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Sample records for 24-h ultraendurance exercise

  1. Ultra-endurance exercise induces stress and inflammation and affects circulating hematopoietic progenitor cell function.

    Stelzer, I; Kröpfl, J M; Fuchs, R; Pekovits, K; Mangge, H; Raggam, R B; Gruber, H-J; Prüller, F; Hofmann, P; Truschnig-Wilders, M; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Haushofer, A C; Kessler, H H; Mächler, P

    2015-10-01

    Although amateur sports have become increasingly competitive within recent decades, there are as yet few studies on the possible health risks for athletes. This study aims to determine the impact of ultra-endurance exercise-induced stress on the number and function of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) and hematological, inflammatory, clinical, metabolic, and stress parameters in moderately trained amateur athletes. Following ultra-endurance exercise, there were significant increases in leukocytes, platelets, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, tissue enzymes, blood lactate, serum cortisol, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Ultra-endurance exercise did not influence the number of CPCs but resulted in a highly significant decline of CPC functionality after the competition. Furthermore, Epstein-Barr virus was seen to be reactivated in one of seven athletes. The link between exercise-induced stress and decline of CPC functionality is supported by a negative correlation between cortisol and CPC function. We conclude that ultra-endurance exercise induces metabolic stress and an inflammatory response that affects not only mature hematopoietic cells but also the function of the immature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fraction, which make up the immune system and provide for regeneration. PMID:25438993

  2. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    Kaito Iwayama

    2015-12-01

    Interpretation: Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation.

  3. Ventilatory response to moderate incremental exercise performed 24 h after resistance exercise with concentric and eccentric contractions

    Yunoki, Takahiro; Arimitsu, Takuma; Yamanaka, Ryo; Lian, Chang-Shun; Afroundeh, Roghhayye; Matsuura, Ryouta; Yano, Tokuo

    2011-01-01

    In order to test our hypothesis that muscle condition has an effect on the cognition of self-motion and consequently on the ventilatory response during exercise, six healthy subjects performed a moderate incremental exercise test (IET) on a cycle ergometer under two conditions [resistance exercise condition (REC) and control condition (CC)]. In the REC, resistance exercise (30 incline leg presses) was conducted during two sessions scheduled at 48 and then 24 h prior to the IET. For the CC, th...

  4. Regulation of average 24h human plasma leptin level; the influence of exercise and physiological changes in energy balance.

    Aggel-Leijssen, D.P.; Baak, M. A.; Tenenbaum, R; Campfield, L.A.; SARIS, W.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of short-term moderate physiological changes in energy flux and energy balance, by exercise and over- or underfeeding, on a 24h plasma leptin profile, were investigated. DESIGN: Subjects were studied over 24h in four randomized conditions: no exercise/energy balance (energy intake (EI)=energy expenditure (EE)=11.8+/-0.8 MJ); exercise/energy balance (EI=EE=15.1+/-0.6 MJ); exercise/negative energy balance (EI=11.8+/-0.8 MJ, EE=15.1+/-0.8 MJ); exercise/positive energy bala...

  5. Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise

    Fernström, Maria; Bakkman, Linda; Tonkonogi, Michail;

    2007-01-01

    (Post-Ex), and after 28 h of recovery (Rec). Respiration was analyzed in isolated mitochondria during state 3 (coupled to ATP synthesis) and state 4 (noncoupled respiration), with fatty acids alone [palmitoyl carnitine (PC)] or together with pyruvate (Pyr). Electron transport chain activity was measured...... with NADH in permeabilized mitochondria. State 3 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex by 39 and 41% (P electron transport chain activity, respectively. State 3 respiration with Pyr was not changed (P > 0.05). State 4 respiration with PC increased Post...

  6. Nutritional considerations for ultraendurance performance.

    Applegate, E A

    1991-06-01

    The nutritional considerations of the ultraendurance athlete center around proper caloric and nutrient intake during training as well as adequate energy and fluid replacement during competition to maintain optimal performance. Energy needs of ultraendurance athletes during training vary widely, depending upon duration, intensity, and type of exercise training. These athletes may train several hours daily, thus risking inadequate caloric intake that can lead to chronic fatigue, weight loss, and impaired physical performance. It is not known whether protein needs are increased in ultraendurance athletes as a result of extended exercise training. Additionally, micronutrient needs may be altered for these athletes while dietary intake is generally over the RDA because of high caloric intake. Prior to competition, ultraendurance athletes should consider glycogen supercompensation and a prerace meal eaten 4 hrs before as a means of improving performance. Carbohydrate feedings during prolonged exercise can significantly affect performance. During events lasting over several hours, sodium sweat losses and/or the consumption of sodium-free fluids may precipitate hyponatremia. PMID:1844990

  7. Acute aerobic exercise reduces 24-h ambulatory blood pressure levels in long-term-treated hypertensive patients

    Emmanuel G. Ciolac

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Even with anti-hypertensive therapy, it is difficult to maintain optimal systemic blood pressure values in hypertensive patients. Exercise may reduce blood pressure in untreated hypertensive, but its effect when combined with long-term anti-hypertensive therapy remains unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the acute effects of a single session of aerobic exercise on the blood pressure of long-term-treated hypertensive patients. METHODS: Fifty treated hypertensive patients (18/32 male/female; 46.5±8.2 years; Body mass index: 27.8±4.7 kg/m² were monitored for 24 h with respect to ambulatory (A blood pressure after an aerobic exercise session (post-exercise and a control period (control in random order. Aerobic exercise consisted of 40 minutes on a cycle-ergometer, with the mean exercise intensity at 60% of the patient's reserve heart rate. RESULTS: Post-exercise ambulatory blood pressure was reduced for 24 h systolic (126±8.6 vs. 123.1±8.7 mmHg, p=0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (81.9±8 vs. 79.8±8.5 mmHg, p=0.004, daytime diastolic blood pressure (85.5±8.5 vs. 83.9±8.8 mmHg, p=0.04, and nighttime S (116.8±9.9 vs. 112.5±9.2 mmHg, p<0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (73.5±8.8 vs. 70.1±8.4 mmHg, p<0.001. Post-exercise daytime systolic blood pressure also tended to be reduced (129.8±9.3 vs. 127.8±9.4 mmHg, p=0.06. These post-exercise decreases in ambulatory blood pressure increased the percentage of patients displaying normal 24h systolic blood pressure (58% vs. 76%, p=0.007, daytime systolic blood pressure (68% vs. 82%, p=0.02, and nighttime diastolic blood pressure (56% vs. 72%, p=0.02. Nighttime systolic blood pressure also tended to increase (58% vs. 80%, p=0.058. CONCLUSION: A single bout of aerobic exercise reduced 24h ambulatory blood pressure levels in long-term-treated hypertensive patients and increased the percentage of patients reaching normal ambulatory blood pressure values. These effects suggest that

  8. Increased fat oxidation and regulation of metabolic genes with ultraendurance exercise

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Rehrer, N J; Pilegaard, H;

    2007-01-01

    gases were sampled during cycling at 25 and 50% peak aerobic power output, venous samples were obtained, and fat mass was estimated by bioimpedance under standardized conditions. RESULTS: After the race fat mass was decreased by 1.6 +/- 0.4 kg (11%; P < 0.01). Respiratory exchange ratio at the 25 and 50...... exercise markedly increases plasma fatty acid availability and fat utilization during exercise. Exercise-induced regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in fatty acid recruitment and oxidation may contribute to these changes....

  9. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment.

    Skelly, Lauren E; Andrews, Patricia C; Gillen, Jenna B; Martin, Brian J; Percival, Michael E; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Subjects performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (END) to evaluate 24-h oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption during HIIT was lower versus END; however, total oxygen consumption over 24 h was similar. These data demonstrate that HIIT and END induce similar 24-h energy expenditure, which may explain the comparable changes in body composition reported despite lower total training volume and time commitment. PMID:24773393

  10. Effect of exhaustive ultra-endurance exercise in muscular glycogen and both Alpha1 and Alpha2 Ampk protein expression in trained rats.

    Tarini, V A F; Carnevali, L C; Arida, R M; Cunha, C A; Alves, E S; Seeleander, M C L; Schmidt, B; Faloppa, F

    2013-09-01

    Glycogen is the main store of readily energy in skeletal muscle and plays a key role in muscle function, demonstrated by the inability to sustain prolonged high-intensity exercise upon depletion of these glycogen stores. With prolonged exercise, glycogen depletion occurs and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a potent regulator of muscle metabolism and gene expression, is activated promoting molecular signalling that increases glucose uptake by muscular skeletal cells. The aim of this study was primarily to determine the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on muscle glycogen reserves and secondly to verify the influence of this type of exercise on AMPK protein expression. Twenty-four male Wistar rats, 60 days old, were divided into four experimental groups: sedentary, sedentary exhausted (SE), endurance trained (T) and endurance trained exhausted (TE). The animals ran for 10 to 90 min/day, 5 days/week, for 12 weeks to attain trained status. Rats were killed immediately after the exhaustion protocol, which consisted of running on a treadmill (at approximately 60% Vmax until exhaustion). Optical density of periodic acid-Schiff was detected and glycogen depletion observed predominantly in type I muscle fibres of the TE group and in both type I and II muscle fibres in the SE group. Plasma glucose decreased only in the TE group. Hepatic glycogen was increased in T group and significantly depleted in TE group. AMPK protein expression was significantly elevated in TE and T groups. In conclusion, acute exhaustive ultra-endurance exercise promoted muscle glycogen depletion. It seems that total AMPK protein and gene expression is more influenced by status training. PMID:23184732

  11. Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing.

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Nordin, Marie; Mikael Mattsson, C; Enqvist, Jonas K; Blomstrand, Eva; Ekblom, Björn

    2012-10-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 × each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13, 14 and 19% (P exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r (2) = 0.73, P exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise. PMID:22350359

  12. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  13. The 24-h Energy Intake of Obese Adolescents Is Spontaneously Reduced after Intensive Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Calorimetric Chambers

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Montaurier, Christophe; Boirie, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical exercise can modify subsequent energy intake and appetite and may thus be of particular interest in terms of obesity treatment. However, it is still unclear whether an intensive bout of exercise can affect the energy consumption of obese children and adolescents. Objective To compare the impact of high vs. moderate intensity exercises on subsequent 24-h energy intake, macronutrient preferences, appetite sensations, energy expenditure and balance in obese adolescent. Design This randomized cross-over trial involves 15 obese adolescent boys who were asked to randomly complete three 24-h sessions in a metabolic chamber, each separated by at least 7 days: (1) sedentary (SED); (2) Low-Intensity Exercise (LIE) (40% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max); (3) High-Intensity Exercise (HIE) (75%VO2max). Results Despite unchanged appetite sensations, 24-h total energy intake following HIE was 6–11% lower compared to LIE and SED (p<0.05), whereas no differences appeared between SED and LIE. Energy intake at lunch was 9.4% and 8.4% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.05). At dinner time, it was 20.5% and 19.7% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.01). 24-h energy expenditure was not significantly altered. Thus, the 24-h energy balance was significantly reduced during HIE compared to SED and LIE (p<0.01), whereas those of SED and LIE did not differ. Conclusions In obese adolescent boys, HIE has a beneficial impact on 24-h energy balance, mainly due to the spontaneous decrease in energy intake during lunch and dinner following the exercise bout. Prescribing high-intensity exercises to promote weight loss may therefore provide effective results without affecting appetite sensations and, as a result, food frustrations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01036360 PMID:22272251

  14. Observed Dietary Practices of Recreational Ultraendurance Cyclists in the Heat.

    Kunces, Laura J; Johnson, Evan C; Munoz, Colleen X; Hydren, Jay R; Huggins, Robert A; Judelson, Daniel A; Ganio, Mathew S; Vingren, Jakob L; Volek, Jeff S; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2016-06-01

    Kunces, LJ, Johnson, EC, Munoz, CX, Hydren, JR, Huggins, RA, Judelson, DA, Ganio, MS, Vingren, JL, Volek, JS, and Armstrong, LE. Observed dietary practices of recreational ultraendurance cyclists in the heat. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1607-1612, 2016-Dietary approaches for optimizing exercise performance have been debated in the literature for years. For endurance athletes, various position stands focus on recommendations for high-carbohydrate diets to maximize performance in events. However, theories of low-carbohydrate diets and their ability to provide more fuel may prove beneficial to ultraendurance athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to observe the food and fluid consumption of successful recreational ultraendurance cyclists on the day before (ED-1), Event Day, and the day after (ED+1), a 162 km endurance event in a hot environment, and subsequently compare dietary intakes to recommendations and other observed dietary practices. Twenty men (age, 48 ± 8 years; mass, 85.1 ± 13.4 kg; height, 178.2 ± 7.4 cm) recorded all dietary items during ED-1, Event Day, and ED+1. Diet composition and the relationships between carbohydrate and caloric intake with finish time were examined. Results show athletes consumed a high-carbohydrate diet on ED-1 (384 g·d), Event Day (657 g·d), and ED+1 (329 g·d). However, there were no significant associations between carbohydrate (p > 0.05), or caloric intake (p > 0.05), and finish time. This study results great variation in diets of recreational endurance cyclists, although most consume within nationally recognized dietary recommendation ranges. Because there is great variation and lack of correlation with performance, these findings suggest that current high-carbohydrate dietary recommendations for general endurance athletes may not be sport specific or individualized enough for recreational ultraendurance cyclists, and that individualized dietary macronutrient composition manipulations may improve

  15. Predictors of sudden death and death from pump failure in congestive heart failure are different. Analysis of 24 h Holter monitoring, clinical variables, blood chemistry, exercise test and radionuclide angiography

    Madsen, B K; Rasmussen, Verner; Hansen, J F

    1997-01-01

    One hundred and ninety consecutive patients discharged with congestive heart failure were examined with clinical evaluation, blood chemistry, 24 h Holter monitoring, exercise test and radionuclide angiography. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.30, 46% were in New York Heart Associat......One hundred and ninety consecutive patients discharged with congestive heart failure were examined with clinical evaluation, blood chemistry, 24 h Holter monitoring, exercise test and radionuclide angiography. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.30, 46% were in New York Heart...... Association class II and 44% in III. Total mortality after 1 year was 21%, after 2 years 32%. Of 60 deaths, 33% were sudden and 49% due to pump failure. Multivariate analyses identified totally different risk factors for sudden death: ventricular tachycardia, s-sodium < or = 137 mmol/l, s-magnesium < or = 0.......80 mmol/l, s-creatinine > 121 mumol/l, and maximal change in heart rate during exercise < or = 35 min-1, and for death from progressive pump failure: New York Heart Association class III + IV, delta heart rate over 24 h < or = 50 min-1, low ejection fraction, high resting p-noradrenaline, s-urea > 7...

  16. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and ultra-endurance running - two incompatible entities?

    Wilson Mathew G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regular and prolonged exercise is associated with increased left ventricular wall thickness that can overlap with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. Differentiating physiological from pathological hypertrophy has important implications, since HCM is the commonest cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death in young individuals. Most deaths have been reported in intermittent 'start-stop' sports such as football (soccer and basketball. The theory is that individuals with HCM are unable to augment stroke volume sufficiently to meet the demands of endurance sports and are accordingly 'selected-out' of participation in such events. We report the case of an ultra-endurance athlete with 25 years of > 50 km competitive running experience, with genetically confirmed HCM; thereby demonstrating that these can be two compatible entities.

  17. Efeito do exercício de ultrarresistência sobre parâmetros de estresse oxidativo Effect of the ultra-endurance exercise on oxidative stress parameters

    Cláudia Dornelles Schneider

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Exercícios de longa duração podem levar ao desequilíbrio entre os sistemas pró e antioxidante, acarretando dano a lipídeos, proteínas e DNA. Entretanto, alguns estudos avaliando triatlo Ironman observaram proteção aos lipídeos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar parâmetros de estresse oxidativo após uma competição de meio Ironman. MÉTODOS: Participaram 11 sujeitos com idade de 31,1 ± 3,3 anos, massa corporal de 72,4 ± 5,4kg, estatura de 176,2 ± 4,8cm, gordura corporal de 9,8 ± 3,3 %, VO2máx na corrida de 60,7 ± 6,0mL/kg/min. Foram mensurados: dano a lipídeos através da quimiluminescência nos eritrócitos e TBARS no plasma, dano a proteínas através das carbonilas plasmáticas, ácido úrico e compostos fenólicos plasmáticos, assim como a atividade antioxidante enzimática da catalase, superóxido dismutase e glutationa peroxidase nos eritrócitos. RESULTADOS: Houve redução na atividade da enzima superóxido dismutase (23,24 ± 1,49 para 20,77 ± 2,69U SOD/mg proteína, p = 0,045, e aumento no ácido úrico (40,81 ± 10,68 para 60,33 ± 6,71mg/L, p Ultra-endurance exercises can cause imbalance between the pro and antioxidant systems, leading to lipid, protein and DNA damage. Nevertheless, some studies evaluating Ironman triathlon found protection to lipids. PURPOSE: To evaluate oxidative stress parameters after a half-Ironman competition. METHODS: Eleven subjects aged 31.1 ± 3.3 yr, body weight 72.4 ± 5.4 kg, height 176.2 ± 4.8 cm, body fat 9.8 ± 3.3 %, VO2máx on run 60.7 ± 6.0 mL/kg/min, participated in this study. The following data were measured: lipid damage by chemoluminescence in erythrocyte and TBARS in plasma, protein damage by plasmatic carbonyls, uric acid and phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant enzymatic activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes. RESULTS: Reduction in superoxide dismutase (23.24 ± 1.49 to 20.77 ± 2.69 U SOD/mg protein, p = 0

  18. A influência da suplementação de triglicerídeos de cadeia média no desempenho em exercícios de ultra-resistência Influencia de la suplementacion de trigliceridos de cadena media en ejercicios de máxima resistencia The influence of medium-chain triglycerides supplementation in ultra-endurance exercise performance

    Antonio Marcio Domingues Ferreira

    2003-11-01

    ípidos, otorgan una cantidad de energía mayor cuando son oxidados. De esta forma, los TCM parecen ser el combustible ideal para las pruebas de larga duración. Por lo tanto, esta revisión pretende como objetivo aclarar como los TCM pueden influir en el desempeño en pruebas de máxima resistencia.The ultra-endurance competitions represent a great challenge in the world of sports. The energetic cost of an ultra-endurance event can vary from 5,000 to 18,000 kcal a day. Because of this great demand, many strategies to improve performance have been developed during the last years, like the medium-chain triglycerides (MCT supplementation in combination with carbohydrates (CBO. The goal of MCT supplementation is to increase the free fatty acids (FFA utilization as energy source, sparing the body glycogen to the end of the competition. When compared to long-chain triglycerides (LCT, MCT are absorbed faster and transported through the body. Besides that, MCT have a speed of oxidation comparable to CHO, but, since they are lipids, they provide a greater amount of energy when oxidized. Therefore, MCT seem to be the ideal fuel for long-term events. To conclude, the aim of this revision is to elucidate how MCT can influence performance in ultra-endurance exercises.

  19. Energy Balance of Triathletes during an Ultra-Endurance Event

    Anna Barrero; Pau Erola; Raúl Bescós

    2014-01-01

    The nutritional strategy during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET) is one of the main concerns of athletes competing in such events. The purpose of this study is to provide a proper characterization of the energy and fluid intake during real competition in male triathletes during a complete UET and to estimate the energy expenditure (EE) and the fluid balance through the race. Methods: Eleven triathletes performed a UET. All food and drinks ingested during the race were weighed and recorded i...

  20. Energy balance, macronutrient intake, and hydration status during a 1,230 km ultra-endurance bike marathon.

    Geesmann, Bjoern; Mester, Joachim; Koehler, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hr. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, and 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hr after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/hr) decreased significantly after km 618 (p Hydration appeared suboptimal before the start (urine specific gravity: 1.022 ± 0.010 g/ml) but did not change significantly throughout the event. The results show that participants failed to maintain in energy balance and that CHO and fluid intake dropped below recommended values during the second half of the bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise. PMID:24668685

  1. Ultraendurance cycling in a hot environment: thirst, fluid consumption, and water balance.

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Ellis, Lindsay A; Williamson, Keith H

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this field investigation was to identify and clarify factors that may be used by strength and conditioning professionals to help athletes drink adequately but not excessively during endurance exercise. A universal method to accomplish this goal does not exist because the components of water balance (i.e., sweat rate, fluid consumed) are different for each athlete and endurance events differ greatly. Twenty-six male cyclists (mean ± SD; age, 41 ± 8 years; height, 177 ± 7 cm; body mass, 81.85 ± 8.95 kg) completed a summer 164-km road cycling event in 7.0 ± 2.1 hours (range, 4.5-10.4 hours). Thirst ratings, fluid consumed, indices of hydration status, and body water balance (ingested fluid volume - [urine excreted + sweat loss]) were the primary outcome variables. Measurements were taken before the event, at designated aid stations on the course (52, 97, and 136 km), and at the finish line. Body water balance during exercise was not significantly correlated with exercise time on the course, height, body mass, or body mass index. Thirst ratings were not significantly correlated with any variable. We also observed a wide range of total sweat losses (4.9-12.7 L) and total fluid intakes (2.1-10.5 L) during this ultraendurance event. Therefore, we recommend that strength and conditioning professionals develop an individualized drinking plan for each athlete, by calculating sweat rate (milliliter per hour) on the basis of body mass change (in kilograms), during field simulations of competition. PMID:25559907

  2. [Nutritional behaviours in ultra-endurance runners--Deutschlandlauf 2006].

