WorldWideScience

Sample records for 25-27 portland oregon

  1. Urban carbon dioxide in Portland, Oregon

    Bostrom, G. A.; Brooks, M.; Rice, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are reported for the Portland, Oregon (USA) metropolitan region since late July, 2009. Three stationary locations were established: a downtown location on the campus of Portland State University; a residential site in southeast Portland; and a rural station on Sauvie Island, located ~30km northwest of Portland in the Columbia River Gorge. Continuous measurements of CO2 at the sites average 400-410ppm and show considerable variability due to CO2 sources, sinks and meteorological drivers of ventilation. Within this variability, a marked 20-30ppm diurnal cycle is observed due to photosynthetic activity and variations in the planetary boundary layer. In-city CO2 concentrations are on average enhanced by 5-6ppm over the Sauvie Island site during upgorge wind conditions, a difference which is greatest in the afternoon. Measurements of the 13C/12C ratio of CO2 in downtown Portland are significantly depleted in 13C relative to 12C compared with background air and suggest that regional CO2 is dominated by petroleum sources (70-80%). High degrees of relationship between CO2 variability and primary air pollutants CO and NO (r2=0.70 to 0.80), measured by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality at the Southeast Portland location, corroborate this finding and illustrate the importance of traffic emissions on elevated ambient CO2 concentrations. In addition to CO2 at the fixed sites, measurements of street-level CO2 concentrations were obtained using a mobile instrument mounted in a bike trailer. Results from these field data show relatively homogenous CO2 concentrations throughout residential Portland neighborhoods with significant enhancements in CO2 on busy roadways or near areas of traffic congestion.

  2. 77 FR 4006 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, Oregon; Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Epson Portland, Inc...

    2012-01-26

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 45--Portland, Oregon; Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Epson Portland, Inc. (Inkjet Ink Manufacturing); Portland, OR An application has been submitted to the... of the scope of manufacturing authority approved within Subzone 45F, on behalf of Epson Portland,...

  3. Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Portland, OR, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  4. Measurements of Carbon Dioxide in the Portland, Oregon Metropolitan Region

    Bostrom, G. A.; Rice, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    Urban centers provide large sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere through intensive use of fossil fuels. Due to a lack of federal regulatory framework in the United States, a patchwork of regional and statewide approaches to reducing CO2 emissions has emerged. The City of Portland together with Multnomah County established itself as an early frontier in this regard by creating greenhouse gas emissions inventories in 1990 and adopting a regional plan to reduce emissions in 1993. Most recent emissions inventories suggest that County-wide emissions of CO2 are near 1990 levels, despite a growing population, with an ambitious goal of reducing emissions 80% by 2050. However, there has been no validation of either emissions inventories or their trends in time. Here, we detail preliminary results of a study aimed at testing regional CO2 emissions inventories through measurements of CO2 concentrations and its 13C isotopic composition. In collaboration with Oregon Department of Environmental Quality three test sites were established: a downtown Portland location on the campus of Portland State University; a residential Southeast Portland location; and at Sauvie Island, located ~30km northwest (upwind, rural) of Portland in the Columbia River Gorge. Continuous measurements of summertime CO2 concentrations since late July, 2009 range from approximately 370ppm to 420ppm (±2.7σ) for downtown and residential sites, and 360ppm to 420ppm for Sauvie Island, while maximum outlier levels at all three sites exceed 480ppm. Measurements at all three sites show a marked diurnal cycle averaging 25-35ppm. Maximum CO2 concentrations typically occur 6-8 am and minimum concentrations 5-7 pm. The two dominant forcing mechanisms of this strong diurnal cycle are varying biological sources and sinks and the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer. There is also a significant enhancement of ~7ppm in the average measured concentrations at the two urban sites (~395ppm) compared with

  5. Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Project Abstracts; May 25-27, Portland, Oregon, 1997 Annual Review.

    Allee, Brian J. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Portland, OR)

    1997-06-26

    Abstracts are presented from the 1997 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Review of Projects. The purpose was to provide information and education on the approximate 127 million dollars in Northwest electric ratepayer fish and wildlife mitigation projects funded annually.

  6. Inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon

    1994-04-01

    The authors conducted an inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon. The purpose of their inspection was to determine if a covert video surveillance operation conducted at Bonneville Power Administration was consistent with Department of Energy policies and procedures and other applicable regulations and procedures, and to determine if administrative leave policies and procedures used at Bonneville Power Administration in a specific instance were consistent with Department of Energy requirements and the Code of Federal Regulations. This inspection focused on a specific incident that occurred in 1989 on the 5th floor of the BPA Headquarters Building located in Portland, Oregon. The incident involved the soiling of an employee`s personal property with what appeared to be urine.

  7. Tabular data base construction and analysis from thematic classified Landsat imagery of Portland, Oregon

    Bryant, N. A.; George, A. J., Jr.; Hegdahl, R.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic verification of Landsat data classifications of the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area has been undertaken on the basis of census tract data. The degree of systematic misclassification due to the Bayesian classifier used to process the Landsat data was noted for the various suburban, industrialized and central business districts of the metropolitan area. The Landsat determinations of residential land use were employed to estimate the number of automobile trips generated in the region and to model air pollution hazards.

  8. Tritium/Helium-3 Apparent Ages of Shallow Ground Water, Portland Basin, Oregon, 1997-98

    Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Water samples for tritium/helium-3 age dating were collected from 12 shallow monitoring wells in the Portland basin, Oregon, in 1997, and again in 1998. Robust tritium/helium-3 apparent (piston-flow) ages were obtained for water samples from 10 of the 12 wells; apparent ages ranged from 1.1 to 21.2 years. Method precision was demonstrated by close agreement between data collected in 1997 and 1998. Tritium/helium-3 apparent ages generally increase with increasing depth below the water table, and agree well with age/depth relations based on assumptions of effects of recharge rate on vertical ground-water movement.

  9. Food mirages: geographic and economic barriers to healthful food access in Portland, Oregon.

    Breyer, Betsy; Voss-Andreae, Adriana

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigated the role of grocery store prices in structuring food access for low-income households in Portland, Oregon. We conducted a detailed healthful foods market basket survey and developed an index of store cost based on the USDA Thrifty Food Plan. Using this index, we estimated the difference in street-network distance between the nearest low-cost grocery store and the nearest grocery store irrespective of cost. Spatial regression of this metric in relation to income, poverty, and gentrification at the census tract scale lead to a new theory regarding food access in the urban landscape. Food deserts are sparse in Portland, but food mirages are abundant, particularly in gentrifying areas where poverty remains high. In a food mirage, grocery stores are plentiful but prices are beyond the means of low-income households, making them functionally equivalent to food deserts in that a long journey to obtain affordable, nutritious food is required in either case. Results suggested that evaluation of food environments should, at a minimum, consider both proximity and price in assessing healthy food access for low-income households. PMID:24100236

  10. 2007 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) LiDAR: Northwest Oregon and Portland Metro Area

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) and the Oregon...

  11. Public health assessment for McCormick and Baxter Creosoting Company (Portland), Portland, Multnomah County, Oregon, Region 10. Cerclis No. ORD009020603. Final report

    NONE

    1995-06-13

    The McCormick and Baxter Creosoting site is located on the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon. ATSDR considers the site to have been a public health hazard for former plant workers because of past ingestion exposure to arsenic, creosote, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, and dibenzofurans at levels of public health concern. The site also poses an ongoing and future public health hazard because people might encounter hazardous chemicals along the shoreline on or near the site at levels that can damage the skin, as was reported to have happened to two boys. Finally, dioxin levels would pose a public health hazard if people subsist on crayfish and suckers contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  12. Good Grief Kids: An Exploratory Analysis of Grieving Children and Teens at The Dougy Center in Portland, Oregon

    Sorensen, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Every year in the United States, anywhere from 200,000 to 400,000 youths under the age of 19 will experience the death of a parent (or both) or a sibling. The Dougy Center in Portland, Oregon, was established in 1983 to assist grieving children. Support groups are based on principles of nondirective play therapy. During the years 1996-2000, The Dougy Center administered questionnaires to a number of its clients. The results of one of these questionnaires, The Center for Epidemiological Studie...

  13. Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and -furans at the Portland Harbor Superfund site, Oregon, USA.

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Krumins, Valdis; Curran, Joanna Crowe

    2015-06-16

    The Portland Harbor (Oregon, USA) has been declared a "Superfund" site because it is impacted by a variety of contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs). Using data collected in the remedial investigation, concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in sediment and water were examined using positive matrix factorization to look for evidence that PCBs and PCDD/Fs are dechlorinated by anaerobic bacteria. This process has long been known to occur in sediments. Recently, it has been recognized that PCB and PCDD/F dechlorination may also occur in other anaerobic environments, such as in landfills, sewers, and groundwater. The results indicate that a factor related to the dechlorination of PCBs and PCDD/Fs was present in the water but not in the sediment. Spatial patterns in dechlorination products suggest that they come primarily from groundwater. Dechlorination products comprise 22% of the PCBs in the water. The Portland Harbor therefore represents the third major US watershed in which PCBs appear to undergo dechlorination in an environment other than sediment, suggesting that the microbial dechlorination of PCBs and PCDD/Fs is more common than previously assumed. In addition, the Portland Harbor is impacted by PCBs generated inadvertently during the production of pigments, such as PCB 11, which alone exceeded the 64 pg/L federal water quality standard for the sum of PCBs in two of 120 whole water samples. PMID:26010118

  14. High Resolution Modeling of Anthropogenic and Biogenic Carbon Dioxide Fluxes From the Portland Oregon Metropolitan Area

    Butenhoff, C. L.; Powell, J.; Tran, D.; Rice, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The future of the North American carbon cycle is heavily dependent on urban ecosystems and their development. Around 75-80% of the current U.S. population is urbanized and this percentage is likely to increase in the future. Despite the lack of national climate policy, cities nationwide are developing their own plans to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The city of Portland OR for example (along with Multnomah County) has in place an ambitious goal of reducing CO2 emissions by 80% by the year 2050. Monitoring and verifying emission reductions will be integral to the successful operation of this and other mitigation policies. To do so requires both the modeling and measurement of CO2 at high spatial and temporal resolution. To this effort we developed gridded inventories of anthropogenic and biogenic fluxes of CO2 from Portland and the surrounding metropolitan region at 1-km resolution and at hourly time steps. Mobile emissions were estimated using traffic count data, a land-use regression model, and the EPA MOVES model. Biogenic fluxes of CO2 were calculated using high resolution remote sensing vegetation maps and the Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-VPRM). This is part of an on-going effort to constrain emission estimates using measurements of CO2 from throughout the region. Here we compare simulated concentrations of CO2 with data available from three sites, representing upwind, downwind, and city center conditions.

  15. Symmetry or asymmetry -- Comfort is the question. (A study of the second floor of the west office wing of the Water Pollution Control Laboratory in Portland, Oregon.)

    Gonzalez, A.F.; Gaba, P.; Kowitanupong, C.

    1999-07-01

    This article explores the effects of an asymmetric distribution of building components, and their relation to human comfort. The studied building was the Water Pollution Control Laboratory in Portland, Oregon. This project, designed by the Miller/Hull Partnership, provides the perfect conditions to do such a study since it has very different ceiling heights within the same space, and an asymmetric distribution of the fenestration as well. Findings show that: (a) Variable ceiling heights affect the quantity of daylight received, and also affect the quality and distribution of electric light; (b) An asymmetric distribution of the fenestration creates very different conditions in both the luminous and thermal environments; and (c) The design of lighting and HVAC systems must take into consideration variations in ceiling height and the position of the fenestration into the space.

  16. Vulnerability of Water Systems to the Effects of Climate Change and Urbanization: A Comparison of Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon (USA)

    Larson, Kelli L.; Polsky, Colin; Gober, Patricia; Chang, Heejun; Shandas, Vivek

    2013-07-01

    The coupled processes of climate change and urbanization pose challenges for water resource management in cities worldwide. Comparing the vulnerabilities of water systems in Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon, this paper examines (1) exposures to these stressors, (2) sensitivities to the associated impacts, and (3) adaptive capacities for responding to realized or anticipated impacts. Based on a case study and survey-based approach, common points of vulnerability include: rising exposures to drier, warmer summers, and suburban growth; increasing sensitivities based on demand hardening; and limited capacities due to institutional and pro-growth pressures. Yet each region also exhibits unique vulnerabilities. Comparatively, Portland shows: amplified exposures to seasonal climatic extremes, heightened sensitivity based on less diversified municipal water sources and policies that favor more trees and other irrigated vegetation, and diminished adaptive capacities because of limited attention to demand management and climate planning for water resources. Phoenix exhibits elevated exposure from rapid growth, heightened sensitivities due to high water demands and widespread increases in residential and commercial uses, and limited adaptive capacities due to weak land use planning and "smart growth" strategies. Unique points of vulnerability suggest pathways for adapting to urban-environmental change, whether through water management or land planning. Greater coordination between the land and water sectors would substantially reduce vulnerabilities in the study regions and beyond.

  17. In-reservoir behavior, dam passage, and downstream migration of juvenile Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead from Detroit Reservoir and Dam to Portland, Oregon, February 2013-February 2014

    Beeman, John W.; Adams, Noah S.

    2015-01-01

    In the second year of 2 years of study, the movements of juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through Detroit Reservoir, passing Detroit Dam, and migrating downstream to Portland, Oregon, were studied during a 1-year-long period beginning in February 2013. The primary purpose of the study was to provide empirical data to inform decisions about future alternatives for improving downstream passage of salmonids at Detroit Dam. A secondary purpose was to design and assess the performance of a system to detect juvenile salmonids implanted with acoustic transmitters migrating in the Willamette River. Inferences about fish migration were made from detections of juvenile fish of hatchery origin at least 95 millimeters in fork length surgically implanted with an acoustic transmitter and released during the spring (March–May) and fall (September–November) of 2013. Detection sites were placed throughout the reservoir, near the dam, and at two sites in the North Santiam River and at three sites in the Willamette River culminating at Portland, Oregon. We based most inferences on an analysis period up to the 90th percentile of tag life (68–78 days after release, depending on species and season), although a small number of fish passed after that period as late as April 8, 2014. Chinook salmon migrated from the tributaries of release to the reservoir in greater proportion than steelhead, particularly in the fall. The in-reservoir migration behaviors and dam passage of the two species were similar during the spring study, but during the fall study, few steelhead reached the reservoir and none passed the dam within the analysis period. Migrations in the reservoir were directed and non-random, except in the forebay. Depths of fish within 25 meters of the dam were deeper in the day than at night for Chinook salmon and similar in the day and night for steelhead; steelhead generally were at shallower depths

  18. Proceedings. Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges Annual Convention (63rd, Hilton Hotel, Portland, Oregon, December 1-4, 1979).

    Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges, Seattle, WA.

    The proceedings of the 1979 annual meeting of the Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges begins by listing the officers, trustees, and commissioners of the association, and outlining the program of the meeting. The minutes from the Commission on Schools include reports from: the state committees of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon,…

  19. What is the Role of Universities in High-tech Economic Development? The Case of Portland, Oregon, and Washington, DC

    Heike Mayer

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on two regions in the United States that have emerged as high-technology regions in the absence of major research universities. The case of Portland's Silicon Forest is compared to Washington, DC. In both regions, high-technology economies grew because of industrial restructuring processes. The paper argues that in both regions other actors—such as firms and government laboratories—spurred the development of knowledge-based economies and catalysed the engagement of high...

  20. Low-cost computer classification of land cover in the Portland area, Oregon, by signature extension techniques

    Gaydos, Leonard

    1978-01-01

    Computer-aided techniques for interpreting multispectral data acquired by Landsat offer economies in the mapping of land cover. Even so, the actual establishment of the statistical classes, or "signatures," is one of the relatively more costly operations involved. Analysts have therefore been seeking cost-saving signature extension techniques that would accept training data acquired for one time or place and apply them to another. Opportunities to extend signatures occur in preprocessing steps and in the classification steps that follow. In the present example, land cover classes were derived by the simplest and most direct form of signature extension: Classes statistically derived from a Landsat scene for the Puget Sound area, Wash., were applied to the Portland area, Oreg., using data for the next Landsat scene acquired less than 25 seconds down orbit. Many features can be recognized on the reduced-scale version of the Portland land cover map shown in this report, although no statistical assessment of its accuracy is available.

  1. 75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    2010-04-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week... Hawthorne and Steel Bridges in Portland, Oregon during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2... and other vessels participating in Fleet Week as well as the maritime public in general and will do...

  2. Neighborhood change and the role of environmental stewardship: a case study of green infrastructure for stormwater in the City of Portland, Oregon, USA

    Vivek Shandas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of cities, the ecological landscape has often been buried, removed, or taken for granted. A recent recognition that humans are part of the global ecosystem, and that human actions both cause and are affected by ecological change, brings with it an awareness of the value of nature in cities and of natural systems on which cities depend. The feedbacks between humans and their environment within an urban context can have profound implications for the growth of and change in cities, yet there is a limited understanding of the interactions between biophysical changes in cities and the implications of these changes on the quality of life for residents. The application of a coupled human and natural systems (CHANS framework provides a timely and fruitful opportunity to enrich the theory, methods, and understanding of these feedbacks and interconnections. Here, I integrated biophysical and social dimensions relevant to managing urban stormwater by examining a case study of Portland, Oregon, USA. I used empirical data from a pre-post survey (2-yr span of residents in eight urban neighborhoods to describe feedbacks and interactions between a localized biophysical change in the form of a large-scale decentralized stormwater program and the resulting changes in resident's perceptions in neighborhoods undergoing rapid change. My findings corroborate earlier findings suggesting that people with higher income and education levels are more likely to participate in stewardship actions. The results also suggest an overall and initial negative perception of neighborhoods facilities and services immediately following the construction of decentralized stormwater facilities, but conversely, high levels of anticipation for their construction. By describing these findings through a CHANS framework, I make explicit the importance of integrating scientific understanding, governance efforts, and human behaviors to address acute urban environmental

  3. 14 CFR 25.27 - Center of gravity limits.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Center of gravity limits. 25.27 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.27 Center of gravity limits. The extreme forward and the extreme aft center of gravity limitations must be established for each...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Ecosystem Services by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset presents environmental benefits of the urban forest in 1176 block groups in Portland, Oregon. Carbon attributes, temperature reduction,...

  5. Pre-and post-Missoula flood geomorphology of the Pre-Holocene ancestral Columbia River Valley in the Portland forearc basin, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Peterson, Curt D.; Minor, Rick; Peterson, Gary L.; Gates, Edward B.

    2011-06-01

    Geomorphic landscape development in the pre-Holocene ancestral Columbia River Valley (1-5 km width) in the Portland forearc basin (~ 50 km length) is established from depositional sequences, which pre-date and post-date the glacial Lake Missoula floods. The sequences are observed from selected borehole logs (150 in number) and intact terrace soil profiles (56 in number) in backhoe trenches. Four sequences are widespread, including (1) a vertically aggraded Pleistocene alluvial plain, (2) a steep sided valley that is incised (125-150 m) into the Pleistocene gravel plain, (3) Missoula flood terraces (19-13 ka) abandoned on the sides of the ancestral valley, and (4) Holocene flooding surfaces (11-8 ka) buried at 70-30 m depth in the axial Columbia River Valley. Weathering rims and cementation are used for relative dating of incised Pleistocene gravel units. Soil development on the abandoned Missoula flood terraces is directly related to terrace deposit lithology, including thin Bw horizons in gravel, irregular podzols in sand, and multiple Bw horizons in thicker loess-capping layers. Radiocarbon dating of sand and mud alluvium in the submerged axial valley ties Holocene flooding surfaces to a local sea level curve and establishes Holocene sedimentation rates of 1.5 cm year- 1 during 11-9 ka and 0.3 cm year- 1 during 9-0 ka. The sequences of Pleistocene gravel aggradation, river valley incision, cataclysmic Missoula flooding, and Holocene submergence yield complex geomorphic landscapes in the ancestral lower Columbia River Valley.

  6. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - BenMAP Results by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset demonstrates the effect of changes in pollution concentration on local populations in 1176 block groups in Portland, Oregon. The US EPA's...

  7. LLW Forum meeting report, April 25--27, 1994

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Low-Level radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. LLW Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently-operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This quarterly meeting was held April 25-27, 1994 and activities during the first quarter of 1994 are detailed..

  8. LLW Forum meeting report, April 25--27, 1994

    The Low-Level radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. LLW Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently-operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This quarterly meeting was held April 25-27, 1994 and activities during the first quarter of 1994 are detailed

  9. 77 FR 29897 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Willamette River, Portland, OR

    2012-05-21

    ... efficient movement of light rail and roadway traffic associated with the Rose Parade in Portland, Oregon... Steel Bridge remain closed to vessel traffic to facilitate safe efficient movement of light rail and... schedule of the lower deck which opens on signal. Vessels which do not require an opening of the upper...

  10. A Portlander's View of Smart Growth

    Randal O'Toole

    2004-01-01

    Metro, a regional planning authority, has written and implemented the nation's strongest and most comprehensive smart-growth plan in Portland, Oregon. For a region expected to grow in population by 80 percent in the next five decades, Metro's plan calls for a mere 6 percent expansion of land area; high-density housing in the form of apartments, mixed-use developments, and single-family homes on small lots; pedestrian-friendly design codes; 125 miles of rail transit; and almost no new highway ...

  11. The African American Wellness Village in Portland, Ore

    McKeever, Corliss; Koroloff, Nancy; Faddis, Collaine

    2006-01-01

    More than 80% of African Americans in Oregon reside in the Portland metropolitan area; African Americans comprise 1.7% of the state's population. Although relatively small, the African American population in the state experiences substantial health disparities. The African American Health Coalition, Inc was developed to implement initiatives that would reduce these disparities and to promote increased communication and trust between the African American community and local institutions and or...

  12. Clean Energy Works Oregon Final Technical Report

    Jacob, Andria [City of Portland; Cyr, Shirley [Clean Energy Works

    2013-12-31

    In April 2010, the City of Portland received a $20 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy, as part of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program. This award was appropriated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), passed by President Obama in 2009. DOE’s program became known as the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The BBNP grant objectives directed the City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) as the primary grantee to expand the BPS-led pilot program, Clean Energy Works Portland, into Clean Energy Works Oregon (CEWO), with the mission to deliver thousands of home energy retrofits, create jobs, save energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.The Final Technical Report explores the successes and lessons learned from the first 3 years of program implementation.

  13. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the Portland metropolitan region

    Rice, A. L.; Bostrom, G. A.; Brooks, M. K.; Hill, L.; Shandas, V.

    2011-12-01

    The Portland metropolitan region, located in the Columbia River Gorge, is the most populous region in Oregon. Greenhouse gas emissions inventories for Multnomah County (population ~710k) estimate 2008 emissions to be 8.5 million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent, of which CO2 is the dominant source. These inventories suggest that County-wide greenhouse gas emissions are near 1990 levels, despite a 22% growth in population. This contrasts with US National greenhouse gas emissions, which are estimated to have grown ~14% since 1990. Despite this apparent progress, there has been no validation of either emissions inventories for the Portland metropolitan region or their trends in time. We present more than two years of measurements of CO2 at three stationary locations in the Portland metropolitan region: a downtown location on the campus of Portland State University; a residential site in southeast Portland; and a rural station on Sauvie Island, located ~30km northwest of Portland in the Columbia River Gorge. Beginning in July 2009, continuous measurements of CO2 at the sites show considerable variability due to global and regional CO2 sources, sinks and boundary layer meteorology. Here we focus on the enhancement of in-city concentrations above the rural Sauvie Island site (CO2 excess), a difference which averages ~6ppm during upgorge wind conditions. The southeast Portland residential site shows a significant enhancement of ~5ppm in CO2 concentration throughout the day. The downtown site shows a substantial diurnal cycle in CO2 excess with 10-15ppm higher values during the day and negative values for CO2 excess during the early morning hours, the cause of which is not well understood. Both in-city sites show an increase in CO2 excess centered around 7-8 am and 5-6 pm during the two rush-hour periods. To examine spatial variability, measurements of street-level CO2 concentrations were obtained using a mobile instrument mounted in a bike trailer during a summer

  14. Iterated transportation simulations for Dallas and Portland

    Nagel, K.; Simon, P.; Rickert, M.; Esser, J.

    1998-09-02

    The goal of the TRansportation ANalysis and SIMulation System (TRANSIMS) is to combine the most important aspects of human decision-making related to transportation, from activities planning (sleep, work, eat, shop,...) via modal and route planning to driving, into a single, consistent methodological and software framework. This is meant to combine the functionalities of activities-based travel demand generation, modal choice and route assignment, and micro-simulation. TRANSIMS attempts to employ advanced methodologies in all these modules. Yet, it is probably the overall framework that is the most important part of this attempt. It is, for example, possible to replace the TRANSIMS microsimulation by another micro-simulation that uses the same input and generates the same output. TRANSIMS uses specific regions as examples in order to ensure that the technology is rooted in the real world. Until about the middle of 1997, an approximately five miles by five miles area in Dallas/Texas was used. Since then, TRANSIMS has moved to using data from Portland/Oregon; a case study for this region is planned to be completed by the end of the year 2000. In this paper the authors give short descriptions of these projects and give references to related publications.

  15. Beyond a Box of Documents: The Collaborative Partnership Behind the Oregon Chinese Disinterment Documents Collection

    Natalia M. Fernández

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a case study of a collaboration between the Oregon Multicultural Archives of Oregon State University, Portland State University Library's Special Collections, the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA, and the Northwest News Network to preserve and make accessible a recovered box of Oregon Chinese disinterment documents. By examining what influenced and engaged each partner, this case study offers an opportunity to better understand the motivations of diverse stakeholders in a "post-custodial era" project that challenges traditional practices of custody, control, and access.

  16. Portland's experience with land use tools to promote green roofs

    In the late 1990s, the City of Portland, Oregon faced environmental challenges that prompted the City to mandate environmentally sensitive development. Several programs were developed in response to these challenges, some of which resulted in the creation of land use policies and incentives that promote green roofs. Zoning code provisions were adopted in 2001 to promote eco-roofs in an effort to reduce stormwater runoff, mitigate urban heat island effects, provide habitat for birds, and improve air quality and energy efficiency. The Central City Fundamental Design Guidelines were also revised to encourage eco-roof development. In 2002, the South Waterfront Plan was created to integrate ecological design into an urban environment through sustainability principles and practices. Land use tools were developed to introduce developers to an approach that reduced energy costs and stormwater costs, while also contributing to a project's marketability. These tools were created with the support of programs and policies such as the CSO (Combined Sewer Overflow) Program; eco-roof research which began in 1995 to determine the stormwater management potential of eco-Green roofs; technical assistance to encourage and highlight sustainable development practices; the Stormwater Management Manual that set standards for the amount and quality of stormwater runoff leaving development sites; the G/Rated Program that offers resources for green building practices; the Green Investment Fund that supports the G/Rated Program; and, the Portland Development Commission Green Building Policy financing tool for earth-friendly designs and materials. 34 refs., 2 figs

  17. Network Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions From On-road Sources in the Portland OR, (USA) Metropolitan Area

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Rice, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    To mitigate climate change, governments at multiple levels are developing policies to decrease anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The City of Portland (Oregon) and Multnomah County have adopted a Climate Action Plan with a stated goal of reducing emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. The transportation sector alone accounts for about 40% of total emissions in the Portland metropolitan area. Here we show a new street-level model of on-road mobile CO2 emissions for the Portland, OR metropolitan region. The model uses hourly traffic counter recordings made by the Portland Bureau of Transportation at 9,352 sites over 21 years (1986-2006), augmented with freeway loop detector data from the Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing (PORTAL) transportation data archive. We constructed a land use regression model to fill in traffic network gaps with traffic counts as the dependent variable using GIS data such as road class (32 categories) and population density. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model was used to estimate transportation CO2 emissions. The street-level emissions can be aggregated and gridded and used as input to atmospheric transport models for comparison with atmospheric measurements. This model also provides an independent assessment of top-down inventories that determine emissions from fuel sales, while being an important component of our ongoing effort to assess the effectiveness of emission mitigation strategies at the urban scale.

  18. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Block Groups

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Portland, OR EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  19. Gravity Data for the Greater Portland Area

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1,522 records) were compiled by the Portland State University. This data base was received in August 1990. Principal gravity parameters...

  20. Southern California Educational Initiative Socioeconomics Workshop. Held in Santa Barbara, California on October 25-27, 1990

    The report presents an overview of the Socioeconomics Workshop together with the conclusions and recommendations of the workshop organizer. It is based on three days of panel presentations, workgroup sessions, and summary discussions among participants. The workshop was held in Santa Barbara from October 25-27, 1990 with around 100 participants drawn from government agencies, academic settings, private consulting firms, and environmental advocacy groups. The meetings were intended to review and critique existing socioeconomic work on the impacts of offshore oil development and look constructively toward the future in identifying needed research

  1. Surgical and Functional Results of Hybrid 25-27-Gauge Vitrectomy Combined with Coaxial 2.2 mm Small Incision Cataract Surgery

    Fabian Höhn; Florian Kretz; Mitrofanis Pavlidis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate outcomes after coaxial 2.2 mm small incision cataract surgery combined with hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with vitreoretinal disease and age-related cataract. Methods. A single-center, retrospective case series study of 55 subjects (55 eyes) with a mean age of 70 years who underwent combined small incision phacoemulsification, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy during the 12-month period to December 2014. Intraoperative and p...

  2. Synthesis of pure Portland cement phases

    Wesselsky, Andreas; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    Pure phases commonly found in Portland cement clinkers are often used to test cement hydration behaviour in simplified experimental conditions. The synthesis of these phases is covered in this paper, starting with a description of phase relations and possible polymorphs of the four main phases in...

  3. Extraction properties of 25,27-bis(carbonylmethoxy)calix[4]arenes towards Sr2+. Competitive extraction and extraction in a synthetic groundwater

    The Sr2+ extraction properties of some 25,27-bis(carbonylmethoxy)calix[4]arenes, in which ester (-CH2CO2Et), keto (-CH2COCH3) and acid functionalities (-CH2CO2H) have been attached to the lower rim, are reported. Strontium ion extraction experiments were performed in a chloroform/water system, and the extraction performance analyzed by radiotracing using the short-lived radio nuclide 85Sr. Effects of pH value, ligand to metal ratio, temperature, extraction time and strontium species on the extraction behavior were examined. It was observed that the 25,27-bis(carboxymethoxy)calix[4]arene derivatives are potent extracting agents towards the strontium ion, showing remarkable extraction performance in competition with a series of organic and inorganic impurities and in a synthetic groundwater. The crystal structure of 25,27-bis(acetonyloxy)calix[4]arene is also reported. (author)

  4. Oregon trails revisted

    Lewis, A. J.; Alexander, C. J.; Hall, M. J.; Isaacson, D. L.; Murray, R. J.; Schrumpf, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Oregon State University's Environmental Remote Sensing Applications Laboratory (ERSAL) has six full-time researchers with expertise in a variety of biological, Earth, atmospheric and computer sciences as well as image interpretation and statistical techniques. The primary emphasis of the ERSAL research and demonstration program is the development and application of remote sensing technology in operational resource management programs. LANDSAT multi-spectral, multi-date digital data and imagery are utilized in concert with high altitude NASA-acquired photography, low altitude ERSAL-acquired photography, and field observations and data to provide customized, inexpensive and useful final products. Synopses are given of 9 applications projects conducted in Oregon.

  5. MTA versus Portland cement: review of literature

    Naiana Viana Viola; Mário Tanomaru Filho; Paulo Sérgio Cerri

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Both Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement (PC) have been highlighted because of their favorable biological properties, with extensive applications in Endodontics, including the possibility of using into root canal filling. Objective: This article reviews literature related to MTA and PC comparing their physical, chemical and biological properties, as well as their indications. Literature review: Literature reports studies revealing the similarities between these ...

  6. New method for analysis of portland cements with secondary components

    Gomá, F.

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new method for the determination of the composition of Portland cement mixtures with active additions and the identification of the type of addition. This method enables us to classify a Portland cement or Portland with active additions, whatever this addition may be, and it is specially suitable for discriminating the type of slag when there are slags present.

    Se describe un nuevo método para determinar la composición de las mezclas de cemento Portland con adiciones activas e identificar el tipo de adición. Permite la clasificación de un cemento Portland o Portland con adiciones activas cualquiera que sea la adición y es especialmente indicado para discriminar el tipo de escoria cuando están presentes.

  7. 75 FR 20523 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    2010-04-20

    ..., Portland, OR'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 69047). We received one comment on the proposed rule. There... site. The RNAs will do so by prohibiting activities that could disturb or damage the engineered... viewing the docket, call Renee V. Wright, Program Manager, Docket Operations, telephone...

  8. MTA versus Portland cement: review of literature

    Naiana Viana Viola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Both Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA and Portland cement (PC have been highlighted because of their favorable biological properties, with extensive applications in Endodontics, including the possibility of using into root canal filling. Objective: This article reviews literature related to MTA and PC comparing their physical, chemical and biological properties, as well as their indications. Literature review: Literature reports studies revealing the similarities between these materials’ properties, including both biocompatibility and bone repair induction. Moreover, there is the need for the development of a root canal sealer based on these materials (MTA and PC. Conclusion: MTA and CP show promissory perspective both in Dentistry and Endodontics.

  9. Surgical and Functional Results of Hybrid 25-27-Gauge Vitrectomy Combined with Coaxial 2.2 mm Small Incision Cataract Surgery.

    Höhn, Fabian; Kretz, Florian; Pavlidis, Mitrofanis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate outcomes after coaxial 2.2 mm small incision cataract surgery combined with hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with vitreoretinal disease and age-related cataract. Methods. A single-center, retrospective case series study of 55 subjects (55 eyes) with a mean age of 70 years who underwent combined small incision phacoemulsification, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy during the 12-month period to December 2014. Intraoperative and postoperative complications and visual results were the main outcome measures. Results. The mean follow-up period was 6 months (range: 2-18 months). Intraoperative findings were 3 retinal breaks (5.5%). No cases required corneal or scleral suture or conversion to larger-gauge vitrectomy. Postoperative complications consisted of posterior capsule opacification (12.7%), elevated intraocular pressure >30 mmHg (1.8%), and fibrin reaction (5.5%). There were no cases of hypotony (25-27-gauge vitrectomy combined with small incision phacoemulsification and IOL implantation is feasible, safe, and effective as a one-step surgical procedure for the management of vitreoretinal pathologies and concurrent cataract. PMID:26966558

  10. Surgical and Functional Results of Hybrid 25-27-Gauge Vitrectomy Combined with Coaxial 2.2 mm Small Incision Cataract Surgery

    Fabian Höhn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate outcomes after coaxial 2.2 mm small incision cataract surgery combined with hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with vitreoretinal disease and age-related cataract. Methods. A single-center, retrospective case series study of 55 subjects (55 eyes with a mean age of 70 years who underwent combined small incision phacoemulsification, intraocular lens (IOL implantation, and hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy during the 12-month period to December 2014. Intraoperative and postoperative complications and visual results were the main outcome measures. Results. The mean follow-up period was 6 months (range: 2–18 months. Intraoperative findings were 3 retinal breaks (5.5%. No cases required corneal or scleral suture or conversion to larger-gauge vitrectomy. Postoperative complications consisted of posterior capsule opacification (12.7%, elevated intraocular pressure >30 mmHg (1.8%, and fibrin reaction (5.5%. There were no cases of hypotony (<7 mmHg, IOL decentration, or postoperative endophthalmitis. Visual acuity (mean ± SD improved from 0.52±0.6 logMAR preoperatively to 0.22±0.46 logMAR at final postoperative visit (P<0.0001. Conclusion. Surgical and visual outcomes suggest hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy combined with small incision phacoemulsification and IOL implantation is feasible, safe, and effective as a one-step surgical procedure for the management of vitreoretinal pathologies and concurrent cataract.

  11. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, were achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.

  12. Wastewater recycling and heat reclamation at the Red Lion Central Laundry, Portland, Oregon

    Garlick, T.F.; Halverson, M.A.; Ledbetter, M.R.

    1996-09-01

    This report discusses water, energy, and cost savings that can be achieved in a commercial laundry through the use of a wastewater recycling and heat recovery system. Cost savings are achieved through reductions in water use, reduction in sewage charges, reductions in water heating energy, and potential reductions in water treatment chemicals. This report provides an economic analysis of the impact of capital investment, daily consumption, and local utility rates on the payback period.

  13. Celebrating 24 years of Public Outreach of Science and Engineering in Portland Oregon

    Bristol, Terry

    2012-02-01

    There have been several core strategies in our highly successful 24-year Science, Technology and Society outreach program. However, the strategy for each season is also dynamic, requiring innovation and novel coalitions. As Bob Dylan put it so succinctly, ``He not busy being born is busy dying.'' Public outreach programs - as the Chautauquas of the past - should be positioned in the cultural milieu along with the opera, symphony and theatre. Support for the enterprise needs to be a broad and diverse coalition, based ideally on the creative formation of win-win relationship. You want people to see your success as their success: ``Together we can enhance the intellectual environment in ways that none of us could do alone.'' Being multi-disciplinary presents challenges but has considerable advantages. For instance, enlightened managers of established organizations recognize the value of exposing their employees to a diversity of problem solving approaches. Instead of inviting speakers for one large lecture we now invite them to be Resident Scholars for two-three days and develop a range of additional smaller public engagements. Science and engineering topics must be relevant - placed in the broader Science, Technology and Society framework. We avoid ``gee-whiz'' in favor of what stimulates reflection on who we are, where we came from, and our role in the universe. I will briefly review how we have survived and thrived and, finally, what I see as future trends and opportunities.

  14. 2012 NOAA NIR Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Oregon: Ports of Longview, Kalama, Vancouver, and Portland

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  15. The Road Less Traveled: Land Use and Non-Work Travel Relationships in Portland, Oregon

    Greenwald, Michael Joseph

    2001-01-01

    New Urbanism seeks to exploit a relationship between urban form and travel behavior in order to develop communities which are simultaneously more egalitarian, more pleasant, and less costly to society as a whole. The focus of New Urbanist design practices is to create environments (both urban and suburban) which promote walking and transit over private automobile use as a mode of travel. Specifically, New Urbanists contend higher residential density, closer residential proximity to employment...

  16. Lithofacies and petrophysical properties of Portland Base Bed and Portland Whit Bed limestone as related to durability

    Dubelaar, C.W.; Engering, S.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Koch, R.; Lorenz, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the differences in lithofacies and petrophysical properties of Base Bed and Whit Bed Portland limestone and the presumed relationships between these characteristics and the durability of this building stone. As Portland limestone probably will be used as a stone for several res

  17. Lithofacies and Petrophysical Properties of Portland Base Bed and Portland Whit Bed Limestone as Related to Durability

    Dubelaar, C.W.; Engering, S.; Van Hees, R.P.J.; Koch, R.; Lorenz, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the differences in lithofacies and petrophysical properties of Base Bed and Whit Bed Portland limestone and the presumed relationships between these characteristics and the durability of this building stone. As Portland limestone probably will be used as a stone for several res

  18. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    2010-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  19. Lyme Disease in Oregon

    Doggett, J. Stone; Kohlhepp, Sue; Gresbrink, Robert; Metz, Paul; Gleaves, Curt; Gilbert, David

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of Lyme disease in Oregon is calculated from cases reported to the Oregon State Health Division. We reviewed the exposure history of reported cases of Lyme disease and performed field surveys for infected Ixodes pacificus ticks. The incidence of Lyme disease correlated with the distribution of infected I. pacificus ticks.

