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Sample records for 23rd aspen cancer

  1. 23rd MARCHE DE LA MEDIANE CONTRE LE CANCER

    2002-01-01

    This walk has taken place every year over the past 22 years in one of the communes of the Canton of Geneva, alternatively on the left and right bank of the Rhône River. It was initiated in order to raise funds and awaken public attention to the material needs and the psychological difficulties encountered by the people suffering from cancer and their relatives. That reality still prevails today and is the reason for maintaining this tradition. The organization of the 10 kilometers walk is entirely benevolent and is realized in collaboration with the authorities of the commune in which it is held. Each year nearly a thousend people enlist to show their encouragement to cancer patients and those closest to them.

  2. 23rd CIRP design conference

    Stark, Rainer

    2013-01-01

     The collection of papers in this book comprises the proceedings of the 23rd CIRP Design Conference held between March 11th and March 13th 2013 at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum in Germany. The event was organized in cooperation with the German Academic Society for Product Development – WiGeP. The focus of the conference was  on »Smart Product Engineering«, covering two major aspects of modern  product creation: the development of intelligent (“smart”) products as well as the new (“smart”) approach of engineering, explicitly taking into account consistent systems integration. Throughout the 98 papers contained in these proceedings, a range of topics are covered, amongst them the different facets and aspects of what makes a product or an engineering solution “smart”. In addition, the conference papers investigate new ways of engineering for production planning and collaboration towards Smart Product Engineering. The publications provide a solid insight into the pressing issues of modern digita...

  3. EDITORIAL The 23rd Nordic Semiconductor Meeting The 23rd Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    Ólafsson, Sveinn; Sveinbjörnsson, Einar

    2010-12-01

    A Nordic Semiconductor Meeting is held every other year with the venue rotating amongst the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of these meetings remains 'original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems'. Reports on industrial activity have usually featured. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. Proceedings from these events are regularly published as a topical issue of Physica Scripta. All of the papers in this topical issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the high scientific standards and quality of the series. This meeting of the 23rd Nordic Semiconductor community, NSM 2009, was held at Háskólatorg at the campus of the University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 14-17 June 2009. Support was provided by the University of Iceland. Almost 50 participants presented a broad range of topics covering semiconductor materials and devices as well as related material science interests. The conference provided a forum for Nordic and international scientists to present and discuss new results and ideas concerning the fundamentals and applications of semiconductor materials. The meeting aim was to advance the progress of Nordic science and thus aid in future worldwide technological advances concerning technology, education, energy and the environment. Topics Theory and fundamental physics of semiconductors Emerging semiconductor technologies (for example III-V integration on Si, novel Si devices, graphene) Energy and semiconductors Optical phenomena and optical devices MEMS and sensors Program 14 June Registration 13:00-17:00 15 June Meeting program 09:30-17:00 and Poster Session I 16 June Meeting program 09:30-17:00 and Poster Session II 17 June Excursion and dinner

  4. Aspen Delineation - Aspen Delineation Project [ds362

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands, where aspen assessment data was gathered. Aspen assessment information corresponding to this polygon layer can...

  5. 23rd International Conference on Flexible Automation & Intelligent Manufacturing

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings includes the set of revised papers from the 23rd International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing (FAIM 2013). This conference aims to provide an international forum for the exchange of leading edge scientific knowledge and industrial experience regarding the development and integration of the various aspects of Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing Systems covering the complete life-cycle of a company’s Products and Processes. Contents will include topics such as: Product, Process and Factory Integrated Design, Manufacturing Technology and Intelligent Systems, Manufacturing Operations Management and Optimization and Manufacturing Networks and MicroFactories.

  6. 23rd Workshop of the Italian Neural Networks Society (SIREN)

    Esposito, Anna; Morabito, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This volume collects a selection of contributions which has been presented at the 23rd Italian Workshop on Neural Networks, the yearly meeting of the Italian Society for Neural Networks (SIREN). The conference was held in Vietri sul Mare, Salerno, Italy during May 23-24, 2013. The annual meeting of SIREN is sponsored by International Neural Network Society (INNS), European Neural Network Society (ENNS) and IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (CIS). The book – as well as the workshop-  is organized in two main components, a special session and a group of regular sessions featuring different aspects and point of views of artificial neural networks, artificial and natural intelligence, as well as psychological and cognitive theories for modeling human behaviors and human machine interactions, including Information Communication applications of compelling interest.  .

  7. 23rd workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Makinwa, Kofi

    2015-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 23rd workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design.  Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, serving as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development.    • Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing; • Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; • Presents material in a tutorial-based format.

  8. EDITORIAL: 23rd International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'14)

    2015-03-01

    Dear Readers, The 23rd annual International Laser Physics Workshop, LPHYS'14, took place in the City of Sofia, Bulgaria. 361 participants from 35 countries attended the conference. It was hosted by the Institute of Electronics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. This year's Workshop was dedicated to paying tribute to two major events: • 50th anniversary of 1964 Nobel Prize in physics, • 145th anniversary of the establishment of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. LPHYS'14 has been taken under the High Patronage of Rosen Plevneliev, President of the Republic of Bulgaria. The LPHYS'14 Steering Committee and the Advisory & Program Committee would like to extend their sincere gratitude to Professor Sanka Gateva (Co-Chair) and Professor Ekaterina Borisova (Head of the Local Organizing Committee) and to their team for the outstanding job performed in organizing, arranging, managing and putting in order the conference. Their combined efforts lead to a successful result. In this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series you will find selected proceedings of the Workshop in Sofia. Please make a note that the 24th annual International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'15) will take place from August 21 to August 25, 2015 in the city of Shanghai, China hosted by Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. With kind regards, Steering and Advisory & Program committees LPHYS'14

  9. The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society (ETRS) in Reims, France

    Von den Hoff, Johannes W; Ågren, Sven Per Magnus; Coulomb, Bernard;

    2014-01-01

    The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society, Reims, France, October 23 to 25, 2013 focused on tissue repair and regenerative medicine covering topics such as stem cells, biomaterials, tissue engineering, and burns.......The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society, Reims, France, October 23 to 25, 2013 focused on tissue repair and regenerative medicine covering topics such as stem cells, biomaterials, tissue engineering, and burns....