    Knechtle, B; Schulze, I

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the nutritional habits of ultra-endurance runners before, during and after the Deutschlandlauf 2006 in Germany, from the north (Kap Arkona-Rügen) to the south (Lörrach), over 1,200 km and 17 stages. Twenty male ultra-runners completed a questionnaire about their nutrition before, during and after the race. In the 4 weeks, and the day before the race, 70% of the runners followed no special diet. In the morning before the start of a stage, the main nutrients were buns with jam, butter and cheese and the preferred drink was coffee. During the stages, the athletes preferred to consume bread, bananas and chocolate and preferably drank pure water, Apfelschorle and Coca Cola. In the evening, the athletes preferred to consume meat, noodles, pure water and beer. During the run, 40% of the athletes had a special desire for salty and fatty food and 10% a particular reluctance for sweet and carbohydrate-rich products. After the race, the runners preferred apples, vegetables, rice, bread, pure water, Apfelschorle and beer. Multi-vitamin products, multi-mineral products as well as magnesium were the preferred supplements before, during and after the race. We conclude that 70% of the ultra-endurance runners in the Deutschlandlauf 2006 followed no special diet before the race. Multi-vitamins, multi-minerals and magnesium were preferably consumed as ergogenic supplements. Before the start of a stage they ate a normal breakfast; during a stage they preferred carbohydrate-rich products and water; and in the evening after a stage they preferred to consume meat with a carbohydrate-rich nutrition and drank water as well as beer. PMID:18548806

  3. Changes in biochemical, strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity parameters after a 1700km ultraendurance cycling race

    Vicente Javier Clemente-Suarez

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to study the organic response after ultraendurance cycling race. Selected biochemical, leg strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity parameters were analyzed in 6 subjects 5 days before and 5 days after completing a 1700 km ultraendurance cycling race. After the race, participants presented a significant decrease in Hb (167.8 ± 9.5 versus 141.6 ± 15.7 mg/dL), strength (29.4 ± 2.7 versus 25.5 ± 3.7 cm in a countermovement jump), and oxygen upt...

  4. Energy Balance of Triathletes during an Ultra-Endurance Event

    Anna Barrero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional strategy during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET is one of the main concerns of athletes competing in such events. The purpose of this study is to provide a proper characterization of the energy and fluid intake during real competition in male triathletes during a complete UET and to estimate the energy expenditure (EE and the fluid balance through the race. Methods: Eleven triathletes performed a UET. All food and drinks ingested during the race were weighed and recorded in order to assess the energy intake (EI during the race. The EE was estimated from heart rate (HR recordings during the race, using the individual HR-oxygen uptake (Vo2 regressions developed from three incremental tests on the 50-m swimming pool, cycle ergometer, and running treadmill. Additionally, body mass (BM, total body water (TBW and intracellular (ICW and extracellular water (ECW were assessed before and after the race using a multifrequency bioimpedance device (BIA. Results: Mean competition time and HR was 755 ± 69 min and 137 ± 6 beats/min, respectively. Mean EI was 3643 ± 1219 kcal and the estimated EE was 11,009 ± 664 kcal. Consequently, athletes showed an energy deficit of 7365 ± 1286 kcal (66.9% ± 11.7%. BM decreased significantly after the race and significant losses of TBW were found. Such losses were more related to a reduction of extracellular fluids than intracellular fluids. Conclusions: Our results confirm the high energy demands of UET races, which are not compensated by nutrient and fluid intake, resulting in a large energy deficit.

  5. Exercises

    ... Physical Therapist View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercise An exercise program is another very important step ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  6. Cognitive coping strategies and motivational profiles of ultra-endurance athletes

    Weekes, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Mental skills have been shown to be effective in helping endurance athletes cope with the challenges of their sport. The purpose of this research was to examine ultraendurance triathlete’s cognitive coping strategies, while also exploring their motivational profiles. Using a phenomenological qualitative research methodology, guided by a grounded theoretical approach, 10 elite deca-ironmen, 8 male and 2 female, took part in interviews and completed two questionnaires, Motivations of Marath...

  7. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and ultra-endurance running - two incompatible entities?

    Wilson Mathew G; Chandra Navin; Papadakis Michael; O'Hanlon Rory; Prasad Sanjay K; Sharma Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Regular and prolonged exercise is associated with increased left ventricular wall thickness that can overlap with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Differentiating physiological from pathological hypertrophy has important implications, since HCM is the commonest cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death in young individuals. Most deaths have been reported in intermittent 'start-stop' sports such as football (soccer) and basketball. The theory is that individuals with HCM are un...

  8. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, Penergy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  9. Exercise

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  10. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  11. Taste of a 24-h diet and its effect on subsequent food preferences and satiety

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Mars, M.; Finlayson, G.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of taste of a 24-h diet on subsequent food preferences (food choice and intake of specific food categories) and satiety. We used a crossover design, consisting of a 24-h fully controlled dietary intervention, during which 39 healthy subjects

  12. 24-h blood pressure in Space: The dark side of being an astronaut

    J.M. Karemaker; J. Berecki-Gisolf

    2009-01-01

    Inflight 24-h profiles of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded in 2 ESA-astronauts by automatic upper arm cuff measurements. In one astronaut this was combined with Portapres (TM) continuous finger blood pressure recordings. It was the intention to contrast the latter to 24-h record

  13. Evidence from neuroimaging to explore brain plasticity in humans during an ultra-endurance burden

    Perrey Stéphane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical activity, likely through induction of neuroplasticity, is a promising intervention to promote brain health. In athletes it is clear that training can and does, by physiological adaptations, extend the frontiers of performance capacity. The limits of our endurance capacity lie deeply in the human brain, determined by various personal factors yet to be explored. The human brain, with its vast neural connections and its potential for seemingly endless behaviors, constitutes one of the final frontiers of medicine. In a recent study published in BMC Medicine, the TransEurope FootRace Project followed 10 ultra-endurance runners over around 4,500 km across Europe and recorded a large data collection of brain imaging scans. This study indicates that the cerebral atrophy amounting to a reduction of approximately 6% throughout the two months of the race is reversed upon follow-up. While this study will contribute to advances in the limits of human performance on the neurophysiological processes in sports scientists, it will also bring important understanding to clinicians about cerebral atrophy in people who are vulnerable to physical and psychological stress long term. See related research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/170

  14. Feeding strategies of a female athlete during an ultraendurance running event.

    Moran, Siobhan T; Dziedzic, Christine E; Cox, Gregory R

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this case study was to describe the race nutrition practices of a female runner who completed her first 100-km off-road ultraendurance running event in 12 hr 48 min 55 s. Food and fluid intake during the race provided 10,890 kJ (736 kJ/hr) and 6,150 ml (415 ml/hr) of fluid. Hourly reported carbohydrate intake was 44 g, with 34% provided by sports drink. Hourly carbohydrate intake increased in the second half (53 g/hr) compared with the first half (34 g/h) of the race, as the athlete did not have access to individualized food and fluid choices at the early checkpoints and felt satiated in the early stages of the race after consuming a prerace breakfast. Mean sodium intake was 500 mg/hr (52 mmol/L), with a homemade savory broth and sports drink (Gatorade Endurance) being the major contributors. The athlete consumed a variety of foods of varying textures and tastes with no complaints of gastrointestinal discomfort. Despite thinking she would consume sweet foods exclusively, as she had done in training, the athlete preferred savory foods and fluids at checkpoints during the latter stages of the race. This case study highlights the importance of the sports nutrition team in educating athletes about race-day nutrition strategies and devising a simple yet effective system to allow them to manipulate their race-day food and fluid intake to meet their nutritional goals. PMID:21813918

  15. Vitamins, minerals and race performance in ultra-endurance runners--Deutschlandlauf 2006.

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Schulze, Ingo; Kohler, Götz

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of pre-race intake of vitamins and minerals, in the form of supplementation, before a multi-stage ultra-endurance run and their effect on race performance. At the Deutschlandlauf 2006 in Germany, where athletes had to run across Germany from the north (Kap Arkona-Rügen) to the south (Lörrach) over 1,200 km within 17 consecutive stages, twenty male ultra runners (46.2+/-9.6 years, 71.8+/-5.2 kg, 179+/-6 cm, BMI 22.5+/-1.9 kg/m2) completed a questionnaire about their intake of vitamin and mineral supplements in the four weeks before the race. Race performance of athletes with- and athletes without regular intake of these supplements were compared. In the four weeks before the run, nine runners (45%) ingested vitamin- and twelve athletes (60%) mineral supplements. Athletes with an intake of vitamins (152.8+/-14.1 h versus 160.6+/-14.6 h, p>0.05) and minerals (151.6+/-14.5 h versus 165.3+/-10.8 h, p>0.05) finished the race no faster than athletes without an intake of vitamins and minerals. We concluded that in the Deutschlandlauf 2006 of over 1,200 km within 17 consecutive stages, athletes with a regular intake of vitamin and mineral supplements in the four weeks before the race finished the competition no faster than athletes without an intake of vitamins and minerals. PMID:18586636

  16. Immunohistochemical detection of interleukin-6 in human skeletal muscle fibers following exercise

    Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Charlotte; Keller, Pernille; Jauffred, Sune; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2003-01-01

    tissue from biopsies obtained at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to 3 h of bicycle exercise performed by healthy young males (n=12) and in resting controls (n=6). The IL-6 expression was clearly increased after exercise and remained high even by 24 h, relative to pre-exercise or resting...

  17. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    Kerr, Deborah A; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; ...

  18. Age and gender difference in non-drafting ultra-endurance cycling performance - the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon'

    Zingg, Matthias; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph,; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    International audience BackgroundIn recent years, there was an increased interest in investigating the gender difference in performance and the age of peak performance in ultra-endurance performances such as ultra-triathlon, ultra-running, and ultra-swimming, but not in ultra-cycling. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gender difference in ultra-cycling performance and the age of peak ultra-cycling performance in the 720-km 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', the largest European qualif...

  19. Respondents' evaluation of the 24-h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft) in the EFCOVAL Project

    Huybrechts, I.; Geelen, A.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.; Keyzer, de W.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Ruprich, J.; Lafay, L.; Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C.; Niekerk, E.M.; Margaritis, I.; Rehurkova, I.; Crispim, S.P.; Freisling, H.; Henauw, de S.; Slimani, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To improve participation rate, accuracy and respondents’ compliance, it is important to know the respondents’ viewpoint. Objective: To evaluate respondents’ preferences and perception about the EPIC-Soft (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Pr

  20. Qualitative Analysis of Diagnostic Value of 24-h Proteinuria for Preeclampsia

    Xu Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia (PE is a serious idiopathic disease posing a threat to both mothers and fetuses′ lives during pregnancy, whose main diagnostic criteria include hypertension with proteinuria. However, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG updated the diagnostic criteria for PE and reduced the diagnostic value of proteinuria for patients with PE. Qualitative analysis of the diagnostic value of 24-h proteinuria for patients with PE in China was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic criteria value in the latest ACOG guideline. Methods: Complete clinical data of 65 patients with hypertensive disorder in pregnancy (HDP were collected. All patients were delivered to and hospitalized in Renji Hospital. Adverse outcome was defined in case of the emergence of any serious complication for a mother or the fetus. A retrospective study was conducted according to ACOG guideline, to analyze the relationship between each diagnostic criteria of ACOG guideline and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Spearman correlation test was used to detect the association between each diagnostic criterion, its corresponding value, and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Logistic regression was performed to verify the result of Spearman correlation test. Results: Of 65 HDP patients, the percentage of adverse pregnancy outcome was 63.1%. Adverse pregnancy outcomes constitute diversification. There were 55 cases with 24-h proteinuria value ≥0.3 g, of which the adverse outcome rate was 74.5%. While adverse pregnancy outcomes did not appear in the rest 10 HDP patients with proteinuria <0.3 g/24 h. The statistic difference was significant (P = 0.000. However, no significant difference was found in other criteria groups (impaired liver function: P = 0.417; renal insufficiency: P = 0.194; thrombocytopenia: P = 0.079; and cerebral or visual symptoms: P = 0.296. The correlation coefficient between 24-h proteinuria ≥0.3 g and adverse pregnancy outcomes was 0

  1. A "second window of protection" occurs 24 h after ischemic preconditioning in the rat heart.

    Yamashita, N; Hoshida, S; Taniguchi, N; Kuzuya, T; Hori, M

    1998-06-01

    We and others found that cardioprotection is acquired not only soon after, but also 24 h after ischemic preconditioning in canine and rabbit myocardial infarction models (second window of protection). However, a second window phenomenon against myocardial infarction was dependent on species limitations and has not been observed in porcine hearts. In this study, we examined whether the "second window of protection" against myocardial infarction is observed in the rat heart. In the ischemic preconditioning (IP) group, the left main coronary artery (LCA) of rats was occluded four times for 3 min. each separated by reperfusion for 10 min. After 0, 3, and 24 h, the rats were subjected to a 20-min LCA occlusion followed by 48-h reperfusion. At 0 and 24 h after IP, infarct size and the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during ischemia were significantly reduced compared with corresponding sham-operated groups without preconditioning. After 3 h of IP, there were no differences either in the incidence of VF during ischemia or in infarct size. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) content in ischemic (LCA) region of myocardium significantly increased as compared with that of sham-operated rats 24 h after IP. Treatment with N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine, an antioxidant and a hydroxyl radical scavenger, during IP abolished the early-phase (0 h after IP) and late-phase (24 h after IP) cardioprotection and the corresponding late increase in Mn-SOD content. These results indicate that a "second window of protection" against myocardial infarction also exists in rat hearts and the induction of an intrinsic scavenger, Mn-SOD, via free radical production during IP may be important in the second window of protection. PMID:9689592

  2. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data.In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample.The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women.In this nationwide

  3. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... regular exercise. Exercise also helps people with high blood pressure, balance problems, or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, the exercise and physical ...

  4. Dietary protein distribution positively influences 24-h muscle protein synthesis in healthy adults.

    Mamerow, Madonna M; Mettler, Joni A; English, Kirk L; Casperson, Shanon L; Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Layman, Donald K; Paddon-Jones, Douglas

    2014-06-01

    The RDA for protein describes the quantity that should be consumed daily to meet population needs and to prevent deficiency. Protein consumption in many countries exceeds the RDA; however, intake is often skewed toward the evening meal, whereas breakfast is typically carbohydrate rich and low in protein. We examined the effects of protein distribution on 24-h skeletal muscle protein synthesis in healthy adult men and women (n = 8; age: 36.9 ± 3.1 y; BMI: 25.7 ± 0.8 kg/m2). By using a 7-d crossover feeding design with a 30-d washout period, we measured changes in muscle protein synthesis in response to isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets with protein at breakfast, lunch, and dinner distributed evenly (EVEN; 31.5 ± 1.3, 29.9 ± 1.6, and 32.7 ± 1.6 g protein, respectively) or skewed (SKEW; 10.7 ± 0.8, 16.0 ± 0.5, and 63.4 ± 3.7 g protein, respectively). Over 24-h periods on days 1 and 7, venous blood samples and vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples were obtained during primed (2.0 μmol/kg) constant infusion [0.06 μmol/(kg⋅min)] of l-[ring-(13)C6]phenylalanine. The 24-h mixed muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was 25% higher in the EVEN (0.075 ± 0.006%/h) vs. the SKEW (0.056 ± 0.006%/h) protein distribution groups (P = 0.003). This pattern was maintained after 7 d of habituation to each diet (EVEN vs. SKEW: 0.077 ± 0.006 vs. 0.056 ± 0.006%/h; P = 0.001). The consumption of a moderate amount of protein at each meal stimulated 24-h muscle protein synthesis more effectively than skewing protein intake toward the evening meal. PMID:24477298

  5. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners. Twenty cleaners participated in three 24-h measurements. Amount of steps, heart rate (HR), cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were...... measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR......). The cleaners had a low estimated cardio-respiratory fitness (34 mlO2/kg/min), a high BMI (50%, >25 kg/m(2)) and blood pressure (50%, >120/>80 mmHg). The high amount of steps, the relatively high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness illustrate the need for further investigation...

  6. Qualitative Analysis of Diagnostic Value of 24-h Proteinuria for Preeclampsia

    Xu Zhuang; Yun-Yan Chen; Qiong Zhou; Jian-Hua Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious idiopathic disease posing a threat to both mothers and fetuses' lives during pregnancy, whose main diagnostic criteria include hypertension with proteinuria.However, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) updated the diagnostic criteria for PE and reduced the diagnostic value of proteinuria for patients with PE.Qualitative analysis of the diagnostic value of 24-h proteinuria for patients with PE in China was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic criteria value in the latest ACOG guideline.Methods: Complete clinical data of 65 patients with hypertensive disorder in pregnancy (HDP) were collected.All patients were delivered to and hospitalized in Renji Hospital.Adverse outcome was defined in case of the emergence of any serious complication for a mother or the fetus.A retrospective study was conducted according to ACOG guideline, to analyze the relationship between each diagnostic criteria of ACOG guideline and maternal and perinatal outcomes.Spearman correlation test was used to detect the association between each diagnostic criterion, its corresponding value, and the adverse pregnancy outcome.Logistic regression was performed to verify the result of Spearman correlation test.Results: Of 65 HDP patients, the percentage of adverse pregnancy outcome was 63.1%.Adverse pregnancy outcomes constitute diversification.There were 55 cases with 24-h proteinuria value ≥0.3 g, of which the adverse outcome rate was 74.5%.While adverse pregnancy outcomes did not appear in the rest 10 HDP patients with proteinuria <0.3 g/24 h.The statistic difference was significant (P =0.000).However, no significant difference was found in other criteria groups (impaired liver function: P =0.417;renal insufficiency: P =0.194;thrombocytopenia: P =0.079;and cerebral or visual symptoms: P =0.296).The correlation coefficient between 24-h proteinuria ≥0.3 g and adverse pregnancy outcomes was 0.557 (P < 0.005).Impaired liver

  7. Changes in plasma volume and baroreflex function following resistance exercise

    Ploutz, L. L.; Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of change in plasma volume (PV) and baroreflex responses have been reported over 24 h immediately following maximal cycle exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if PV and baroreflex showed similar changes for 24 h after resistance exercise. Eight men were studied on 2 test days, 1 week apart. On 1 day, per cent change (% delta) in PV was estimated at 0,3, and 6 h after resistance exercise using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Baseline PV was measured 24 h after exercise using Evans blue dye. The carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response was measured before, and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h post-exercise. Each subject performed six sets of the bench press and leg press with 10 repetitions per set with a load that induced failure within each set. On a control day, the protocol was used without exercise. Plasma volume did not change during the control day. There was a 20% decrease in PV immediately post-exercise; the recovery of the PV was rapid and complete within 3 h. PV was 20% greater 24 h post-exercise than on the control day. There were no differences in any of the baroreflex measurements. Therefore, it is suggested that PV shifts may occur without altering baroreflex sensitivity.

  8. Identifying waking time in 24-h accelerometry data in adults using an automated algorithm.

    van der Berg, Julianne D; Willems, Paul J B; van der Velde, Jeroen H P M; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Schram, Miranda T; Sep, Simone J S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Bosma, Hans; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Koster, Annemarie

    2016-10-01

    As accelerometers are commonly used for 24-h measurements of daily activity, methods for separating waking from sleeping time are necessary for correct estimations of total daily activity levels accumulated during the waking period. Therefore, an algorithm to determine wake and bed times in 24-h accelerometry data was developed and the agreement of this algorithm with self-report was examined. One hundred seventy-seven participants (aged 40-75 years) of The Maastricht Study who completed a diary and who wore the activPAL3™ 24 h/day, on average 6 consecutive days were included. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated and the Bland-Altman method was used to examine associations between the self-reported and algorithm-calculated waking hours. Mean self-reported waking hours was 15.8 h/day, which was significantly correlated with the algorithm-calculated waking hours (15.8 h/day, ICC = 0.79, P = plot indicated good agreement in waking hours as the mean difference was 0.02 h (95% limits of agreement (LoA) = -1.1 to 1.2 h). The median of the absolute difference was 15.6 min (Q1-Q3 = 7.6-33.2 min), and 71% of absolute differences was less than 30 min. The newly developed automated algorithm to determine wake and bed times was highly associated with self-reported times, and can therefore be used to identify waking time in 24-h accelerometry data in large-scale epidemiological studies. PMID:26837855

  9. Glucocorticoids affect 24 h clock genes expression in human adipose tissue explant cultures.

    Purificación Gómez-Abellán

    Full Text Available AIMS: to examine firstly whether CLOCK exhibits a circadian expression in human visceral (V and subcutaneous (S adipose tissue (AT in vitro as compared with BMAL1 and PER2, and secondly to investigate the possible effect of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (DEX on positive and negative clock genes expression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: VAT and SAT biopsies were obtained from morbid obese women (body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m(2 (n = 6. In order to investigate rhythmic expression pattern of clock genes and the effect of DEX on CLOCK, PER2 and BMAL1 expression, control AT (without DEX and AT explants treated with DEX (2 hours were cultured during 24 h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 10:00 h, 14:00 h, 18:00 h, 22:00 h, 02:00 h and 06:00 h, using qRT-PCR. RESULTS: CLOCK, BMAL1 and PER2 expression exhibited circadian patterns in both VAT and SAT explants that were adjusted to a typical 24 h sinusoidal curve. PER2 expression (negative element was in antiphase with respect to CLOCK and in phase with BMAL1 expression (both positive elements in the SAT (situation not present in VAT. A marked effect of DEX exposure on both positive and negative clock genes expression patterns was observed. Indeed, DEX treatment modified the rhythmicity pattern towards altered patterns with a period lower than 24 hours in all genes and in both tissues. CONCLUSIONS: 24 h patterns in CLOCK and BMAL1 (positive clock elements and PER2 (negative element mRNA levels were observed in human adipose explants. These patterns were altered by dexamethasone exposure.