  20. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  1. 2007 Oregon Department of Forestry (ODF) Northwest Oregon Lidar

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar dataset encompasses two areas in northwest Oregon. The northern area is located in Clatsop County, encompassing Clatsop State Forest ownership; the...

  2. Portland, Maine Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Portland, Maine Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  3. Preterm delivery among people living around Portland cement plants.

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chang, Chih-Ching; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Ho, Chi-Kung; Wu, Trong-Neng; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2003-05-01

    The Portland cement industry is the main source of particulate air pollution in Kaohsiung city. Data in this study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in close proximity to Portland cement plants. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants was significantly higher in mothers living within 0-2 km of a Portland cement plant than in mothers living within 2-4 km. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant sex), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.30 (95% CI=1.09-1.54) for the delivery of preterm infants for mothers living close to the Portland cement plants, chosen at the start to be from 0 to 2 km. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:12706757

  4. Preterm delivery among people living around Portland cement plants

    The Portland cement industry is the main source of particulate air pollution in Kaohsiung city. Data in this study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in close proximity to Portland cement plants. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants as significantly higher in mothers living within 0-2 km of a Portland cement plant than in mothers living within 2-4 km. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant sex), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.30 (95% I=1.09-1.54) for the delivery of preterm infants for mothers living close to he Portland cement plants, chosen at the start to be from 0 to 2 km. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect he outcome of pregnancy

  5. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Ecosystem Services by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset presents environmental benefits of the urban forest in 146 block groups in Portland, Maine. Carbon attributes, temperature reduction,...

  6. 77 FR 26437 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Willamette River, Portland, OR

    2012-05-04

    ... of Portland's Rock-n-Roll Half Marathon. This deviation allows the bridge to remain in the closed... facilitate safe, uninterrupted roadway passage of participants of the Rock-n-Roll Half Marathon event....

  7. 78 FR 21064 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Willamette River, Portland, OR

    2013-04-09

    ... Portland's Rock-n-Roll Half Marathon. This deviation allows the bridge to remain in the closed position to... roadway passage of participants of the Rock-n-Roll Half Marathon event. The Hawthorne Bridge crosses...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Atlas Area Boundary

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Portland, OR Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  9. Surgical and Functional Results of Hybrid 25-27-Gauge Vitrectomy Combined with Coaxial 2.2 mm Small Incision Cataract Surgery

    Höhn, Fabian; Kretz, Florian; Pavlidis, Mitrofanis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate outcomes after coaxial 2.2 mm small incision cataract surgery combined with hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with vitreoretinal disease and age-related cataract. Methods. A single-center, retrospective case series study of 55 subjects (55 eyes) with a mean age of 70 years who underwent combined small incision phacoemulsification, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy during the 12-month period to December 2014. Intraoperative and postoperative complications and visual results were the main outcome measures. Results. The mean follow-up period was 6 months (range: 2–18 months). Intraoperative findings were 3 retinal breaks (5.5%). No cases required corneal or scleral suture or conversion to larger-gauge vitrectomy. Postoperative complications consisted of posterior capsule opacification (12.7%), elevated intraocular pressure >30 mmHg (1.8%), and fibrin reaction (5.5%). There were no cases of hypotony (phacoemulsification and IOL implantation is feasible, safe, and effective as a one-step surgical procedure for the management of vitreoretinal pathologies and concurrent cataract. PMID:26966558

  10. Development of Conductometric Sensor Based on 25,27-Di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 for Determination of Ammonium.

    Saiapina, O Y; Kharchenko, S G; Vishnevskii, S G; Pyeshkova, V M; Kalchenko, V I; Dzyadevych, S V

    2016-12-01

    The conductometric sensor based on 25,27-di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 was developed for the quantitative analysis of ammonium. The calixarene was immobilized on the surface of the planar interdigitated electrodes by attachment of its dialkyl sulfide groups to the surface of the gold electrodes. The intrinsic ability of the calixarene to capture ammonium was studied in the conductometric measuring mode and by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The developed sensor showed high selectivity to ammonium in the presence of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Selective and highly sensitive detection of ammonium resulted from the complexation between the ammonium ions and a crown-ether fragment of the upper rim of the 25,27-di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 macrocycle. The developed sensor had high signal repeatability. Its sensitivity was found to be satisfactory for the forthcoming sensor application in the water-sample analysis; the linear range was 0.01-1.5 mM and limit of detection 10 μM. PMID:26911569

  11. Sprague River Oregon Water 2000

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  12. Sprague River Oregon Vegetation 1968

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  13. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 1968

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  14. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1968

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  15. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1940

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  16. Sprague River Oregon Water 1940

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  17. Umpqua River Oregon Geologic Floodplain

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  18. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2000

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  19. Sprague River Oregon Bars 2000

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  20. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1940

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  1. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain Centerline

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  2. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1968

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  3. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain Boundary

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  4. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 2000

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  5. Alkali segregation in Portland cement pastes

    Triviño, F.

    1966-09-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEn el presente trabajo se pone de manifiesto experimentalmente la formación y presencia de aphthitalita -sulfato doble de potasio y sodio en la relación S04K2/S04Na2 = 3/1 en las pastas puras de cemento portland, desde el comienzo del fraguado de las mismas. Se estudia el mecanismo de la citada formación, íntimamente relacionada con el proceso general de formación de eflorescencias salinas, a base de una emigración de sulfatos alcalinos hacia las partes externas de las pastas, en virtud de fenómenos de exudación equivalentes a arrastres capilares. Se sintetiza y aísla la aphthitalita por dos procedimientos y se obtiene su difractograma.de rayos· X, a efectos de su identificación y de la confirmación de los resultados experimentales obtenidos, así como de la interpretación de los mismos.

  6. Paleomagnetism, strike-slip fault systems and crustal rotation in the region 25-27°S of Northern Chile

    Taylor, G.; Randall, D.; Grocott, J.

    1996-01-01

    Les résultats paléomagnétiques entre 25-27°S dans le nord Chili montrent des rotations horaires qui diminuent de l'ouest vers l'est. La région est disséquée par 3 systèmes de failles orientés N-S, le système d'Atacama, le cisaillement de la vallée centrale et le système de La Ternera-Domeyko. Nous pensons que la transpression sur ces systèmes de failles est principalement responsable des rotations observées. (Résumé d'auteur)

  7. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  8. Teenage Suicide in Oregon 1983-1985.

    Oregon State Dept. of Human Resources, Portland.

    During the 3-year period from 1983 through 1985, 80 Oregon teenagers intentionally took their own lives, making suicide second only to accidents as the leading cause of death among Oregon teenagers. Data on suicides committed by individuals between the ages of 10 and 19 were retrieved from death certificates on file with the Oregon Health Division…

  9. Apatite formation on calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer.

    Pangdaeng, S; Sata, V; Aguiar, J B; Pacheco-Torgal, F; Chindaprasirt, P

    2015-06-01

    In this study, calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer was investigated for use as biomaterial. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activators. In vitro test was performed with simulated body fluid (SBF) for bioactivity characterization. The formation of hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked samples surface was tested using SEM, EDS and XRD analyses. The results showed that the morphology of hydroxyapatite was affected by the source material composition, alkali concentration and curing temperature. The calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer with relatively high compressive strength could be fabricated for use as biomaterial. The mix with 50% white Portland cement and 50% calcined kaolin had 28-day compressive strength of 59.0MPa and the hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked sample surface was clearly evident. PMID:25842101

  10. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2012)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Portland, OR land cover dataset includes data for the Portland metropolitan area plus the city of Vancouver, Washington and various smaller towns and rural...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover (2012) Web Service

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Portland, OR land cover web service includes data for the Portland metropolitan area plus the city of Vancouver, Washington and various smaller towns and rural...

  12. Education's Role in Land Use Planning. National Conference of the Conservation Education Association (23rd, University of Portland, Portland, Oregon, August 15-19, 1976).

    1976

    Presented is an outline of the program and abstracts of most presented papers for the 23rd National Conference of the Conservation Education Association held in August, 1976. The theme of the conference was Education's Role in Land Use Planning. Papers presented include a variety of topics related to land use, conservation education, natural…

  13. Laboratory Investigation on the Strength Gaining of Brick Aggregate Concrete Using Ordinary Portland Cement and Portland Composite Cement

    Hoque M H, Numen E H, Islam N., Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the laboratory investigation of strength variation of brick aggregate concrete made with ordinary Portland cement (OPC and Portland composite cement (PCC.The investigation was conducted by testing concrete cylinder specimens at different ages of concrete with concrete mix ratios: 1:1.5:3 and 1:2:4 by volume and with water cement ratios=0.45 and 0.60. The test result reveals that at the early age, concrete composed with OPC attained larger compressive strength than the concrete made of PCC. However, in the later age concrete made with PCC achieved higher strength than OPC.

  14. Ion selective electrode for cesium based on 5-(4'-nitrophenylazo)25,27-bis(2-propyloxy)26,28-dihydroxycalix[4]arene

    Ramanjaneyulu, P.S. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400085 (India); Singh, Parminder [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Sayi, Y.S. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400085 (India); Chawla, H.M. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Ramakumar, K.L., E-mail: klram@barc.gov.in [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400085 (India)

    2010-03-15

    A polyvinylchloride (PVC) based liquid membrane ion selective electrode (ISE) for cesium was fabricated with 5-(4'-nitrophenylazo)25,27-bis(2-propyloxy)26,28-dihydroxycalix[4]arene as ionophore. Different membrane constituents were investigated to realise optimum performance of the ISE developed. Of the four plasticizers and two ion additives studied, the best response was observed with membrane having 2-nitro phenyl octyl ether (oNPOE) as plasticizer and potassium tetrakis (perchloro phenyl) borate (KTpClPB) as ion additive. Linear response over concentration range of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -1} M CsCl was obtained. The Nernstian slope of the response was 56 mV per decade for Cs with a response time less than 20 s. Matched potential method has been applied to find out the selectivity for Cs over several ions like Rb{sup +}, K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Ce{sup 3+}. The response of ISE for Cs{sup +} was fairly constant over the pH range of 3-11. The lifetime of the electrode is 9 months which is the longest life for any membrane-based Cs-ISE so far developed. The concentration of cesium in two simulated high level active waste streams was determined and results agreed well with those obtained independently employing atomic absorption spectrometry.

  15. Land Cover Classification for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban...

  16. Stream Centerline for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban...

  17. Water sample locations for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban...

  18. Solid sample locations for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban...

  19. Active Channel for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban...

  20. Portland cement conditioning of the oil radioactive wastes

    Cementation is a widely used method to immobilize radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. The oily radioactive wastes resulting during the normal service of Nuclear Power Plant at Cernavoda, Romania, can be conditioned in Portland cement as emulsions. In this way the interaction with cement water is not blocked. For this purpose, four compositions for conditioning were studied, namely: i) cement-emulsion; ii) cement-emulsion-sodium silicate; iii) cement-emulsion-sodium silicate-lime; iv) cement-emulsion-sand. The apparent density of hardened binding mixtures, setting time, compressive strength of hardened samples, leaching rate of tritium were determined. The results have shown that the oily wastes can be conditioned in a good manner when using Portland cement, emulsion conditioners, sodium silicate and lime. (authors)

  1. City of Portland: Businesses for an environmentally sustainable tomorrow

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The sustainable business development program in Portland (OR) is known as BEST. BEST stands for Businesses for an Environmentally Sustainable Tomorrow. The Portland Energy Office operates BEST as a {open_quotes}one-stop service center{close_quotes} for business owners and managers. BEST provides information and assistance on resource efficient buildings and business practices. The results of BEST`s two years of operation have been generally impressive. Nearly 150 new or expanding businesses have been connected with utility design assistance programs. Businesses have also received assistance with water conservation, telecommuting, construction debris recycling, and alternative fuel vehicles. BEST has received local and national publicity and BEST services have been the topic at more than a dozen conferences, meetings, or other speaking engagements. A guidebook for communities wishing to start a similar program will be available in early 1996.

  2. Use of red mud as addition for portland cement mortars

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the possibility of adding red mud, an alkaline leaching waste that is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production, in the raw meal of Portland cement mortars. The red mud is classified as dangerous, according to NBR 10004/2004, and world while generation reached over 117 million tons/year. This huge production requires high consuming products to be used as incorporation matrix and we studied the influence of red mud addition on the characteristics of cement mortars and concrete. In this paper the properties of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of red mud was evaluated: pH variation, fresh (setting time, workability or normal consistency and water retention), and hardened state (mechanical strength, capillary water absorption, density and apparent porosity). Results seem promising for red mud additions up to 20 wt%. (author)

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF ORTHOPHOSPHATES ON THE PROPERTIES OF PORTLAND CEMENT

    Antanas Kaziliunas

    2014-01-01

    The article continues the research of input reduction of phosphogypsum preparation for the production of building materials. Desiccated apatite (2.18 % P2O5 in gypsum) makes the least changes in the properties of Portland cement: it prolongs the cement setting times and reduces the compressive strength about 10 %. The apatite formation in the pastes of soluble orthophosphate-cement occurs during the formation of X-ray amorphous colloidal calcium orthophosphate hydrate, which prolo...

  4. Apatite formation on calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer

    Pangdaeng, S.; Sata, V.; Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Chindaprasirt, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, calcined kaolin–white Portland cement geopolymerwas investigated for use as biomaterial. Sodiumhydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activators. In vitro test was performed with simulated body fluid (SBF) for bioactivity characterization. The formation of hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked samples surface was tested using SEM, EDS and XRD analyses. The results showed that the morphology of hydroxyapatite was affected by the source material composition, alkali co...

  5. Injectable citrate-modified Portland cement for use in vertebroplasty

    Wynn-Jones, Gareth; Shelton, Richard M.; Hofmann, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with several citrate additives was investigated for use in clinical applications such as vertebroplasty (stabilization of a fractured vertebra with bone cement) using a syringe. A 2-wt % addition of sodium or potassium citrate with PC significantly improved cement injectability, decreased cement setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min, while increasing the compressive strength to a maximum of 125 MPa. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that the...

  6. Utilization of gold tailings as an additive in Portland cement.

    Celik, Ozlem; Elbeyli, Iffet Yakar; Piskin, Sabriye

    2006-06-01

    Mine tailings are formed as an industrial waste during coal and ore mining and processing. In the investigated process, following the extraction of gold from the ore, the remaining tailings are subjected to a two-stage chemical treatment in order to destroy the free cyanide and to stabilize and coagulate heavy metals prior to discharge into the tailings pond. The aim of this study was the investigation of the feasibility of utilization of the tailings as an additive material in Portland cement production. For this purpose, the effects of the tailings on the compressive strength properties of the ordinary Portland cement were investigated. Chemical and physical properties, mineralogical composition, particle size distribution and microstructure of the tailings were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), particle size analyzer (Mastersizer) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Following the characterization of the tailings, cement mortars were prepared by intergrinding Portland cement with dried tailings. Composition of the cement clinkers were adjusted to contain 5, 15, 25% (wt/wt) dried tailings and also silica fume and fly ash samples (C and F type) were added to clinker in different ratios. The mortars produced with different amounts of tailings, silica fume, fly ashes and also mixtures of them were tested for compressive strength values after 2, 7, 28 and 56 days according to the European Standard (EN 196-1). The results indicated that gold tailings up to 25% in clinker could be beneficially used as an additive in Portland cement production. It is suggested that the gold tailings used in the cement are blended with silica fume and C-type fly ash to obtain higher compressive strength values. PMID:16784164

  7. Oregon School Bond Manual. Sixth Edition.

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Office of School District Services.

    Given that purchasers of Oregon school bonds rely on recommendations of accredited bond attorneys, this document is designed to assist school districts in complying with state statutes regulating the issuance of school bond issues in order that attorney opinions may be favorable. Six initial steps toward a bond sale and Oregon laws regarding bonds…

  8. 77 FR 23791 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00042

    2012-04-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of OREGON dated 04/02/2012... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  9. Integrating urban form and demographics in water-demand management: an empirical case study of Portland, Oregon

    Vivek Shandas; G Hossein Parandvash

    2010-01-01

    Theories of water-resource management suggest that water demand is mediated by three interacting factors: technological innovations, pricing structures, and individual behaviors and demographics. While these factors provide useful insights for ongoing water conservation strategies, such as outreach and education campaigns, pricing schemes, and incentives aimed at residential developments, few studies examine the relationship between land-use planning and water demand. This paper reports the r...

  10. Behavior, passage, and downstream migration of juvenile Chinook salmon from Detroit Reservoir to Portland, Oregon, 2014–15

    Kock, Tobias J.; Beeman, John W.; Hansen, Amy C.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sholtis, Matthew D.; Sprando, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted to estimate dam passage survival of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at Detroit Dam during a period of spill. To estimate dam passage survival, we used a paired-release recapture study design and released groups of tagged fish upstream (997 fish) and downstream (625 fish) of Detroit Dam. A total of 43 fish (6.8 percent) passed Detroit Dam from the upstream release group and passage occurred through regulating outlets (54.8 percent), spill bays (31.0 percent), and turbines (14.3 percent). We do not present dam passage survival estimates from 2014 because these estimates would have been highly uncertain due to the low number of fish that passed Detroit Dam during the study. Secondary objectives were addressed using data collected from tagged fish that were released at the downstream release site.

  11. Reconstruction of radionuclide concentrations in the Columbia River from Hanford, Washington to Portland, Oregon, January 1950--January 1971

    Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories conducted this study of the Columbia River for the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received from operations that began at the Hanford Site in 1944. The purpose of the study was to reconstruct concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River water for estimating doses to humans from the river pathway

  12. GIS data for the Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Pilot Study to modernize FEMA flood hazard maps

    Wong, Florence L.; Venturato, Angie J.; Geist, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    A Tsunami Pilot Study was conducted for the area surrounding the coastal town of Seaside, Oregon, as part of the Federal Emergency Management's (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Map Modernization Program (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). The Cascadia subduction zone extends from Cape Mendocino, California, to Vancouver Island, Canada. The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities subject to tsunamis generated by far- and near-field (Cascadia) earthquakes. Two goals of the pilot study were to develop probabilistic 100-year and 500-year tsunami inundation maps using Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) and to provide recommendations for improving tsunami hazard assessment guidelines for FEMA and state and local agencies. The study was an interagency effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, and FEMA, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University, Portland State University, Horning Geoscience, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. The pilot study model data and results are published separately as a geographic information systems (GIS) data report (Wong and others, 2006). The flood maps and GIS data are briefly described here.

  13. Low porosity portland cement pastes based on furan polymers

    The effect of three different types of Furan polymers on the porosity, mechanical properties, mechanism of hydration and microstructure of Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes was investigated. The results showed that mixing the OPC with Furan polymers, the standard water of consistency of the different cement pastes decreases and therefore the setting times (initial and final) are shortened. The total porosity of the hardened cement pastes decreased, while the mechanical properties improved and enhanced at all curing ages of hydration compared with those of the pure OPC pastes. The hydration process with Furan polymers proceeded according to the following decreasing order: F.ac. > F.ph. > F.alc. > OPC

  14. Synthesis report: D-cracking in portland cement concrete pavements

    Thompson, S. R.; Olsen, M. P. J.; Dempsey, B. J.

    1980-06-01

    The mechanisms and testing procedures for D-cracking in portland cement concrete pavements are examined. Benefication procedures are also investigated. The three general responses to freezing in the aggregate/paste system include elastic accommodation, high internal pressure, and high external pressure. It is found that the critical aggregate parameters influencing D-cracking are degree of saturation, maximum particle size, permeability, porosity, and pore size distribution. Evaluation of present laboratory testing procedures indicated that the ASTM C666, VPI slow-cool, Mercury Porosimetry, and Iowa Pore Index Tests correlated the best with field performance of concrete with respect to D-cracking.

  15. Symptoms, ventilatory function, and environmental exposures in Portland cement workers.

    Abrons, H L; Petersen, M R; Sanderson, W T; Engelberg, A L; Harber, P

    1988-01-01

    Data on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function were obtained for 2736 Portland cement plant workers and 755 controls. Personal dust samples contained a geometric mean concentration of 0.57 mg/m3 for respirable dust and 2.90 mg/m3 for total dust. Cement workers and controls had similar prevalences of symptoms, except that 5.4% of the cement workers had dyspnoea compared with 2.7% of the controls. The mean pulmonary function indices were similar for the two groups. Among cement plant worke...

  16. 75 FR 54969 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    2010-09-09

    ..., 1998; see also 63 FR at 14193 (March 24, 1998) (area source cement kilns' emissions of mercury, dibenzo... NESHAP on May 6, 2009. See 74 FR 21136. We received a total of 3,229 comments from the Portland cement... v. EPA Litigation On June 14, 1999 (64 FR 31898), EPA issued the NESHAP for the Portland...

  17. Differentiating seawater and groundwater sulfate attack in Portland cement mortars

    The study reported in this article deals with understanding the physical, chemical and microstructural differences in sulfate attack from seawater and groundwater. Portland cement mortars were completely immersed in solutions of seawater and groundwater. Physical properties such as length, mass, and compressive strength were monitored periodically. Thermal analysis was used to study the relative amounts of phases such as ettringite, gypsum, and calcium hydroxide, and microstructural studies were conducted by scanning electron microscopy. Portland cement mortars performed better in seawater solution compared to groundwater solution. The difference in performance could be attributed to the reduction in the quantity of the expansive attack products (gypsum and ettringite). The high Cl concentration of seawater could have played an important role by binding the C3A to form chloroaluminate compounds, such as Friedel's salt (detected in the microstructural studies), and also by lowering the expansive potential of ettringite. Furthermore, the thicker layer of brucite forming on the specimens in seawater could have afforded better protection against ingress of the solution than in groundwater

  18. Bald eagle management guidelines, Oregon-Washington

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers bald eagle management guidelines in Oregon and Washington. The purpose of these guidelines is to maintain the environmental conditions that are...

  19. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan circa 1870

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  20. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 2005

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  1. Sprague River Oregon Built Features 1940

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  2. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1940

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  3. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan 1975

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  4. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 2000

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  5. Oregon High Desert Discovery : An Overview

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a plan to link five BLM and FWS areas in southeast Oregon in order to provide better services for visitors. In order to most effectively and efficiently...

  6. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 2005

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  7. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 1968

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  8. Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor annual report

    Anderson, T.V.; Johnson, A.G.; Bennett, S.L.; Ringle, J.C.

    1979-08-31

    The use of the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor during the year ending June 30, 1979, is summarized. Environmental and radiation protection data related to reactor operation and effluents are included.

  9. Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor annual report

    The use of the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor during the year ending June 30, 1979, is summarized. Environmental and radiation protection data related to reactor operation and effluents are included

  10. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 2009

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  11. Northern Oregon 6 arc-second DEM

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second North Coast Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  12. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan 1940

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  13. Sprague River Oregon Water circa 1870

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  14. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 2000

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  15. Floodplain Mapping Submission for Oregon County, MO

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for Oregon County, MO. The City of Thayer and the Missouri State Emergency Management...

  16. Headwater Stream Barriers in Western Oregon

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — This data set is an ArcInfo point coverage depicting barriers to fish migration in headwater basins in western Oregon. Data were compiled from reports by fisheries...

  17. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 1994

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  18. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  19. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 1967

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  20. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 2000

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  1. Physical evaluation of a new pulp capping material developed from portland cement

    Negm, Ahmed; Hassanien, Ehab; Abu-Seida, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background This study examined the effects of addition of 10% and 25% by weight calcium hydroxide on the physicochemical properties of Portland cement associated with 20% bismuth oxide in order to develop a new pulp capping material. Material and Methods The solubility, pH value, setting time, compressive strength, and push out bond strength of modified Portland were evaluated and compared to those of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement containing 20% bismuth oxide. Results The statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and Duncan’s post-hoc test. The results show that the strength properties and push out bond strength of Portland cement were adversely affected by addition of calcium hydroxide especially with a ratio of 25 wt%, however, the setting time and pH were not affected. MTA showed a statistically significant lower setting time than other cements (P≤0.001). Portland cement with bismuth oxide and Port Cal I showed a statistically significant higher Push out Bond strength than MTA and Port Cal II (P=0.001). Conclusions Taking the setting time, push out bond strength and pH value into account, addition of 10 wt% calcium hydroxide to Portland cement associated with 20% bismuth oxide produces a new pulp capping material with acceptable physical and adhesive properties. Further studies are recommended to test this cement biologically as a new pulp capping material. Key words:Calcium hydroxide, MTA, Portland cement, setting time, solubility, strength. PMID:27398178

  2. Influence of Cellulose Ethers on Hydration Products of Portland Cement

    MA Baoguo; OU Zhihua; JIAN Shouwei; XU Rulin

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose ethers are widely used to mortar formulations, and it is significant to understand the interaction between cellulose ethers and cement pastes. FT-IR spectra, thermal analysis and SEM are used to investigate hydration products in the cement pastes modified by HEMC and HPMC in this article. The results show that the hydration products in modified cement pastes were finally identical with those in the unmodified cement paste, but the major hydration products, such as CH (calcium hydroxide), ettringite and C-S-H, appeared later in the modified cement pastes than in the unmodified cement paste. The cellulose ethers decrease the outer products and increase inner products of C-S-H gels. Compared to unmodified cement pastes, no new products are found in the modified cement pastes in the present experiment. The HEMC and HPMC investigation shows almost the same influence on the hydration products of Portland cement.

  3. Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates

    Le Saout, Gwenn, E-mail: gwenn.le-saout@mines-ales.fr [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hori, Akihiro [DENKA Chemicals GmbH, Wehrhahn-Center, Cantadorstr. 3, D-40211 Duesseldorf (Germany); Higuchi, Takayuki [Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (DENKA), Omi, Itoigawa, Niigata, 949-0393 (Japan); Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C-S-H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA-OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

  4. Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates

    The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C–S–H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA–OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

  5. Early hydration of portland cement with crystalline mineral additions

    This research presents the effects of finely divided crystalline mineral additions (quartz and limestone), commonly known as filler, on the early hydration of portland cements with very different mineralogical composition. The used techniques to study the early hydration of blended cements were conduction calorimeter, hydraulicity (Fratini's test), non-evaporable water and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that the stimulation and the dilution effects increase when the percentage of crystalline mineral additions used is increased. Depending on the replacement proportion, the mineralogical cement composition and the type of crystalline addition, at 2 days, the prevalence of the dilution effect or the stimulation effect shows that crystalline mineral additions could act as sites of heat dissipation or heat stimulation, respectively

  6. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Mammal Observations-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the Oregon OCS Data Release presents marine mammal observations from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) field activity 2014-607-FA in the Oregon Outer...

  8. Channel centerline for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2005

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  9. Channel centerline for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2009

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  10. 77 FR 16047 - Oregon; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    2012-03-19

    ... State of Oregon have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Benton, Columbia... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oregon; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oregon (FEMA-4055-DR), dated March 2, 2012, and...

  11. EnviroAtlas -Portland, ME- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover (2010)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Portland, ME land cover map was generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green, blue and near infrared)...

  12. EnviroAtlas -Portland, ME- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover (2010) Web Service

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Portland, ME land cover...

  13. Sulfatos en el cemento portland y su incidencia sobre el falso fraguado: Estado actual del conocimiento

    de la Cruz, Ignacio

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available A bibliographical study is carried out of the sulphates which may be present in the clinker and Portland cement, as likewise the effects of the aeration and temperature on the setting. This work is a prior phase of a wide experimental investigation carried out in the IETCC, on anomalies or setting and phenomena of "lumping" in Portland cement.

    Se realiza un estudio bibliográfico de los sulfatos que pueden estar presentes en el clínker y cemento portland, así como de los efectos de la aireación y temperatura sobre el fraguado. Este trabajo es la fase previa de una amplia investigación experimental realizada en el IETCC, sobre anomalías de fraguado y fenómenos de "aterronamiento" en el cemento portland.

  14. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - BenMAP Results by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset demonstrates the effect of changes in pollution concentration on local populations in 146 block groups in Portland, Maine. The US EPA's...

  15. Utilization of Iron Ore Tailings as Raw Material for Portland Cement Clinker Production

    Li Luo; Yimin Zhang; Shenxu Bao; Tiejun Chen

    2016-01-01

    The cement industry has for some time been seeking alternative raw material for the Portland cement clinker production. The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility of utilizing iron ore tailings (IOT) to replace clay as alumina-silicate raw material for the production of Portland cement clinker. For this purpose, two kinds of clinkers were prepared: one was prepared by IOT; the other was prepared by clay as a reference. The reactivity and burnability of raw meal, mineralogical...

  16. HYDRATING CHARACTERISTICS OF MODIFIED PORTLAND WITH Ba-BEARING SULPHOALUMINATE MINERALS

    Chenchen Gong; Jibao Xin; Shoude Wang; Lingchao Lu

    2016-01-01

    The hydrating characteristics of modified Portland cement with Ba-bearing sulphoaluminate minerals were studied in this paper. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS), mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP) and compressive strength were determined to characterize hydrating products and microstructure. Results show that basic physical properties of modified Portland cement with Ba-bearing sulphoaluminate minerals (SMPC) are similar with PC except the shorter setting ...

  17. The comparison between sulfate salt weathering of portland cement paste and calcium sulfoaluminate cement paste

    Liu, Zanqun; Deng, Dehua; De Schutter, Geert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the damage performances of sulfate salt weathering of Portland cement paste and calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement paste were compared according to authors' previous studies. It was found that the evaporation zone of speciments partially immersed in 10% Na2SO4 solution were both severely deteriorated for Portland cement and CSA cement. However, the differences were more significant: (1) the CSA cement paste were damaged just after 7 days exposure compared to the 5 months expos...

  18. How Do Social Service Providers View Recent Immigrants? Perspectives from Portland, Maine, and Olympia, Washington

    CLEVENGER, CASEY; DERR, AMELIA SERAPHIA; Cadge, Wendy; CURRAN, SARA

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how social service providers in two small, geographically distinct cities—Portland, Maine, and Olympia, Washington—understand the importance of welcoming and incorporating new immigrants in their cities. We focus on how providers characterize their responsibilities, how they understand the importance of responding to new immigrants, and what they describe as the challenges and opportunities presented by recent immigration to their cities. Despite differences in Portland ...

  19. Superplasticized Portland cement: Production and compressive strength of mortars and concrete

    Bouzoubaa, N.; Zhang, M.H.; Malhotra, V.M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    This paper deals with the effect of intergrinding different percentages of a naphthalene-based superplasticizer with Portland cement clinker and gypsum on the fineness of the product, and on the water requirement and the compressive strength of the mortars made with the superplasticized cement. The properties of the fresh and hardened concrete made with the superplasticized cements were also investigated. The results showed that the intergrinding of a given amount of a naphthalene-based superplasticizer with Portland clinker and gypsum reduced the grinding time required for obtaining the same Blaine fineness as that of the control Portland cement without the superplasticizer. The water requirement of the mortars made with the superplasticized cements was similar to that of the mortars made with the control Portland cements when the same amount of the superplasticizer was added at the mortar mixer; for a given grinding time and a Blaine fineness of {approximately}4500 cm{sup 2}/g, the mortars made with the superplasticized cement had higher compressive strength than those made with the control Portland cement. For a given grinding time or Blaine fineness of cement {ge}5000 cm{sup 2}/g, the slump loss, air content stability, bleeding, autogenous temperature rise, setting times, and compressive strength of the concrete made with the superplasticized cements were generally comparable to those of the concrete made with the control Portland cements when the superplasticizer was added at the concrete mixer.

  20. Annotated bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon

    This bibliography containing approximately 2000 entries was prepared by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries under Subcontract SA-913 with Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. The objective of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program is to determine the feasibility of storing nuclear waste within the Columbia River Basalt Group. Under the geologic portion of this program, the stratigraphic, structural, tectonic, seismic, and hydrologic aspects of the Columbia Plateau are being examined. Other aspects of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program are concerned with systems integration, engineered barriers, engineering testing, and construction of a near-surface test facility. The area covered in this bibliography comprises that area north of 43030' latitude and east of the Willamette Meridian, which is located just west of Portland. The bibliographic entries are presented in two forms. The first is an alphabetized listing of all articles dealing with the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon. The second form consists of an alphabetized listing of the entries subdivided under fourteen categories

  1. Annotated bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon

    Bela, J.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography containing approximately 2000 entries was prepared by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries under Subcontract SA-913 with Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. The objective of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program is to determine the feasibility of storing nuclear waste within the Columbia River Basalt Group. Under the geologic portion of this program, the stratigraphic, structural, tectonic, seismic, and hydrologic aspects of the Columbia Plateau are being examined. Other aspects of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program are concerned with systems integration, engineered barriers, engineering testing, and construction of a near-surface test facility. The area covered in this bibliography comprises that area north of 43/sup 0/30' latitude and east of the Willamette Meridian, which is located just west of Portland. The bibliographic entries are presented in two forms. The first is an alphabetized listing of all articles dealing with the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon. The second form consists of an alphabetized listing of the entries subdivided under fourteen categories. (RWR)

  2. 2009 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: North Coast

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  3. 2009 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: North Coast

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology & Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  4. Monitoring Oregon Silverspot Butterfly Habitat Restoration Methods: Willapa Bay National Wildlife Refuge and Oregon Coast NWRs

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Oregon Silverspot Butterfly is thought to be extirpated from the northern portion oftheir historic range. Currently the entire population is only known to...

  5. 2008 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Lidar: Lake Billy Chinook, Oregon

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology & Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  6. 2009 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: Willamette Valley

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology & Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  7. Coyote Springs Cogeneration Project, Morrow County, Oregon: Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    BPA is considering whether to transfer (wheel) electrical power from a proposed privately-owned, combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Oregon. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate up to 440 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Portland General Electric Company (PGE). The project would be built in eastern Oregon, just east of the City of Boardman in Morrow County. The proposed plant would be built on a site within the Port of Morrow Industrial Park. The proposed use for the site is consistent with the County land use plan. Building the transmission line needed to interconnect the power plant to BPA`s transmission system would require a variance from Morrow County. BPA would transfer power from the plant to its McNary-Slatt 500-kV transmission line. PGE would pay BPA for wheeling services. Key environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and evaluated in the draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) include these potential impacts: (1) air quality impacts, such as emissions and their contributions to the {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} effect; (2) health and safety impacts, such as effects of electric and magnetic fields, (3) noise impacts, (4) farmland impacts, (5) water vapor impacts to transportation, (6) economic development and employment impacts, (7) visual impacts, (8) consistency with local comprehensive plans, and (9) water quality and supply impacts, such as the amount of wastewater discharged, and the source and amount of water required to operate the plant. These and other issues are discussed in the DEIS. The proposed project includes features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on studies completed for the DEIS, adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is controversial.

  8. Arsenic content in Portland cement: A literature review

    Tenorio de Franca Talita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Portland cement (PC is a hydraulic binding material widely used in the building industry. The main interest in its use in dentistry is focused on a possible alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA because PC is less expensive and is widely available. In dentistry, PC has been used in dental procedures such as pulpotomy, pulp capping, repair of root perforation and root-end filling. The purpose of this article is review the dental literature about the PC, its composition with special attention to arsenic content, properties, and application in dentistry. A bibliographic research was performed in Bireme, PubMed, LILACS and Scopus data bases looking for national and international studies about the PC composition, properties and clinical use. It was observed that PC has favorable biological properties very similar to those of MTA. The PC has shown good cell proliferation induction with formation of a monolayer cell, satisfactory inflammatory response, inhibitory effect of prostaglandin and antimicrobial effect. Studies have shown that PC is not cytotoxic, stimulates the apposition of reparative dentin and permits cellular attachment and growth. Regarding arsenic presence, its levels and release are low. PC has physical, chemical and biological properties similar to MTA. Arsenic levels and release are low, therefore, unable to cause toxic effects.

  9. Hydrolitical equilibrium of hydrates of portland cement, part 1

    Based on the basic principles of thermodynamics the present report (Part 1) provides a contribution to thermodynamically favoured stable states of the most important hydrated compounds of portland cement. An extensive literature search was made to find the related thermodynamic data for the data-base. According to our calculations even at room temperature the C-S-H-Gel is not the thermodynamically most stable end product of hydrated calcium silicates. The most stable products might be Hillebrandit, Foshagit, 11A Tobermorit or Gyrolit. It is generally agreed, that the cubic hydrate C3AH6 is the stable end product of calcium aluminate hydrates. Our calculations lead to the same results. By sulfates we have found, that at lower temperatures Ettringit is the stable phase, but at higher temperatures the corresponding monosulfate is more stable. Ettringit is not stable relative to C3AH6 even in its water solutions. Ettringit is also not stable relative to Friedl's salt. More information could be found in Part 2 of this report (in preparation). 46 figs., 13 refs., 18 tabs. (Authors)

  10. Estimated longevity of performance of Portland cement grout seal materials

    The sealing of boreholes, fractures and underground workings of repositories is a common concern for all programs investigating the deep burial of nuclear waste as a disposal mechanism. Two grouting materials, bentonite and portland cement, have been identified by many programs as likely candidate seal materials. The longevity of performance of both of these materials is currently being investigated under the auspices of the Stripa Project. These investigations comprise coordinated laboratory, field and modeling studies to produce fundamental data, practical experience and estimates of long-range performance, respectively. Long-term performance is an especially sensitive issue for cement because the phases that comprise cement are metastable. Accordingly, it may be assumed that cement grout performance will degrade with time. For a simplified cement system, two mechanisms for chemical degradation have been considered: phase change and dissolution. When considering dissolution, both equilibrium (slow flow) and open (fast flow) systems have been analyzed to establish bounds. Granitic terrain groundwaters ranging from fresh to saline have been taken as solvents. To assess the consequences in terms of flow, an empirical relation between cement permeability and porosity has been developed. Predictions of performance changes with time have been produced by making conservative estimates of local hydraulic head conditions for various periods of repository history. For the crystalline rock environments considered, preliminary results indicate that cement grout performance may be acceptable for tens of thousands to millions of years providing its initial hydraulic conductivity is on the order of 10-12 m/s

  11. Injectable citrate-modified Portland cement for use in vertebroplasty.

    Wynn-Jones, Gareth; Shelton, Richard M; Hofmann, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with several citrate additives was investigated for use in clinical applications such as vertebroplasty (stabilization of a fractured vertebra with bone cement) using a syringe. A 2-wt % addition of sodium or potassium citrate with PC significantly improved cement injectability, decreased cement setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min, while increasing the compressive strength to a maximum of 125 MPa. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that the citrate anion was binding to one or more of the positively charged species causing charged repulsion between cement particles which dispersed aggregates and caused the liquefying effect of the anion. Analysis of the hydrating phases of PC indicated that the early strength producing PC phase (ettringite) developed within the first 2 h of setting following addition of the citrate anion, while this did not occur in the control cement (PC only). Within 24 h ettringite developed in PC as well as calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the major setting phase of PC, whereas cements containing citrate did not develop this phase. The evidence suggested that in the presence of citrate the cements limited water supply appeared to be utilized for ettringite formation, producing the early strength of the citrate cements. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to modify PC with citrate to both improve the injectability and crucially reduce the setting times of PC while improving the strength of the cement. PMID:24711245

  12. In situ hydration of Portland cement monitored by neutron diffraction

    Castellote, M.; Alonso, C.; Andrade, C.; Campo, J.; Turrillas, X.

