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Sample records for 245cm nejtronnye secheniya

  1. Synthesis of the isotopes of elements 118 and 116 in the 249Cf and 245Cm+48Ca fusion reactions

    Oganessian, Y T; Utyonkov, V K; Lobanov, Y V; Abdullin, F S; Polyakov, A N; Sagaidak, R N; Shirokovsky, I V; Tsyganov, Y S; Voinov, A A; Gulbekian, G G; Bogomolov, S L; Gikal, B N; Mezentsev, A N; Iliev, S; Subbotin, V G; Sukhov, A M; Subotic, K; Zagrebaev, V I; Vostokin, G K; Itkis, M G; Moody, K J; . Patin, J B; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, M A; Stoyer, N J; Wilk, P A; Kenneally, J M; Landrum, J H; Wild, J F; Lougheed, R W

    2006-01-31

    The decay properties of {sup 290}116 and {sup 291}116, and the dependence of their production cross sections on the excitation energies of the compound nucleus, {sup 293}116, have been measured in the {sup 245}Cm({sup 48}Ca,xn){sup 293-x}116 reaction. These isotopes of element 116 are the decay daughters of element 118 isotopes, which are produced via the {sup 249}Cf+{sup 48}Ca reaction. They performed the element 118 experiment at two projectile energies, corresponding to {sup 297}118 compound nucleus excitation energies of E* = 29.2 {+-} 2.5 and 34.4 {+-} 2.3 MeV. During an irradiation with a total beam dose of 4.1 x 10{sup 19} {sup 48}Ca projectiles, three similar decay chains consisting of two or three consecutive {alpha} decays and terminated by a spontaneous fission (SF) with high total kinetic energy of about 230 MeV were observed. The three decay chains originated from the even-even isotope {sup 294}118 (E{sub {alpha}} = 11.65 {+-} 0.06 MeV, T{sub {alpha}} = 0.89{sub -0.31}{sup +1.07} ms) produced in the 3n-evaporation channel of the {sup 249}Cf+{sup 48}Ca reaction with a maximum cross section of 0.5{sub -0.3}{sup +1.6} pb.

  2. Recoil-range studies of heavy products of multinucleon transfer from 18O to 245Cm and 249Cf

    Recoil range distributions were measured for alpha and spontaneous fission activities made in the bombardment of 245Cm and 249Cf with 18O from 6.20 MeV/nucleon down to the interaction barrier. The shape of the distributions indicates tht transfers of up to four protons take place via a combination of quasi-elastic (QET) and deep inelastic (DIT) mechanisms, rather than complete fusion-de-excitation (CF) or massive transfer (MT). Angular distributions constructed from recoil range distributions, assuming QET/DIT, indicate that the QET component contributes more significantly to the heavy product residue cross section than the DIT, even though primary cross sections are expected to be higher for DIT than for QET. This may be explained qualitatively as a result of the high excitation energies associated with DIT; the very negative Q/sub gg/ of projectile stripping for these systems combined with the lower expected optimal Q/sub rxn/ of QET compared to DIT can give QET products comparatively low excitation

  3. Measurement of neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U and {sup 245}Cm with the FIC detector at the CERN n-TOF facility

    Calviani, M.; Karadimos, D.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calvino, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapic, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kappeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martinez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O' Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M.T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K

    2008-07-01

    A series of measurements of neutron induced fission cross section of various transuranic isotopes have been performed at the CERN n-TOF spallation neutron facility, in the energy range from thermal to nearly 250 MeV. The experimental apparatus consists in a fast ionization chamber (FIC), used as a fission fragment detector with a high efficiency. Good discrimination between alphas and fission fragments can be obtained with a simple amplitude threshold. In order to allow the monitoring of the neutron beam and to extract the n-TOF neutron flux, the well known cross section of the {sup 235}U(n,f) reaction, considered as a fission standard, has been used. Preliminary results for the cross section are shown for some selected isotopes such as {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U and {sup 245}Cm in the energy range from 0.050 eV to about 2 MeV. These results for {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U and {sup 245}Cm show results consistent with databases in the resonance region, with no normalization required for {sup 233}U. In the case of {sup 245}Cm, for the energy range between thermal and 20 eV, we obtained the first experimental data ever published, while showing a good agreement with previous data in the region above that value.

  4. Measurement of neutron induced fission of 235U, 233U and 245Cm with the FIC detector at the CERN n-TOF facility

    A series of measurements of neutron induced fission cross section of various transuranic isotopes have been performed at the CERN n-TOF spallation neutron facility, in the energy range from thermal to nearly 250 MeV. The experimental apparatus consists in a fast ionization chamber (FIC), used as a fission fragment detector with a high efficiency. Good discrimination between alphas and fission fragments can be obtained with a simple amplitude threshold. In order to allow the monitoring of the neutron beam and to extract the n-TOF neutron flux, the well known cross section of the 235U(n,f) reaction, considered as a fission standard, has been used. Preliminary results for the cross section are shown for some selected isotopes such as 235U, 233U and 245Cm in the energy range from 0.050 eV to about 2 MeV. These results for 235U, 233U and 245Cm show results consistent with databases in the resonance region, with no normalization required for 233U. In the case of 245Cm, for the energy range between thermal and 20 eV, we obtained the first experimental data ever published, while showing a good agreement with previous data in the region above that value.

  5. Measurement of Neutron Induced Fission of 235U, 233U and 245Cm with the FIC Detector at the CERN n()TOF Facility

    A series of measurements of neutron induced fission cross section of various TRU isotopes have been performed at the CERN n()TOF spallation neutron facility, in the energy range from thermal to nearly 250 MeV. The experimental apparatus consists in a fast ionization chamber (FIC), used as a fission fragment detector with a high efficiency. Good discrimination between alphas and fission fragments can be obtained with a simple amplitude threshold. In order to allow the monitoring of the neutron beam and to extract the n()TOF neutron flux, the well known cross section of the 235U(n,f) reaction, considered as a fission standard, has been used. Preliminary results for the cross section are shown for some selected isotopes such as 235U, 233U and 245Cm in the energy range from 0.050 eV to about 2 MeV.

  6. Energy distributions and yields of 3H, 4He and 6He-particles emitted in the 245Cm(n_th,f) reaction

    Serot, O; Wagemans, J; Goeminne, G; Köster, U; Geltenbort, P; Nesvizhevsky, V V

    2001-01-01

    The energy distributions and yields of light charged particles emitted during thermal neutron induced fission of 245Cm have been measured at the high flux reactor of the Institute Laue Langevin in Grenoble (France). The detection of the ternary particles was done using a Delta-E/E telescope, permitting a good separation of the ternary particles. In this way, the characteristics of the energy distribution (average energy and full width at half maximum) for 4He, 3H and 6He particles as well as their emission probabilities could be determined. For the emission probabilities per fission, the following values were obtained: LRA/B=(2.15+-0.05)E-3, 3H/B=(1.85+-0.10)E-4 and 6He/B=(4.95+-1.25)E-5.

  7. Fission Cross-section Measurements of (233)U, (245)Cm and (241,243)Am at CERN n_TOF Facility

    Calviani, M; Andriamonje, S; Chiaveri, E; Vlachoudis, V; Colonna, N; Meaze, M H; Marrone, S; Tagliente, G; Terlizzi, R; Belloni, F; Abbondanno, U; Fujii, K; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Aerts, G; Berthoumieux, E; Dridi, W; Gunsing, F; Pancin, J; Perrot, L; Plukis, A; Alvarez, H; Duran, I; Paradela, C; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Cano-Ott, D; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Guerrero, C; Martinez, T; Villamarin, D; Vicente, M C; Andrzejewski, J; Marganiec, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Papachristodoulou, C; Patronis, N; Audouin, L; David, S; Ferrant, L; Isaev, S; Stephan, C; Tassan-Got, L; Badurek, G; Jericha, E; Leeb, H; Oberhummer, H; Pigni, M T; Baumann, P; Kerveno, M; Lukic, S; Rudolf, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M; Calvino, F; Capote, R; Carrillo De Albornoz, A; Marques, L; Salgado, J; Tavora, L; Vaz, P; Cennini, P; Dahlfors, M; Ferrari, A; Gramegna, F; Herrera-Martinez, A; Kadi, Y; Mastinu, P; Praena, J; Sarchiapone, L; Wendler, H; Chepel, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Goncalves, I; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Neves, F; Cortes, G; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Couture, A; Cox, J; O'brien, S; Wiescher, M; Dillman, I; Heil, M; Kappeler, F; Mosconi, M; Plag, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wisshak, K; Dolfini, R; Rubbia, C; Domingo-Pardo, C; Tain, J L; Eleftheriadis, C; Savvidis, I; Frais-Koelbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Furman, W; Konovalov, V; Goverdovski, A; Ketlerov, V; Haas, B; Haight, R; Reifarth, R; Igashira, M; Koehler, P; Kossionides, E; Lampoudis, C; Lozano, M; Quesada, J; Massimi, C; Vannini, G; Mengoni, A; Oshima, M; Papadopoulos, C; Vlastou, R; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Plompen, A; Rullhusen, P; Rauscher, T; Rosetti, M; Ventura, A

    2011-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross-sections of minor actinides have been measured using the n_TOF white neutron source at CERN, Geneva, as part of a large experimental program aiming at collecting new data relevant for nuclear astrophysics and for the design of advanced reactor systems. The measurements at n_TOF take advantage of the innovative features of the n_TOF facility, namely the wide energy range, high instantaneous neutron flux and good energy resolution. Final results on the fission cross-section of 233U, 245Cm and 243Am from thermal to 20 MeV are here reported, together with preliminary results for 241Am. The measurement have been performed with a dedicated Fast Ionization Chamber (FIC), a fission fragment detector with a very high efficiency, relative to the very well known cross-section of 235U, measured simultaneously with the same detector.

  8. Recoil-range studies of heavy products of multinucleon transfer from /sup 18/O to /sup 245/Cm and /sup 249/Cf

    McFarland, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    Recoil range distributions were measured for alpha and spontaneous fission activities made in the bombardment of /sup 245/Cm and /sup 249/Cf with /sup 18/O from 6.20 MeV/nucleon down to the interaction barrier. The shape of the distributions indicates tht transfers of up to four protons take place via a combination of quasi-elastic (QET) and deep inelastic (DIT) mechanisms, rather than complete fusion-de-excitation (CF) or massive transfer (MT). Angular distributions constructed from recoil range distributions, assuming QET/DIT, indicate that the QET component contributes more significantly to the heavy product residue cross section than the DIT, even though primary cross sections are expected to be higher for DIT than for QET. This may be explained qualitatively as a result of the high excitation energies associated with DIT; the very negative Q/sub gg/ of projectile stripping for these systems combined with the lower expected optimal Q/sub rxn/ of QET compared to DIT can give QET products comparatively low excitation.

  9. Measurement of the Neutron Capture Cross Sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm with a Total Absorption Calorimeter at n_TOF

    Beer, H; Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Rapp, W; Embid, M; Dababneh, S

    2002-01-01

    Accurate and reliable neutron capture cross section data for actinides are necessary for the poper design, safety regulation and precise performance assessment of transmutation devices such as Fast Critical Reactors or Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The goal of this proposal is the measurement of the neutron capture cross sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm at n_TOF with an accuracy of 5~\\%. $^{233}$U plays an essential role in the Th fuel cycle, which has been proposed as a safer and cleaner alternative to the U fuel cycle. The capture cross sections of $^{237}$Np,$^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm play a key role in the design and optimization of a strategy for the Nuclear Waste Transmutation. A high accuracy can be achieved at n_TOF in such measurements due to a combination of features unique in the world: high instantaneous neutron fluence and excellent energy resolution of the facility, innovative Data Acquisition System based on flash ADCs and t...

  10. Above-threshold structure in {sup 244}Cm neutron-induced fission cross section

    Maslov, V.M. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The quasi-resonance structure appearing above the fission threshold in neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 244}Cm(n,f) is interpreted. It is shown to be due to excitation of few-quasiparticle states in fissioning {sup 245}Cm and residual {sup 244}Cm nuclides. The estimate of quasiparticle excitation thresholds in fissioning nuclide {sup 245}Cm is consistent with pairing gap and fission barrier parameters. (author)

  11. Design and Thermal Distribution of Microwave Spiral Antenna

    Spiral microwave antennas have been developed and measure the thermal distribution in agar phantom. The design has been configured in three types, 3 cm f applicator with 24.5 cm length (A type), 4 cm f with 12.2 cm (B type) and 6 cm f with 24.5 cm length (C type). The relative specific absorption rate (SAR) measured in phantom have been used to estimate the depth and profile of effective heating. The applicator of copper antenna with 4 cm f diameter and 12.2 cm length (B type) has the most homogeneous (FWHM=3.5 cm) and heating into deep with (Deff=4cm)

  12. Critical and subcritical masses of curium-245, -246 and -247 calculated with a combination of MCNP4A code and JENDL-3.2 library

    Critical masses of three curium isotopes, 245Cm, 246Cm and 247Cm, were calculated with a combination of the current version of the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, JENDL-3.2, and a continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code, MCNP4A. The subcritical masses corresponding to the neutron multiplication factor keff=0.9 and 0.8 were also computed in the same way. The subcritical masses that correspond to keff=0.9 for 246Cm metal and 246CmO2 with a 30-cm-thick stainless steel reflector were computed as 25.2 kg and 41.8 kg, respectively. The minimum critical mass for 245Cm was obtained as 65.6 g in a sphere of a homogeneous mixture of granulated 245Cm metal and water surrounded by a fully thick water reflector. The corresponding quantity for 247Cm was found to be 2.19 kg. The critical masses of 245Cm, 246Cm and 247Cm metals were computed also for reference by replacing the JENDL-3.2 with the ENDF/B-VI; they were reduced by 23%, 45% and 2%, respectively, from each corresponding value, which revealed a large dependence of the results on the evaluated nuclear data libraries. The present report was prepared for revision of the ANSI/ANS-8.15, the American National Standard for Nuclear Criticality Control of Special Actinide Elements. (author)

  13. Average resonance parameters evaluation for actinides

    Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    New evaluated <{Gamma}{sub n}{sup 0}> and values for {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 243}Cm, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 246}Cm and {sup 241}Am nuclei in the resolved resonance region are presented. The applied method based on the idea that experimental resonance missing results in correlated changes of reduced neutron widths and level spacings distributions is discussed. (author)

  14. Annual report of the project CIS-03-95, `evaluation of actinide nuclear data`

    Maslov, V.M. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The evaluation of neutron data for {sup 243}Cm, {sup 245}Cm and {sup 246}Cm is made in the energy region from 10-5 eV up to 20 MeV. The results of the evaluation are compiled in the ENDF/B-VI format. This work is performed under the Project Agreement CIS-03-95 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). This is the annual report of the project CIS-03-95. (author)

  15. Actinides separation and long-lived fission products from the high activity effluent

    The aim of this document is to study the decontamination of a high activity effluent in minor actinides-α transmitters (241Am, 243Am, 243Cm, 245Cm, 237Np, 238Pu, 242Pu, 235U, 238U) and long-life fissions products (133Cs, 137Cs) and then the separation of Am, Cm, Np, Cs and Pu, U traces. (TEC). 16 figs., 1 tab

  16. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides

    Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.

  17. Prompt neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium nuclides

    The direct determination of the average prompt neutron emission values is reviewed, and a method of comparing different sites of neutron emission multiplicity distribution values is described. Measured and recommended values are tabulated for these nuclides: 241Am, 242Am, 242Cm, 243Cm, 244Cm, 246Cm, 247Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm, 245Cm, 249Bk, 246Cf, 249Cf, 250Cf, 252Cf, 254Cf, 251Cf, 253Es, 254Es, 244Fm, 246Fm, 255Fm, 252No, 254Fm, 256Fm, 257Fm. 59 refs., 24 tabs

  18. Conservation of Isospin in Neutron-Rich Fission Fragments

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Choudhury, Deepika; Maheshwari, Bhoomika

    2014-01-01

    On the occasion of the $75^{th}$ anniversary of the fission phenomenon, we present a surprisingly simple result which highlights the important role of isospin and its conservation in neutron rich fission fragments. We have analysed the fission fragment mass distribution from two recent heavy-ion reactions $^{238}$U($^{18}$O,f) and $^{208}$Pb($^{18}$O,f) as well as a thermal neutron fission reaction $^{245}$Cm(n$^{th}$,f). We find that the conservation of the total isospin explains the overall...