  10. 24 h continuous observation of sodium layer over Wuhan by lidar

    2007-01-01

    Based on the dual-wavelength lidar we have developed, the 24 h continuous ob- servation has been realized in its sodium channel by using Faraday atomic filter technology and other relevant technologies. This will facilitate the continuous ob- servation of the sodium layer and the relevant upper atmosphere over Wuhan. A result of about 50 h observation indicates that the daytime column density of so- dium layer over Wuhan is slightly increased compared to that during the nighttime, and the characteristics of the sporadic sodium layer occurring during the daytime are compared with that during the nighttime.

  11. Dietary Protein Distribution Positively Influences 24-h Muscle Protein Synthesis in Healthy Adults 1 2 3

    Mamerow, Madonna M.; Mettler, Joni A.; English, Kirk L.; Casperson, Shanon L.; Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Layman, Donald K; Paddon-Jones, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The RDA for protein describes the quantity that should be consumed daily to meet population needs and to prevent deficiency. Protein consumption in many countries exceeds the RDA; however, intake is often skewed toward the evening meal, whereas breakfast is typically carbohydrate rich and low in protein. We examined the effects of protein distribution on 24-h skeletal muscle protein synthesis in healthy adult men and women (n = 8; age: 36.9 ± 3.1 y; BMI: 25.7 ± 0.8 kg/m2). By using a 7-d cros...

  12. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults.

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods-Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka-have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  13. Gastro-oesophageal reflux demonstrated by radiography: a supplement to 24-h pH monitoring

    Madsen, E.; Aksglaede, K.; Jacobsen, N.O.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark)

    2001-09-01

    Purpose: Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is demonstrated by radiography as a supplement to 24-h pH monitoring. Material and Methods: Forty-two patients (mean age 44 years) with suspicion of GOR disease were assessed according to a standard questionnaire. GOR was investigated by 24-h pH-monitoring and by radiography. Oesophageal emptying and the presence of rings or strictures were registered as well. Mucosal biopsies, classified as normal, light oesophagitis, severe oesophagitis, or Barrett's oesophagus, were correlated to age, gender, symptomatology, pH monitoring, and oesophageal emptying. GOR and morphological changes demonstrated by radiography were correlated to pH monitoring and mucosa biopsies. Results: Based on pH monitoring, patients with severe oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus had a significantly higher acid exposure compared to patients with normal mucosa and light oesophagitis, with no difference concerning age, gender, and symptoms. Severe oesophagitis, including Barrett's oesophagus, was found only in patients with a positive test for radiologic GOR. Eleven patients had rings or strictures independent of oesophageal mucosal changes. Conclusion: GOR demonstrated by radiography identified patients where complications could be expected, which was not possible by pH monitoring alone.

  14. Gastro-oesophageal reflux demonstrated by radiography: a supplement to 24-h pH monitoring

    Purpose: Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is demonstrated by radiography as a supplement to 24-h pH monitoring. Material and Methods: Forty-two patients (mean age 44 years) with suspicion of GOR disease were assessed according to a standard questionnaire. GOR was investigated by 24-h pH-monitoring and by radiography. Oesophageal emptying and the presence of rings or strictures were registered as well. Mucosal biopsies, classified as normal, light oesophagitis, severe oesophagitis, or Barrett's oesophagus, were correlated to age, gender, symptomatology, pH monitoring, and oesophageal emptying. GOR and morphological changes demonstrated by radiography were correlated to pH monitoring and mucosa biopsies. Results: Based on pH monitoring, patients with severe oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus had a significantly higher acid exposure compared to patients with normal mucosa and light oesophagitis, with no difference concerning age, gender, and symptoms. Severe oesophagitis, including Barrett's oesophagus, was found only in patients with a positive test for radiologic GOR. Eleven patients had rings or strictures independent of oesophageal mucosal changes. Conclusion: GOR demonstrated by radiography identified patients where complications could be expected, which was not possible by pH monitoring alone

  15. [Assessment of duodenogastric reflux 24h variability in subjects with functional dyspepsia].

    Romanowski, Marek; Chojnacki, Jan; Gil, Jerzy; Piotrowski, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    Symptoms of functional dyspepsia demonstrate significant variability, among others dependently on the time of the day and on consumed meals. The aim of the study was to find out whether duodenogastric reflux is observed in subjects with nonulcer (NUD) and dysmotor dyspepsia (DD) and whether its intensification changes within 24 h. Investigations comprised 25 subjects with NUD and 25 with DD, aged 19-43 years after exclusion of other diseases and H. pylori infection. The gastric content of bilirubin was registered with Bilitec 2000 Synectics Medical. Duodenogastric reflux episodes were observed in both groups but their intensification and 24h dynamics were differentiated. In subjects with DD total reflux index was significantly higher than in those with NUD (mean=18.0+/-9.5% and mean=6.3+/-4.1%; p<0.05). These differences were particularly visible in after meal (mean=21.2+/-7.9% and mean=10.4+/-6.6%; p<0.01) and night time (mean=8.7+/-3.6% and mean=2.9+/-0.9%; p<0.01). The results of the study indicate that bilimetry may be useful in differentiation of the form of dyspepsia and in selection of rational therapy. PMID:15603369

  16. Effects of 24 h ultra-marathon on biochemical and hematological parameters

    Huey-June Wu; Kung-Tung Chen; Bing-Wu Shee; Huan-Cheng Chang; Yi-Jen Huang; Rong-Sen Yang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To analyze detailed changes in hematology and biochemistry tests parameters before and after a longdistance race in ultramarathon runners. METHODS: Blood samples of 11 participants were obtained for standard analysis before, immediately after, two days after and nine days after the 2002 International Ultramarathon 24 h Race and the International Association of Ultrarunners (IAU) Asia 24 h Championship. RESULTS: Total bilirubin (BIL-T), direct bilirubin (BIL-D), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased statistically significantly (P<0.05) the race. Significant declines (P<0.05) in red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) were detected two days and nine days d after the race. 2 d after the race, total protein (TP), concentration of albumin and globulin decreased significantly. While BIL, BIL-D and ALP recovered to their original levels. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) remained unchanged immediately after the race, but it was significantly decreased on the second and ninth days after the race.CONCLUSION: Ultra-marathon running is associated with a wide range of significant changes in hematological parameters, several of which are injury related. To provide appropriate health care and intervention, the man who receives athletes on high frequent training program high intensity training programs must monitor their liver and gallbladder function.

  17. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/d...

  18. X-ray diffraction and calorimetric phase study of a binary paraffin : C23H48-C24H50

    The phase diagram of the binary paraffin system C23H48-C24H50 was determined by calorimetric and X-ray diffraction methods. The present experimental results together with previous work on pure C23H48 and C24H50 paraffins allows to identify all the detected phases. The composition and temperature dependences of the crystalline lattice parameters were also investigated. (Author)

  19. No association of skin-fold thicknesses and training with race performance in male ultra-endurance runners in a 24-hour run

    2011-01-01

    In male high-level long-distance runners over 10,000 m, a positive association between both the front thigh and medial calf skin-fold thickness and running performance has been demonstrated. It is assumed that the thickness of skin-folds of the lower limb is related to training in highly trained runners. We investigated in 22 male ultra-endurance runners in a 24-hour run the relationship between skin-fold thicknesses and race performance. The 22 runners achieved a total of 154 (47) km during ...

  20. Disruption of transitional stages in 24-h blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    Marcelo E Katz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with kidney replacement exhibit disrupted circadian rhythms. Most studies measuring blood pressure use the dipper/non-dipper classification, which does not consider analysis of transitional stages between low and high blood pressure, confidence intervals nor shifts in the time of peak, while assuming subjective onsets of night and day phases. In order to better understand the nature of daily variation of blood pressure in these patients, we analyzed 24h recordings from 41 renal transplant recipients using the non-symmetrical double-logistic fitting assessment which does not assume abruptness nor symmetry in ascending and descending stages of the blood pressure profile, and a cosine best-fitting regression method (Cosinor. Compared with matched controls, double-logistic fitting showed that the times for most of transitional stages (ascending systolic and descending systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure had a wider distribution along the 24 h. The proportion of individuals without daily blood pressure rhythm in the transplanted group was larger only for systolic arterial pressure, and the amplitude showed no significant difference. Furthermore, the transplant recipient group had a less pronounced slope in descending systolic and ascending mean blood pressure. Cosinor analysis confirmed the phase related changes, showing a wider distribution of times of peak (acrophases. We conclude that daily disruptions in renal transplant recipients can be explained not only by absence in diurnal variation, but also in changes in waveform-related parameters of the rhythm, and that distortions in the phase of the rhythm are the most consistent finding for the patients.

  1. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... exercise can improve or maintain some aspects of cognitive function, such as your ability to shift quickly ... Click to watch this video For more on cognitive function and exercise, see "Do Exercise and Physical ...

  2. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  3. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  4. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Learn More Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Videos quiz yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute on Aging ... of the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health ...

  5. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Z > Exercise: Benefits of Exercise: Health Benefits In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life Frequently ... Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National Institute on ...

  6. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... disabilities. In some cases, exercise is an effective treatment for many chronic conditions. For example, studies show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ...

  7. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... of Exercise Videos quiz yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Exercise: How ... to Try Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National ...

  8. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  9. Gonadotropin determination in 24-h-urine by sensitive LH and FSH radioimmunoassays

    Urinary lutropin (LH) and follitropin (FSH) were precipitated with acetone and measured by specific radioimmunoassays. Recovery experiments with special regard to urinary pH values were done by adding 125I-labelled LH and FSH to unprocessed urine. At pH 4.5 68.6% of LH and 66.1% of FSH were recovered. Increasing pH values up to 6.0 resulted in a significant recovery loss of 125I-LH, but not of 125I-FSH. Immunoreactive FSH concentrations decreased significantly 6 and 48 hours after starting storage at room temperature. In healthy males and females there were found mean LH and FSH concentrations in 24-h-urine which were similar to those reported by others: LH: males: 22.6 IU; cycling females: 17.8 IU; postmenopausal females: 49.1 IU; FSH: males 6.0 IU; cycling females: 15.0 IU; postmenopausal females: 48.5 IU. Because of their high sensitivity and practicability. These radioimmunoassays could be clinically useful approaches in assessment of pituitary and gonadal disorders in human subjects. (author)

  10. Combined solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants - An approach to 24h solar electricity?

    Platzer, Werner J.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermal power plants have the advantage of being able to provide dispatchable renewable electricity even when the sun is not shining. Using thermal energy strorage (TES) they may increase the capacity factor (CF) considerably. However in order to increase the operating hours one has to increase both, thermal storage capacity and solar field size, because the additional solar field is needed to charge the storage. This increases investment cost, although levelised electricity cost (LEC) may decrease due to the higher generation. Photovoltaics as a fluctuating source on the other side has arrived at very low generation costs well below 10 ct/kWh even for Central Europe. Aiming at a capacity factor above 70% and at producing dispatchable power it is shown that by a suitable combination of CSP and PV we can arrive at lower costs than by increasing storage and solar field size in CSP plants alone. Although a complete baseload power plant with more than 90% full load hours may not be the most economic choice, power plants approaching a full 24h service in most days of the year seem to be possible at reasonably low tariffs.

  11. Phosphorous passivation of the SiO 2/4H-SiC interface

    Sharma, Y. K.; Ahyi, A. C.; Issacs-Smith, T.; Shen, X.; Pantelides, S. T.; Zhu, X.; Feldman, L. C.; Rozen, J.; Williams, J. R.

    2012-02-01

    We describe experimental and theoretical studies to determine the effects of phosphorous as a passivating agent for the SiO 2/4H-SiC interface. Annealing in a P 2O 5 ambient converts the SiO 2 layer to PSG (phosphosilicate glass) which is known to be a polar material. Higher mobility (approximately twice the value of 30-40 cm 2/V s obtained using nitrogen introduced with an anneal in nitric oxide) and lower threshold voltage are compatible with a lower interface defect density. Trap density, current-voltage and bias-temperature stress (BTS) measurements for MOS capacitors are also discussed. The BTS measurements point to the possibility of an unstable MOSFET threshold voltage caused by PSG polarization charge at the O-S interface. Theoretical considerations suggest that threefold carbon atoms at the interface can be passivated by phosphorous which leads to a lower interface trap density and a higher effective mobility for electrons in the channel. The roles of phosphorous in the passivation of correlated carbon dangling bonds, for SiC counter-doping, for interface band-tail state suppression, for Na-like impurity band formation and for substrate trap passivation are also discussed briefly.

  12. Structure distortion of Zn4O13C24H12 framework (MOF-5)

    Zn4O13C24H12 framework (MOF-5) can occupy either cubic or tetragonal structure. It was recognized that the tetragonal MOF-5 was a distorted cubic MOF-5 caused by filling effect of ZnO or solvent. However, herein, it was found that the ZnO and solvent inside the pores of the framework did not cause the distortion of cubic MOF-5. Furthermore, the distortion is strongly dependent on the solvent vacuumed to dry the framework. If the vacuumed solvent was dimethylformamide (DMF), the crystal structure of MOF-5 was tetragonal. In contrast, if DMF was displaced by CH2Cl2 before the vacuum, the obtained MOF-5 occupied a perfect cubic structure. The thermal decomposition of cubic and tetragonal MOF-5s produced the same products: CO2, benzene, amorphous carbon, and crystal ZnO. However, the thermal decomposition of cubic MOF-5 requires a higher temperature than the tetragonal one, indicating that cubic MOF-5 is more stable than the tetragonal one.

  13. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... watch this video To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  14. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  15. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Ji Hye Huh

    Full Text Available Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans.We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010. The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI and fatty liver index (FLI. BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD.The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P < 0.001. Further, subjects with hepatic fibrosis as assessed by BARD score and FIB-4 in NAFLD patients had higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium values.High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  16. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy young adult Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American subjects.

    Chase, H P; Garg, S K; Icaza, G; Carmain, J A; Walravens, C F; Marshall, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values for adolescent and young adult males and females of Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American descent. One hundred and eighteen healthy subjects (62 females, 56 males) participated, with an ethnic distribution of 50 Anglo, 32 Hispanic, and 36 African-American subjects. All subjects came to the clinic for height, weight, sitting blood pressure (BP), and to begin 24-h ABP monitoring using the SpaceLabs model 90207 automatic noninvasive monitor. The monitor recorded readings every 0.5 h from 06:00 to 22:00 and every hour at night from 22:00 to 06:00. Office systolic and diastolic BP values were higher for all males compared to all females. Mean 24-h, nighttime, and daytime systolic ABP values were also significantly higher for males compared to females. The 24-h mean and daytime systolic ABP values were significantly different by ethnic groups. The African-American subjects always had the highest readings. Mean 24-h diastolic ABP was also significantly different by ethnic groups, with the African-American subjects being higher than the Anglos or the Hispanics. Diastolic ABP (24-h mean, daytime, and nighttime) values (for all subjects combined) increased gradually and varied significantly with age. This study provides preliminary normative data about ABP in an understudied population (ie, teenagers and young adults of different ethnic backgrounds). It also shows that higher blood pressures are present among males and among subjects of African-American descent in the teenage and young adult population. PMID:9008244

  17. Design aspects of 24 h recall assesments may affect the estimates of protein and potassium intake in dietary surveys

    Crispim, S.P.; Geelen, A.; Siebelink, E.; Huybrechts, I.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of different modes of administration (face-to-face v. telephone), recall days (first v. second), clays of the week (weekday v. weekend) and interview clays (1 d later v. 2 d later) on bias in protein and K intakes collected with 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR). Design

  18. Evaluation of a method for determination of the subcutaneous blood flow in the forefoot continuously over 24 h

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented which allows for continuous registration of forefoot blood flow over 24 h. Blood flow was estimated by the radioactive Xenon washout method and a portable CdTe detector system was used to measure the tracer disappearance rate. Since the semiconductor detector is placed very...

  19. Sleep and 24-h activity rhythms in relation to cortisol change after a very low-dose of dexamethasone

    Luik, Annemarie I; Direk, Neşe; Zuurbier, Lisette A; Hofman, Albert; Van Someren, Eus J W; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important role in sleep. Nevertheless, the association of sleep and its 24-h organization with negative feedback control of the HPA axis has received limited attention in population-based studies. We explored this association in 493 middle-aged

  20. [Use of customer relationship management to improve healthcare for citizens. The 24h Andalusian Health Service: Healthline].

    Quero, Manuel; Ramos, María Belén; López, Wilfredo; Cubillas, Juan José; González, José María; Castillo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Salud Responde (in English: Healthline) is a Health Service and Information Centre of the taxpayer-funded Andalusian Health System (AHS) that offers a Telephone Health Advisory Service called SA24h, among other services. The main objective of SA24h is to inform and advise citizens on health issues and the available health resources of the AHS. SA24h has a Customer Relationship Management information technology tool that organises information at various levels of specialization. Depending on the difficulty of the query, the citizen is attended by professionals with distinct profiles, providing a consensual response within the professionals working within Salud Responde or within other healthcare levels of the AHS. SA24h provided responses to 757,168 patient queries from late 2008 to the end of 01/12/2015. A total of 9.38% of the consultations were resolved by the non-health professionals working at Salud Responde. The remaining 84.07% were resolved by health staff. A total of 6.5% of users were referred to accident and emergency facilities while 88.77% did not need to attend their general practitioner within the next 24hours, thus avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities. PMID:26900101

  1. The standardized computerized 24-h dietary recall method EPIC-Soft adapted for pan-European dietary monitoring

    Slimani, N.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.; Freisling, H.; Huybrechts, I.; Ocke, M.C.; Niekerk, E.M.; Rossum, van C.; Bellemans, M.; Maeyer, de M.; Lafay, L.; Krems, C.; Amiano, P.; Trolle, E.; Geelen, A.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Boer, de E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The EPIC-Soft program (the software initially developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) was recommended as the best way to standardize 24-HDRs for future pan-European dietary monitoring

  2. Temporal variability in urinary excretion of bisphenol A and seven other phenols in spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2013-01-01

    bisphenol A (BPA) and seven other phenols. All analytes were determined using TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. Two spot, three first morning and three 24-h urine samples were collected from 33 young Danish men over a three months period. Temporal variability was estimated by means of intraclass correlation coefficients...

  3. Validation of Tikhonov adaptively regularized gamma variate fitting with 24-h plasma clearance in cirrhotic patients with ascites

    Wesolowski, Carl Adam [Memorial University of Newfoundland, Radiology, St. John' s, NL (Canada); General Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada); Ling, Lin [Memorial University of Newfoundland, Radiology, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Xirouchakis, Elias; Giamalis, Ioannis G.; Burroughs, Andrew K. [Royal Free Hospital, The Royal Free Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre, London (United Kingdom); Burniston, Maria T. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, London (United Kingdom); Puetter, Richard C. [University of California, San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, La Jolla, CA (United States); Babyn, Paul S. [University of Saskatchewan, Radiology, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    The aim was to compare late-time extrapolation of plasma clearance (CL) from Tikhonov adaptively regularized gamma variate fitting (Tk-GV) and from mono-exponential (E1) fitting. Ten {sup 51}Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid bolus IV studies in adults - 8 with ascites - assessed for liver transplantation, with 12-16 plasma samples drawn from 5-min to 24-h, were fit with Tk-GV and E1 models and CL results were compared using Passing-Bablok fitting. The 24-h CL(Tk-GV) values ranged from 11.4 to 79.7 ml/min. Linear regression of 4- versus 24-h CL(Tk-GV) yielded no significant departure from a slope of 1, whereas the 4- versus 24-h CL(E1) slope, 1.56, was significantly increased. For CL(Tk-GV-24-h) versus CL(E1-24-h), there was a biased slope and intercept (0.85, 5.97 ml/min). Moreover, the quality of fitting of 24-h data was significantly better for Tk-GV than for E1, as follows. For 10 logarithm of concentration curves, higher r values were obtained for each Tk-GV fit (median 0.998) than for its corresponding E1 fit (median 0.965), with p < 0.0001 (paired t-test of z-statistics from Fisher r-z transformations). The E1 fit quality degraded with increasing V/W [volume of distribution (l) per kg body weight, p=0.003]. However, Tk-GV fit quality versus V/W was uncorrelated (p=0.8). CL(E1) values were dependent on sample time and the quality of fit was poor and degraded with increasing ascites, consistent with current opinion that CL(E1) is contraindicated in ascitic patients. CL(Tk-GV) was relatively more accurate and the good quality of fit was unaffected by ascites. CL(Tk-GV) was the preferred method for the accurate calculation of CL and was useful despite liver failure and ascites. (orig.)

  4. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Costa Ricardo JS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C; simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74 and control (CON, n = 12 through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM, hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD: total daily 7.7 (1.5 L/day, during running 732 (183 ml/h and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3 g/day, during running 270 (151 mg/L ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p vs. CON. Exercise-induced BM loss was 2.4 (1.2% (p p > 0.05 vs. CON pre-stage. Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p p  Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition, irrespective of running speed and gender. Normonatraemia was observed in the majority of ultra-runners throughout MSUM, despite sodium ingestion under benchmark recommendations.