    Ordinary Portland cement was mixed with deuterium oxide with a heavy water/cement ratio of 0.6 to monitor the in situ hydration, while acquiring diffraction patterns every 2.5min. Two different experiments were carried out under different heating conditions. In one case, the temperature was uniformly raised from room temperature to 98 °C at a heating rate of 20 °C/h. In the second case, the heating was performed from 32 °C to 100 °C at a slower rate: 12 °C/h. The disappearance and appearance of relevant anhydrous and hydrated phases were monitored and quantified by fitting isolated diffraction peaks to Gaussians. Ca3SiO5 dissolved completely during the experiment and Ca2SiO4 only partially disappeared. Ca(OD)2 precipitated and its growth rate exhibited a sigmoidal shape. Ettringite and hillebrandite formed but then dissolved before the end of the experiments. At the end only Ca(OD)2 and some Ca2SiO4 remained as crystalline phases.

  13. Stabilization of chromium salt in ordinary portland cement

    Damir Barbir; Pero Dabić; Petar Krolo

    2012-12-01

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) samples containing the chromium salt have been investigated using differential microcalorimetry, conductometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. The effect of chromium on OPC hydration was evaluated by continuous observing of early hydration. The microcalorimetrical results show that with increasing the share of chromium salt, heat maximums assume lower values and the occurrence of the maximum registered in the earlier hydration times. Conductometrical measurements show that with increasing addition of chromium salt, curve did not show any specific shape, immediate drop in specific conductivity is noticed and the maximum is reached earlier. This coincides with microcalorimetrical results. It can be concluded that the addition of chromium does not affect the mechanism of the hydration process, but it does affect the kinetic parameters and dynamics of the cement hydration process. It was found that chromium salt addition to the cement–water system is acceptable up to 2 wt.%. According to standard EN 196-3 for OPC, the beginning of binding time should occur after 60 minutes. Increased amount of chromium over 2 wt.% significantly accelerate the beginning of binding time and for the system it is not acceptable.

  14. Change Planning and Implementation at Oregon.

    Van Hassel, H. J.; Retzlaff, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The strategic plan developed for the future of Oregon Health Sciences University School of Dentistry has as a major thrust the addition of a fifth-year extramural preceptorship to the program. Reinvigoration of the minority recruitment program, initiation of an early entry admissions track, and curriculum revision are additional goals. (MLW)

  15. 77 FR 14853 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00041

    2012-03-13

    ... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Benton, Columbia, Coos, Curry, Douglas, Hood River... ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  16. Agriculture Cluster Brief. Vocational Education in Oregon.

    Galbraith, Gordon

    This guide sets forth minimum approval criteria for vocational agriculture cluster programs in Oregon. The agriculture cluster program includes instruction in six areas: animal science, soil science, plant science, agricultural economics, agriculture mechanics, and leadership development. The information in the guide is intended for use by…

  17. 76 FR 11835 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00036

    2011-03-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street,...

  18. Optimization of calcium chloride content on bioactivity and mechanical properties of white Portland cement

    This research investigates the optimization of calcium chloride content on the bioactivity and mechanical properties of white Portland cement. Calcium chloride was used as an addition of White Portland cement at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10% by weight. Calcium chloride was dissolved in sterile distilled water and blended with White Portland cement using a water to cement ratio of 0.5. Analysis of the bioactivity and pH of white Portland cement pastes with calcium chloride added at various amounts was carried out in simulated body fluid. Setting time, density, compressive strength and volume of permeable voids were also investigated. The characteristics of cement pastes were examined by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope linked to an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. The result indicated that the addition of calcium chloride could accelerate the hydration of white Portland cement, resulting in a decrease in setting time and an increase in early strength of the pastes. The compressive strength of all cement pastes with added calcium chloride was higher than that of the pure cement paste, and the addition of calcium chloride at 8 wt.% led to achieving the highest strength. Furthermore, white Portland cement pastes both with and without calcium chloride showed well-established bioactivity with respect to the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the material within 7 days following immersion in simulated body fluid; white Portland cement paste with added 3%CaCl2 exhibited the best bioactivity. - Highlights: ► Optimization CaCl2 content on the bioactivity and mechanical properties. ► CaCl2 was used as an addition at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10% by weight. ► CaCl2 resulted in a decrease in setting time and an increase in early strength. ► Addition of 3%CaCl2 exhibited the optimum formation of hydroxyapatite.

  19. Dissolved-oxygen regimen of the Willamette River, Oregon, under conditions of basinwide secondary treatment

    Hines, Walter G.; McKenzie, S.W.; Rickert, D.A.; Rinella, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    For nearly half a century the Willamette River in Oregon experienced severe dissolved-oxygen problems related to large loads of organically rich waste waters from industries and municipalities. Since the mid-1950 's dissolved oxygen quality has gradually improved owing to low-flow augmentation, the achievement of basinwide secondary treatment, and the use of other waste-management practices. As a result, summer dissolved-oxygen levels have increased, salmon runs have returned, and the overall effort is widely regarded as a singular water-quality success. To document the improved dissolved-oxygen regimen, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted intensive studies of the Willamette during the summer low-flow seasons of 1973 and 1974. During each summer the mean daily dissolved-oxygen levels were found to be higher than 5 milligrams per liter throughout the river. Because of the basinwide secondary treatment, carbonaceous deoxygenation rates were low. In addition, almost half of the biochemical oxygen demand entering the Willamette was from diffuse (nonpoint) sources rather than outfalls. These results indicated that point-source biochemical oxygen demand was no longer the primary cause of dissolved-oxygen depletion. Instead, the major causes of deoxygenation were nitrification in a shallow ' surface active ' reach below Salem and an anomalous oxygen demand (believed to be primarily of benthal origin) in Portland Harbor. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. DURABILIDAD DEL CEMENTO PORTLAND BLANCO ADICIONADO CON PIGMENTO AZUL ULTRAMAR

    CAROLINA GIRALDO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El pigmento Azul Ultramar (AU es un aluminosilicato polisulfurado de sodio que reacciona con el aluminato tricálcico (C3A y con el óxido de calcio (CaO del cemento Pórtland blanco en presencia de agua, generando cantidades considerables de etringita a edad temprana y en menor proporción de tobermorita. Esta etringita primaria se presenta en forma de fibras no orientadas mejorando el desempeño mecánico de los morteros, y al mismo tiempo dejando pocas cantidades de C3A disponible para la formación de etringita secundaria. En esta investigación se evalúa la durabilidad a diferentes edades de curado en morteros de cemento Portland blanco sustituidos por 0%, 10% y 20% de AU en peso, mediante pruebas de succión capilar y evaluación del cambio longitudinal de morteros expuestos a una solución de sulfato de sodio con una concentración del 5% (ASTM C1012. Los resultados evidencian una mayor resistencia a compresión y a flexión, una significativa disminución de la expansión y una reducción hasta del 800% de la absorción de agua en morteros con AU. Todo esto debido a la formación de las fases minerales adicionales (etringita primaria y tobermorita, las cuales fueron identificadas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM.

  1. Immediate and delayed solubility of mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement

    Augusto Bodanezi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the solubility of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and Portland cement since its mixture until 672 hours, by means of two complimentary methods. Metal ring molds filled with the cements were covered with distilled water and, at each experimental time (3, 24, 72, 168, 336 and 672 hours, were weighed as soon as the plates in which the samples have been placed. Empty rings served as the control group (n=8. Mean weight gain and loss was determined and analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test for all pairwise comparisons. Only Portland cement showed less than 3% weight loss through 24 hours. Detached MTA residues were heavier than those of Portland cement over the 3 to 168 hours. The weight of MTA rings increased more than that of Portland rings within 672 hours (p=0.05. The findings of the present study indicate that, in an aqueous environment MTA is more soluble than Portland cement and exceeds the maximum weight loss considered acceptable by ISO 6876 standard (2001.

  2. Utilization of Iron Ore Tailings as Raw Material for Portland Cement Clinker Production

    Li Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry has for some time been seeking alternative raw material for the Portland cement clinker production. The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility of utilizing iron ore tailings (IOT to replace clay as alumina-silicate raw material for the production of Portland cement clinker. For this purpose, two kinds of clinkers were prepared: one was prepared by IOT; the other was prepared by clay as a reference. The reactivity and burnability of raw meal, mineralogical composition and physical properties of clinker, and hydration characteristic of cement were studied by burnability analysis, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and hydration analysis. The results showed that the raw meal containing IOT had higher reactivity and burnability than the raw meal containing clay, and the use of IOT did not affect the formation of characteristic mineralogical phases of Portland cement clinker. Furthermore, the physical and mechanical performance of two cement clinkers were similar. In addition, the use of IOT was found to improve the grindability of clinker and lower the hydration heat of Portland cement. These findings suggest that IOT can replace the clay as alumina-silicate raw material for the preparation of Portland cement clinker.

  3. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban...

  4. State of Oregon 4th biennial energy plan

    State law directs the Oregon Department of Energy (ODOE) to prepare an energy plan every two years. This is the Fourth Biennial Energy Plan. The Plan is a policy blueprint for how to best meet Oregon's future energy needs. It identifies the key energy issues facing the state and sets forth policies and actions to achieve our energy goals of reliable, least-cost, and environmentally safe supply. This book presents: Oregon's demand and supply picture today. The progress Oregon has made toward energy efficiency. Oregon's energy demand and supply outlook for the next 20 years. Estimates of cost-effective conservation and other resources that could contribute to the state's energy supply. The major energy-related health, safety, and environmental issues facing the state. A strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 20 percent from 1988 levels by 2005. A two-year Action Plant that spells out ODOE's recommended actions for achieving Oregon's energy goals

  5. Interfacial morphology and domain configurations in 0-3 PZT-Portland cement composites

    Cement-based piezoelectric composites have attracted great attention recently due to their promising applications as sensors in smart structures. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and Portland cement (PC) composite were fabricated using 60% of PZT by volume. Scanning Electron Microscope and piezoresponse force microscope were used to investigate the morphology and domain configurations at the interfacial zone of PZT-Portland cement composites. Angular PZT ceramic grains were found to bind well with the cement matrix. The submicro-scale domains were clearly observed by piezoresponse force microscope at the interfacial regions between the piezoelectric PZT phase and Portland cement phase, and are clearer than the images obtained for pure PZT. This is thought to be due to the applied internal stress of cement to the PZT ceramic particle which resulted to clearer images.

  6. High-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction analysis of ordinary Portland cements: Phase coexistence of alite

    The mineralogical composition of four commercial and NIST RM-8488 Portland clinkers have been analysed by Rietveld methodology using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. Alite phase coexistence has been observed in four patterns. White Portland clinkers show a single alite or a very small amount of a second alite with smaller volume due to higher magnesium content. Grey Portland clinkers show a much pronounced alite phase coexistence which has been related to higher magnesium contents. Details about these analyses are given. Furthermore, the full mineralogical composition (including the non-diffracting content) has been determined from the overestimation of the added standard, α-Al2O3, in the Rietveld analyses. White clinkers contain ∼15 wt.% of non-diffracting content while this fraction is much smaller in grey clinkers, ∼7 wt.%

  7. High-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction analysis of ordinary Portland cements: Phase coexistence of alite

    Torre, Angeles G. de la [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Losilla, Enrique R. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Cabeza, Aurelio [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Aranda, Miguel A.G. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)]. E-mail: g_aranda@uma.es

    2005-08-15

    The mineralogical composition of four commercial and NIST RM-8488 Portland clinkers have been analysed by Rietveld methodology using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. Alite phase coexistence has been observed in four patterns. White Portland clinkers show a single alite or a very small amount of a second alite with smaller volume due to higher magnesium content. Grey Portland clinkers show a much pronounced alite phase coexistence which has been related to higher magnesium contents. Details about these analyses are given. Furthermore, the full mineralogical composition (including the non-diffracting content) has been determined from the overestimation of the added standard, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, in the Rietveld analyses. White clinkers contain {approx}15 wt.% of non-diffracting content while this fraction is much smaller in grey clinkers, {approx}7 wt.%.

  8. Geothermal research, Oregon Cascades: Final technical report

    Priest, G.R.; Black, G.L.

    1988-10-27

    Previous USDOE-funded geothermal studies have produced an extensive temperature gradient and heat flow data base for the State of Oregon. One of the important features identified as a result of these studies is a rapid transition from heat flow values on the order of 40 mW/m/sup 2/ in the Willamette Valley and Western Cascades to values of greater than or equal to100 mW/m/sup 2/ in the High Cascades and the eastern portion of the Western Cascades. These data indicate that the Cascade Range in Oregon has potential as a major geothermal province and stimulated much of the later work completed by government agencies and private industry. Additional data generated as a result of this grant and published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-86-2 further define the location and magnitude of this transition zone. In addition, abundant data collected from the vicinity of Breitenbush and Austin Hot Springs have permitted the formulation of relatively detailed models of these hydrothermal systems. These models are published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-88-5. Task 1.2 of the Deliverables section of Amendment M001 is fulfilled by DOGAMI publication GMS-48, Geologic map of the McKenzie Bridge quadrangle, Lane County, Oregon. This map was printed in October, 1988, and is part of the final submission to USDOE. 8 refs.

  9. Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone

    Moesgaard, M; Poulsen, Søren Lundsted; Herfort, D; Steenberg, M; Kirkegaard, L F; Skibsted, Jørgen; Yue, Y

    2012-01-01

    M. MOESGAARD, S.L. POULSEN, D. HERFORT, M. STEENBERG, L.F. KIRKEGAARD, J. SKIBSTED, Y. YUE, Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 95, 403 – 409 (2012).......M. MOESGAARD, S.L. POULSEN, D. HERFORT, M. STEENBERG, L.F. KIRKEGAARD, J. SKIBSTED, Y. YUE, Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 95, 403 – 409 (2012)....

  10. Physical and Thermodynamical Properties of Water Phases in Hardening Portland Cement Systems

    Hansen, T. Bæk

    The present study is devoted to the description of water phases in hardening portland cement paste systems containing a significant amount of micro-filler and having a low to moderate water/powder ratio. Emphasis has been placed on the early stages of the hardening process.......The present study is devoted to the description of water phases in hardening portland cement paste systems containing a significant amount of micro-filler and having a low to moderate water/powder ratio. Emphasis has been placed on the early stages of the hardening process....

  11. Multi-scale simulation of capillary pores and gel pores in Portland cement paste

    Gao, Peng; YE, guang; Wei, Jiangxiong; Yu, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    The microstructures of Portland cement paste (water to cement ratio is 0.4, curing time is from 1 day to 28 days) are simulated based on the numerical cement hydration model, HUMOSTRUC3D (van Breugel, 1991; Koenders, 1997; Ye, 2003). The nanostructures of inner and outer C-S-H are simulated by the packing of monosized (5 nm) spheres. The pore structures (capillary pores and gel pores) of Portland cement paste are established by upgrading the simulated nanostructures of C-S-H to th...

  12. Four Decades of Systems Science Teaching and Research in the USA at Portland State University

    Wayne Wakeland

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Systems science is defined in general fashion, and a brief background is provided that lists some of the systems science-related societies, conferences, journals, research institutes, and educational programs. The Systems Science Graduate Program at Portland State University in Portland, OR, USA, is described in detail, including its history, curriculum, students, faculty, and degrees granted. Dissertation topics are summarized via word diagrams created from dissertation titles over the years. MS degrees, student placement, and undergraduate courses are also mentioned, and future plans for the program are described including its support for sustainability education.

  13. Portland cement hydration in the presence of admixtures: black gram pulse and superplasticizer

    Viveka Nand Dwivedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of admixtures such as black gram pulse (BGP and sulfonated naphthalene based superplasticizer (SP on the hydration of Portland cement has been studied. The hydration characteristics of OPC in the presence of BGP and SP were studied with the help of non evaporable water content determinations, calorimetric method, Mössbauer spectroscopic and atomic force microscopic techniques. Results have shown that both BGP and SP get adsorbed at the surface of cement and its hydration products. The hydration of Portland cement is retarded in the presence of both the admixtures and nanosize hydration products are formed.

  14. Record of the Japan - U.S. Energy Discussions / Maui Meeting. March 25-27, 1996; Nichibei energy kyogi Maui kaigi. 1996 nen 3 gatsu 25 nichi - 27 nichi

    NONE

    1996-03-25

    The paper summarized the status of the Japan-U.S. Energy Discussions held in the Maui Island during March 25-27, 1996. With relation to the energy supply, reported and discussed were the present situation in the Middle East, Russia, Ukraine, and the former U.S.S.R. and effects of the political situation on the world. The paper also described effects of the intergovernmental resolutions on climate change on the energy issue. In addition to comprehensive prospects in the energy field, reported and discussed were issues related to coal, electric power, nuclear power, petroleum, gas and renewable energy. The following were generally commented on: There are uncertainties and unclearability in the future energy field in terms of politics, technology and environment, and in order to quickly respond these, dialogue of a global scale is necessary. In the energy industry, it is important to pursue effectiveness by the price mechanism, the market, and governmental policies. The international cooperation is much more needed, and the Japan-U.S. cooperation is desirable especially in the fields of stabilization of international politics, promotion of technical innovation, assistance for environmental orientation in developing countries, proposal of politics, etc.

  15. Use of copper slag in the manufacture of Portland cement

    Aquilar Elguézabal, A.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Given its chemical and mineralogical characteristics, copper slag, a solid industrial by-product, may serve as a partial substitute for silica and hematite in raw mixes used to manufacture Portland cement clinker. The benefits of such substitution include lower production costs and energy savings. The effect of slag-containing raw mixes on the reactivity of the CaO-Si02-Al203-Fe203 system was studied at three temperatures (1,350, 1,400 and 1,450ºC. Four mixes were used: M-1 and M-2 prepared with conventional prime materials and M-3 and M-4, in which ignimbrite and hematite were substituted for slag. In M-3 the slag replaced 45.54% of the ignimbrite and 100% of the hematite, and in M-4 100% of the mineral iron. The samples were clinkerized at 1,350, 1,400 and 1,450ºC. At 1,400ºC, clinker M-3 was found to have 10.7% less free lime than M-1, while the level in M-4 it was 15.93% lower than in M-2. The presence of the main clinker phases was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, which also showed that adding slag during c/inker manufacture slightly improves raw mix burnability without generating new unwanted phases. Consequently, recovery in cement kilns would appear to be an economically and environmentally feasible alternative to coprocessing such waste, although the industrial use of slag depends on its heavy metal content.En acuerdo con las características químicas y mineralógicas de la escoria de cobre, este residuo sólido industrial puede ser utilizado en el proceso de fabricación de clínker Portland como sustituto parcial de los minerales de sílice y hematita en la formación de mezclas crudas cuyos beneficios serían: disminución de los costos de producción de mezclas crudas y del consumo calorífico. El efecto de la adición de la escoria en las mezclas crudas sobre la reactividad del sistema CaO-Si02-Al203-Fe20 3 se estudió en tres niveles de temperatura (1.350, 1.400 Y 1.450ºC. Se trabajó con cuatro mezclas crudas, M-1 y M

  16. 76 FR 53054 - Safety Zone; TriMet Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR

    2011-08-25

    ... construction site. The safety hazards in the immediate area around this construction required actions to be... construction site. Discussion of Comments and Changes There were no comments received on the notice of proposed... safety zone during the construction of the TriMet Bridge on the Willamette River, in Portland, OR....

  17. STUDY OF AMMONIA SOURCE AT A PORTLAND CEMENT PRODUCTION PLANT (JOURNAL VERSION)

    A source and process sampling study was conducted at a dry process Portland Cement production plant. One aspect of the study focused on the source or point of NH3 within the production process. An extensive number of process solids from raw feeds to baghouse solids were collected...

  18. 76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan

    2011-12-08

    ... review. Background The Commission instituted this review on May 2, 2011 (76 FR 24519) and determined on August 5, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 50252, August 12, 2011). The Commission... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the record...

  19. 78 FR 10005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    2013-02-12

    ... Reporting Tool FR Federal Register gr/dscf grains per dry standard cubic foot HAP hazardous air pollutants... Information Document. On July 18, 2012 (77 FR 42368), the EPA proposed to amend the Portland cement... A. PM Parametric Monitoring B. Scaling for Continuous Parametric Monitoring of THC for...

  20. Radiopacity evaluation of Portland and MTA-based cements by digital radiographic system

    Alvaro Henrique Borges

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radiopacity of Portland and MTA-based cements using the Digora TM digital radiographic system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The performed tests followed specification number 57 from the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (2000 for endodontic sealing materials. The materials were placed in 5 acrylic plates, especially designed for this experiment, along with a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1 to 10 mm in thickness. The set was radiographed at a 30 cm focus-object distance and with 0.2 s exposure time. After the radiographs were taken, the optical laser readings of radiographs were performed by Digora TM system. Five radiographic density readings were performed for each studied material and for each step of the aluminum scale. RESULTS: White ProRoot MTA (155.99±8.04, gray ProRoot MTA (155.96±16.30 and MTA BIO (143.13±16.94 presented higher radiopacity values (p<0.05, while white non-structural Portland (119.76±22.34, gray Portland (109.71±4.90 and white structural Portland (99.59±12.88 presented lower radiopacity values (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that MTA-based cements were the only materials presenting radiopacity within the ANSI/ADA specifications.

  1. Energy Northwest: Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    None

    1977-10-01

    The four-state area, one of 10 Federal regions established to streamline Federal operations and encourage Federal-state-local cooperation, includes Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. The sources of energy and some energy technology are first reviewed briefly. The physical characteristics and regional developments are identified. Energy reserves, production, imports, facilities, and consumption are examined for the Northwest. The following energy issues are examined: conservation, electric rates, Clean Air Act of 1970, continental shelf development, transmission corridors, centralized electric generation, electric generation mix, electric power planning, environment and safety regulations, water use, electric energy forecasts, and oil tankers. (MCW)

  2. Effects of Thaumasite Formation on the Performance of Portland-limestone Concrete Stored in Magnesium Sulfate Solution

    GAO Lixiong; YAO Yan; WANG Ling

    2005-01-01

    The influence of thaumasite formation on the performance of Portland- limestone cement concrete stored in magnesium sulfate solution was studied. The experimental results show that the deterioration of Portlandlimestone cement concrete is higher than that of Portland cement concrete. The more the content of limestone, the more serious the deterioration of concrete, and also the lower the temperature, the earlier the deterioration of concrete. Thaumasite was detected to form in the Portland-limestone pastes when stored in 10wt% MgSO4 solution at 3- 10 ℃ and it was easy to form at lower temperatures.

  3. Field study of moisture damage in walls insulated without a vapor barrier. Final report for the Oregon Department of Energy

    Tsongas, G.A.

    1980-05-01

    Considerable uncertainty has existed over whether or not wall insulation installed without a vapor barrier causes an increased risk of moisture damage (wood decay) within walls. This report describes the results of one of the first major studies in the country aimed at finding out if such a moisture problem really exists. The exterior walls of a total of 96 homes in Portland, Oregon were opened, of which 70 had retrofitted insulation and 26 were uninsulated and were a control group. The types of insulation included urea-formaldehyde foam (44), mineral wool (16), and cellulose (10). In each opened wall cavity the moisture content of wood was measured and insulation and wood samples were taken for laboratory analysis of moisture content and for the determination of the presence of absence of decay fungi. Foam shrinkage was also measured. To evaluate the possible influence of the relative air tightness of the homes, fan depressurization tests were run using a door blower unit. The field and laboratory test results indicating the lack of a moisture damage problem in existing homes with wood siding in climates similar to that of western Oregon are described along with results of a statistical analysis of the data. Related problems of interest to homeowners and insulation installers are noted. The standard operating procedures used throughout the study are discussed, including the home selection process, quantitative and qualitative techniques used to identify wall locations with the highest moisture content, wall opening and data/sample collection methodology, laboratory analysis of samples, data processing and analysis, and applicability of the results. Recommendations for furutre tests are made. Finally, the potential and desirability for future retrofitting of wall insulation is explored.

  4. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Final Siting Report.

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  5. Thermal model for rotary kiln used in the production of Portland cement clinker; Modelo termico para forno rotativo utilizado para produzir clinquer de cimento Portland

    Duarte, Vanisa C.; Menon, Genesio J.; Silva, Rogerio J. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a heat transfer model for a rotary kiln used for producing clinker of Portland cement. The temperatures will depend only on position throughout length of the kiln and time. It has been considered the heat loss through wall and the transferred heat to the solids. The finite element method has been utilized on a one-dimensional representation basis. From the results obtained it was possible to evaluate the kiln behavior, as starting point for a study of co-incineration of waste. (author)

  6. Contribución al estudio de los reacciones de hidratación del cemento portland por espectroscopia infrarroja II. Estudio de clínkeres y de cementos portland anhidros

    Vázquez-Moreno, Tomás

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEn un artículo anterior (1 se dio cuenta de los trabajos realizados sobre la aplicación de la espectroscopia IR al estudio de las principales fases sintetizadas del clínker de cemento portland como fase previa al estudio de diversos clínkeres, obtenidos por nosotros en el laboratorio a partir de crudos industriales, y de distintos cementos portland comerciales anhidros.

  7. Synergistic use of Lagrangian dispersion and radiative transfer modelling with satellite and surface remote sensing measurements for the investigation of volcanic plumes: the Mount Etna eruption of 25-27 October 2013

    Sellitto, Pasquale; di Sarra, Alcide; Corradini, Stefano; Boichu, Marie; Herbin, Hervé; Dubuisson, Philippe; Sèze, Geneviève; Meloni, Daniela; Monteleone, Francesco; Merucci, Luca; Rusalem, Justin; Salerno, Giuseppe; Briole, Pierre; Legras, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we combine SO2 and ash plume dispersion modelling with satellite and surface remote sensing observations to study the regional influence of a relatively weak volcanic eruption from Mount Etna on the optical and micro-physical properties of Mediterranean aerosols. We analyse the Mount Etna eruption episode of 25-27 October 2013. The evolution of the plume along the trajectory is investigated by means of the FLEXible PARTicle Lagrangian dispersion (FLEXPART) model. The satellite data set includes true colour images, retrieved values of volcanic SO2 and ash, estimates of SO2 and ash emission rates derived from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) observations and estimates of cloud top pressure from SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager). Surface remote sensing measurements of aerosol and SO2 made at the ENEA Station for Climate Observations (35.52° N, 12.63° E; 50 m a.s.l.) on the island of Lampedusa are used in the analysis. The combination of these different data sets suggests that SO2 and ash, despite the initial injection at about 7.0 km altitude, reached altitudes around 10-12 km and influenced the column average aerosol particle size distribution at a distance of more than 350 km downwind. This study indicates that even a relatively weak volcanic eruption may produce an observable effect on the aerosol properties at the regional scale. The impact of secondary sulfate particles on the aerosol size distribution at Lampedusa is discussed and estimates of the clear-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing are derived. Daily shortwave radiative forcing efficiencies, i.e. radiative forcing per unit AOD (aerosol optical depth), are calculated with the LibRadtran model. They are estimated between -39 and -48 W m-2 AOD-1 at the top of the atmosphere and between -66 and -49 W m-2 AOD-1 at the surface, with the variability in the estimates mainly depending on the aerosol single scattering albedo. These results suggest that

  8. Oregon Trail Mushrooms geothermal loan guaranty application, Malheur County, Oregon: Environmental assessment

    1981-05-01

    The action assessed is the guaranty of a loan by the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance the construction and operation of a mushroom-growing facility that will use geothermal (hot) water for process and space heat. The project consists of two separate facilities: a growing facility located just outside of the eastern limit of the city of Vale, Oregon (Malheur County, Oregon) and a composting facility located about 6.4 km (4 miles) southwest of the city limits (also in Malheur County, Oregon). Five test wells have been drilled into the geothermal resource at the growing site. Either well No. 4 or well No. 5 will serve as a production well. All geothermal fluids will be reinjected into the geothermal aquifer, so either well No. 3 will be used for this purpose, wells Nos. 1 and 2 will be deepened, or a new well will be drilled on the site. A cold-water well will be drilled at the growing site, and another will be drilled at the composting site. The environmental effects of the proposed project are not expected to be significant.

  9. Compressive Strength and Hydration Process of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) mixed with Sea Water, Marine Sand and Portland Composite Cement

    Tjaronge, Wihardi; Irmawaty, Rita

    2014-01-01

    In order to eliminate the main problems of shortage of clean water and fine aggregate in the low land areas and the distant islands, this research utilized sea water and marine sand and Portland composite cement to produce high performance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC). Portland composite cement containing of fly ash. The evaluation result on the mix design, workability (slumpflow, segregation), mechanical properties (compressive strength-static modulus) and hydration process of SCC were ...

  10. Anti-Crack Performance of Low-Heat Portland Cement Concrete

    2007-01-01

    The properties of low-heat Portland cement concrete(LHC) were studied in detail. The experimental results show that the LHC concrete has characteristics of a higher physical mechanical behavior, deformation and durability. Compared with moderate-heat Portland cement(MHC), the average hydration heat of LHC concrete is reduced by about 17.5%. Under same mixing proportion, the adiabatic temperature rise of LHC concrete was reduced by 2℃-3℃,and the limits tension of LHC concrete was increased by 10×10-6-15×10-6 than that of MHC. Moreover, it is indicated that LHC concrete has a better anti-crack behavior than MHC concrete.

  11. The Property of Portland Cement and its Employment in Dentistry: Review of the Literature

    Antonio Vinícius Holanda BARBOSA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the performance of the Portland cement when used as material in the dentistry. Methods: It was accomplished a bibliographical research using scientific goods published in national and international literature, which intended to evaluate the physical properties, chemical and biological behavior, as well as the antimicrobial activity of this product. In the selected article, the authors used methods of investigation in vitro and in vivo for study comparing the cement with materials consecrated in dentistry. Conclusion: In agreement with the consulted bibliography it was possible to ensure the similarity in the chemical composition between the Portland cement and the MTA, in the effectiveness of the sealing ability of the roads areas between the root canal and the periodontal tissue, satisfactory antimicrobial action, and demonstrate favorable biological properties, stimulating the deposition of the cement and inducing the reparative pulpar answer.

  12. Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone

    Moesgaard, Mette; Poulsen, S.L.; Herfort, D.;

    2012-01-01

    represents a potential alternative to traditional SCMs, used for reduction of the CO2 emission associated with cement production. It is found that the NCAS glass takes part in the hydration reactions after about two weeks of hydration and a degree of reaction of approx. 50 % is observed after 90 days of......This work investigates the hydration of blended Portland cement containing 30 wt.% Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (NCAS) glass particles either as the only supplementary cementitious material (SCM) or in combination with limestone, using 29Si MAS NMR, powder XRD, and thermal analyses. The NCAS glass...... hydration. The hydrated glass contributes to the formation of the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phase, consuming a part of the Portlandite (Ca(OH)2) formed during hydration of the Portland cement. Furthermore, the presence of the glass and limestone particles, alone or in combination, results in an...

  13. Search of a prompt gamma ray for chlorine analysis in a Portland cement sample

    Prompt Gamma Ray analysis of chlorine contaminated Portland cement samples have been carried out using an accelerator-based Prompt Gamma ray Neutron Activation Analysis setup. The chlorine concentration was measured over a range of 0.25-4 wt% using 1.165 MeV capture γ-rays from chlorine. The experimental results were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations and an excellent agreement was observed between the two results. Further theoretical study has shown that yield of the 1.165 MeV prompt γ-rays from chlorine is not very sensitive to variation in moisture contents of the Portland sample. An order of magnitude increase in sample moisture content resulted in only 16-20% increase in yield of 1.165 MeV prompt γ-rays

  14. Search of a prompt gamma ray for chlorine analysis in a Portland cement sample

    Naqvi, A.A. [Center for Applied Physical Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: annaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Kidwai, S. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2004-11-11

    Prompt Gamma Ray analysis of chlorine contaminated Portland cement samples have been carried out using an accelerator-based Prompt Gamma ray Neutron Activation Analysis setup. The chlorine concentration was measured over a range of 0.25-4 wt% using 1.165 MeV capture {gamma}-rays from chlorine. The experimental results were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations and an excellent agreement was observed between the two results. Further theoretical study has shown that yield of the 1.165 MeV prompt {gamma}-rays from chlorine is not very sensitive to variation in moisture contents of the Portland sample. An order of magnitude increase in sample moisture content resulted in only 16-20% increase in yield of 1.165 MeV prompt {gamma}-rays.

  15. Study irradiation damage by fast neutrons in Portland cement by means of ultra-sound

    The effect of neutron irradiation in samples of Portland cement paste was evaluated, using the resonance frequency method and pulse velocity of ultra-sound technique. The samples were divide in three groups: 1) Monitoring samples; 2) Samples to gamma heating simulation; 3) Fast neutron irradiated samples in reactor core. Santa Rita Portland cement was utilized for samples preparation with water-cement rate of 0,40 l/kg. The irradiation was performed in the research reactor IEA-R1, at IPEN-CNEN/SP, with an integrated flux of 7,2 X 10 sup(18) n/cm sup(2) (E approx. 1 Mev). The samples of group 2 were submitted to special micro-waves heat treatment-with the same number of cycles of the reactor-which allowed the detection of fast neutron radiation effects within the predominant thermal effects. (author)

  16. X-ray diffractometry of steam cured ordinary Portland and blast-furnace-slag cements

    This work studies some aspects of the phases produced by hydration of ordinary and blast-furnace-slag cements, at normal conditions and steam cured (60 and 950 C), using an X-ray diffraction technique. The blast-furnace-slag cement was a mixture of 50% of ordinary Portland cement and 50% of blast-furnace-slag (separately grinding). After curing the X-ray diffraction reveals that, in relation to ordinary Portland cement, the main phases in blast-furnace-slag cement are hydrated silicates and aluminates, hydro garnet, etringitte and mono sulphate. After steam curing the hydration of blast-furnace-slag cement proceeds. This is a result of the slag activation by the curing temperature. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Reverse extraction of early-age hydration kinetic equation from observed data of Portland cement

    2010-01-01

    The early-age hydration of Portland cement paste has an important impact on the formation of microstructure and development of strength.However,manual derivation of hydration kinetic equation is very difficult because there are multi-phased,multi-sized and interrelated complex chemical and physical reactions during cement hydration.In this paper,early-age hydration kinetic equation is reversely extracted automatically from the observed time series of hydration degree of Portland cement using evolutionary computation method that combines gene expression programming and particle swarm optimization algorithms.In order to reduce the computing time,GPUs are used for acceleration in parallel.Studies have shown that according to the extracted kinetic equation,simulation curve of early-age hydration is in good accordance with the observed experimental data.Furthermore,this equation still has a good generalization ability even changing chemical composition,particle size and curing conditions.

  18. Performance Characteristics of Waste Glass Powder Substituting Portland Cement in Mortar Mixtures

    Kara, P.; Csetényi, L. J.; Borosnyói, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, soda-lime glass cullet (flint, amber, green) and special glass cullet (soda-alkaline earth-silicate glass coming from low pressure mercury-discharge lamp cullet and incandescent light bulb borosilicate glass waste cullet) were ground into fine powders in a laboratory planetary ball mill for 30 minutes. CEM I 42.5N Portland cement was applied in mortar mixtures, substituted with waste glass powder at levels of 20% and 30%. Characterisation and testing of waste glass powders included fineness by laser diffraction particle size analysis, specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption technique, particle density by pycnometry and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compressive strength, early age shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage tests, heat of hydration of mortars, temperature of hydration, X-ray diffraction analysis and volume stability tests were performed to observe the influence of waste glass powder substitution for Portland cement on physical and engineering properties of mortar mixtures.

  19. Newberry Volcano—Central Oregon's Sleeping Giant

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Stovall, Wendy K.; Ramsey, David W.; Ewert, John W.; Jensen, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Hidden in plain sight, Oregon's massive Newberry Volcano is the largest volcano in the Cascades volcanic arc and covers an area the size of Rhode Island. Unlike familiar cone-shaped Cascades volcanoes, Newberry was built into the shape of a broad shield by repeated eruptions over 400,000 years. About 75,000 years ago a major explosion and collapse event created a large volcanic depression (caldera) at its summit. Newberry last erupted about 1,300 years ago, and present-day hot springs and geologically young lava flows indicate that it could reawaken at any time. Because of its proximity to nearby communities, frequency and size of past eruptions, and geologic youthfulness, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are working to better understand volcanic activity at Newberry and closely monitor the volcano for signs of unrest.

  20. Oregon State TRIGA reactor power calibration study

    As a result of a recent review of the Oregon State TRIGA Reactor (OSTR) power calibration procedure, an investigation was performed on the origin and correctness of the OSTR tank factor and the calibration method. It was determined that there was no clear basis for the tank factor which was being used (0.0525 deg. C/kwh) and therefore a new value was calculated (0.0493 deg. C/kwh). The calculational method and likely errors are presented in the paper. In addition, a series of experimental tests were conducted to decide if the power calibration was best performed with or without a mixer, at 100 KW or at 1 MW. The results of these tests along with the final recommendation are presented. (author)

  1. A field guide to Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Jenson, Robert A.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; McKay, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    Newberry Volcano is located in central Oregon at the intersection of the Cascade Range and the High Lava Plains. Its lavas range in age from ca. 0.5 Ma to late Holocene. Erupted products range in composition from basalt through rhyolite and cover ~3000 km2. The most recent caldera-forming eruption occurred ~80,000 years ago. This trip will highlight a revised understanding of the volcano's history based on new detailed geologic work. Stops will also focus on evidence for ice and flooding on the volcano, as well as new studies of Holocene mafic eruptions. Newberry is one of the most accessible U.S. volcanoes, and this trip will visit a range of lava types and compositions including tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basalt flows, cinder cones, and rhyolitic domes and tuffs. Stops will include early distal basalts as well as the youngest intracaldera obsidian flow.

  2. Hydration and microstructure of Portland cement partially substituted with ultrafine silica

    J. I. Escalante; Gómez-Zamorano, L. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal waste, a by-product of steam power plants that use geothermal underground resources, was studied as a possible replacement for Portland cement. This waste consists primarily in amorphous nanometric silica with traces of sodium and potassium chlorides. The replacement ratios studied were 0, 10 and 20% in cements cured at 20 and 60 ºC. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that clinker phase hydration took place earlier in the presence of the geothermal waste. Scanning electron microscop...

