viral plasmid DNA. Molecular Trojan horses may be formulated with fusion protein technology, avidin-biotin technology, or Trojan horse liposomes to target to brain virtually any large molecule pharmaceutical. PMID:17554607

  10. Aluminum-lithium target behavior

    McDonell, W.R.

    1989-10-01

    Information on physical properties and irradiation behavior of aluminum-lithium target alloys employed for the production of tritium in Savannah River reactors has been reviewed to support development of technology for the New Production Reactor (NPR). Phase compositions and microstructures, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, and constituent diffusion phenomena of the alloys, established in prior site studies, are presented. Irradiation behavior, including distributions of product tritium and helium and related exposure limits due to swelling and cracking of the target alloys is discussed, along with gas release processes occurring during subsequent product recovery operations. The property review supports designation of the aluminum-lithium alloys as ideally well-suited target materials for low-temperature, tritium-producing reactors, demonstrated over 35 years of Savannah River reactor operation. Low temperature irradiation and reaction with lithium in the alloy promotes tritium retention during reactor exposure, and the aluminum provides a matrix from which the product is readily recovered on heating following irradiation. 33 refs., 26 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Therapeutic targets in liver fibrosis.

    Fallowfield, Jonathan A

    2011-05-01

    Detailed analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate liver fibrosis has provided a framework for therapeutic approaches to prevent, slow down, or even reverse fibrosis and cirrhosis. A pivotal event in the development of liver fibrosis is the activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to scar-forming myofibroblast-like cells. Consequently, HSCs and the factors that regulate HSC activation, proliferation, and function represent important antifibrotic targets. Drugs currently licensed in the US and Europe for other indications target HSC-related components of the fibrotic cascade. Their deployment in the near future looks likely. Ultimately, treatment strategies for liver fibrosis may vary on an individual basis according to etiology, risk of fibrosis progression, and the prevailing pathogenic milieu, meaning that a multiagent approach could be required. The field continues to develop rapidly and starts to identify exciting potential targets in proof-of-concept preclinical studies. Despite this, no antifibrotics are currently licensed for use in humans. With epidemiological predictions for the future prevalence of viral, obesity-related, and alcohol-related cirrhosis painting an increasingly gloomy picture, and a shortfall in donors for liver transplantation, the clinical urgency for new therapies is high. There is growing interest from stakeholders keen to exploit the market potential for antifibrotics. However, the design of future trials for agents in the developmental pipeline will depend on strategies that enable equal patient stratification, techniques to reliably monitor changes in fibrosis over time, and the definition of clinically meaningful end points. PMID:21233278

  12. A theoretical model of water and trade

    Dang, Qian; Konar, Megan; Reimer, Jeffrey J.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Lin, Xiaowen; Zeng, Ruijie

    2016-03-01

    Water is an essential input for agricultural production. Agriculture, in turn, is globalized through the trade of agricultural commodities. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model that emphasizes four tradeoffs involving water-use decision-making that are important yet not always considered in a consistent framework. One tradeoff focuses on competition for water among different economic sectors. A second tradeoff examines the possibility that certain types of agricultural investments can offset water use. A third tradeoff explores the possibility that the rest of the world can be a source of supply or demand for a country's water-using commodities. The fourth tradeoff concerns how variability in water supplies influences farmer decision-making. We show conditions under which trade liberalization affect water use. Two policy scenarios to reduce water use are evaluated. First, we derive a target tax that reduces water use without offsetting the gains from trade liberalization, although important tradeoffs exist between economic performance and resource use. Second, we show how subsidization of water-saving technologies can allow producers to use less water without reducing agricultural production, making such subsidization an indirect means of influencing water use decision-making. Finally, we outline conditions under which riskiness of water availability affects water use. These theoretical model results generate hypotheses that can be tested empirically in future work.

  13. Three Essays on Analyst Target Prices

    Hashim, Noor

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on analyst target prices. The essays contribute to the major debate on the value of analyst target prices in the capital market by addressing the following three questions: Does a bull-bear valuation analysis increase the accuracy of analysts’ target prices? Does analyst ranking affect how informative target prices are to institutional investors? And, do analysts use their cash flow forecasts when setting target prices?In the first essay, I explore whether co...

  14. Water watch

    This issue of open-quotes Water Watchclose quotes focuses on summer streamflow. In addition, a summary of streamflow, soil moisture, and water supply conditions through the end of May is presented. In addition, short-term streamflow forecasts are given. Forecasts are based on the National Weather Service US Climate Analysis Center's 90-day outlook. Temperature and precipitation probability estimates given in the outlook are based primarily on the average of monthly forecasts since 1974 and seasonal forecasts since 1959 at 100 US weather reporting stations. Regional analyses are based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology and River Forecast Centers, the US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, the California Department of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data presented can be used to observe how weather conditions affect hydro generation in April

  15. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  16. Water Condensation

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund;

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  17. Water Balance.

    Okongu, J.; Sewagudde, S.; Mngodo, R.; Sangale, F.; Mwanuzi, F.; Hecky, R

    2005-01-01

    One of the principal objectives of the Water Quality and Ecosystem Management Components is to find the reasons for the changes observed in the lake water quality and quantity in order to establish causes of change in the lake ecosystem and to identify remedial measures. To identify the reasons for the changes one requires a knowledge of the changes in the pollution loadings to the lake, which, in turn, depends on the discharges into the lake from the catchments and the atmosphere and the out...