  5. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  6. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  7. Brain glycogen supercompensation following exhaustive exercise.

    Matsui, Takashi; Ishikawa, Taro; Ito, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Inoue, Koshiro; Lee, Min-Chul; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-02-01

    Brain glycogen localized in astrocytes, a critical energy source for neurons, decreases during prolonged exhaustive exercise with hypoglycaemia. However, it is uncertain whether exhaustive exercise induces glycogen supercompensation in the brain as in skeletal muscle. To explore this question, we exercised adult male rats to exhaustion at moderate intensity (20 m min(-1)) by treadmill, and quantified glycogen levels in several brain loci and skeletal muscles using a high-power (10 kW) microwave irradiation method as a gold standard. Skeletal muscle glycogen was depleted by 82-90% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 43-46% at 24 h after exercise. Brain glycogen levels decreased by 50-64% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 29-63% (whole brain 46%, cortex 60%, hippocampus 33%, hypothalamus 29%, cerebellum 63% and brainstem 49%) at 6 h after exercise. The brain glycogen supercompensation rates after exercise positively correlated with their decrease rates during exercise. We also observed that cortical and hippocampal glycogen supercompensation were sustained until 24 h after exercise (long-lasting supercompensation), and their basal glycogen levels increased with 4 weeks of exercise training (60 min day(-1) at 20 m min(-1)). These results support the hypothesis that, like the effect in skeletal muscles, glycogen supercompensation also occurs in the brain following exhaustive exercise, and the extent of supercompensation is dependent on that of glycogen decrease during exercise across brain regions. However, supercompensation in the brain preceded that of skeletal muscles. Further, the long-lasting supercompensation of the cortex and hippocampus is probably a prerequisite for their training adaptation (increased basal levels), probably to meet the increased energy demands of the brain in exercising animals. PMID:22063629

  8. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Asked Questions Learn More Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Videos quiz yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute ... accompany aging. Playing Volleyball Helps Me Stay Active Video length: 2 min 51 sec Click to watch ...

  9. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Like most people, you've probably heard that physical activity and exercise are good for you. In fact, ... by staying physically active. Even moderate exercise and physical activity can improve the health of people who are ...

  10. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... was provided by the National Institute on Aging Topic last reviewed: January 2015 For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise ...

  11. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Exercise: How to Get Started Exercise: ... topic was provided by the National Institute on Aging Topic last reviewed: January 2015 For an enhanced ...

  12. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Helps Me Control My Blood Pressure Video length: 1 min 18 sec Click to watch this video To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, the exercise and physical ...

  13. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... this page to learn more about the health benefits of exercise. To enlarge a video, click the brackets in ...

  14. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  15. Safety and Efficacy of 24-h Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery in Well-Controlled Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

    Murphy, Helen R.; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Caldwell, Karen; Biagioni, Martina; Simmons, David; Dunger, David B.; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Hovorka, Roman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery in well-controlled pregnant women with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 12 women with type 1 diabetes (aged 32.9 years, diabetes duration 17.6 years, BMI 27.1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 6.4%) were randomly allocated to closed-loop or conventional CSII. They performed normal daily activities (standardized meals, snacks, and exercise) for 24 h on two occasions at 19 and 23 weeks’ gestation. Plasma glucose time in target (63–140 mg/dL) and time spent hypoglycemic were calculated. RESULTS Plasma glucose time in target was comparable for closed-loop and conventional CSII (median [interquartile range]: 81 [59–87] vs. 81% [54–90]; P = 0.75). Less time was spent hypoglycemic (<45 mg/dL [0.0 vs. 0.3%]; P = 0.04), with a lower low blood glucose index (2.4 [0.9–3.5] vs. 3.3 [1.9–5.1]; P = 0.03), during closed-loop insulin delivery. CONCLUSIONS Closed-loop insulin delivery was as effective as conventional CSII, with less time spent in extreme hypoglycemia. PMID:22011408

  16. The 24 h pattern of arterial pressure in mice is determined mainly by heart rate‐driven variation in cardiac output

    Kurtz, Theodore W.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have systematically investigated whether daily patterns of arterial blood pressure over 24 h are mediated by changes in cardiac output, peripheral resistance, or both. Understanding the hemodynamic mechanisms that determine the 24 h patterns of blood pressure may lead to a better understanding of how such patterns become disturbed in hypertension and influence risk for cardiovascular events. In conscious, unrestrained C57BL/6J mice, we investigated whether the 24 h patter...

  17. A Comparative Study of Clinical Utility of Spot Urine Samples with 24-h Urine Albumin Excretion for Screening of Microalbuminuria in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Chavan, Vilas U.; Durgawale, Pushpa P.; Sayyed, Anjum K.; Sontakke, Ajit V.; Attar, Nazir R.; Patel, Swati B.; Patil, Sangita R.; Nilakhe, Shreyasprasad D.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-four hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is considered as gold standard method for albuminuria measurement, but collection of 24-h urine is inconvenient. The aim of present study was to evaluate whether albumin: creatinine ratio (ACR) and urinary albumin concentration (UAC) in different spot urine samples correlate or not with 24-h UAE for screening of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. We collected first morning void (FMV), random urine sample (RUS) and 24-h urine, separat...

  18. Free fruit at workplace intervention increases total fruit intake: a validation study using 24 h dietary recall and urinary flavonoid excretion

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bredsdorff, Lea; Alinia, Sevil;

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To validate 24 h dietary recall of fruit intake by measuring the total 24 h excretion of 10 different flavonoids in 24 h urine during an intervention with free fruit at workplaces. Subjects/Methods: Employees at workplaces offering a free-fruit program, consisting of daily...... free and easy access to fresh fruit, and controls employees at workplaces with no free-fruit program were enrolled in this validation study (n = 103). Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24 h dietary recall questionnaire at baseline and approximately 5 months later. Ten flavonoids, quercetin...

  19. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later. PMID:23595046

  20. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis

    Ji Hye Huh; Kyong Joo Lee; Jung Soo Lim; Mi Young Lee; Hong Jun Park; Moon Young Kim; Jae Woo Kim; Choon Hee Chung; Jang Yel Shin; Hyun-Soo Kim; Sang Ok Kwon; Soon Koo Baik

    2015-01-01

    Background Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. Methods We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2010). The total amount of sodium excretion i...

  1. Transcutaneous cervical esophagus ultrasound in adults: Relation with ambulatory 24-h pH-monitoring and esophageal manometry

    Kacar, Sabite; Uysal, Selma; Kuran, Sedef; Dagli, Ulku; Ozin, Yasemin; Karabulut, Erdem; Sasmaz, Nurgul

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the gastroesophageal refluxate in the cervical esophagus (CE) and measure transcutaneous cervical esophageal ultrasound (TCEUS) findings [anterior wall thickness (WT) of CE, esophageal luminal diameter (ELD), esophageal diameter (ED)]; to compare TCEUS findings in the patient subgroups divided according to 24-h esophageal pH monitoring and manometry; and to investigate possible cut-off values according to the TCEUS findings as a predictor of gastroesophageal reflux (GER).

  2. The importance of sleep apnea index determination using 24h ECG analysis in patients with heart rhythm disorders

    Grdinić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A possible cause of malignant heart rhythm disorders is the syndrome of sleep apnea (periodic cessation of breathing during sleep longer than 10 seconds. Recent 24h ECG software systems have the option of determination ECG apnea index (AI based on the change in voltage of QRS complexes. The aim of the study was to determine the significance of AI evaluation in routine 24-hour Holter ECG on a group of 12 patients. Methods. We presented a total of 12 consecutive patients with previously documented arrhythmias and the history of breathing disorders during night. They were analyzed by 24 h ECG (Medilog AR 12 plus Darwin, that is able to determine AI. Results. We presented a case series of 12 patients, 8 men and 4 women, mean age 58.75 years and the average AI 5.78. In the whole group there was a trend of increasing prevalence of complex rhythm disorders with increasing of AI and increased frequency of arrhythmias in the night phase vs day phase. Conclusion. Determination of AI using routine long term (24 h ECG analysis is important because sleep apnea can be successfully treated as an etiological or contributing factor of arrhythmias.

  3. 'Life in the age of screens': parent perspectives on a 24-h no screen-time challenge.

    Peláez, Sandra; Alexander, Stephanie; Roberge, Jean-Baptiste; Henderson, Melanie; Bigras, Jean-Luc; Barnett, Tracie A

    2016-08-01

    Screens have become ubiquitous in modern society. Their use frequently underlies sedentary behaviour, a well-established determinant of obesity. As part of a family oriented clinic offering a 2-year lifestyle program for obese children and youth, we explored parents' experiences with a 24-h no screen-time challenge, an intervention designed to raise awareness of screen-time habits and to help families develop strategies to limit their use. In total, 15 parents representing 13 families participated. A focus group with nine parents and six phone interviews with those who could not join in person were conducted. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed qualitatively. Key elements to successful completion of the 24-h no screen-time challenge emerged, namely: clear rules about permitted activities during the 24-h period; togetherness, i.e. involving all family members in the challenge; and busyness, i.e. planning a full schedule in order to avoid idleness and preclude the temptation to use screens. Our findings suggest that practitioners aiming to increase awareness of screen-time or to limit their use may be more likely to succeed if they include all family members, offer concrete alternatives to screen-based activities and provide tailored strategies to manage discretionary time. PMID:27242271

  4. Time course of the MAPK and PI3-kinase response within 24 h of skeletal muscle overload

    Carlson, C. J.; Fan, Z.; Gordon, S. E.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which skeletal muscle hypertrophies in response to increased mechanical loading may lead to the discovery of novel treatment strategies for muscle wasting and frailty. To gain insight into potential early signaling mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the temporal pattern of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity during the first 24 h of muscle overload was determined in the rat slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles after ablation of the gastrocnemius muscle. p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation was elevated for the entire 24-h overload period in both muscles. In contrast, Erk 2 and p54 JNK phosphorylation were transiently increased by overload, returning to the levels of sham-operated controls by 24 h. PI3-kinase activity was increased by muscle overload only at 12 h of overload and only in the plantaris muscle. In summary, sustained elevation of p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation occurred early in response to muscle overload, identifying this pathway as a potential candidate for mediating early hypertrophic signals in response to skeletal muscle overload.

  5. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  6. Restructuring and redistribution of actinides in Am-MOX fuel during the first 24 h of irradiation

    In order to confirm the effect of minor actinide additions on the irradiation behavior of MOX fuel pellets, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% americium-containing MOX (Am-MOX) fuels were irradiated for 10 min at 43 kW/m and for 24 h at 45 kW/m in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Two nominal values of the fuel pellet oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M), 1.95 and 1.98, were used as a test parameter. Emphasis was placed on the behavior of restructuring and redistribution of actinides which directly affect the fuel performance and the fuel design for fast reactors. Microstructural evolutions in the fuels were observed by optical microscopy and the redistribution of constituent elements was determined by EPMA using false color X-ray mapping and quantitative point analyses. The ceramography results showed that structural changes occurred quickly in the initial stage of irradiation. Restructuring of the fuel from middle to upper axial positions developed and was almost completed after the 24-h irradiation. No sign of fuel melting was found in any of the specimens. The EPMA results revealed that Am as well as Pu migrated radially up the temperature gradient to the center of the fuel pellet. The increase in Am concentration on approaching the edge of the central void and its maximum value were higher than those of Pu after the 10-min irradiation and the difference was more pronounced after the 24-h irradiation. The increment of the Am and Pu concentrations due to redistribution increased with increasing central void size. In all of the specimens examined, the extent of redistribution of Am and Pu was higher in the fuel of O/M ratio of 1.98 than in that of 1.95

  7. Structure and molecular motion in three modifications of a binary C23H48-C24H50 paraffin

    The temperature dependence of the intensities of the (00l) X-ray reflections from a binary paraffin (C23H48-25% C24H50) was determined, in order to obtain structure parameters related to the molecular motion and intramolecular defects. The long lattice spacing was also determined as a function of the temperature. All of these results are compared with the temperature dependence of the ratio of the two short lattice parameters. The clear correlation of all of these experimental results provides a close characterization of the molecular structures and their changes at the several solid state phase transitions. (Author)

  8. Design aspects of 24 h recall assesments may affect the estimates of protein and potassium intake in dietary surveys

    Crispim, S.P.; Geelen, A; Siebelink, E.; Huybrechts, I.; Vries, de, H.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of different modes of administration (face-to-face v. telephone), recall days (first v. second), clays of the week (weekday v. weekend) and interview clays (1 d later v. 2 d later) on bias in protein and K intakes collected with 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR). Design: Two non-consecutive 24-HDR (collected with standardised EPIC-Soft software) were used to estimate protein and K intakes by a face-to-face interview at the research centres and a telephone intervi...

  9. The standardized computerized 24-h dietary recall method EPIC-Soft adapted for pan-European dietary monitoring

    Slimani, N.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.;

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The EPIC-Soft program (the software initially developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) was recommended as the best way to standardize 24-HDRs for future pan-European dietary...... specification; (4) implementation of the specifications by software developers; (5) testing and amendment of bugs. Results: A number of new specifications and facilities were implemented to EPIC-Soft program. In addition, the software underwent a full reprogramming and migration to a modern Windows environment...

  10. Sleep and 24-h activity rhythms in relation to cortisol change after a very low-dose of dexamethasone

    Luik, Annemarie I.; Direk, Neşe; Zuurbier, Lisette A; Hofman, Albert; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important role in sleep. Nevertheless, the association of sleep and its 24-h organization with negative feedback control of the HPA axis has received limited attention in population-based studies. We explored this association in 493 middle-aged persons of the Rotterdam Study, a large population-based study (mean age 56 years, standard deviation: 5.3 years; 57% female). The negative feedback of the HPA axis was measured as the change in mo...

  11. International Normalized Ratio (INR), coagulation factor activities and calibrated automated thrombin generation - influence of 24 h storage at ambient temperature

    Christensen, T D; Jensen, C; Larsen, T B;

    2010-01-01

    clotting activity of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X as well as CAT generation was recorded after 0 and 24 h respectively. Statistical analyses included Bland-Altman plot, 95% limits of agreement, and a variability test using a mixed effect model. The level of INR remained statistically unchanged......International Normalized Ratio (INR) measurements are used to monitor oral anticoagulation therapy with coumarins. Single coagulation factor activities and calibrated automated thrombin (CAT) generation are considered as more advanced methods for evaluating overall haemostatic capacity. The aims...

  12. Muscle glucose metabolism following exercise in the rat

    Richter, Erik; Garetto, L P; Goodman, M N;

    1982-01-01

    perfusion of their isolated hindquarters. Glucose utilization by the hindquarter was the same in exercised and control rats perfused in the absence of added insulin; however, when insulin (30-40,000 muU/ml) was added to the perfusate, glucose utilization was greater after exercise. Prior exercise lowered...... both, the concentration of insulin that half-maximally stimulated glucose utilization (exercise, 150 muU/ml; control, 480 muU/ml) and modestly increased its maximum effect. The increase in insulin sensitivity persisted for 4 h following exercise, but was not present after 24 h. The rate-limiting step...... in glucose utilization enhanced by prior exercise appeared to be glucose transport across the cell membrane, as in neither control nor exercised rats did free glucose accumulate in the muscle cell. Following exercise, the ability of insulin to stimulate the release of lactate into the perfusate was...

  13. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly. PMID:25964378

  14. The classification of oesophageal 24 h pH measurements using a Kohonen self-organizing feature map.

    Haylett, K R; Vales, P; McCloy, R F

    2004-06-01

    Analysis of 24 h oesophageal pH studies can be problematic with many patients asymptomatic during the investigation, despite observations of reflux. The aim of this study was to carry out a cluster analysis of ambulatory pH studies to determine any underlying patterns and classes within the data. The results of 900 24 h pH studies were investigated using the Kohonen self-organizing feature map (SOFM), a neural network that can be used to identify clusters within multidimensional data. The clinical features were presented to the network and the main classes identified. The SOFM-based analysis showed that patients clinically assessed as having symptomatic reflux during the study could be described by four major classifications. The results also showed that the probability of identifying a correlation between symptoms and reflux during an investigation varies from 0.49 to 0.78 for the classes identified. The developed network may be a useful tool in the classification of pH data. The cluster-based technique may offer an alternative to standard statistical techniques for high-dimensional gastrointestinal data and form the basis of an expert system for the automated analysis of pH data. PMID:15253122

  15. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... and exercise are important to the physical and mental health of almost everyone, including older adults. Staying ... balance problems, or difficulty walking. Swimming Helps Me Control My Blood Pressure Video length: 1 min 18 ...

  16. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... some older people who already have diseases and disabilities. That's why health experts say that older adults ... can help prevent or delay many diseases and disabilities. In some cases, exercise is an effective treatment ...

  17. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Mood Regular, moderate physical activity can help manage stress and improve your mood. And, being active on a regular basis may help reduce feelings of depression. Studies also suggest that exercise can improve or maintain ...

  18. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... and help you maintain your independence as you age. Why It's Important for Older Adults to Exercise ... feel better and enjoy life more as you age. Running Keeps Me Feeling Great Video length: 1 ...

  19. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... Mood Regular, moderate physical activity can help manage stress and improve your mood. And, being active on a regular basis may help reduce feelings of depression. Studies also suggest that exercise can improve or ...

  20. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life Frequently Asked Questions Learn More Exercise: Benefits of ... and physical activity a regular part of your life can improve your health and help you maintain ...

  1. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... National Institute on Aging. Some people may wonder what the difference is between physical activity and exercise. Physical activities are activities that get your body moving such as gardening, walking the dog ...

  2. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits ... join a gym or have special equipment. Yet, studies show that "taking it easy" is risky. For ...

  3. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... and exercise are important to the physical and mental health of almost everyone, including older adults. Staying ... specifically planned, structured, and repetitive such as weight training, tai chi, or an aerobics class. Including both ...

  4. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... 56 sec Click to watch this video Be as Active as Possible Regular physical activity and exercise are important ... say that older adults should aim to be as active as possible. Being Inactive Can Be Risky ...

  5. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Full Text Available ... a regular basis may help reduce feelings of depression. Studies also suggest that exercise can improve or ... or an aerobics class. Including both in your life will provide you with health benefits that can ...

  6. CHALLENGES IN MAINTAINING EMOTION REGULATION IN A SLEEP AND ENERGY DEPRIVED STATE INDUCED BY THE 4800KM ULTRA-ENDURANCE BICYCLE RACE; THE RACE ACROSS AMERICA (RAAM

    Ian M. Lahart

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiday ultra-endurance races present athletes with a significant number of physiological and psychological challenges. We examined emotions, the perceived functionality (optimal-dysfunctional of emotions, strategies to regulate emotions, sleep quality, and energy intake-expenditure in a four-man team participating in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM; a 4856km continuous cycle race. Cyclists reported experiencing an optimal emotional state for less than 50% of total competition, with emotional states differing significantly between each cyclist over time. Coupled with this emotional disturbance, each cyclist experienced progressively worsening sleep deprivation and daily negative energy balances throughout the RAAM. Cyclists managed less than one hour of continuous sleep per sleep episode, high sleep latency and high percentage moving time. Of note, actual sleep and sleep efficiency were better maintained during longer rest periods, highlighting the importance of a race strategy that seeks to optimise the balance between average cycling velocity and sleep time. Our data suggests that future RAAM cyclists and crew should: 1 identify beliefs on the perceived functionality of emotions in relation to best (functional-optimal and worst (dysfunctional performance as the starting point to intervention work; 2 create a plan for support sufficient sleep and recovery; 3 create nutritional strategies that maintain energy intake and thus reduce energy deficits; and 4 prepare for the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation so that they are able to appropriately respond to unexpected stressors and foster functional working interpersonal relationships

  7. Creatine supplementation does not decrease oxidative stress and inflammation in skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise.