  10. Aspen Characteristics - Aspen Delineation Project [ds361

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit (Placer and...

  11. Study Of The Solar Wind Parameters During The 23rd Solar Cycle

    In this paper we study the solar wind parameters during the 23rd solar cycle and the possible correlation between them. Those parameters' data, which are Alfven Mach number, plasma beta, flow speed, proton density and temperature, dynamic pressure, average magnetic field, Bx and By, has been taken from OMNI 2. The first part of this project is about analysis and correlation of the data, using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient, during the 11 years of the 23rd cycle. The second part is about Wavelet analysis on those parameters during the 21st, 22nd, 23rd solar cycles in comparison with them. We found that each parameter has different behavior in every cycle and certain periodicities that appear constantly.

  12. Minutes of the 23rd meeting of the International Nuclear Data Committee

    The document contains the reports of the two working groups on 'Nuclear Data Dissemination and Co-ordination' and 'Nuclear Data Technology Transfer and Training', the full report of the 23rd meeting of the International Nuclear Data Committee, and seven appendices

  13. Conference Support, 23rd Western Photosynthesis Conference 2014, Final Technical Report

    Wachter, Rebekka [Arizona State University

    2015-01-12

    The Western Photosynthesis Conference is a regional conference that is held on an annual basis to bring together researchers primarily from the Western United States to share their newest research advances on photosynthetic processes. The 23rd conference was focused on both fundamental and more applied research on the biological conversion of solar energy to various energy storage forms. Several particular areas of solar energy conversion were emphasized in this conference (see below). Some of these topics, such as carbon limitations on photosynthesis, biomimicry and phenotyping, have traditionally not been incorporated extensively in the Western Photosynthesis Conference. We found that these topics have substantially broadened of the scope of this meeting.

  14. Cohousing - 23RD ANNUAL JOHN K. FRIESEN CONFERENCE "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" May 28-29, 2014

    Durrett, Charles; Carpenter, Tricia; Critchlow, Margaret; Forrester, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This video comprises an address to the attendees of the 23rd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" held May 28-29, 2014, Vancouver, BC. The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and associated Gerontology Department are pleased to welcome you to the 23rd John K. Friesen Conference. This year’s conference, organized and hosted in cooperation with the Lifelong Learning Adults 55+ Program, explores a range of tenure arrangements,...

  15. Wrap Up - 23RD ANNUAL JOHN K. FRIESEN CONFERENCE "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" May 28-29, 2014

    Gutman, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    This video comprises an address to the attendees of the 23rd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" held May 28-29, 2014, Vancouver, BC.   The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and associated Gerontology Department are pleased to welcome you to the 23rd John K. Friesen Conference. This year’s conference, organized and hosted in cooperation with the Lifelong Learning Adults 55+ Program, explores a range of tenure arr...

  16. Aspen management for the 21st century

    Navratil, S.; Chapman, P.B. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    A symposium was held to discuss the management of the aspen resource for fiber and other uses, along with public concerns regarding the aspen resource. Papers were presented on aspen regeneration, the role of balsam poplar, aspen inventory, modelling aspen growth and yield, aspen harvesting, aspen management and the environment, integrated resource management, wildlife and aspen management, genetic improvement of poplars, aspen stand thinning, sustainable development of the aspen resource, private land forestry, and the effect of climate change on aspen in Canada. A separate abstract has been prepared for one paper from this symposium.

  17. Proceedings of the 23rd Seismic Research Symposium: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 23rd Seismic Research Review: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions, held 2-5 October, 2001 in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  18. JAIF's 23rd nuclear industry survey: strengthening industrial foundations under low economic growth

    Each year since the beginning of nuclear development in Japan, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum has conducted the survey of the nuclear-related aspects in mining and manufacturing industries, electric utilities, trading firms, etc., regarding their expenditures, sales and personnel. The results of the 23rd survey for fiscal 1981 (April, 1981, to March, 1982,) are described. The salient points in the year, as compared with fiscal 1980, are as follows: (trend in expenditures) nuclear-related expenditures exceeded yen2 trillion, up 12 %; the operation and maintenance costs of electric utilities varied, but overall, up 25 %; the nuclear-related expenditures of mining and manufacturing industries were up 34 %; (trend in sales) the new record in mining and manufacturing industries - the sales topped yen1 trillion; the sales of reactor equipments rose by 59 %; the sales by mining and manufacturing industries to electric utilities up 42 %; the nuclear-related exports of mining and manufacturing industries grew by 13 %; the revenues and sales exceeded the expenditures in mining and manufacturing industries. (Mori, K.)