  18. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  19. Water/Icy Super-Earths: Giant Impacts and Maximum Water Content

    Marcus, Robert A.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Stewart, Sarah T.; Hernquist, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Water-rich super-Earth exoplanets are expected to be common. We explore the effect of late giant impacts on the final bulk abundance of water in such planets. We present the results from smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of impacts between differentiated water(ice)-rock planets with masses between 0.5 and 5 M_Earth and projectile to target mass ratios from 1:1 to 1:4. We find that giant impacts between bodies of similar composition never decrease the bulk density of the target plane...

  20. China's water sustainability in the 21st century: a climate informed water risk assessment covering multi-sector water demands

    X. Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available China is facing a water resources crisis with growing concerns as to the reliable supply of water for agricultural, industrial and domestic needs. High inter-annual rainfall variability and increasing consumptive use across the country exacerbates the situation further and is a constraint on future development. For water sustainability, it is necessary to examine the differences in water demand and supply and their spatio-temporal distribution in order to quantify the dimensions of the water risk. Here, a detailed quantitative assessment of water risk as measured by the distribution of cumulated deficits for China is presented. Considering daily precipitation and temperature variability over fifty years and the current water demands, risk measures are developed to inform county level water deficits that account for both within year and across year variations in climate. We choose political rather than watershed boundaries since economic activity and water use are organized by county and the political process is best informed through that unit. The risk measures highlight North China Plain counties as highly water stressed. Regions with high water stress are typically the regions with high inter-annual variability in rainfall and now have depleted groundwater aquifers. The stress components due to agricultural, industrial and domestic water demands are illustrated separately to assess the vulnerability of particular sectors within the country to provide a basis for targeted policy analysis for reducing water stress.

  1. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    Tundisi, J.G.; T Matsumura-Tundisi; Ciminelli, V. S.; F.A. Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for t...

  2. Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy

    Bradley, David J; Bartram, Jamie K.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are...

  3. Drinking water

    Kostik, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Centre of reference laboratories as a part of Institute of Public Health- Skopje is consisted of following laboratories: - Laboratory of Sanitary Microbiology - Laboratory for Food Quality Control - Laboratory for Water Quality Control - Laboratory for Contaminants and Eco - toxicology - Laboratory for Testing of Metals - Laboratory for Radioecology - Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation - Laboratory for Testing common use items Lab...

  4. Water Hyacinth

    An important new reference book entitled the “Encyclopedia of Invasive Introduced Species” is being published by the University of California Press. We were invited to provide a chapter on water hyacinth, which is the world’s worst aquatic weed. In this chapter, we provide information on the origi...

  5. Water Filtration

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.

  6. Water Spout

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  7. WATER MARKETS AND DECENTRALIZED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    K. William Easter; Robert HEARNE

    1994-01-01

    Because of its importance and the perceived inability of private sector sources to meet water demands, many countries have depended on the public sector to provide water services for their populations. Yet this has resulted in many inefficient public water projects and in inadequate supplies of good quality and reliable water. Decentralization of water management, including the use of water markets, cannot solve all of the water problems, but it can improve the efficiency of water allocation....

  8. Experimental identification of microRNA targets

    Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Lund, Anders H

    microRNAs are small RNAs that regulate protein synthesis post-transcriptionally. Animal microRNAs recognize their targets by incomplete base pairing to sequence motifs most often present in the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNAs. This partial complementarity vastly expands the repertoire...... of potential targets and constitutes a problem for computational target prediction. Although computational analyses have shed light on important aspects of microRNA target recognition, several questions remain regarding how microRNAs can recognize and regulate their targets. Forward experimental...... approaches allow for an unbiased study of microRNA target recognition and may unveil novel, rare or uncommon target binding patterns. In this review we focus on animal microRNAs and the experimental approaches that have been described for identification of their targets....

  9. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  10. Applying the WEAP Model to Water Resource

    Gao, Jingjing; Christensen, Per; Li, Wei

    Water resources assessment is a tool to provide decision makers with an appropriate basis to make informed judgments regarding the objectives and targets to be addressed during the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process. The study shows how water resources assessment can be applied in SEA...... in assessing the effects on water resources using a case study on a Coal Industry Development Plan in an arid region in North Western China. In the case the WEAP model (Water Evaluation And Planning System) were used to simulate various scenarios using a diversity of technological instruments like...... irrigation efficiency, treatment and reuse of water. The WEAP model was applied to the Ordos catchment where it was used for the first time in China. The changes in water resource utilization in Ordos basin were assessed with the model. It was found that the WEAP model is a useful tool for water resource...

  11. Introduction to radar target recognition

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  12. Conotoxins: Molecular and Therapeutic Targets

    Lewis, Richard J.

    Marine molluscs known as cone snails produce beautiful shells and a complex array of over 50,000 venom peptides evolved for prey capture and defence. Many of these peptides selectively modulate ion channels and transporters, making them a valuable source of new ligands for studying the role these targets play in normal and disease physiology. A number of conopeptides reduce pain in animal models, and several are now in pre-clinical and clinical development for the treatment of severe pain often associated with diseases such as cancer. Less than 1% of cone snail venom peptides are pharmacologically characterised.