    Silva, Luciano A; Tromm, Camila B; Da Rosa, Guilherme; Bom, Karoliny; Luciano, Thais F; Tuon, Talita; De Souza, Cláudio T; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-six male rats were used; divided into 6 groups (n = 6): saline; creatine (Cr); eccentric exercise (EE) plus saline 24 h (saline + 24 h); eccentric exercise plus Cr 24 h (Cr + 24 h); eccentric exercise plus saline 48 h (saline + 48 h); and eccentric exercise plus Cr 48 h (Cr + 48 h). Cr supplementation was administered as a solution of 300 mg · kg body weight(-1) · day(-1) in 1 mL water, for two weeks, before the eccentric exercise. The animals were submitted to one downhill run session at 1.0 km · h(-1) until exhaustion. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours after the exercise, the animals were killed, and the quadriceps were removed. Creatine kinase levels, superoxide production, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, carbonyl content, total thiol content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-1b (IL-1β), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kb), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were analysed. Cr supplementation neither decreases Cr kinase, superoxide production, lipoperoxidation, carbonylation, total thiol, IL-1β, NF-kb, or TNF nor alters the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxides in relation to the saline group, respectively (P exercise. The present study suggests that Cr supplementation does not decrease oxidative stress and inflammation after eccentric contraction. PMID:23560674

  8. Transcutaneous cervical esophagus ultrasound in adults: Relation with ambulatory 24-h pH-monitoring and esophageal manometry

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the gastroesophageal refluxate in the cervical esophagus (CE) and measure transcutaneous cervical esophageal ultrasound (TCEUS) findings [anterior wall thickness (WT) of CE, esophageal luminal diameter (ELD), esophageal diameter (ED)]; to compare TCEUS findings in the patient subgroups divided according to 24-h esophageal pH monitoring and manometry; and to investigate possible cut-off values according to the TCEUS findings as a predictor of gastroesophageal reflux (GER).METHODS: In 45/500 patients, refluxate was visualized in TCEUS. 38/45 patients underwent esophagogastroduo denoscopy (EGD), 24-h pH monitoring and manometry.RESULTS: The 38 patients were grouped according to 24-h pH monitoring as follows: Group A: GER-positive (n = 20) [Includes Group B: isolated proximal reflux (PR) (n = 6), Group C: isolated distal reflux (DR) (n = 6),and Group D: both PR/DR (n = 8)]; Group E: no reflux (n = 13); and Group F: hypersensitive esophagus (HSE) (n= 5). Groups B + D indicated total PR patients (n = 14),Groups E + F reflux-negatives with HSE (n = 18), and Groups A + F reflux-positives with HSE (n = 25). When the 38 patients were grouped according to manometry findings, 24 had normal esophageal manometry; 7 had hypotensive and 2 had hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES); and 5 had ineffective esophageal motility disorder (IEM). The ELD measurement was greater in group A + F than group E (P = 0.023, 5.0 ± 1.3 vs 3.9 ± 1.4 mm). In 27/38 patients, there was at least one pathologic acid reflux and/or pathologic manometry finding. The cut-off value for ELD of 4.83 mm had 79% sensitivity and 61% specificity in predicting the PR between Groups B + D and E (AUC = 0.775, P = 0.015).CONCLUSION: Visualizing refluxate in TCEUS was useful as a pre-diagnostic tool for estimating GER or manometric pathology in 71.1% of adults in our study,but it was not diagnostic for CE WT.

  9. Correlation between 24-h urine protein, spot urine protein/creatinine ratio, and serum uric acid and their association with fetomaternal outcomes in preeclamptic women

    Nischintha, S.; P Pallavee; Ghose, Seetesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is well-known that estimation of 24-h urine protein and spot urine protein/creatinine (P/C) ratio are commonly performed investigations to assess proteinuria in preeclamptic women. Serum uric acid has been shown to correlate well with disease severity in preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: A total of 24-h urine protein estimation, spot urine P/C ratio, and serum uric acid measurements were carried out in 75 pregnant preeclamptic women and the correlation between these investig...

  10. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  11. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  12. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices. PMID:27447469

  13. 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with obesity in a cross-sectional sample of Australian schoolchildren.

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-03-28

    Emerging evidence indicates that dietary Na may be linked to obesity; however it is unclear whether this relationship is independent of energy intake (EI). The aim of this study was to assess the association between Na intake and measures of adiposity, including BMI z score, weight category and waist:height ratio (WHtR), in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. This was a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren aged 4-12 years. Na intake was assessed via one 24-h urine collection. BMI was converted to age- and sex-specific z scores, and WHtR was used to define abdominal obesity. In children aged ≥8 years, EI was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Of the 666 children with valid urine samples 55 % were male (average age 9·3 (sd 1·8) years). In adjusted models an additional 17 mmol/d of Na was associated with a 0·10 higher BMI z score (95 % CI 0·07, 0·13), a 23 % (OR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·16, 1·31) greater risk of being overweight/obese and a 15 % (OR 1·15; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·23) greater risk of being centrally obese. In the subsample of 8-12-year-old children (n 458), adjustment for EI did not markedly alter the associations between Na and adiposity outcomes. Using a robust measure of daily Na intake we found a positive association between Na intake and obesity risk in Australian schoolchildren, which could not be explained by total energy consumption. To determine whether this is a causal relationship, longitudinal studies, with high-quality measures of Na and EI, are required. PMID:26810972

  14. 24-h Fluid Kinetics and Perception of Sweat Losses Following a 1-h Run in a Temperate Environment

    Eric K. O'Neal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8 after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C. Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass were significantly greater (p < 0.001 than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL. Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL. Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG = 1.018 ± 0.008 with no changes (p = 0.33 at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p = 0.004 at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007, who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses.

  15. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2 performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM until volitional failure (90FAIL, 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM, or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL. Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX, myofibrillar (MYO, and sarcoplasmic (SARC protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121% and MYO (87% protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199% above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023 and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025. Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05 only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237% and 30FAIL (312% conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02 regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.

  16. Endurance exercise induces mRNA expression of oxidative enzymes in human skeletal muscle late in recovery

    Leick, Lotte; Plomgaard, Peter S.; Grønløkke, L.; Al-Abaiji, F.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    mRNA expression of carnitine-palmitoyltransferase (CPT)I, CD36, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HAD), cytochrome (Cyt)c, aminolevulinate-delta-synthase (ALAS)1 and GLUT4 was 100-200% higher at 10-24 h of recovery from exercise than in a control trial. Exercise induced a 100-300% increase in...

  17. Refined multiscale entropy: application to 24-h Holter recordings of heart period variability in healthy and aortic stenosis subjects.

    Valencia, José Fernando; Porta, Alberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Clarià, Francesc; Baranowski, Rafal; Orłowska-Baranowska, Ewa; Caminal, Pere

    2009-09-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) was proposed to characterize complexity as a function of the time-scale factor tau. Despite its broad use, this technique suffers from two limitations: 1) the artificial MSE reduction due to the coarse graining procedure and 2) the introduction of spurious MSE oscillations due to the suboptimal procedure for the elimination of the fast temporal scales. We propose a refined MSE (RMSE), and we apply it to simulations and to 24-h Holter recordings of heart rate variability (HRV) obtained from healthy and aortic stenosis (AS) groups. The study showed that the refinement relevant to the elimination of the fast temporal scales was more helpful at short scales (spanning the range of short-term HRV oscillations), while that relevant to the procedure of coarse graining was more useful at large scales. In healthy subjects, during daytime, RMSE was smaller at short scales (i.e., tau = 1-2) and larger at longer scales (i.e., tau = 4-20) than during nighttime. In AS population, RMSE was smaller during daytime both at short and long time scales (i.e., tau = 1 -11) than during nighttime. RMSE was larger in healthy group than in AS population during both daytime (i.e., tau = 2 -9) and nighttime (i.e., tau = 2). RMSE overcomes two limitations of MSE and confirms the complementary information that can be derived by observing complexity as a function of the temporal scale. PMID:19457745

  18. D- and E-region effects in the auroral zone during a moderately active 24-h period in July 2005

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of energetic electron precipitation into the auroral region at a time of enhanced solar wind have been investigated during a continuous period of 24 h, using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar, an imaging riometer, and particle measurements on an orbiting satellite. The relative effects in the E region (120 km and D region (90 km are found to vary during the day, consistent with a gradual hardening of the incoming electron spectrum from pre-midnight to morning. Whereas the night spectra are single peaked, the daytime spectra are found to be double peaked, suggesting the presence of two distinct populations.

    A comparison between the radiowave absorption observed with the riometer and values estimated from the radar data shows generally good agreement, but with some discrepancies suggesting the occurrence of some small-scale features. The height and thickness of the absorbing region are estimated. Two periods of enhanced precipitation and the related radio absorption, one near magnetic midnight and one in the early morning, are studied in detail, including their horizontal structure and movement of the absorption patches.

    A sharp reduction of electron flux recorded on a POES satellite is related to the edge of an absorption region delineated by the imaging riometer. The observed particle flux is compared with a value deduced from the radar data during the overpass, and found to be in general agreement.

  19. Time dependent effects of stress prior to encoding on event-related potentials and 24 h delayed retrieval.

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars; Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Stress can exert profound effects on memory encoding. Here, we investigated whether (sub)cortical information processing during encoding and memory retrieval at a 24 h delayed test are affected by the temporal proximity between stress and memory encoding. Sixty-four participants engaged in the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST) or a no-stress control condition either immediately before (i.e., proximate condition) or 30 min before (i.e., distant condition) a picture encoding task. In general, stress decreased the number of freely recalled and recognized pictures and increased the number of false alarms. However, timing of stress exposure did not differentially affect picture recall, recognition or selective attention processes (i.e., LPP). Nevertheless, stress-induced cortisol responses and correctly recognized neutral pictures were positively associated within the proximate stress condition but negatively associated within the distant stress condition. These findings suggest that the time at which a stressor is applied might differentially impact the association between stress-induced cortisol elevations and memory formation and indicate the need for a finer delineation of the time window during which glucocorticoids affect memory formation processes. PMID:24074803

  20. Low-Load High Volume Resistance Exercise Stimulates Muscle Protein Synthesis More Than High-Load Low Volume Resistance Exercise in Young Men

    Burd, Nicholas A.; West, Daniel W. D.; Staples, Aaron W.; Atherton, Philip J.; Baker, Jeff M.; Moore, Daniel R.; Holwerda, Andrew M.; Parise, Gianni; Rennie, Michael J.; Baker, Steven K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2010-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (% 1 repetition maximum—1RM) and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifteen men (21±1 years; BMI = 24.1±0.8 kg/m2) performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM) until volitional failure (90FAIL), 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM), or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL). Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX), myofibrillar (MYO), and sarcoplasmic (SARC) protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121%) and MYO (87%) protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199%) above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P = 0.023) and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P = 0.025). Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (Pmuscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes. PMID:20711498

  1. Compulsive Exercise

    ... journals about their exercise schedules and obsess about improving themselves. Unfortunately, these behaviors often compound each other, trapping the person in a downward spiral of negative thinking and low self-esteem. continue Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad ...

  2. Compulsive Exercise

    ... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and in extreme cases, death. Because compulsive exercise is closely related to eating disorders, help can be found at community agencies specifically ...

  3. Exercise Dependence

    Vardar, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective...

  4. Exercise Dependence

    Erdal Vardar

    1987-01-01

    Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective i...

  5. The effects of compression garments on performance of prolonged manual-labour exercise and recovery.

    Chan, Val; Duffield, Rob; Watsford, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of wearing compression garments during and 24 h following a 4-h exercise protocol simulating manual-labour tasks. Ten physically trained male participants, familiar with labouring activities, undertook 4 h of work tasks characteristic of industrial workplaces. Participants completed 2 testing sessions, separated by at least 1 week. In the experimental condition, participants wore a full-length compression top and compression shorts during the exercise protocol and overnight recovery, with normal work clothes worn in the control condition. Testing for serum creatine kinase and C-reactive protein, handgrip strength, knee flexion and extension torque, muscle stiffness, perceived muscle soreness and fatigue as well as heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to 4-min cycling were performed before, following, and 24 h after exercise. Creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and rating of perceived fatigue increased following the exercise protocol (p 0.05). Knee extension torque was significantly higher in the control condition at 24 h postexercise (3.1% ± 5.4% change; compression: 2.2% ± 11.1% change), although no other variables were different between conditions at any time. However, compression demonstrated a moderate-large effect (d > 0.60) to reduce perceived muscle soreness, fatigue, and RPE from standardised warm-up at 24 h postexercise. The current findings suggest that compression may assist in perceptual recovery from manual-labour exercise with implications for the ability to perform subsequent work bouts. PMID:26778138

  6. A 24 h investigation of the hydrogeochemistry of baseflow and stormwater in an urban area impacted by mining: Butte, Montana

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Shope, Christopher L.; Duaime, Terence E.

    2005-09-01

    Changes in water quality during a storm event were continuously monitored over a 24 h period at a single location along an urban stormwater drain in Butte, Montana. The Butte Metro Storm Drain (MSD) collects groundwater baseflow and stormwater draining Butte Hill, a densely populated site that has been severely impacted by 130 years of mining, milling, and smelting of copper-rich, polymetallic mineral deposits. On the afternoon of 26 June 2002, a heavy thunderstorm caused streamflow in the MSD to increase 100-fold, from 0.2 ft3 s-1 to more than 20 ft3 s-1. Hourly discharge and water quality data were collected before, during, and following the storm. The most significant finding was that the calculated loads (grams per hour) of both dissolved and particulate copper passing down the MSD increased more than 100-fold in the first hour following the storm, and remained elevated over baseline conditions for the remainder of the study period. Other metals, such as zinc, cadmium, and manganese, showed a decrease in load from pre-storm to post-storm conditions. In addition to the large flush of copper, loads of soluble phosphorus increased during the storm, whereas dissolved oxygen dropped to low levels (events in Butte have the potential to generate large volumes of runoff that exceed Montana water quality standards for acute exposure of aquatic life to copper, as well as depressed levels of dissolved oxygen. This study has important implications to ongoing reclamation activities in the upper Clark Fork Superfund site, particularly with respect to management of storm flow, and may be applicable to other watersheds impacted by mining activities.

  7. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  8. Exercise lowers thyroid radioiodine uptake: concise communication

    The effect of exercise upon the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid was examined in both rats and humans. Rats that exercised intermittently on a mechanical wheel for a period of 20 days had singificantly lower uptake values (p < 0.0001) than sedentary controls. Human volunteers that ran at least ten miles/week had a lower mean 24-h uptake value (8.0 +- 2.8%) than nonexercisign subjects (14.3 +- 5.1%, p < 0.01). Other thyroid function studies (thyroxine, triiodothyronine, triiodothyronine resin uptake, thyroid-stimulating hormone) did not differ significantly between the exercisign and nonexercising groups. These studies suggest that exercise significantly alters thyroid iodine economy

  9. Exercise addiction

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask;

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of...... exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of...

  10. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken;

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet (...

  11. Feasibility of 2 x 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among schoolchildren

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken;

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 x 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft (the software de...

  12. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men.

    Bérubé-Parent, Sonia; Pelletier, Catherine; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo

    2005-09-01

    It has been reported that green tea has a thermogenic effect, due to its caffeine content and probably also to the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The main aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a mixture of green tea and Guarana extracts containing a fixed dose of caffeine and variable doses of EGCG on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Fourteen subjects took part to this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. Each subject was tested five times in a metabolic chamber to measure 24 h energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. During each stay, the subjects ingested a capsule of placebo or capsules containing 200 mg caffeine and a variable dose of EGCG (90, 200, 300 or 400 mg) three times daily, 30 min before standardized meals. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure increased significantly by about 750 kJ with all EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. No effect of the EGCG-caffeine mixture was observed for lipid oxidation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by about 7 and 5 mmHg, respectively, with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. This increase was significant only for 24 h diastolic blood pressure. The main finding of the study was the increase in 24 h energy expenditure with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures. However, this increase was similar with all doses of EGCG in the mixtures. PMID:16176615

  13. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M. E.; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M.; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocke, Marga C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L.; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H.; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomar

  14. Disturbances of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and transverse tubular system in 24-h electrostimulated fast-twitch skeletal muscle

    Frías, J A; Cadefau, J A; Prats, C;

    2005-01-01

    muscle to low-frequency stimulation, Pflugers Arch. 424 (1993) 529-537). To assess the involvement of sarcoplasmic reticulum and transverse tubular system in this force impairment, we isolated microsomal fractions from stimulated and control (contralateral, unstimulated) muscles on discontinuous sucrose...... damage to longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum and swelling of t-tubules revealed by electron microscopy. The ultrastructural changes observed here reflect exercise-induced damage of membrane systems that might severely compromise muscle function. Since this process is reversible, we suggest that it may...

  15. Challenges in Maintaining Emotion Regulation in a Sleep and Energy Deprived State Induced by the 4800Km Ultra-Endurance Bicycle Race; The Race Across AMerica (RAAM)

    Lahart, Ian M.; Lane, Andrew M.; Hulton, Andrew; Williams, Karen; Godfrey, Richard; Pedlar, Charles; Wilson, Mathew G.; Whyte, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    Multiday ultra-endurance races present athletes with a significant number of physiological and psychological challenges. We examined emotions, the perceived functionality (optimal-dysfunctional) of emotions, strategies to regulate emotions, sleep quality, and energy intake-expenditure in a four-man team participating in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM); a 4856km continuous cycle race. Cyclists reported experiencing an optimal emotional state for less than 50% of total competition, with emotional states differing significantly between each cyclist over time. Coupled with this emotional disturbance, each cyclist experienced progressively worsening sleep deprivation and daily negative energy balances throughout the RAAM. Cyclists managed less than one hour of continuous sleep per sleep episode, high sleep latency and high percentage moving time. Of note, actual sleep and sleep efficiency were better maintained during longer rest periods, highlighting the importance of a race strategy that seeks to optimise the balance between average cycling velocity and sleep time. Our data suggests that future RAAM cyclists and crew should: 1) identify beliefs on the perceived functionality of emotions in relation to best (functional-optimal) and worst (dysfunctional) performance as the starting point to intervention work; 2) create a plan for support sufficient sleep and recovery; 3) create nutritional strategies that maintain energy intake and thus reduce energy deficits; and 4) prepare for the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation so that they are able to appropriately respond to unexpected stressors and foster functional working interpersonal relationships. Key Points Completing the Race Across AMerica (RAAM); a 4856km continuous cycle race associated with sleep disturbance, an energy-deficient state, and experiencing intense unwanted emotions. Cyclists reported experiencing an optimal emotional state for less than 50% of total competition and actual sleep and sleep efficiency

  16. Association of the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion with albuminuria in adult koreans: the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Sang Youb Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sodium intake and albuminuria have important roles in blood pressure and renal progression. Although their relationship has been reported, the results have not been consistent and all studies have examined small populations. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the role of the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake and albuminuria. DESIGN: This investigation included 5,187 individuals age 19 years and older from a cross-sectional, nationally representative, stratified survey: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2, in 2011. Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. The 24-h urinary sodium excretion was estimated from a spot urine. RESULTS: On classifying our participants into quartiles based on the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion, the prevalence of albuminuria increased with the 24-h urinary sodium excretion (5.3, 5.7, 7.5, and 11.8% in the first through fourth quartiles, respectively, p for trend <0.001. Even after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, the significance persisted. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the second and third quartiles of the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion were not associated with the presence of albuminuria with the first quartile as a control. However, the fourth quartile was significantly associated with the presence of albuminuria (odds ratio 1.61 [95% confidence interval 1.71-2.21], p = 0.003 after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that salt intake is associated with the presence of albuminuria in the general Korean adult population.

  17. Effects of Diet and Exercise on Insulin Resistance during Pregnancy.

    Clapp, James F

    2006-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that both diet and exercise can alter the usual increase in insulin resistance seen in Western societies during mid and late pregnancy. A low-glycemic diet combined with a low-volume exercise regimen during pregnancy decreases the glucose and insulin response to both mixed caloric intake and exercise, and probably lowers both 24-h blood glucose concentrations and the maternal substrate utilization ratio of carbohydrate/fat. The end result is a marked decrease in both maternal weight gain and size at birth. Regular weight-bearing exercise alone lowers markers of insulin resistance and lowers blood glucose concentration during and immediately after exercise during pregnancy. Changes in diet and/or physical activity appear to prevent the onset of gestational diabetes mellitus in at-risk women and may be of value in the treatment of those who develop gestational diabetes. PMID:18370754

  18. Exercise-induced metallothionein expression in human skeletal muscle fibres

    Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Pernille; Keller, Charlotte; Hidalgo, Juan; Giralt, Mercedes; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2005-01-01

    Exercise induces free oxygen radicals that cause oxidative stress, and metallothioneins (MTs) are increased in states of oxidative stress and possess anti-apoptotic effects. We therefore studied expression of the antioxidant factors metallothionein I and II (MT-I + II) in muscle biopsies obtained...... still highly increased and the MT-II mRNA expression reached a 15-fold increase. As expected, immunohistochemical detection of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrotyrosine (NITT) showed that formation of free radicals and oxidative stress were clearly increased in exercising muscle peaking shortly after the...... in response to 3 h of bicycle exercise performed by healthy men and in resting controls. Both MT-I + II proteins and MT-II mRNA expression increased significantly in both type I and II muscle fibres after exercise. Moreover, 24 h after exercise the levels of MT-II mRNA and MT-I + II proteins were...

  19. Evaluation of post-exercise magnetic resonance images of the rotator cuff

    Objective. To examine the effect of strenuous exercise on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of the rotator cuff tendon. A second objective was to define an optimal time to image the rotator cuff and possibly eliminate exercise-induced false positives. Design and patients. Five male subjects from 24 to 38 years old with normal rotator cuffs by history, physical examination, and screening MRI underwent a rotator cuff exercise session on the Biodex System 2 (Biodex, Shirley, New York). The exercise sessions were followed by sequential MRI scans of the exercised shoulder. These were performed immediately and at 8 h and 24 h after exercise. Results and conclusions. The rotator cuff tendon and subacromial-subdeltoid bursal signal remained unchanged from the pre-exercise through the 24-h post-exercise scans. The rotator cuff muscle signal was increased in five of five subjects on the immediate post-exercise fat-suppressed T2-weighted images. This signal returned to baseline by the 8-h scan. Positive findings of rotator cuff pathology on MRI after strenuous athletic activity should not be discounted as normal exercise-induced changes. Also, diagnostic MRI scanning may take place after a practice session without an increased risk of false positives. (orig.). With 1 fig

  20. Systemic cytokine response to three bouts of eccentric exercise

    Cornish, Stephen M.; Johnson, Steven T

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the changes in inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, IL-10, as well as muscle force, muscle soreness, thigh circumference, and range of motion in response to 3 bouts of eccentric knee extension. Ten males were recruited to participate. The participants performed eccentric exercise on 3 consecutive days on the knee extensors on the right leg separated by 24??h. Participants performed 6 sets of 10 repetitions of isokinetic eccentric knee extension at 120° pe...