  3. Substitution of the clayey mineral component by lignite fly ash in portland cement clinker synthesis

    Jovanović Nataša; Komljenović Miroslav; Petrašinović-Stojkanović Ljiljana; Baščarević Zvezdana; Bradić Violeta; Rosić Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Fly ash from four power plants in Serbia (PP "Morava" - Svilajnac, PP "Kolubara" - Veliki Grijani, PP "Kostolac" - units B1 and B2 - Kostolac and PP "Nikola Tesla" - units A and B - Obrenovac) was utilized as the starting raw component for Portland cement clinker synthesis. Limestone and quartz sand from the "Holcim - Serbia, a.d." cement factory were the other two starting raw components. Based on the chemical composition of the raw components and from the projected cement moduli, the amount...

  4. Performance Characteristics of Waste Glass Powder Substituting Portland Cement in Mortar Mixtures

    Kara, P; Csetényi, L; Borosnyói, A

    2014-01-01

    In several countries, waste glass causes environmental concerns as quantities stockpiled exceed recycling in the packaging stream. Being amorphous and having relatively high silicium and calcium contents, glass is pozzolanic or even cementitious, when finely ground. Reducing particle sizes typically to less than 100 µm may give control over the alkali-silica reaction in concrete, therefore making this material a possible substitute to Portland cement. Such use may moderate the problem of dump...

  5. The influence of clay additives in Portland cement on the compressive strength of the cement stone

    A.R. Gaifullin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of mineral additives to binders, especially to Portland cement, is one of the promising trends for solving the resource and energy saving problems, as well as problems of environmental protection during production and application. Expanding the supplementary cementitious materials resource base can be achieved through the use of natural pozzolans and thermally activated polymineral clays(commonly known as glinites in Russia. One type of glinite is metakaolin, which is obtained by calcination of kaolin clays. Metakaolin is widely and effectively used as a pozzolanic additive due to its beneficial effect on the physical and mechanical properties of Portland cement-based materials. The obstacle to its wide production and use are the limited deposits of pure kaolin clays in many countries, including the Russian Federation. In this respect, the studies of pozzolanic activity of the most common mineral clays and their use in some countries have significantly advanced. Similar studies were widely performed in the 1940s in USSR. It seems reasonable to renew this trend to provide a scientific base for the production of local pozzolans made of clays commonly used in different regions. Comparative studies of the effect of 5 clays differing in mineral and chemical composition, calcination temperature and specific surface area, and high-quality metakaolin, on the strength of hardened Portland cement paste have been performed. It has been established that introducing 5…10 % of composite clays calcined at 400…8000 C° and milled to a specific surface area of 290…800 m2/kg into Portland cement enhanced the strength of the hardened cement paste considerably better than the introduction of metakaolin with a specific surface area of 1200 m2/kg. The findings of the study suggest that many kinds of commonly used polymineral clays have a specific calcination temperature and dispersity, which results in a higher pozzolanic activity compared with

  6. Thermal analysis of borogypsum and its effects on the physical properties of Portland cement

    Borogypsum, which consists mainly of gypsum crystals, B2O3 and some impurities, is formed during the production of boric acid from colemanite, which is an important borate ore. In this study, the effect of borogypsum and calcined borogypsum on the physical properties of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) has been investigated. The calcination temperature and transformations in the structures of borogypsum and natural gypsum were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Thermal experiments were carried out between ambient temperature and 500 deg. C in an air atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min-1. After calculation of enthalpy and determination of conversion temperatures, borogypsum (5% and 7%), hemihydrate borogypsum (5%) and natural gypsum (5%) were added separately to Portland cement clinker and cements were ground in the laboratory. The final products were tested for chemical analysis, compressive strength, setting time, Le Chatelier expansion and fineness properties according to the European Standard (EN 196). The results show that increasing the borogypsum level in Portland cement from 5% to 7% caused an increase in setting time and a decrease in soundness expansion and compressive strength. The cement prepared with borogypsum (5%) was found to have similar strength properties to those obtained with natural gypsum, whereas a mixture containing 5% of hemihydrate borogypsum was found to develop 25% higher compressive strength than the OPC control mixtures at 28 days. For this reason, utilization of calcined borogypsum in cement applications is expected to give better results than untreated borogypsum. It is concluded that hemihydrate borogypsum could be used as a retarder for Portland cement as an industrial side. This would play an important role in reducing environmental pollution

  7. Early and Late Strength Characterization of Portland Cement Containing Calcined Low-Grade Kaolin Clay

    Mark Bediako; Gawu, S. K. Y.; A. A. Adjaottor; John Solomon Ankrah

    2016-01-01

    Heat treated low-grade kaolin clays are now considered as a suitable pozzolanic material to metakaolins. However their suitability as a good pozzolanic material depends on the geochemistry and structure of the clay which is usually influenced by the geographical environment. This study investigated a low-grade kaolin clay from Nyamebekyere in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The influence of the calcined material on the early and late strength development of Portland cement was analyzed. The earl...

  8. Experimental and modeling study of Portland cement paste degradation in boric acid

    In the framework of Spent Fuel Pools (SFP) lifetime studies, an investigation of the Portland cement degradation in boric acid has been requested by the Electric Power Research Institute. The main goal of this study is to identify the physico-chemical degradation mechanisms involved in boric acid media. Both experimental and modeling approaches are considered. Concerning degradation experiments, sample of cement paste are immersed during three and nine months in a boric acid solution at 2400 ppm that is periodically renewed. Boric acid concentration has been chosen to be representative of SFP solution. Results will be confronted with reactive transport numerical calculations performed by the reactive transport code HYTEC associated with a dedicated extended database called Thermoddem. The analysis of degradation solution revealed a main ions release mechanism driven by diffusion especially for calcium, nitrate, sodium and sulfate. Leaching behavior of magnesium seems to be more complex. Decalcification is the major degradation process involved, even if a non-negligible contribution of further cations (Mg2+, Na+) and anions (SO42-) has been noticed. Analysis of degradation soution also revealed that kinetic of Portland cement paste degradation in boric acid is higher than in pure water, regarding the degraded depths measured and calcium leaching rate. This observation has been confirmed by solid characterization. Microstructure analysis of degraded Portland cement paste showed a global porosity increase in the degraded zone that might be mainly attributed to Portlandite dissolution. An Ettringite reprecipitation in the degraded zone has been suspected but could also be Ettringite-like phases containing boron. The analysis techniques used did not allow us to differentiate it, and no others specific mineral phases containing boron has been identified. Profile pattern by XRD analysis allowed us to identify four zones composing the degraded Portland cement paste

  9. Influence of cellulose ethers on the kinetics of early Portland cement hydration

    Müller, Ingo

    2006-01-01

    The phase-specific influence of cellulose ether (CEs) on Portland cement hydration was investigated in-situ, using synchrotron X-ray diffractometry. CE-caused retardation can be traced to the polymers adsorption behaviour. The adsorption decreases in following order: silicates and their hydrates (high), sulfates (low), ettringite (zero). The retarding effect is strong on silicates, moderate on sulfates and unspecific on alluminates.

  10. EFFECT OF NATURAL ZEOLITE ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND FREEZE-THAW RESISTANCE OF PORTLAND CEMENT

    Bayartsetseg, E.; Lkhagvajargal, G.; Batgerel, D.; Sarangerel, D.; Ochirkhuyag, B

    2011-01-01

    Effects of zeolites in various natural deposits as replacement cementing material on mechanical performance of Portland cement were studied. The blended cement pastes with zeolites were cured at room temperature in air for various durations (1, 7 and 28 days). Mechanical performance of the blended cement samples such as setting time, volume of water, compressive strength, normal consistency and freeze-thaw resistance of the mortar are determined. The optimal substitution ratio was 20 wt. % of...

  11. Various durability aspects of calcined Kaolin-blended Portland cement pastes and concretes

    SAILLIO, Mickael; BAROGHEL BOUNY, Véronique; PRADELLE, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The use of calcined clay, in the form of metakaolin (MK), as a pozzolanic constituent for concrete has received considerable attention in recent years, due to the lower CO2 emission of this supplementary cementitious material compared to the production of a classic portland cement. Furthermore, concretes incorporating MK show some improve durability properties. In this paper, the durability of concretes and cement pastes with MK as partial replacement of cement (10 and 25%) has been investiga...

  12. Effects of High Temperature on the Residual Performance of Portland Cement Concretes

    Evandro Tolentino; Fernando S. Lameiras; Abdias M. Gomes; Cláudio A. Rigo da Silva; Wander L. Vasconcelos

    2002-01-01

    In this work we analyzed the "residual" performance of Portland cement concretes heat-treated at 600 °C after cooling down to room temperature. Concretes with characteristic compressive strength at 28 days of 45 MPa and of 60 MPa were studied. The heat-treatment was carried out without any imposed load. We measured the residual compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. The geometry of the structure was described by mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen sorption tests. We observed a...

  13. DURABILITY PERFORMANCE OF RFCC SPENT CATALYSTBLENDED PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE EXPOSED TO SEA WATER ATTACK

    Allahverdi A.; Mahdavan M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the paste of Portland cement blended with spent catalyst from Resid Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (RFCC) unit of petroleum refining processes in sea water. 28-day cured paste specimens prepared from binary cement mixes containing different amounts of spent catalyst were exposed to Persian Gulf sea water. Compressive strength, weight, and length changes of the specimens were monitored and considered for evaluating the extent of deterioration. Laboratory t...

  14. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Substitution of the clayey mineral component by lignite fly ash in portland cement clinker synthesis

    Jovanović Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash from four power plants in Serbia (PP "Morava" - Svilajnac, PP "Kolubara" - Veliki Grijani, PP "Kostolac" - units B1 and B2 - Kostolac and PP "Nikola Tesla" - units A and B - Obrenovac was utilized as the starting raw component for Portland cement clinker synthesis. Limestone and quartz sand from the "Holcim - Serbia, a.d." cement factory were the other two starting raw components. Based on the chemical composition of the raw components and from the projected cement moduli, the amounts of raw components in the raw mixtures were calculated. Six different raw mixtures were prepared - each one consisted of limestone, sand and different fly ash. A raw mixture from the industrial production of the "Holcim - Serbia, a.d." cement factory was used as the reference material. The prepared raw mixtures were sintered in a laboratory furnace at 1400°C. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of the synthesized clinkers were determined. The characteristics of clinkers, based on fly ash, were compared to the characteristics of the industrial Portland cement clinker from the "Holcim - Serbia, a.d." cement factory. The results of the investigation showed that fly ash from power plants in Serbia can be suitable for Portland cement clinker synthesis.

  16. Rheological Properties of Very High-Strength Portland Cement Pastes: Influence of Very Effective Superplasticizers

    Riccardo Ricceri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the addition of very effective superplasticizers, that are commercially available, employed for maximising the solid loading of very high-strength Portland cement pastes, has been investigated. Cement pastes were prepared from deionized water and a commercially manufactured Portland cement (Ultracem 52.5 R. Cement and water were mixed with a vane stirrer according to ASTM Standard C305. The 0.38 to 0.44 water/cement ratio range was investigated. Three commercial superplasticizing agents produced by Ruredil S.p.a. were used. They are based on a melamine resin (Fluiment 33 M, on a modified lignosulphonate (Concretan 200 L, and on a modified polyacrylate (Ergomix 1000. Rheological tests were performed at 25°C by using the rate controlled coaxial cylinder viscometer Rotovisko-Haake 20, system M5-osc., measuring device MV2P with serrated surfaces. The tests were carried out under continuous flow conditions. The results of this study were compared with those obtained in a previous article for an ordinary Portland cement paste.

  17. Model Analysis of Initial Hydration and Structure Forming of Portland Cement

    2007-01-01

    The auto efficiently hydration heat arrangement and the non-contacting electrical resistivity device were used to test the thermology effect and the resistivity variation of Portland cement hydration.The structure forming model of Portland cement initial hydration was established through the systematical experiments with different cements, the amount of mixing water and the chemical admixture. The experimental results show that, the structure forming model of cement could be divided into three stages, i e, solution-solution equilibrium period, structure forming period and structure stabilizing period. Along with the increase of mixing water, the time of inflexion appeared is in advance for thermal process of cement hydration and worsened for the structure forming process. Comparison with the control specimen, adding Na2SO4 makes the minimum critical point lower, the flattening period shorter and the growing slope after stage one steeper. So the hydration and structure forming process of Portland cement could be described more exactly by applying the thermal model and the structure-forming model.

  18. Ettringite and C-S-H Portland cement phases for waste ion immobilization: A review

    The formation, structure and chemistry of the ettringite and C-S-H phases of Portland cement have been reviewed as they relate to waste ion immobilization. The purpose of this review was to investigate the use of Portland cement as a host for priority metallic pollutants as identified by the Environmental Protection Agency and as a host for radioactive waste ions as identified in 40 CFR 191. Ettringite acts as host to a number of these ions in both the columnar and channel sections of the crystal structure. Substitutions have been made at the calcium, aluminum, hydroxide and sulfate sites. C-S-H also hosts a number of the waste species in both ionic and salt form. Immobilization mechanisms for C-S-H include sorption, phase mixing and substitution. The following ions have not apparently been reported as specifically immobilized by one of these phases: Ag, Am, Np, Pu, Ra, Tc, Th and Sn; however, some of these ions are immobilized by Portland cement

  19. HYDRATING CHARACTERISTICS OF MODIFIED PORTLAND WITH Ba-BEARING SULPHOALUMINATE MINERALS

    Chenchen Gong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrating characteristics of modified Portland cement with Ba-bearing sulphoaluminate minerals were studied in this paper. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS, mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP and compressive strength were determined to characterize hydrating products and microstructure. Results show that basic physical properties of modified Portland cement with Ba-bearing sulphoaluminate minerals (SMPC are similar with PC except the shorter setting time. Ettringite and C-S-H are the main hydrating produces in SMPC, which is similar to Portland cement (PC. Because of volume expansion of ettringite, SMPC paste structure is denser than PC according to SEM-EDS analysis and the pore size and pore content of SMPC pastes was smaller especially for the harmful pores. Because sulfur aluminum barium calcium was a new early-strength mineral and parts of BaO went into the C₂S lattice and caused lattice distortion to enhance C₂S hydration activity, the compressive strengths of SMPC grew faster and higher than PC.

  20. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications. PMID:19110410

  1. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development. [Includes glossary

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    The following subjects are covered: Oregons' geothermal potential, exploration methods and costs, drilling, utilization methods, economic factors of direct use projects, and legal and institutional setting. (MHR)

  2. Port Orford, Oregon Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Port Orford, Oregon Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  3. Newport, Oregon Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Newport, Oregon Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  4. Garibaldi, Oregon Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Garibaldi, Oregon Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  5. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  6. Baskett Slough - Oregon White Oak Restoration- North Butte

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex (WVNWRC) holds some of the largest and best examples of Oregon white oak habitat remaining in the Valley....

  7. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2009

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  8. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2005

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  9. Aerial photo mosaic of Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  10. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  11. Channel centerline for the Coquille River, Oregon in 2009

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  12. Umpqua River Oregon Coast Range PhotoMosaic 1967

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  13. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  14. Aerial photo mosaic of the Nehalem River, Oregon in 1967

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  15. Aerial photo mosaic of the Nehalem River, Oregon in 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  16. Newport, Oregon 1/3 arc-second DEM

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Newport, Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  17. Channel centerline for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 2005

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  18. Channel centerline for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 1967

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  19. Channel centerline for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 2009

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  20. Florence, Oregon Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Florence, Oregon Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  1. Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Seaside, Oregon Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  2. Seaside, Oregon 1/3 arc-second DEM

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Seaside Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  3. Oregon High Desert Interpretive Center : Economic feasibility and impact analysis

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal to construct a High Desert Interpretive Center to inform visitors to Harney County, Oregon of the opportunities for education, recreation and...

  4. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  6. Erosion and deposition for Fanno Creek, Oregon 2012

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began investigating the sources and sinks of organic matter in Fanno Creek, a tributary of the Tualatin River, Oregon....

  7. Final Critical Habitat for Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of FINAL critical habitat for Rana pretiosa (Oregon Spotted Frog). Maps published in the Federal Register 2016.

  8. Landslide Inventory for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase is an inventory of existing landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide feature shown has been classified...

  9. Umpqua River Oregon Garden Valley PhotoMosaic 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  10. Umpqua River Oregon Garden Valley PhotoMosaic 1967

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  11. TERRAIN, City of Reedsport Levee PMR, Douglas COUNTY, OREGON

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Oregon Department of Geology & Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  12. Umpqua River Oregon North Umpqua PhotoMosaic 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  13. Investigation of persistent seabird mortalities along the Oregon Coast

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1978 until 1997, Oregon experienced large annual die-offs of common murres (Uria aalge) from July to October. The mortality was predominantly among juveniles,...

  14. Channel centerline for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  15. Umpqua River Oregon Days Creek PhotoMosaic 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  16. Aerial photo mosaic of the Tillamook basin, Oregon in 1967

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  17. Umpqua River Oregon Days Creek PhotoMosaic 1967

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  18. 2010 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Lidar: Cottonwood Canyon

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the lidar elevations in portions of Gilliam and Sherman Counties, Oregon. This data set covers 35,902 acres and was collected between May...

  19. Umpqua River Oregon Roseburg PhotoMosaic 1967

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  20. Aerial photo mosaic of Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  1. Geologic Observations-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the Oregon Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Floating Windfarm Suite Data Release presents geological observations from video collected on U.S. Geological...

  2. Bathymetry Hillshade-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Release contains data from the USGS survey of the Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site in 2014. The shaded-relief raster was generated from bathymetry data...

  3. Contours-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Release contains data from the USGS field activity 2014-607-FA, a survey of the Oregon Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Floating Wind Farm Site in 2014. The...

  4. ESA Critical Habitat for the Oregon Coast Coho Salmon ESU

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These GIS data contain stream reaches that were designated as "critical habitat" for the Oregon Coast coho salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The...

  5. Piping Plover (Charadrius ntelodus) monitoring at Oregon Inlet, North Carolina

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report recommends a plan of monitoring Piping Plovers adjacent to Oregon Inlet relative to activities associated with the construction of a new bridge across...

  6. Oregon Crest-to-Coast Environmental Monitoring Transect Dataset

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Environmental Protection Agency - Western Ecology Division (EPA) has been monitoring above- and belowground climate data from 23 locations along an Oregon...

  7. Bathymetry-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Release contains data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) survey of the Oregon outer continental shelf (OCS) Floating Wind Farm Site in 2014. The...

  8. Backscatter-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Release contains data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) survey of the Oregon outer Continental shelf (OCS) Floating Wind Farm Site in 2014. The...

  9. Umpqua River Oregon Roseburg PhotoMosaic 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  10. Channel centerline for the Coquille River, Oregon in 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  11. Umpqua River Oregon Tidal PhotoMosaic 1967

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  12. Umpqua River Oregon Aerial Photograph Data for 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  13. Channel centerline for the Coquille River, Oregon in 2005

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  14. Channel centerline for the Coquille River, Oregon in 1967

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  15. Umpqua River Oregon Tidal PhotoMosaic 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  16. Umpqua River Oregon Aerial Photograph Data for 1967

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  17. Umpqua River Oregon Coast Range PhotoMosaic 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  18. Umpqua River Oregon North Umpqua PhotoMosaic 1967

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  19. Preparing for Construction and Operation of Geological Repositories - Challenges to the Regulator and the Implementer. Proceedings of the Joint RF/IGSC Workshop, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, 25-27 January 2012

    More radioactive waste management programmes are advancing to a new repository development phase and are preparing for the application of their construction license of a deep geological disposal facility. Such developmental progress brought along significant changes to repository development affecting both the waste management programme implementers and the regulators. New issues impacting both the regulatory authorities and the future facility operators include operational safety and reliability, increased demands on human resources, activities to ensure quality assurance, the additional requirements on information management system and management plans for construction work. To respond to new arising issues, the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has agreed, as stated in the 2011-2016 Strategic Plan, that the Committee will focus on constituencies for the preparation of the construction and operation license of future deep geological repositories. In addition, the Committee will consider operational aspects of repository implementation, both connected to the operational safety and the impact on the post-closure long-term safety. In particular, the RWMC has approved the RWMC Regulator's Forum (RWMC-RF) and the Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) to hold a joint workshop to explore challenging issues and practices in preparing for the application of the construction license of a geological repository. The joint workshop titled 'Preparing for Construction and Operation of Geological Repositories - Challenges to the Regulator and the Implementer' was held on January 25-27, 2012 at the NEA premises in Issy-les-Moulineaux, France. The key objective of the workshop was to identify, and exchange experience on, the current and future challenges faced by the implementers and the regulators when preparing for their application of a construction license of a geological repository. The workshop gave a

  20. Floating Offshore Wind in Oregon: Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts in Oregon Coastal Counties from Two Future Scenarios

    Jimenez, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This analysis examines the employment and potential economic impacts of large-scale deployment of offshore wind technology off the coast of Oregon. This analysis examines impacts within the seven Oregon coastal counties: Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry. The impacts highlighted here can be used in county, state, and regional planning discussions and can be scaled to get a general sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other deployment scenarios.

  1. Reaction of rat subcutaneous tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement: A secondary level biocompatibility test

    P Karanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This secondary-level animal study was conducted to assess and compare the subcutaneous tissue reaction to implantation of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and white Portland cement. Study Design: Polyethylene tubes filled with either freshly mixed white MTA (Group I or white Portland cement (Group II were implanted subcutaneously into 12 Wistar Albino rats. Each animal also received an empty polyethylene tube as the control (Group III. After 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, the implants, together with surrounding tissues were excised. Two pathologists blinded to the experimental procedure, evaluated sections taken from the biopsy specimens for the severity of the inflammatory response, calcification and the presence and thickness of fibrous capsule surrounding the implant. Statistical analysis was performed using the Cross-tabs procedure, Univariate analysis of the variance two-way and the Pearson product moment correlation to assess inter-rater variability between the two evaluators. Results: At 7 days, there was no significant difference in the severity of inflammation between the control group, white MTA, and white Portland cement groups. In the 14 day, 21 day and 30 day test periods, control group had significantly less inflammation than white MTA and white Portland cement. There was no significant difference in the grading of inflammation between white MTA and white Portland cement. All materials exhibited thick capsule at 7 days and thin capsule by 30 days. Conclusion: Both white MTA and white Portland cement were not completely non-irritating at the end of 30 days as evidenced by the presence of mild inflammation. However, the presence of a thin capsule around the materials, similar to the control group, indicates good tissue tolerance. White MTA and white Portland cement seem to be materials of comparable biocompatibility.

  2. "It's In My Veins": Exploring the Role of an Afrocentric, Popular Education-Based Training Program in the Empowerment of African American and African Community Health Workers in Oregon.

    Bridgeman-Bunyoli, Arika; Mitchell, S Renee; Bin Abdullah, AbdulʼHafeedh M; Schwoeffermann, Ty; Phoenix, Toliver; Goughnour, Cat; Hines-Norwood, Richard; Wiggins, Noelle

    2015-01-01

    The role racism and other social determinants of health play in the creation of health inequities in African American communities in the United States is increasingly understood. In this article, we explore the effectiveness of an Afrocentric, popular education-based community health worker (CHW) training program in creating positive change among CHW participants and their communities in Portland, Oregon. Findings suggest that CHW participants experienced 4 types of awakening, in addition to changes in their interaction with their family members and increased community involvement. The CHWs identified group bond, Afrocentrism, public health knowledge, popular education, facilitators, and time management as important elements of an effective training program for this community. Psychological empowerment, self-reported health status, and health behavior among participants generally increased over time, but changes were not statistically significant. PMID:26353023

  3. Geothermal Exploration of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Waibel, Albert F. [Columbia Geoscience, Pasco, WA (United States); Frone, Zachary S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Blackwell, David D. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Davenport Newberry (Davenport) has completed 8 years of exploration for geothermal energy on Newberry Volcano in central Oregon. Two deep exploration test wells were drilled by Davenport on the west flank of the volcano, one intersected a hydrothermal system; the other intersected isolated fractures with no hydrothermal interconnection. Both holes have bottom-hole temperatures near or above 315°C (600°F). Subsequent to deep test drilling an expanded exploration and evaluation program was initiated. These efforts have included reprocessing existing data, executing multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical programs, deep exploration test well drilling and shallow well drilling. The efforts over the last three years have been made possible through a DOE Innovative Exploration Technology (IET) Grant 109, designed to facilitate innovative geothermal exploration techniques. The combined results of the last 8 years have led to a better understanding of the history and complexity of Newberry Volcano and improved the design and interpretation of geophysical exploration techniques with regard to blind geothermal resources in volcanic terrain.

  4. Wetted channel and bar features for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2005

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  5. Wetted channel and bar features for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2009

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  6. Wetted channel and bar features for the Rogue River, Oregon in 1967 and 1969

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  7. The Zoo, Benchmarks & You: How To Reach the Oregon State Benchmarks with Zoo Resources.

    2002

    This document aligns Oregon state educational benchmarks and standards with Oregon Zoo resources. Benchmark areas examined include English, mathematics, science, social studies, and career and life roles. Brief descriptions of the programs offered by the zoo are presented. (SOE)

  8. Report on Oregon Spotted Frog Egg Mass Surveys 2013-2015

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) were once common across wetlands throughout western Washington and Oregon and were found in northern California and southern...

  9. Channel centerline for the Rogue River, Oregon in 1967 and 1969

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  10. Pygmy Rabbit Surveys on State Lands in Oregon

    Hagar, Joan; Lienkaemper, George

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) is classified by the federal government as a species of concern (i.e., under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for consideration as a candidate for listing as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act) because of its specialized habitat requirements and evidence of declining populations. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) lists pygmy rabbits as 'sensitive-vulnerable,' meaning that protective measures are needed if sustainable populations are to be maintained over time (Oregon Natural Heritage Program, 2001). The Oregon Natural Heritage Program considers this species to be threatened with extirpation from Oregon. Pygmy rabbits also are a species of concern in all the other states where they occur (NatureServe, 2004). The Washington population, known as the Columbia Basin pygmy rabbit, was listed as endangered by the federal government in 2003. Historically, pygmy rabbits have been collected from Deschutes, Klamath, Crook, Lake, Grant, Harney, Baker, and Malheur Counties in Oregon. However, the geographic range of pygmy rabbit in Oregon may have decreased in historic times (Verts and Carraway, 1998), and boundaries of the current distribution are not known. Not all potentially suitable sites appear to be occupied, and populations are susceptible to rapid declines and local extirpation (Weiss and Verts, 1984). In order to protect and manage remaining populations on State of Oregon lands, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife needs to identify areas currently occupied by pygmy rabbits, as well as suitable habitats. The main objective of this survey was document to presence or absence of pygmy rabbits on state lands in Malheur, Harney, Lake, and Deschutes counties. Knowledge of the location and extent of pygmy rabbit populations can provide a foundation for the conservation and management of this species in Oregon. The pygmy rabbit is just one of a suite of species of

  11. The impact of zirconium oxide radiopacifier on the early hydration behaviour of white Portland cement

    Zirconium oxide has been identified as a candidate radiopacifying agent for use in Portland cement-based biomaterials. During this study, the impact of 20 wt.% zirconium oxide on the hydration and setting reactions of white Portland cement (WPC) was monitored by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), 29Si and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Vicat apparatus. The presence of 20 wt.% zirconium oxide particles in the size-range of 0.2 to 5 μm was found to reduce the initial and final setting times of WPC from 172 to 147 min and 213 to 191 min, respectively. Zirconium oxide did not formally participate in the chemical reactions of the hydrating cement; however, the surface of the zirconium oxide particles presented heterogeneous nucleation sites for the precipitation and growth of the early C-S-H gel products which accelerated the initial setting reactions. The presence of zirconium oxide was found to have little impact on the development of the calcium (sulpho)aluminate hydrate phases. - Highlights: ► This is the first study of Portland cement-based biomaterials by 27Al and 29Si NMR. ► 20 wt.% ZrO2 radiopacifier accelerates the early cement hydration reactions. ► Extent of hydration after 6 h is increased from 5.7% to 15% in the presence of ZrO2. ► Initial and final setting times are reduced by 25 and 22 min, respectively. ► ZrO2 provides nucleation sites for the precipitation of early hydration products.

  12. A new subspecies of Chamaea fasciata (Wrentit) from Oregon (Aves: Timaliinae)

    Browning, M. Ralph

    1992-01-01

    Geographic variation in plumage color of Chamaea fasciata (Wrentit) from northern California and southern Oregon is related to climate. A new subspecies, Chamaea fasciata margra, is described from a disjunct population of southern interior Oregon. Colonization of C. fasciata in interior Oregon was perhaps from birds crossing coniferous forests via isolated balds of Ceonothus. Recent increases of Wrentits in interior Oregon may be in response to habitat alterations (deforestation, fires) and concurrent global warming.

  13. Hydration of portland cement, natural zeolite mortar in water and sulphate solution

    Janotka, I.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to characterise sulphate resistance of mortars made from ordinary Portland cement ( PC and Portland-pozzolan cement with 35 wt.% of zeolite addition (zeolite-blended cement-ZBC . Mortars with two different cement types were tested in water and 5% sodium sulphate solution for 720 days. A favourable effect of zeolite on increased sulphate resistance of the cement is caused by decrease in free Ca(OH2 content of the mortar There is not sufficient of Ca(OH2 available for reacting with the sulphate solution to form voluminous reaction products. A decreased C3A, content due to 35 wt.% replacement of PC by zeolite is the next pronounced factor improving resistance of the mortar with such blended cement.

    El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estudiar la resistencia a los sulfatos de morteros preparados con cemento portland ordinario (PC y cemento portland puzolánico, con un 35% en peso de zeolita (zeolite-blended cement (ZBC. Ambos tipos de morteros fueron conservados en agua y en una disolución de sulfato sódico al 5% durante 720 días. Se observó una mayor resistencia a los sulfatos en el mortero preparado con el cemento que contenía zeolita debido a su menor contenido en Ca(OH2. No hay cantidad suficiente de Ca(OH2 para que se produzca la reacción de los constituyentes de la pasta con la disolución de sulfato sódico y formar así productos de naturaleza expansiva. La disminución en el contenido de C,3A, debida a la sustitución de un 35% en peso de PC por zeolita, es el factor más determinante en el aumento de la resistencia del mortero en los cementos con adición.

  14. Structural Evaluation and Performance of Portland Cement Concretes After Exposure to High Temperatures

    Evandro Tolentino

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the "residual" thermal conductivity of Portland cement concretes (with characteristic compressive strength at 28 days, f ck, of 20 MPa and 50 MPa at room temperature after heat-treating at 180 °C, 300 °C and 600 °C. The description of the geometry of the structure was carried out using mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen sorption. The results showed a decreasing tendency of residual thermal conductivity, which we attributed to heat-induced concrete degradation. Furthermore, the results from mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen sorption tests showed that a coarser pore structure is produced with the raise of heat-treatment temperatures.

  15. Structural Evaluation and Performance of Portland Cement Concretes After Exposure to High Temperatures

    Evandro Tolentino; Fernando S. Lameiras; Abdias M. Gomes; Cláudio A. Rigo da Silva; Wander L. Vasconcelos

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the "residual" thermal conductivity of Portland cement concretes (with characteristic compressive strength at 28 days, f ck, of 20 MPa and 50 MPa) at room temperature after heat-treating at 180 °C, 300 °C and 600 °C. The description of the geometry of the structure was carried out using mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen sorption. The results showed a decreasing tendency of residual thermal conductivity, which we attributed to heat-induced concrete degradation. Furthermor...

  16. Hydration study of ordinary portland cement in the presence of zinc ions

    Monica Adriana Trezza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydration products of Portland cement pastes, hydrated in water and in the presence of zinc ions were studied comparatively at different ages. Hydration products were studied by X ray diffractions (XRD and infrared spectroscopy (IR. Although IR is not frequently used in cement chemistry, it evidenced a new phase Ca(Zn(OH32. 2H2O formed during cement hydration in the presence of zinc. The significant retardation of early cement hydration in the presence of zinc is assessed in detail by differential calorimetry as a complement to the study carried out by IR and XRD, providing evidence that permits to evaluate the kinetic of the early hydration.

  17. Electromagnetic interference shielding with Portland cement paste containing carbon materials and processed fly ash

    Zornoza, E.; Catalá, G.; Jiménez, F.; Andión, L. Gª; Garcés, P.

    2010-01-01

    The study described in this article explored the effect of adding different types of carbon materials (graphite powder and three types of carbon fibre), fly ash (with 5.6%, 15.9% and 24.3% Fe2O3), and a mix of both on electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding in Portland cement pastes. The parameters studied included the type and aspect ratio of the carbonic material, composite material thickness, the frequency of the incident electromagnetic r...

  18. Immobilisation Of Spent Ion Exchange Resins Using Portland Cement Blending With Organic Material

    Immobilisation of spent ion exchange resins (spent resins) using Portland cement blending with organic material for example bio char was investigated. The performance of cement-bio char matrix for immobilisation of spent ion exchange resins was evaluated based on their compression strength and leachability under different experimental conditions. The results showed that the amount of bio char and spent resins loading effect the compressive strength of the waste form. Several factors affecting the leaching behaviour of immobilised spent resins in cement-bio char matrix. (author)

  19. Microstructure engineering of Portland cement pastes and mortars through addition of ultrafine layer silicates

    Lindgreen, Holger; Geiker, Mette Rica; Krøyer, Hanne;

    2008-01-01

    Pozzolanic submicron-sized silica fume and the non-pozzolanic micron- and nano-sized layer silicates (clay minerals) kaolinite, smectite and palygorskite have been used as additives in Portland cement pastes and mortars. These layer silicates have different particle shape (needles and plates......, in comparison to the pure cement pasta and the paste containing kaolinite, a more open pore structure consisting of fine pores. Silica fume paste contains a significant amount of closed pores. As a secondary result, it is demonstrated that both the degree and duration of sample drying strongly modifies...

  20. Healing of apical rarefaction of three nonvital open apex anterior teeth using a white portland cement apical plug

    Amitabha Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge of performing root canal treatment in an open apex pulp-less tooth is to obtain a good apical seal. MTA has been successfully used to achieve a good apical seal, wherein the root canal obturation can be done immediately. MTA and White Portland Cement has been shown similarity in their physical, chemical and biological properties and has also shown similar outcome when used in animal studies and human trials. In our study, open apex of three non vital upper central incisors has been plugged using modified white Portland cement. 3 to 6 months follow up revealed absence of clinical symptoms and disappearance of peri-apical rarefactions. The positive clinical outcome may encourage the future use of white Portland cement as an apical plug material in case of non vital open apex tooth as much cheaper substitute of MTA.

  1. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY... modification to the State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA... certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 14, 2012, Oregon submitted...

  2. Child Care in Oregon: Emerging Solutions. Executive Summary. 1988 Interim Report to the Governor and Legislature.

    Ohio Historical Society, Columbus.

    This is the second in a series of three reports addressing issues, problems, and potential solutions critical to the development of accessible, affordable, and quality day care in Oregon. At present, the majority of Oregon households have two or more wage earners, and the majority of Oregon children need child care on a daily basis. Priority…

  3. Notes from the Field: Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Death - Oregon, 2015.

    Liko, Juventila; Guzman-Cottrill, Judith A; Cieslak, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the Oregon Health Authority was notified of the death of a boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), a rare and fatal complication of measles. The patient, aged 14 years, had reportedly been vaccinated against measles in the Philippines at age 8 months. However, the patient contracted measles at age 1 year while still in the Philippines. He had been well until 2012, when his neurodegenerative symptoms began. After the diagnosis of SSPE was made, the patient remained in home hospice care until his death. Investigators from the Oregon Health Authority and the Oregon Health and Science University reviewed the patient's medical records and interviewed the parents. Vaccination against measles can prevent not only acute measles and its complications, but also SSPE. PMID:26765654

  4. Properties of Portland-Composite Cements with metakaolin: Commercial and manufactured by Thermal Activation of Serbian Kaolin Clay

    Mitrovic A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Portland-composite cements (CEM II were prepared with addition of 5 to 35% of metakaolin (MK, manufactured by thermal activation/calcination of Serbian kaolin clay, and commercial matakaolin (CMK. Performance of the composite cements was evaluated, through the setting time (initial and final, compressive strengths (for ages 2, 7, 28, 90 and 180 days and soundness, and compared with control cement (Portland cement – CEM I. Setting time (initial and final is accelerated in Portlandcomposite cements, for both metakaolins used. The acceleration is higher in cement with addition of commercial metakaolin. Lower compressive strength is obtained after 2 days of curing for all Portland-composite cements in comparison with control cement, since pozzolanic reaction still did not show its effect. After 7 days, pozzolanic reaction show its effect, manifested as compressive strength increase of Portland-composite cements with addition of up to 35% of CMK, and 25% in the case of cements with MK. After 28 days compressive strength was higher than that for control cement for cements prepared with addition of CMK, and with addition of up to 25% MK. After 90 days increased compressive strength was noticed with addition of 10 - 20% of CMK, and with 10 and 15% of MK, while after 180 days addition of both metakaolins influences compressive strength decrease. The results of the soundness, 0.5 mm for CEM I, and 1.0 mm in most Portland-composite cements indicate soundness increase with addition of metakaolins. Generally, better performance of Portland-composite cements was obtained with addition of commercial metakaolin, which may be attributed to the differences in the pozzolanic activity of the applied metakaolins, 20.5 MPa and 14.9 MPa for CMK and MK, respectively. By our previous findings pozzolanic activity of the thermally activated clay may be increased by subsequent milling of the metakaolin manufactured by thermal activation process.

  5. Sprague River geomorphology studies, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    McDowell, P. F.; O'Connor, J. E.; Lind, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Sprague River drains 4050 square kilometers with a mean annual discharge of 16.3 m3/s before emptying into the Williamson River and then upper Klamath Lake in southcentral Oregon. The alternating wide alluvial segments and narrow canyon reaches of this 135-km-long westward flowing river provide for a variety of valued ecologic conditions and human uses along the river corridor, notably fisheries (including two endangered species of suckers, and formerly salmon), timber harvest, agriculture, and livestock grazing. The complex history of land ownership and landuse, water control and diversion structures, and fishery alterations, provides several targets for attributing historic changes to channel and floodplain conditions. Recently, evolving societal values (as well as much outside money) are inspiring efforts by many entities to 'restore' the Sprague River watershed. In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Klamath Tribes, and many local landowners, we are launching an analysis of Sprague River channel and floodplain processes. The overall objective is to guide restoration activities by providing sound understanding of local geomorphic processes and conditions. To do this we are identifying key floodplain and channel processes, and investigating how they have been affected by historic floodplain activites and changes to the watershed. This is being accomplished by analysis of historic aerial photographs and maps, stratigraphic analysis of floodplain soils and geologic units, mapping of riparian vegetation conditions and changes, and quantitative analysis of high resolution LiDAR topography acquired for the entire river course in December 2004. Preliminary results indicate (1) much of the coarser (and more erodible) floodplain soils are largely composed of pumice deposited in the basin by the 7700 year BP eruption of Mount Mazama; and (2) the LiDAR digital elevation models provide a ready means of subdividing the river into segments with

  6. Tsetsaut History: The Forgotten Tribe of Southern Southeast Alaska. Portland Canal Early History (Misty Fiord National Monument). Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History #147.

    Dangeli, Reginald H.