  13. Nova target chamber decontamination study

    An engineering study was performed to determine the most effective method for decontamination of the Nova target chamber. Manual and remote decontamination methods currently being used were surveyed. In addition, a concept that may not require in-situ decontamination was investigated. Based on the presently available information concerning material and system compatibility and particle penetration, it is recommended that a system of removable aluminum shields be considered. It is also recommended that a series of tests be performed to more precisely determine the vacuum compatibility and penetrability of other materials discussed in this report

  14. Thermal hydraulic design of the mercury target vessel

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has completed the mercury target system as the pulsed spallation neutron source of J-PARC project, which has the highest level power of 1MW in the world. The basic design of the flow channel and structure of the mercury target vessel, which is the core of the neutron source, was carried out by JAEA, and the detail design, parts fabrication and assembling have been carried out by the vendor from 2003. Taking these fabrication designs and assembling conditions into consideration, the final performance evaluation of the mercury target vessel was carried out from the viewpoint of thermal hydraulics. The general thermal hydraulic analyses code, STAR-CD, was used, and the thermal hydraulic analyses were carried out for the mercury flow in the mercury vessel and the heavy water flow in the safety hull, taking the nuclear heating and the heat transportation into consideration. The analytical model was three dimensional. The total cell number of the mercury vessel and mercury was 1.78 x 106 and that of the safety hull was 2.39 x 106. The standard k-ε model and MARS were adopted as the basic combination of the turbulence model and the differential scheme, but other combinations, such as RNG k-ε model and UD were also used as a reference. Comparing these analytical results, it was confirmed that the mercury target vessel fulfills the design requirements such as the fluid inlet velocity, the maximum temperature of fluid, the maximum temperature of the vessel, the pressure drop of fluid, etc. The influence of the welding deformation of the mercury target vessel was also evaluated. Mercury flow and heavy water flow are affected a little, but they do not much extend the required condition, and the structural integrity was confirmed. (author)

  15. Antiviral targets of human noroviruses.

    Prasad, Bv Venkataram; Shanker, Sreejesh; Muhaxhiri, Zana; Deng, Lisheng; Choi, Jae-Mun; Estes, Mary K; Song, Yongcheng; Palzkill, Timothy; Atmar, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    Human noroviruses are major causative agents of sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis both in children and adults. Currently there are no licensed therapeutic intervention measures either in terms of vaccines or drugs available for these highly contagious human pathogens. Genetic and antigenic diversity of these viruses, rapid emergence of new strains, and their ability to infect a broad population by using polymorphic histo-blood group antigens for cell attachment, pose significant challenges for the development of effective antiviral agents. Despite these impediments, there is progress in the design and development of therapeutic agents. These include capsid-based candidate vaccines, and potential antivirals either in the form of glycomimetics or designer antibodies that block HBGA binding, as well as those that target essential non-structural proteins such as the viral protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In addition to these classical approaches, recent studies suggest the possibility of interferons and targeting host cell factors as viable approaches to counter norovirus infection. This review provides a brief overview of this progress. PMID:27318434

  16. Multifunction sensor for target recognition

    James, William M.; Lindberg, Perry C.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Army has a critical need for the capability provided by a multifunction sensor. This is (in effect) a smart sensor system that can adapt to environmental conditions and adjust its mode of operation to effectively counter any threat it meets. It will have an intelligent signal processor which has all of the system's sensor signals to choose from. The processor chooses the appropriate signal information to rapidly detect, acquire, track, and automatically identify all targets in the vicinity of the sensor under a wide variety of battlefield scenarios and environmental conditions. The multiphenomenology signal information provides the flexibility to overcome the adverse effects of clutter, countermeasures (both active and passive), illumination, obscurants, target orientation, and weather. It should be noted, however, that the types of sensory information required is dependent on the mission and the operating environment. For instance, a strategic defense sensor operating in space can use (and will need) different types of sensor data than the multifunction sensor employed on an attack helicopter. In fact, the sensor configuration on a helicopter operating in Saudi Arabia may be quite different from one that is deployed to Vietnam. For the purpose of this paper we generalize about the technologies desired for an adaptable, `smart' sensor system. We do not specify a particular mission nor define a specific threat. However, in any case, we can assume the need to fuse sensor signal information in an intelligent processor to provide robust performance in the battlefield environment. 12