  1. Association between 24h Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) Decline or Death in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and eGFR More than 30 ml/min/1.73m2

    Nagata, Takanobu; Sobajima, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Norimi; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Katsuno, Takayuki; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Matsuo, Seiichi; Tsuboi, Naotake; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Data regarding the association between 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion with kidney outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus is currently scarce. Methods We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study in which 1230 patients with diabetes who had undergone a 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion test were analyzed. Patients with incomplete urine collection were excluded based on 24h urinary creatinine excretion. Outcomes were the composite of a 30% declin...

  2. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space. III - Productivity at successive harvest dates under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1987-01-01

    Efficient crop production for controlled ecological life support systems requires near-optimal growing conditions with harvests taken when production per unit area per unit time is maximum. This maximum for potato was determined using data on Norland plants which were grown in walk-in growth rooms under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods at 16 C. Results show that high tuber production can be obtained from potatoes grown under a continuous light regime. The dry weights (dwt) of tuber and of the entire plants were found to increase under both photoperiods until the final harvest date (148 days), reaching 5732 g tuber dwt and 704 g total dwt under 12-h, and 791 g tuber dwt and 972 g total dwt under 24-h.

  3. Exercise Habit

    ... or months before you notice some of the benefits of exercise, such as weight loss. Forget “no pain, no ... questions or think you have injured yourself seriously. Benefits of regular exercise Reduces your risk of heart disease, high blood ...

  4. Dietary intakes assessed by 24-h recalls in peri-urban African adolescents: validity of energy intake compared with estimated energy expenditure

    Ellis, Susanna Maria; Hanekom, Susanna Magrietha; Rankin, Driekie; Wright, Hester Helena; MacIntyre, U.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective: The objective of this study is to determine the relative validity of reported energy intake (EI) derived from multiple 24-h recalls against estimated energy expenditure (EE(est)). Basal metabolic rate (BMR) equations and physical activity factors were incorporated to calculate EE(est). Subjects/methods: This analysis was nested in the multidisciplinary PhysicaL Activity in the Young study with a prospective study design. Peri-urban black South African...

  5. Prolonged, 24-h delayed peripheral inflammation increases short- and long-term functional impairment and histopathological damage after focal ischemia in the rat

    Langdon, Kristopher D; MacLellan, Crystal L; Corbett, Dale

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of infection among stroke patients is alarmingly high and both acute and delayed infections increase morbidity and mortality. Experimental studies support the acute clinical data, but little attention has focused on delayed systemic infections. Here, we investigated the effects of prolonged systemic inflammation either before or 24-h after ischemia. Systemic inflammation was induced by injecting rats with three separate doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 μg/kg, i.p.) with core...

  6. Central amygdala opioid transmission is necessary for increased high-fat intake following 24-h food deprivation, but not following intra-accumbens opioid administration

    Parker, Kyle E.; Johns, Howard W.; Floros, Ted G.; Will, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a dissociation of certain neural mediators that contribute to the increased consumption of a high-fat diet that follows intra-accumbens (Acb) administration of µ-opioid receptor agonists vs. 24-h food deprivation. These two models, both which induce rapid consumption of the diet, have been shown to involve a distributed corticolimbic circuitry, including the amygdala. Specifically, the central amygdala (CeA) has been shown to be involved in high-fat feeding ...

  7. Global, regional and national sodium intakes in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis of 24 h urinary sodium excretion and dietary surveys worldwide

    Powles, John; Fahimi, Saman; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Ezzati, Majid; Engell, Rebecca E.; Lim, Stephen S.; Danaei, Goodarz; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate global, regional (21 regions) and national (187 countries) sodium intakes in adults in 1990 and 2010. Design: Bayesian hierarchical modelling using all identifiable primary sources. Data sources and eligibility We searched and obtained published and unpublished data from 142 surveys of 24 h urinary sodium and 103 of dietary sodium conducted between 1980 and 2010 across 66 countries. Dietary estimates were converted to urine equivalents based on 79 pairs of dual measure...

  8. MR-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy with a handheld biopsy system: clinical experience and results in postinterventional MR mammography after 24 h

    This prospective study evaluates the feasibility of the magnetic resonance (MR)-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy with a handheld vacuum-biopsy system and documents the biopsy results with MR mammography 24 h after the procedure. MR-guided biopsy was undertaken in 33 patients with 34 lesions on dynamic MR mammography. The interventions were performed with the handheld 10-gauge Vacora vacuum-biopsy system. In all cases, dynamic MR mammography was performed 24 h after the procedure to determine the extent of the lesion removal and to identify the lesions that were missed. In 5/34 (14.7%) lesions, biopsy was not performed because no suspicious lesion was identified on the day of biopsy. In 25/29 (86.2%) lesions, the biopsy was successfully performed with a complete removal in 4/29 (13.8%) and a partial removal of 21/29 (72.4%) lesions. In 4/29 (13.8%) interventions the lesion was missed with the biopsy. In one case, histopathology after surgical excision revealed ductal carcinoma in situ. Histopathology revealed 9/29 (31%) malignant and 20/29 (68.9%) benign lesions. MR-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy with the handheld Vacora vacuum-biopsy system is technically feasible in most cases. MR mammography 24 h after the biopsy should be performed in those cases in which the biopsy success is unclear immediately after the procedure. (orig.)

  9. Scintigraphy in the detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with caustic oesophageal burns: a comparative study with radiography and 24-h pH monitoring

    Oezcan, Z.; Erinc, R.; Dirlik, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ege University Medical Faculty, Izmir (Turkey); Oezcan, C.; Mutaf, O. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Ege University Medical Faculty, Izmir (Turkey)

    2001-10-01

    Background: Caustic injury of the oesophagus not only causes luminal narrowing but is also responsible for longitudinal contraction, resulting in gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR), which leads to failure of conventional therapy. Therefore, the development of GOR should be investigated periodically to direct appropriate management of these patients. Purpose: To determine the ability of scintigraphy to detect GOR in children with caustic oesophageal strictures in comparison with barium study and 24-h pH monitoring. Materials and methods: Seventeen children with caustic oesophageal injury underwent scintigraphy, an upper GI barium study and 24-h pH monitoring within the same week. Five patients were also investigated post-operatively for the assessment of surgical outcome after antireflux surgery. Results: On the whole, there was good correlation (r = 0.78, P < 0.00 l) between scintigraphy and 24-h oesophageal pH monitoring. Scintigraphy detected all but one (9/10) refluxing patients and also correctly identified all (7/7) non-refluxing patients. Barium studies demonstrated 6 out of 10 refluxing patients. There were no false-positive barium studies in non-refluxing patients. Post-operative studies demonstrated no evidence of GOR in surgically treated patients. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, by comparison with barium studies, scintigraphy is useful in the detection of GOR in cases with caustic oesophageal strictures and may be used as a screening modality for those under clinical follow-up. (orig.)

  10. Scintigraphy in the detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with caustic oesophageal burns: a comparative study with radiography and 24-h pH monitoring

    Background: Caustic injury of the oesophagus not only causes luminal narrowing but is also responsible for longitudinal contraction, resulting in gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR), which leads to failure of conventional therapy. Therefore, the development of GOR should be investigated periodically to direct appropriate management of these patients. Purpose: To determine the ability of scintigraphy to detect GOR in children with caustic oesophageal strictures in comparison with barium study and 24-h pH monitoring. Materials and methods: Seventeen children with caustic oesophageal injury underwent scintigraphy, an upper GI barium study and 24-h pH monitoring within the same week. Five patients were also investigated post-operatively for the assessment of surgical outcome after antireflux surgery. Results: On the whole, there was good correlation (r = 0.78, P < 0.00 l) between scintigraphy and 24-h oesophageal pH monitoring. Scintigraphy detected all but one (9/10) refluxing patients and also correctly identified all (7/7) non-refluxing patients. Barium studies demonstrated 6 out of 10 refluxing patients. There were no false-positive barium studies in non-refluxing patients. Post-operative studies demonstrated no evidence of GOR in surgically treated patients. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, by comparison with barium studies, scintigraphy is useful in the detection of GOR in cases with caustic oesophageal strictures and may be used as a screening modality for those under clinical follow-up. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of reduction of Fraser incubation by 24h in the EN ISO 11290-1 standard on detection and diversity of Listeria species.

    Gnanou Besse, Nathalie; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The EN ISO 11290-1 method for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment in Fraser broths. While the method is effective it is also quite long requiring 4-7 days to process a contaminated food, and may be adversely affected by inter-strain and/or inter-species competition in samples containing mixed Listeria populations. Currently, we have little information on the impact of competition on food testing under routine conditions. Food samples (n=130) were analyzed using the standard method and the evolution of Listeria populations in 89 naturally contaminated samples followed over the entire enrichment process. In most instances, maximum increase in L. monocytogenes population occurred over the first 24h following sub-culture in Full Fraser broth and strain recovery was similar at both 24 and 48 h, indicating that the second enrichment step can be reduced by 24h without impacting the recovery of L. monocytogenes or affecting the sensitivity of the method. In approximately 6% of naturally contaminated samples the presence of competing Listeria species adversely impacted L. monocytogenes population levels. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during the latter 24h of the Fraser enrichment, and potentially could affect or complicate the isolation of these strains. PMID:26913375

  12. A comparison of fat mass and skeletal muscle mass estimation in male ultra-endurance athletes using bioelectrical impedance analysis and different anthropometric methods Comparación de la masa grasa y muscular estimada en atletas varones de ultra-resistencia utilizando la bioimpedancia eléctrica y diferentes métodos antropométricos

    Knechtle, B; A. Wirth; Knechtle, P; Rosemann, T; Rüst, C A; R. Bescós

    2011-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty seven male Caucasian ultraendurance athletes were recruited, pre-race, before different swimming, cycling, running and triathlon races. Fat mass and skeletal muscle mass were estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric methods in order to investigate whether the use of BIA or anthropometry would be useful under field conditions. Total body fat estimated using BIA was significantly high (P < 0.001) compared with anthropometry. When the result...

  13. Exercise After Pregnancy

    ... my workout? Glossary What are some of the benefits of exercise for postpartum women? Exercise has the following benefits ... moderate-intensity exercise. Remember, even 10 minutes of exercise benefits your body. If you exercised vigorously before pregnancy ...

  14. Exercise at Home

    ... Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an important part ... Below are some exercises you can do at home, but be sure to discuss any plans to ...

  15. Exercise and HIV

    ... HIV WHY IS EXERCISE IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF EXERCISE? WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF EXERCISE? ... healthier while ageing with HIV. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF EXERCISE? Regular, moderate exercise has many of ...

  16. What a Nostril Knows: Olfactory Nerve-Evoked AMPA Responses Increase while NMDA Responses Decrease at 24-h Post-Training for Lateralized Odor Preference Memory in Neonate Rat

    Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2012-01-01

    Increased AMPA signaling is proposed to mediate long-term memory. Rat neonates acquire odor preferences in a single olfactory bulb if one nostril is occluded at training. Memory testing here confirmed that only trained bulbs support increased odor preference at 24 h. Olfactory nerve field potentials were tested at 24 h in slices from trained and…

  17. Exercise Physiologists

    ... programs should take courses in anatomy, physiology, and physics. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations Louisiana is the only state that requires exercise physiologists to be licensed, although many states have ...

  18. Exercise & Sleep

    ... Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents At ... healthy weight Build sturdy muscles, bones, and joints Sleep better at night More time in front of ...

  19. Healthy Exercise

    Oberman, Albert

    1984-01-01

    Persons at any age can substantially improve their fitness for work and play through appropriate exercise training. Considerable evidence indicates that physical activity is valuable for weight control, modifying lipids and improving carbohydrate tolerance. Less rigorous scientific data are available for associated long-term blood pressure and psychological changes with habitual exercise. Strenuous physical activity most likely reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease and the detriment...

  20. Clinical significance of 24-hour delayed thallium-201 imaging after exercise-redistribution imaging

    Conventional exercise and delayed thallium-201 (Tl) SPECT with 24-h delayed imaging were performed in 39 patients with coronary heart disease. Delayed redistribution of 24-h delayed images were compared with that of 3-h delayed images, and were visually interpreted as positive or negative. Twenty-three patients showed positive delayed redistribution at 24-h imaging, including 8 of 27 areas (30%) with myocardial infarction (MI), and 10 of 36 areas (28%) without MI. Percent Tl uptake immediately after exercise was significantly lower in patients with MI who revealed positive late redistribution than those who revealed negative late redistribution (50.2% vs 62.5%, p<0.005). The severity of coronary stenoses was significantly greater in patients with MI who showed positive late redistribution than those who showed negative late redistribution (96.5% vs 82.3%, p<0.01). All patients with MI who revealed positive late redistribution had good collaterals. Conventional exercise Tl SPECT imaging underestimates myocardial viability, and additional 24-h imaging provides a more accurate assessment of myocardial viability without excessive economical expense and exposure to radiation. This method is especially useful for patients with myocardial infarction who have severe coronary stenoses or good collaterals. (author)

  1. Variable day/night bias in 24-h non-invasive finger pressure against intrabrachial artery pressure is removed by waveform filtering and level correction.

    Westerhof, Berend E; Guelen, Ilja; Parati, Gianfranco; Groppelli, Antonella; van Montfrans, Gert A; Wieling, Wouter; Wesseling, Karel H; Bos, Willem Jan W

    2002-10-01

    BACKGROUND Twenty-four-hour finger arterial pressure (FAP) recordings show a negative bias against intrabrachial artery pressure (BAP) and the bias is greater during the night, thereby overestimating the nocturnal blood pressure dip. We have available a methodology with which to reconstruct BAP from FAP by waveform filtering (transfer function) and generalized level (bias) correction that reduces the bias for short-term blood pressure records. OBJECTIVE To investigate if this methodology also decreases the extra bias during the night, thereby yielding a better estimate of the nocturnal dip. METHODS Twenty-four-hour FAP and BAP blood pressure recordings were simultaneously obtained in eight healthy normotensive volunteers and 14 patients with hypertension (ages 19-60 years), during standardized scheduled activities. The data were analysed off-line, applying the brachial reconstruction technique (reBAP) consisting of a waveform filter and level correction. Simultaneous beats yielded systolic, diastolic and mean pressures that were averaged per 30 min, per day, per night, per activity, over the 24-h period, and for volunteers and patients separately. RESULTS Over the full 24 h, FAP systolic, diastolic and mean values for the total group differed from BAP by +1 +/- 10, -8 +/- 7 and -10 +/- 8 mmHg (mean +/- SD), respectively. Similarly, reBAPs differed by +1 +/- 11, -2 +/- 7 and -2 +/- 7 mmHg. BAPs dipped by 20 +/- 8, 13 +/- 6 and 15 +/- 6 mmHg, respectively, during the night. These dips were overestimated by +8, +4 and +4 mmHg by FAP, but not by reBAP: -1, +1 and +1 mmHg. The volunteer and the patient groups showed slight differences in results, but these were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS The generalized reconstruction technique to obtain near-brachial pressure from non-invasive FAP almost completely removed bias over the full 24-h day-night period and improved tracking of diurnal changes for all three blood pressure values. PMID:12359976

  2. Spatial learning and memory deficits following exposure to 24 h of sleep fragmentation or intermittent hypoxia in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Ward, Christopher P; McCoy, John G; McKenna, James T; Connolly, Nina P; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E

    2009-10-19

    Obstructive sleep apnea is primarily characterized by hypoxemia due to frequent apneic episodes and fragmentation of sleep due to the brief arousals that terminate the apneic episodes. Though neurobehavioral deficits frequently accompany sleep apnea, the relative roles of hypoxia versus sleep fragmentation are difficult to separate in apneic patients. Here, we assessed cognitive function as measured by water maze in the Fischer/Brown Norway (FBN) rat, comparing 24 h of sleep interruption (SI) to 24 h of intermittent hypoxia (IH), in order to dissociate their relative contributions to cognitive impairment. For SI, automated treadmills were used to induce brief ambulation in rats every 2 min, either prior to, or after, initial water maze acquisition training. IH was simulated by cycling environmental oxygen levels between 6% and 19% every 2 min, again either prior to, or after, acquisition. Twenty-four hours of IH exposure had no significant effect on either acquisition or retention, irrespective of whether IH occurred prior to, or after, acquisition. To replicate previous work, another group of rats, exposed to 3 days of IH (10 h/day) prior to acquisition, had impaired performance during acquisition. A comparison of the 24 h IH and 3 day IH findings suggests that a minimum amount of IH exposure is necessary to produce detectable spatial memory impairments. Although SI before acquisition had no effect on acquisition or later retention of the hidden platform location, SI after acquisition robustly impaired retention, indicating that spatial memory consolidation is more susceptible to the effects of sleep disruption than is the acquisition (learning) of spatial information. PMID:19643093

  3. Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women.

    Hansen, Karen E; Nabak, Andrea C; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-04-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral ²⁶Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. ²⁵Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0-24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (-0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. PMID:24500940

  4. Et2NH2C6H3(CO23SnBr2.4H2O: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    DAOUDA NDOYE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound has been obtained on allowing [C6H3(CO23(Et2NH23] to react with SnBr4. The molecular structure of Et2NH2C6H3(CO23SnBr2.4H2O has been determined on the basis of the infrared data. The suggested structure is a dimer in which each tin atom is hexacoordinated by two chelating C6H3(CO233- anions and two Br atoms. Cy2NH2+cations are involved through hydrogen bonds with non-coordinating CO2 groups. The suggested structure is a cage.

  5. Exercise modulation of the host-tumor interaction in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer

    Jones, Lee W.; Antonelli, Jodi; Masko, Elizabeth M.; Broadwater, Gloria; Lascola, Christopher D.; Fels, Diane; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Jason R.B. Dyck; Nagendran, Jeevan; Flores, Catherine T.; Betof, Allison S.; Nelson, Erik R.; Pollak, Michael; Dash, Rajesh C.; Young, Martin E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of exercise on cancer progression, metastasis, and underlying mechanisms in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer. C57BL/6 male mice (6–8 wk of age) were orthotopically injected with transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate C-1 cells (5 × 105) and randomly assigned to exercise (n = 28) or a non-intervention control (n = 31) groups. The exercise group was given voluntary access to a wheel 24 h/day for the duration of the study....

  6. Reactions forming C(0,+)n=2,10, Cn=2,4H(0,+) and C3H(0,+) in the gas phase: semi empirical branching ratios

    Chabot, M; Gratier, P; Jallat, A; Wakelam, V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a new set of branching ratios for interstellar and planetary chemical networks based on a semi empirical model. We applied, instead of zero order theory (i.e. only the most exoergic decaying channel is considered), a statistical microcanonical model based on the construction of breakdown curves and using experimental high velocity collision branching ratios for their parametriza- tion. We applied the model to ion-molecule, neutral-neutral, and ion-pair reactions implemented in the few popular databases for astrochemistry such as KIDA, OSU and UMIST. We studied the reactions of carbon and hydrocarbon species with electrons, He+, H+, CH+, CH, C, and C+ leading to intermediate complexes of the type Cn=2,10, Cn=2,4 H, C3 H2, C+n=2,10, Cn=2,4 H+, or C3 H+2 . Comparison of predictions with measurements supports the validity of the model. Huge deviations with respect to database values are often obtained. Effects of the new branching ratios in time dependant chemistry for dark clo...

  7. Neutron scattering studies on phase transitions in (CD3ND3)2CuCl4 and MnCl2.4H2O

    In this thesis the results of neutron scattering experiments and measurements of the susceptibility on some compounds which display magnetic and/or structural phase transitions, are described. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 shows that neutron scattering can be used as a tool for unravelling problems in crystallographic and magnetic structure. The qualitative different scattering patterns for scatters are described. In chapters 3 and 4 an investigation on the layered ferromagnets (CH3NH3)2CuCl4 and (CD3ND3)2CuCl4 is described. In these materials the copper ions, which carry the magnetic moment, are more closely spaced in the ab-planes, and consequently the magnetic interactions in these planes are stronger than those in the direction perpendicular to these planes by about a factor of 105. Chapter 5 presents a discussion and a calculation of demagnetizing and dipole fields. The second part of this thesis is concerned with the transition from the antiferromagnetic to the paramagnetic phase in MnCl2.4H2O in the presence of a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the preferred direction of the magnetic moments. The theory is reviewed in chapter 6 and in chapter 7 the correction procedure for inhomogeneous internal fields is applied to the measurements on MnCl2.4H2O. (Auth./C.F.)

  8. Nanoscale probing of the lateral homogeneity of donors concentration in nitridated SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces.

    Fiorenza, Patrick; Di Franco, Salvatore; Giannazzo, Filippo; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, nanoscale resolution scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and local capacitance-voltage measurements were used to probe the interfacial donor concentration in SiO2/4H-SiC systems annealed in N2O. Such nitrogen-based annealings are commonly employed to passivate SiO2/SiC interface traps, and result both in the incorporation of N-related donors in SiC and in the increase of the mobility in the inversion layer in 4H-SiC MOS-devices. From our SCM measurements, a spatially inhomogeneous donor distribution was observed in the SiO2/4H-SiC system subjected to N2O annealing. Hence, the effect of a phosphorus implantation before the oxide deposition and N2O annealing was also evaluated. In this case, besides an increased average donor concentration, an improvement of the lateral homogeneity of the active doping was also detected. The possible implications of such a pre-implantation doping of the near-interface region on 4H-SiC MOS-devices are discussed. PMID:27324844

  9. Eccentric exercise

    Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons, independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon, compared with skeletal muscle, is less sensitive...... to differences in type and/or amount of mechanical stimulus with regard to expression of collagen, regulatory factors for collagen, and cross-link regulators. In overused (tendinopathic) human tendon, eccentric exercise training has a beneficial effect, but the mechanism by which this is elicited is...