    Written by one of the tribe's few remaining members and based on oral history and legend, this study traces the history of the Tsetsaut tribe, ancient original inhabitants of the Portland Canal area of southeastern Alaska. Chapters recount the quest for the coast, legends of Portland Canal, exploration of the area, material culture, establishment…

  7. A comparative evaluation of compressive strength of Portland cement with zinc oxide eugenol and Polymer-reinforced cement: An in vitro analysis

    S Prakasam

    2014-01-01

    These samples were further subdivided based on time interval and were tested at 1 hour, 24 hours and at 7 th day. After each period of time all the specimens were tested by vertical CVR loaded frame with capacity of 5 tones/0473-10kan National Physical laboratory, New Delhi and the results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffe test. Results: Polymer-reinforced cement with 50% Portland cement, Zinc oxide with 50% Portland cement, Polymer-reinforced cement with 25% Portland cement and Zinc oxide with 25% Portland cement exhibited higher compressive strength when compared to Zinc oxide with 0% Portland cement and Polymer-reinforced cement with 0% Portland cement, at different periods of time. The difference between these two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and it is suggested that mixture of 50% and 25% Portland cement in Zinc oxide eugenol and Polymer-modified zinc oxide cement can be used as core build up material and permanent filling material. Conclusion: It is concluded that 50% and 25% Portland cement in zinc oxide eugenol and polymer-modified zinc oxide eugenol results in higher compressive strength and hence can be used as permanent filling material and core built-up material.

  8. The influence of shrinkage-cracking on the drying behaviour of White Portland cement using Single-Point Imaging (SPI).

    Beyea, S D; Balcom, B J; Bremner, T W; Prado, P J; Cross, A R; Armstrong, R L; Grattan-Bellew, P E

    1998-11-01

    The removal of water from pores in hardened cement paste smaller than 50 nm results in cracking of the cement matrix due to the tensile stresses induced by drying shrinkage. Cracks in the matrix fundamentally alter the permeability of the material, and therefore directly affect the drying behaviour. Using Single-Point Imaging (SPI), we obtain one-dimensional moisture profiles of hydrated White Portland cement cylinders as a function of drying time. The drying behaviour of White Portland cement, is distinctly different from the drying behaviour of related concrete materials containing aggregates. PMID:9875607

  9. The Holy Dose: Spiritual adventures with Southern Oregon's psychedelic crusaders

    Weber, Alex L

    2011-01-01

    Ashland, Oregon is a smart little community nestled in the foothills of the Siskiyou Mountains about 20 minutes north of the California border. Home to Southern Oregon University and host to the yearly Shakespeare Festival, Ashland is one of those places both progressive and picturesque that often occupies a top spot on waiting-room magazines' “Best Small Towns” or “Best Places to Retire” lists. It's got a walkable business district with cozy fine-dining bistros, new-age book shops and old-sc...

  10. DSC and TG Analysis of a Blended Binder Based on Waste Ceramic Powder and Portland Cement

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Kulovaná, Tereza; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Rahhal, Viviana; Irassar, Edgardo; Černý, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Cement industry belongs to the business sectors characteristic by high energy consumption and high {CO}2 generation. Therefore, any replacement of cement in concrete by waste materials can lead to immediate environmental benefits. In this paper, a possible use of waste ceramic powder in blended binders is studied. At first, the chemical composition of Portland cement and ceramic powder is analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence method. Then, thermal and mechanical characterization of hydrated blended binders containing up to 24 % ceramic is carried out within the time period of 2 days to 28 days. The differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry measurements are performed in the temperature range of 25°C to 1000°C in an argon atmosphere. The measurement of compressive strength is done according to the European standards for cement mortars. The thermal analysis results in the identification of temperature and quantification of enthalpy and mass changes related to the liberation of physically bound water, calcium-silicate-hydrates dehydration and portlandite, vaterite and calcite decomposition. The portlandite content is found to decrease with time for all blends which provides the evidence of the pozzolanic activity of ceramic powder even within the limited monitoring time of 28 days. Taking into account the favorable results obtained in the measurement of compressive strength, it can be concluded that the applied waste ceramic powder can be successfully used as a supplementary cementing material to Portland cement in an amount of up to 24 mass%.

  11. CALCIUM ORTHOPHOSPHATES HYDRATES: FORMATION, STABILITY AND INFLUENCE ON STANDARD PROPERTIES OF PORTLAND CEMENT

    Kaziliunas A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of phosphogypsum to produce the binders requires a much higher input than preparation of natural gypsum stone. This makes it uncompetitive material. The investigations presented therein are meant to reduce this input by looking for the ways of rendering impurities harmless. Soluble acid orthophosphates are the main harmful impurity of phosphogypsum. The studies show that dry insoluble calcium orthophosphates hydrates (1.09 % and 2.18 % P2O5 in gypsum have little effect on W/C, setting times and soundness of Portland cement pastes. Insoluble calcium orthophosphates hydrates {CaHPO4∙2H2O, Ca8(HPO42(PO44∙5H2O and Ca9(HPO4(PO45(OH∙4H2O} formed in acidic medium (pH = 4.2 - 5.9 have been destroyed in alkaline medium and reduce standard compressive strength of cement up to 28 %. Calcium orthophosphates hydrates of hydroxyapatite group are stable in alcaline medium, while in dry state they reduce the standard compressive strength of cement until 10 %, but their suspensions prolong setting times of Portland cement as soluble orthophosphates – 2 - 3 times. Alkalis in cement increase pH of paste, but do not change the process of formation of calcium orthophosphates hydrates of hydroxyapatite group: it takes place through an intermediate phase - CaHPO4·2H2O, whose transformation into apatite lasts for 2 - 3 months.

  12. Effect of blastfurnace slag addition to Portland cement for cationic exchange resins encapsulation

    Stefan L.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the nuclear industry, cement-based materials are extensively used to encapsulate spent ion exchange resins (IERs before their final disposal in a repository. It is well known that the cement has to be carefully selected to prevent any deleterious expansion of the solidified waste form, but the reasons for this possible expansion are not clearly established. This work aims at filling the gap. The swelling pressure of IERs is first investigated as a function of ions exchange and ionic strength. It is shown that pressures of a few tenths of MPa can be produced by decreases in the ionic strength of the bulk solution, or by ion exchanges (2Na+ instead of Ca2+, Na+ instead of K+. Then, the chemical evolution of cationic resins initially in the Na+ form is characterized in CEM I (Portland cement and CEM III (Portland cement + blastfurnace slag cements at early age and an explanation is proposed for the better stability of CEM III material.

  13. A Thermoelectric Waste-Heat-Recovery System for Portland Cement Rotary Kilns

    Luo, Qi; Li, Peng; Cai, Lanlan; Zhou, Pingwang; Tang, Di; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie

    2015-06-01

    Portland cement is produced by one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. Energy consumption in the manufacture of Portland cement is approximately 110-120 kWh ton-1. The cement rotary kiln is the crucial equipment used for cement production. Approximately 10-15% of the energy consumed in production of the cement clinker is directly dissipated into the atmosphere through the external surface of the rotary kiln. Innovative technology for energy conservation is urgently needed by the cement industry. In this paper we propose a novel thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system to reduce heat losses from cement rotary kilns. This system is configured as an array of thermoelectric generation units arranged longitudinally on a secondary shell coaxial with the rotary kiln. A mathematical model was developed for estimation of the performance of waste heat recovery. Discussions mainly focus on electricity generation and energy saving, taking a Φ4.8 × 72 m cement rotary kiln as an example. Results show that the Bi2Te3-PbTe hybrid thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system can generate approximately 211 kW electrical power while saving 3283 kW energy. Compared with the kiln without the thermoelectric recovery system, the kiln with the system can recover more than 32.85% of the energy that used to be lost as waste heat through the kiln surface.

  14. Ordinary Portland Cement matrix for solidification of cellulosic protective clothes hazardous wastes

    The used cellulosic protective clothes constitutes considerable fraction of the hazardous and radioactive wastes accumulated during the practical daily life. The direct solidification of these wastes with ordinary Portland cement resulted in waste forms having undesired characters, therefore, it is recommended to immobilize the secondary waste solutions coming from the oxidative degradation of the used protective clothes waste simulates rather than direct imbedding. IR analyses, X-ray diffraction and thermal characteristics for products of both direct encapsulation of the waste and the cementation of its degradation products were performed to evaluate the properties of the final waste cemented form before their disposal. Based on the results reached from X-ray diffraction, IR spectrograms and thermal analyses reports, it could be stated that no detectable changes in hydration and curing coarse of ordinary Portland cement when mixing the residual secondary waste solution resulting from the oxidative degradation of the used protective clothes waste simulate compared with mixing cement with water and in reverse with imbedding the unprocessed waste in cement matrix

  15. Bioactive coatings on Portland cement substrates: Surface precipitation of apatite-like crystals

    Gallego, Daniel [Biomedical Engineering Department, Ohio State University, 1080 Carmack Road, 270 Bevis Hall, Columbus (OH) - 43210 (United States); Higuita, Natalia [Biomedical Engineering Department, Ohio State University, 1080 Carmack Road, 270 Bevis Hall, Columbus (OH) - 43210 (United States); Grupo de Investigacion en Ingenieria Biomedica CES-EIA (GIBEC), Carrera 43 A No. 52 Sur - 99, Sabaneta (Colombia); Garcia, Felipe [Grupo de Investigacion en Ingenieria Biomedica CES-EIA (GIBEC), Carrera 43 A No. 52 Sur - 99, Sabaneta (Colombia); Ferrell, Nicholas [Biomedical Engineering Department, Ohio State University, 1080 Carmack Road, 270 Bevis Hall, Columbus (OH) - 43210 (United States); Hansford, Derek J. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Ohio State University, 1080 Carmack Road, 270 Bevis Hall, Columbus (OH) - 43210 (United States)], E-mail: hansford.4@osu.edu

    2008-04-01

    We report a method for depositing bioactive coatings onto cement materials for bone tissue engineering applications. White Portland cement substrates were hydrated under a 20% CO{sub 2} atmosphere, allowing the formation of CaCO{sub 3}. The substrates were incubated in a calcium phosphate solution for 1, 3, and 6 days (CPI, CPII, and CPIII respectively) at 37 deg. C to induce the formation of carbonated apatite. Cement controls were prepared and hydrated with and without CO{sub 2} atmosphere (C+ and C- respectively). The presence of apatite-like crystals was verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The substrate cytocompatibility was evaluated via SEM after 24 hour cell cultures. SEM revealed the presence Ca(OH){sub 2} on C-, and CaCO{sub 3} on C+. Apatite-like crystals were detected only on CPIII, confirmed by phosphorus EDS peaks only for CPIII. Cells attached and proliferated similarly well on all the substrates except C-. These results prove the feasibility of obtaining biocompatible and bioactive coatings on Portland cement for bone tissue engineering applications.

  16. The impact of zirconium oxide nanoparticles on the hydration chemistry and biocompatibility of white Portland cement.

    Li, Qiu; Deacon, Andrew D; Coleman, Nichola J

    2013-01-01

    Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) has been nominated as a radiopacifying agent for use in MTA-like Portland cement-based root-filling materials. This research examines the impact of 20 wt% ZrO2 nanoparticles in the size range 50 to 75 nm on the early hydration chemistry of white Portland cement. Nano-ZrO2 was found to accelerate the degree of hydration by 26% within the first 24 h by presenting efficient nucleation sites for the precipitation and growth of the early C-S-H gel products. The presence of nano-ZrO2 was also found to divert the fate of the aluminium-bearing reaction products by lowering the ettringite to monosulphate ratio, reducing the size of the ettringite crystals and by increasing the Al:Si ratio of the C-S-H gel phase. The chemical and microstructural changes conferred upon the cement matrix by the nano-ZrO2 particles had a positive impact on in vitro biocompatibility with respect to MG63 osteosarcoma cells (via MTT assay). PMID:24088838

  17. The Greenhouse Gas Emission from Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Construction in China.

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Yang, Panpan; Huang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes an inventory analysis method to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Portland cement concrete pavement construction, based on a case project in the west of China. The concrete pavement construction process was divided into three phases, namely raw material production, concrete manufacture and pavement onsite construction. The GHG emissions of the three phases are analyzed by a life cycle inventory method. The CO₂e is used to indicate the GHG emissions. The results show that for 1 km Portland cement concrete pavement construction, the total CO₂e is 8215.31 tons. Based on the evaluation results, the CO₂e of the raw material production phase is 7617.27 tons, accounting for 92.7% of the total GHG emissions; the CO₂e of the concrete manufacture phase is 598,033.10 kg, accounting for 7.2% of the total GHG emissions. Lastly, the CO₂e of the pavement onsite construction phase is 8396.59 kg, accounting for only 0.1% of the total GHG emissions. The main greenhouse gas is CO₂ in each phase, which accounts for more than 98% of total emissions. N₂O and CH₄ emissions are relatively insignificant. PMID:27347987

  18. Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA

    Jorge Luis Gonçalves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrogenionic potential and electrical conductivity of Portland cements and MTA, as well as the amount of arsenic and calcium released from these materials. In Teflon molds, samples of each material were agitated and added to plastic flasks containing distilled water for 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. The results were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for global comparisons and a Dunn-Tukey test for pairwise comparisons. The results revealed no significant differences in the pH of the materials (p > 0.05. The electrical conductivity of the cements were not statistically different (p > 0.05. White non-structural cement and MTA BIO released the largest amount of calcium ions into solution (p 0.05. The results indicated that the physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA were similar. Furthermore, all materials produced an alkaline environment and can be considered safe for clinical use because arsenic was not released. The electrical conductivity and the amount of calcium ions released into solution increased over time.

  19. Assessment of diabetic teleretinal imaging program at the Portland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center

    Grace L. Tsan, OD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective chart review of 200 diabetic patients who had teleretinal imaging performed between January 1, 2010, and January 1, 2011, at Portland Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Medical Center outpatient clinics to assess the effectiveness of the diabetic teleretinal imaging program. Twenty patients (10% had diabetic retinopathy. Ninety percent of the available teleretinal imaging studies were of adequate quality for interpretation. In accordance with local VA policy at that time, all teleretinal imaging patients should have been referred for a dilated retinal examination the following year. Image readers referred 97.5% of the patients to eye clinics for subsequent eye examinations, but the imagers scheduled appointments for only 80% of these patients. The redundancy rate, i.e., patients who had an eye examination within the past 6 mo, was 11%; the duplicate recall rate, i.e., patients who had a second teleretinal imaging performed within 1 yr of the eye examination, was 37%. Rates of timely diabetic eye examinations at clinics with teleretinal imaging programs, particularly when teleretinal imaging and eye clinics were colocated at the same community-based outpatient clinic, were higher than at those without a teleretinal imaging program. We concluded that the Portland VA Medical Center's teleretinal imaging program was successful in increasing the screening rate for diabetic retinopathy.

  20. The Greenhouse Gas Emission from Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Construction in China

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Yang, Panpan; Huang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes an inventory analysis method to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Portland cement concrete pavement construction, based on a case project in the west of China. The concrete pavement construction process was divided into three phases, namely raw material production, concrete manufacture and pavement onsite construction. The GHG emissions of the three phases are analyzed by a life cycle inventory method. The CO2e is used to indicate the GHG emissions. The results show that for 1 km Portland cement concrete pavement construction, the total CO2e is 8215.31 tons. Based on the evaluation results, the CO2e of the raw material production phase is 7617.27 tons, accounting for 92.7% of the total GHG emissions; the CO2e of the concrete manufacture phase is 598,033.10 kg, accounting for 7.2% of the total GHG emissions. Lastly, the CO2e of the pavement onsite construction phase is 8396.59 kg, accounting for only 0.1% of the total GHG emissions. The main greenhouse gas is CO2 in each phase, which accounts for more than 98% of total emissions. N2O and CH4 emissions are relatively insignificant. PMID:27347987

  1. Use of ancient copper slags in Portland cement and alkali activated cement matrices.

    Nazer, Amin; Payá, Jordi; Borrachero, María Victoria; Monzó, José

    2016-02-01

    Some Chilean copper slag dumps from the nineteenth century still remain, without a proposed use that encourages recycling and reduces environmental impact. In this paper, the copper slag abandoned in landfills is proposed as a new building material. The slags studied were taken from Playa Negra and Púquios dumps, both located in the region of Atacama in northern Chile. Pozzolanic activity in lime and Portland cement systems, as well as the alkali activation in pastes with copper slag cured at different temperatures, was studied. The reactivity of the slag was measured using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrical conductivity and pH in aqueous suspension and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Furthermore, copper slag-Portland cement mortars with the substitution of 25% (by weight) of cement by copper slag and alkali-activated slag mortars cured at 20 and 65 °C were made, to determine the compressive strength. The results indicate that the ancient copper slags studied have interesting binding properties for the construction sector. PMID:26615227

  2. Creating Open Textbooks: A Unique Partnership Between Oregon State University Libraries and Press and Open Oregon State

    Faye A. Chadwell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents Oregon State University’s experience launching an innovative Open Textbook initiative in spring 2014. The partners, Open Oregon State and the Oregon State University Libraries and Press, aimed to reduce the cost of course materials for students while ensuring the content created was peer-reviewed and employed multimedia capabilities. This initiative sought to showcase existing and emerging disciplinary strengths of the University thus creating unique course content that could be shared globally. This article briefly describes the U.S. landscape for open textbook creation and adoption. It demonstrates how this unique partnership has developed, covering barriers and benefits, and what the future could hold for new projects.

  3. Efeito do tempo de cura na rigidez de argamassas produzidas com cimento Portland Effect of the curing time on the stiffness of mortars produced with Portland cement

    G. C. R. Garcia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O concreto de cimento Portland é um dos materiais mais usados no mundo inteiro, entretanto, devido a sua estrutura ser muito complexa, torna-se imprescindível estudar suas propriedades com bastante profundidade. O concreto é produzido a partir de uma argamassa, de areia e cimento, com adição de agregados graúdos, sendo que suas propriedades estão basicamente suportadas nessa argamassa de constituição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a variação da rigidez de duas argamassas de composições com razão cimento:areia de 1:2 e 1:3 em função do tempo de cura, tendo como parâmetro a variação do módulo de Young. Os resultados mostraram que o módulo de Young cresce até atingir o valor máximo no oitavo dia, sendo que nos três primeiros dias esse crescimento é mais acentuado. A análise dos resultados indica que grande parte do processo de hidratação do cimento, com formação das ligações químicas responsáveis pela rigidez da argamassa, acontece nos primeiros dias de cura.Concrete produced with Portland cement is one of building materials most widely used worldwide. However, due to its highly complex structure, its properties require in-depth studies. Concrete is a mortar consisting of a mixture of cement, sand and coarse aggregates, and its properties are represented basically by the mortar base. The aim of this work was to study the change in stiffness of two mortar compositions cured at 25 ºC with a cement-to-sand ratio of 1:2 and 1:3, as a function of curing time using the variation of Young modulus as the measuring parameter. The results showed that Young modulus increases up to a maximum value on the 8th day, and that this increase is more pronounced during the first three days. An analysis of the results indicates that a large part of the cement hydration process, involving the formation of chemical bonds that are responsible for the mortar stiffness, takes place in the early days of curing.

  4. 77 FR 28568 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, OR; Application for Subzone, Shimadzu USA Manufacturing, Inc...

    2012-05-15

    ... Manufacturing, Inc., Canby, OR An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by... Shimadzu USA Manufacturing, Inc. (SUM), located in Canby, Oregon. The application was submitted pursuant...

  5. Influence of the waste glass in the axial compressive strength of Portland cement concrete; Influencia dos residuos vitreos na resistencia a compressao axial do concreto de cimento Portland

    Miranda Junior, E.J.P.; Paiva, A.E.M., E-mail: edson.jansen@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranhao (PPGEM/IFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    In this work, was studied the influence of the incorporation of waste glass, coming from the stage of thinning and polishing of a company of thermal glass treatments, in the axial compressive strength of Portland cement concrete. The coarse and ground aggregates used was crushed stone and sand, respectively. For production of the concrete, percentages of glass residues of 5%, 10% and 20% had been used in substitution to the sand, and relations water/cement (a/c) 0,50, 0,55 and 0,58. The cure of the test bodies was carried through in 7, 14 and 28 days. The statistics analysis of the results was carried out through of the analysis of variance for each one of the cure times. From the results of the compressive strength of the concrete, it could be observed that the concrete has structural application for the relation a/c 0,5, independently of waste glass percentage used, and for the relation a/c 0,55 with 20% of waste glass. (author)

  6. Engineering graduate student Tiffany Adams honored by Oregon State University

    Gilbert, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Tiffany Adams, a Ph.D. candidate in Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering in the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, has been named to Oregon State University's Council of Early Career Engineers, one of three categories of awards for the university's outstanding engineering alumni.

  7. Medical and Educational Collaboration for Therapy Services: The Oregon Experience.

    Coolman, Richard B.; Foran, Will; Lee, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the transferring of Medicaid recipients to managed care in Oregon and the effects on physical therapy and occupational therapy services for children with disabilities. Describes a process that balances fiscally responsible utilization of therapy resources with advocacy for appropriate therapy services. Guidelines for services are…

  8. Suicidal Behavior: A Survey of Oregon High School Students, 1997.

    Hopkins, David

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in the 10- to 19-year-old population in Oregon. The suicide rate has increased more than five-fold in the last three and one-half decades. This trend can be reversed by developing an understanding of the characteristics, behaviors, and events associated with suicide in at-risk youth. The Youth Risk…

  9. On the Agenda: Oregon's Chronically Ill Children and Their Families.

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This report describes the current status and needs of chronically ill children and their families in Oregon. An introductory chapter outlines the history of educational services for children with severe health needs, defines the term "chronically ill," reports on prevalence, and outlines trends. a survey of 49 parents of chronically ill children…

  10. 77 FR 64444 - VOR Federal Airway V-595; Oregon

    2012-10-22

    ... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 VOR Federal Airway V-595; Oregon...

  11. The Introduction of Total Quality Management at Oregon State University.

    Coate, Edwin

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the implementation of the Total Quality Management approach at Oregon State University over a number of years describes the planning process, steps and issues in implementation, specific results achieved, obstacles encountered, and lessons learned in the process. (MSE)

  12. Energy-Efficient Schools: Three Case Studies from Oregon.

    2003

    This document presents case studies of three schools or districts in Oregon that have implemented steps to promote energy efficiency. Steps taken by the schools include daylighting, energy audits, special energy loans, new ventilation design, and sustainable building practices. The facilities described are Ash Creek Intermediate School in…

  13. 30 CFR 937.700 - Oregon Federal program.

    2010-07-01

    ... require approval by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3507 because there are fewer than...-468.997, pertaining to the control of water pollution. (2) ORS 498.002 and ORS 498.705, protecting... from the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977: (1) Oregon Surface Mining and Mine...

  14. Small-Scale Farming: A Portrait from Polk County, Oregon.

    Young, John A.; Caday, Peter

    A study of small-scale farmers in Polk County, Oregon, examined characteristics of, and variations among, small-scale farmers and developed some guidelines for assistance programs targeted for such a group. During the months of May, June, and July of 1978 an average of 4 days a week was spent locating and interviewing 44 small farm operators in…

  15. On the Cusp: Corey Harper--University of Oregon, Eugene

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A recent library school graduate, Corey Harper was nominated by his colleagues at the University of Oregon (UO) because of the key role he played in implementing digital collections. Along with technical expertise, says Watson, he brought with him "[an ability to] balance idealism with expediency, the striving for perfection with the need to…

  16. 76 FR 34252 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Portland Cement...

    2011-06-13

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Portland Cement... published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on February 5, 1985 (50 FR... in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on March 7, 2011 (76 FR 12370)....

  17. Microstructure Development and Transport Properties of Portland Cement-fly Ash Binary Systems: in view of service life predictions

    Yu, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of burning coal in electric power generating plants. It is commonly known that owing to its pozzolanic properties fly ash is widely used as a partial replacement for Portland cement in concrete. The use of fly ash in concrete not only reduces the landfill costs of fly ash, bu

  18. Determination of absorption length of CO2 and high power diode laser radiation for ordinary Portland cement

    Lawrence, Jonathan; Johnston, Emma P.; Li, Lin

    2000-01-01

    The laser beam absorption lengths of CO2 and a high power diode laser (HPDL) radiation for the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) surface of concrete have been determined. By employing Beer-Lambert’s law the absorption lengths for concrete of CO2 and a HPDL radiation were 470±22 μm and 177±15 μm respectively.

  19. Comparing the Environmental Impacts of Alkali Activated Mortar and Traditional Portland Cement Mortar using Life Cycle Assessment

    Matheu, P. S.; Ellis, K.; Varela, B.

    2015-11-01

    Since the year 1908 there has been research into the use alkali activated materials (AAM) in order to develop cementitious materials with similar properties to Ordinary Portland Cement. AAMs are considered green materials since their production and synthesis is not energy intensive. Even though AAMs have a high compressive strength, the average cost of production among other issues limits its feasibility. Previous research by the authors yielded a low cost AAM that uses mine tailings, wollastonite and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This mortar has an average compressive strength of 50MPa after 28 days of curing. In this paper the software SimaPro was used to create a product base cradle to gate Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This compared the environmental impact of the AAM mortar to an Ordinary Portland Cement mortar (PCHM) with similar compressive strength. The main motivation for this research is the environmental impact of producing Ordinary Portland Cement as compared to alkali activated slag materials. The results of this LCA show that the Alkali Activated Material has a lower environmental impact than traditional Portland cement hydraulic mortar, in 10 out of 12 categories including Global Warming Potential, Ecotoxicity, and Smog. Areas of improvement and possible future work were also discovered with this analysis.

  20. "Why Is This the Only Place in Portland I See Black People?": Teaching Young Children about Redlining

    Johnson, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    As in many historically black neighborhoods in the United States, the gentrification of northeast Portland rests on an older history of economic injustice perpetrated by banks, realtors, governments, and white property owners. Redlining was one piece of an elaborate puzzle denying people of color access to housing and to wealth. The term refers to…

  1. Increasing Diversity in the Earth Sciences (IDES) - An Oregon Effort

    de Silva, S. L.; Duncan, R. A.; Wright, D. J.; de Silva, L.; Guerrero, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    The IDES (Increasing Diversity in Earth Sciences) Program is the first partnership of its kind in the state of Oregon targeted at broadening participation in the Earth Science enterprise. Funded by the National Science Foundation Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences program (NSF-OEDG), this partnership involves community colleges, a research university with major strengths in Earth Science research and education and an institutionalized commitment to enhancing diversity, state and federal agencies, centers of informal education, and the Oregon Space Grant Consortium, IDES has two integrated goals: 1) to increase the number of students from under-represented groups who pursue careers in Earth Science research and education, and 2) to strengthen the understanding of Earth Sciences and their relevance to society among broad and diverse segments of the population. Built around the best practices of tiered mentoring, interactive student cohort, research and education internships, and financial support, this 4-year program recruits 10 to 12 students (mainly rising juniors) each year from science majors at Oregon State University and five Oregon community colleges. The program is reaching its goals by: a) training participants in the application of geospatial to Earth Science problems of personal relevance b) immersing participants in a two-year mentored research project that involves summer internships with academic units, state and federal agencies, and centers for informal education in Oregon. c) exposing, educating, and involving participants in the breadth of Earth Science careers through contact with Earth Science professionals through mentors, a professional internship, and a learning community that includes a speaker series. d) instilling an understanding of context and relevance of the Earth Science Enterprise to the participants, their families, their communities, and the general public. We report on the first two years of this program during

  2. Modeling the degradation of Portland cement pastes by biogenic organic acids

    Reactive transport models can be used to assess the long-term performance of cement-based materials subjected to biodegradation. A bioleaching test (with Aspergillus niger fungi) applied to ordinary Portland cement pastes during 15 months is modeled with HYTEC. Modeling indicates that the biogenic organic acids (acetic, butyric, lactic and oxalic) strongly accelerate hydrate dissolution by acidic hydrolysis whilst their complexation of aluminum has an effect on the secondary gel stability only. The deepest degradation front corresponds to portlandite dissolution and decalcification of calcium silicate hydrates. A complex pattern of sulfate phases dissolution and precipitation takes place in an intermediate zone. The outermost degraded zone consists of alumina and silica gels. The modeling accurateness of calcium leaching, pH evolution and degradation thickness is consistently enhanced whilst considering increase of diffusivity in the degraded zones. Precipitation of calcium oxalate is predicted by modeling but was hindered in the bioleaching reactor.

  3. 谈硅酸盐水泥的强度%On strength of Portland cement

    牛崇霞

    2012-01-01

    The paper illustrates the formation and development of the cement strength,analyzes the factors which influence the strength of the Portland cement from the mineral components of the clinker,the cement fineness,and the construction conditions,and points out the cement strength could adhere to the regulation of the relative standards only by controlling these factors in a strict way.%简要阐述了水泥强度的产生与发展,从熟料的矿物组成、水泥细度、施工条件三方面分析了影响硅酸盐水泥强度的因素,指出只有严格控制这些因素,才能保证水泥强度符合有关标准规定。

  4. Increasing the compressive strength of portland cement concrete using flat glass powder

    This paper analyzes the compressive strength of Portland cement concrete in response to the incorporation of 5%, 10% and 20% of flat glass powder in place of sand, at w/c (water/cement) ratios of 0.50, 0.55 and 0.58. A statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed after 7, 14 and 28 days of curing. The compressive strength test results indicate that the concrete containing a w/c ratio of 0.50 can be used for structural applications, regardless of the waste glass content, as can that with a w/c ratio of 0.55 containing 20% of waste glass. We suggest that the use of flat glass powder in place of sand in the above mentioned percentages is feasible for the production of an environmentally appropriate and structurally applicable concrete. However, the concrete's fluidity and void content must be taken into account. (author)

  5. A combined QXRD/TG method to quantify the phase composition of hydrated Portland cements

    Soin, Alexander V.; Catalan, Lionel J.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Kinrade, Stephen D., E-mail: stephen.kinrade@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    A new method is reported for quantifying the mineral phases in hydrated cement pastes that is based on a combination of quantitative X-ray diffractometry (QXRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). It differs from previous methods in that it gives a precise measure of the amorphous phase content without relying on an assumed stoichiometric relationship between the principal hydration products, calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The method was successfully applied to gray and white ordinary Portland cements (GOPC and WOPC, respectively) that were cured for up to 56 days. Phase distributions determined by QXRD/TG closely matched those from gray-level analysis of backscattered scanning electron microscope (BSEM) images, whereas elemental compositions obtained for the amorphous phase by QXRD/TG agreed well with those measured by quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)

  6. Effectiveness of shrinkage-reducing admixtures on Portland pozzolan cement concrete

    Videla, C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying shrinkage causes tensile stress in restrained concrete members. Since all structural elements are subject to some degree of restraint, drying shrinkage is regarded to be one of the main causes of concrete cracking. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SRA in reducing drying shrinkage strain in Portland pozzolan cement concrete. The major variables examined included slump, admixture type and dose, and specimen size. The measured results indicate that any of the admixtures used in the study significantly reduced shrinkage. Concrete manufactured with shrinkage reducing admixtures shrank an average of 43% less than concrete without admixtures. As a rule, the higher the dose of admixture, the higher was its shrinkage reduction performance. The experimental results were compared to the shrinkage strain estimated with the ACI 209, CEB MC 90, B3, GL 2000, Sakata 1993 and Sakata 2001 models. Although none of these models was observed to accurately describe the behaviour of Portland pozzolan cement concrete with shrinkage reducing admixtures, the Sakata 2001 model, with a weighted coefficient of variation of under 30%, may be regarded to be roughly adequate.

    La retracción por secado es un fenómeno intrínseco del hormigón que produce tensiones de tracción en elementos restringidos de hormigón. Puesto que todos los elementos presentan algún grado de retracción, se considera a la retracción por secado como una de las principales causas de agrietamiento en proyectos de construcción en hormigón. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la efectividad de los aditivos reductores de retracción (SRA en hormigones fabricados con cemento Portland puzolánico. Las variables principales estudiadas incluyen el asentamiento de cono de Abrams, marca y dosis de aditivo reductor de retracción, y tamaño de espécimen de hormigón. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que el uso de

  7. Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment at the Arizona Portland Cement Plant in Rillito, Arizona

    Stephen J. Coppinger, P.E.; Bruce Colburn, Ph.D., P.E., CEM

    2007-05-17

    A Department of Energy Plant-wide Assessment was undertaken by Arizona Portland Cement (APC) beginning in May 2005. The assessment was performed at APC’s cement production facility in Rillito, Arizona. The assessment included a compressed air evaluation along with a detailed process audit of plant operations and equipment. The purpose of this Energy Survey was to identify a series of energy cost savings opportunities at the Plant, and provide preliminary cost and savings estimates for the work. The assessment was successful in identifying projects that could provide annual savings of over $2.7 million at an estimated capital cost of $4.3 million. If implemented, these projects could amount to a savings of over 4.9 million kWh/yr and 384,420 MMBtu/year.

  8. Increasing the compressive strength of portland cement concrete using flat glass powder

    Miranda Junior, Edson Jansen Pedrosa de; Bezerra, Helton de Jesus Costa Leite; Politi, Flavio Salgado; Paiva, Antonio Ernandes Macedo, E-mail: edson.jansen@ifma.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranha (IFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica e Materiais

    2014-08-15

    This paper analyzes the compressive strength of Portland cement concrete in response to the incorporation of 5%, 10% and 20% of flat glass powder in place of sand, at w/c (water/cement) ratios of 0.50, 0.55 and 0.58. A statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed after 7, 14 and 28 days of curing. The compressive strength test results indicate that the concrete containing a w/c ratio of 0.50 can be used for structural applications, regardless of the waste glass content, as can that with a w/c ratio of 0.55 containing 20% of waste glass. We suggest that the use of flat glass powder in place of sand in the above mentioned percentages is feasible for the production of an environmentally appropriate and structurally applicable concrete. However, the concrete's fluidity and void content must be taken into account. (author)

  9. Influence of portland cement replacement in high calcium fly ash geopolymer paste

    Tanakorn Phoo-ngernkham

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the influence of ordinary Portland cement (OPC replacement in high calcium fly ash (FA geopolymer paste. FA was used to replace OPC at the rate of 5, 10 and 15% by mass of binder. Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 and 10 molar sodium hydroxide (NaOH solutions were used as the alkaline solution in the reaction. The Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 2.0 and the liquid/binder (L/B ratio of 0.60 were used in all mixtures. The results of increase OPC replacement, the setting time and compressive strain capacity decreased while the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity increased. The compressive strength and modulus of elasticity at 28 days of geopolymer pastes with 15% OPC replacement were 36.7 MPa and 13,300 MPa, respectively.

  10. Chemical and morphological characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements.

    Khan, Shahbaz; Kaleem, Muhammad; Fareed, Muhammad Amber; Habib, Amir; Iqbal, Kefi; Aslam, Ayesha; Ud Din, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and particle morphology of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) and two white Portland cements (CEM 1 and CEM 2). Compositional analysis was performed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction whereas, morphological characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscope and Laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer. The elemental composition of WMTA, CEM 1 and CEM 2 were similar except for the presence of higher amounts of bismuth in WMTA. Calcium oxide and silicon oxide constitute the major portion of the three materials whereas, tricalcium silicate was detected as the major mineral phase. The particle size distribution and morphology of WMTA was finer compared to CEM 1 and CEM 2. The three tested materials had relatively similar chemical composition and irregular particle morphologies. PMID:26830831

  11. Study on the hydration and microstructure of Portland cement containing diethanol-isopropanolamine

    Ma, Suhua, E-mail: yc982@163.com; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Shenbiao; Hu, Yueyang; Shen, Xiaodong

    2015-01-15

    Diethanol-isopropanolamine (DEIPA) is a tertiary alkanolamine used in the formulation of cement grinding-aid additives and concrete early-strength agents. In this research, isothermal calorimetry was used to study the hydration kinetics of Portland cement with DEIPA. A combination of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)–thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the phase development in the process of hydration. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was used to study the pore size distribution and porosity. The results indicate that DEIPA promotes the formation of ettringite (AFt) and enhances the second hydration rate of the aluminate and ferrite phases, the transformation of AFt into monosulfoaluminate (AFm) and the formation of microcrystalline portlandite (CH) at early stages. At later stages, DEIPA accelerates the hydration of alite and reduces the pore size and porosity.

  12. Effects of High Temperature on the Residual Performance of Portland Cement Concretes

    Evandro Tolentino

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed the "residual" performance of Portland cement concretes heat-treated at 600 °C after cooling down to room temperature. Concretes with characteristic compressive strength at 28 days of 45 MPa and of 60 MPa were studied. The heat-treatment was carried out without any imposed load. We measured the residual compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. The geometry of the structure was described by mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen sorption tests. We observed a decrease of residual compressive strength and modulus of elasticity, with the raise of heat-treatment temperature, as a result of heat-induced material degradation. The results also indicated that the microstructural damage increased steadily with increasing temperature. Based on the results of this experimental work we concluded that residual mechanical properties of concrete are dependent of their original non heat-treated values.

  13. Analysis by X-Ray images of EVA waste incorporated in Portland Cement

    The EVA is a copolymer used by Brazilian shoes industries. This material is cut for the manufacture of insoles. This operation generates about 18% of waste. The EVA waste can be reused in incorporation in Portland cement to construction without structural purposes. The aim of this work is to show X-rays images to assessment the space distribution of the wastes in the cement and to evaluate the use of this methodology. Cylindrical specimens were produced according to ABNT - NBR 5738 standards. The volume relation of sand and cement was 3:1, 10% and 30% of waste was incorporated in cement specimens. X-Rays images were obtained of cylindrical specimens in front projection. The images showed that the distribution of the waste is homogeneous, consistent with what was intended in this type of incorporation, which can provide uniformity in test results of compressive strength. (author)

  14. Pore size distribution, strength, and microstructure of portland cement paste containing metal hydroxide waste

    Majid, Z.A.; Mahmud, H.; Shaaban, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification of hazardous wastes is used to convert hazardous metal hydroxide waste sludge into a solid mass with better handling properties. This study investigated the pore size development of ordinary portland cement pastes containing metal hydroxide waste sludge and rice husk ash using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The effects of acre and the addition of rice husk ash on pore size development and strength were studied. It was found that the pore structures of mixes changed significantly with curing acre. The pore size shifted from 1,204 to 324 {angstrom} for 3-day old cement paste, and from 956 to 263 {angstrom} for a 7-day old sample. A reduction in pore size distribution for different curing ages was also observed in the other mixtures. From this limited study, no conclusion could be made as to any correlation between strength development and porosity. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Remarks on durability of carbonated and uncarbonated Portland cement under sulphate action. Infrared spectroscopy study

    Vázquez Moreno, T.

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available Not availableAl objeto de poder comprobar y comparar los resultados obtenidos sobre una serie de ensayos de prismas pequeños (KOCH y STEINEGGER de 1 X 1 X 6 cm, hechos en colaboración con el "Subcomité de Resistencia Química" del CEMBUREAU, en el I.E.T.c.c. se realizaron tres nuevas series de ensayo con ocho cementos distintos, una de las cuales nos sirvió para estudiar el efecto inhibidor de la carbonatación. También sobre dos de estas series se ha efectuado un estudio de espectroscopia infrarroja, para un mejor esclarecimiento de la durabilidad del cemento portland frente a los sulfatos. En este artículo se resumen los resultados obtenidos, cuyo estudio completo saldrá en una próxima publicación del I.E.T.c.c.