  17. Hypoxia-mediated tumour targeting.

    Binley, K; Askham, Z; Martin, L; Spearman, H; Day, D; Kingsman, S; Naylor, S

    2003-04-01

    Hypoxia is a common physiological feature of tumours. It activates a signalling cascade that culminates in the stabilization of the HIF-1 transcription factor and activation of genes that possess a hypoxia response element (HRE). We have used an optimized hypoxia responsive promoter (OBHRE) to investigate hypoxia-targeted gene expression in vivo in the context of an adenovirus vector. The OBHRE promoter showed limited activity in the liver or spleen such that expression was 1000-fold lower than that driven by the strong CMV/IE promoter. However, in the context of the tumour microenvironment, the OBHRE promoter achieved expression levels comparable to that of the CMV/IE promoter. Next, we showed that an adenovirus expressing the human cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6) regulated by the OBHRE promoter delays tumour growth in response to the prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA). Finally, we exploited the hepatotropism of adenovirus to investigate whether the OBHRE promoter could mitigate the hepatotoxicity of a recombinant adenovirus expressing thymidine kinase (TK) in the context of the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). High-dose Ad.CMVTK/GCV treatment caused significant liver necrosis whereas the same dose of Ad.HRETK was well tolerated. These in vivo data demonstrate that hypoxia-targeted gene expression via the OBHRE promoter can be used to increase the therapeutic window of cytotoxic cancer gene therapy. PMID:12646859

  18. Beam-spot temperature monitoring on the production target at the BigRIPS separator

    Since 2007, a water-cooled high-power rotating disk target has been in operation at the in-flight radioactive-isotope beam separator (BigRIPS), RIKEN. The target should withstand a goal beam intensity of 1 particle μA (pμA) 238U-beam at 350 AMeV with a spot size of 1 mm in diameter, resulting in a heat deposit of 22 kW in the target. A beam-spot temperature monitoring system using infrared devices in high-radiation environment was elaborately developed. The beam-spot temperature on a beryllium (Be) fixed target and on a rotating Be and tungsten (W) disk target was measured with the most intense beams presently available at our facility. The heat deposit achieved was 0.6 kW, that is 1/37 of the goal value. At the present beam intensity, the result supports our estimation that a water-cooled rotating disk target of 30 cm diameter can withstand an approximately tenfold beam intensity compared to a water-cooled fixed target.

  19. HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target

    Highlights: • An internal cluster target was built and installed at HIRFL–CSR. • The target thickness for H2 amounts up to 6.6 × 1012 atoms/cm2. • The feasibility and stability of the internal cluster target were verified by on-line experiments. -- Abstract: Since HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL–CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 1012 atoms/cm2, and those of other targets are larger than 1013 atoms/cm2 with the background pressure of 10−11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability

  20. The ocean depths: Elf's target for 1997

    Elf has long since been aware of the potential of sedimentary basins in the ocean depths. For this reason, the group has been preparing to descend to these depths for many years. Today, it is setting itself the target of being ready to optimise as from 1997 a discovery made in the depth between 400 and 1500 m of water in Africa. In the Gulf of Guinea, most of the neighbouring countries have opened up their deep sea offshore areas, in order to try to renew their reserves on the verge of the third millennium. Indeed a great similarity can be seen between the West African and the Brazilian ocean depths. In the African offshore areas, Elf has acquired or renewed eight blocks, four of which are in Nigeria, one in the Congo, one in Gabon and two in Angola. The group is also interested in the ocean depths which are now accessible in the North Sea, whether in the Norwegian (Voring and More) of British (Western Shetlands) areas. (author). 1 fig

  1. Groundwater Waters

    Ramón Llamas; Emilio Custodio

    1999-01-01

    The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction a...

  2. Global Access to Safe Water: Accounting for Water Quality and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress

    Joe LoBuglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG drinking water target relies on classification of water sources as “improved” or “unimproved” as an indicator for water safety. We adjust the current Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP estimate by accounting for microbial water quality and sanitary risk using the only-nationally representative water quality data currently available, that from the WHO and UNICEF “Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality”. A principal components analysis (PCA of national environmental and development indicators was used to create models that predicted, for most countries, the proportions of piped and of other-improved water supplies that are faecally contaminated; and of these sources, the proportions that lack basic sanitary protection against contamination. We estimate that 1.8 billion people (28% of the global population used unsafe water in 2010. The 2010 JMP estimate is that 783 million people (11% use unimproved sources. Our estimates revise the 1990 baseline from 23% to 37%, and the target from 12% to 18%, resulting in a shortfall of 10% of the global population towards the MDG target in 2010. In contrast, using the indicator “use of an improved source” suggests that the MDG target for drinking-water has already been achieved. We estimate that an additional 1.2 billion (18% use water from sources or systems with significant sanitary risks. While our estimate is imprecise, the magnitude of the estimate and the health and development implications suggest that greater attention is needed to better understand and manage drinking water safety.

  3. Progress on the SNS target station

    This review gives progress and modifications covering the last eighteen months, under the five broad areas of target, target assembly, control system, bulk shield and remote handling. Finally a discussion of additional facilities to the SNS is presented

  4. Combinatorial microRNA target predictions

    Krek, Azra; Grün, Dominic; Poy, Matthew N.;

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript1, 2, 3. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed in...... different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published micro......RNA targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results...

  5. Preparation of targets by ion implantation

    Various factors are described which are involved in target preparation by direct ion implantation and the limitations and pitfalls of the method are emphasized. Examples are given of experiments for which ion implanted targets are well suited. (author)

  6. Generating target probability sequences and events

    Ella, Vaignana Spoorthy

    2013-01-01

    Cryptography and simulation of systems require that events of pre-defined probability be generated. This paper presents methods to generate target probability events based on the oblivious transfer protocol and target probabilistic sequences using probability distribution functions.