  19. Sea Trout from the Currane Fishery in 1973 and 1974

    Fahy, E.

    1980-01-01

    Collections of 1,163 sets of scales from rod-caught sea trout Salma trutta L., made in 1973 and 1974, are described and the results compared with data from previous collections. The mean weight of 821 g was higher than usual in Irish fisheries and smolts were large, ranging from 22.8 to 24.5 cm at two years. Previous indications of a long lived-stock were confirmed by the identification of 37 age categories. The amount of B type growth was considerably less than that observed in s...

  20. Age and growth of the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834) from the Southern coast of Sinaloa, México Edad y crecimiento del tiburón martillo, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834) de la costa sur de Sinaloa, México

    Vicente Anislado-Tolentino; Manuel Gallardo Cabello; Felipe Amezcua Linares; Carlos Robinson Mendoza

    2008-01-01

    Age and growth for the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) were determined from opaque bands (OBs) on postcephalic vertebrae from 109 organisms (44 females, 52 cm to 276 cm total length (TL) and 65 males, 47 cm to 245 cm TL) obtained bimonthly from commercial fisheries off the southern coast of Sinaloa state (23°45'25"N and 106°05'15"W to 21°52'N and 105°54'W) from January 2003 to February 2005. The Bowker test of symmetry and the Index of Average Percent Error, suggest that this agei...

  1. Resposta de Euphalerus clitoriae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae a armadilhas adesivas de diferentes cores Response of Euphalerus clitoriae (Hem: Psyllidae to adhesive traps of different colors

    Mariângela Guajará

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Retângulos de alumínio, medindo 10 x 24,5 cm, pintados de branco, vermelho, azul e amarelo, foram revestidos com cola incolor e inodora e dispostos no campo, entre árvores de Clitoria fairchildiana, para verificação da responsividade dos adultos de E. clitoriae às diferentes cores. Retângulos transparentes, de iguais dimensões, foram utilizados como controle. O número significativamente superior de adultos atraídos e capturados pelas armadilhas amarelas, em comparação com as demais, indica uma resposta orientada, sendo elas, portanto, recomendadas para o monitoramento de adultos de E. clitoriae.Aluminum rectangles measuring 10 x 24.5 cm and painted white, red, blue and yellow were covered with colorless and scentless glue and disposed in the field among trees of Clitoria fairchildiana, for verification of response of E. clitoriae adults to the different colors. Transparent rectangles of the same dimensions were also used as controls. The number of adults attracted and captured by the yellow traps was significantly greater than that attracted by the other colors, suggesting a color-oriented response. Thus, the yellow adhesive traps are recommended for monitoring of E. clitoriae adults.

  2. High-pressure flame visualization of autoignition and flashback phenomena with liquid-fuel spray

    Marek, C. J.; Baker, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effect of boundary layers on autoignition and flashback for premixed Jet-A fuel in a unique high-pressure windowed test facility. A plate was placed in the center of the fuel-air stream to establish a boundary layer. Four experimental configurations were tested: a 24.5-cm-long plate with either a pointed leading edge, a rounded edge or an edge with a 0.317-cm step, or the duct without the plate. Experiments at an equivalence ratio ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 were performed at pressures to 2500 kPa (25 atm.) at temperatures of 600, 645, and 700 K and velocities to 115 meters per second. Flame shapes were observed during flashback and autoignition using high speed cinematography. Flashback and autoignition limits were determined.

  3. Development of fission micro-chambers for nuclear waste incineration studies

    The incineration of transuranic elements by neutron induced fission is a very promising way to reduce long-term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste. The Mini-Inca aims to outline the ideal physical conditions to transmute minor actinides, mainly 241-243Am, 237Np and 244-245Cm. For some actinides there are large discrepancies of neutron cross sections taken from different evaluated nuclear data libraries. These cross sections play a dominant role in transmutation systems. For instance, a factor 20 was pointed out for the 242gsAm thermal neutron capture cross section from JEF-2.2 (5500 barns) and ENDF-B/VI (250 barns) libraries. Computer simulations can lead to controversial results depending on the nuclear data library that was used. To measure the incineration rate of minor actinides, and to provide an unambiguous experimental reference, fission micro-chambers are of great interest. (author)

  4. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    Roberto, J. B.; Alexander, C. W.; Boll, R. A.; Burns, J. D.; Ezold, J. G.; Felker, L. K.; Hogle, S. L.; Rykaczewski, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of 48Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including 242Pu, 244Pu, 243Am, 245Cm, 248Cm, 249Cf, and 249Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including 249Bk, 251Cf, and 254Es are described.

  5. Data basis for a site specific radioactive element migration analysis of a repository

    Migration analysis is of considerable importance in long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste repositories. As a first step the author calculates the transport of radionuclides using data, as far as possible, for an undisturbed hydrogeology. Thereby a reference case is defined. In a later step, possible events and processes can be considered leading to a deviation from the reference case. The present work gives the data base for a selected part of a comprehensive geosphere transport calculation. The report is restricted to a critical evaluation of parameters pertinent to the migration analysis of the 245Cm chain. This includes the important nuclide 237Np. For the first time it is possible to perform a site specific calculation for repositories planned in deep geologic formations in Switzerland. The well known fact that the data basis is extremely sparse is pointed out once more and concretized in detail. (Auth.)

  6. Fission cross-section measurements on 233U and minor actinides at the CERN n-TOF facility

    Neutron-induced fission cross-sections of minor actinides have been measured at the white neutron source n-TOF at CERN, Geneva. The studied isotopes include 233U, interesting for Th/U based nuclear fuel cycles, 241,243Am and 245Cm, relevant for transmutation and waste reduction studies in new generation fast reactors (Gen-IV) or Accelerator Driven Systems. The measurements take advantage of the unique features of the n-TOF facility, namely the wide energy range, the high instantaneous neutron flux and the low background. Results for the involved isotopes are reported from ∼30 meV to around 1 MeV neutron energy. The measurements have been performed with a dedicated Fission Ionization Chamber (FIC), relative to the standard cross-section of the 235U fission reaction, measured simultaneously with the same detector. Results are here reported. (authors)

  7. Study of 242‑248Cm isotopes in the projected shell model framework

    Sadiq, Saiqa; Devi, Rani; Khosa, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    The projected shell model framework is employed to study the band spectra in 242‑248Cm isotopes. The present calculations reproduce the available experimental data on the yrast bands. Besides this, B(E2) transition probabilities of even-even Cm isotopes have also been calculated. The low spin states of yrast band are seen to arise purely from zero-quasi-particle (o-qp) intrinsic states whereas the high spin states have multi-quasi-particle structure. For the odd-neutron (odd-N) isotopes, the calculated results qualitatively reproduce the available data on ground and lowest excited state bands for 243,245Cm. However, for 247Cm the negative-parity ground state band is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Generation of an actinide isotopes cross section set for fast reactor calculations using data from ENDL and ENDF/B-IV

    A Bondarenko format 25-group cross section set of actinide isotopes was generated for the fuel cycle evaluation and the incineration study in fast reactor systems. Evaluated Nuclear Data Library of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (U.S.) was used as the source data. The actinide isotopes treated are the following 28: Th-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-243, Am-241, Am-242, Am-243, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Bk-249, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252 and a pseudo-fission product. ENDF/B-IV was used for U-238. The set was then collapsed to one energy group using a large LMFBR core spectrum for the comparison with other one-group sets. (author)

  9. Monte Carlo calculations on transmutation of transuranic nuclear waste isotopes using spallation neutrons. Difference of lead and graphite moderators

    Transmutation rates of 239Pu and some minor actinides (237Np, 241Am, 245Cm and 246Cm), in two accelerator driven systems (ADS) with lead or graphite moderating environments, were calculated using the LAHET code system. The ADS that were used had a large volume (∼ 30 m3) and contained no fissile material, except for a small amount of fissionable waste nuclei that existed in some cases. Calculations were performed at incident proton energy of 1.5 GeV and spallation target was lead. Also breeding rates of 239Pu and 233U as well as the transmutation rates of two long-lived fission products 99Tc and 129I were calculated at different locations in the moderator. It is shown that an ADS with graphite moderator is a much more effective transmuter than that with lead moderator

  10. Conservation of Isospin in Neutron-rich Fission Fragments

    On the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the fission phenomenon, we present a surprisingly simple result which highlights the important role of isospin and its conservation in neutron rich fission fragments. We have analysed the fission fragment mass distribution from two recent heavyion reactions 238U(18O,f) and 208Pb(18O,f) as well as a thermal neutron fission reaction 245Cm(nth,f). We find that the conservation of the total isospin explains the overall trend in the observed relative yields of fragment masses in each fission pair partition. The isospin values involved are very large making the effect dramatic. The findings open the way for more precise calculations of fission fragment distributions in heavy nuclei and may have far reaching consequences for the drip line nuclei, HI fusion reactions, and calculation of decay heat in the fission phenomenon

  11. Conservation of Isospin in Neutron-rich Fission Fragments

    Jain, A. K.; Choudhury, D.; Maheshwari, B.

    2014-06-01

    On the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the fission phenomenon, we present a surprisingly simple result which highlights the important role of isospin and its conservation in neutron rich fission fragments. We have analysed the fission fragment mass distribution from two recent heavyion reactions 238U(18O,f) and 208Pb(18O,f) as well as a thermal neutron fission reaction 245Cm(nth,f). We find that the conservation of the total isospin explains the overall trend in the observed relative yields of fragment masses in each fission pair partition. The isospin values involved are very large making the effect dramatic. The findings open the way for more precise calculations of fission fragment distributions in heavy nuclei and may have far reaching consequences for the drip line nuclei, HI fusion reactions, and calculation of decay heat in the fission phenomenon.

  12. Conservation of Isospin in Neutron-Rich Fission Fragments

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika

    2014-01-01

    On the occasion of the $75^{th}$ anniversary of the fission phenomenon, we present a surprisingly simple result which highlights the important role of isospin and its conservation in neutron rich fission fragments. We have analysed the fission fragment mass distribution from two recent heavy-ion reactions $^{238}$U($^{18}$O,f) and $^{208}$Pb($^{18}$O,f) as well as a thermal neutron fission reaction $^{245}$Cm(n$^{th}$,f). We find that the conservation of the total isospin explains the overall trend in the observed relative yields of fragment masses in each fission pair partition. The isospin values involved are very large making the effect dramatic. The findings open the way for more precise calculations of fission fragment distributions in heavy nuclei and may have far reaching consequences for the drip line nuclei, HI fusion reactions, and calculation of decay heat in the fission phenomenon.

  13. Estimation of doses of an internal irradiation of a Scots pine (Pinus silvestris) at flooding and full territory flooding

    The value of equivalent dose found in the aboveground phytomass elements of Pinus silvestris L. is formed due to the internal b-radiation emitted by incorporated radionuclides, and depends on the level of ground waters. The highest Cs (3-ir-radiation dose are observed on a study site with the level of ground waters of 40-60 cm, while the minimum values are found on waterless areas - 245 cm. The opposite effect is observed in respect of Sr 90 and a daughter product Y 90. The large internal irradiation doses of the pine bark is determined by its significant Sr 90 uptake (up to 140 x 10-3 m2/kg). (authors)

  14. Neutron measurements for innovative fuel cycle and transmutation performed at the CEN Bordeaux-Gradignan : transfer techniques applied to the protactinium case

    Transfer reaction techniques have been used to determine neutron induced fission cross section (σn,f) of the short lived 233Pa nucleus, which is of importance for the Th-U fuel cycle for innovative reactors. The σn,f of 233Pa has been determined from the product of the fission probability of 234Pa measured in transfer reaction 232Th(3He,p) with the calculated compound nucleus formation cross section in the 233Pa+n reaction. The validity of this method has been tested with the existing data for direct neutron experiments on long-lived target nuclei 231Pa and 230Th. Transfer reaction techniques have been used too for the determination of capture cross section (σn,y) of 233Pa. This method will be extended to other highly radioactive actinides (such as 242-245Cm isotopes). (author)

  15. Ternary particles with extreme N/Z ratios from neutron-induced fission

    Koster, U.; Faust, H.; Friedrichs, T.; Oberstedt, S.; Fioni, G.; Grob, M.; Ahmad, I. J.; Devlin, M.; Heinz, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Sarantites, D. G.; Siem, S.; Sobotka, L. G.; Sonzogni, A.

    2000-05-16

    The existing ternary fission models can well reproduce the yields of the most abundant light charged particles. However, these models tend to significantly overestimate the yields of ternary particles with an extreme N/Z ratio: {sup 3}He, {sup 11}Li, {sup 14}Be, etc. The experimental yields of these isotopes were investigated with the recoil separator LOHENGRIN down to a level of 10{sup {minus}10} per fission. Results from the fissioning systems {sup 233}U (n{sub th}, f), {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f), {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th},f) {sup 241}Pu(n{sub th},f) and {sup 245}Cm(n{sub th},f) are presented and the implications for the ternary fission models are discussed.

  16. EFFECTS OF SUBSTRATUM AND CONTAINERS IN ACCLIMATION OF PINEAPPLE SEEDLINGS [Ananas comosus (L. Merril] CV. PÉROLA EFEITOS DE SUBSTRATOS E RECIPIENTES NA ACLIMATAÇÃO DE PLÂNTULAS DE ABACAXIZEIRO [Ananas comosus (L. Merril] CV. PÉROLA

    Sarah Brandão Santa Cruz Barboza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    After the removal of the in vitro culture medium, the survival and growth of micropropagated seedlings are among the main difficulties found in several crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of pineapple cv. Pérola seedlings produced in vitro and acclimated in different substrates and containers. The experimental design was completely randomized split plot, with four replicates. The plots (twenty plants consisted of three substrates (sand/plant fiber/humus, Plantmax and sand and the subplots consisted of three containers (a tubet 5cm in diameter by 13cm high, a tubet 5cm in diameter by 24.5cm high and a 10cm x 8cm plastic bag. The combinations of sand/plant fiber/humus with 5x13cm tubet or with a plastic bag, and of Plantmax with 5x13cm tubet provide better growth in ex vitro conditions.

    KEY-WORDS: Culture in vitro; micropropagation; fruitculture.

    A sobrevivência e o crescimento de plântulas micropropagadas, após a remoção do meio de cultivo in vitro, estão entre as principais dificuldades encontradas em várias culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de plântulas de abacaxi cv. Pérola, produzidas in vitro e submetidas a aclimatação em diferentes substratos e recipientes. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas (com vinte plântulas foram constituídas de três substratos (areia/xaxim/húmus, Plantmax e areia e as subparcelas, de três recipientes (tubete com 5cm de diâmetro x 13cm de altura, tubete com 5cm de diâmetro x 24,5cm de altura e saco plástico, com 10cm x 8cm. As combinações areia/xaxim/húmus com tubete pequeno ou com saco plástico e Plantmax com tubete de 5cm diâmetro x 13cm de altura proporcionaram melhores respostas ao crescimento em condições ex vitro.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cultivo in vitro; micropropagação; fruticultura; parcelas subdivididas.