  19. Satellite observations of the volcanic plume from the 23rd April 2015 eruption of Calbuco volcano

    Hayer, Catherine; Carboni, Elisa; Ventress, Lucy; Povey, Adam; Grainger, Roy

    2016-04-01

    Calbuco volcano, Chile, erupted on 23rd April 2015, producing an eruption column reported to reach 17 km. The eruption was captured on the IASI NRT website (http://www.nrt-atmos.cems.rl.ac.uk/). The data were then reprocessed using the iterative optimal estimation retrieval developed by the EODG group at University of Oxford to determine the SO2 atmospheric loading and the altitude of the plume over time. The atmospheric loading was measured as 0.3 - 0.4 Tg of SO2 over the first 2 days. It is thought that the eruption was relatively ash poor, with the majority of the ash falling out within the first couple of days. The retrieved altitude of the plume is consistent with the range initially reported, with the core of the plume reaching 15 - 18 km. When the SO2 plume reached the west coast of South Africa, it was caught in a cyclonic system, causing it to remain in the same region for several days with a highly constrained core. A SO2 depletion rate and conversion time to H2SO4 are calculated from this data. The data from the IASI instruments are compared to CALIOP lidar overpasses as well as data from the MLS & OSIRIS instruments. The HYSPLIT trajectory model is used to investigate the evolution of the plume and to corroborate the altitudes retrieved by IASI.

  20. PREFACE: 23rd International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT-23)

    Gupta, Satish C.

    2012-07-01

    The 23rd AIRAPT International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology was held at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, from 25-30 September 2011. This conference is part of the series of AIRAPT International Conferences which are held biennially. AIRAPT is an acronym for the French title which translates as 'International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology'. This was the second time the AIRAPT Conference was organized in India. The first was held 20 years ago at the National Aeronautical Laboratory, Bangalore in 1991. The 23rd Conference covered many important topics in the area of both static and dynamic high pressures including theoretical and experimental investigations on the response of materials under high pressures, new developments using neutron and synchrotron sources, investigations on superconductivity under high pressure, studies of geophysical and planetary sciences, biosciences, and the synthesis of new materials. The conference program included Bridgman award lecture, Jemieson award lecture, seven plenary talks, 85 invited talks, 83 oral presentations and about 195 posters. In all there were 372 presentations. 285 scientists from 19 countries participated in the conference. The countries represented included Austria, Canada, China, Estonia, France, Germany, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Nepal, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, Ukraine and USA. Many new developments were presented, for example, measurement techniques using the new generation synchrotron sources, more powerful neutron sources and much brighter laser sources; integration of gas-gun with synchrotron source; the achievement of multi-megabar pressures in shock-less dynamic compressions; and capabilities to synthesize centimeter size diamonds with better quality. All these developments have opened up new opportunities for understanding the physics of materials under high pressures. I would like

  1. Aspen Delineation - Inyo National Forest [ds366

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands where aspen assessments were collected in the Inyo National Forest, Inyo County, California. The Inyo...

  2. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest [ds370

    California Department of Resources — The database represents polygons of aspen stands in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The Klamath National Forest Region 5 Vegetation aspen...

  3. 33rd Annual conference and the 23rd annual theoretical seminar of the South African Institute of Physics

    The 33rd annual conference and the 23rd annual theoretical seminar of the South African Institute of Physics was held from 4-8 July 1988 at Rhodes University, Grahamstown. This publication contains only the abstracts of seminars delivered on the conference. The topics that were covered include the various facets of physics such as solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, optics and spectroscopy, solar-terrestrial physics, eduction, and applied and industrial physics

  4. PREFACE: 23rd Congress of the International Commission for Optics (ICO 23)

    Salgueiro, J. R.; Flores-Arias, M. T.; Vázquez-Dorrío, J. B.; Guzmán, Á.; Arakawa, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The 23rd Congress of the International Commission for Optics (ICO) was held in Santiago de Compostela (Spain) 26-29 August 2014, organized by the Universities of Vigo and Santiago de Compostela. Approximately 450 people attended the conference, sharing their knowledge in the cheerful, warm atmosphere of this lovely city. The conference was extremely successful in contributing to the mission of the ICO: to contribute worldwide, on an international basis, to the progress and diffusion of scientific and technological knowledge on optics and photonics. Optics and photonics have reached a critical level of importance for the development of our societies and are present in a great many aspects of our technological progress, from communication systems supporting the Internet to the most modern techniques in medicine. Consistent with the conference slogan Enlightening the Future, the meeting stressed the importance of optical science as a key to technological progress in the coming years. UNESCO's designation of 2015 as the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies (www.light2015.org) acknowledges the importance of raising global awareness of how light and light-based technologies are present in a large fraction of today's advances and how they can address challenges in important areas such as energy, education, agriculture, and health. The four-day conference highlighted eleven plenary talks by outstanding scientists working in important areas of optics and photonics. A. Aspect, T. Kippenberg (2013 ICO Prize awardee) and K. Razewski (2013 ICO Galileo Galilei Award) spoke on quantum optics; P. Russell and Yu. Kivshar lectured on topics related to optical processing devices as optical fibers and metamaterials for light shaping; N. X. Fang (2011 ICO Prize), U. Woggon, and A. Alú (2013 IUPAP Young Scientists Prize) discussed applications of optics to nanoscience; and K. Dholakia and J. Widjaja (2008 Galileo Galilei Award) presented in their plenaries