  7. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Adams, Jesse D; Malekos, Steven; Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Korgan, Grant; Cowan, Thomas; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2016-05-17

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  8. HIRFL-CSR internal target system

    The structure and the design of the HIRFL-CSR internal target system is reported. The HIRFL-CSR internal target can operate in two modes: cluster target mode and polarized target mode. The cluster target may provide the gas target of H2, N2, noble gases and small molecular gases with a density of ≥ 1013 atoms/cm2, and the polarized target may provide polarized H and D beams with a density of about 2 x 1011 atoms/cm2. The target polarization is expected to be +0.90/-0.90 for hydrogen beam, and the vector polarization is expected to +0.95/-0.95 for deuterium beam

  9. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Cowna, Thomas; Malekos, Steven; Korgan, Grant; Adams, Jesse; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; LeGalloudec, Nathalie

    2014-06-10

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  10. Target for optically activated seekers and trackers

    Lakin, C. T.; Willett, N. F.

    1984-05-01

    This abstract discloses a target for optically activated seekers and trackers (TOAST) which provides for calibrated and variable target characteristics such as size, intensity, spatial position, color and interfering background. The TOAST has a first ilumination system providing a target light beam through an adjustable iris which controls image size. The target beam passes through a collimator lens which focuses the light at infinity. With the target beam focused at infinity, the motion of an elevation plate lengthens or shortens the distance from the collimator lens to a one motion mirror. The target beam is attenuated by a variable filter driven by a servo-motor, and a color selection process is provided by passing the beam through spectral filters. A background light beam with background imagery is provided to the beamsplitter mirror and mixed with the target image so as to simulate the target environment encountered by an operating optically activated seeker and tracker.

  11. A rotating target for Ra production

    A target wheel with pyrolytic graphite targets is designed and constructed at the TRIμP facility to boost the production rate of Ra isotopes. Simulation, design properties and production results are discussed.

  12. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo;

    2015-01-01

    ), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6. billion. CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a......A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples...... water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses a...

  13. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    ... Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  14. Water Scarcity - Consumption of Water in Europe

    Sůva, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Summary In this bachelor thesis, on the topic of Water Scarcity- Water Consumption in Europe, the consumption of water is analysed for three fundamental, and for water consumption, major sectors. In the first section, consumption of water by European households is researched. In order to compare water consumption across Europe, an indicator of consumption of water per capita in selected European countries in the course of three years is created. Also, a comparison of median and...

  15. Geochemical processes between steel projectiles and silica-rich targets in hypervelocity impact experiments

    Ebert, Matthias; Hecht, Lutz; Deutsch, Alexander; Kenkmann, Thomas; Wirth, Richard; Berndt, Jasper

    2014-05-01

    The possibility of fractionation processes between projectile and target matter is critical with regard to the classification of the impactor type from geochemical analysis of impactites from natural craters. Here we present results of five hypervelocity MEMIN impact experiments (Poelchau et al., 2013) using the Cr-V-Co-Mo-W-rich steel D290-1 as projectile and two different silica-rich lithologies (Seeberger sandstone and Taunus quartzite) as target materials. Our study is focused on geochemical target-projectile interaction occurring in highly shocked and projectile-rich ejecta fragments. In all of the investigated impact experiments, whether sandstone or quartzite targets, the ejecta fragments show (i) shock-metamorphic features e.g., planar-deformation features (PDF) and the formation of silica glasses, (ii) partially melting of projectile and target, and (iii) significant mechanical and chemical mixing of the target rock with projectile material. The silica-rich target melts are strongly enriched in the "projectile tracer elements" Cr, V, and Fe, but have just minor enrichments of Co, W, and Mo. Inter-element ratios of these tracer elements within the contaminated target melts differ strongly from the original ratios in the steel. The fractionation results from differences in the reactivity of the respective elements with oxygen during interaction of the metal melt with silicate melt. Our results indicate that the principles of projectile-target interaction and associated fractionation do not depend on impact energies (at least for the selected experimental conditions) and water-saturation of the target. Partitioning of projectile tracer elements into the silicate target melt is much more enhanced in experiments with a non-porous quartzite target compared with the porous sandstone target. This is mainly the result of higher impact pressures, consequently higher temperatures and longer reaction times at high temperatures in the experiments with quartzite as

  16. Does inflation targeting make a difference?

    Frederic S. Mishkin; Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Yes, as inferred from panel evidence for inflation-targeting countries and a control group of high-achieving industrial countries that do not target inflation. Our evidence suggests that inflation targeting helps countries achieve lower inflation in the long run, have smaller inflation response to oil-price and exchange-rate shocks, strengthen monetary policy independence, improve monetary policy efficiency, and obtain inflation outcomes closer to target levels. Some benefits of inflation tar...

  17. Targeting Nominal Income Growth or Inflation?

    Jensen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Within a simple New Keynesian model emphasizing forward-looking behaviour of private agents, I evaluate optimal nominal income growth targeting versus optimal inflation targeting. When the economy under consideration is mainly subject to shocks that do not involve monetary policy trade-offs for society, inflation targeting is preferable. Otherwise, nominal income growth targeting may be superior because it induces inertial interest rate behaviour that improves the inflation-output gap trade-o...