  17. Application of atmospheric CVD for internal surface coating of graphite conduit by silicon carbide

    Highlights: • APCVD could be a suitable process for SiC coating on complex geometry. • Dendrite structure of SiC was observed along the axis. • SiC coating was boundary phenomena. • Uniform coating was observed along axial and radial direction. - Abstract: Mechanism of silicon carbide coating on the internal surface of the graphite tube of dimension ϕ 3 mm ID × ϕ 10 mm OD × ϕ 235 mm and surface area ∼24.5 cm2 has been investigated. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) method in mass controlled domain has been applied. Methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) as precursor was used in the present investigation. The coating was characterized by X-ray micro tomography (μCT). The coating thickness and composition were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS). The coating phase analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It has been concluded that silicon carbide coating is a predominantly boundary layer phenomena and the engineering of the same could open up the prospects to accomplish SiC coating on complex pipe line structures on macro scale

  18. ANSI/ANS-8.15-1981(R87): Nuclear criticality control of special actinide elements

    The American National Standard, open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactotorsclose quotes American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society (ANSI/ANS)-8.1-1983(R88) provides guidance for the nuclides 233U, 235U, and 239Pu. These three nuclides are of primary interest in out-of-reactor criticality safety since they are the most commonly encountered in the vast majority of operations. However, some operations can involve nuclides other than 233U, 235U, and 239Pu in sufficient quantities that their effect on criticality safety could be of concern. ANSI/ANS-8.15-1981(R87) open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Control of Special Actinide Elements,close quotes provides guidance for 15 such nuclides. The standard was approved for use on November 9, 1981. When it received its first 5-yr review, no changes were made, and it was reaffirmed effective October 30, 1987. The standard was again reviewed and reaffirmed without changes in December 1995. The next 5-yr review of the standard is due in December 2000. The affected nuclides are 237Np, 238Pu, 240Pu, 242Pu, 241Am, 243Am, 244Cm, 239Pu, 241Pu, 242mAm, 243Cm, 245Cm, 247Cm, 249Cf, and 251Cf

  19. Synthesis, Z-Scan and Degenerate Four Wave Mixing characterization of certain novel thiocoumarin derivatives for third order nonlinear optical applications

    Jayakrishnan, K.; Joseph, Antony; Mathew, K. Paulson; Siji, T. B.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Narendran, N. K. Siji; Jaseela, M. A.; Muraleedharan, K.

    2016-08-01

    The third order nonlinear optical features of certain novel thiocoumarin derivatives have been studied. Single beam Z-scan study on these compounds reveals that the compounds exhibit self defocusing effect upon irradiation with 532 nm, 7 ns pulses of Nd:YAG laser. Nonlinear absorption coefficient, nonlinear refractive index and second-order molecular hyperpolarizability values were estimated. The optical power limiting properties of the compounds are found to be attributable to both two-photon and excited state absorption. Some of the samples show nonlinear absorption coefficient (βeff) as high as 24.5 cm/GW. UV-Visible and photoluminescence outputs of these compounds reveal remarkable absorptive and emissive properties. This article also reports extraordinary growth of third order optical nonlinearity in pure coumarin upon certain donor substitutions in lieu of hydrogen. Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) signals of the compounds were analyzed to verify the Z-scan results. Electrostatic Surface Potential (ESP) mapping and structure optimization techniques have been employed to interpret the structure-property relationship of each molecule.

  20. Yields and spectroscopy of radioactive isotopes at LOHENGRIN and ISOLDE

    Köster, U

    1999-01-01

    Yields of radioactive nuclei were measured at two facilities: the recoil separator LOHENGRIN at the Institut Laue Langevin in Grenoble and the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN in Geneva. At LOHENGRIN the yields of light charged particles were measured from thermal neutron induced ternary fission of several actinide targets: 233U, 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu and 245Cm. Thin targets are brought into a high neutron flux. The produced nuclei leave these with the recoil obtained in the fission reaction. They are measured at different energies and ionic charge states. After corrections for the experimental acceptance, the time behaviour of the fission rate and the ionic charge fraction, the yields are integrated over the kinetic energy distribution. Comparing these yields with the predictions of various ternary fission models shows that the most abundant nuclides are well reproduced. On the other hand the models overestimate significantly the production of more "exotic" nuclides with an extreme N/Z ratio. Therefore ...

  1. Synovectomy by Neutron capture

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu239 Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  2. Temperature measurement with neutrons

    The results presented in this report were obtained from the information provided by charged products. Another alternative consists in detecting the neutrons abundantly emitted particularly by heavy nuclei. The residue channel was studied in the 40Ar + 197Au at 60 MeV/nucleon by means of the neutron multidetector DEMON. The evolution of the multiplicity of neutrons emitted backwards in the framework of the heavy nucleus forwardly detected as a function of the residue velocity by a silicon detector, placed at 8 degrees and at 24.5 cm from target, agrees with the expected results i.e. an increase with the residue velocity hence with the collision violence. For the same detector the first measurements show similarly a linear increase of the apparent temperature of 4.0 to around 6.5 MeV for residue velocities varying from 0.5 to 1.3 cm/ns and masses ranging from 140 to 160 uma. This first results of the analysis show therefore a good behaviour of the assembly and especially of the couple DeMoN-SyReP

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF RICE GENOTYPES FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE BASED ON ROOT CHARACTERS

    K. Renuka Devi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change needs us to look at various alternatives for more drought tolerant and tougher strains. Rice (Oryza sativa L. is the most important food crop of the world; drought stress is a serious limiting factor to rice production and yield stability in rainfed areas. In order to design efficient varieties with virtues of drought tolerance and high yielding ability is necessary. Root system plays an important role under drought conditions. Among all the genotypes NLR 33671 showed highest root length (27.6cm under moisture stress condition followed by NLR 3010 (24.5cm, NLR 40059 (23.6 cm, TELLAHAMSA (23.5 cm ,NLR 40049 (23.5, NLR 3098 (23.5 were showed significantly superior mean values than remaining genotypes for most of the root traits included in this study. Therefore, these genotypes can be considered as drought resistance varieties. Whereas NLR 40054 (14.35 cm, BPT 5204 (14.55 cm, NLR 40045 (15 cm and NLR 30491 (15.19cm recorded lowest root length these can be consider as susceptible ones. The effects of drought stress on rice productivity were explicitly parameterized and addressed in the present study

  4. Synovectomy by Neutron capture; Sinovectomia por captura de neutrones

    Vega C, H.R.; Torres M, C. [Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu{sup 239} Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  5. The JEFF-3.1 Nuclear Data Library - JEFF Report 21

    The Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion (JEFF) Project is a collaborative effort among the member countries of the NEA Data Bank to develop a reference nuclear data library. The JEFF library contains sets of evaluated nuclear data, mainly for fission and fusion applications; it contains a number of different data types, including neutron and proton interaction data, radioactive decay data, fission yield data, thermal scattering law data and photo-atomic interaction data. The latest version of the JEFF library, JEFF-3.1, was released by the NEA in May 2005. JEFF-3.1 combines the efforts of the JEFF and EFF/EAF (European Fusion File/European Activation File) working groups who have contributed to this combined fission and fusion library. The neutron general purpose library contains incident neutron data for 381 materials from 1H to 255Fm. The activation library (based on the European Activation File, EAF-2003) contains 774 different targets from 1H to 257Fm. The radioactive decay data library contains data for 3 852 isotopes, of which 226 are stable. The proton special purpose library contains incident proton data for 26 materials from 40Ca to 209Bi. The thermal scattering law library covers 9 materials, and the fission yield library covers 19 isotopes of neutron induced fission yield from 232Th to 245Cm and 3 isotopes with spontaneous fission yields (242Cm, 244Cm and 252Cf)

  6. Morphological leaf variability in natural populations of Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica along climatic gradient: new features to update Pistacia atlantica subsp. atlantica key

    El Zerey-Belaskri, Asma; Benhassaini, Hachemi

    2016-04-01

    The effect of bioclimate range on the variation in Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica leaf morphology was studied on 16 sites in Northwest Algeria. The study examined biometrically mature leaves totaling 3520 compound leaves. Fifteen characters (10 quantitative and 5 qualitative) were assessed on each leaf. For each quantitative character, the nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine relative magnitude of variation at each level of the nested hierarchy. The correlation between the climatic parameters and the leaf morphology was examined. The statistical analysis applied on the quantitative leaf characters showed highly significant variation at the within-site level and between-site variation. The correlation coefficient ( r) showed also an important correlation between climatic parameters and leaf morphology. The results of this study exhibited several values reported for the first time on the species, such as the length and the width of the leaf (reaching up to 24.5 cm/21.9 cm), the number of leaflets (up to 18 leaflets/leaf), and the petiole length of the terminal leaflet (reaching up to 3.4 cm). The original findings of this study are used to update the P. atlantica subsp. atlantica identification key.

  7. Nuclear structure of 241Pu from neutron-capture, (d,p)-, and (d,t)-reaction measurements

    We report experimental measurements in 241Pu of the following: primary and secondary γ rays and conversion electrons from thermal neutron capture in 240Pu;γ rays from 245Cm α decay; proton and triton spectra, respectively, from (d,p) and (d,t) reactions on 240Pu and 242Pu targets. From these data and those of other investigations, we have identified 53 excited levels in 241Pu below 1400 keV. Of these, 44 are placed in 10 rotational bands (with connecting transitions) that have been assigned Nilsson configurations. For the bands below 1 MeV in 241Pu that are largely of single-particle character, there is good correspondence with similar bands in 239U and with the theoretical model of Gareev et al. For those bands in 241Pu where there is mixing between single-particle and vibrational modes, we find some significant deviations from theoretical predictions. For example, the (5) /(2) [622]circle-times 0- state at 519 keV appears to mix less with other states than predicted, while a trio of Kπ= (1) /(2) - bands show unexpected mixing patterns. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  8. Measurement of fission cross-section of actinides at n_TOF for advanced nuclear reactors

    Calviani, Marco; Montagnoli, G; Mastinu, P

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the determination of high accuracy neutron-induced fission cross-sections of various isotopes - all of which radioactive - of interest for emerging nuclear technologies. The measurements had been performed at the CERN neutron time-of-flight facility n TOF. In particular, in this work, fission cross-sections on 233U, the main fissile isotope of the Th/U fuel cycle, and on the minor actinides 241Am, 243Am and 245Cm have been analyzed. Data on these isotopes are requested for the feasibility study of innovative nuclear systems (ADS and Generation IV reactors) currently being considered for energy production and radioactive waste transmutation. The measurements have been performed with a high performance Fast Ionization Chamber (FIC), in conjunction with an innovative data acquisition system based on Flash-ADCs. The first step in the analysis has been the reconstruction of the digitized signals, in order to extract the information required for the discrimination between fission fragm...

  9. Review and Assessment of Neutron Cross Section and Nubar Covariances for Advanced Reactor Systems

    Maslov,V.M.; Oblozinsky, P.; Herman, M.

    2008-12-01

    In January 2007, the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) produced a set of preliminary neutron covariance data for the international project 'Nuclear Data Needs for Advanced Reactor Systems'. The project was sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Paris, under the Subgroup 26 of the International Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC). These preliminary covariances are described in two recent BNL reports. The NNDC used a simplified version of the method developed by BNL and LANL that combines the recent Atlas of Neutron Resonances, the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE and the Bayesian code KALMAN with the experimental data used as guidance. There are numerous issues involved in these estimates of covariances and it was decided to perform an independent review and assessment of these results so that better covariances can be produced for the revised version in future. Reviewed and assessed are uncertainties for fission, capture, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and (n,2n) cross sections as well as prompt nubars for 15 minor actinides ({sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,240,241,242}Pu, {sup 241,242m,243}Am and {sup 242,243,244,245}Cm) and 4 major actinides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 235,238}U and {sup 239}Pu). We examined available evaluations, performed comparison with experimental data, taken into account uncertainties in model parameterization and made use state-of-the-art nuclear reaction theory to produce the uncertainty assessment.

  10. Powering-up Wireless Sensor Nodes Utilizing Rechargeable Batteries and an Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting System

    Salar Chamanian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wireless sensor node (WSN system where an electromagnetic (EM energy harvester is utilized for charging its rechargeable batteries while the system is operational. The capability and the performance of an in-house low-frequency EM energy harvester for charging rechargeable NiMH batteries were experimentally verified in comparison to a regular battery charger. Furthermore, the power consumption of MicaZ motes, used as the WSN, was evaluated in detail for different operation conditions. The battery voltage and current were experimentally monitored during the operation of the MicaZ sensor node equipped with the EM vibration energy harvester. A compact (24.5 cm3 in-house EM energy harvester provides approximately 65 µA charging current to the batteries when excited by 0.4 g acceleration at 7.4 Hz. It has been shown that the current demand of the MicaZ mote can be compensated for by the energy harvester for a specific low-power operation scenario, with more than a 10-fold increase in the battery lifetime. The presented results demonstrate the autonomous operation of the WSN, with the utilization of a vibration-based energy harvester.

  11. The influence of body size on the intermittent locomotion of a pelagic schooling fish.

    Noda, Takuji; Fujioka, Ko; Fukuda, Hiromu; Mitamura, Hiromichi; Ichikawa, Kotaro; Arai, Nobuaki

    2016-06-15

    There is a potential trade-off between grouping and the optimizing of the energetic efficiency of individual locomotion. Although intermittent locomotion, e.g. glide and upward swimming (GAU), can reduce the cost of locomotion at the individual level, the link between the optimization of individual intermittent locomotion and the behavioural synchronization in a group, especially among members with different sizes, is unknown. Here, we continuously monitored the schooling behaviour of a negatively buoyant fish, Pacific bluefin tuna (N = 10; 21.0 ∼ 24.5 cm), for 24 h in an open-sea net cage using accelerometry. All the fish repeated GAU during the recording periods. Although the GAU synchrony was maintained at high levels (overall mean = 0.62 for the cross-correlation coefficient of the GAU timings), larger fish glided for a longer duration per glide and more frequently than smaller fish. Similar-sized pairs showed significantly higher GAU synchrony than differently sized pairs. Our accelerometry results and the simulation based on hydrodynamic theory indicated that the advantage of intermittent locomotion in energy savings may not be fully optimized for smaller animals in a group when faced with the maintenance of group cohesion, suggesting that size assortative shoaling would be advantageous. PMID:27252017

  12. Estimating slash pine biomass using radar backscatter

    Hussin, Yousif Ali; Reich, Robin M.; Hoffer, Roger M.

    1991-01-01

    L-band HV multiple-incidence-angle aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were analyzed in relation to average stand biomass, basal area, and tree height for 55 slash pine plantations located in northern Florida. This information was used to develop a system of equations to predict average stand biomass as a function of L-band (24.5-cm) radar backscatter. The system of equations developed in this study using three-stage least-squares and combinatorial screening accounted for 97 percent of the variability observed in average stand biomass per hectare. When applied to an independent data set, the biomass equations had an average bias of less than 1 percent with a standard error of approximately 3 percent. These results indicate that future Shuttle Imaging Radar Systems (e.g., SIR-C, which will have cross-polarized radar sensors) should be able to obtain better estimates of forest biomass than were obtained with previous satellite radar missions, which utilized only HH-polarized SAR data.

  13. Relationships between multipolarized radar backscatter and slash pine stand parameters

    Hussin, Yousif Ali; Hoffer, Roger M.

    1989-01-01

    Multipolarized L-band (24.5 cm) aircraft radar data was obtained for a primarily forested area in northern Florida. Based on the results of previous studies by Hoffer and Hussin (1989), a swath of medium incidence angle (35-25 deg) data was defined. Three groups of slash pine stands were located in the data: 4- to 17-year-old plantations, 18- to 48-year-old plantations, and 16- to 53-year-old natural stands. Stand data obtained from the forest-products companies operating in the area include age, tree height, diameter-at-breast height, basal area, volume (cords/acre), and density (trees/acre). Each of these stand parameters were compared to each of the four polarizations (HH, VV, VH, and HV) of the radar data for each group of stands. Statistically significant relationships were found between the radar backscatter and the forest stand parameters only for the 4- to 17-year-old slash pine plantation stands. In general, the cross-polarized radar backscatter was more highly correlated with the various stand parameters than the like-polarized backscatter, and the VV-polarized data were more highly correlated than the HH-polarized data.