  5. PREFACE: 23rd National Symposium on Plasma Science & Technology (PLASMA-2008)

    Mago, V. K.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P. V.; Patil, D. S.; Das, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    It is our pleasure to present the proceedings of the 23rd National Symposium on Plasma Science and Technology (PLASMA-2008) held at Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai, 10- December 2008 in association with the Plasma Science Society of India. The Plasma Science Society of India has been holding regular symposia on general topics related to Plasma. The symposium was designed to provide a forum for young researchers in Plasma Science and Technology to interact with eminent plasma scientists from India and abroad and to present their work. The scope of the symposium included frontline research in Basic Plasma Physics as well as significant advances in Plasma Technology. In view of the ever-growing importance of Plasma Science and Technology to India's Nuclear Energy program, the focal theme of the symposium was chosen as 'Plasmas in Nuclear Fuel Cycle'. The scientific program of this four day symposium consisted of review talks, invited topical lectures, contributed oral and poster presentations in the following areas of Plasma Science & Technology. Basic Plasma Physics, simulations and modeling (BP) Nuclear fusion and Technology (NF) Space & Astrophysical Plasma(SA) Exotic Plasmas, Non-linear Dynamics(EP) Laser Plasma Interaction and Beam Physics (LP) Industrial applications of plasmas (IP) Plasma Diagnostics(PD) Plasmas and clean environment(PC) There was also a Special Session devoted to the focal theme Plasmas in Nuclear Fuel Cycle (PANFC) Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology (ANFT) Physics and technology of Processing Plasmas in Nuclear Fuel Cycle (PPNFC). Plasma Technology finds wide applications not only in nuclear, space and defense-related industries but also in medical, nano-technology and semiconductor industries. Plasma technologies have distinguished themselves in terms of compactness, process efficiency, techno economics and innovative possibilities. As we advance into the new technology era, there is a need for evolving strategies to apply the

  6. Report on the 44th International Symposium: Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, 23rd-26th February 2016, Opatija, Croatia

    Igor Kovačev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The 44th International Symposium Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering was held on 23rd-26th February 2016 in Grand Hotel Adriatic Opatija, Republic of Croatia. The principle Organiser, Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb was supported by the following frameworks: Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University J.J. Strossmayer, Osijek, Department of Bio-systems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Lifesciences, University of Maribor (Slovenia, Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, National institute for agricultural machinery - INMA Bucharest (Romania and Croatian Agricultural Engineering Society. In addition, CIGR, EurAgEng and AAAE bestowed their support and endorsement on the Event.

  7. How do I decide what’s right for me? - 23RD ANNUAL JOHN K. FRIESEN CONFERENCE "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" May 28-29, 2014

    McGrenera, Kathy; Cusack, Sandra; Hightower, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This video comprises an address to the attendees of the 23rd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" held May 28-29, 2014, Vancouver, BC. The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and associated Gerontology Department are pleased to welcome you to the 23rd John K. Friesen Conference. This year’s conference, organized and hosted in cooperation with the Lifelong Learning Adults 55+ Program, explores a range of tenure arrangements,...

  8. THE POWER OF COMMUNITY - 23RD ANNUAL JOHN K. FRIESEN CONFERENCE "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" May 28-29, 2014

    Durrett, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This video comprises an address to the attendees of the FREE PUBLIC LECTURE that was part of the 23rd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" held May 28-29, 2014, Vancouver, BC. The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and associated Gerontology Department are pleased to welcome you to the 23rd John K. Friesen Conference. This year’s conference, organized and hosted in cooperation with the Lifelong Learning Adults 55+ Program,...

  9. Welcome and Introduction - 23RD ANNUAL JOHN K. FRIESEN CONFERENCE "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" May 28-29, 2014

    Wister, Andrew; Kaplan, Rosalyn

    2014-01-01

    This video comprises an address to the attendees of the 23rd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" held May 28-29, 2014, Vancouver, BC.   The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and associated Gerontology Department are pleased to welcome you to the 23rd John K. Friesen Conference. This year’s conference, organized and hosted in cooperation with the Lifelong Learning Adults 55+ Program, explores a range of tenure arr...

  10. Setting the Stage for Discussion - 23RD ANNUAL JOHN K. FRIESEN CONFERENCE "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" May 28-29, 2014

    Gutman, Gloria; Teakles, Sarena; Ungerson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This video comprises an address to the attendees of the 23rd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" held May 28-29, 2014, Vancouver, BC. The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and associated Gerontology Department are pleased to welcome you to the 23rd John K. Friesen Conference. This year’s conference, organized and hosted in cooperation with the Lifelong Learning Adults 55+ Program, explores a range of tenure arrangements,...

  11. Life-lease Projects - 23RD ANNUAL JOHN K. FRIESEN CONFERENCE "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" May 28-29, 2014

    Mancer, Kate; Ray, Judith

    2014-01-01

    This video comprises an address to the attendees of the 23rd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" held May 28-29, 2014, Vancouver, BC. The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and associated Gerontology Department are pleased to welcome you to the 23rd John K. Friesen Conference. This year’s conference, organized and hosted in cooperation with the Lifelong Learning Adults 55+ Program, explores a range of tenure arrangements,...

  12. Renters at Risk - 23RD ANNUAL JOHN K. FRIESEN CONFERENCE "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" May 28-29, 2014

    Isaak, Sharon; Bustamante, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    This video comprises an address to the attendees of the 23rd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" held May 28-29, 2014, Vancouver, BC. The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and associated Gerontology Department are pleased to welcome you to the 23rd John K. Friesen Conference. This year’s conference, organized and hosted in cooperation with the Lifelong Learning Adults 55+ Program, explores a range of tenure arrangements,...

  13. The “Village” Concept - 23RD ANNUAL JOHN K. FRIESEN CONFERENCE "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" May 28-29, 2014

    Scharlach, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This video comprises an address to the attendees of the 23rd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" held May 28-29, 2014, Vancouver, BC. The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and associated Gerontology Department are pleased to welcome you to the 23rd John K. Friesen Conference. This year’s conference, organized and hosted in cooperation with the Lifelong Learning Adults 55+ Program, explores a range of tenure arrangements,...