  18. Capacitive Sensors And Targets Would Measure Alignments

    Jenstrom, Del T.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple capacitive sensors and active targets used to measure distance between, and relative orientation of, two objects. Sensed target signals processed and used by control systems to align objects to be joined. Shapes, sizes, and layouts of sensors and targets optimized for specific application. Particular layout of targets and sensors enables determination of relative position and orientation of two objects in all six degrees of freedom.

  19. The Simplest Test of Inflation Target Credibility

    Svensson, Lars E.O.

    1994-01-01

    A simple test of inflation target credibility is constructed by subtracting the maximum and minimum inflation rates consistent with the inflation targets from the yields to maturity on nominal bonds. This results in a target-consistent range of real yields on nominal bonds. If expected real yields, or market real interest rates on real bonds if such are available, fall outside the range of target- consistent real yields, credibility is rejected. Two concepts of credibility, called absolute cr...

  20. Evaluation and validation of drug targets

    Guan-huaDU

    2004-01-01

    Drug target is one of the key factors for discovering and developing new drugs. To find and validate drug targets is a crucial technique required in drug discovery by the strategy of high throughput screening. Based on the knowledge of molecular biology, human genomics and proteomics, it has been predicted that 5000 to 10000 drug targets exist in human. So, it is important orocedure to evaluate and validate the drug targets.

  1. Targeting Radiotherapy to Cancer by Gene Transfer

    R. J. Mairs; Boyd, M.

    2003-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is an alternative method of radiation treatment which uses a tumor-seeking agent carrying a radioactive atom to deposits of tumor, wherever in the body they may be located. Recent experimental data signifies promise for the amalgamation of gene transfer with radionuclide targeting. This review encompasses aspects of the integration of gene manipulation and targeted radiotherapy, highlighting the possibilities of gene transfer to assist the targeting of cancer ...

  2. Predicting new molecular targets for known drugs

    Keiser, Michael J.; Setola, Vincent; Irwin, John J.; Laggner, Christian; Abbas, Atheir; Hufeisen, Sandra J.; Jensen, Niels H.; Kuijer, Michael B.; Matos, Roberto C.; Tran, Thuy B.; Whaley, Ryan; Glennon, Richard A.; Hert, Jérôme; THOMAS, KELAN L. H.; Edwards, Douglas D.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas drugs are intended to be selective, at least some bind to several physiologic targets, explaining both side effects and efficacy. As many drug-target combinations exist, it would be useful to explore possible interactions computationally. Here, we compared 3,665 FDA-approved and investigational drugs against hundreds of targets, defining each target by its ligands. Chemical similarities between drugs and ligand sets predicted thousands of unanticipated associations. Thirty were tested...

  3. Birds and insects as radar targets - A review

    Vaughn, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    A review of radar cross-section measurements of birds and insects is presented. A brief discussion of some possible theoretical models is also given and comparisons made with the measurements. The comparisons suggest that most targets are, at present, better modeled by a prolate spheroid having a length-to-width ratio between 3 and 10 than by the often used equivalent weight water sphere. In addition, many targets observed with linear horizontal polarization have maximum cross sections much better estimated by a resonant half-wave dipole than by a water sphere. Also considered are birds and insects in the aggregate as a local radar 'clutter' source. Order-of-magnitude estimates are given for many reasonable target number densities. These estimates are then used to predict X-band volume reflectivities. Other topics that are of interest to the radar engineer are discussed, including the doppler bandwidth due to the internal motions of a single bird, the radar cross-section probability densities of single birds and insects, the variability of the functional form of the probability density functions, and the Fourier spectra of single birds and insects.

  4. Target studies for the neutrino factory at the Rutherford Appleton laboratory

    Drumm, P V; Bennett, R

    2001-01-01

    Target studies at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory have concentrated on studies of a solid heavy metal target. The suggestion to use a radiatively cooled target which rotates in beam was made shortly after the first NuFact workshop as a means of dissipating large amounts of power at a high temperature, and as an alternative to the proposed water-cooled rotating band and liquid metal jet targets. This paper examines the proposed drive scheme for the target ring, which uses induced currents and magnetic forces to both levitate and drive the target. Estimates of the power required to levitate and drive the target ring and the forces exerted on the moving ring as it enters the target capture solenoid are given. One of the principle concerns in the operation of a solid target is the severe shock stress experienced due to the impact of an intense energetic proton beam in a short time compared to the transit time of sound in the material. Calculations of the stresses induced in the target ring and their evolution ...