  14. Capillary electrophoresis of heparin and other glycosaminoglycans using a polyamine running electrolyte

    Highlights: ► Ethylenediamine is likely acting as an ion-pairing agent. ► Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate is last peak instead of first peak. ► There is about a factor of five improved detectability with a 12.5 min analysis time. ► Use of a 50 μm ID capillary is possible. - Abstract: This study involves the use of polyamines as potential resolving agents for the capillary electrophoresis (CE) of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), specifically heparin, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, over-sulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), and hyaluronan. All of the compounds can be separated from each other with the exception of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan. Using optimization software, the final run conditions are found to be 200 mM ethylenediamine and 45.5 mM phosphate as the electrolyte with −14 V applied across a 50 μm ID × 24.5 cm fused silica capillary at 15 °C. The ion migration order, with OSCS as the last instead of the first peak, is in contrast to previous reports using either a high molarity TRIS or lithium phosphate run buffer with narrower bore capillaries. Total analysis time is 12. 5 min and the relative standard deviation of the heparin migration time is about 2.5% (n = 5). The interaction mechanism between selected polyamines and heparin is explored using conductivity measurements in addition to CE experiments to show that an ion-pairing mechanism is likely.

  15. 244CmO2/nat.-UO2 hybrid blanket with flat fission power production

    In the present study, 244CmO2 is mixed with nat.-UO2 for the purpose of power flattening in a hybrid blanket with a reasonably high energy multiplication factor. Also, the temporal variations of the fission power density (FPD) are observed during an 18-month plant operation period. The main conclusion drawn from this work is that it became possible to keep a flat fission power profile (FPP) over a very long plant operation period of 18 months by simply omitting the beryllium multiplier in the blanket and keeping the neutron spectrum fairly unchanged throughout the fission zone. This reduced the efforts for fuel management to a minimum. A further observation focused on only minor variations of the integral neutronic data over longer plant operation periods. Among others, the fission power generation increase is also very modest. This results in an optimum investment for the nonnuclear island. The blanket burns up high-level nuclear waste 244Cm effectively, with efficient electricity production and breeding of a new type of nuclear fuel 245Cm with very superior nuclear properties. Finally, a warning should be issued for the careful international safeguarding of such a hybrid plant due to the extremely high quality of the bred plutonium fuel

  16. Age and growth of the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834 from the Southern coast of Sinaloa, México Edad y crecimiento del tiburón martillo, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834 de la costa sur de Sinaloa, México

    Vicente Anislado-Tolentino

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth for the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini were determined from opaque bands (OBs on postcephalic vertebrae from 109 organisms (44 females, 52 cm to 276 cm total length (TL and 65 males, 47 cm to 245 cm TL obtained bimonthly from commercial fisheries off the southern coast of Sinaloa state (23°45'25"N and 106°05'15"W to 21°52'N and 105°54'W from January 2003 to February 2005. The Bowker test of symmetry and the Index of Average Percent Error, suggest that this ageing method represents an unbiased and precise age assessment. Results show that immediately after birth (in summer, the first OB was formed and in the next winter showed the second OB. Later it was observed that two OBs were formed each year, one during summer and the other during winter, influenced by the sea surface temperature (SST. Based on the comparison of five back-calculation methods, the best methods were Fraser-Lee. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were, for females: L∞ = 376 cm, K = 0.1 year-1, t0 = -1.16 years, b = 3 and W∞ = 222 kg; for males: L∞= 364 cm, K = 0.123 year-1, t0 = 1.18 years, b = 3 and W∞ = 193 kg. The standard index growth (Φ' was 4.2 (s = 0.1. According to these results the largest sharks observed, a female of 280 cm TL would be 12.5 years old and a male of 281 cm TL would be 11 years old.Se estimó la edad y el crecimiento del tiburón martillo (Sphyrna lewini a través de bandas opacas (BOs en las vértebras postcefálicas de 109 organismos (44 hembras, 52 cm a 276 cm de longitud total (LT y 65 machos, 47 cm a 245 cm LT colectados bimensualmente en la pesca comercial en la costa sur del estado de Sinaloa (23°45'25"N y 106°05'15"W a 21°52'N y 105°54'W de enero 2003 a febrero 2005. La prueba de simetría de Bowker y el índice del error promedio porcentual sugieren que los métodos usados fueron los correctos para determinar la edad. Los resultados muestran que inmediatamente después de nacer

  17. Capillary electrophoresis of heparin and other glycosaminoglycans using a polyamine running electrolyte

    Loegel, Thomas N.; Trombley, John D.; Taylor, Richard T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Danielson, Neil D., E-mail: danielnd@muohio.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States)

    2012-11-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethylenediamine is likely acting as an ion-pairing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate is last peak instead of first peak. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is about a factor of five improved detectability with a 12.5 min analysis time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of a 50 {mu}m ID capillary is possible. - Abstract: This study involves the use of polyamines as potential resolving agents for the capillary electrophoresis (CE) of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), specifically heparin, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, over-sulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), and hyaluronan. All of the compounds can be separated from each other with the exception of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan. Using optimization software, the final run conditions are found to be 200 mM ethylenediamine and 45.5 mM phosphate as the electrolyte with -14 V applied across a 50 {mu}m ID Multiplication-Sign 24.5 cm fused silica capillary at 15 Degree-Sign C. The ion migration order, with OSCS as the last instead of the first peak, is in contrast to previous reports using either a high molarity TRIS or lithium phosphate run buffer with narrower bore capillaries. Total analysis time is 12. 5 min and the relative standard deviation of the heparin migration time is about 2.5% (n = 5). The interaction mechanism between selected polyamines and heparin is explored using conductivity measurements in addition to CE experiments to show that an ion-pairing mechanism is likely.

  18. OSMOSE program : statistical review of oscillation measurements in the MINERVE reactor R1-UO2 configuration.

    Stoven, G.; Klann, R.; Zhong, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-28

    The OSMOSE program is a collaboration on reactor physics experiments between the United States Department of Energy and the France Commissariat Energie Atomique. At the working level, it is a collaborative effort between the Argonne National Laboratory and the CEA Cadarache Research Center. The objective of this program is to measure very accurate integral reaction rates in representative spectra for the actinides important to future nuclear system designs, and to provide the experimental data for improving the basic nuclear data files. The main outcome of the OSMOSE measurement program will be an experimental database of reactivity-worth measurements in different neutron spectra for the heavy nuclides. This database can then be used as a benchmark to verify and validate reactor analysis codes. The OSMOSE program (Oscillation in Minerve of isotopes in Eupraxic Spectra) aims at improving neutronic predictions of advanced nuclear fuels through oscillation measurements in the MINERVE facility on samples containing the following separated actinides: {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 244}Cm, and {sup 245}Cm. The first part of this report provides an overview of the experimental protocol and the typical processing of a series of experimental results which is currently performed at CEA-Cadarache. In the second part of the report, improvements to this technique are presented, as well as the program that was created to process oscillation measurement results from the MINERVE facility in the future.

  19. Complex Fractionated Atrial Electrograms ablation in Atrial Fibrillation: A more selective yet simple setting of CARTO® algorithm

    Julien Seitz; J�r�me Horvilleur; J�r�me Lacotte; Yamina Mouhoub; Fiorella Salerno; Anouska Moynagh; Darach O h-Ici; Mehran Monchi; Laurence Curel; Andre Pisapia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Results of Complex Fractionated Atrial Electrograms (CFAE ablation in atrial fibrillation (AF are conflicting, partially due to the subjectivity of visual analysis. CFAE algorithms provided by 3D mapping systems lack selectivity. We sought to demonstrate the improved selectivity of a new CFAE CARTO® Shortest Complex Interval (SCI algorithm setting compared to the traditional nominal setting. Methods: 32 patients (60.4 ± 12.7 years with paroxysmal (n=3, persistent (n=16 or permanent (n=13 AF (duration=56 ± 65 months underwent visual CFAE ablation, while CFAE maps of left atrium (LA were drawn. Maps were further reanalyzed with two different settings: nominal (SCI 60-120 ms 0.05-0.15mV vs. customized setting (SCI 30-40ms 0,04-0.15mV. Automatically detected areas of CFAE (CARTO-CFAE were measured and compared with the visually targeted areas (ablation point = 60 mm2 to assess their accuracy to define CFAE areas of clinical significance. Results: AF was terminated by ablation in 30 patients (93.7%. With the new CARTO SCI setting, both CARTO-CFAE areas and ablated proportions outside CFAE areas were reduced (30.6±20.5 cm2 vs. 68.8±24.5 cm2, p < 0.0001, and 1.86±1.82 % vs. 3±3%, p =0.003, while ablation surface inside CARTO-CFAE areas was larger than with the nominal setting (38.2±19.6% vs. 20.4±17.5 %, p = 0.008. Conclusion: This new CFAE algorithm setting is significantly more selective than the nominal one, and focuses on visually ablated areas leading to a high AF termination rate.

  20. Assessment of americium and curium transmutation in magnesia based targets in different spectral zones of an experimental accelerator driven system

    Haeck, W.; Malambu, E.; Sobolev, V. P.; Aït Abderrahim, H.

    2006-06-01

    The potential to incinerate minor actinides (MA) in a sub-critical accelerator-driven system (ADS) is a subject of study in several countries where nuclear power plants are present. The performance of the MYRRHA experimental ADS, as to the transmutation of Am and Cm in the inert matrix fuel (IMF) samples consisting of 40 vol.% (Cm0.1Am0.5Pu0.4)O1.88 fuel and 60 vol.% MgO matrix with a density of 6.077 g cm-3 in three various spectrum regions, were analysed at the belgian nuclear research centre SCK · CEN. The irradiation period of 810 effective full power days (EFPD) followed by a storage period of 2 years was considered. The ALEPH code system currently under development at SCK · CEN was used to carry out this study. The total amount of MA is shown to decrease in all three considered cases. For Am, the decrease is the largest in the reflector (89% decrease) but at the cost of a net Cm production (92% increase). In the two other positions (inside the core region), 20-30% of Am has disappeared but with a lower production of Cm (between 7% and 11%). In the reflector, a significant build-up of long-lived 245Cm, 246Cm, 247Cm and 248Cm was also observed while the production of these isotopes is 10-1000 times smaller in the core. The reduction of the Pu content is also the highest in the reflector position (41%). In the other positions the incinerated amount of Pu is much smaller: 1-5%.

  1. Technical note: test of a low-cost and animal-friendly system for measuring methane emissions from dairy cows.

    Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R; Brask, M; Hvelplund, T

    2012-10-01

    Methane is a greenhouse gas with a significant anthropogenic contribution from cattle production. A demand exists for techniques that facilitate evaluation of mitigation strategies for dairy cows. Therefore, a low-cost system facilitating the highest possible animal welfare was constructed and validated. The system uses the same principles as systems for open-circuit indirect calorimetry, but to lower the costs, the chamber construction and air-conditioning system were simpler than described for other open-circuit systems. To secure the highest possible animal welfare, the system is located in the cow's daily environment. The system consists of 4 transparent polycarbonate chambers placed in a square so that the cows are facing each other. The chamber dimensions are 183 (width), 382 (length), and 245 cm (height) with a volume of 17 m(3). Flow and concentrations of O(2), CO(2), CH(4), and H(2) are measured continuously in the outlet. Flow is measured with a mass flow meter, O(2) with a paramagnetic sensor, CO(2) and CH(4) with infrared sensors, and H(2) with an electrochemical sensor. Chamber inlet is placed in the barn and background concentrations may differ between chambers, but delta values between background and outlet concentrations for all chambers were within instrument tolerance. Average recovery rates of CO(2) and CH(4) were (mean ± SD) 101 ± 4 and 99 ± 7%, respectively. This is within the expected tolerance of the whole system (gas sensors and flow meters). Feed dry matter intakes were not affected by confining the animals in chambers, as dry matter intake before and during chamber stay were similar. It was concluded that the system delivers reliable values, and the transparent construction in combination with the location in the barn environment prevent negative impact on animal welfare and, thereby, data quality. PMID:22901487

  2. TH-C-12A-08: New Compact 10 MV S-Band Linear Accelerator: 3D Finite-Element Design and Monte Carlo Dose Simulations

    Purpose: To design a new compact S-band linac waveguide capable of producing a 10 MV x-ray beam, while maintaining the length (27.5 cm) of current 6 MV waveguides. This will allow higher x-ray energies to be used in our linac-MRI systems with the same footprint. Methods: Finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics was used to design an accelerator cavity matching one published in an experiment breakdown study, to ensure that our modeled cavities do not exceed the threshold electric fields published. This cavity was used as the basis for designing an accelerator waveguide, where each cavity of the full waveguide was tuned to resonate at 2.997 GHz by adjusting the cavity diameter. The RF field solution within the waveguide was calculated, and together with an electron-gun phase space generated using Opera3D/SCALA, were input into electron tracking software PARMELA to compute the electron phase space striking the x-ray target. This target phase space was then used in BEAM Monte Carlo simulations to generate percent depth doses curves for this new linac, which were then used to re-optimize the waveguide geometry. Results: The shunt impedance, Q-factor, and peak-to-mean electric field ratio were matched to those published for the breakdown study to within 0.1% error. After tuning the full waveguide, the peak surface fields are calculated to be 207 MV/m, 13% below the breakdown threshold, and a d-max depth of 2.42 cm, a D10/20 value of 1.59, compared to 2.45 cm and 1.59, respectively, for the simulated Varian 10 MV linac and brehmsstrahlung production efficiency 20% lower than a simulated Varian 10 MV linac. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the design of a functional 27.5 cm waveguide producing 10 MV photons with characteristics similar to a Varian 10 MV linac

  3. First direct evidence of chalcolithic footwear from the near eastern highlands.

    Ron Pinhasi

    Full Text Available In 2008, a well preserved and complete shoe was recovered at the base of a Chalcolithic pit in the cave of Areni-1, Armenia. Here, we discuss the chronology of this find, its archaeological context and its relevance to the study of the evolution of footwear. Two leather samples and one grass sample from the shoe were dated at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU. A third leather sample was dated at the University of California-Irvine Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (UCIAMS. The R_Combine function for the three leather samples provides a date range of 3627-3377 Cal BC (95.4% confidence interval and the calibrated range for the straw is contemporaneous (3627-3377 Cal BC. The shoe was stuffed with loose, unfastened grass (Poaceae without clear orientation which was more than likely used to maintain the shape of the shoe and/or prepare it for storage. The shoe is 24.5 cm long (European size 37, 7.6 to 10 cm wide, and was made from a single piece of leather that wrapped around the foot. It was worn and shaped to the wearer's right foot, particularly around the heel and hallux where the highest pressure is exerted in normal gait. The Chalcolithic shoe provides solid evidence for the use of footwear among Old World populations at least since the Chalcolithic. Other 4th millennium discoveries of shoes (Italian and Swiss Alps, and sandals (Southern Israel indicate that more than one type of footwear existed during the 4th millennium BC, and that we should expect to discover more regional variations in the manufacturing and style of shoes where preservation conditions permit.