  14. Aspen Delineation - Lassen National Forest [ds372

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (LASSEN_NF_EAGLELAKE_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the in the Eagle...

  15. Aspen Delineation - Sierra State Parks [ds380

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SIERRA_SP_PTS) collected in aspen stands on lands administered by the...

  16. Aspen Delineation - Plumas National Forest [ds374

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (PLUMAS_NF_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Plumas National Forest,...

  17. Aspen Delineation - Sequoia National Forest [ds378

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SEQUOIA_NF_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Cannell Meadows Ranger...

  18. Aspen Fire, Arizona

    2003-01-01

    On June 26, NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the Aspen fire burning out of control north of Tucson, AZ. As of that date, the fire had consumed more than 27,000 acres and destroyed more than 300 homes, mostly in the resort community of Summerhaven, according to news reports. These data are being used by NASA's Wildfire Response Team and the US Forest Service to assess the intensity of the burn for future remediation efforts.This image was acquired on June 26, 2003 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on Terra. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide

  19. A report from the 23rd European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology Congress (October 8-12 - Amsterdam, The Netherlands).

    Rabasseda, X

    2014-10-01

    The 23rd Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology started in Amsterdam with a day dedicated mostly to courses, during which electronic posters were also available. Scientists and researchers attending the conference had an opportunity for reviewing the latter investigations in dermatology through a series of computer terminals showing posters and allowing for e-mail discussions with the presenters. In a number of presentations, psoriasis was one of the major focuses of interest during EADV. New clinical research with emerging biologics and studies to validate the bioequivalence of biosimilars versus their originator monoclonal antibodies centered the scientific attractions towards which researchers and clinicians attending the conference were drawn. However, among the electronic posters at the conference, the results of initial clinical trials with a number of potential new therapies for other skin conditions were also presented. While shying away from psoriasis, a "late-breaking news in dermatology" session, wherein the results of clinical trials with innovative therapies for cutaneous diseases were reported, included large trials with established drugs aiming at novel indications, as well as first-in-human trials to validate the potential of investigational drugs. This and additional information and data reported during the conference and related with treatment for skin and skin structure diseases are summarized in the following report. PMID:25374969

  20. Study of Regenerated Plants Aspen from Callus

    G. A. PETROVA; Kalashnikova, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of an experiment for obtaining healthy seed aspen by micropropagation. The studies we have obtained from callus tissue regenerated plants aspen, various different growth rate. Were obtained two types of plants: plants, characterized by rapid growth and plants, which are characterized by slow growth. The data of biochemical studies on the content of soluble phenolic compounds in plants regenerated aspen. So plants with rapid growth during the five passages, th...

  1. Aspen Characteristics - Sierra State Parks [ds379

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands on lands administrated by the Sierra District, California...

  2. Aspen Characteristics - Plumas National Forest [ds373

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Plumas National Forest, Beckwourth Ranger District...

  3. Aspen Characteristics - Sequoia National Forest [ds377

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Cannell Meadows Ranger District, Sequoia National...

  4. Aspen Characteristics - Klamath National Forest [ds369

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected with known aspen stands in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County,...

  5. "Intelligence and Civilisation": A Ludwig Mond Lecture Delivered at the University of Manchester on 23rd October 1936 by Godfrey H. Thomson. A Reprinting with Background and Commentary

    Deary, Ian J.; Lawn, Martin; Brett, Caroline E.; Bartholomew, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Here we reprint, and provide background and a commentary on, a recently-rediscovered lecture by Godfrey H. Thomson entitled, "Intelligence and civilisation." It was delivered at the University of Manchester, UK, on 23rd October, 1936, printed in 1937 in the short-lived "Journal of the University of Manchester" and as a pamphlet in Edinburgh. It…

  6. Education's Role in Land Use Planning. National Conference of the Conservation Education Association (23rd, University of Portland, Portland, Oregon, August 15-19, 1976).

    1976

    Presented is an outline of the program and abstracts of most presented papers for the 23rd National Conference of the Conservation Education Association held in August, 1976. The theme of the conference was Education's Role in Land Use Planning. Papers presented include a variety of topics related to land use, conservation education, natural…

  7. Aspen Delineation - El Dorado National Forest [ds364

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands, where aspen assessments were gathered in the Eldorado National Forest, Eldorado and Amador Counties,...

  8. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest, EUI [ds368

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands where aspen assessments were collected in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The...

  9. IBC’s 23rd Annual Antibody Engineering, 10th Annual Antibody Therapeutics International Conferences and the 2012 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society

    Klöhn, Peter-Christian; Wuellner, Ulrich; Zizlsperger, Nora; Zhou, Yu; Tavares, Daniel; Berger, Sven; Zettlitz, Kirstin A.; Proetzel, Gabriele; Yong, May; Begent, Richard H.J.; Reichert, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    The 23rd Annual Antibody Engineering, 10th Annual Antibody Therapeutics international conferences, and the 2012 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, organized by IBC Life Sciences with contributions from The Antibody Society and two Scientific Advisory Boards, were held December 3–6, 2012 in San Diego, CA. The meeting drew over 800 participants who attended sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to antibody research and development. As a prelude to the main events, a pre-conference ...

  10. Aspen Characteristics - Lassen National Forest [ds371

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected in aspen stands in the in the Eagle Lake Ranger District, Lassen National...

  11. Abstracts of the 23rd Annual Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE). September 13 - 16, 2011, Barcelona, Spain.