  5. Infrared thermography inspection for monoblock divertor target in JT-60SA

    Nakamura, Shigetoshi, E-mail: nakamura.shigetoshi@jaea.go.jp; Sakurai, Shinji; Ozaki, Hidetsugu; Seki, Yohji; Yokoyama, Kenji; Sakasai, Akira; Tsuru, Daigo

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Infrared thermography inspection is modified to inspect JT-60SA divertor targets. • Infrared thermography inspection is effective to detect joining defects of targets. • Numerical analysis is in good agreement with inspection results of mock-up targets. • Database for setting screening criteria has been constructed by numerical analysis. - Abstract: Carbon fiber composite (CFC) monoblock divertor target is required for power handling in JT-60SA. Quality of the targets depends on a joining technology in manufacturing process. To inspect the quality of more than 900 target pieces, efficient non-destructive inspection is needed. An infrared thermography inspection (IR inspection), has been proposed by ITER and IRFM, where the quality between CFC and a cooling tube is examined by a use of transient thermal response at a rapid switch from hot to cold water flow. In JT-60SA divertor target, a screw tube will be employed to obtain high heat transfer efficiency with simple structure. Since the time response of the screw tube is much faster than that of smooth tube, it is required to confirm the feasibility of this IR inspection. Thus, the effect of joining defects on transient thermal response of the targets has been investigated experimentally by using the mock-up targets containing defects which are artificially made. It was found that the IR inspection can detect the defects. Moreover, screening criteria of IR inspection for acceptable monoblock target is discussed.

  6. Infrared thermography inspection for monoblock divertor target in JT-60SA

    Highlights: • Infrared thermography inspection is modified to inspect JT-60SA divertor targets. • Infrared thermography inspection is effective to detect joining defects of targets. • Numerical analysis is in good agreement with inspection results of mock-up targets. • Database for setting screening criteria has been constructed by numerical analysis. - Abstract: Carbon fiber composite (CFC) monoblock divertor target is required for power handling in JT-60SA. Quality of the targets depends on a joining technology in manufacturing process. To inspect the quality of more than 900 target pieces, efficient non-destructive inspection is needed. An infrared thermography inspection (IR inspection), has been proposed by ITER and IRFM, where the quality between CFC and a cooling tube is examined by a use of transient thermal response at a rapid switch from hot to cold water flow. In JT-60SA divertor target, a screw tube will be employed to obtain high heat transfer efficiency with simple structure. Since the time response of the screw tube is much faster than that of smooth tube, it is required to confirm the feasibility of this IR inspection. Thus, the effect of joining defects on transient thermal response of the targets has been investigated experimentally by using the mock-up targets containing defects which are artificially made. It was found that the IR inspection can detect the defects. Moreover, screening criteria of IR inspection for acceptable monoblock target is discussed

  7. Separating Para and Ortho Water

    Horke, Daniel A; Długołęcki, Karol; Küpper, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Water exists as two nuclear-spin isomers, para and ortho, determined by the overall spin of its two hydrogen nuclei. For isolated water molecules the conversion between these isomers is forbidden and they act as different molecular species. Yet, these species are not readily separable, and little is known about their specific physical and chemical properties, conversion mechanisms, or interactions. Here we demonstrate the production of isolated samples of both spin isomers in pure beams of para and ortho water, with both species in their respective absolute ground state. These single-quantum-state samples are ideal targets for unraveling spin-conversion mechanisms, for precision spectroscopy and fundamental-symmetry-breaking studies, and for spin-enhanced applications, e. g., laboratory astrophysics and -chemistry or hypersensitized NMR experiments.

  8. Water and future

    This is material of the 18th world water day in 2010 which reports current situation of water resources such as water world, in water in Korea and water dispute, water and disaster like climate change, flood, drought, historical report about drought and flood, water resources facilities in Korea, disaster management system, development and management of eco-friendly water resources, eco-friendly water resources management and river maintenance, renovating four rivers and supply and procure of safe water.

  9. Behavioral targeting: a European legal perspective

    F. Zuiderveen Borgesius

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral targeting, or online profiling, is a hotly debated topic. Much of the collection of personal information on the Internet is related to behavioral targeting, although research suggests that most people don't want to receive behaviorally targeted advertising. The World Wide Web Consortium i

  10. Research and development for the SPES target

    The target is one of the key issues of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facilities. SPES, now under development at LNL-INFN, is an innovative ISOL facility possessing a target characterized by seven separate uranium dicarbide thin disks. The research on the materials development and target prototyping is discussed in the following. (orig.)

  11. Automated laser fusion target production concept

    A target production concept is described for the production of multilayered cryogenic spherical inertial confinement fusion targets. The facility is to deliver targets to the reactor chamber at rates up to 10 per second and at costs consistent with economic production of power

  12. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    Pedersen, Karsten

    people get out of the information provided in the pamphlet. The receivers that are subjected to the original pamphlet do not see the experimental version. Likewise the receivers that are subjected to the amended version do not see the original. I do so in order for the reception situations to be as......The paper proposal is part of a full-scale discourse analysis of a series of service information pamphlets published by the county of Ringkjøbing in Western Denmark. The project is an investigation of various aspects of the fact that government agencies as well as local and regional authorities...... very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live. In the...

  13. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking as a...... market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type...