  4. First direct evidence of chalcolithic footwear from the near eastern highlands.

    Pinhasi, Ron; Gasparian, Boris; Areshian, Gregory; Zardaryan, Diana; Smith, Alexia; Bar-Oz, Guy; Higham, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a well preserved and complete shoe was recovered at the base of a Chalcolithic pit in the cave of Areni-1, Armenia. Here, we discuss the chronology of this find, its archaeological context and its relevance to the study of the evolution of footwear. Two leather samples and one grass sample from the shoe were dated at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). A third leather sample was dated at the University of California-Irvine Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (UCIAMS). The R_Combine function for the three leather samples provides a date range of 3627-3377 Cal BC (95.4% confidence interval) and the calibrated range for the straw is contemporaneous (3627-3377 Cal BC). The shoe was stuffed with loose, unfastened grass (Poaceae) without clear orientation which was more than likely used to maintain the shape of the shoe and/or prepare it for storage. The shoe is 24.5 cm long (European size 37), 7.6 to 10 cm wide, and was made from a single piece of leather that wrapped around the foot. It was worn and shaped to the wearer's right foot, particularly around the heel and hallux where the highest pressure is exerted in normal gait. The Chalcolithic shoe provides solid evidence for the use of footwear among Old World populations at least since the Chalcolithic. Other 4th millennium discoveries of shoes (Italian and Swiss Alps), and sandals (Southern Israel) indicate that more than one type of footwear existed during the 4th millennium BC, and that we should expect to discover more regional variations in the manufacturing and style of shoes where preservation conditions permit. PMID:20543959

  5. RESEARCH REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OF CORPORAL WEIGHTES AND FOOD CONVERSSION ON JUVENILE OF SIBERIAN STURGEON (Acipenser baeri RAISED IN RECIRCULATING SYSTEM

    M. BURA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed within the recirculating aquaculture system for sturgeon growth, in Banat's Universsity of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara, on 2851 juveniles of Siberian sturgeons (Acipenser baeri, aged between 132-175 days. Juveniles were maintained in 4 tanks with volume of 5.63 m3, fed with granulated feed of 2 mm (44 & 22% PB and GB. Every 2 weeks the weight and body length was determinate on an effective of 30 individuals from each tank. Based on the obtained body weight, it has been established the food quantity used and bioproductive indicators. Having the weight differences between the individuals of a Siberian sturgeon population, it is needed at certain time intervals to practice assortment by body development. At the age of 175 days, Siberian sturgeons reached an average body weight between 90.13 ± 4.56 g and 197.63 ± 7.22 g and average body length between 28.73 ± 0.43 cm and 37.55 ± 0.38 cm. Individual values of minimum and maximum body weight varied between 32 g and 307 g and body length between 24.5 cm and 42 cm. For the entire population of Siberian sturgeons, there is a middle and high variability for the average body weight and a small variability for the average body length. During the 43 experimental days, the 2851 Siberian sturgeons have acquired a real weight gain of 184.66 kg, with a conversion factor of 0.84 kilograms of feed / kg growth and an index of feed conversion of 1.19 kilograms spore / kg feed consumed.

  6. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Joseph's Foundation, Cork

    Pinhasi, Ron

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a well preserved and complete shoe was recovered at the base of a Chalcolithic pit in the cave of Areni-1, Armenia. Here, we discuss the chronology of this find, its archaeological context and its relevance to the study of the evolution of footwear. Two leather samples and one grass sample from the shoe were dated at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). A third leather sample was dated at the University of California-Irvine Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (UCIAMS). The R_Combine function for the three leather samples provides a date range of 3627-3377 Cal BC (95.4% confidence interval) and the calibrated range for the straw is contemporaneous (3627-3377 Cal BC). The shoe was stuffed with loose, unfastened grass (Poaceae) without clear orientation which was more than likely used to maintain the shape of the shoe and\\/or prepare it for storage. The shoe is 24.5 cm long (European size 37), 7.6 to 10 cm wide, and was made from a single piece of leather that wrapped around the foot. It was worn and shaped to the wearer\\'s right foot, particularly around the heel and hallux where the highest pressure is exerted in normal gait. The Chalcolithic shoe provides solid evidence for the use of footwear among Old World populations at least since the Chalcolithic. Other 4th millennium discoveries of shoes (Italian and Swiss Alps), and sandals (Southern Israel) indicate that more than one type of footwear existed during the 4th millennium BC, and that we should expect to discover more regional variations in the manufacturing and style of shoes where preservation conditions permit.

  7. Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields. [TX, for calculating delayed neutron yields; MATINV, for matrix inversion; in FORTRAN for LSI-II minicomputer

    Waldo, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of /sup 232/U, /sup 237/Np, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 242m/Am, /sup 245/Cm, and /sup 249/Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from /sup 232/Th, /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Pu, and /sup 242/Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from /sup 232/Th to /sup 252/Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables.

  8. Understanding the Long-Term Deformation in the Mississippi Embayment: the Mississippi River Seismic Survey

    Magnani, M.; McIntosh, K.; Waldron, B.; Mitchell, L.; Saustrup, S.; Towle, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Central US hosts one of the most active intraplate seismic areas in the world, the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). Here the high level of historic and instrumental seismicity clashes with the subdued topography of the Mississippi embayment, minimal geodetic vectors and a puzzling lack of substantial deformation in the post Late-Cretaceous sediments. To explain this apparent paradox it has been proposed that the seismicity in the NMSZ is either 1) very young (at least in its present form), 2) episodic, or 3) migrates throughout a broad region. In order to test these hypotheses and to understand how the deformation is partitioned within the Mississippi embayment, we collected a 300 km-long high-resolution seismic reflection profile along the Mississippi river, from Helena, Arkansas to Caruthersville, Missouri. The profile images a portion of the embayment outside the area of influence of the NMSZ in a region where evidence has been mounting of a seismic source, predating the NMSZ, for which no corresponding structure has yet been identified. The seismic survey exploited the advantages of marine acqui9sition (time effective, low cost) using a 245/245 cm3 (15/15 in3) mini-GI airgun fired at 13.790MPa (2000 psi), a 24-channel 75 m-long active streamer, with 3.125 m group and 12 m nominal shot interval. The high quality data image the Cretaceous and younger sedimentary section, from the top of the Paleozoic unconformity to the Quaternary deposits. Preliminary interpretation of the dataset confirms the general deepening of the Paleozoic basement from ~800 ms at Caruthersville, to ~1 s at the southern end of Crowley's Ridge. In addition, the data reveal prominent recent deformation coincident with the Blytheville arch, the Eastern Reelfoot Rift margin and the White river Fault zone, accommodated by folding and faulting that extend from the top of the Paleozoic through the sedimentary section, and that involves the Quaternary deposits.

  9. First direct evidence of chalcolithic footwear from the near eastern highlands.

    Pinhasi, Ron

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a well preserved and complete shoe was recovered at the base of a Chalcolithic pit in the cave of Areni-1, Armenia. Here, we discuss the chronology of this find, its archaeological context and its relevance to the study of the evolution of footwear. Two leather samples and one grass sample from the shoe were dated at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). A third leather sample was dated at the University of California-Irvine Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (UCIAMS). The R_Combine function for the three leather samples provides a date range of 3627-3377 Cal BC (95.4% confidence interval) and the calibrated range for the straw is contemporaneous (3627-3377 Cal BC). The shoe was stuffed with loose, unfastened grass (Poaceae) without clear orientation which was more than likely used to maintain the shape of the shoe and\\/or prepare it for storage. The shoe is 24.5 cm long (European size 37), 7.6 to 10 cm wide, and was made from a single piece of leather that wrapped around the foot. It was worn and shaped to the wearer\\'s right foot, particularly around the heel and hallux where the highest pressure is exerted in normal gait. The Chalcolithic shoe provides solid evidence for the use of footwear among Old World populations at least since the Chalcolithic. Other 4th millennium discoveries of shoes (Italian and Swiss Alps), and sandals (Southern Israel) indicate that more than one type of footwear existed during the 4th millennium BC, and that we should expect to discover more regional variations in the manufacturing and style of shoes where preservation conditions permit.

  10. Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields

    Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of 232U, 237Np, 238Pu, 241Am, /sup 242m/Am, 245Cm, and 249Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from 232Th to 252Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables

  11. Science in Motion: Isolated Araneiform Topography

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Have you ever found that to describe something you had to go to the dictionary and search for just the right word? The south polar terrain is so full of unearthly features that we had to visit Mr. Webster to find a suitable term. 'Araneiform' means 'spider-like'. These are channels that are carved in the surface by carbon dioxide gas. We do not have this process on Earth. The channels are somewhat radially organized (figure 1) and widen and deepen as they converge. In the past we've just refered to them as 'spiders.' 'Isolated araneiform topography' means that our features look like spiders that are not in contact with each other. Observation Geometry Image PSP_003087_0930 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 24-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -87.1 degrees latitude, 126.3 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.4 km (152.8 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.5 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 73 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 08:22 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 81 degrees, thus the sun was about 9 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 206.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  12. The OSMOSE Experimental Program for the qualification of integral cross sections of actinides

    The need of better nuclear data on minor actinides has been stressed by various organizations throughout the world. It especially deals with the studies on plutonium management and waste incineration in existing systems and transmutation of waste or Pu burning in future nuclear concepts. To address this issue, a Working Party of the OECD has been concerned with identifying these needs and has produced a detailed High Priority Request List for Nuclear Data. The first step in obtaining better nuclear data consists in measuring accurate integral data and comparing them to integrated energy dependent data: this comparison provides a direct assessment of the effect of deficiencies in the differential data. Several international programs have indicated a strong desire to obtain accurate integral reaction rate data for improving the major and minor actinides cross sections. Data on major actinides (i.e. 235U, 236U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 241Am) are reasonably well-known and available in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (JEFF, JENDL, ENDF-B). However information on the minor actinides (i.e. 232Th, 233U, 237Np, 238Pu, 242Am, 243Am, 242Cm, 243Cm, 244Cm, 245Cm, 246Cm and 247Cm) is less well-known and considered to be relatively poor in some cases, having to rely on model and extrapolation of few data points. In this framework, the ambitious OSMOSE program between the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Electricite de France (EDF) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been undertaken with the aim of measuring the integral absorption rate parameters of actinides in the MINERVE experimental facility located at the CEA Cadarache Research Center. The OSMOSE Program (Oscillation in Minerve of isOtopes in 'Eupraxic' Spectra) includes a complete analytical program associated with the experimental measurement program and aims at understanding and resolving potential discrepancies between calculated and measured values. The OSMOSE program began in 2005 and will

  13. Growth Characteristics and Growth Strain of Eucalyptus dunnii%邓恩桉生长特性与生长应变研究

    叶露; J.Doland Nichols; Carolyn A.Raymond; Kevin Glencross

    2013-01-01

    [目的]通过研究邓恩桉的生长特性和生长应变,为邓恩桉木材利用提供科学数据.[方法]以9.5年生人工林邓恩桉为研究对象,测定和评估树高(Ht)、胸径(DBH)、胸高比(DBH/Ht)、生长应变,并分析生长应变与生长性状的相关性.[结果]邓恩桉树高、胸径和生长应变的小区间差异显著.胸径和生长应变的变化幅度分别为10.2~ 24.5 cm,-0.227 ~-0.0M mm.生长应变水平在上坡方向显著高于下坡方向.邓恩桉生长应变与树高、胸径、胸高比无显著相关性.[结论]邓恩桉可作为速生材培育,邓恩桉木材的生长应力不受生长性状的影响.实现高生长和选择低应力水平的速生邓恩桉作为实木加工是可行的.%The aim was to provide the scientific data for utilization of E.dunnii wood through investigating its growth and growth strain.[Method] With 9.5-year-old E.dunnii plantation as study object,tree height (Ht),diameter at breast height (DBH),ratio of diameter to tree height (DBH/Ht),growth strain and their correlations were estimated and analyzed.[Result] There were significant differences in Ht,DBH and growth strain between plots.DBH and growth strain were in the range of 10.2-24.5 cm,-0.227--0.064 mm,respectively.Uphill growth strain was significantly greater than the downhill growth strain.Growth strain had no significant correlations with Ht,DBH or DBH/Ht ratio in E.dunnii.[Conclusion] E.dunnii was a potentially fast-growing species.It was feasible to obtain fast-growing E.dunnii trees with low level of growth strain as the strain was not affected by its growth.

  14. Changes in central retinal artery blood flow after ocular warming and cooling in healthy subjects

    Shamshad M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Retinal perfusion variability impacts ocular disease and physiology. Aim: To evaluate the response of central retinal artery (CRA blood flow to temperature alterations in 20 healthy volunteers. Setting and Design: Non-interventional experimental human study. Materials and Methods: Baseline data recorded: Ocular surface temperature (OST in °C (thermo-anemometer, CRA peak systolic velocity (PSV and end diastolic velocity (EDV in cm/s using Color Doppler. Ocular laterality and temperature alteration (warming by electric lamp/cooling by ice-gel pack were randomly assigned. Primary outcomes recorded were: OST and intraocular pressure (IOP immediately after warming or cooling and ten minutes later; CRA-PSV and EDV at three, six and nine minutes warming or cooling. Statistical Analysis: Repeated measures ANOVA. Results: (n = 20; μ±SD: Pre-warming values were; OST: 34.5±1.02°C, CRA-PSV: 9.3±2.33cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.6±1.27cm/s. OST significantly increased by 1.96°C (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.37 after warming, but returned to baseline ten minutes later. Only at three minutes, the PSV significantly rose by 1.21cm/s (95% CI: 0.51to1.91. Pre-cooling values were: OST: 34.5±0.96°C, CRA-PSV: 9.7±2.45 cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.7±1.12cm/s. OST significantly decreased by 2.81°C (95% CI: -2.30 to -3.37 after cooling, and returned to baseline at ten minutes. There was a significant drop in CRA-PSV by 1.10cm/s (95% CI: -2.05 to -0.15 and CRA-EDV by 0.81 (95% CI: -1.47 to -0.14 at three minutes. At six minutes both PSV (95% CI: -1.38 to -0.03 and EDV (95% CI: -1.26 to -0.02 were significantly lower. All values at ten minutes were comparable to baseline. The IOP showed insignificant alteration on warming (95% CI of difference: -0.17 to 1.57mmHg, but was significantly lower after cooling (95% CI: -2.95 to -4.30mmHg. After ten minutes, IOP had returned to baseline. Conclusion : This study confirms that CRA flow significantly increases on warming and decreases on cooling, the latter despite a significant lowering of IOP.

  15. ZZ MCJEF22NEA.BOLIB, MCNP Cross Section Library Based on JEF-2.2

    1 - Description or function: Continuous energy cross-section data library for the Monte Carlo program MCNP based on the JEF-2.2 evaluated nuclear data library (ACE Format). Format: ACE Number of groups: Continuous energy Nuclides (107): H-1, H-2, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, O-17, F-19, Na-23, Mg-nat, Al-27, Si-nat, Cl-nat, Ti-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-94, Zr-96, Zr-nat, Nb-93, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-100, Mo-nat, Tc-99, Ru-101, Ru-102, Ru-104, Rh-103, Pd-105, Pd-107, Ag-109, I-129, Xe-131, Cs-133, Pr-141, Nd-143, Nd-145, Pm-147, Sm-147, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-151, Sm-152, Eu-153, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Pb-nat, Bi-209, Th-232, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-239bis, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248. Temperatures: 300 deg. K, 500 deg. K, 560 deg. K, 760 deg. K, 800 deg. K, 1000 deg. K, 1500 deg. K and 2200 deg. K. Thermal scattering (for diverse Temperatures); H in CH2 (polyethylene), H in H2O (light water), D in D2O (heavy water), C (graphite), Be (beryllium metal). Dosimetry cross-section: 16-S-32, 48-Cd-0, 79-Au-197; Origin: JEF-2.2, IRDF-90 V2. 2 - Methods: This library was generated with the NJOY-94.66 nuclear data processing system

  16. The OSMOSE program for the qualification of integral cross sections of actinides: Preliminary results in a PWR-UOx spectrum

    The need for improved nuclear data for minor actinides has been stressed by various organizations throughout the world - especially for studies relating to plutonium management, waste incineration, transmutation of waste, and Pu burning in future nuclear concepts. Several international programs have indicated a strong desire to obtain accurate integral reaction rate data for improving the major and minor actinides cross sections. Data on major actinides (i.e. 235U, 236U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 241Am) are reasonably well-known and available in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (JEFF, JENDL, ENDF-BX However information on the minor actinides (i.e. 232Th, 233U, 237Np, 238Pu, 242Am, 243Am, 243Cm, 235Cm, 244Cm, 245Cm, 246Cm and 247Cm) is less well-known and considered to be relatively poor in some cases, having to rely on model and extrapolation of few data points. In this framework, the ambitious OSMOSE program between the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Electricite de France (EDF) and the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been undertaken with the aim of measuring the integral absorption rate parameters of actinides in the MINERVE experimental facility located at the CEA Cadarache Research Center. The OSMOSE Program (Oscillation in Minerve of isotopes in 'Eupraxic' Spectra) includes a complete analytical program associated with the experimental measurement program and aims at understanding and resolving potential discrepancies between calculated and measured values. In the OSMOSE program, the reactivity worth of samples containing separated actinides are measured in different neutron spectra using an oscillation technique with an overall expected accuracy better than 3%. Reactivity effects of less than 10 pcm (0.0001 or approximately 1.5 cents) are measured and compared with calibrations to determine the differential reactivity-worth of the individual samples. The first experimental results were obtained with a very good reproducibility in 2005 and

  17. Phytoremediation: role of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes in the remediation of radionuclides and heavy metal contaminated soil and water.