    2011-09-01

    The International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE) is an international organization with almost 1000 members from more than 60 countries. The annual international conference brings together many members and non-members and provides an excellent forum for the discussion of problems and benefits related to the environment and human health. Specific themes for the 23rd Annual Conference include: Sustainable transport and health: Impact of transport on health and approaches to reduce health impacts, Impact of climate change: from water scarcity to Saharan dust episodes, Early exposure - later life: in utero and early life exposures and effects in later life, New methods and technologies. PMID:21896395

  12. Solar Energetic Particle Events at the Rise Phase of the 23rd Solar Activity Cycle Registered aboard the Spacecraft "INTERBALL-2"

    Vladislav Timofeev

    2000-09-01

    The experiment with 10K-80 aboard the INTER-BALL-2 (which detects protons with energies > 7 , 27-41, 41-58, 58-88, 88-180 and 180-300 MeV) registered six events of the solar energetic particle (SEP) increase. These events are during the initial rise phase of the 23rd solar activity cycle. Solar flares with the SEP generation are accompanied by coronal mass ejection (CME). Here we analyze the dynamics of the differential energy spectrum at different phases of the SEP increase.

  13. 23rd April 2008 - Nobel Prize in Physics 1987 J. G. Bednorz visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with IBM Zurich Research Laboratory colleagues guided by L. Bottura, N. Catalan Lasheras and Y. Papaphilippou.

    Maximilien brice

    2008-01-01

    23rd April 2008 - Nobel Prize in Physics 1987 J. G. Bednorz visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with IBM Zurich Research Laboratory colleagues guided by L. Bottura, N. Catalan Lasheras and Y. Papaphilippou.

  14. 23rd August 2011 - Turkish Representatives of the Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges, E. Uluatam and S. Kologlu, visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Engineering Department Head R. Saban.

    Benoit Jeannet

    2011-01-01

    23rd August 2011 - Turkish Representatives of the Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges, E. Uluatam and S. Kologlu, visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Engineering Department Head R. Saban.

  15. Mixed Tenure, Special Interest/Ethno-Cultural and Campus of Care Projects - 23RD ANNUAL JOHN K. FRIESEN CONFERENCE "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" May 28-29, 2014

    Baxter, Lori; Love, Teena; Pike, Ron

    2014-01-01

    This video comprises an address to the attendees of the 23rd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" held May 28-29, 2014, Vancouver, BC. The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and associated Gerontology Department are pleased to welcome you to the 23rd John K. Friesen Conference. This year’s conference, organized and hosted in cooperation with the Lifelong Learning Adults 55+ Program, explores a range of tenure arrangements,...

  16. Things to Consider Before Selling Your Home and Moving into a Rental Unit or Assisted Living - 23RD ANNUAL JOHN K. FRIESEN CONFERENCE "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" May 28-29, 2014

    Lewis, Martha Jane; Emmerton, Jim; Jina, Al

    2014-01-01

    This video comprises an address to the attendees of the 23rd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" held May 28-29, 2014, Vancouver, BC. The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and associated Gerontology Department are pleased to welcome you to the 23rd John K. Friesen Conference. This year’s conference, organized and hosted in cooperation with the Lifelong Learning Adults 55+ Program, explores a range of tenure arrangements,...

  17. Support and Information Services, Adaptable (Flex) Housing, Modular Housing and Funding for Housing Adaptations - 23RD ANNUAL JOHN K. FRIESEN CONFERENCE "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" May 28-29, 2014

    Kaaij, Christien; Bloch, Kara-Leigh; Parker, Tom; Siggner, Rebecca; Sandhu, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This video comprises an address to the attendees of the 23rd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" held May 28-29, 2014, Vancouver, BC. The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and associated Gerontology Department are pleased to welcome you to the 23rd John K. Friesen Conference. This year’s conference, organized and hosted in cooperation with the Lifelong Learning Adults 55+ Program, explores a range of tenure arrangements,...

  18. Aspen Delineation - Plumas National Forest, FRRD [ds376

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (PLUMAS_NF_FEATHERRIVER_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Plumas...

  19. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Swanson, David K; Schmitt, Craig L; Shirley, Diane M; Erickson, Vicky; Schuetz, Kenneth J; Tatum, Michael L; Powell, David C

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a discussion of aspen conservation and management techniques such as fencing, conifer removal, and artificial propagation. Local data on bird use of as...

  20. Experiential Education at Aspen High School.

    Burson, George

    1981-01-01

    Aspen High School's (Colorado) Experiential Education Week, developed to provide a "real-world" experience for students from a small, mountain, tourist-oriented community, is planned by both student and faculty; the whole process encourages both self-reliant and responsible students and develops positive student-teacher and peer relationships.…

  1. Selected papers from the 23rd MicroMechanics and Microsystems Europe Workshop (MME 2012) (Ilmenau, Germany, September 9-12, 2012)

    Hoffmann, Martin

    2013-07-01

    In September 2012, the 23rd MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME) took place in Ilmenau, Germany. With about 120 participants from 20 countries and 76 accepted presentations, the workshop series turned out to be a successful platform for young scientists to present their work to our scientific community. Traditionally, the interaction is an important aspect of this workshop: while short presentations introduce the posters, an extended poster session allows intensive discussion which is quite useful to the participants. The discussion very often extends into the breaks and the evening events. It is also encouraging for them that the best presentations are selected and invited to submit a full paper to this journal. Thanks to the support of IOP Publishing, this next logical step to present work to the scientific world is made possible. In this issue, you can find the best papers that have been selected by a committee during the workshop taking the written workshop contribution, the poster and the presentation into account. Again, all areas of micromechanics from new technology developments up to systems integration were presented at the workshop at different levels of completion. The selected papers present those results which are almost complete. Nevertheless, it is nice to see that in some cases topics grow over the years from 'nice ideas' to realized system concepts. And although this is the 23rd workshop, it is clear that micromechanics is a topic that is not running short of new ideas. First, I would like to thank the authors of the selected papers for each of their individual excellent contributions. My gratitude also goes to my fellow members in the programme committee (Per Ohlckers, Martin Hill and Sami Franssila) for their cooperation in the selection of invited speakers and submitted papers, as well as the anonymous Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (JMM) reviewers for their careful selection of the final papers presented here. Last, but not