  10. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    ... Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve ... Have had recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), ...

  11. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma Print A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  12. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  13. Exercise and Posture

    ... Spondylitis Info For Teens Message Boards & Forums Donate Exercise & Posture Learn About Spondylitis / Exercise & Posture Overview For ... Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ...

  14. Diabetes and exercise

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000083.htm Diabetes and exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... not exercising at all. Your Blood Sugar and Exercise Check your blood sugar before you exercise. Also, ...

  15. Proteomic analysis of rat skeletal muscle submitted to one bout of incremental exercise.

    Gandra, P G; Valente, R H; Perales, J; Pacheco, A G; Macedo, D V

    2012-04-01

    Exercise can alter gene transcriptional and protein translational rates leading to changes in protein abundance toward adaptation to exercise. We investigated the alterations in protein abundance in skeletal muscle after one bout of an exhaustive exercise through proteomic analysis. Gastrocnemius muscles were sampled from non-exercised control rats and from rats exercised on a treadmill with incremental increases in speed until exhaustion (approximately 30 min). Rats were sacrificed 3 and 24 h after exercise cessation. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed and spots with a significant alteration in relative volume were identified by mass spectrometry. Six spots presented statistically significant altered abundances after exercise. The spots identified as the metabolic related proteins triosephosphate isomerase 1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the β subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase E(1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 were all more abundant after exercise. One spot identified as heat shock cognate 70 was also more abundant after exercise. One spot demonstrated a decreased abundance after exercise and was identified as α-actin. These results suggest that a single session of exhaustive incremental exercise in untrained muscle can alter thin filaments synthesis/degradation rate and enhance cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins synthesis. The identified proteins may be important to a general preconditioning of skeletal muscle for subsequent exercise sessions. PMID:20973830

  16. THE EFFECT OF GLYCEMIC INDEX ON PLASMA IL-6 IN SUB-MAX EXERCISE

    Hasani S.H.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of a pre-exercise meal with different glycemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism during sub-max exercise (endurance performance run. Material : Ten men completed 1 h running at 70%-75% VO2max on a level treadmill on three occasions. In each trial, one of the three prescribed beverages as meal, i.e. high GI and low GL or placebo was consumed by the subjects 45 min before exercise. Blood samples were collected before, after, 1h and 24h after exercise. Result: Concentration of Plasma IL-6 in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups, IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in groups (all P < 0.05, also there was significant difference for plasma IL-6 concentration between placebo and low glycemic groups in after exercise (P=.003 and 1hour after exercise (P=.005 . CK was significantly elevated at all- time points after exercise in 3 groups (all P < 0.05. Concentration of serum CK in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups but there not significantly. The consumption of the LGI beverage before exercise could minimize the increasing of plasma IL-6 concentration immediately after exercise and during the 1 h recovery period compared with the HGI beverage and Pla. Conclusion: This result suggested that the LGI beverage consumed as pre-exercise meal could modify the inflammatory response in prolonged exercise.

  17. Benchmark exercise

    The motivation to conduct this benchmark exercise, a summary of the results, and a discussion of and conclusions from the intercomparison are given in Section 5.2. This section contains further details of the results of the calculations and intercomparisons, illustrated by tables and figures, but avoiding repetition of Section 5.2 as far as possible. (author)

  18. [Exercise addiction].

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed. PMID:23888586

  19. Physiopathological, Epidemiological, Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia

    Caterina Urso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH is dilutional hyponatremia, a variant of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH, characterized by a plasma concentration of sodium lower than 135 mEq/L. The prevalence of EAH is common in endurance (<6 hours and ultra-endurance events (>6 hours in duration, in which both athletes and medical providers need to be aware of risk factors, symptom presentation, and management. The development of EAH is a combination of excessive water intake, inadequate suppression of the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH (due to non osmotic stimuli, long race duration, and very high or very low ambient temperatures. Additional risk factors include female gender, slower race times, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Signs and symptoms of EAH include nausea, vomiting, confusion, headache and seizures; it may result in severe clinical conditions associated with pulmonary and cerebral edema, respiratory failure and death. A rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment with a hypertonic saline solution is essential in the severe form to ensure a positive outcome.

  20. Abnormal protein turnover and anabolic resistance to exercise in sarcopenic obesity.

    Nilsson, Mats I; Dobson, Justin P; Greene, Nicholas P; Wiggs, Michael P; Shimkus, Kevin L; Wudeck, Elyse V; Davis, Amanda R; Laureano, Marissa L; Fluckey, James D

    2013-10-01

    Obesity may impair protein synthesis rates and cause anabolic resistance to growth factors, hormones, and exercise, ultimately affecting skeletal muscle mass and function. To better understand muscle wasting and anabolic resistance with obesity, we assessed protein 24-h fractional synthesis rates (24-h FSRs) in selected hind-limb muscles of sedentary and resistance-exercised lean and obese Zucker rats. Despite atrophied hind-limb muscles (-28% vs. lean rats), 24-h FSRs of mixed proteins were significantly higher in quadriceps (+18%) and red or white gastrocnemius (+22 or +38%, respectively) of obese animals when compared to lean littermates. Basal synthesis rates of myofibrillar (+8%) and mitochondrial proteins (-1%) in quadriceps were not different between phenotypes, while manufacture of cytosolic proteins (+12%) was moderately elevated in obese cohorts. Western blot analyses revealed a robust activation of p70S6k (+178%) and a lower expression of the endogenous mTOR inhibitor DEPTOR (-28%) in obese rats, collectively suggesting that there is an obesity-induced increase in net protein turnover favoring degradation. Lastly, the protein synthetic response to exercise of mixed (-7%), myofibrillar (+6%), and cytosolic (+7%) quadriceps subfractions was blunted compared to the lean phenotype (+34, +40, and +17%, respectively), indicating a muscle- and subfraction-specific desensitization to the anabolic stimulus of exercise in obese animals. PMID:23804240

  1. Intensity of Resistance Exercise Determines Adipokine and Resting Energy Expenditure Responses in Overweight Elderly Individuals

    Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Tournis, Symeon; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Thomakos, Petros M.; Taxildaris, Kyriakos; Mastorakos, George; Mitrakou, Asimina

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the time course of leptin, adiponectin, and resting energy expenditure (REE) responses in overweight elderly males after acute resistance exercise protocols of various intensity configurations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty inactive men (65–82 years) were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n = 10/group): control, low-intensity resistance exercise, moderate-intensity resistance exercise, and high-intensity resistance exercise. Exercise energy cost, REE, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol, insulin, lactate, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and glycerol were determined at baseline, immediately after exercise, and during a 72-h recovery period. RESULTS Exercise energy cost was lower in high-intensity than in low-intensity and moderate-intensity groups (221.6 ± 8.8 vs. 295.6 ± 10.7 and 281.6 ± 9.8 kcal, P < 0.001). Lactate, glucose, NEFAs, and glycerol concentrations increased (P < 0.001) after exercise and returned to baseline thereafter in all groups. REE increased (P < 0.001) in all groups at 12 h in an intensity-dependent manner (P < 0.05). REE reached baseline after 48 h in the low- and moderate-intensity groups and after 72 h in the high-intensity group. Cortisol peaked in all active groups after exercise (P < 0.001) and remained elevated (P < 0.001) for 12 h. After adjustment for plasma volume shifts, leptin remained unaltered. Adiponectin concentration increased after 12 h and remained elevated for 24 h only in the high-intensity group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise does not alter circulating leptin concentration but does increase REE and adiponectin in an intensity-dependent manner for as long as 48 and 24 h, respectively, in overweight elderly individuals. It appears that resistance exercise may represent an effective approach for weight management and metabolic control in overweight elderly individuals. PMID:19729520

  2. La comunicación enfermera-cliente en el cuidado en las unidades de urgencias 24h: una interpretación en Travelbee

    Rocha Oliveira, Thalita; Faria Simões, Sonia Mara

    2013-01-01

    Investigación de carácter descriptivo y abordaje cualitativo que tiene por objetivo mostrar la comunicación enfermera-paciente en el cuidado de enfermería en las Unidades de urgencias 24h y discutir los aspectos de la comunicación y de la relación interpersonal enfermera-paciente en el cuidado a la luz del referencial teórico de Joyce Travelbee. Los datos fueron obtenidos después de la apobación en el comité de ética a través de entrevista semi-estructurada aplicada a diez 2º Tenientes Enferm...

  3. Characteristics and formation of [AlO4Al12(OH)24(H2O)12]7+ in electrolysis process

    刘会娟; 曲久辉; 张素娟; 胡承志

    2002-01-01

    [AlO4Al12(OH)24(H2O)12]7+(Al13) formation in electrolysis process is studied. The results detected by 27Al NMR spectroscopy show that high content of Al13 polymer is formed in the partially hydrolyzed aluminum solution prepared by controlled electrolysis process. In the produced electrolyte of total Al concentration (Al) 2.0 mol* L-1 with a basicity (B = OH/Al molar ratios) of 2.0, the content of Al13 polymer is over 60% of total Al. Dynamic light scattering shows that the size distribution of the final electrolyte solutions ( = 2.0 mol*L-1) is trimodal with B = 2.0 and bimodal with B = 2.5. The aggregates of Al13 complexes increase the particle size of partially hydrolyzed aluminum solution.

  4. Cathodoluminescence study of radiative interface defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures

    Fukushima, Yuta; Chanthaphan, Atthawut; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji, E-mail: watanabe@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-06-29

    Radiative defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures and their location in depth were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that while luminescence peaks ascribed to oxygen vacancy and nonbridging oxygen hole centers were observed both from thermal oxides grown on (0001) Si-face and C-face surfaces as with thermal oxides on Si, intense yellow luminescence at a wavelength of around 600 nm was identified only from the oxide interface on the Si-face substrate regardless of the oxide thickness and dopant type. Possible physical origins of the radiative centers localized near an oxide interface of a few nm thick are discussed on the basis of visible light emission from Si backbone structures.

  5. The Effect of a Bout of Resistance Exercise on 8-Hydroxy-2’-Deoxyguanosine in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Rahman Rahimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As a result of the natural metabolism in cells, free radicals and reactive species of oxygen are continuously produced and increase under physical and psychological stress conditions. Oxidative stress is a condition in which the reactive oxygen species production exceeds the antioxidant system capacity to neutralize these peroxidants. In these situations, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids are damaged. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute resistance exercise (RE on 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, marker of DNA oxidation. Methods: In this quasi-experimental research, nine resistances trained (RT and nine untrained (UT men were randomly selected. All subjects performed a RE protocol including 4 sets of the bench press, leg press, sited bar shoulder press, arm curls and lat pull down exercises using high intensity (80% of 1RM. Blood draws occurred before and immediately after exercise and urine samples were collected before, immediately after, 3h after and 24 h after resistance exercise for the measurement of plasma lactate and urinary 8-OHdG excretion. Results: Urinary 8-OHdG concentrations were significantly lower at post and 24h post exercise in RT compared with UT (P<0.05. The concentration of 8-OHdG was significantly elevated post, 3h post and 24h post exercise in UT as compared with pre exercise status (P<0.05. However, 8-OHdG was significantly elevated 24h post exercise in RT as compared with pre exercise status (P<0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated that oxidative DNA damage was lower in bodybuilding athletes compared to the untrained. This may be due to regular resistance training status in athletes and it is possible that antioxidant capacity is improved in athletes due to performing regular resistance training.

  6. Acute exercise increases brain region-specific expression of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, GLUT1, and COX IV proteins.

    Takimoto, Masaki; Hamada, Taku

    2014-05-01

    The brain is capable of oxidizing lactate and ketone bodies through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). We examined the protein expression of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and cytochrome-c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV) in the rat brain within 24 h after a single exercise session. Brain samples were obtained from sedentary controls and treadmill-exercised rats (20 m/min, 8% grade). Acute exercise resulted in an increase in lactate in the cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, but not the brainstem, and an increase in β-hydroxybutyrate in the cortex alone. After a 2-h exercise session MCT1 increased in the cortex and hippocampus 5 h postexercise, and the effect lasted in the cortex for 24 h postexercise. MCT2 increased in the cortex and hypothalamus 5-24 h postexercise, whereas MCT2 increased in the hippocampus immediately after exercise, and remained elevated for 10 h postexercise. Regional upregulation of MCT2 after exercise was associated with increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine-related kinase B proteins, but not insulin-like growth factor 1. MCT4 increased 5-10 h postexercise only in the hypothalamus, and was associated with increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression. However, none of the MCT isoforms in the brainstem was affected by exercise. Whereas GLUT 1 in the cortex increased only at 18 h postexercise, COX IV in the hippocampus increased 10 h after exercise and remained elevated for 24 h postexercise. These results suggest that acute prolonged exercise induces the brain region-specific upregulation of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, GLUT1, and COX IV proteins. PMID:24610532

  7. Preliminary findings of recanalization and stenting for symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery occlusion lasting more than 24 h: A retrospective analysis of 21 cases

    Purpose: To evaluate the technical feasibility, safety and short-term treatment effects of recanalization and stenting for intracranial symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery occlusion (VBAO) lasting more than 24 h. Methods and materials: Twenty-one consecutive patients with VBAO refractory to aggressive medical treatment were enrolled into this study and underwent recanalization and stenting. The rate of recanalization was evaluated radiographically and the functional outcome was examined using modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. Results: Median time between imaging-documented occlusion and endovascular recanalization was 10.5 days (IR, Interquartile Range: 6.5–18); technique success ratio of recanalization was 95.2%. There were 3 periprocedural complications. Median mRS score was 4 (IR, 2.5–5) prior to procedure and 4 (IR, 1–5) at discharge (P < 0.05). One stroke and one death occurred within 30 days after recanalization. Mean duration of clinical follow-up was 15.5 months. One transient ischemic attack, one stroke and one death occurred beyond 30-day window. Mean angiographic follow-up was 10.6 months in 10 patients. Four patients developed in-stent restenosis or occlusion, and two of them were symptomatic. Subgroup analyses revealed better functional recovery (lower mRS) in patients with vertebral artery occlusion (VAO) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Endovascular recanalization and stenting for symptomatic VBAO lasting more than 24 h were technically feasible and patients with VAO benefited from the treatment with significant functional recovery. However, the complexity of the procedure and high risk of complication should prompt extreme caution

  8. Muuseum 24h Rotermanni soolalaos

    2003-01-01

    2003. a. muuseumipäeva teema "Muuseum ja sõbrad". Ürituste kava 16, 17. ja 18. V. 16. mail Karin Hallas-Murula loeng "Rocca al Marest Rio de Janeironi", avatakse aastanäitus "Arhitektuurijoonis 2", galeriil "näitusePLAKATInäitus" jpm.

  9. The effects of acute exercise on serum adiponectin and resistin levels and their relation to insulin sensitivity in overweight males.

    Jamurtas, A Z; Theocharis, V; Koukoulis, G; Stakias, N; Fatouros, I G; Kouretas, D; Koutedakis, Y

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a submaximal aerobic exercise bout on adiponectin and resistin levels as well as insulin sensitivity, until 48 h post-exercise in healthy overweight males. Nine subjects performed an exercise bout at an intensity corresponding to approximately 65% of their maximal oxygen consumption for 45 min. Adiponectin, resistin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and insulin sensitivity were measured prior to exercise, immediately after exercise as well as 24 and 48 h after exercise. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA while Pearson's correlations were performed to identify possible relationship among the assessed variables. There were no significant differences for adiponectin (microg ml(-1)) [pre, 3.61(0.73); post, 3.15(0.43); 24 h, 3.15(0.81); 48 h, 3.37(0.76)] or resistin (ng ml(-1)) [pre, 0.19(0.03); post, 0.13(0.03); 24 h, 0.23(0.04); 48 h, 0.23(0.03)] across time. Insulin sensitivity increased and insulin concentration decreased significantly only immediately after exercise. Furthermore, no significant correlations were observed among the variables assessed except for the expected between insulin level and insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that a submaximal aerobic workout does not result in significant changes in adiponectin and resistin up to 48 h post-exercise. Furthermore, it appears that adiponectin or resistin is not associated with insulin sensitivity. PMID:16525810

  10. Effect of exercise on glutamine synthesis and transport in skeletal muscle from rats.

    dos Santos, Ronaldo V T; Caperuto, Erico C; de Mello, Marco T; Batista, Miguel L; Rosa, Luis F B P C

    2009-08-01

    1. Reductions in plasma glutamine are observed after prolonged exercise. Three hypotheses can explain such a decrease: (i) high demand by the liver and kidney; (ii) impaired release from muscles; and (iii) decreased synthesis in skeletal muscle. The present study investigated the effects of exercise on glutamine synthesis and transport in rat skeletal muscle. 2. Rats were divided into three groups: (i) sedentary (SED; n = 12); (ii) rats killed 1 h after the last exercise bout (EX-1; n = 15); and (iii) rats killed 24 h after the last exercise bout (EX-24; n = 15). Rats in the trained groups swam 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks with a load equivalent to 5.5% of their bodyweight. 3. Plasma glutamine and insulin were lower and corticosterone was higher in EX-1 compared with SED rats (P exercise (EX-24), plasma glutamine was restored to levels seen in SED rats, whereas insulin levels were higher (P glutamine, glutamate and ammonia levels were lower in EX-24 than in SED and EX-1 rats (P glutamine synthetase (GS) activity was increased in EX-1 and was decreased in EX-24 compared with SED rats (both P glutamine concentration in EX-1 is not mediated by GS or glutamine transport in skeletal muscle. However, 24 h after exercise, lower GS may contribute to the decrease in glutamine concentration in muscle. PMID:19207717

  11. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

  12. Exercise during Pregnancy

    ... high blood pressure Severe anemia What are the benefits of exercise during pregnancy? Regular exercise during pregnancy benefits you ... weeks after childbirth. In addition to these health benefits, exercise after pregnancy can help you lose the extra ...

  13. Exercise ODIN (BER 5)

    A Nordic exercise named ODIN was held 26. November 1993. This was an exercise of management of the last phase of a nuclear accident. The report gives an evaluation of the Norwegian management of the exercise. 2 refs., 3 figs

  14. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  15. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO3) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells

  16. Electric properties of La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC MOS capacitors with different annealing temperatures

    Yucheng Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe a rapid thermal annealing (RTA process for the La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC interface and investigate its effect on the material’s electrical properties. Our results indicate that the trap charge density and interface state density (Dit are reduced as the RTA temperature increases due to the termination of residual carbon and dangling bonds. We demonstrate that the sample obtained after RTA at 500 °C has the highest breakdown electric field (Efb (7 MV/cm due to a decrease in the trap charge density and an improvement in the interfacial properties. However, when the RTA temperature reaches 600 °C or higher, a lower Efb value (1.2 MV/cm is obtained due to leakage routes generated by the crystallization of La2O3. Based on our results, we conclude that the ideal choice for the RTA temperature is 500 °C.

  17. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico); Rangel-López, Edgar [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Castillo, Claudia G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Santamaría, Abel [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Gonzalez, Carmen, E-mail: cgonzalez.uaslp@gmail.com, E-mail: gonzalez.castillocarmen@fcq.uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO{sub 3}) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells.

  18. Structural and electronic properties of the transition layer at the SiO2/4H-SiC interface

    Wenbo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using first-principles methods, we generate an amorphous SiO2/4H-SiC interface with a transition layer. Based this interface model, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of the interfacial transition layer. The calculated Si 2p core-level shifts for this interface are comparable to the experimental data, indicating that various SiCxOy species should be present in this interface transition layer. The analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the tetrahedral SiCxOy structures cannot introduce any of the defect states at the interface. Interestingly, our transition layer also includes a C-C=C trimer and SiO5 configurations, which lead to the generation of interface states. The accurate positions of Kohn-Sham energy levels associated with these defects are further calculated within the hybrid functional scheme. The Kohn-Sham energy levels of the carbon trimer and SiO5 configurations are located near the conduction and valence band of bulk 4H-SiC, respectively. The result indicates that the carbon trimer occurred in the transition layer may be a possible origin of near interface traps. These findings provide novel insight into the structural and electronic properties of the realistic SiO2/SiC interface.

  19. Structural and electronic properties of the transition layer at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dejun, E-mail: dwang121@dlut.edu.cn [School of Electronic Science and Technology, Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Jijun [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Using first-principles methods, we generate an amorphous SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface with a transition layer. Based this interface model, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of the interfacial transition layer. The calculated Si 2p core-level shifts for this interface are comparable to the experimental data, indicating that various SiC{sub x}O{sub y} species should be present in this interface transition layer. The analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the tetrahedral SiC{sub x}O{sub y} structures cannot introduce any of the defect states at the interface. Interestingly, our transition layer also includes a C-C=C trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations, which lead to the generation of interface states. The accurate positions of Kohn-Sham energy levels associated with these defects are further calculated within the hybrid functional scheme. The Kohn-Sham energy levels of the carbon trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations are located near the conduction and valence band of bulk 4H-SiC, respectively. The result indicates that the carbon trimer occurred in the transition layer may be a possible origin of near interface traps. These findings provide novel insight into the structural and electronic properties of the realistic SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface.