  16. Durabilidad del hormigón frente al agua de mar. Estudio de dos cementos portland

    Gaspar-Tebar, Demetrio

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the behaviour is set forth of mortars (1:3 made with two types of Spanish portland cement which have a C3A content of under 8 and 5 %, respectively, against sea water. This gives the evolution of mechanical bending strengths, corrosion coefficients (Koch-Steinegger, as well as the variation in the ionic concentration of the Solutions in which the mortar specimens were submerged (filtered water and sea water during a 56-day period, the structural composition of the solid stage formed and the hydrated cement paste. On the other hand, a bibliographic survey is included on the durability of mortars and concretes against sea water.En el presente trabajo se da cuenta del comportamiento de los morteros (1 : 3 hechos con dos cementos portland españoles que tienen un contenido de C3A menor del 8 y del 5%, respectivamente, frente al agua de mar, determinando la evolución de las resistencias mecánicas a flexión, los coeficientes de corrosión (Koch-Steinegger, así como la variación de la concentración iónica de las disoluciones en donde se han sumergido las probetas de mortero (agua filtrada y agua de mar durante 56 días, la composición estructural de la fase sólida formada y de la pasta de cemento hidratado. Por otra parte, se incluye un estudio bibliográfico sobre la durabilidad de los morteros y hormigones frente al agua de mar.

  17. Mechanical characterization of Portland cement mortars containing petroleum or coal tar

    Garcés, P.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses experimental data on the flexural and compressive strength of Portland cement mortars containing additions or cement replacements consisting in petroleum or coal tar, by-products of the oil and coal industries. The materials studied were two coal (BACA and BACB and two petroleum (BPP and BPT tars. The results show that it is feasible to use such materials as a partial replacement for cement in mortar manufacture. This should lead to the design of a new sustainable product that will contribute to lowering the environmental impact of construction materials while at the same time opening up an avenue for the re-use of this type of industrial by-products.En este artículo se presentan datos experimentales de resistencia a flexión y a compresión de morteros de cemento Portland con adición y sustitución de breas de petróleo y de alquitrán de carbón, que son subproductos de la industria del carbón o del petróleo. Los materiales estudiados son breas de alquitrán de carbón A (BACA y B (BACB, y dos breas de petróleo (BPP y (BPT. Los datos demuestran la viabilidad del uso de estas breas en la fabricación de morteros con menores contenidos de cemento, permitiendo diseñar un nuevo material sostenible con el medio ambiente y que contribuya a reducir el impacto ambiental de los materiales de construcción, hecho que permite abrir una nueva vía de valorización de estos subproductos.

  18. The effects of utilizing silica fume in Portland Cement Pervious Concrete

    Mann, Daniel Allen

    Silica fume has long been used as a supplementary cementing material to provide a high density, high strength, and durable building material. Silica fume has a particle size a fraction of any conventional cement, which allows it to increase concrete strength by decreasing the porosity especially near the aggregates surface. Because Portland Cement Pervious Concrete (PCPC) has a smaller bond area between aggregate and paste, silica fume has significant impacts on the properties of the PCPC. The research in this paper studies the workability of a cement paste containing silica fume in addition to analyzing the results of testing on Portland Cement Pervious Concrete mixtures that also contained silica fume. Testing conducted included a study of the effects of silica fume on cement's rheological properties at various dosage rates ranging from zero to ten percent by mass. It was determined that silica fume has negligible effects on the viscosity of cement paste until a dosage rate of five percent, at which point the viscosity increases rapidly. In addition to the rheological testing of the cement paste, trials were also conducted on the pervious concrete samples. Sample groups included mixes with river gravel and chipped limestone as aggregate, washed and unwashed, and two different void contents. Workability tests showed that mixtures containing a silica fume dosage rate of 5 percent or less had comparable or slightly improved workability when compared to control groups. Workability was found to decrease at a 7 percent dosage rate. Samples were tested for compressive strength at 7 and 28 days and splitting tensile strength at 28 days. It was found in most sample groups, strength increased with dosage rates of 3 to 5 percent but often decreased when the dosage reached 7 percent. Abrasion testing showed that both samples containing washed aggregate and samples containing silica fume exhibited a reduced mass loss.

  19. Assessment of ferrous chloride and Portland cement for the remediation of chromite ore processing residue.

    Jagupilla, Santhi C; Wazne, Mahmoud; Moon, Deok Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) is an industrial waste containing up to 7% chromium (Cr) including up to 5% hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. The remediation of COPR has been challenging due to the slow release of Cr(VI) from a clinker like material and thereby the incomplete detoxification of Cr(VI) by chemical reagents. The use of sulfur based reagents such as ferrous sulfate and calcium polysulfide to detoxify Cr(VI) has exasperated the swell potential of COPR upon treatment. This study investigated the use of ferrous chloride alone and in combination with Portland cement to address the detoxification of Cr(VI) in COPR and the potential swell of COPR. Chromium regulatory tests, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses were used to assess the treatment results. The treatment results indicated that Cr(VI) concentrations for the acid pretreated micronized COPR as measured by XANES analyses were below the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) standard of 20 mg kg(-1). The Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) Cr concentrations for all acid pretreated samples also were reduced below the TCLP regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1). Moreover, the TCLP Cr concentration for the acid pretreated COPR with particle size ⩽0.010 mm were less than the universal treatment standard (UTS) of 0.6 mg L(-1). The treatment appears to have destabilized all COPR potential swell causing minerals. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) for the treated samples increased significantly upon treatment with Portland cement. PMID:25966327

  20. Immobilisation of strontium, nickel and iodide by a sulphate-resisting Portland cement

    The interaction of Sr(II), Ni(II) and I(-I) with sulphate-resisting Portland cement was investigated under highly alkaline conditions. Batch-sorption studies were performed by contacting HTS cement (haute teneur en silice, sulphate-resisting Portland cement, Lafarge, France) with artificial cement pore water (ACW). The composition of ACW was 0.18 M KOH, 0.114 M NaOH and 1.2 mM Ca(OH)2. 85Sr, 63Ni and 125I were used as tracers. In the experiments with Sr(II) and Ni(II), isosaccharinic acid (ISA) was added to ACW at 10-5 M to 10-2 M in order to study the effect of complexing ligands on radionuclide retention. The stability of the tracer solutions and the cement suspensions were first assessed. Moreover, the inventory of the stable elements were determined in cement and cement pore water. We then studied the kinetics of the radionuclide-cement interaction process and measured the dependence of the distribution ratio (Rd) on the concentration of ISA and on the concentration of cement particles (S:L ratio). In the case of 63Ni and 125I a strong decrease in the distribution ratio (Rd) with increasing S:L ratio was observed. There is strong indication that the inventory of the stable fraction of an element present in cement pore water accounts for the retention of the radioisotope fraction. The results further indicate that phase transformations may occur in non-pre-equilibrated cement systems (non-equilibrium conditions) which affect 63Ni uptake by HTS cement. The distribution ratios measured on HTS cement were compared with values obtained from measurements on important cement components (portlandite, CSH/C(A)SH-phases)

  1. Physical and mechanical characterization of Portland cement mortars made with expanded polystyrene particles addition (EPS

    Ferrándiz-Mas, V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On this work the influence of the addition of different types (commercial and recycled and contents of expanded polystyrene on the physical and mechanical properties of Portland cement mortars has been studied. Variables studied are: workability, air content, bulk density, mechanical strength, porosity, water absorption and sound absorption. Mixtures have been also characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Air-entraining agents, water retainer and superplasticizer additives have been used in order to improve the workability of mortars. The results show that the workability and mechanical strength decreases with increasing content of expanded polystyrene. Additives improve the workability and porosity, allowing manufacture mortars with high levels of recycled material that show mechanical properties suitable for use as masonry mortars, stucco and plaster.

    El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la influencia de la adición de distintos tipos y dosificaciones de poliestireno expandido, tanto comerciales como procedentes de reciclado, sobre las características físicas y mecánicas de morteros de cemento portland. Las variables estudiadas fueron: consistencia, aire ocluido, densidad aparente, resistencias mecánicas, porosidad, absorción de agua y absorción acústica. Los morteros también se han caracterizado por microscopia electrónica de barrido. Con objeto de mejorar la trabajabilidad de los morteros se ha empleado aditivos aireante, retenedor de agua y fluidificante. Los resultados muestran que al aumentar la cantidad de poliestireno expandido la trabajabilidad y las resistencias mecánicas disminuyen. El empleo de aditivos mejora la trabajabilidad y la porosidad, permitiendo fabricar morteros con altos contenidos de residuo, con propiedades mecánicas adecuadas para su empleo como morteros de albañilería, revoco y enlucido.

  2. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine and Regulating Outlet at Cougar Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009–2010

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2011-05-23

    Fish passage conditions through a Francis turbine and a regulating outlet (RO) at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions encountered during passage via specific routes. The RO investigation was performed in December 2009 and the turbine evaluation in January 2010, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision, strike, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Cougar Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 3.7-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine passage. Compared to mainstem Columbia River passage routes, none of the Cougar Dam passage routes as tested are safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  3. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine, Spillway, and Regulating Outlet at Detroit Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-05-06

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways, a Francis turbine, and a regulating outlet (RO) at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes. The study was performed in July, October, and December 2009 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe strike, collision, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Detroit Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 5-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine and spillway passage. However, none of the passage routes tested is safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  4. Hydration kinetics for the alite, belite, and calcium aluminate phase in Portland cements from 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy

    Skibsted, Jørgen; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Jakobsen, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy is shown to be a valuable tool for obtaining the quantities of alite and belite in hydrated Portland cements. The hydration (1-180 days) of a white Portland cement with 10 wt.% silica fume added is investigated and the degrees of hydration for alit...... belite, and silica fume are determined. It is demonstrated that 27Al MAS NMR spectra of hydrated Portland cements can give quantitative information about the formation of ettringite and the conversion of this phase to monosulphate during hydration....

  5. Portland cement with additives in the repair of furcation perforations in dogs Cimento Portland com aditivos na reparação de perfurações radiculares em cães

    José Dias da Silva Neto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of Portland cements with additives as furcation perforation repair materials and assess their biocompatibility. METHODS: The four maxillary and mandibular premolars of ten male mongrel dogs (1-1.5 years old, weighing 10-15 kg received endodontic treatment (n=80 teeth. The furcations were perforated with a round diamond bur (1016 HL. The perforations involved the dentin, cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. A calcium sulfate barrier was placed into the perforated bone to prevent extrusion of obturation material into the periradicular space. The obturation materials MTA (control, white, Type II, and Type V Portland cements were randomly allocated to the teeth. Treated teeth were restored with composite resin. After 120 days, the animals were sacrificed and samples containing the teeth were collected and prepared for histological analysis. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the amount of newly formed bone between teeth treated with the different obturation materials (p=0.879. CONCLUSION: Biomineralization occurred for all obturation materials tested, suggesting that these materials have similar biocompatibility.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o uso de cimentos Portland aditivados na reparação de perfurações radiculares e a biocompatibilidade destes materiais. MÉTODOS: Oitenta pré-molares, quatro da arcada dentária superior e quatro da arcada inferior de 10 cães machos, sem raça definida, com idade em torno de um a um ano e meio, pesando entre 10 e 15 kg foram submetidos a tratamento endodôntico, sendo realizadas perfurações nas furcas com broca de diamante 1016 HL. A cavidade envolveu dentina e cemento, como também periodonto e o osso alveolar. Na porção óssea da obturação, barreira de sulfato de cálcio foi utilizada evitando extravasamento do cimento para o espaço periodontal. Foi realizada a distribuição randomizada dos cimentos MTA (controle, Portland tipo II, Portland tipo V e

  6. 78 FR 25755 - Announcement of Funding Awards; Energy Innovation Fund-Multifamily Pilot Program Fiscal Year 2010

    2013-05-02

    ... Community Place, 7441. Cecil, Frederick, Crownsville, MD 21032. Hartford, Howard, Montgomery, Prince George... Greater Portland, OR 1020 SW Taylor, Suite 585, Portland, 5680. metropolitan area. Oregon 97205....

  7. Geomorphic Floodplain with Organic Matter (Biomass) Estimates for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban...

  8. Developing the Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education: the back story.

    Gaines, Barbara C; Spencer, Angela G

    2013-01-01

    The Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education (OCNE) is a collaborative partnership between community colleges and a multicampus university in Oregon that developed in response to an emerging nursing shortage and changing health needs in the population. OCNE has created a redesigned curriculum with shared agreements for academic standards, admission, and seamless transition from associate to baccalaureate programs. Although the schools share pedagogical resources, curriculum, and standards, each partner school retains autonomy and accountability for its degree program. The creation and continued development of the consortium required the participation of people from multiple organizations with diverse concerns. Through a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-funded evaluation of OCNE, this retrospective analysis was conducted to describe the process of consensus building that resulted in OCNE and to provide an explanatory framework for the benefit of others who are seeking to redesign nursing education in their communities. PMID:23910920

  9. Marine nekton off Oregon and the 1997 98 El Nino

    Pearcy, W. G.

    2002-09-01

    Several species of migratory, warm-water, oceanic fishes invaded Oregon waters during the summer of 1997. Also, the jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas), common in the eastern tropical Pacific, was reported for the first time in 1997 and was caught in large numbers. The occurrence of these oceanic nekton was associated with inshore advection of anomalously warm water. During 1998, after arrival of the main El Niño signal, some warm-water coastal fishes appeared off Oregon. However, unlike observations off California, fewer species of warm-water coastal fishes were noted during the 1997-98 El Niño than during the 1982-83 El Niño.

  10. Providing Enhanced Access for the Oregon State University College Catalogs : A Case Study

    Kunda, Susan A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    The academic catalog is a vital record for colleges and universities. Until the late 1980s, Oregon State University catalogs were published, distributed and archived solely in print format. With the advent of web and digital technologies, the Oregon State University Registrar’s Office also began placing an electronic version of the most recent catalogs online, while the Oregon State University Libraries provided access to earlier versions of the catalog through a subscription to College Sourc...

  11. The changing world of climate change: Oregon leads the states

    Following on the heels of recent national and international developments in climate change policy, Oregon's open-quote best-of-batch close-quote proceeding has validated the use of CO2 offsets as a cost-effective means of advancing climate change mitigation goals. The proceeding was a first in several respects and represents a record commitment of funds to CO2 mitigation by a private entity. In December 1995, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), issued its Second Assessment Report. The IPCC's conclusion that open-quotes[t]he balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climateclose quotes fundamentally changed the tenor of the policy debate regarding potential threats associated with global climate change. At the Climate Change Convention's Conference of the Parties (COP) in Geneva in July 1996, most countries, including the United States, advocated adopting the IPCC report as the basis for swift policy movement toward binding international emissions targets. The next COP, in December 1997, is scheduled to be the venue for the signing of a treaty protocol incorporating such targets. Binding targets would have major consequences for power plant operators in the US and around the world. Recent developments in the state of Oregon show the kinds of measures that may become commonplace at the state level in addressing climate change mitigation. First, Oregon recently completed the first administrative proceeding in the US aimed at offsetting the greenhouse gas emissions of a new power plant. Second, a legislatively mandated energy facility siting task force recently recommended that Oregon adopt a carbon dioxide (CO2) standard for new power plant construction and drop use of the open-quotes need for powerclose quotes standard. This article reviews these two policy milestones and their implications for climate change mitigation in the United States

  12. Idaho–Eastern Oregon Onion Industry Analysis

    Bolotova, Yuliya; Jemmett, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The Idaho–Eastern Oregon onion industry operates in a market environment characterized by a high level of onion price and supply volatility. Years of relatively high onion prices are often followed by years of very low prices which do not allow onion growers to recover their onion production costs. This feature of the industry adversely affects the profi tability of onion growers and the economic performance of their industry. This study conducts an analysis of alternative market scenarios ...

  13. Introducing the Oregon State University Open Source Lab

    Leslie Hawthorn; Anthony Casson

    2011-01-01

    The Oregon State University Open Source Lab (OSUOSL) is the home of growing, high-impact open source communities. Its world-class hosting services enable the Linux operating system, Apache web server, the Drupal content management system, and over 50 other leading open source software projects to collaborate with contributors and distribute software to millions of users globally. Through custom software development, vendor partnerships, and industry events such as the Government Open Source C...

  14. Alternativas analíticas para determinação de ferro e titânio em cimento Portland Comparative study of analytical methods for iron and titanium determination in Portland cement

    Jorge de O. Franco Jr.; Maria das Graças A. Korn; Antonio Celso S. Costa; Anibal de Freitas Santos Jr.; Leonardo S. G. Teixeira

    2001-01-01

    In the present work four different analytical methodologies were studied for the determination of iron and titanium in Portland cement. The cement samples were dissolved with hot HCl and HF, being compared Fe and Ti concentrations through four analytical methods: molecular absorption spectrophotometry using the reagents 1,2-hydroxybenzene-3,5-disulfonic acid (Tiron) and the 5-chloro-salicylic acid (CSA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and flame atomic absorp...

  15. Estudo para o aproveitamento de resíduos pétreos de marmorarias, como agregados para concreto de cimento Portland

    Fábio Conrado de Queiroz; Maria Heloisa Barros de Oliveira Frascá

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, it is presented a study for the utilization of marble shops waste (stone by-products) as aggregate of Portland cement concrete. First, the material were separated and classified by lithologic type. After that, they were mixed in a crusher, producing the required aggregates. Several tests for technological characterization of the material were done, intending to evaluate the use of the material as aggregate. Some simulations of Portland cement concrete dosage were done with vari...

  16. Evolution and quantification of the main Sensitisers in commercial portland cements

    Frías, M.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The commercial Portland cements contain minor elements in their chemical compositions. The presence of these elements has a direct incidence in different aspects: rheological behaviour, reaction kinetics, environmental, etc. Some of them also have a negative effect on the human health; so, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni and cobalt (Co are the main allergens present in Portland cements, causing of Professional Dermatitis in construction workers. The current study is focussed on the quantification of total and soluble chromium, nickel and cobalt in a wide range of Spanish commercial cements. These values can represent a contribution to the establishing of possible limitations or reductions of these elements in forthcoming standards. Analytical data show that clinkers are the main responsibles of the presence of soluble chromium in commercial cements. This fact could be indicating that chromium solubility (from inert Cr III to soluble Cr VI would be closely related to the clinkerisation conditions. On the other hand, there is not a direct ratio between total chromium and soluble chromium; it means that analytical results are punctual and not any case can be extrapolating ones. Ni and Co solubility in water is practically negligible either raw as clinkers.

    Los cementos Portland comerciales contienen elementos minoritarios en su composición química. La presencia de estos elementos tiene una incidencia directa en diferentes aspectos: comportamiento reológico, cinética de reacción, contaminación ambiental, etc. Algunos de ellos, aparte de su incidencia mencionada anteriormente, tienen un efecto negativo en la salud humana. Así, el cromo (Cr, níquel (Ni y cobalto (Co son los principales alérgenos contenidos en los cementos y, por lo tanto, los principales causantes de la Dermatitis Profesional. Este trabajo se centra en la cuantifîcación de los contenidos totales y solubles de cromo, níquel y cobalto presentes en los cementos comerciales

  17. Effect of fly ash on the optimum sulfate of Portland Cement

    Niemuth, Mark D.

    Calcium sulfate is typically added to ordinary portland cement (OPC) clinker during grinding to prevent flash set and to improve early-age strength development without causing volume instabilities. Recent changes to ASTM C150, Standard Specification for Portland Cement, have enabled greater flexibility in determining optimum sulfate levels in portland cement by not requiring ASTM C563, Approximation of Optimum SO3 in Hydraulic Cement Using Compressive Strength, to be used in setting sulfate target levels. ASTM C563 requires strength testing using only the hydraulic cement, which is not always indicative of the optimum sulfate for field use, since supplementary materials (e.g., fly ash) may be used by the concrete producer. Adding additional sulfate to account for the sulfate demand of fly ashes can enable an improvement in the early age strength for cement-fly ash systems and decrease in problems that may be attributed to OPC-admixture-fly ash incompatibility such as abnormal setting and slow strength gain. This thesis provides experimental data on the strength development and heat release during early hydration for cement-fly ash systems with different sulfate levels. The thesis focused on high calcium fly ashes, but low calcium fly ash was also tested. It is demonstrated that some fly ashes have their own sulfate demand and when these ashes are used in cement-fly ash blends there is effectively an increase in the optimal sulfate level that could be used for the OPC. It is also shown that optimum sulfate determined by heat of hydration measured with isothermal calorimetry is similar to the optimum sulfate determined by compressive strength at 1 day. Using isothermal calorimetry can result in substantial time and cost savings at plants for determining the optimal sulfate content. Theories for the mechanisms that drive the differences in sulfate demand in OPC are reviewed. These theories are adapted for OPC-fly ash blends and are outlined, tested and discussed. The

  18. Effects of composition and exposure on the solar reflectance of Portland cement concrete

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-12-21

    Increasing the solar reflectance (albedo) of a paved surface keeps it cooler in the sun, reducing convection of heat from pavement to air and thereby decreasing the ambient air temperature. Simulations of the influence of pavement albedo on air temperature in Los Angeles predict that increasing the albedo of 1,250 km2 of pavement by 0.25 would save cooling energy worth $15M yr-1, and reduce smog-related medical and lost-work expenses by $76M yr-1. Most sidewalks and a small fraction of roads and parking areas are paved with portland cement concrete, which can be made quite reflective through suitable choice of cement and aggregate. Variations with composition and environmental exposure of the albedos of portland cement concrete pavements were investigated through laboratory fabrication and exposure of 32 mixes of concrete. Twenty-four mixes yielded substandard, ''rough'' concretes due to high, unmet aggregate water demand. The albedos of the remaining eight ''smooth'' concrete mixes ranged from 0.41 to 0.77 (mean 0.59). Simulated weathering, soiling, and abrasion each reduced average concrete albedo (mean decreases 0.06, 0.05, and 0.19, respectively), though some samples became slightly more reflective through weathering or soiling. Simulated rain (wetting) strongly depressed the albedos of concretes (mean decrease 0.23) until their surfaces were dried. Concrete albedo grew as the cement hydration reaction progressed (mean increase 0.08), but stabilized within six weeks of casting. White-cement concretes were on average significantly more reflective than gray-cement concretes. The albedo of the most-reflective white-cement concrete was 0.18 to 0.39 higher than that of the most-reflective gray-cement concrete, depending on state of exposure. Concrete albedo generally correlated with cement albedo and sand albedo, and, after abrasion, with rock albedo. Cement albedo had a disproportionately strong influence on the reflectance

  19. Hydration and microstructure of Portland cement partially substituted with ultrafine silica

    Escalante, J. I.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal waste, a by-product of steam power plants that use geothermal underground resources, was studied as a possible replacement for Portland cement. This waste consists primarily in amorphous nanometric silica with traces of sodium and potassium chlorides. The replacement ratios studied were 0, 10 and 20% in cements cured at 20 and 60 ºC. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that clinker phase hydration took place earlier in the presence of the geothermal waste. Scanning electron microscopy, in turn, revealed a reduction in porosity and intense calcium hydroxide consumption as a result of the pozzolanic reaction. The pastes containing 20% waste, however, an intense cracking was observed due to the formation of alkali silica reaction gel and ettringite. Cracking was more prominent at 60 ºC but was not observed in either the neat cement or the blend with 10 % waste. The presence of these detrimental phases was attributed to the formation of Friedel’s salt in the initial hydration stages, induced by the chlorides in the geothermal material.Se investigaron pastas de cemento Portland sustituido con un desecho geotérmico, subproducto de la generación de electricidad en plantas que emplean recursos geotérmicos. El desecho está compuesto principalmente de sílice amorfa de tamaño nanométrico, con cloruros de sodio y potasio. Se investigaron cementos con niveles de substitución de 0, 10 y 20%, curados a 20 y 60 °C. En presencia del desecho geotérmico, se observó por Difracción de rayos X cuantitativa que la hidratación de las fases del clínker se aceleró; además mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido se encontró una disminución en la porosidad y un intenso consumo de hidróxido de calcio por la reacción puzolánica. Sin embargo, para pastas con 20% de desecho geotérmico, se observó agrietamiento con la presencia de gel de reacción álcali sílice y ettringita; fue más acentuado a 60 °C y no se observó para pastas de

  20. Water dynamics in hardened ordinary Portland cement paste or concrete: from quasielastic neutron scattering.

    Bordallo, Heloisa N; Aldridge, Laurence P; Desmedt, Arnaud

    2006-09-14

    Portland cement reacts with water to form an amorphous paste through a chemical reaction called hydration. In concrete the formation of pastes causes the mix to harden and gain strength to form a rock-like mass. Within this process lies the key to a remarkable peculiarity of concrete: it is plastic and soft when newly mixed, strong and durable when hardened. These qualities explain why one material, concrete, can build skyscrapers, bridges, sidewalks and superhighways, houses, and dams. The character of the concrete is determined by the quality of the paste. Creep and shrinkage of concrete specimens occur during the loss and gain of water from cement paste. To better understand the role of water in mature concrete, a series of quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments were carried out on cement pastes with water/cement ratio varying between 0.32 and 0.6. The samples were cured for about 28 days in sealed containers so that the initial water content would not change. These experiments were carried out with an actual sample of Portland cement rather than with the components of cement studied by other workers. The QENS spectra differentiated between three different water interactions: water that was chemically bound into the cement paste, the physically bound or "glassy water" that interacted with the surface of the gel pores in the paste, and unbound water molecules that are confined within the larger capillary pores of cement paste. The dynamics of the "glassy" and "unboud" water in an extended time scale, from a hundred picoseconds to a few nanoseconds, could be clearly differentiated from the data. While the observed motions on the picosecond time scale are mainly stochastic reorientations of the water molecules, the dynamics observed on the nanosecond range can be attributed to long-range diffusion. Diffusive motion was characterized by diffusion constants in the range of (0.6-2) 10(-9) m(2)/s, with significant reduction compared to the rate of diffusion

  1. Demonstration Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting: NE Cully Boulevard Portland, OR

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Tuenge, Jason R.

    2012-06-29

    A new roadway lighting demonstration project was initiated in late 2010, which was planned in conjunction with other upgrades to NE Cully Boulevard, a residential collector road in the northeast area of Portland, OR. With the NE Cully Boulevard project, the Portland Bureau of Transportation hoped to demonstrate different light source technologies and different luminaires side-by-side. This report documents the initial performance of six different newly installed luminaires, including three LED products, one induction product, one ceramic metal halide product, and one high-pressure sodium (HPS) product that represented the baseline solution. It includes reported, calculated, and measured performance; evaluates the economic feasibility of each of the alternative luminaires; and documents user feedback collected from a group of local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) members that toured the site. This report does not contain any long-term performance evaluations or laboratory measurements of luminaire performance. Although not all of the installed products performed equally, the alternative luminaires generally offered higher efficacy, more appropriate luminous intensity distributions, and favorable color quality when compared to the baseline HPS luminaire. However, some products did not provide sufficient illumination to all areas—vehicular drive lanes, bicycle lanes, and sidewalks—or would likely fail to meet design criteria over the life of the installation due to expected depreciation in lumen output. While the overall performance of the alternative luminaires was generally better than the baseline HPS luminaire, cost remains a significant barrier to widespread adoption. Based on the cost of the small quantity of luminaires purchased for this demonstration, the shortest calculated payback period for one of the alternative luminaire types was 17.3 years. The luminaire prices were notably higher than typical prices for currently available luminaires

  2. Influence of The Activated Qatari Attapulgite Clay Admixture on The Mechanical Properties and Hydration Kinetics of Ordinary Portland Cement

    Al-Noaimi, Kawkab Kh. [كوكب النعيمي

    2001-01-01

    Blended cements are types of cements containing additives other than those used m Portland cement, which have considerable technological interest, because such addition increases the chemical resistance to sulfate and chloride attack. The present investigation represents a laboratory study, which provides a unique opportunity to introduce an effective practical attempt to deal with the problem of concrete deterioration m Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region, and to provide a solution to the prob...

  3. Microstructure and Engineering Properties of Alkali Activated Fly Ash -as an environment friendly alternative to Portland cement

    Ma, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Alkali activated fly ash (AAFA), also named “geopolymer”, has emerged as a novel engineering material in the construction industry. This material is normally formed by the reaction between fly ash and aqueous hydroxide or alkali silicate solution. With proper mix design, AAFA can present comparable or superior engineering properties to Portland cement. Moreover, this material shows great potential for sustainable development since its production has a significantly lower CO2 emission than the...

  4. A review of the methods used to study biocompatibility of Portland cement-derived materials used in dentistry

    Camilleri, Josette

    2006-01-01

    Advanced restorative dentistry may necessitate the need for surgical intervention to the infected root apex. Once access to the root end is achieved, the root apex is resected and filled with a dental restorative material. The materials currently in use are not satisfactory due to inadequate biocompatibility and failure to achieve desirable properties in an aqueous environment. With the introduction of a new material, essentially Portland cement used in the building industry, these desirable ...

  5. ENERGY, ACOUSTICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS OF BUILDING SYSTEMS BASED ON WOOD WOOL MINERALIZED WITH PORTLAND CEMENT

    Pavarin, Cora

    2014-01-01

    In the present work various aspects of the energetic, thermal and acoustic properties of porous materials with wood wool mineralized Portland cement have been analyzed, in cooperation with the company Celenit Srl, a manufacturer of panels for building insulation. These products are also recognized interesting and desirable for their environmental sustainability through specific certifications. Remind that sustainability means "development that meets the needs of the present without comprom...

  6. In vitro sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and white Portland cement used as apical plugs

    Patrícia Zanatta Aranha Coneglian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs made of white and gray MTA-Angelus® and white Portland cement placed via the root canal and having different thicknesses (2, 5 and 7 mm. Ninety extracted human single-rooted teeth were instrumented using a size 40 K-file to standardize the foraminal opening by the stepback technique. The teeth were assigned to 3 groups (n=30, according to the material used for fabrication of the apical plugs: A = gray MTA; B = white MTA; C = white Portland cement. The groups were subdivided into groups of 10 teeth each according to the apical plug thickness (2, 5 and 7 mm. Marginal apical dye leakage was assessed using 0.2% Rhodamine B solution in which the specimens were immersed for 72 hours at 37ºC. The roots were sectioned longitudinally in a buccolingual direction for apical plug exposure, and digital photographs were taken and analyzed by Image Tool image-analysis software. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Significance level was set at 5%. The least percent leakage was observed for 5- and 7-mm-thick plugs (p0.05 was found between gray MTA and white Portland cement. Among the three materials analyzed, white MTA presented the highest marginal leakage (p<0.05. The findings of the present study showed that gray MTA and Portland cement had better sealing ability than white MTA when used as apical plugs. Dye leakage was smaller for 5- and 7-mm-thick plugs compared to 2-mm-thick plugs.

  7. El cemento portland en la consistencia del hormigón fresco. Finura de molido óptima

    Sabesinsky Felperin, M.

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se investiga en micro-hormigones frescos preparados con esqueletos granulares compactos y agregados normales, la influencia de la finura de molido del cemento portland en la consistencia del cuerpo compuesto fresco, de distintas relaciones agua/cemento. La relación agua/cemento de la pasta conglomerante y la finura de molido del cemento portland componente de la misma, gobiernan las propiedades del hormigón fresco. Para una determinada consistencia puede establecerse "una finura de molido óptima del cemento portland", la cual permite reducir a un mínimo los requerimientos de agua de amasado. Estimando la finura de molido por mediciones de superficie específica puede establecerse que, para consistencias del hormigón fresco dentro del rango plástico, la superficie específica óptima corresponde a valores entre 2.900 y 3.060 cm2/g (BLAINE.

  8. Influence of bismuth oxide concentration on the pH level and biocompatibility of white Portland cement

    Marina Angélica MARCIANO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate if there is a relation between the increase of bismuth oxide and the decrease of pH levels and an intensification of toxicity in the Portland cement. Material and Methods: White Portland cement (WPC was mixed with 0, 15, 20, 30 and 50% bismuth oxide, in weight. For the pH level test, polyethylene tubes were filled with the cements and immersed in Milli-Q water for 15, 30 and 60 days. After each period, the increase of the pH level was assessed. For the biocompatibility, two polyethylene tubes filled with the cements were implanted in ninety albino rats (n=6. The analysis of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate was performed after 15, 30 and 60 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Friedman tests for the pH level and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for the biological analysis (p0.05. For the inflammatory infiltrates, no significant statistical differences were found among the groups in each period (p>0.05. The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (p<0.05. Conclusions: The addition of bismuth oxide into Portland cement did not affect the pH level and the biological response. The concentration of 15% of bismuth oxide resulted in significant reduction in inflammatory response in comparison with the other concentrations evaluated.

  9. Hypoxia-Early Life History Studies (The effects of hypoxia on icthyoplankton and micronekton communities off Oregon)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This ongoing collaborative project with Oregon State University investigators focuses on three different fish early-life assemblages in Oregon coastal waters,...

  10. The chemistry and expansion of limestone - Portland cement mortars exposed to sulphate containing solutions

    Some concretes in sulphate-bearing groundwaters can deteriorate slowly through chemical reactions which cause expansion and stress. The overall process involves diffusion of sulphate into the concrete, chemical reaction with some cement constituents, internal expansion and, finally, physical disruption of the reacted zone. This work addresses the chemical reactions and the expansion resulting from them so that the overall process of sulphate attack can be modelled eventually. The extent and rate of reaction of calcium sulphate with ordinary and sulphate resisting Portland cements (OPC and SRPC) have been measured under various conditions. Additionally, mortar bars were fabricated from OPC, OPC/BFS (blast furnace slag) and SRPC cements with carboniferous limestone and exposed to various sulphate-containing solutions. The linear expansion of the bars was continuously monitored over a period of about 200 days and, after exposure, the bars were analysed in detail. The results show that the bulk expansion during sulphate attack is proportional to sulphur taken up in insoluble ettringite and magnesium (when present) precipitated as brucite. The results are used to rationalise the behaviour of concretes in sulphate-bearing environments. (author)

  11. Increase in the strength characteristics of Portland cement due to introduction of the compound mineral supplements

    Il'ina, Liliia; Gichko, Nikolai; Mukhina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    At the initial phase of hardening it is the limestone component that plays a major role in the hardening process, which acts as the substrate for the crystallization of hydrate tumors due to its chemical affinity with the products of Portland cement hydration. After 7 days, the diopside supplement influences the processes more significantly. Diopside has a high modulus of elasticity compared to the cement paste. As a result, stresses are redistributed within the cement paste and the whole composition is hardened. An increase in the quantity of diopside in the compound supplement to more than 66.7% does not provide a substantial increase in the strength of the cement paste. As the hardness of diopside is higher than the hardness of limestone, much more energy is required to grind it down to a usable component. Therefore, a further increase in the quantity of diopside in the compound supplement is not economically feasible. An evaluation of the optimum quantity of input compound mineral supplements can be made based on the ideas of close packing of spherical particles and the Pauling rules. The optimum content of the supplement is 8-8.5% provided that its dispersion and density are close to the dispersion and density of the binder. An increase in the dispersion of the supplement reduces its optimal quantity.

  12. Degradation of Alumina and Magnesia Chrome refractory bricks in Portland cement kiln – Corrected version*

    Ben Addi K.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In cement plants, the refractory products are particularly confronted to partially liquid oxide phases at temperature ranging between 900°C and 1700°C. All constituents of these products have to resist not only to thermal constraints, but also to the thermochemical solicitations which result from contact material/coating. In order to study the phenomenon of degradation of refractory bricks in cement kilns and to identify the causes of their degradation, we proceed to the examination of industrial cases in cement kiln. Many chemical tests of the degraded refractory bricks have been done and the results acquired were compared to the ones not used. The analysis of the results is doing using different techniques (Loss of ignition, X-ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction. The results show that the degradation of the used bricks in the clinkering and cooling zone is due to the infiltration of aggressive elements such us sulphur, alkali (Na2O, K2O .... The chemical interaction between the Portland clinker phases and refractory material has also an importance on the stability of the coating and consequently on the life of the refractories.

  13. Monitoring accelerated carbonation on standard Portland cement mortar by nonlinear resonance acoustic test

    Eiras, J. N.; Kundu, T.; Popovics, J. S.; Monzó, J.; Borrachero, M. V.; Payá, J.

    2015-03-01

    Carbonation is an important deleterious process for concrete structures. Carbonation begins when carbon dioxide (CO2) present in the atmosphere reacts with portlandite producing calcium carbonate (CaCO3). In severe carbonation conditions, C-S-H gel is decomposed into silica gel (SiO2.nH2O) and CaCO3. As a result, concrete pore water pH decreases (usually below 10) and eventually steel reinforcing bars become unprotected from corrosion agents. Usually, the carbonation of the cementing matrix reduces the porosity, because CaCO3 crystals (calcite and vaterite) occupy more volume than portlandite. In this study, an accelerated carbonation-ageing process is conducted on Portland cement mortar samples with water to cement ratio of 0.5. The evolution of the carbonation process on mortar is monitored at different levels of ageing until the mortar is almost fully carbonated. A nondestructive technique based on nonlinear acoustic resonance is used to monitor the variation of the constitutive properties upon carbonation. At selected levels of ageing, the compressive strength is obtained. From fractured surfaces the depth of carbonation is determined with phenolphthalein solution. An image analysis of the fractured surfaces is used to quantify the depth of carbonation. The results from resonant acoustic tests revealed a progressive increase of stiffness and a decrease of material nonlinearity.

  14. The impact of sulphate and magnesium on chloride binding in Portland cement paste

    The effect of magnesium and sulphate present in sea water on chloride binding in Portland cement paste was investigated. Ground well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl2, NaCl, NaCl + MgCl2, MgSO4 + MgCl2 and artificial sea water solutions with a range of concentrations at 20 °C. Chloride binding isotherms are determined and pH of the solutions were measured. A selection of samples was examined by SEM-EDS to identify phase changes upon exposure. The experimental data were compared with calculations of a thermodynamic model. Chloride binding from sea water was similar to chloride binding for NaCl solutions. The magnesium content in the sea water lead to a slight decrease in pH, but this did not result in a notable increase in chloride binding. The sulphate present in sea water reduces both chloride binding in C–S–H and AFm phases, as the C–S–H incorporates more sulphates instead of chlorides, and part of the AFm phases converts to ettringite

  15. Absorption Characteristics of Cement Combination Concrete Containing Portland Cement, fly ash, and Metakaolin

    Folagbade S.O.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The resistance to water penetration of cement combination concretes containing Portland cement (PC, fly ash (FA, and metakaolin (MK have been investigated at different water/cement (w/c ratios, 28-day strengths, and depths of water penetration using their material costs and embodied carbon-dioxide (eCO2 contents. Results revealed that, at equal w/c ratio, eCO2 content reduced with increasing content of FA and MK. MK contributed to the 28-day strengths more than FA. Compared with PC, FA reduced cost and increased the depth of water penetration, MK increased cost and reduced the depth of water penetration, and their ternary combinations become beneficial. At equal strengths and levels of resistance to water penetration, most of the cement combination concretes are more environmentally compatible and costlier than PC concrete. Only MK binary cement concretes with 10%MK content or more and ternary cement concretes at a total replacement level of 55% with 10%MK content or more have higher resistance to water penetration than PC concrete.