  2. Automated Design Space Exploration with Aspen

    Kyle L. Spafford

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Architects and applications scientists often use performance models to explore a multidimensional design space of architectural characteristics, algorithm designs, and application parameters. With traditional performance modeling tools, these explorations forced users to first develop a performance model and then repeatedly evaluate and analyze the model manually. These manual investigations proved laborious and error prone. More importantly, the complexity of this traditional process often forced users to simplify their investigations. To address this challenge of design space exploration, we extend our Aspen (Abstract Scalable Performance Engineering Notation language with three new language constructs: user-defined resources, parameter ranges, and a collection of costs in the abstract machine model. Then, we use these constructs to enable automated design space exploration via a nonlinear optimization solver. We show how four interesting classes of design space exploration scenarios can be derived from Aspen models and formulated as pure nonlinear programs. The analysis tools are demonstrated using examples based on Aspen models for a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform, the CoMD molecular dynamics proxy application, and the DARPA Streaming Sensor Challenge Problem. Our results show that this approach can compose and solve arbitrary performance modeling questions quickly and rigorously when compared to the traditional manual approach.

  3. Aspen Characteristics - Plumas National Forest, FRRD [ds375

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Plumas National Forest, Feather River Ranger...

  4. Aspen Characteristics - El Dorado National Forest [ds363

    California Department of Resources — The database represents aspen stand locations and field assessments conducted in the Eldorado National Forest, Eldorado and Amador Counties, California. Data was...

  5. Inventory of aspen trees in spruce dominated stands in conservation area

    Matti Maltamo; Annukka Pesonen; Lauri Korhonen; Jari Kouki; Mikko Vehmas; Kalle Eerikäinen

    2015-01-01

    Background The occurrence of aspen trees increases the conservation value of mature conifer dominated forests. Aspens typically occur as scattered individuals among major tree species, and therefore the inventory of aspens is challenging. Methods We characterized aspen populations in a boreal nature reserve using diameter distribution, spatial pattern, and forest attributes: volume, number of aspens, number of large aspen stems and basal area median diameter. The data were collecte...

  6. Occurrence of Sporadic -E layer during the Ending Phase of Solar Cycle 23rd and Rising Phase of Solar Cycle 24th over the Anomaly Crest Region Bhopal

    Bhawre, Purushottam; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Tripathi, Sharad Chandra; Mansoori, Azad Ahmad; Aslam A., M.; Khan, Parvaiz A.; Purohit, Pramod K.; Waheed, Malik Abdul; Khatarkar, Prakash

    Ionospheric anomaly crest regions are most challenging for scientific community to understand its mechanism and investigation, for this purpose we are investigating some inospheric result for this region. The study is based on the ionogram data recorded by IPS-71 Digital Ionosonde installed over anomaly crust region Bhopal (Geo.Lat.23.2° N, Geo. Long77.4° E, Dip latitude18.4°) over a four year period from January 2007 to December 2010, covering the ending phase of 23rd Solar Cycle and starting phase of 24th solar cycle. This particular period is felt to be very suitable for examining the sunspot number and it encompasses periods of low solar activities. Quarterly ionograms are analyzed for 24 hours during these study years and have been carefully examined to note down the presence of sporadic- E. We also note down the space weather activities along with the study. The studies are divided in mainly four parts with space and geomagnetic activities during these periods. The occurrence probability of this layer is highest in summer solstice, moderate during equinox and low during winter solstice. Remarkable occurrence peaks appear from June to July in summer and from December to January in winter. The layer occurrence showed a double peak variation with distinct layer groups, in the morning (0200 LT) and the other during evening (1800 LT).The morning layer descent was associated with layer density increase indicating the strengthening of the layer while it decreased during the evening layer descent. The result indicates the presence of semi-diurnal tide over the location while the higher descent velocities could be due to the modulation of the ionization by gravity waves along with the tides. The irregularities associated with the gradient-drift instability disappear during the counter electrojet and the current flow is reversed in westward. Keyword: ionosphere, solar cycle, sporadic - E

  7. Studies on Longer Wavelength Type II Radio Bursts Associated with Flares and CMEs during the Rise and Decay Phase of 23rd Solar Cycle

    V. Vasanth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical study on the properties of CMEs and flares associated with DH-type II bursts in the 23rd solar cycle during the period 1997–2008 is carried out. A sample of 229 events from our recent work is used for the present study (Vasanth and Umapathy, 2013. The collected events are divided into two groups as (i solar cycle rise phase events and (ii solar cycle decay phase events. The properties of CMEs in the two groups were compared and the results are presented. It is noted that there is no difference in the properties of type II burst like start frequency and end frequency between the solar cycle rise phase events and decay phase events. The mean CME speed of solar cycle decay phase events (1373 km s−1 is slightly higher than the solar cycle rise phase events (1058 km s−1. The mean CME acceleration of solar cycle decay phase events (−15.18 m s−2 is found to be higher than that of the solar cycle rise phase events (−1.32 m s−2. There exists good correlation between (i CME speed and width and (ii CME speed and acceleration for solar cycle decay phase events (R=0.79, R=-0.80 compared to solar cycle rise phase events (R=0.60, R=-0.57. These results indicate that the type II bursts parameters do not depend upon the time of appearance in the solar cycle.