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Manchanda, V K

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors are operating in 31 countries around the world. Along with reactor operations, activities like mining, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and military operations are the major contributors to the nuclear waste. The presence of a large number of fission products along with multiple oxidation state long-lived radionuclides such as neptunium ((237)Np), plutonium ((239)Pu), americium ((241/243)Am) and curium ((245)Cm) make the waste streams a potential radiological threat to the environment. Commonly high concentrations of cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium ((90)Sr) are found in a nuclear waste. These radionuclides are capable enough to produce potential health threat due to their long half-lives and effortless translocation into the human body. Besides the radionuclides, heavy metal contamination is also a serious issue. Heavy metals occur naturally in the earth crust and in low concentration, are also essential for the metabolism of living beings. Bioaccumulation of these heavy metals causes hazardous effects. These pollutants enter the human body directly via contaminated drinking water or through the food chain. This issue has drawn the attention of scientists throughout the world to device eco-friendly treatments to remediate the soil and water resources. Various physical and chemical treatments are being applied to clean the waste, but these techniques are quite expensive, complicated and comprise various side effects. One of the promising techniques, which has been pursued vigorously to overcome these demerits, is phytoremediation. The process is very effective, eco-friendly, easy and affordable. This technique utilizes the plants and its associated microbes to decontaminate the low and moderately contaminated sites efficiently. Many plant species are successfully used for remediation of contaminated soil and water systems. Remediation of these systems turns into a serious problem due to various anthropogenic activities that have

  18. Recent Deformation in the Mississippi Embayment from High-Resolution Reflection Data

    Mitchell, L.; Magnani, M.; McIntosh, K.; Waldron, B.; Saustrup, S.; Towle, M.

    2008-12-01

    The New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ), located in the Mississippi embayment (Central United States), is known for the highest rate of seismic activity east of the Rocky Mountains as well as the destructive sequence of earthquakes (> 7.5M) that occurred in New Madrid, Missouri during a three-month period in 1811-1812. Here we present preliminary results of a 300 km-long high-resolution marine seismic reflection survey conducted in June 2008 along the Mississippi river from Caruthersville, Missouri, to Helena, Arkansas. Paleoseismological observations in this area, just south of the NMSZ, indicate that seismic activity has occurred here that is not correlated with the present NMSZ active fault system. Our acquisition program was designed to image the sedimentary sequences from the southern part of the NMSZ through this area with the goal to identify and characterize concealed faults inferred from the paleoseismic evidence. The reflection data were acquired using a dual chamber 245/245 cm3 (15/15 in3) mini-GI airgun firing at 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) every 10-12 seconds and a 24 channel 75 m-long active streamer. The 4 m minimum offset, 3.125 m group interval and 1.6 m CMP spacing enabled us to successfully image and identify recent deformation in the sedimentary layers (< 1 km depth) with unprecedented resolution. An ecosounder (or CHIRP) was used in conjunction with the aforementioned seismic array to map near surface structure (< 15 m). Observed structures from the CHIRP data suggest small-scale faulting and geomorphologic forms. Reflections up to an approximate depth of 1 km allow us to map the Paleozoic, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary sequences throughout much of the profile, revealing that the deformation is accommodated within discrete zones where the unconsolidated sediments are folded and faulted. In particular, the data show pronounced folding of the sedimentary layers from the Paleozoic to the Eocene/Quaternary unconformity. Some of the most significant

  19. Variability of matric potential measurements in evaporation experiments and its influence on the derived hydraulic properties

    Spieckermann, Mathias; Scharnagl, Benedikt; Pertassek, Thomas; von Unold, Georg; Durner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The simplified evaporation method according to Schindler (1980) is an attractive method for determining hydraulic properties (retention curve and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity) of a soil sample. In this method, a saturated sample is subject to evaporation, and the temporal course of matric potentials in the core is related to its water content loss by evaporation. Measurement and analysis are automated in the form of the commercially available product HYPROP© (UMS GmbH, Munich). The method and its implementation in the HYPROP system have shown to give accurate and reliable results with a minimum of effort and time required. In the HYPROP system, matric potentials are recorded in two planes of a soil sample by vertically installed tensiometers. The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how representative and robust the matric potential readings at individual horizontal locations within a depth layer are, and how possible differences in matric potentials at different positions within a depth layer affect the calculated hydraulic soil properties. An additional aim was to verify whether vertically installed tensiometers give identical results to the traditionally horizontally installed tensiometers. The investigations took place in a system called BIG-HYPROP. In principle, it follows the same setup as the standard HYPROP system, but differs with respect to the soil sample size and the number of tensiometers. Whereas standard HYPROP cores are 5 cm high and 8 cm wide (250 cm³), BIG-HYPROP cores have a diameter of 24.5 cm and a height of 10 cm (4714 cm³). Five pairs of tensiometers were positioned in depths of 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm, three of them aligned vertically, and two horizontally. Additionally, temperature was measured at the bottom and in the depths 2 cm, 4 cm, 6 cm, 8 cm as well as directly at the surface. The scatter of the measured matric potentials during stage-1 evaporation was found to be very small (cv <3%). For sand, the scattering significantly increased during the transition from stage-1 to stage-2 evaporation (t = 30 h), reaching its maximum at the end of the measurement (cv = 6% to 8%). Despite differences in the tensiometer readings, the calculated hydraulic functions are very similar and associated only with very small uncertainties. The horizontally and vertically aligned tensiometers showed no systematic differences. We conclude that matric potentials measured with individual tensiometers can be reliably regarded as representative for the measurement plane. The increasing scattering of the upper tensiometers during stage-2 evaporation had a negligible effect on the identified hydraulic functions. The orientation of the tensiometers had no influence on the measured values.

  20. ZZ MCB63NEA.BOLIB, MCNP Cross Section Library Based on ENDF/B-VI Release 3

    1 - Description of program or function: Continuous energy cross-section data library for the Monte Carlo program MCNP based on the ENDF/B-VI Release 3 evaluated nuclear data library (ACE Format). Format: ACE; Number of groups: Continuous energy; Nuclides (107): H-1, H-2, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, O-17, Na-23, Mg-nat, Al-27, Si-nat, Cl-nat, Ti-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-94, Zr-96, Zr-nat, Nb-93, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-nat, Tc-99, Ru-101, Ru-102, Ru-104, Rh-103, Pd-105, Pd-107, Ag-109, I-129, Xe-131, Cs-133, Pr-141, Nd-143, Nd-145, Pm-147, Sm-147, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-151, Sm-152, Eu-153, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Hf-nat, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Th-232,U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248. Temperatures: 300 deg. K, 500 deg. K, 560 deg. K, 760 deg. K, 800 deg. K, 1000 deg. K, 1500 deg. K and 2200 deg. K. Thermal scattering (for diverse Temperatures): H in CH2 (polyethylene), H in H2O (light water), D in D2O (heavy water), C (graphite), Be (beryllium metal). Dosimetry cross-section: 16-S-32, 48-Cd-0, 79-Au-197. Origin: ENDF/B-VI Release 3, IRDF-90 Version 2. 2 - Methods: This library was generated with the NJOY-94.66 nuclear data processing system

  1. R and D for actinide partitioning and recovery of valuables from high level waste using radiotracers

    In the context of growing world population with rapidly increasing energy needs and the threat of global warming due to CO2 emission (caused by fossil fuel burning), the nuclear energy may be an attractive option particularly in the developing countries. Recycling of fuel is a unique feature of nuclear power technology which makes it a favourable choice with respect to conservation of energy resources. Steady growth of global fuel reprocessing activities (6000 tHM/annum) implies a vital role of separation science in developing efficient procedures for the separation and purification of actinides and in devising safe procedures for the management of nuclear waste arising at different stages of the PUREX process. High Level Waste (HLW) comprising of the concentrate of the raffinate of the co-extraction cycle (with over 95% of the total radioactivity produced in the burn up process in reactor) need to be isolated from the biosphere. There is a consensus among the waste management technologists that the safest route to achieve this, is to deposit it in a stable geological formation after it's immobilization in suitable glass/Synroc matrix. It ensures that any risk from exposure due to accidental intervention or natural disturbance is minimized. Risk perception is essentially due to the large radiological toxicity associated with alpha emitters like 237Np, 241Am, 243Am and 245Cm. Isotopes of Pu (left unrecovered) present in HLW also contribute towards radiological toxicity. In view of the high cost involved and the need for continuous surveillance, several countries are considering modifying their reprocessing schemes to partition (isolate) long-lived actinides from HLW. Since the volume of the actinide oxides (which retain major fraction of the radio toxicity of HLW) is significantly lower as compared to the other metal oxides present in HLW, such an approach is expected to reduce the cost of immobilization as well as of disposal (in geological repository) and

  2. Importance of neutron cross-sections for transmutation

    Accurate neutron cross-section data is fundamental to the reliable design of any transmutation device, and, in particular, of an accelerator-driven system (ADS). Calculations of the behaviour of the core depend strongly on the cross-section data: parameters such as the multiplication coefficient, power densities or reactivity may vary significantly depending on the nuclear-data (ND) library used. These potential discrepancies justify the need to improve the present data for several isotopes and reaction channels, for a wide range of neutron energies from thermal to high-energy. This paper follows on from work performed in the context of the nTOF-ND-ADS project of the EURATOM 5th framework program, where a preliminary analysis of the effects of different cross-section data was carried out using the Monte Carlo code package FLUKA-EAMC. That study was based on the Pb-Bi cooled 80 MWth energy-amplifier prototype, and included comparison of parameters such as source multiplication coefficient ksrc, neutron spectra, neutron balance and one-group cross-sections for different isotopes using different nuclear-data evaluations. The present work expands this analysis to other isotopes of interest such as 233U, 243Am, 244,245Cm and the long-lived fission fragments (LLFFs) 99Tc and 129I. A direct comparison of nuclear-data libraries to indicate the spread between values was performed. The paper also extends the sensitivity analysis of the parameters mentioned above to moderated systems, such as TRADE (triga accelerator-driven experiment): a 1 MW triga reactor coupled with a 110-140 MeV-2 mA proton cyclotron. Study of the discrepancies in the thermal and epithermal regions is essential for the design of systems for the transmutation of LLFF (transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing, TARC) and also important for minor actinides (MAs) for which sub-threshold fission should not be neglected. These studies highlight the relative importance of different isotopes and assess the

  3. Actividad antimicrobiana de Weissella confusa y sus metabolitos frente a Escherichia coli y Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Liliana Serna Cock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Antimicrobial activity of Weissella confuse and its metabolites against Escherichia coli and  Klebsiella pneumoniaeResumen: Con el fin evaluar el campo de aplicación potencial de una bacteria ácido láctica y de sus metabolitos, se realizó la cinética de la actividad antimicrobiana de W. confusa y de sus  metabolitos contra E. coli, y K. pneumoniae, dos patógenos causantes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos. La producción de W. confusa se realizó por fermentación discontinua en sustrato comercial MRS. Se realizaron tres fermentaciones durante 6 horas, sin aireación, agitación continúa 33°C y 100 rpm. Cada hora de fermentación se separaron tres sustancias biológicas, W. confusa con sus metabolitos (W+W10b, células de W. confusa libres de metabolitos (W y metabolito (W10b y se midió la actividad antimicrobiana contra los patógenos E. coli, y K. pneumoniae. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre tratamientos y tiempo de fermentación. Para E. coli el tratamiento W presentó la mayor actividad antimicrobiana, la cual se obtuvo entre la cuarta y sexta hora de fermentación (2.45 cm de diámetro promedio de inhibición. Para K. pneumoniae, los tratamientos W y W+W10b presentaron actividad antimicrobiana entre la cuarta y quinta hora de fermentación, sin diferencia significativa entre ellos. W. confusa y el metabolito W10b demostraron poseer capacidad antimicrobiana contra E. coli y K. pneumoniae, lo cual sugiere que W. confusa y W10b podrían utilizarse como alternativa de bioconservación o bioprotección de alimentos frescos y procesados, para alimentación humana y animal; y podría convertirse en una alternativa al uso de antibióticos para enfermedades causadas por E. coli y K. pneumoniae.Palabras clave: bioconservación, alimentos, enfermedades, aplicaciones biotecnológicas.Summary: The kinetic of antimicrobial activity ofWeissella confusa and their metabolites against E. coli, and K. pneumoniae, (two pathogens causing foodborne illness was evaluated, in order to know the possible use in food processing. W. confusa was produced by batch fermentation using MRS commercial substrate. Three fermentations, of 6 hours at 33 ° C, without aeration, stirring continuously (100 rpm were performed. In every hour of fermentation, three biological substances, W. confusa with their metabolites (W + W10b, W. confusa free cells metabolites (W, and metabolite (W10b were separated, and subsequently the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic E. coli and K. pneumoniae was measured. Statistically significant differences between treatments and fermentation time were found. Treatment (W against E. coli, showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, it was obtained between the fourth and the sixth hours of fermentation (2.45 cm inhibition diameter average. In treatments W and W + W10b against K. pneumoniae, statistically significant differences between them were not found. The antimicrobial activity was shown between the fourth and fifth hour of fermentation. W. confusa and W10b have antimicrobial activity against E. coli andK. pneumoniae, suggesting that W and W10b could be used as an alternative to biopreservation or bioprotection of fresh and processed food for human and animal consumption, and could become an alternative to antibiotics used for diseases caused by E. coli and K. pneumoniae.Key words: bioconservation, food, diseases, biotechnology applications.

  4. Multibeam tomotherapy: A new treatment unit devised for multileaf collimation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    , better organ-at-risk sparing, and comparable mean integral dose to the normal tissue a reduction in treatment time by more than 50% to only a few minutes in comparison to high-quality 3-D conformal and IMRT treatments. As a result, it will be possible to incorporate features for better patient positioning and image guidance, while sustaining reasonable overall treatment times at the same time. The virtual multibeam tomotherapy design study TOM'5-CT contains a dedicated electron beam CT (TOM'AGE) and an objective optical topometric patient positioning system (TOPOS registered ). Thanks to the wide gantry bore of 120 cm and slim gantry depths of 70 cm, patients can be treated very comfortably, in all cases tumor-isocentrically, as well as with noncoplanar beam arrangements as in stereotactic radiosurgery with a couch rotation of up to ±54 deg. . The TOM'5 treatment unit on which this theoretical concept is based has a stand-alone depth of 40 cm and an outer diameter of 245 cm; the focus-isocenter distance of the heads is 100 cm with a field size of 40 cmx7 cm and 0.5 cm leaves, which operate perpendicular to the axis of table motion

  5. PLANT SPACING AND WEED MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES INFLUENCE WEED COMPETITIVENESS OF DRUM SEEDED RICE (Oryza sativa L.