  16. INVESTIGATING EFFECTS OF INTRODUCTION OF CORNCOB ASH INTO PORTLAND CEMENTS CONCRETE: MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Antonio Price

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of replacing Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC with Corncob Ash (CCA blended cements. The cement industry contributes considerable amount of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. The main contribution of CO2 emissions from cement production results from the process of creating Calcium Oxide (CaO from limestone (CaCO3 commonly known as the calcination process. Blending OPC with a pozzolanic material will assist in the reduction of CO2 emissions due to calcination as well as enhance the quality of OPC. There are various pozzolanic materials such as fly ash, rice husk, silica fume and CCA that could be promising partial replacement for OPC. In this study, CCA will serve as the primary blending agent with OPC. An experiment was performed to designate an appropriate percentage replacement of CCA that would comply with specific standards of cement production. The experimental plan was designed to analyze compressive strength, workability and thermal performance of various CCA blended cements. The data from the experiment indicates that up to 10% CCA replacement could be used in cement production without compromising the structural integrity of OPC. In addition, it was found that the compressive strength and workability of the resulting concrete could be improved when CCA is added to the mixtures. Furthermore, it was shown that the introduction of 10% CCA can lead to significant reduction in thermal conductivity of the mixture.

  17. Seawater Resistance Evaluation of Existing NPP Concrete Structures Using High-sulfate Resistance Portland Cement

    For nuclear power plant(NPP) structures exposed to marine environment, low-heat and high sulfate resistance portland cement(Type V) with low content of C3A has been widely used to restrain the occurrence of chemical erosion caused by seawater. Despite the superior sulfate resistance of Type V cement, however, questions have been raised on the efficiency of Type V cement for resisting the chloride ion, which is one of the major substances found in seawater. Accordingly, the ACI 357R revised in 1984 required that Type I or II cement containing 4 ∼ 10% of C3A be used. In addition, the standard specifications of Korea Concrete Institute (KCI) were revised in 1996 in order to limit the use of Type V cement in the construction of marine concrete structures. In this regard, the mechanical properties and seawater resistance of concrete using various kinds of cement have been studied to evaluate the durability of existing NPP structures using Type V cement as well as to manifest the regulatory position for the materials of concrete. This paper presents detail observations obtained through this study

  18. Nanostructural Deformation Analysis of Calcium Silicate Hydrate in Portland Cement Paste by Atomic Pair Distribution Function

    Hiroshi Suzuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The deformation of nanostructure of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H in Portland cement (PC paste under compression was characterized by the atomic pair distribution function (PDF, measured using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The PDF of the PC paste exhibited a unique deformation behavior for a short-range order below 2.0 nm, close to the size of the C-S-H globule, while the deformation for a long-range order was similar to that of a calcium hydroxide phase measured by Bragg peak shift. The compressive deformation of the C-S-H nanostructure was comprised of three stages with different interactions between globules. This behavior would originate from the granular nature of C-S-H, which deforms with increasing packing density by slipping the interfaces between globules, rearranging the overall C-S-H nanostructure. This new approach will lead to increasing applications of the PDF technique to understand the deformation mechanism of C-S-H in PC-based materials.

  19. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 °C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the C–S–H and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 °C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 °C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the C–S–H. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the C–S–H and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: •The reaction of quartz powder at 80 °C strongly enhances the compressive strength. •Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 °C was found after 2 days. •Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. •Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. •Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 °C correlates with sulphate content of C–S–H

  20. Development of Portland cement for orthopedic applications, establishing injectability and decreasing setting times.

    Wynn-Jones, Gareth; Shelton, Richard M; Hofmann, Michael P

    2012-11-01

    The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with calcium chloride and calcium nitrate additives was investigated using a syringe with a 2 mm aperture for potential clinical applications such as vertebroplasty. Addition of either additive at 10 wt % increased the quantity of cement extruded through the syringe from approximately 25 wt % for the PC standard, to over 95 wt %. 10 wt % additions of either additive also decreased setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min. The compressive strength of the modified cements was all greater than the compressive strength of a human vertebral body. Decreasing either additive to 5 wt % generated compressive strengths after 24 h setting equal to polymethylmethacrylate, the cement used for the majority of vertebroplasty procedures. An initial early exotherm in the chloride cements was coupled with an X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak that indicated the early formation of the ettringite cement phase. In contrast, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and XRD data indicated that calcium nitrate may have stimulated early calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) production (the main strength producing phase of PC). Combining the two additives produced a synergistic effect with cements having increased injectabilities and compressive strengths compared with either addition used individually. This study has demonstrated that by modifying PC with nonproprietary chemicals it was possible to significantly increase cement injectability and reduce setting times whilst maintaining compressive strengths, making PC suitable for potential orthopedic applications. PMID:22887643

  1. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    Deschner, Florian, E-mail: florian.deschner@gmail.com [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Neubauer, Jürgen [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 °C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the C–S–H and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 °C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 °C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the C–S–H. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the C–S–H and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: •The reaction of quartz powder at 80 °C strongly enhances the compressive strength. •Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 °C was found after 2 days. •Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. •Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. •Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 °C correlates with sulphate content of C–S–H.

  2. Stabilization/solidification of selenium-impacted soils using Portland cement and cement kiln dust.

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Grubb, Dennis G; Reilly, Trevor L

    2009-09-15

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes were utilized to immobilize selenium (Se) as selenite (SeO(3)(2-)) and selenate (SeO(4)(2-)). Artificially contaminated soils were prepared by individually spiking kaolinite, montmorillonite and dredged material (DM; an organic silt) with 1000 mg/kg of each selenium compound. After mellowing for 7 days, the Se-impacted soils were each stabilized with 5, 10 and 15% Type I/II Portland cement (P) and cement kiln dust (C) and then were cured for 7 and 28 days. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the S/S treatments. At 28 days curing, P doses of 10 and 15% produced five out of six TCLP-Se(IV) concentrations below 10mg/L, whereas only the 15% C in DM had a TCLP-Se(IV) concentration ettringite (Ca(6)Al(2)(SeO(4))(3)(OH)(12).26H(2)O), respectively. PMID:19339110

  3. The impact of sulphate and magnesium on chloride binding in Portland cement paste

    De Weerdt, K., E-mail: klaartje.d.weerdt@ntnu.no [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Trondheim (Norway); Orsáková, D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Brno, Brno (Czech Republic); Geiker, M.R. [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-11-15

    The effect of magnesium and sulphate present in sea water on chloride binding in Portland cement paste was investigated. Ground well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, NaCl, NaCl + MgCl{sub 2}, MgSO{sub 4} + MgCl{sub 2} and artificial sea water solutions with a range of concentrations at 20 °C. Chloride binding isotherms are determined and pH of the solutions were measured. A selection of samples was examined by SEM-EDS to identify phase changes upon exposure. The experimental data were compared with calculations of a thermodynamic model. Chloride binding from sea water was similar to chloride binding for NaCl solutions. The magnesium content in the sea water lead to a slight decrease in pH, but this did not result in a notable increase in chloride binding. The sulphate present in sea water reduces both chloride binding in C–S–H and AFm phases, as the C–S–H incorporates more sulphates instead of chlorides, and part of the AFm phases converts to ettringite.

  4. Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Portland Cement as a Function of Age

    Trník, Anton; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Kulovaná, Tereza; Černý, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We study the hydration and pozzolanic reactions of an ordinary Portland cement as a function of age, using the differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The measurements are done for 2 days, 7 days, 28 days, 90 days, 180 days, and 360 days cured samples in order to monitor the rate of hydration. The investigation is performed in the temperature range from 25° C to 1000° C with a heating rate 5° C {\\cdot} min^{-1} in an argon atmosphere. The temperature, enthalpy, and mass change during the decomposition of calcium silicate hydrate gels, ettringite, portlandite, vaterite, and calcite are determined, and the changes in the portlandite amount are estimated in dependence on the time of hydration. We found out that the temperature and enthalpy of liberation of physically bound water, C-S-H gels and ettringite decomposition (all occurring from 50° C to 250° C) and Portlandite decomposition (420° C to 530° C) decrease with hydration time of studied samples. On the other hand, vaterite and calcite decomposition (530° C to 850° C) the temperature varies and the enthalpy increases with hydration time of samples.

  5. Microstructure and Composition of Hydration Products of Ordinary Portland Cement with Ground Steel-making Slag

    LI Yong-xin; CHEN Yi-min; ZHANG Hong-tao; HE Xing-yang; WEI Jiang-xiong; ZHANG Wen-sheng

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ground steel-making slag on microstructure and composition of hydration products of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated by mercury intrusion porosimetry ( MIP ), X- ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Results show that ground steel-making slag is a kind of high activity mineral additives and it can raise the longer-age strength of OPC mortar. The total porosity and average pore diameter of OPC paste with groand steel-making slag increase with the increase of the amount of ground steelmaking slag replacing OPC at various ages, while after 28 days most pores in OPC paste with ground steel-making slag do not influeace the strength because the diameter of those pores is in the rang of 20 to 50nm. The hydration mechanism of ground steel-making slag is similar to that of OPC but different from that of fly ash and blast furnace slag. The hydration products of ground steel-making slag contain quite a lot of Ca( OH)2 in long age.

  6. Setting temperature evolution of nitrate radwaste immobilized in ordinary portland cement

    Materials based on hydraulic cements such as ordinary Portland cement (OPC) have many applications in the radioactive waste disposal field. Cement hydration process is an exothermic reaction and can cause a considerable temperature rise in the cemented waste form. Specially when large blocks of waste forms are produced it is necessary to have some information about the temperature build up which occurs inside the mass, because this effect may have some influences on the ultimate properties of the hardened cement paste. This temperature rise cause expansion while the cement paste is hardening. When the cooling process takes place, to the surrounding temperature, crackings and contractions may then occur. Whether cracking arise it depends both on the magnitude of the temperature induced stress and on the capacity of the mixture to accommodate the strain. This paper compares the temperature growth in pastes into two different geometries: one uses a waste container with 3.8 dm3 (one US gallon) capacity placed inside a 0.21 m3 (55 gallons) concrete lined drum, which acts as a radiation shielding, and the other the same container placed in ambient at room temperature. Correlations between the time of temperature occurrence, maximum temperature, the water to cement ratio and salt content were observed

  7. DURABILITY PERFORMANCE OF RFCC SPENT CATALYSTBLENDED PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE EXPOSED TO SEA WATER ATTACK

    Allahverdi A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of the paste of Portland cement blended with spent catalyst from Resid Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (RFCC unit of petroleum refining processes in sea water. 28-day cured paste specimens prepared from binary cement mixes containing different amounts of spent catalyst were exposed to Persian Gulf sea water. Compressive strength, weight, and length changes of the specimens were monitored and considered for evaluating the extent of deterioration. Laboratory techniques of X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also used to study the deteriorated specimens. The results confirm that at relatively high replacement levels, the pozzolanic property of the spent catalyst and the increased open pore volume of such blended cements may result in contradictory consequences. Specimens of relatively higher replacement levels exhibit higher rates of deterioration in spite of their superior mechanical strength behavior caused by pozzolanic reaction. The results obtained by X-ray diffractometry confirm the presence of higher amounts of chlorine-containing Friedel’s salt in specimens containing RFCC spent catalyst compared to plain reference specimens.

  8. Solidification of spent radioactive organic solvent by sulfoaluminate and Portland cements

    The solidification of simulated spent radioactive organic solvent, tri-butyl phosphate/kerosene, was investigated by emulsification–solidification method using sulfoaluminate cement (SAC) and Portland cement (PC). Zeolite, calcium hydroxide and MR-1 type emulsifier were mixed into the cement blends for improving the performance of solidified waste forms (SWF). The properties of SWF were evaluated in terms of mechanical strength, leachability and mineral phase analyses. The hydration products of SWF were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results showed that the 28 d compressive strengths of SAC solidified waste forms (SACF) and PC solidified waste forms (PCF) were 14.23 and 19.07 MPa, respectively. Leaching sequence of three radionuclides in two kinds of SWF is Cs+ > Sr2+ > Co2+. Compared with PCF, SACF had better performance in preventing nuclides Co2+ and Cs+ from leaching to the environment. The XRD patterns suggested that simulated spent radioactive organic solvent and emulsifier in SWF did not obviously change the hydration products of the two cements (SAC and PC). (author)

  9. Using portland cement for encapsulation of epipremnum aureum generated from phytoremediation process of liquid radioactive wastes

    Phyto remediation process was recommended for treatment of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive waste. Epipremnum aureum (golden pothas plant) was used to bioabsorbe, bioaccumulate and biostabilize Cs-137 and Co-60 from simulated waste solution containing both radionuclides. After the phyto remediation process, the collected golden pothas was solidified using portland cement aiming at complete and safe management scheme. In this part of work x-ray diffraction , infrared analysis and electron microscope examination as non-destructive techniques were used to evaluate the characteristics of obtained final waste forms of cemented golden pothas. In addition, mechanical, porosity and chemical optimizations were performed under various experimental parameters to asses the suitability of the two processes i.e. phyto remediation and cementation for managing these wastes categories. The experimental results obtained confirmed that encapsulation of 3 % dry ground golden pothas that collected from treatment process of radioactive waste solution, in cement materials did not affect the hydration, setting and curing of the cement matrix. In addition , the obtained cemented waste form exhibits acceptable constitutions that comply with the final disposal requirements.

  10. Effects of Using Pozzolan and Portland Cement in the Treatment of Dispersive Clay

    Vakili, A. H.; Selamat, M. R.; Moayedi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Use of dispersive clay as construction material requires treatment such as by chemical addition. Treatments to dispersive clay using pozzolan and Portland cement, singly and simultaneously, were carried out in this study. When used alone, the optimum amount of pozzolan required to treat a fully dispersive clay sample was 5%, but the curing time to reduce dispersion potential, from 100% to 30% or less, was 3 month long. On the other hand, also when used alone, a 3% cement content was capable of reducing dispersion potential to almost zero percent in only 7 days; and a 2% cement content was capable of achieving similar result in 14 days. However, treatment by cement alone is costly and could jeopardize the long term performance. Thus, a combined 5% pozzolan and 1.5% cement content was found capable of reducing dispersion potential from 100% to zero percent in 14 days. The results indicate that although simultaneous treatment with pozzolan and cement would extend the required curing time in comparison to treatment by cement alone of a higher content, the task could still be carried out in a reasonable period of curing time while avoiding the drawbacks of using either pozzolan or cement alone. PMID:23864828

  11. Effects of Using Pozzolan and Portland Cement in the Treatment of Dispersive Clay

    A. H. Vakili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of dispersive clay as construction material requires treatment such as by chemical addition. Treatments to dispersive clay using pozzolan and Portland cement, singly and simultaneously, were carried out in this study. When used alone, the optimum amount of pozzolan required to treat a fully dispersive clay sample was 5%, but the curing time to reduce dispersion potential, from 100% to 30% or less, was 3 month long. On the other hand, also when used alone, a 3% cement content was capable of reducing dispersion potential to almost zero percent in only 7 days; and a 2% cement content was capable of achieving similar result in 14 days. However, treatment by cement alone is costly and could jeopardize the long term performance. Thus, a combined 5% pozzolan and 1.5% cement content was found capable of reducing dispersion potential from 100% to zero percent in 14 days. The results indicate that although simultaneous treatment with pozzolan and cement would extend the required curing time in comparison to treatment by cement alone of a higher content, the task could still be carried out in a reasonable period of curing time while avoiding the drawbacks of using either pozzolan or cement alone.

  12. Reactivity of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) grout and various lithologies from the Harwell research site

    Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has been used in the completion of boreholes on the Harwell Research Site, AERE, Oxfordshire. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of OPC and the alkaline pore fluids generated during its setting on the various lithological types encountered in the boreholes. To facilitate this, samples of core representing the various rock types were selected and cement-rock composites were prepared from these in the laboratory to simulate the borehole cements. After a curing period of 15 months the cores and associated cement plugs were examined for any signs of reactivity or bonding. The best cement-rock bonding was shown by naturally well-cemented sandstone and limestone lithologies. Although no significant chemical reaction was seen to have occurred between OPC and rock, the OPC appears able to bind onto the rock surface because of the rigidity of the rock surface. Therefore, the best cement rock bonding and seal with OPC may be expected in the limestones of the Great Oolite Group, Inferior Oolite Group and parts of the Corallian Beds. Because of the reactivity of OPC towards certain lithologies a better borehole seal in such a sedimentary sequence might be achieved using a bentonite backfill in those parts of the sequence which either react with or bond only weakly to OPC. (author)

  13. Some aspects about the Portland cement utilization as a matrix for radioactive waste immobilization

    More recently, the environmental policy has concentrated the focus on the study of the waste disposal environmental impact. Since Portland cement is commonly used as a matrix in the low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste immobilization, in the present work, some relationships between the structure and properties of matrix, based on available concrete technology information, has been established by using the multi-level approach analysis. The relationships were developed based on hydrating reactions, the microstructure models, the pore system. It have been verified that: a) CSH gel is responsible for the cementing action and for the strength; b) it seems that the capillary porosity is the strength limiting; c) the permeability, regarded in terms of gel porosity and reduced capillary porosity of the hardened cement paste, may not be a decisive factor for the radionuclide release; d) the shrinkage and the swelling induced cracks can enhance the diffusion mechanism for the cracks increase the exposed surface. The durability of the waste disposal matrix concerning chemical attack in the acidic environment has been considered. (author)

  14. Carbonation of low heat portland cement paste procured in water for different time

    Deping Chen; Etsuo Sakai; Masaki Daimon; Yoko Ohba

    2007-01-01

    The carbonation technique was applied to accelerate the hydration of low heat portland cement (LHC). Before carbonation, the demoulded pastes were precured in water for 0, 2, 7, and 21 d, respectively. The results show that procuring time in water strongly influences the carbonation process. The phenolphthalein test indicates that the paste precured in water for a shorter time is more quickly carbonated than that for a longer time. The content of calcium hydroxide increases with increasing the procuring time in water, whereas, the amount of absorbed carbon dioxide changes contrarily. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation shows that portlandite always fills up big air bubbles in the paste during precuring in water, and the mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) results show that there are less large capillary pores in the paste precured in water for a longer time. It is found that the paste without precuring in water has more carbon dioxide absorption during curing in carbon dioxide atmosphere, and its total pore volume decreases remarkably with an increase in the carbonation time than that precured in water. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyses indicate that the carbonate products are vaterite and calcite; CxSHy,, formed from carbonation has low BET surface area in comparison with that of C-S-H formed from curing in water.

  15. Analysis of Metal Contents in Portland Type V and MTA-Based Cements

    Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati Dorileo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine, by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS, the concentration levels of 11 metals in Type V gray and structural white PC, ProRoot MTA, and MTA Bio. Samples, containing one gram of each tested cement, were prepared and transferred to a 100 mL Teflon tube with a mixture of 7.0 mL of nitric acid and 21 mL of hydrochloric acid. After the reaction, the mixture was filtered and then volumed to 50 mL of distilled water. For each metal, specific patterns were determined from universal standards. Arsenic quantification was performed by hydride generator. The analysis was performed five times and the data were statistically analyzed at 5% level of significance. Only the cadmium presented concentration levels of values lower than the quantification limit of the device. The AAS analysis showed increased levels of calcium, nickel, and zinc in structural white PC. Type V PC presented the greatest concentration levels of arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and manganese (P<0.05. Bismuth was found in all cements, and the lowest concentration levels were observed in Portland cements, while the highest were observed in ProRoot MTA. Both PC and MTA-based cements showed evidence of metals inclusion.

  16. Radiopacity and cytotoxicity of Portland cement associated with niobium oxide micro and nanoparticles

    Leticia Boldrin MESTIERI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA is composed of Portland Cement (PC and bismuth oxide (BO. Replacing BO for niobium oxide (NbO microparticles (Nbµ or nanoparticles (Nbη may improve radiopacity and bioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity and cytotoxicity of the materials: 1 PC; 2 White MTA; 3 PC+30% Nbµ; 4 PC+30% Nbη. Material and Methods For the radiopacity test, specimens of the different materials were radiographed along an aluminum step-wedge. For cell culture assays, Saos-2 osteoblastic-cells (ATCC HTB-85 were used. Cell viability was evaluated through MTT assay, and bioactivity was assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity assay. Results The results demonstrated higher radiopacity for MTA, followed by Nbµ and Nbη, which had similar values. Cell culture analysis showed that PC and PC+NbO associations promoted greater cell viability than MTA. Conclusions It was concluded that the combination of PC+NbO is a potential alternative for composition of MTA.

  17. Evaluation of Portland cement from X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis

    The Brazilian cement industry produced 64 million tons of cement in 2012, with noteworthy contribution of CP-II (slag), CP-III (blast furnace) and CP-IV (pozzolanic) cements. The industrial pole comprises about 80 factories that utilize raw materials of different origins and chemical compositions that require enhanced analytical technologies to optimize production in order to gain space in the growing consumer market in Brazil. This paper assesses the sensitivity of mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis to distinguish different kinds of cements with different additions. This technique can be applied, for example, in the prospection of different types of limestone (calcitic, dolomitic and siliceous) as well as in the qualification of different clinkers. The cluster analysis does not require any specific knowledge of the mineralogical composition of the diffractograms to be clustered; rather, it is based on their similarity. The materials tested for addition have different origins: fly ashes from different power stations from South Brazil and slag from different steel plants in the Southeast. Cement with different additions of limestone and white Portland cement were also used. The Rietveld method of qualitative and quantitative analysis was used for measuring the results generated by the cluster analysis technique. (author)

  18. Characterization of Moroccan coal waste: valorization in the elaboration of the Portland clinker

    Belkheiri D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coal exploited in the mine of Jerada (northeast of Morocco was accompanied by large quantities of waste. The purpose of this work is to characterize this waste with the aim of its use as a material for civil engineering. Mineral and chemical investigations on this waste in the raw state, and at different temperature of heat treatments, were carried out by various methods: X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy. These analyzes showed that the studied waste, contain essentially a mineral part formed by silica and various clays, as well as coal’s residues. The thermal investigation of waste, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, revealed an exothermic phenomenon attributed to the combustion of coal residues. Other phenomena were noted on the thermograms due to the mineral part transformations. In this analysis a comparison was also made with pure coal. These characteristics of coal waste encourage studying its development in reducing energy consumption in the Portland cement manufacture. Mixtures of waste with limestone or with raw cement materials were studied, and the resulting products were analyzed by different methods.

  19. Evaluation of wastewater treatment systems for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project - Lakeview, Oregon site

    During remedial action at the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site, unexpectedly large volumes of contaminated water required quick identification and design of a treatment facility capable of meeting Oregon release limits. A laboratory program was prepared and executed to determine the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of several alternative treatment approaches, and an optimum system was selected, designed and deployed

  20. 75 FR 21179 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Oregon Chub From...

    2010-04-23

    ... species as endangered (56 FR 58348). On October 18, 1993, we published a final rule listing the Oregon...-Federal property owners whose actions contribute to the recovery of species listed as endangered or... in the final rule to list the Oregon chub as an endangered species and the recovery plan for...

  1. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon

    2013-07-18

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon AGENCY... that the State of Oregon has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water Rule; and Lead and Copper...

  2. Investing in Educator Data Literacy Improves Student Achievement. Evidence of Impact: The Oregon Data Project

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007 the Oregon DATA Project has been investing resources to provide educators on-the-job training around effective data use to improve student achievement. New evidence shows that their efforts are paying off. A 2011 Oregon DATA Project report detailed the impact of their investment in the state's educators, finding the following: (1)…

  3. 75 FR 22621 - Notice of Intent To Solicit Nominations, Western Oregon Resource Advisory Committees

    2010-04-29

    ... on the date of appointment and will expire on September 30, 2013. DATES: Submit nomination packages... nomination forms are available at the District Offices in western Oregon, and completed nominations should be... Advisory Committee: Glenn Harkleroad, 1300 Airport Lane, North Bend, Oregon 97459, (541) 756-0100....

  4. 76 FR 43716 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Oregon State University Department of Anthropology, Corvallis, OR

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Oregon State University Department of Anthropology... Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... affiliated with the human remains may contact ] the Oregon State University Department of...

  5. 76 FR 43714 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Oregon State University Department of Anthropology, Corvallis, OR

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Oregon State University Department of Anthropology... Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... affiliated with the human remains may contact the Oregon State University Department of...

  6. 75 FR 74697 - Central Oregon Irrigation District; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    2010-12-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Central Oregon Irrigation District; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit..., 2010, Central Oregon Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to... diversion control; (4) a 400-foot-long lined canal and flume channel; (5) a 45-foot-long,...

  7. 78 FR 77104 - Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program: Intent To Find That Oregon Has Failed To Submit an...

    2013-12-20

    ... public comment on their proposal to approve, with conditions, the Oregon program (62 FR 6216). The... specified in the letter (63 FR 11655). Over time, Oregon made incremental changes to its program in order to... Control Program: Intent To Find That Oregon Has Failed To Submit an Approvable Coastal Nonpoint...

  8. 75 FR 21289 - Oregon Wave Energy Partners I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    2010-04-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Oregon Wave Energy Partners I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010. On March 2, 2010, Oregon Wave Energy Partners I, LLC filed an application for a subsequent.... Applicant Contact: Mr. Charles F. Dunleavy, Oregon Wave Energy Partners I, LLC, 1590 Reed Road,...

  9. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Diet of Pacific harbor seals at Umpqua River, Oregon and Columbia River, Oregon/Washington during 1994 through 2005

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1994 to 2005, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples at the Umpqua River, Oregon and...

  10. Characterization of leptospirosis among dogs in Oregon, 2007-2011.

    Grayzel, Sharon E; DeBess, Emilio E

    2016-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the demographics, exposure risks, and outcomes for dogs with leptospirosis in Oregon between 2007 and 2011 and to identify geographic and temporal distributions of known cases of canine leptospirosis within the state during this period. DESIGN Retrospective descriptive epidemiological study. ANIMALS 72 dogs. PROCEDURES Reports of laboratory tests for leptospirosis and zoonosis reporting forms voluntarily submitted by veterinarians to the Oregon Health Authority were evaluated to identify dogs with leptospirosis during the study period; data were also collected by examination of medical records or by telephone surveys with veterinarians from reporting facilities. RESULTS 72 confirmed cases of leptospirosis were identified; surveys were completed for 65 cases. Seasonal and spatial distributions coincided with rainfall patterns for the state, with most cases diagnosed in the spring and in the western part of the state. Common exposure risks included contact with water in the environment (14/65) and contact with wildlife (14); 33 dogs had no history of known exposure risks. Among dogs with other conditions at the time of diagnosis (26/64), dermatitis, otitis, or both were the most commonly reported findings (9/26). Of 65 dogs, 44 recovered, 12 died or were euthanized because of leptospirosis, and 9 were lost to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Distribution of canine leptospirosis cases in Oregon fit the rainfall theory pattern. Dermatologic conditions were present in 9 of 64 (14%) dogs that had a diagnosis of leptospirosis; however, further investigation is needed to determine whether such conditions predispose dogs to the disease. PMID:27031417

  11. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Lakeview, Oregon

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for water sampling activities for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) processing and disposal sites. This water sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders (WSAWO) to be implemented during 1993. Monitoring at the former Lakeview processing site is for characterization purposes and in preparation for the risk assessment, scheduled for the fall of 1993. Compliance monitoring was conducted at the disposal site. Details of the sampling plan are discussed in Section 5.0

  12. Legal physician-assisted suicide in Oregon and The Netherlands: evidence concerning the impact on patients in vulnerable groups--another perspective on Oregon's data.

    Finlay, I G; George, R

    2011-03-01

    Battin et al examined data on deaths from physician-assisted suicide (PAS) in Oregon and on PAS and voluntary euthanasia (VE) in The Netherlands. This paper reviews the methodology used in their examination and questions the conclusions drawn from it-namely, that there is for the most part 'no evidence of heightened risk' to vulnerable people from the legalisation of PAS or VE. This critique focuses on the evidence about PAS in Oregon. It suggests that vulnerability to PAS cannot be categorised simply by reference to race, gender or other socioeconomic status and that the impetus to seek PAS derives from factors, including emotional state, reactions to loss, personality type and situation and possibly to PAS contagion, all factors that apply across the social spectrum. It also argues, on the basis of official reports from the Oregon Health Department on the working of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act since 2008, that, contrary to the conclusions drawn by Battin et al, the highest resort to PAS in Oregon is among the elderly and, on the basis of research published since Battin et al reported, that there is reason to believe that some terminally ill patients in Oregon are taking their own lives with lethal drugs supplied by doctors despite having had depression at the time when they were assessed and cleared for PAS. PMID:21071568

  13. Full Text Available ... of Sealants and Collagen Duraplasty (Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, 4/20/2011) Back Pain ... of Sealants and Collagen Duraplasty (Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, 4/20/2011) Transnasal Endoscopic ...

  14. Full Text Available ... after Tumor Resection: Effective Use of Sealants and Collagen Duraplasty (Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, ... after Tumor Resection: Effective Use of Sealants and Collagen Duraplasty (Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, ...

  15. Multiple determinations of isotope diffusion in cementitious backfills and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) monoliths

    The full text of publication follows: The UK concept for geological disposal of intermediate level (ILW) and low level waste (LLW) includes backfill materials based on admixtures of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). It is expected that the evolution of these backfill materials will generate high pH conditions and the corrosion of the metal canisters used for disposal will promote a low Eh environment. This combination of conditions within the near field of the Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) will reduce the solubility of many radionuclides and retard migration. In addition, sorption to some of the cementitious phases may contribute significantly to the retardation of many radionuclides. It is clearly important to understand how diffusion of radionuclides contributes to the overall migration from the repository. However, it remains practically difficult to isolate the effect of diffusion from other processes such as sorption and advection which may also occur in the near field and far fields of the GDF. This presentation describes a series of experiments undertaken to evaluate the diffusion of a selection of relevant radionuclides in saturated backfills (including the NIREX reference vault backfill, NRVB) and OPC matrices. The experiments build upon a significant number of related sorption studies previously undertaken by the radiochemistry group at Loughborough University and complement a series of small scale advection experiments also being undertaken. The experimental technique uses small pre-cast blocks (monoliths) of the matrix under investigation. An appropriate concentration of the isotope of interest is introduced in a cavity in the centre of the block, which is then sealed, and finally, placed in a solution previously equilibrated with the matrix. The increase in concentration of the isotope in the external solution is then determined at defined time intervals. The interpretation of the results is undertaken with methods conventionally used for geological

  16. Individual and combined effects of chloride, sulfate, and magnesium ions on hydrated Portland-cement paste

    Ground water with a high concentration of magnesium ion is known to cause deterioration to portland cement concretes. A proposed mechanism for this deterioration process published previously involves an approximate 1:1 replacement of Ca ions by Mg ions in the crystalline phases of hydrated cement. The current study was undertaken to determine which ions, among magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, cause deterioration; whether their deleterious action is individual or interdependent; and to relate this mechanism of deterioration to the outlook for a 100-yr service life of concretes used in mass placements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Loss of Ca ion by cement pastes was found to be strongly related to the concentration of Mg ion in simulated ground-water solutions in which the paste samples were aged. This was true of both salt- containing and conventional cement pastes. No other ion in the solutions exerted a strong effect on Ca loss. Ca ion left first from calcium hydroxide in the pastes, depleting all calcium hydroxide by 60 days. Some calcium silicate hydrate remained even after 90 days in the solutions with the highest concentration of Mg ion, while the paste samples deteriorated noticeably. The results indicated a mechanism that involves dissolution of Ca phases and transport of Ca ions to the surface of the sample, followed by formation of Mg-bearing phases at this reaction surface rather than directly by substitution within the microstructure of hydrated cement. Given that calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate are the principal strength-giving phases of hydrated cement, this mechanism indicates the likelihood of significant loss of integrity of a concrete exposed to Mg-bearing ground water at the WIPP. The rate of deterioration ultimately will depend on Mg-ion concentration, the microstructure materials of the concrete exposed to that groundwater, and the availability of brine

  17. Incorporation of trace elements in Portland cement clinker: Thresholds limits for Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn

    This paper aims at defining precisely, the threshold limits for several trace elements (Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn) which correspond to the maximum amount that could be incorporated into a standard clinker whilst reaching the limit of solid solution of its four major phases (C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF). These threshold limits were investigated through laboratory synthesised clinkers that were mainly studied by X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The reference clinker was close to a typical Portland clinker (65% C3S, 18% C2S, 8% C3A and 8% C4AF). The threshold limits for Cu, Ni, Zn and Sn are quite high with respect to the current contents in clinker and were respectively equal to 0.35, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt.%. It appeared that beyond the defined threshold limits, trace elements had different behaviours. Ni was associated with Mg as a magnesium nickel oxide (MgNiO2) and Sn reacted with lime to form a calcium stannate (Ca2SnO4). Cu changed the crystallisation process and affected therefore the formation of C3S. Indeed a high content of Cu in clinker led to the decomposition of C3S into C2S and of free lime. Zn, in turn, affected the formation of C3A. Ca6Zn3Al4O15 was formed whilst a tremendous reduction of C3A content was identified. The reactivity of cements made with the clinkers at the threshold limits was followed by calorimetry and compressive strength measurements on cement paste. The results revealed that the doped cements were at least as reactive as the reference cement.

  18. Progress in the investigation of the longevity of Portland cement grout seal materials

    The sealing of openings in underground repositories and the assessment of the potential for seal materials to perform acceptably for long periods of time are concerns shared by programs considering the deep disposal of nuclear waste. Two grouting materials, bentonite and portland cement, have been identified by many programs as likely candidate seal materials. As a part of Phase III of the Stripa Project, the longevity of both of these materials is being investigated in a series of coordinated laboratory, modeling, and field studies. Long-term performance is an important issue particularly for cement, since most solid phases in cement are metastable, and therefore it is likely that cement seal performance would degrade with time. In this investigation, geochemical and permeability modeling have been used together to estimate how long cement seals may be expected to perform acceptably. Analyses to assess cement degradation due to phase inversion and dissolution have been performed; for dissolution calculations, both slow flow and fast flow hydrologic systems have been analyzed to establish bounding conditions. Actual granitic terrain grounwater compositions ranging from fresh to saline have been used to calculate cement-groundwater interactions. A relationship between cement permeability and porosity has been developed based on empirical data. Changes in performance with time have been predicted by conservatively estimating hydrologic conditions at successive stages of post-closure repository history. For the conditions considered, preliminary results indicate that the single largest determinant of seal performance is the initial hydraulic conductivity of the cement. Based on this investigation, cement grout performance may be acceptable for very long periods of time (tens of thousands to millions of years) providing its initial conductivity is on the order of 10-12 m/s

  19. Factors associated with the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in Portland, Jamaica

    Butho Ncube

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and is the leading cause of deaths in developing countries. Despite the strong evidence that cervical cancer screening results in decreased mortality from this disease, the uptake for cervical screening among Jamaican women remains low. Aims : This study was carried out to identify factors associated with Jamaican women′s decisions to screen for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of 403 women aged 19 years and older from Portland, Jamaica. An interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed the women′s cervical cancer screening history, as well as their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding the disease and screening. Results: Of the 403 women interviewed, 66% had a Papanicolaou (Pap smear and only 16% had a Pap test within the past year. Significant predicators of uptake of screening were being married, age, parity, discussing cancer with health provider, perception of consequences of not having a Pap smear, and knowing a person with cervical cancer. Women who did not know where to go for a Pap smear were 85% less likely to have been screened (prevalence odds ratio (POR: 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.04, 0.52. Conclusions: This study showed suboptimal uptake of cervical cancer screening among Jamaican women. Multipronged approaches are needed to address barriers to screening, as well as identify and support conditions that encourage women′s use of reproductive health services, thereby reducing incidence and mortality rates from cervical cancer.

  20. Permeability predictions for sand-clogged Portland cement pervious concrete pavement systems.

    Haselbach, Liv M; Valavala, Srinivas; Montes, Felipe

    2006-10-01

    Pervious concrete is an alternative paving surface that can be used to reduce the nonpoint source pollution effects of stormwater runoff from paved surfaces such as roadways and parking lots by allowing some of the rainfall to permeate into the ground below. This infiltration rate may be adversely affected by clogging of the system, particularly clogging or covering by sand in coastal areas. A theoretical relation was developed between the effective permeability of a sand-clogged pervious concrete block, the permeability of sand, and the porosity of the unclogged block. Permeabilities were then measured for Portland cement pervious concrete systems fully covered with extra fine sand in a flume using simulated rainfalls. The experimental results correlated well with the theoretical calculated permeability of the pervious concrete system for pervious concrete systems fully covered on the surface with sand. Two different slopes (2% and 10%) were used. Rainfall rates were simulated for the combination of direct rainfall (passive runoff) and for additional stormwater runoff from adjacent areas (active runoff). A typical pervious concrete block will allow water to pass through at flow rates greater than 0.2 cm/s and a typical extra fine sand will have a permeability of approximately 0.02 cm/s. The limit of the system with complete sand coverage resulted in an effective system permeability of approximately 0.004 cm/s which is similar to the rainfall intensity of a 30 min duration, 100-year frequency event in the southeastern United States. The results obtained are important in designing and evaluating pervious concrete as a paving surface within watershed management systems for controlling the quantity of runoff. PMID:16563606

  1. Degradation of normal portland and slag cement concrete under load, due to reinforcement corrosion

    The corrosion of reinforcement is one of the major degradation mechanisms of reinforced concrete elements. The majority of studies published on concrete-steel corrosion have been conducted on unstressed specimens. Structural concrete, however, is subjected to substantial strain near the steel reinforcing bars that resist tensile loads, which results in a system of microcracks. This report presents the initial results of an investigation to determine the effect of applied load and microcracking on the rate of ingress of chloride ion and corrosion of steel in concrete. Simply-supported concrete beam specimens were loaded to give a maximum strain of about 600 με on the tension face. Chloride ion ingress on cores taken from loaded specimens was monitored using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. Corrosion current and rate measurements using linear polarization electrochemical techniques were also obtained on the same loaded specimens. Variables investigated included two concrete types, two steel cover-depths, three applied load levels, bonded and unbonded rebars and the exposure of tension and compression beam faces to chloride solution. One concrete mixture was made with type 10 Portland cement, the other with 75% blast furnace slag, 22% type 50 cement and 3% silica fume. The rate of chloride ion ingress into reinforced concrete, and hence the time for chloride ion to reach the reinforcing steel, is shown to be dependent on applied load and the concrete quality. The dependence of corrosion process descriptors - passive layer formation, initiation period and propagation period - on the level of applied load is discussed. (Author) (6 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.)