  20. Can exercise mimetics substitute for exercise?

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Exercise leads to changes in muscle phenotype with important implications for exercise performance and health. A recent paper in Cell by Narkar et al. (2008) shows that many of the adaptations in muscle phenotype elicited by exercise can be mimicked by genetic manipulation and drug treatment in...

  1. Consumo de carboidratos e lipídios no desempenho em exercícios de ultra-resistência Consumption of carbohydrates and lipids in ultra-endurance exercise performance

    Antonio Marcio Domingues Ferreira; Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro; Eliane de Abreu Soares

    2001-01-01

    A nutrição é uma importante ferramenta dentro da prática desportiva. Dentre as modalidades esportivas, a nutrição exerce uma grande influência nos chamados "esportes de desafio", que são as provas de ultra-resistência ou de longa duração. O custo energético de uma prova de ultra-resistência pode variar de 5.000 a 18.000kcal por dia. É amplamente aceito que o consumo de carboidratos antes e durante exercícios prolongados irá retardar o aparecimento da fadiga, poupando o glicogênio hepático e m...

  2. Effects of living at two ambient temperatures on 24-h blood pressure and neuroendocrine function among obese and non-obese humans: a pilot study

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-05-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on blood pressure and hormones in obese subjects in Japan were compared in two seasons: summer vs winter. Five obese (BMI, 32 ± 5 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23 ±3 kg/m2) men participated in this experiment at latitude 35°10' N and longitude 136°57.9' E. The average environmental temperature was 29 ± 1 °C in summer and 3 ± 1 °C in winter. Blood samples were analyzed for leptin, ghrelin, catecholamines, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose. Blood pressure was measured over the course of 24 h in summer and winter. A Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was also administered each season. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in obese men were significantly higher in winter (lower environmental temperatures) than in summer (higher environmental temperatures). Noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations were also significantly higher at lower environmental temperatures in obese subjects, but ghrelin, TSH, fT3, fT4, insulin and glucose were not significantly different in summer and winter between obese and non-obese subjects. Leptin, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in winter in obese than non-obese men. Results from the POMS questionnaire showed a significant rise in Confusion at lower environmental temperatures (winter) in obese subjects. In this pilot study, increased blood pressure may have been due to increased secretion of noradrenaline in obese men in winter, and the results suggest that blood pressure control in obese men is particularly important in winter.

  3. Synthesis and antiproliferative evaluation of novel 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acetamide derivatives as inducers of apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Kulabaş, Necla; Tatar, Esra; Bingöl Özakpınar, Özlem; Özsavcı, Derya; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Küçükgüzel, İlkay

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a series of thiosemicarbazide derivatives 12-14, 1,2,4-triazol-3-thione derivatives 15-17 and compounds bearing 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acetamide structure 18-32 have been synthesized starting from phenolic compounds such as 2-naphthol, paracetamol and thymol. Structures and purity of the target compounds were confirmed by the use of their chromatographic and spectral data besides microanalysis. All of the synthesized new compounds 12-32 were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity. Among these compounds, three representatives 18, 19 and 25 were selected and evaluated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) against the full panel of 60 human cancer cell lines derived from nine different cancer types. Antiproliferative effects of the selected compounds were demonstrated in human tumor cell lines K-562, A549 and PC-3. These compounds inhibited cell growth assessed by MTT assay. Compound 18, 19 and 25 exhibited anti-cancer activity with IC50 values of 5.96 μM (PC-3 cells), 7.90 μM (A549/ATCC cells) and 7.71 μM (K-562 cells), respectively. After the cell viability assay, caspase activation and Bcl-2 activity of the selected compounds were measured and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected. Compounds 18, 19 and 25 showed a significant increase in caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. This was not observed for caspase-8 activity with compound 18 and 25, while compound 19 was significantly elevated only at the dose of 50 μM. In addition, all three compounds significantly decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of Bcl-2. PMID:27214512

  4. Spatial variation in inversion-focused vs 24-h integrated samples of PM2.5 and black carbon across Pittsburgh, PA.

    Tunno, Brett J; Michanowicz, Drew R; Shmool, Jessie L C; Kinnee, Ellen; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Gillooly, Sara; Roper, Courtney; Chubb, Lauren; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-06-01

    A growing literature explores intra-urban variation in pollution concentrations. Few studies, however, have examined spatial variation during "peak" hours of the day (e.g., rush hours, inversion conditions), which may have strong bearing for source identification and epidemiological analyses. We aimed to capture "peak" spatial variation across a region of complex terrain, legacy industry, and frequent atmospheric inversions. We hypothesized stronger spatial contrast in concentrations during hours prone to atmospheric inversions and heavy traffic, and designed a 2-year monitoring campaign to capture spatial variation in fine particles (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC). Inversion-focused integrated monitoring (0600-1100 hours) was performed during year 1 (2011-2012) and compared with 1-week 24-h integrated results from year 2 (2012-2013). To allocate sampling sites, we explored spatial distributions in key sources (i.e., traffic, industry) and potential modifiers (i.e., elevation) in geographic information systems (GIS), and allocated 37 sites for spatial and source variability across the metropolitan domain (~388 km(2)). Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and compared by pollutant, season, and sampling method. As expected, we found stronger spatial contrasts in PM2.5 and BC using inversion-focused sampling, suggesting greater differences in peak exposures across urban areas than is captured by most integrated saturation campaigns. Temporal variability, commercial and industrial land use, PM2.5 emissions, and elevation were significant predictors, but did not more strongly predict concentrations during peak hours. PMID:25921079

  5. The use of multiple imputation method for the validation of 24-h food recalls by part-time observation of dietary intake in school.

    Kupek, Emil; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2016-09-01

    External validation of food recall over 24 h in schoolchildren is often restricted to eating events in schools and is based on direct observation as the reference method. The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake out of school, and consequently the bias in such research design based on only part-time validated food recall, using multiple imputation (MI) conditioned on the information on child age, sex, BMI, family income, parental education and the school attended. The previous-day, web-based questionnaire WebCAAFE, structured as six meals/snacks and thirty-two foods/beverage, was answered by a sample of 7-11-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren (n 602) from five public schools. Food/beverage intake recalled by children was compared with the records provided by trained observers during school meals. Sensitivity analysis was performed with artificial data emulating those recalled by children on WebCAAFE in order to evaluate the impact of both differential and non-differential bias. Estimated bias was within ±30 % interval for 84·4 % of the thirty-two foods/beverages evaluated in WebCAAFE, and half of the latter reached statistical significance (P<0·05). Rarely (<3 %) consumed dietary items were often under-reported (fish/seafood, vegetable soup, cheese bread, French fries), whereas some of those most frequently reported (meat, bread/biscuits, fruits) showed large overestimation. Compared with the analysis restricted to fully validated data, MI reduced differential bias in sensitivity analysis but the bias still remained large in most cases. MI provided a suitable statistical framework for part-time validation design of dietary intake over six daily eating events. PMID:27452779

  6. Early Exercise Affects Mitochondrial Transcription Factors Expression after Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    Yongshan Hu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that exercise training is neuroprotective after stroke, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To clarify this critical issue, the current study investigated the effects of early treadmill exercise on the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors. Adult rats were subjected to ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Expression of two genes critical for transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 (PGC-1 and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1, were examined by RT-PCR after five days of exercise starting at 24 h after ischemia. Mitochondrial protein cytochrome C oxidase subunit IV (COX IV was detected by Western blot. Neurological status and cerebral infarct volume were evaluated as indices of brain damage. Treadmill training increased levels of PGC-1 and NRF-1 mRNA, indicating that exercise promotes rehabilitation after ischemia via regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.

  7. Exercise Is Medicine.

    Elrick, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

  8. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  9. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    Sjoeblom, K

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  10. Glycogen repletion following continuous and intermittent exercise to exhaustion.

    Gaesser, G A; Brooks, G A

    1980-10-01

    Patterns of postexercise glycogen repletion in heart, skeletal muscle, and liver in the absence of exogenously supplied substrates during the first 4 h of recovery were assessed. Female Wistar rats were run to exhaustion using continuous (1.0 mph, 15% grade) and intermittent (alternate 1-min intervals at 0.5 and 1.5 mph, 15% grade) exercise protocols. Rats at exhaustion were characterized by marked depletion of glycogen in heart (55%), skeletal muscle (94%), and liver (97%). Blood glucose levels at exhaustion (1.33 mumol/g) were only 37% of preexercise levels. There were no significant differences between continuous and intermittent exercise groups for any of the tissue glycogen or blood glucose values. Cardiac muscle was the only tissue capable of complete restoration of glycogen levels while relying exclusively upon endogenous substrates. Concentrations of endogenous substrates present at the end of exercise were insufficient to support restoration of blood glucose levels to preexercise values nor support glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle and liver during the initial 4-h food-restricted postexercise period. With subsequent feeding, skeletal muscle demonstrated a glycogen supercompensation effect at 24 h (181.1 and 191.8% of preexercise levels for continuous and intermittent exercise, respectively). Lactate concentration in all tissues at the point exhaustion (1.5--2.5 times resting levels) were only moderately elevated and returned to preexercise levels within 15 min. It was concluded that lactate removal after exercise contributed only minimally to the repletion of muscle glycogen. PMID:7440286

  11. Bone repair: Effects of physical exercise and LPS systemic exposition.

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Branco, Luiz G S; Issa, João Paulo M

    2016-08-01

    Bone repair can be facilitated by grafting, biochemical and physical stimulation. Conversely, it may be delayed lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Physical exercise exerts beneficial effects on the bone, but its effect on bone repair is not known. We investigated the effect of exercise on the LPS action on bone healing through bone densitometry, quantitative histological analysis for bone formation rate and immunohistochemical markers in sedentary and exercised animals. Rats ran on the treadmill for four weeks. After training the rats were submitted to a surgical procedure (bone defect in the right tibia) and 24h after the surgery LPS was administered at a dose of 100μg/kg i.p., whereas the control rats received a saline injection (1ml/kg, i.p.). Right tibias were obtained for analysis after 10days during which rats were not submitted to physical training. Physical exercise had a positive effect on bone repair, increasing bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone formation rate, type I collagen and osteocalcin expression. These parameters were not affected by systemic administration of LPS. Our data indicate that physical exercise has an important osteogenic effect, which is maintained during acute systemic inflammation induced by exposure to a single dose of LPS. PMID:27319388

  12. Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following exercise: implications for training prescription.

    Stanley, Jamie; Peake, Jonathan M; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-12-01

    /training status. Our results demonstrate that the time required for complete cardiac autonomic recovery after a single aerobic-based training session is up to 24 h following low-intensity exercise, 24-48 h following threshold-intensity exercise and at least 48 h following high-intensity exercise. Based on limited data, exercise duration is unlikely to be the greatest determinant of cardiac parasympathetic reactivation. Cardiac autonomic recovery occurs more rapidly in individuals with greater aerobic fitness. Our data lend support to the concept that in conjunction with daily training logs, data on cardiac parasympathetic activity are useful for individualizing training programmes. In the final sections of this review, we provide recommendations for structuring training microcycles with reference to cardiac parasympathetic recovery kinetics. Ultimately, coaches should structure training programmes tailored to the unique recovery kinetics of each individual. PMID:23912805

  13. EXERCISE AND REACTION TIMES

    Varun; Neeraj; Ushadhar; Yogesh; Rinku

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise provides multiple benefits to an individual. It is known that exercising regularly can prevent coronary heart disease, hypertension and obesity and improve flexibility. The effect of exercise on visual reaction time needs to be studied, a s the existing data on the benefit of aerobic exercise on psychomotor functions is insufficient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online Visual reaction time is measured before and after exercise. Subjects were ...

  14. Comprehensive regional and temporal gene expression profiling of the rat brain during the first 24 h after experimental stroke identifies dynamic ischemia-induced gene expression patterns, and reveals a biphasic activation of genes in surviving tissue

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Wieloch, Tadeusz; Gidö, Gunilla;

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify biological processes relevant for cell death and survival in the brain following stroke, the postischemic brain transcriptome was studied by a large-scale cDNA array analysis of three peri-infarct brain regions at eight time points during the first 24 h of reperfusion followi...

  15. Management of patients with uncontrolled arterial hypertension – the role of electronic compliance monitoring, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and Candesartan/HCT

    Tousset Eric

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incomplete drug regimen compliance (DRC and white-coat hypertension are two of several possible causes of uncontrolled hypertension. Therefore the aim of the present study was to compare DRC in hypertensives treated with combination therapy whose blood pressures (BP were controlled vers. uncontrolled after 4 weeks of self-monitored BP measurement. To observe the consequences in uncontrolled patients of switching one drug of the combination therapy to candesartan/HCTZ (16 mg/12.5 mg with and without a compliance intervention program. Methods Self-and ambulatory-monitoring of BP were done with upper arm oscillometric devices. Patients' dosing histories were compiled electronically (MEMS(c, AARDEX. Patients with office blood pressure (OBP >140/90 mmHg despite combination therapy were begun on MEMS monitoring and self BP measurement for 4 weeks of run-in. Of 62 such patients, 18 (29% patients were normotensive according to self BP measurement and ambulatory BP measurement at 4 weeks (Group A; in the remaining 44 still uncontrolled patients, candesartan/HCTZ was substituted for one of the combination therapy drugs, with half these patients receiving passive compliance monitoring (B and half a DRC intervention program (C. All groups were then followed for 8 weeks. Results DRC before week 4 was significantly higher in A than in the uncontrolled patients (B&C. DRC was stable during run-in A, but declined in B and C. DRC after week 4 was not different in the three groups and stayed constant over time. DRC during weekends was lower than during weekdays in all groups. In group A no significant change in blood pressure was observed with all three methods of BP measurements. In groups B and C significant reductions of systolic and diastolic BP were observed for ABPM and SBPM. After the change to candesartan/HCTZ in B&C ambulatory 24-h-BP (ABPM was normalized in 39% of patients. Conclusion Normalization of BP was associated with superior

  16. The effects of high-intensity exercise on skeletal muscle neutrophil myeloperoxidase in untrained and trained rats.

    Morozov, Vladimir I; Tsyplenkov, Pavel V; Golberg, Natalia D; Kalinski, Michael I

    2006-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of high-intensity acute exercise on neutrophil infiltration in different muscle fiber types of untrained rats and to compare postexercise neutrophil accumulation in muscles of untrained and trained animals. The effect of high-intensity acute exercise on blood neutrophil degranulation reaction in trained animals was also elucidated. Neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) was determined as a measure of neutrophil migration into muscles and blood neutrophil degranulation. Male albino rats were subjected to acute exercise and 5 weeks of training. The used model of intensive acute exercise consisted of 5, 15, and 25 intermittent swimming bouts with the addition of weight (8% of total body mass) for 1-min each, followed by 1.5-min rest intervals. MPO was analyzed in quadriceps muscle (white and red portion) and in soleus muscle 24 h after acute exercise. MPO content in resting blood plasma and neutrophils was determined 48-h following the completion of a training process. In addition, MPO content in the trained rats was measured immediately (in blood plasma and neutrophils) after and 24 h (in muscles) following a single-bout of exercise to exhaustion. The remaining two-third of the trained animals were exposed to a single-bout of nonstop swimming with the addition of 6% body mass until exhaustion. These animals were sacrificed immediately and 24 h after loaded swimming to analyze leukocyte count, MPO content in blood plasma and neutrophils and in muscles, respectively. About 24 h after exercise MPO concentrations in the red portion of quadriceps muscle and in soleus muscle were 4-7-fold higher as compared to the white portion of m. quadriceps. There was an association between the quantity of repetitive bouts of swimming and MPO content in the muscles. The duration of swimming to exhaustion of trained rats was 3.8-fold longer than untrained sedentary control. At rest, plasma MPO concentration was found to be 40

  17. Exercise training in asthma.

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  18. Exercise exerts neuroprotective effects on Parkinson's disease model of rats.

    Tajiri, Naoki; Yasuhara, Takao; Shingo, Tetsuro; Kondo, Akihiko; Yuan, Wenji; Kadota, Tomohito; Wang, Feifei; Baba, Tanefumi; Tayra, Judith Thomas; Morimoto, Takamasa; Jing, Meng; Kikuchi, Yoichiro; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Agari, Takashi; Miyoshi, Yasuyuki; Fujino, Hidemi; Obata, Futoshi; Takeda, Isao; Furuta, Tomohisa; Date, Isao

    2010-01-15

    Recent studies demonstrate that rehabilitation ameliorates physical and cognitive impairments of patients with stroke, spinal cord injury, and other neurological diseases and that rehabilitation also has potencies to modulate brain plasticity. Here we examined the effects of compulsive exercise on Parkinson's disease model of rats. Before 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 20 microg) lesion into the right striatum of female SD rats, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected to label the proliferating cells. Subsequently, at 24 h after the lesion, the rats were forced to run on the treadmill (5 days/week, 30 min/day, 11 m/min). As behavioral evaluations, cylinder test was performed at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks and amphetamine-induced rotational test was performed at 2 and 4 weeks with consequent euthanasia for immunohistochemical investigations. The exercise group showed better behavioral recovery in cylinder test and significant decrease in the number of amphetamine-induced rotations, compared to the non-exercise group. Correspondingly, significant preservation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive fibers in the striatum and TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) was demonstrated, compared to the non-exercise group. Additionally, the number of migrated BrdU- and Doublecortin-positive cells toward the lesioned striatum was increased in the exercise group. Furthermore, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor increased in the striatum by exercise. The results suggest that exercise exerts neuroprotective effects or enhances the neuronal differentiation in Parkinson's disease model of rats with subsequent improvement in deteriorated motor function. PMID:19900418

  19. Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Muscle Soreness and Inflammation During Recovery From Strenuous Exercise

    Chao Yen Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although parties or get-togethers with alcoholic beverages after sporting competitions are popular, studies on the effects of alcohol ingestion after strenuous exercise on muscle damage and inflammation in non-drinkers’ are few and ambiguous. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol ingestion during recovery from an acute bout of exercise on muscle soreness and inflammatory markers in regular exercisers who do not regularly consume alcohol. Male participants (n = 15 completed two bouts of exercise on a rowing ergometer for 2000 m in a randomized fashion. All participants ingested 5 mL of alcoholic (AL or placebo (PL beverage per kg of body weight within 10 min post-exercise. Blood samples for blood alcohol, creatine kinase (CK, C-reactive protein (CRP, and interleukin (IL-6 concentrations were collected pre-exercise (T0, and at 1 (T1, 3 (T2, and 24 h (T3 post-ingestion. Self-reported muscle soreness was assessed at the same time points. Lactate levels were measured before exercise and within 1 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness was significantly lower in the AL than the PL trials at T3 (p < 0.05. Although CK, IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly higher during recovery than before exercising, there was no significant difference between the AL and PL trials. In addition, no significant difference in lactate concentrations between the two trials was evident in the 1 h after exercise. For regular exercisers, the alcoholic beverage ingested did not increase CK, IL-6, or CRP compared to their placebo trial, despite attenuated muscle soreness. Comparisons between drinkers and non-drinkers of high fitness ingesting permissible alcohol doses should be performed in the future.  Keywords: alcohol, inflammation, strenuous exercise, muscle damage

  20. Exercise-induced muscle damage and the repeated bout effect: evidence for cross transfer.

    Starbuck, Chelsea; Eston, Roger G

    2012-03-01

    We examined whether a prior bout of eccentric exercise in the elbow flexors provided protection against exercise-induced muscle damage in the contralateral arm. Fifteen males (age 22.7 ± 2.1 years; height 178.6 ± 6.8 cm, mass 75.8 ± 9.3 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups who performed two bouts of 60 eccentric contractions (30°/s) separated by 2 weeks: ipsilateral (n = 7, both bouts performed in the same arm), contralateral (n = 8, one bout performed in each arm). Strength, muscle soreness and resting arm angle (RAA) were measured at baseline and at 1, 24 and 48 h post exercise. Surface electromyography was recorded during both bouts of exercise. The degree of strength loss was attenuated (p < 0.05) in the ipsilateral group after the second bout of eccentric exercise (-22 cf. -3% for bout 1 and 2 at 24 h, respectively). Strength loss following eccentric exercise was also attenuated (p < 0.05) at 24 h in the contralateral group (-30 cf. 13% for bout 1 and 2, respectively). Muscle soreness (≈34 cf 19 mm) and change in RAA (≈5 cf. 3%) were also lower following the second bout of eccentric exercise (p < 0.05), although there was no difference in the overall change in these values between groups. Median frequency (MF) was decreased by 31% between bouts, with no difference between groups. Data support observations that the repeated bout effect transfers to the opposite (untrained) limb. The similar reduction in MF between bouts for the two groups provides evidence for a centrally mediated, neural adaptation. PMID:21720885

  1. Diet and Exercise Tips

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  2. Experience in exercise evaluations

    This summary outline presents environmental ingestion exposure pathways exercise evaluations that should be followed by state and local governments. It includes environmental monitoring, food, feeds and monitoring of organisms as well as emergency planning and execution exercises

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    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Kids and Exercise KidsHealth > For Parents > Kids and Exercise ... longer than 2 hours. previous continue Raising Fit Kids Combining regular physical activity with a healthy diet ...

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  5. How Exercise Can Help

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    ... still struggle to get regular exercise. Improve your perception of exercise -- don't see it as just ... about your adventures. Sign up for a charity event. Charity events offer you the chance to walk, ...

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    Full Text Available ... they also might try getting some experience with swimming or bicycling -- other forms of exercise that will ... don't jog because that's an impact loading. Swimming -- an excellent exercise for knee or hip disease. ...