    B N Sandeep Nayak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct wet seeded-rice sown through drum seeder, a potential wise rice production system in the present-day scenario, is subject to severe weed infestation and, therefore, development of a sustainable weed management strategy is crucial for its wide spread adoption. The present study was conducted in kharif 2012 at department of agronomy division with NLR-33358 (SOMASILA using six planting densities under five weed management conditions. The plant spacing tried were: 20cm x 7cm, 20 cm x 10.5 cm, 20 cm x 14 cm, 20 cm x 17.5 cm and 20 cm x 24.5cm and 20 cm x15cm. with a plant density of 71, 47, 35, 28, 20 and 33 hills m-2, respectively and five weed management practices viz., weedy check (W1, hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS (W2, cono weeding at 20 and 40 with modified cono weeder (W3, pre-emergence application of anilofos @ 0.375 kg a.i ha-1 followed by post-emergence application of 2, 4 D sodium salt @ 1.0 kg a.i ha-1 20-25 DAS (W4, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha-1 followed by post-emergence application of bispyribac sodium @ 20 g a.i ha-1 30 DAS ( W5. . The experiment was laid out in strip- plot design with three replications assigning weed management techniques in vertical factor and plant spacing in horizontal factor. Direct wet seeded rice field was infested with 12 and 22 weed species, kharif -2012 season having Echinochloa colona, Leptochloa chinensis, Digitaria aescendens, Cyperus iriaand Eleusine indicaas the predominant weeds. Rice spacing exerted significant influence on both weed pressure and yield performance of crop. With the increase in plant spacing weed dry matter decreased but rice yield increased. In this season, among different plant densities, the highest density of 71 hills m-2(D1 resulted in minimum weed density, weed drymatter, and more number of tillers m-2 and maximum drymatter production at all stages of plant growth. closest spacing resulted in maximum weed suppression, but among various rice plant densities, a medium level population of 47 hills m-2 (D2 significantly increased the paddy yield over all other treatments except D1 treatments with a plant density of 71 hills m-2 .The highest grain yield of 3476 kg ha-1 was observed with a plant density of 47 hills m-2 and it was significantly superior to 71, 35, 28, 20 hills m-2drum seeded and 33 hills m-2 transplant paddies. which ultimately produced the highest rice yield. Weed inflicted relative yield loss was also minimized by the closest spacing. Present findings imply rice spacing mostly determines rice-weed competition, and can play a decisive role to minimize weed pressure. Therefore, closer spacing could be considered as a vital tool in the integrated weed management program for direct wet-seeded rice sown through drum seeder.

  6. ZZ KAFAX-F31, 150 and 12 Groups Cross Section Library in MATXS Format based on JEFF-3.1 for Fast Reactors

    1 - Description: Format: MATXS, 142 nuclides processed with NJOY99.245. Number of groups: 150 neutron-, 12 photon-groups. 142 nuclides: H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, F-19, Na-23, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26, Al-27, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, P-31, Cl-35, Cl-37, Ar-40, K-39, K-40, K-41, Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48, Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, Ti-50, V-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ga-nat, Y-89, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-93, Zr-94, Zr-95, Zr-96, Nb-93, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-99, Mo-100, Ag-107, Ag-109, Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-115m, Cd-116, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-125, Sn-126, Eu-151, Eu-153, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Re-185, Re-187, Au-197, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Th-232, Pa-233, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246. Origin: JEFF-3.1. Weighting spectrum: 300, 600, 900, 1200 K. The KAFAX-F31 is a MATXS-format, 150-group neutron and 12-group photon cross section library for fast reactors based on JEFF-3.1. This library was originally generated for the KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid Metal Reactor) core analyses. It includes 142 nuclide data (Table 1) processed by the NJOY99.245 code patched with NEA020. The library can be utilized to generate the problem-dependent group constants for neutron and/or photon transport calculations through the DANTSYS, DOORS, or PARTISN code systems. 2 - Methods: The KAFAX-F31 was generated at 300, 600, 900, and 1200 K. It contains the self-shielded cross sections for 5 to 10 background cross sections depending on the nuclides. The neutron group structure consists of one-eighth lethargy widths in almost

  7. ZZ KAFAX-E70, 150 and 12 Groups Cross Section Library in MATXS Format based on ENDF/B-VII.0 for Fast Reactors

    1 - Description: Format: MATXS, 144 nuclides processed with NJOY99.245. Number of groups: 150 neutron-, 12 photon-groups. 144 nuclides: H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, F-19, Na-23, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26, Al-27, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, P-31, Cl-35, Cl-37, Ar-40, K-39, K-40, K-41, Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48, Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, Ti-50, V-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ga-69, Ga-71, Y-89, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-93, Zr-94, Zr-95, Zr-96, Nb-93, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-99, Mo-100, Ag-107, Ag-109, Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-115m, Cd-116, Sn-112, Sn-113, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-125, Sn-126, Eu-151, Eu-153, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Re-185, Re-187, Au-197, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Th-232, Pa-233, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246. Origin: ENDF/B-VII.0. Weighting spectrum: 300, 600, 900, 1200 k. The ZZ-KAFAX-E70 is a MATXS-format, 150-group neutron and 12-group photon cross section library for fast reactors based on ENDF/B-VII.0. This library was originally generated for the KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) core analyses. It includes 144 nuclide data processed with the NJOY99.245 code patched with NEA020. The library can be used to generate the problem-dependent group constants for neutron and/or photon transport calculations through the DANTSYS, DOORS, or PARTISN code systems. 2 - Methods: The KAFAX-E70 was generated at 300, 600, 900, and 1200 K. It contains the self-shielded cross sections for 5 to 10 background cross sections depending on the nuclides. The neutron group structure consists of one-eighth lethargy

  8. ZZ KAFAX-J33, 150 and 12 Groups Cross Section Library in MATXS Format based on JENDL-3.3 for Fast Reactors

    1 - Description: Format: MATXS, 136 nuclides processed with NJOY99.245. Number of groups: 150 neutron-, 12 photon-groups. 136 Nuclides: H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, F-19, Na-23, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26, Al-27, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, P-31, Cl-35, Cl-37, Ar-40, K-39, K-40, K-41, Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48, Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, Ti-50, V-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ga-69, Ga-71, Y-89, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-93, Zr-94, Zr-95, Zr-96, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-99, Mo-100, Ag-107, Ag-109, Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-126, Eu-151, Eu-153, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Pb-206, Pb-208, Bi-209, Th-232, Pa-233, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246. Origin: JENDL-3.3. Weighting spectrum: 300, 600, 900, 1200 K. The KAFAX-J33 is a MATXS-format, 150-group neutron and 12-group photon cross section library for fast reactors based on JENDL-3.3. This library was originally generated for the KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid Metal Reactor) core analyses. It includes 136 nuclide data processed by the NJOY99.245 code patched with NEA020. The library can be utilized to generate the problem-dependent group constants for neutron and/or photon transport calculations through the DANTSYS, DOORS, or PARTISN code systems. 2 - Methods: The KAFAX-J33 was generated at 300, 600, 900, and 1200 K. It contains the self-shielded cross sections for 5 to 10 background cross sections depending on the nuclides. The neutron group structure consists of one-eighth lethargy widths in almost all the energy ranges, except between 1 and 10 keV in

  9. Multibeam tomotherapy: a new treatment unit devised for multileaf collimation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    Achterberg, Nils; Müller, Reinhold G

    2007-10-01

    organ-at-risk sparing, and comparable mean integral dose to the normal tissue a reduction in treatment time by more than 50% to only a few minutes in comparison to high-quality 3-D conformal and IMRT treatments. As a result, it will be possible to incorporate features for better patient positioning and image guidance, while sustaining reasonable overall treatment times at the same time. The virtual multibeam tomotherapy design study TOM'5-CT contains a dedicated electron beam CT (TOM'AGE) and an objective optical topometric patient positioning system (TOPOS). Thanks to the wide gantry bore of 120 cm and slim gantry depths of 70 cm, patients can be treated very comfortably, in all cases tumor-isocentrically, as well as with noncoplanar beam arrangements as in stereotactic radiosurgery with a couch rotation of up to +/- 54 degrees. The TOM'5 treatment unit on which this theoretical concept is based has a stand-alone depth of 40 cm and an outer diameter of 245 cm; the focus-isocenter distance of the heads is 100 cm with a field size of 40 cm x 7 cm and 0.5 cm leaves, which operate perpendicular to the axis of table motion. PMID:17985638

  10. Soil fertility and 137 Cs redistribution as related to land use, landscape and texture in a watershed of Paraiba State

    Intensive land use and growing deforestation of the natural vegetation in Northeastern Brazil have contributed to the degradation of resources, particularly the decrease of soil fertility. As a result, biodiversity and ecosystem capacity to restore its resources after disturbances have been diminished. The decrease in soil fertility is more substantial in areas dominated by an undulating topography. In these areas, erosion is intensified when crops or pasture replaces natural vegetation. Even though degradation processes are reflected in environmental, social, and economical changes, there is a lack of information regarding the interrelationship between these changes and soil fertility and erosion. Thus, the 'Vaca Brava' watershed (14,04 km2), located in the 'Agreste' region of Paraiba State, was selected to study the interrelationships between land use, landscape, particle size distribution, soil fertility and erosion using 137 Cs redistribution. Small farms, where subsistence agriculture is intensive, are common in this watershed, as well as areas for environmental protection. A georreferenced survey of the watershed topography was initially carried out. Based on the survey data, the watershed was digitalized using a scale of 1:5000, and a 3-D map was created. Each landform element had its area determined on a area (absolute value) and percentage (relative value) basis. Shoulder, backslope and footslope positions represented 83% of the cultivated area in the watershed. A data base of 360 georreferenced soil samples (0-20 cm), collected using a stratified sampling scheme, was further created. Sites were stratified based on their landscape position (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope) in factorial combination with land use (annual crops, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, Mimosa caesalpiniae folia, bush fallow, and native forest). Physical analyses of the soil samples included particle size distribution and bulk density, whereas soil chemical analyses were total C and N, extractable P (Mehlich-1), pH (water, exchangeable acidity and cations). The soils of the watershed generally exhibited low fertility, regardless of their landscape position (p137 Cs redistribution approach. Soils of the topossequences under native forest (n 2) and pasture (n = 3) were sampled for this purpose. It was observed a significant correlation between clay content and 137 Cs activity in the soil (r = 0.75, p137 Cs stock down to a depth of 28 cm was 38,7 Bq m-2. At the backslope positions the 137 Cs stock was similar for the same depth range. On the other hand, the average 137 Cs stock in soils under pasture at the summit landscape position was 58,0 Bq m-2, with a maximum of 74,9 Bq m-2. Levels of 137 Cs were below detection limit (0,03 Bq kg-1) on soils under pasture from the shoulder and backslope positions. The redistribution of 137 Cs within the shoulder landscape position resulted in an estimated loss of 219,7 kg soil m-2, which is equivalent to a soil layer of 20,0 cm. Soil losses were higher on the backslope position, which reached a value of 268 kg m-2. This loss corresponds to the removal of a 24,5 cm soil layer. Given that the topossequences were representative of the area, these results indicate intense sediment redistribution within the watershed, which probably caused the transport of organic matter and nutrients associated with the clay fraction into the fluvial system. (author)

  11. Soil fertility and {sup 137} Cs redistribution as related to land use, landscape and texture in a watershed of Paraiba State; Fertilidade do solo e redistribuicao de {sup 137} Cs em funcao da cobertura vegetal, relevo, e classes texturais, em uma microbacia hidrografica do Estado da Paraiba

    Santos, Antonio Clementino dos

    2004-03-15

    Intensive land use and growing deforestation of the natural vegetation in Northeastern Brazil have contributed to the degradation of resources, particularly the decrease of soil fertility. As a result, biodiversity and ecosystem capacity to restore its resources after disturbances have been diminished. The decrease in soil fertility is more substantial in areas dominated by an undulating topography. In these areas, erosion is intensified when crops or pasture replaces natural vegetation. Even though degradation processes are reflected in environmental, social, and economical changes, there is a lack of information regarding the interrelationship between these changes and soil fertility and erosion. Thus, the 'Vaca Brava' watershed (14,04 km{sup 2}), located in the 'Agreste' region of Paraiba State, was selected to study the interrelationships between land use, landscape, particle size distribution, soil fertility and erosion using {sup 137} Cs redistribution. Small farms, where subsistence agriculture is intensive, are common in this watershed, as well as areas for environmental protection. A georreferenced survey of the watershed topography was initially carried out. Based on the survey data, the watershed was digitalized using a scale of 1:5000, and a 3-D map was created. Each landform element had its area determined on a area (absolute value) and percentage (relative value) basis. Shoulder, backslope and footslope positions represented 83% of the cultivated area in the watershed. A data base of 360 georreferenced soil samples (0-20 cm), collected using a stratified sampling scheme, was further created. Sites were stratified based on their landscape position (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope) in factorial combination with land use (annual crops, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, Mimosa caesalpiniae folia, bush fallow, and native forest). Physical analyses of the soil samples included particle size distribution and bulk density, whereas soil chemical analyses were total C and N, extractable P (Mehlich-1), pH (water, exchangeable acidity and cations). The soils of the watershed generally exhibited low fertility, regardless of their landscape position (p<0.05). However, land use and texture contributed significantly to the soil fertility (p<0.05). The contents of C, N, Ca, Mg, and ECEC were significantly higher (p<0.05) for the forest soils, whereas P, K, and exchangeable acidity were higher (p<0,05) in the cultivated soils. Forest soils were classified as sandy clay and sandy clay loam (65%), whereas cultivated soils were identified as sand and sandy loam (64%). Particle size distribution and topography were interrelated as sand contents decreased with the increase in slope. Overall, soils with finer texture showed higher fertility levels, regardless of the landscape position. Catchment sites were not discriminated as areas of significant gain of nutrients. It was observed a strong P deficiency, regardless of the landscape position, land use or particle size distribution. The catena segmentation, based on landform elements, land use and soil depths, was an efficient tool to understand the erosion/sedimentation processes by using the {sup 137} Cs redistribution approach. Soils of the topossequences under native forest (n 2) and pasture (n = 3) were sampled for this purpose. It was observed a significant correlation between clay content and {sup 137} Cs activity in the soil (r = 0.75, p<0.01). At the summit positions of the forest soil, the average {sup 137} Cs stock down to a depth of 28 cm was 38,7 Bq m{sup -2}. At the backslope positions the {sup 137} Cs stock was similar for the same depth range. On the other hand, the average {sup 137} Cs stock in soils under pasture at the summit landscape position was 58,0 Bq m{sup -2}, with a maximum of 74,9 Bq m{sup -2}. Levels of {sup 137} Cs were below detection limit (0,03 Bq kg{sup -1}) on soils under pasture from the shoulder and backslope positions. The redistribution of {sup 137} Cs within the shoulder landscape position resulted in an estimated loss of 219,7 kg soil m{sup -2}, which is equivalent to a soil layer of 20,0 cm. Soil losses were higher on the backslope position, which reached a value of 268 kg m{sup -2}. This loss corresponds to the removal of a 24,5 cm soil layer. Given that the topossequences were representative of the area, these results indicate intense sediment redistribution within the watershed, which probably caused the transport of organic matter and nutrients associated with the clay fraction into the fluvial system. (author)

  12. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 4 MACROBATCH 5

    the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to the radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Task Technical Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-2005-0034; Rev. 0 entitled Sludge Batch 4 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing4. Specifically, this report details results from performing, in part, Subtask 3 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00310, Rev. 15 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2006-00458, Rev. 16. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) (Macro Batch 5 (MB5)), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, twenty-nine radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB4 (MB5) as specified by WAPS 1.2. The 29 reportable nuclides are: Ni-59; Ni-63; Se-79; Sr-90; Zr-93; Nb-93m; Tc-99; Sn-126; Cs-137; Sm-151; U-233; U-234; Np-237; U-238; Pu-238; Pu-239; Pu-240; Am-241; Pu-241; Pu-242; Am-242m; Am-243; Cm-244; Cm-245; Cm-246; Cm-247; Bk-247; Cm-248; and Cf-251. The WCP and WQR require that all of radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB4 (MB5), all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time through the calendar year 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to the list