  14. BAD: a good therapeutic target?

    The major goal in cancer treatment is the eradication of tumor cells. Under stress conditions, normal cells undergo apoptosis; this property is fortunately conserved in some tumor cells, leading to their death as a result of chemotherapeutic and/or radiation-induced stress. Many malignant cells, however, have developed ways to subvert apoptosis, a characteristic that constitutes a major clinical problem. Gilmore et al. recently described the ability of ZD1839, a small-molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), to induce apoptosis of mammary cells that are dependent upon growth factors for survival. Furthermore, they showed that the major effector of the EGFR-targeted therapy is BAD, a widely expressed BCL-2 family member. These results are promising in light of the role of the EGFR in breast cancer development

  15. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  16. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    Pedersen, Karsten

    The paper proposal is part of a full-scale discourse analysis of a series of service information pamphlets published by the county of Ringkjøbing in Western Denmark. The project is an investigation of various aspects of the fact that government agencies as well as local and regional authorities...... very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live. In the...... identical as possible, thus creating fertile grounds for comparisons. The amendments will follow traditional advice for improving on professional communication, viz., direct address, active constructions, verbs rather than nominalizations etc., and it is my intention to refute or document the notion that...

  17. Target Points in Trastuzumab Resistance

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of receptors is involved in cell growth and differentiation. The human EGF2 (HER2) lacks natural ligands, and correlation between HER2 levels and carcinogenesis makes the receptor an ideal candidate for targeted therapy in breast cancer. Trastuzumab is a humanized antibody applied against HER2-positive breast tumors in clinic. Metastatic tumors respond well to trastuzumab therapy for the first year, but development of antibody resistance helps the tumors to regrow allowing the disease to progress. Trastuzumab resistance is shaped via a range of intracellular signaling pathways that are interconnected and share in key effector molecules. Identification of a common node central to these resistance pathways could provide an ultimate solution for trastuzumab resistance in breast and other cancers

  18. Integrated water resources modelling for assessing sustainable water governance

    Skoulikaris, Charalampos; Ganoulis, Jacques; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Makropoulos, Christos; Gkatzogianni, Eleni; Michas, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    Climatic variations and resulting future uncertainties, increasing anthropogenic pressures, changes in political boundaries, ineffective or dysfunctional governance of natural resources and environmental degradation are some of the most fundamental challenges with which worldwide initiatives fostering the "think globally, act locally" concept are concerned. Different initiatives target the protection of the environment through sustainable development; Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Transboundary Water Resources Management (TWRM) in the case of internationally shared waters are frameworks that have gained wide political acceptance at international level and form part of water resources management planning and implementation on a global scale. Both concepts contribute in promoting economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability. Inspired by these holistic management approaches, the present work describes an effort that uses integrated water resources modelling for the development of an integrated, coherent and flexible water governance tool. This work in which a sequence of computer based models and tools are linked together, aims at the evaluation of the sustainable operation of projects generating renewable energy from water as well as the sustainability of agricultural demands and environmental security in terms of environmental flow under various climatic and operational conditions. More specifically, catchment hydrological modelling is coupled with dams' simulation models and thereafter with models dedicated to water resources management and planning,while the bridging of models is conducted through geographic information systems and custom programming tools. For the case of Mesta/Nestos river basin different priority rules in the dams' operational schedule (e.g. priority given to power production as opposed to irrigation needs and vice versa), as well as different irrigation demands, e.g. current water demands as opposed to

  19. Identification of Drosophila MicroRNA Targets

    Stark Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by binding to target messenger RNAs and by controlling protein production or causing RNA cleavage. To date, functions have been assigned to only a few of the hundreds of identified miRNAs, in part because of the difficulty in identifying their targets. The short length of miRNAs and the fact that their complementarity to target sequences is imperfect mean that target identification in animal genomes is not possible by standard sequence comparison methods. Here we screen conserved 3' UTR sequences from the Drosophila melanogaster genome for potential miRNA targets. The screening procedure combines a sequence search with an evaluation of the predicted miRNA-target heteroduplex structures and energies. We show that this approach successfully identifies the five previously validated let-7, lin-4, and bantam targets from a large database and predict new targets for Drosophila miRNAs. Our target predictions reveal striking clusters of functionally related targets among the top predictions for specific miRNAs. These include Notch target genes for miR-7, proapoptotic genes for the miR-2 family, and enzymes from a metabolic pathway for miR-277. We experimentally verified three predicted targets each for miR-7 and the miR-2 family, doubling the number of validated targets for animal miRNAs. Statistical analysis indicates that the best single predicted target sites are at the border of significance; thus, target predictions should be considered as tentative until experimentally validated. We identify features shared by all validated targets that can be used to evaluate target predictions for animal miRNAs. Our initial evaluation and experimental validation of target predictions suggest functions for two miRNAs. For others, the screen suggests plausible functions, such as a role for miR-277 as a metabolic switch controlling amino acid catabolism. Cross-genome comparison proved essential

  20. Modeling of water radiolysis at spallation neutron sources

    In spallation neutron sources neutrons are produced when a beam of high-energy particles (e.g., 1 GeV protons) collides with a (water-cooled) heavy metal target such as tungsten. The resulting spallation reactions produce a complex radiation environment (which differs from typical conditions at fission and fusion reactors) leading to the radiolysis of water molecules. Most water radiolysis products are short-lived but extremely reactive. When formed in the vicinity of the target surface they can react with metal atoms, thereby contributing to target corrosion. The authors will describe the results of calculations and experiments performed at Los Alamos to determine the impact on target corrosion of water radiolysis in the spallation radiation environment. The computational methodology relies on the use of the Los Alamos radiation transport code, LAHET, to determine the radiation environment, and the AEA code, FACSIMILE, to model reaction-diffusion processes