  2. Influence of Plasticizer Amount on Rheological and Hydration Properties of CEM II Type Portland Cements

    Šeputytė-Juciké, J.; Pundienė, I.; Kičaitė, A.; Pranckevičienė, J.

    2015-11-01

    The article analyzes the effect of plasticizer (based on polycarboxilates) amount (0.3 - 1.2% wt. of cement) on the rheological and hydration properties of two Portland cements pastes: CEM II/A-S 42.5N and CEM II/A-LL 42.5N. Increase of plasticizer amount reduces viscosity of CEM II/A-LL 42.5N cement paste from 3 to 12 times, where viscosity of CEM II/A-S 42.5N cement paste reduces from 5 to 20 times. The optimum plasticizer dose (0.3%) in case of CEM II/A-S 42.5N and (1.2%) in case of CEM II/A-LL 42.5N was established. Calorimetry studies have shown that plasticizer reduces the wetting heat release rate in CEM II/A-LL 42.5N cement twice and in CEM II/A-S 42.5N cement - by 25%. Plasticizer prolongs the maximum heat release rate time by 16 h in CEM II/A-LL 42.5N samples and reduces heat release rate by 19%. In CEM II/A-S 42.5N cement samples plasticizer prolongs maximum heat release rate time by 14.5 h and increases heat release rate by 15%. The goal of this study is to analyze the effect of the dosage of the most widely used plasticizer on solubility characteristics, rheological and hydration properties of two cements CEM II/A-S 42.5N and CEM II/A-LL 42.5N to establish the optimum dose of plasticizer in cements pastes.

  3. Prospection of Portland cement raw material: A case study in the Marmara region of Turkey

    Özgüner, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Representative sampling of the raw materials used to make Portland cement, correct calculations for the possible clinker mixtures, sufficient reserves of the raw materials and selection of the correct infrastructure for the location of a cement factory are essential to the protection of the great investment in the factory. The results of chemical analyses of pipe samples taken in the field at right angles to the strikes of favourable limestone, clay, shale, and marl outcrops were used in Kind's lime saturation formula for clinker calculations of the possible mixtures. The cement modulus values were calculated using the corresponding clinker oxide ratios and were confirmed to be within the standard intervals for positive cement raw material mixtures. The most promising raw material source, a double lithologic mixture of limestone and mudstone was found during the prospection in north of Bilecik Province, where rhyolitic tuff outcrops with pozzolanic properties also exist. Some marble quarries nearby have been inclined to dispose of their marble wastes for use in cement production to prevent polluting the environment with them. The nearby Gemlik fertiliser factory provides inexpensive waste gypsum that can be used as a cool cement mixing material. The limestone, mudstone and trass raw material reserves in this area were calculated to be sufficient for the factory's requirements for more than 100 years of operation as results of the detailed geological mapping. The regional infrastructure is most suitable for distribution and marketing of cement products. The cement factory described in this study has been producing cement for the last 3 years, after coring and testing of the raw material reserves.

  4. Chemical Composition and Microstructure of Hydration Products of Hardened White Portland Cement Pastes Containing Admixtures

    LI Qiu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of hydration products of white portland cement (WPC) containing 20 mM malic acid or 1 M calcium chloride hydrated for 11 years. The study identiifed the hydration products and characterized the chemical composition, morphology, micro/nano structure of C-S-H and the main binding phase in cementitious materials. Calcium hydroxide (CH), ettringite and C-S-H were identiifed in WPC with 20 mM malic acid paste hydrated for 11 years. WPC with 1 M calcium chloride paste hydrated for 11 years contained the same phases, but with less CH, and the presence of Friedel’s salt (Ca2Al(OH)6Cl·2H2O). There were still small amount of anhydrous cement particles remaining in both pastes after 11 years hydration according to the SEM and29Si MAS NMR results. The hydration products of paste containing malic acid had a lower porosity than those prepared with calcium chloride upon visual inspection under SEM. The morphology of the outer product (Op) C-S-H was coarse ifbrillar and the inner product (Ip) C-S-H had a very ifne microstructure in both pastes under TEM. Both Ip and Op C-S-H formed in paste containing malic acid had lower Ca/Si and higher Al/Si than those in paste containing calcium chloride. C-S-H in paste containing calcium chloride had longer MCL and less percentage of bridging tetrahedra occupied by aluminum in silicon/aluminum chains due to relatively lessQ1 and moreQ2. A new type of silicon tetrahedra,Q2B, was introduced during deconvolution of29Si MAS NMR results. Ip and Op C-S-H in both pastes had aluminum substituted tobermorite-type and jennite-type structure, and all the charges caused by aluminum substituting silicon bridging tetrahedra were balanced by Ca2+.

  5. Estimation of longevity of portland cement grout using chemical modeling techniques

    Portland cement has been identified as a likely candidate seal material by programs investigating the deep burial of nuclear waste as a disposal mechanism. The longevity of performance of cement grout is currently being investigated, along with bentonite, under the auspices of the Stripa Project. Coordinated laboratory, field, and modeling studies are underway to produce fundamental data, practical experience, and estimates of long-range performance, respectively. Long-term performance of cement grout is of particular concern. Since most of the solid phases of which grout is comprised are metastable, it is likely that grout performance will decrease with time. The question is whether performance will still be acceptable after this decrease. This issue is being addressed with the coupled use of geochemical and permeability modeling. For a simplified cement system, two mechanisms for chemical degradation have been considered: phase change and dissolution. For dissolution, both equilibrium (slow flow) and open (fast flow) systems have been analyzed as bounding scenarios. Granitic terrain groundwaters ranging from fresh to saline have been used in the analyses. To assess the consequences in terms of flow, an empirical relation between cement permeability and porosity has been developed. Performance changes with time have been predicted by making conservative estimates of local hydraulic head conditions for successive periods of repository history. For the granitic rock environments considered, preliminary results indicate that cement grout performance may be acceptable for tens of thousands to millions of years, providing its initial hydraulic conductivity is on the order of 10-12 m/s. Other conditions favoring long-term performance include minimizing the ettringite content of the grout, and emplacement at a site where the groundwater has an elevated TDS, and where the local hydraulic gradient is flat or repository resaturation times are short

  6. Effect of additives on the compressive strength and setting time of a Portland cement

    Desirée Freitas Mryczka Machado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in strength and setting time of Portland cements (PC are needed to enhance their performance as endodontic and load bearing materials. This study sought to enhance the compressive strength and setting time of a PC by adding one of the following additives: 20% and 30% poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA, 20% and 30% irregular and spherical amalgam alloys, and 10% CaCl2. The control consisted of unreinforced PC specimens. Setting time was determined using a Gillmore apparatus according to standardized methods while compressive strength was measured using a universal testing machine after 21 hours or 60 days of water storage. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey and Games-Howell tests (α = 5%. All additives significantly decreased both initial and final setting times as compared with the PC-control (p < .05. 30% PMMA and 30% irregular alloy had the lowest values of initial setting time. 30% irregular alloy also produced the lowest values of final setting time while 30% spherical alloy yielded the highest (p < .05. No differences were detected between the compressive strength values of 21 hours and 60 days. While 10% CaCl2, 20% and 30% PMMA produced values significantly lower than the PC-control, 30% spherical alloy significantly improved the compressive strength of the reinforced PC (p < .05. In summary, all additives significantly reduced the setting time and 30% spherical amalgam alloy yielded a significant increase in compressive strength for the tested PC, which might represent an improved composition for PCs to expand their use as endodontic and potentially load bearing materials.

  7. Enhancement of cemented waste forms by supercritical CO{sub 2} carbonation of standard portland cements

    Rubin, J.B.; Carey, J.; Taylor, C.M.V.

    1997-08-01

    We are conducting experiments on an innovative transformation concept, using a traditional immobilization technique, that may significantly reduce the volume of hazardous or radioactive waste requiring transport and long-term storage. The standard practice for the stabilization of radioactive salts and residues is to mix them with cements, which may include additives to enhance immobilization. Many of these wastes do not qualify for underground disposition, however, because they do not meet disposal requirements for free liquids, decay heat, head-space gas analysis, and/or leachability. The treatment method alters the bulk properties of a cemented waste form by greatly accelerating the natural cement-aging reactions, producing a chemically stable form having reduced free liquids, as well as reduced porosity, permeability and pH. These structural and chemical changes should allow for greater actinide loading, as well as the reduced mobility of the anions, cations, and radionuclides in aboveground and underground repositories. Simultaneously, the treatment process removes a majority of the hydrogenous material from the cement. The treatment method allows for on-line process monitoring of leachates and can be transported into the field. We will describe the general features of supercritical fluids, as well as the application of these fluids to the treatment of solid and semi-solid waste forms. some of the issues concerning the economic feasibility of industrial scale-up will be addressed, with particular attention to the engineering requirements for the establishment of on-site processing facilities. Finally, the initial results of physical property measurements made on portland cements before and after supercritical fluid processing will be presented.

  8. Enhancement of cemented waste forms by supercritical CO2 carbonation of standard portland cements

    We are conducting experiments on an innovative transformation concept, using a traditional immobilization technique, that may significantly reduce the volume of hazardous or radioactive waste requiring transport and long-term storage. The standard practice for the stabilization of radioactive salts and residues is to mix them with cements, which may include additives to enhance immobilization. Many of these wastes do not qualify for underground disposition, however, because they do not meet disposal requirements for free liquids, decay heat, head-space gas analysis, and/or leachability. The treatment method alters the bulk properties of a cemented waste form by greatly accelerating the natural cement-aging reactions, producing a chemically stable form having reduced free liquids, as well as reduced porosity, permeability and pH. These structural and chemical changes should allow for greater actinide loading, as well as the reduced mobility of the anions, cations, and radionuclides in aboveground and underground repositories. Simultaneously, the treatment process removes a majority of the hydrogenous material from the cement. The treatment method allows for on-line process monitoring of leachates and can be transported into the field. We will describe the general features of supercritical fluids, as well as the application of these fluids to the treatment of solid and semi-solid waste forms. some of the issues concerning the economic feasibility of industrial scale-up will be addressed, with particular attention to the engineering requirements for the establishment of on-site processing facilities. Finally, the initial results of physical property measurements made on portland cements before and after supercritical fluid processing will be presented

  9. A Survey of Light Pollution in the Rogue Valley, Southwest Oregon, by St. Mary's School, Medford, Oregon

    Bensel, Holly; Dorrell, Genna; Feng, James; Hicks, Sean; Mars Liu, Jason; Liu, Steven; Moczygemba, Mitchell; Sheng, Jason; Sternenburg, Leah; Than, Emi; Timmons, Emry; Wen, Jerry; Yaeger, Bella; You, Ruiyang

    2016-01-01

    The Rogue Valley in Southwest Oregon was known for its beautiful dark skies, but due to population growth the dark skies are vanishing. A light pollution chart using Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) data was published in 2006, but did not show the spatial variation in detail. In the spring of 2014, the 9th grade physics students, astronomy students, and members of the Astronomy Club from St. Mary's School conducted the first detailed night sky survey. The purpose of the survey is to create a baseline of the variations in light pollution in the Rogue Valley.The project continued into 2015, incorporating suggestions made at the 2014 AAS Conference to improve the study by including more light meter data and community outreach. Students used light meters, Loss of the Night app, and the Dark Sky meter app. Students researched light pollution and its effects on the environment, measured night sky brightness in the Rogue Valley, and completed a light audit in an area of their choice. They created a presentation for a final physics grade. The basis for this project, along with procedures can be found on the GaN, Globe at Night, (www.globeatnight.org) website. The light audit and research portion were developed from the Dark Sky Rangers section of the website (www.globeatnight.org/dsr/).The 2014 survey and public outreach increased awareness of light pollution in the Rogue Valley and around the state of Oregon. Examples include a local senior project to change lighting at a baseball stadium and a 4-H club in Northeast Oregon starting a GaN survey in their area. GaN shows growth in the amount of data collected in Oregon from 8 data points in 2006 to 193 in 2014. The Rogue Valley magnitude data from the spring of 2015 indicates a drop from an average magnitude of 4 to an average magnitude of 2. This is due to hazy skies from smoke drifting into the valley from a Siberian wildfire. Data collection during the summer and fall was hampered due to smoke from local

  10. A Survey of Light Pollution in the Rogue Valley, Southwest Oregon, By St. Mary’s School, Medford, Oregon

    Bensel, Holly; Arianna Ashby, Colin Cai, Thomas Cox, Genna Dorrell, Gabe FitzPatrick, Meaghan FitzPatrick, Jason Mars Liu, Mitchell Moczygemba, Kieran Rooney, Emry Timmons,; Ray You, students, (St. Mary's. School)

    2015-01-01

    Rural areas in Oregon, including the Rogue Valley, are renowned for beautiful dark skies. Electric light came to Medford, Oregon, the largest town in the Rogue Valley, in 1894. During the past 100 years the Rogue Valley grew from 2,500 individuals in 1895 to a population of 76,462 and a metropolitan area population of 208,545, in 2012. The increased population density resulted in increased light pollution. A light pollution chart using DMSP, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, data was published in 2006, but did not show the spatial variation in detail. In the spring of 2014, the 9th grade physics students, astronomy students, and members of the Astronomy Club from St. Mary's School conducted the first detailed night sky survey. The purpose of the survey is to create a baseline of the variations in light pollution in the Rogue Valley.The project started with a talk by Steve Bosbach, former Texas IDA coordinator, on the topic of light pollution and how it affects our lives and the environment. Groups of students were given the tasks of measuring the night sky brightness in the Rogue Valley, doing a light audit in an area of their choice, and researching what light pollution is and its effects on the environment. From this they created a presentation for a final physics grade. The basis for this project, along with procedures can be found on the Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) website. The light audit and research portion were developed from the Dark Sky Rangers section (www.globeatnight.org/dsr/) of the website. In the fall of 2014, astronomy students and club members extended this study to the town of Ashland and the Sothern Oregon University campus, areas of the valley not surveyed in the Spring.This survey will increase awareness of light pollution in the Rogue Valley, as well as educate developers and city planners on the impact that light pollution has on the environment in Southern Oregon. It will help determine areas of concern and areas of dark

  11. Effect of sulfur on the polymorphism and reactivity of dicalcium silicate of Portland clinker Efeito do enxofre no polimorfismo e reatividade do silicato dicálcico do clínquer Portland

    F. R. D. Andrade; S. D Gomes; M Pecchio; Y Kihara; F. M. S Carvalho; J. R Matos

    2011-01-01

    The present study regards the effect of sulfur in dicalcium silicate (Ca2SiO4), a major crystalline phase (20 to 40 wt.%) of the ordinary Portland cement clinker. Dicalcium silicate is also known as C2S (2CaO.SiO2) or belite. The synthesis of the C2S samples was made with high purity reactants with addition of sulfur as CaSO4.2H2O, mixed according to the stoichiometric proportion 2Ca:(1-x)Si:xS, in which x corresponds to the cationic proportion of sulfur, with values ranging from 0 to 20%. Ad...

  12. Basalt mine-tailings as raw-materials for Portland clinker Rejeitos da mineração de basalto como matérias-primas para clínquer Portland

    F. R. D. Andrade; M Pecchio; D. P Bendoraitis; T. J Montanheiro; Y Kihara

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of waste materials are produced by crushing of basaltic rocks for aggregate production, which is widely used in regions that lack rocks of granitic or gneissic composition. Two types of waste materials are produced (a) quarry fines, which are in part used as fine aggregates in concrete and (b) vesicular basalt, a porous variety of basalt that is useless as aggregate. This paper presents a procedure to use basaltic mine-tailings as raw-mixtures for Portland cement by adjusting th...

  13. Microscopic analysis of dog dental pulp after pulpotomy and pulp protection with mineral trioxide aggregate and white Portland cement Análise microscópica da polpa dental de cães após pulpotomia e proteção pulpar com agregado de trióxido mineral e cimento Portland branco

    Renato Menezes; Clóvis Monteiro Bramante; Roberto Brandão Garcia; Ariadne Letra; Vanessa Graciela Gomes Carvalho; Everdan Carneiro; Sérgio Brunini; Rodrigo Cardoso de Oliveira; Giovana Calichio Canova; Fernanda Gomes de Moraes

    2004-01-01

    Considering previous studies on the similarity between the chemical composition of the mineral trioxide aggregate and the Portland cement, the purpose of this study was to investigate the pulp response of dog's teeth after pulpotomy and direct pulp protection with MTA Angelus and white Portland cement. Thirty eight pulp remnants were protected with these materials. One hundred and twenty days after treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the specimens removed and prepared for histological ...

  14. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project final siting report. Final report

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed

  15. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project conceptual design report. Final report

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed

  16. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Conceptual Design Report, Final Report.

    Watson, Montgomery (Montgomery Watson, Bellevue, WA)

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  17. Design and manufacture of Portland cement - application of sensitivity analysis in exploration and optimisation Part II. Optimisation

    Svinning, K.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2006-01-01

    A program for a model-based optimisation has been developed. The program contains two subprograms. The first one does minimising or maximising constrained by one original PLS-component or one equal to a combination of several. The second one does searching for the optimal combination of PLS-compo......-components, which gives max or min y. The program has proved to be applicable for achieving realistic results for implementation in the design of Portland cement with respect to performance and in the quality control during production....

  18. Use of Variamine Blue dye in Spectrophotometric determination of Water Soluble Cr(VI in Portland Cement

    Devesh K. Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Variamine blue dye as chromogenic reagent was used for Portland cement samples in determination of soluble hexavalent chromium. This method was based on the reaction of Cr(VI with potassium iodide in acidic medium to liberate iodine, which oxidized variamine blue to form a violet colored species having an absorption maximum 556 nm. The extraction of soluble Cr(VI for quantification in cement was done according to European method. The validity of this method was thoroughly examined by comparing with standard DPC method as well as the accuracy of the method was checked using a standard reference material of National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST, USA.

  19. Corrosion rate of steel embedded in blended Portland and fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R) cement mortars

    Payá, J.; Garcés, P.; Zornoza, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the corrosion levels in steel bars embedded in mortars made with a blend of Portland cement and (0-20%) spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R), with a variable (0.3-0.7) water/binder (w/b) ratio. The specimens were stored in the following conditions: relative humidity of 40, 80 or 100% and CO2 concentrations of 5 and 100%. The steel corrosion rate was measured with polarization resistance techniques. In the absence of aggressive agents, the ste...

  20. Healing of apical rarefaction of three nonvital open apex anterior teeth using a white portland cement apical plug

    Amitabha Chakraborty; Bibhas Dey; Reema Dhar; Prabir Sardar

    2012-01-01

    The major challenge of performing root canal treatment in an open apex pulp-less tooth is to obtain a good apical seal. MTA has been successfully used to achieve a good apical seal, wherein the root canal obturation can be done immediately. MTA and White Portland Cement has been shown similarity in their physical, chemical and biological properties and has also shown similar outcome when used in animal studies and human trials. In our study, open apex of three non vital upper central incisors...

  1. Structural Investigations of Portland Cement Components, Hydration, and Effects of Admixtures by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    Skibsted, Jørgen Bengaard; Andersen, Morten D.; Jakobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state, magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy represents a valuable tool for structural investigations on the nanoscale of the most important phases in anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements and of various admixtures. This is primarily due to the fact that the method reflects the first...... have been investigated in detail by 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR where the combination of the results for these spin-nuclei provides important information on the degree of Al-incorporation in the C-S-H structure and of the average chain lengths of tetrahedral SiO4 and AlO4 units. This presentation will...

  2. Detailed characterization of current North American portland cements and clinkers and the implications for the durability of modern concrete

    Arjunan, P.

    The current study has been undertaken with a view to rationalize the relation between the cement characteristics and concrete properties with the fresh set of data collected from the North American portland cements. The important chemical and physical characteristics of the cement discussed are (a) chemical analysis, (b) phase calculations, (c) various particle characterizations and (d) rheological properties. The important concrete properties discussed are (a) alkali silica reactivity, (b) sulfate attack, (c) delayed ettringite formation (d) chloride ion permeability and (e) compressive strength. Relationship between the cement characteristics and concrete durability was determined using regression methods. The heat of hydration was mainly influenced by the variation in C 3A, SO3, equivalent Na2O contents, and fineness of portland cements. When there was no variation in C3A, SO 3, and fineness, the hydration kinetics of the cement was mainly controlled by the silicate phase hydration. The 7-day hydration was negatively correlated to C2S or C4AF content. As the C2S or C 4AF content increased, the 7-day heat of hydration decreased. C 3S content showed a positive correlation to 1 and 7-day heats of hydration, but significant negative correlation to 14 and 28-day hydration. Equivalent alkalis showed a strong positive correlation to ASR at 2 weeks. SO3 content of portland cement also showed a positive correlation to ASR expansion. A strong negative correlation was observed between C4AF content of portland cement and sulfate attack expansion at 4 and 6 months of exposure. The correlation to sulfate attack was stronger when the ratios of C3A/C4AF were taken into account. C3A content exhibited a negative correlation to chloride ion permeability. This correlation decreased as the curing period increased. SO 3 content also exhibited a negative correlation to the chloride ion permeability. Only alkalis showed a strong negative correlation to the compressive strength after 3

  3. Investigating organic matter in Fanno Creek, Oregon, Part 1 of 3: estimating annual foliar biomass for a deciduous-dominant urban riparian corridor

    Sobieszczyk, Steven; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Goldman, Jami H.

    2014-01-01

    For this study, we explored the amount, type, and distribution of foliar biomass that is deposited annually as leaf litter to Fanno Creek and its floodplain in Portland, Oregon, USA. Organic matter is a significant contributor to the decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations observed in Fanno Creek each year and leaf litter is amongst the largest sources of organic matter to the stream channel and floodplain. Using a combination of field measurements and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data, the annual foliar biomass was estimated for 13 stream reaches along the creek. Biomass estimates were divided into two sets: (1) the annual foliage available from the entire floodplain overstory canopy, and (2) the annual foliage overhanging the stream, which likely contributes leaf litter directly to the creek each year. Based on these computations, an estimated 991 (±22%) metric tons (tonnes, t) of foliar biomass is produced annually above the floodplain, with about 136 t (±24%) of that foliage falling directly into Fanno Creek. The distribution of foliar biomass varies by reach, with between 150 and 640 t/km2 produced along the floodplain and between 400 and 1100 t/km2 available over the channel. Biomass estimates vary by reach based primarily on the density of tree cover, with forest-dominant reaches containing more mature deciduous trees with broader tree canopies than either wetland or urban-dominant reaches, thus supplying more organic material to the creek. By quantifying the foliar biomass along Fanno Creek we have provided a reach-scale assessment of terrestrial organic matter loading, thereby providing land managers useful information for planning future restoration efforts.

  4. Investigating organic matter in Fanno Creek, Oregon, Part 1 of 3: Estimating annual foliar biomass for a deciduous-dominant urban riparian corridor

    Sobieszczyk, Steven; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Goldman, Jami H.

    2014-11-01

    For this study, we explored the amount, type, and distribution of foliar biomass that is deposited annually as leaf litter to Fanno Creek and its floodplain in Portland, Oregon, USA. Organic matter is a significant contributor to the decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations observed in Fanno Creek each year and leaf litter is amongst the largest sources of organic matter to the stream channel and floodplain. Using a combination of field measurements and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data, the annual foliar biomass was estimated for 13 stream reaches along the creek. Biomass estimates were divided into two sets: (1) the annual foliage available from the entire floodplain overstory canopy, and (2) the annual foliage overhanging the stream, which likely contributes leaf litter directly to the creek each year. Based on these computations, an estimated 991 (±22%) metric tons (tonnes, t) of foliar biomass is produced annually above the floodplain, with about 136 t (±24%) of that foliage falling directly into Fanno Creek. The distribution of foliar biomass varies by reach, with between 150 and 640 t/km2 produced along the floodplain and between 400 and 1100 t/km2 available over the channel. Biomass estimates vary by reach based primarily on the density of tree cover, with forest-dominant reaches containing more mature deciduous trees with broader tree canopies than either wetland or urban-dominant reaches, thus supplying more organic material to the creek. By quantifying the foliar biomass along Fanno Creek we have provided a reach-scale assessment of terrestrial organic matter loading, thereby providing land managers useful information for planning future restoration efforts.

  5. Oregon Supreme Court Ruling Prohibits Hospital from Refusing a Sell Order.

    Chien, Joseph; Mobbs, Karl E

    2016-03-01

    In a recent decision involving a capital murder case, Oregon State Hospital v. Butts, the Oregon Supreme Court conducted a mandamus hearing to ascertain whether Oregon State Hospital (OSH) had a legal duty to comply with a Sell order from a county trial court to provide antipsychotic medications to an incompetent defendant, despite its belief, as an institution, that medication was not clinically indicated. The case is reviewed and important implications, including the court's being granted the ability to circumvent the medical decision-making process, are discussed. PMID:26944751

  6. Acción del agua de mar sobre un cemento portland de alta resistencia inicial, sobre un cemento portland resistente a los sulfatos y sobre un cemento portland: influencia de la adición de escoria. Estudio por DRX

    Gaspar-Tébar, Demetrio; Sagrera-Moreno, José Luis

    1987-01-01

    Not available

    En este trabajo se estudia, por medio de difracción de rayos X, la evolución de las características estructurales de los compuestos cristalinos de la fracción enriquecida (cemento hidratado-atacado) extraída de uno de los prismas de mortero (1:3) de 1 X 1 X 6 cm de cada una de las series de probetas fabricadas con tres cementos portland (alta resistencia inicial, cemento 1; resistente a los sulfatos, cemento 2, y normal, cemento 3) y con las mezclas cemento (1...

  7. Electromagnetic interference shielding with Portland cement paste containing carbon materials and processed fly ash

    Zornoza, E.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study described in this article explored the effect of adding different types of carbon materials (graphite powder and three types of carbon fibre, fly ash (with 5.6%, 15.9% and 24.3% Fe2O3, and a mix of both on electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding in Portland cement pastes. The parameters studied included the type and aspect ratio of the carbonic material, composite material thickness, the frequency of the incident electromagnetic radiation and the percentage of the magnetic fraction in the fly ash. The findings showed that the polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibres, which had the highest aspect ratio, provided more effective shielding than any of the other carbon materials studied. Shielding was more effective in thicker specimens and at higher radiation frequencies. Raising the magnetic fraction of the fly ash, in turn, also enhanced paste shielding performance. Finally, adding both carbon fibre and fly ash to the paste resulted in the most effective EMI shielding as a result of the synergies generated.

    En el presente trabajo se investiga la influencia de la adición de diferentes tipos de materiales carbonosos (polvo de grafito y 3 tipos de fibra de carbono, de una ceniza volante con diferentes contenidos de fase magnética (5,6%, 15,9% y 24,3% de Fe2O3 y de una mezcla de ambos, sobre la capacidad de apantallar interferencias electromagnéticas de pastas de cemento Pórtland. Entre los parámetros estudiados se encuentra: el tipo de material carbonoso, la relación de aspecto del material carbonoso, el espesor del material compuesto, la frecuencia de la radiación electromagnética incidente y el porcentaje de fracción magnética en la ceniza volante. Los resultados obtenidos indican que entre los materiales carbonosos estudiados son las fibras de carbono basadas en poliacrilonitrilo con una mayor relación de aspecto las que dan mejores resultados de apantallamiento. Al aumentar

  8. Quantitative determination of tricalcicum aluminate in portland cement by X-ray diffraction

    Sagrera Moreno, José Luis

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Tricalcium aluminate (C3A is one of the constitutive phase of the cement-clinker. Its concentration influences the cement behaviour in sulphate aggressive soils. Therefore its quantification is very convenient and International standards fix its content when the concrete is used in contact with soils or liquids containing sulphate compounds. There are two possibilities in order to calculate the amount of C3A in clinker phases: one consist in a mathematical calculation from the results of the chemical analysis (Bogue formulae and the order is based in X-ray diffraction, using the height of the representative peak of the C3A phase. In the present note, the experimental procedure in order to determine the C3A content from X-ray test is presented.

    El aluminato tricáicico es una de las fases constitutivas del clinker de cemento portland. Su concentración en el cemento influye en el comportamiento de éste, en las obras sometidas a la posible agresividad de diferentes sulfatos cuando entran en contacto con las estructuras que se fabrican con él. Por ello la determinación de su concentración es un dato que puede invalidar su uso en una obra. De ahí que las normas internacionales fijen la cantidad de aluminato tricáicico según se clasifique la agresividad del entorno en el que una estructura será colocada. Existen fórmulas matemáticas para calcular la concentración de cada una de las fases del clinker a partir de las concentraciones de los elementos químicos de clinker expresados en forma de óxidos. Los posibles errores en los análisis químicos producen errores en los cálculos de las concentraciones de cada fase. Para determinar la concentración de dichas fases se puede emplear también la técnica de difracción de rayos X, basándose en la medida de la altura del pico representativo de la fase que se quiere determinar.

  9. A study of naturally occurring, radionuclide bearing deposits at Portland Creek, Newfoundland

    A small uraniferous peat deposit located near Portland Creek, Newfoundland was investigated as part of the National Uranium Tailings Program (NUTP). The purpose of the investigation was to provide data on naturally occurring uranium series radionuclides at a surface location that could be used to compare with the predictions of mathematical models. The investigation was carried out between August 18 and 30, 1984 by CBCL Limited with the assistance of Golder Associates, SENES Consultants Limited, Environmental Design Group and Monenco Analytical Laboratories. The investigation involved the determination of the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the deposit site and collection of soil, water and biological samples. The samples were analyzed for major element chemistry, uranium and its various decay series radionuclides including radium-226 and the ratio of uranium-234 to uranium-238. The uranium mineralization was found to be associated with a peat deposit that has accumulated in post-glacial time. The deposit is situated within a groundwater discharge zone at the toe of a granitic talus pile that extends downward from the Long Range Mountains. The concentration of uranium within the peat deposit was found to vary from 100 to 28000 ppm, however, the activities of the uranium decay series radionuclides were comparatively very low. Radium-226 activities were found to vary from 0.5 Bq/g to 15.0 Bq/g. Little influence from the deposit was noted in the surrounding water bodies, fish samples and vegetation. Based on the results of the study the uranium mineralization within the peat is considered to be the result of precipitation or adsorption from groundwater that had previously leached uranium from the granitic talus which forms the groundwater recharge zone. The major geochemical mechanism for deposition is considered to be associated with the strong reducing conditions encountered within the peat. Being a recent deposit (i.e. less than 10,000-15,000 years old

  10. Influence on the physical-mechanical properties of portland-cement mortar, have admixtures of colophony and tannin

    Fernández Cánovas, M.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The colophony has been used as an admixture in the Portland cement mortar with the intention to observe its influence on the air content, water absorption, adhesive capacity and mechanical properties. The results obtained have shown that, the colophony acts as air entrainment, reduces the permeability and improves the adhesion between the past and aggregates. Likewise, the addition of tannin and montan wax to the colophony has the efect of reducing the formation of foam and improves the impermeability of the mortar.

    Se ha empleado la colofonia como aditivo en el mortero de cemento portland con el fin de observar su influencia sobre el contenido de aire, absorción de agua, capacidad adhesiva y propiedades mecánicas. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que la colofonia actúa como aireante, aumenta la impermeabilidad y mejora la adherencia de la pasta al árido. Asimismo, la adición de tanino y cera montana a la colofonia tiene el efecto de reducir la formación de espuma y mejorar también la impermeabilidad del mortero.

  11. Evaluation of physical stability and leachability of Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC) solidified chemical sludge generated from textile wastewater treatment plants

    Highlights: ► Stabilization/solidification of chemical sludge from textile wastewater treatment plants using Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC) containing fly ash. ► Physical engineering (compressive strength and block density) indicates that sludge has potential to be reused for construction purpose after stabilization/solidification. ► Leaching of heavy metals from stabilized/solidified materials were within stipulated limits. ► There is a modification of microstructural properties of PPC with sludge addition as indicated by XRD and SEM patterns. - Abstract: The chemical sludge generated from the treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a hazardous waste as per Indian Hazardous Waste Management rules. In this paper, stabilization/solidification of chemical sludge was carried out to explore its reuse potential in the construction materials. Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC) was selected as the binder system which is commercially available cement with 10–25% fly ash interground in it. The stabilized/solidified blocks were evaluated in terms of unconfined compressive strength, block density and leaching of heavy metals. The compressive strength (3.62–33.62 MPa) and block density (1222.17–1688.72 kg/m3) values as well as the negligible leaching of heavy metals from the stabilized/solidified blocks indicate that there is a potential of its use for structural and non-structural applications.

  12. Microstructure: Surface and cross-sectional studies of hydroxyapatite formation on the surface of white Portland cement paste in vitro

    The formation of hydroxyapatite was investigated at the surface and at the cross-section of white Portland cement paste samples before and after immersion in simulated body fluid. Scanning electron microscope images showed that hydroxyapatite were found at the surface of white Portland cement after immersion in simulated body fluid. Hydroxyapatite grains of mostly ∼1 μm size with some grain size of ∼2-3 μm were seen after 4 days immersion period. More estabilshed hydroxyapatite grain size of ∼3 μm grains were observed at longer period of immersion at 7 and 10 days. The cross-section of the samples was investigated using line scanning technique and was used to determine the hydroxyapatite layer. A strong spectrum of phosphorus is detected up to 6-8 μm depth for samples after 4, 7 and 10 days immersion in simulated body fluid when compared to weak spectrum detected before immersion. The increase in the phosphorus spectrum corresponds to the hydroxyapatite formation on the surface of the samples after the samples were placed in simulated body fluid.

  13. Crystal chemistry of portland cement hydrates as radioactive waste hosts. Final report, June 15, 1983-June 14, 1984

    Portland cement hydrates have been used as encapsulant/host phases in radioactive waste management. However, their phase chemistry and stability relationships are poorly defined. Therefore, on occasion, they have not performed as well as expected. As a result, their use has been mainly limited to low-level waste disposal. Since this knowledge gap existed, we had begun to investigate the crystal chemistry of the portland cement hydrates. It was our objective to identify potential hydrate host phases which were not only suitable for isolating radioactive-waste species but also inexpensive, easily processed, low-temperature materials. Initially, we were concentrating upon two areas of interest: the fixation of iodine by the calcium aluminate hydrates and the feasibility of using Stratling's compound as a host phase for cesium and strontium fixation. In both cases, a phase equilibrium study was initiated in order to identify phase relations and consequences of adding the species of interest to the system. An iodine-containing analogue of calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate (C3A.CaI2.xH2O) was identified as a possible host phase. CsOH was added to formulations in the neighborhood of Stratling's compound, in order to establish phase relations and identify the fixation ability of Stratling's compound and its associated hydrates. 11 figures, 9 tables

  14. Crystal chemistry of portland cement hydrates as radioactive waste hosts. Progress report, June 15, 1983-February 7, 1984

    Portland cement hydrates have been used as encapsulant/host phases in radioactive waste management. However, their phase chemistry and stability relationships are poorly defined. Therefore, on occassion, they have not performed as well as expected. As a result, their use has been mainly limited to low-level waste disposal. Since this knowledge gap exists, we have begun to investigate the crystal chemistry of the portland cement hydrates. It is our objective to identify potential hydrate host phases which are not only suitable for isolating radioactive-waste species but also inexpensive, easily processed, low-temperature materials. Initially, we have been concentrating upon two areas of interest: The fixation of iodine by the calcium aluminate hydrates and the feasibility of using Straling's compound as a host phase for cesium and strontium fixation. In both cases, a phase equilibrium study has been initiated in order to identify phase relations and consequences of adding the species of interest to the system. An iodine-containing analogue of calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate (C3A.CaI2.xH2O) has been identified as a possible host phase. CsOH and Sr(OH)2 are being added to formulations in the neighborhood of Stratling's compound, in order to establish phase relations and identify the fixation ability of Stratling's compound and its associated hydrates. 10 figures, 6 tables

  15. Oregon state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administater, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  16. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Baker Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho

    The Baker Quadrangle, Oregon, and Idaho, was evaluated to identify areas containing geologic environments favorable for uranium deposits. The criteria used was developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Stream-sediment reconnaissance and detailed surface studies were augmented by subsurface-data interpretion and an aerial radiometric survey. Results indicate that lower Pliocene sedimentary rocks in the Lower Powder River Valley-Virtue Flat basin are favorable characteristics, they remain unevaluated because of lack of subsurface data. Tertiary sandstones, possibly present at depth in the Long and Cascade Valleys, also remain unevaluated due to lack of subsurface data. All remaining environments in the Baker Quadrangle are unfavorable for all classes of uranium deposits

  17. Oregon's civil commitment law: 140 years of change.

    Bloom, J D; Williams, M H

    1994-05-01

    Legislatures, professional groups, and mental health consumers across the United States are currently engaged in a debate about the need for change in civil commitment procedures. The authors summarize modifications of legislation and judicial opinion in the history of Oregon's civil commitment procedures from 1853 to the present to show that changes in civil commitment reflect broader shifts in the social and political aspects of the mental health system. Many current issues in civil commitment, such as the question of a patient's competency to make treatment decisions, are not new, and they are likely to continue to be controversial as mental health systems attempt to balance concerns about the liberty interests of mentally ill persons with concerns about providing appropriate treatment for mental illness. PMID:8045542

  18. Oregon state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  19. Observing diagenesis on the Oregon Margin through a Paleomagnetic lens

    Dominguez, A. B.; Stoner, J. S.; Jin, Y.; Xuan, C.; Hatfield, R. G.; Dorfman, J. M.; Mix, A. C.; Goni, M. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Four cores from the Oregon Margin at water depths ranging from 120 m to 450 m were studied by progressive AF demagnetization of u-channel samples. This highly productive location, well known for reductive diagenesis and magnetic dissolution, contains sediments with high accumulation rates that could provide important paleomagnetic archives. The magnetic properties of all sites are consistent with each other and a new magnetic diagenetic model suggests that pyritization during early diagenesis leads to the progressive down-core growth of the ferrimagnetic iron sulfide greigite at the inferred position of the sulfate-methane transition. By comparing these greigite recorded and radiocarbon-dated paleomagnetic records with regional paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) templates, we are able to assess the difference between the age of magnetization and the age of the sediment, thereby temporally constraining this chemical remanent magnetization process in a range of environments.

  20. Failure analysis of an Oregon coast reinforced concrete bridge

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Russell, James H.; Soltesz, S.M. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation; Laylor, H.M. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)

    2001-01-01

    The coastal highway along the Oregon coast contains many reinforced concrete bridges constructed between 1925 and 1955. Chloride-induced corrosion resulted in the need for the rehabilitation or replacement of a number of these bridges. A failure analysis of the Rocky Point Viaduct (built in 1954, patched in 1969, replaced in 1994) is presented. Analysis included powder sampling and profiling of Cl concentration, determining the permeable void fraction in the concrete, and measuring rebar half cell potentials. Insufficient concrete cover over the shear stirrups was the major factor in the premature failure of the Viaduct. The time required for corrosion initiation and cracking was modeled by calculating diffusion parameters (surface Cl concentration (Co) and diffusion coefficient (D)) from Cl profiles. The model was used to examine the relative ineffectiveness of the patch repairs by showing increased Cl transport in the patch due to both higher Co and D values.