  13. Electrochemical removal of Cd from bioashes in pilot scale and evaluation of possibilities for utilizing treated ashes in concrete; Elektrokemisk fjernelse af Cd fra bioasker i pilotskala og vurdering af mulighederne for nyttiggoerelse af behandlet aske i beton

    Juul Pedersen, A.; Ottosen, L.M. [BYG-DTU, Copenhagen (Denmark); Simonsen, P. [Energi E2 A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Aune, J. [MT Hoejgaard A/S, Soeborg (Denmark)

    2006-07-01

    Electrochemical removal of cadmium from bio ashes has been demonstrated in pilot scale, and the remediated ashes have been evaluated for possible reuse as either fertilizers, or in concrete products. 5 remediation experiments have been completed, using straw combustion fly ash or fly ash from cocombustion of wood and fuel oil. During these emediation experiments the process has been upscaled stepwise, from an initial distance between the electrodes of 35 cm and a tank volume of 300 L ash suspension, to a final electrode distance of 245 cm, a total tank volume of 2.1 m3, and inclusion of up to 6 'concentration-units'. The ash volumes to be remediated made up to between 8.4 and 82.5 kg dry matter, prior to eventual pre-wash. The first four remediation experiments were made with straw combustion fly ash, the fifth contained both straw combustion fly ash and cocombustion fly ash, in separate compartments. The demonstration experiments have in many ways confirmed the results obtained in smaller scale in the previous project PSO FU 3206. It is demonstrated that electrochemical removal of cadmium from bioashes is possible also in larger scale than laboratory scale and benchscale, as final concentrations of cadmium below the regulatory limits for recycling of straw ashes have been reached. Furthermore, new findings such as the importance of choosing more acid resistant materials for the plant have showed up. The use of concentration units contributed positively to the separation of cadmium from the ash suspension, but when using concentration units the 'natural' acidification of the ash during the remediation process is delayed, and thus it is recommended to add acid to the ash before and eventually during the remediation process to decrease pH more rapidly. The ashes were analyzed before and after remediation for evaluation of the potential of reusing the ashes in concrete products, or recycle them as fertilizers. It was found that the fertilizing

  14. ZZ MATXSLIBJ33, JENDL-3.3 based, 175 N-42 photon groups (VITAMIN-J) MATXS library for discrete ordinates multi-group

    -156, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Tb-159, Er-162, Er-164, Er-166, Er-167, Er-168, Er-170, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Hg-196, Hg-198, Hg-199, Hg-200, Hg-201, Hg-202, Hg-204, Pb-204, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-225, Ra-226, Ac-225, Ac-226, Ac-227, Th-227, Th-228, Th-229, Th-230, Th-232, Th-233, Th-234, Pa-231, Pa-232, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, U-238, Np-235, Np-236, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-244, Pu-246, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Am-244, Am-244m, Cm-240, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Cm-249, Cm-250, Bk-247, Bk-249, Bk-250, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252, Cf-254, Es-254, Es-255, Fm-255 Temperatures: 300 K. Origin: JENDL-3.3. Weighting spectrum: -- iwt=11 for NJOY-99. Legendre expansion: P6. Thermal scattering: free gas model. Self shielding: sigma-0, infinity, 10000, 1000, 300, 100, 30, 10, 1, 0.1, 1. E-5. Kerma factors are provided. NEA-1707/03: Corrections were made to the continuous inelastic scattering matrices (MT=91), for all nuclides for which this channel is open. This replaces the previous version. 2 - Methods: The nuclear data processing system NJOY-99.67 was used to produce MATXSLIBJ33. It can be further processed using TRANSX-2.15. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Accuracy of pointwise cross-section reconstruction: 0.1%; Upper limit of thermal region: 4.6 eV

  15. ZZ KASHIL-E70, 199 N, 42 Photon Groups Cross Sections in MATXS Format Based on ENDF/B-VII.0 for Shielding Applications

    1 - Description: Format: MATXS, 204 nuclides processed with NJOY99.245. Number of groups: 199 neutron-, 42 photon-groups. 204 Nuclides including 8 thermal scattering law data: H-1, H-2, H-3, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, Be-9, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-nat, C-nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, O-17, F-19, Na-23, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26, Al-27, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, P-31, S-32, S-33, S-34, S-36, Cl-35, Cl-37, K-39, K-40, K-41, Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48, Sc-45, Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, Ti-50, V-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ga-69, Ga-71, Y-89, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-94, Zr-96, Nb-93, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-100, Pd-102, Pd-104, Pd-105, Pd-106, Pd-108, Pd-110, Ag-107, Ag-109, Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, I-127, Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-134, Xe-136, Cs-133, Ba-138, Pr-141, Nd-143, Nd-145, Nd-146, Nd-148, Nd-150, Pm-147, Sm-147, Sm-151, Sm-152, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu-154, Eu-155, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Dy-164, Ho-165, Lu-175, Lu-176, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, Ta-182, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Re-185, Re-187, Ir-191, Ir-193, Au-197, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Th-230, Th-232, Pa-231, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, U-238, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-243, Pu-244, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Bk-249, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252, Cf-253, Es-253. Origin: ENDF/B-VII.0. Weighting spectrum: 300, 600, 1000, 2100 K. The KASHIL-E70 is a MATXS-format, 199-group neutron and 42-group photon cross section library for shielding applications based on ENDF/B-VII.0. The library contains 204 nuclide data including 8 thermal scattering law data processed by the NJOY99.259 code patched with NEA

  16. Sr, C and O isotopes as markers of alkaline disturbances in the Toarcian argillites of the Tournemire experimental platform (France). Case of a 15-years old engineered analogue.

    Techer, I.; Boulvais, P.; Bartier, D.; Tinseau, E.

    2009-04-01

    argillites close to the cement-concrete contact. These data are detailed in another session of this meeting (Techer et al., ERE6 session). In order to precise the spatial extent of the disturbances and to discuss the nature of the responsible fluids, a systematic chemical and isotopic study was performed focusing on the Sr, C and O isotopes known to be very good markers of alkaline fluids percolation (Fourcade et al. 2006). Four studied levels were selected according to their location on the DM overcore and the nature of the cementitious material in contact to the argillites: -155 cm level (DM155) and -180 cm level (DM180) where argillites were in contact with a 1.5 to 3 cm thick concrete; -245 cm level (DM245) and -300 cm level (DM300) where the cementitious material was represented by a fine grained Portland cement 2 to 5 cm thick. Samples of the cementitious materials were collected at each level. Argillites were sampled perpendicularly to the cement-concrete contact with a continuous sampling every 2 to 5 mm millimeters (P1). Micro-fissures developed perpendicularly to the cement-concrete contact were opened and infilling secondary minerals were collected by scrap as a function of the distance to the cement-concrete (P3). Along P1 and P3, no significant variation of the carbonates d18O isotopic values was observed in the argillites. On the opposite d13C and 87Sr/86Sr values of these minerals changed significantly in the direct contact with the cement-concrete over a distance of 15 to 25 mm. Beyond this distance, argillites were again well bedded and showed values similar to those measured in a reference sample. Negative d13C values measured in the disturbed zone and close to those encountered in the cement and the concrete argued for a perturbation induced by an alkaline solution. 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios showed a progressive evolution in the disturbed zone, with increasing trends towards the cementitious material. Thanks to complementary Sr elementary contents

  17. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 5 (MACROBATCH 6)

    Bannochie, C.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, D.

    2010-02-04

    . The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to the radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2008-0010; Rev. 2 entitled Sludge Batch 5 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing. Specifically, this report details results from performing Subtask II, 5 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2008-00137, Rev. 2 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2008-00138, Rev. 2. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for SB5 (MB6), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, twenty-six radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB5 as specified by WAPS 1.2. The 26 reportable radionuclides are: Cl-36, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Tc-99, Sn-126, Cs-137, Sm-151, U-233, U-234, Np-237, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Am-241, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cf-251. Chlorine-36 is reported for the first time based on the upper bounding activity determined from the aqua regia digested sludge slurry. The WCP and WQR require that all of radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB5 (MB6), all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for four radionuclides: Se-79, Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time through the year 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to

  18. ZZ-SCALE5.1/COVA-44G, 44-group cross section covariance matrix library extracted from SCALE5.1

    ,Ba-134,Ba-135,Ba-136,Ba-137,Ba-138,Ba-140,La-139, La-140,Ce-140,Ce-141,Ce-142,Ce-143,Ce-144,Pr-141,Pr-142, Pr-143,Nd-142,Nd-143,Nd-144,Nd-145,Nd-146,Nd-147,Nd-148, Nd-150,Pm-147,Pm-148,Pm-148(m),Pm-149,Sm-144,Sm-147,Sm-148, Sm-149,Sm-150,Sm-151,Sm-152,Sm-153,Sm-154,Eu-151,Eu-152, Eu-153,Eu-154,Eu-155,Gd-152,Gd-154,Gd-155,Gd-156,Gd-157, Gd-158,Gd-160,Tb-159,Tb-160,Dy-160,Dy-161,Dy-162,Dy-163, Dy-164,Ho-165,Er-166,Er-167,Lu-175,Lu-176,Hf-0,Hf-174, Hf-176,Hf-177,Hf-178,Hf-179,Hf-180,Ta-181,Ta-182,W-0, W-182,W-183,W-184,W-186,Re-185(2),Re-187(2),Au-197(3),Pb-0(2), Pb-206,Pb-207,Pb-208,Bi-209(2),Th-230,Th-232(4),Pa-231,Pa-233(3), U-232,U-233,U-234,U-235,U-235(6),U-236,U-237,U-238(4), Np-237(2),Pu-238(7),Pu-239(9),Pu-240(10),Pu-241(11),Pu-242(3),Pu-243, Pu-244,Am-241(4),Am-242,Am-242(m),Am-243,Cm-242,Cm-243,Cm-244, Cm-245,Cm-246,Cm-247,Cm-248,Bk-249,Cf-249,Cf-250,Cf-251, Cf-252(3),Cf-253,Es-253. 2 - Related or auxiliary programs: ANGELO-2.3 and LAMBDA-2.3 codes (NEA-1798/01) can be used for the interpolation of the original 44-group data to a user defined energy group structure, and for the mathematical tests of the matrices, respectively

  19. ZZ MCB-JEF2.2, MCB Continuous-Energy Neutron Cross Section Libraries for Temperatures from 300 to 1800 K

    -154, Eu-155, Eu-156, Eu-157, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Tb-159, Tb-160, Dy-160, Dy-161, Dy-162, Dy-163, Dy-164, Ho-165, Er-166, Er-167, Lu-175, Lu-176, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, Ta-182, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Re-185, Re-187, Au-197, Pb-nat., Bi-209, Th-230, Th-232, Pa-231, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, U-238, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-243, Pu-244, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Bk-249, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252, Cf-253, Es-253. Temperatures: 300 K, 600 K, 900 K, 1200 K, 1500 K, and 1800 K. Origin: JEF-2.2. 2 - Methods: The library was generated using the NJOY processing code. An example of the input data is provided

  20. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 4 MACROBATCH 5

    Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2008-05-30

    as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to the radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Task Technical Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-2005-0034; Rev. 0 entitled Sludge Batch 4 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing4. Specifically, this report details results from performing, in part, Subtask 3 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00310, Rev. 15 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2006-00458, Rev. 16. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) (Macro Batch 5 (MB5)), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, twenty-nine radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB4 (MB5) as specified by WAPS 1.2. The 29 reportable nuclides are: Ni-59; Ni-63; Se-79; Sr-90; Zr-93; Nb-93m; Tc-99; Sn-126; Cs-137; Sm-151; U-233; U-234; Np-237; U-238; Pu-238; Pu-239; Pu-240; Am-241; Pu-241; Pu-242; Am-242m; Am-243; Cm-244; Cm-245; Cm-246; Cm-247; Bk-247; Cm-248; and Cf-251. The WCP and WQR require that all of radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB4 (MB5), all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time through the calendar year 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be

  1. ZZ FSXJ32, MCNP nuclear data library based on JENDL-3.2. ZZ FSXLIBJ33, MCNP nuclear data library based on JENDL-3.3

    -103, Rh-105, Pd-102, Pd-104, Pd-105, Pd-106, Pd-107, Pd-108, Pd-110, Ag-107, Ag-109, Ag-110m,Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-126, Sb-121, Sb-123, Sb-124, Sb-125, Te-120, Te-122, Te-123, Te-124, Te-125, Te-126, Te-127m,Te-128, Te-129m,Te-130, I -127, I -129, I -131, Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-133, Xe-134, Xe-135, Xe-136, Cs-133, Cs-134, Cs-135, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-130, Ba-132, Ba-134, Ba-135, Ba-136, Ba-137, Ba-138, Ba-140, La-138, La-139, Ce-140, Ce-141, Ce-142, Ce-144, Pr-141, Pr-143, Nd-142, Nd-143, Nd-144, Nd-145, Nd-146, Nd-147, Nd-148, Nd-150, Pm-147, Pm-148, Pm-148m,Pm-149, Sm-144, Sm-147, Sm-148, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-151, Sm-152, Sm-153, Sm-154, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu-156, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Tb-159, Er-162, Er-164, Er-166, Er-167, Er-168, Er-170, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Hg-196, Hg-198, Hg-199, Hg-200, Hg-201, Hg-202, Hg-204, Pb-204, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-225, Ra-226, Ac-225, Ac-226, Ac-227, Th-227, Th-228, Th-229, Th-230, Th-232, Th-233, Th-234, Pa-231, Pa-232, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, U-238, Np-235, Np-236, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-244, Pu-246, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Am-244, Am-244m, Cm-240, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Cm-249, Cm-250, Bk-247, Bk-249, Bk-250, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252, Cf-254, Es-254, Es-255, Fm-255 Temperatures: 300 K. Origin: JENDL-3.3. Thermal scattering: Free gas model Kerma factors are provided. The original JENDL-3.3 has two problems in Am-241 data. One is the missing of MF/MT=4/18, and the other is the incorrect neutron spectra for MT=18 below 500 keV. The updated data have been produced as JENDL-3

  2. ZZ VITJEF22.BOLIB, JEF-2.2 Multigroup Coupled (199 n + 42 gamma) X-Section Library in AMPX Format for Nuclear Fission Applications

    , U-237, U-238, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-243, Pu-244, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244,Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248. Neutron weighting spectrum: Corresponding to the IWT=4 input option in the GROUPR module of NJOY: from 1.0 E-5 eV to 0.125 eV → Maxwellian thermal spectrum (kT = 0.025 eV); from 0.125 eV to 820.8 keV → '1/E' slowing-down spectrum; from 820.8 keV to 19.64 MeV → fission spectrum (fission temperature = 1.273 MeV). Photon weighting spectrum: Corresponding to the IWT=3 input option in the GAMINR module of NJOY: '1/E' spectrum with a 'roll-off' at lower energies to represent photoelectric absorption and a similar 'drop-off' at higher energies corresponding to the Q-value for neutron capture. The prompt neutron fission spectra for U-235, U-238 and Pu-239 are included in tabulated form in the package together with the neutron and photon group energy boundaries, the neutron and photon group lethargy boundaries and the neutron and photon group lethargy widths. The neutron and photon energy weighting spectra in group representation are also included in the package. Detector response functions are at present not included in the library package. VITJEF22.BOLIB was extensively tested /1/ on many thermal and fast criticality benchmark experiments. 2 - Methods: The ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Centre produced the VITJEF22.BOLIB library within the framework of a co-operation with specialists of the Obninsk Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE-Obninsk, Russian Federation). The VITJEF22.BOLIB library for nuclear fission applications was conceived as an European counterpart of the VITAMIN-B6 American library, based on the ENDF/B-VI Release 3 nuclear data file. The present library has in particular the same group structure and the general features as VITAMIN-B6 and was produced using the same data processing methodologies, based on the NJOY-94.66 and SCAMPI data