  8. What Is Community College Excellence? Lessons from the Aspen Prize

    Wyner, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Over the past year, in a process to select the winner of the Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence, the Aspen Institute has convened national experts to define and determine how to measure "excellence," to identify community colleges with high levels of student success, and to help more community colleges understand what can be done to…

  9. Polyploidy in aspen alters plant physiology and drought sensitivity

    Greer, B.; Still, C. J.; Brooks, J. R.; Meinzer, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Polyploids of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) may be better suited to dry climatic conditions than diploids. However, the expression of diploid and polyploid functional traits, including water use efficiency, an important component of drought avoidance and tolerance, are not well understood in quaking aspen. In this study diploid and triploid aspen clones' leaf, ramet, and stand functional traits were measured near the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory in Gothic, Colorado. The physiology of diploid and triploid aspen, including leaf size, chlorophyll content, stomatal size and density and stomatal conductance, as well as growth rates and carbon isotope discrimination in response to climate (measured in tree rings), were found to be significantly different between ploidy levels. These findings demonstrate different sensitivities of diploid and triploid clones to drought related climate stressors which may impact strategies for aspen forest management and conservation.

  10. Coniferyl benzoate in quaking aspen A ruffed grouse feeding deterrent.

    Jakubas, W J; Gullion, G W

    1990-04-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) staminate flower buds and catkins are important food resources for ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus); however, ruffed grouse select only certain quaking aspen to feed upon. Earlier studies indicate that the primary difference between quaking aspen that ruffed grouse feed upon and those not used is the level of coniferyl benzoate in the flower buds. Bioassays show that coniferyl benzoate is a feeding deterrent for ruffed grouse; its effect on ruffed grouse after ingestion has not been tested. Possible physiological effects, based on the chemical properties of coniferyl benzoate and its oxidation products, include inhibition of protein digestion, toxic effects, and antiestrogenic effects. PMID:24263713

  11. Aspen Grupp võitis RKASi / Lemmi Kann

    Kann, Lemmi

    2008-01-01

    Ehitusfirma Aspen Grupp OÜ võitis Tallinna ringkonnakohtus Riigi Kinnisvara AS-i, kes diskvalifitseeris ehitusfirma riigihankelt seaduses olnud maksevõlgnevuse keelu tõttu. Vt. samas: Lahendust ootavad veel kaks kohtuasja

  12. Long-term monitoring of western aspen--lessons learned.

    Strand, E K; Bunting, S C; Starcevich, L A; Nahorniak, M T; Dicus, G; Garrett, L K

    2015-08-01

    Aspen woodland is an important ecosystem in the western United States. Aspen is currently declining in western mountains; stressors include conifer expansion due to fire suppression, drought, disease, heavy wildlife and livestock use, and human development. Forecasting of tree species distributions under future climate scenarios predicts severe losses of western aspen within the next 50 years. As a result, aspen has been selected as one of 14 vital signs for long-term monitoring by the National Park Service Upper Columbia Basin Network. This article describes the development of a monitoring protocol for aspen including inventory mapping, selection of sampling locations, statistical considerations, a method for accounting for spatial dependence, field sampling strategies, and data management. We emphasize the importance of collecting pilot data for use in statistical power analysis and semi-variogram analysis prior to protocol implementation. Given the spatial and temporal variability within aspen stem size classes, we recommend implementing permanent plots that are distributed spatially within and among stands. Because of our careful statistical design, we were able to detect change between sampling periods with desired confidence and power. Engaging a protocol development and implementation team with necessary and complementary knowledge and skills is critical for success. Besides the project leader, we engaged field sampling personnel, GIS specialists, statisticians, and a data management specialist. We underline the importance of frequent communication with park personnel and network coordinators. PMID:26215826

  13. Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions

    Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

    2006-10-01

    The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

  14. Diabetes and pancreatic cancer

    MUNIRAJ, T.; Chari, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is complex. Diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance is present in more than 2/3rd of pancreatic cancer patients. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown a modest increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer in type 2 diabetes, with an inverse relationship to duration of disease. Additionally, recent studies suggest that anti-diabetic medications may modulate the risk of pancreatic cancer in type 2 diabetes. Subjects >50 years of age ...

  15. Orbital Express Mission Operations Planning and Resource Management using ASPEN

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    As satellite equipment and mission operations become more costly, the drive to keep working equipment running with less man-power rises.Demonstrating the feasibility of autonomous satellite servicing was the main goal behind the Orbital Express (OE) mission. Planning the satellite mission operations for OE required the ability to create a plan which could be executed autonomously over variable conditions. The Automated-Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN)tool, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was used to create the schedule of events in each daily plan for the two satellites of the OE mission. This paper presents an introduction to the ASPEN tool, the constraints of the OE domain, the variable conditions that were presented within the mission, and the solution to operations that ASPEN provided. ASPEN has been used in several other domains, including research rovers, Deep Space Network scheduling research, and in flight operations for the ASE project's EO1 satellite. Related work is discussed, as are the future of ASPEN and the future of autonomous satellite servicing.

  16. Populations of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) with different evolutionary histories differ in their climate occupancy.

    Greer, Burke T; Still, Christopher; Howe, Glenn T; Tague, Christina; Roberts, Dar A

    2016-05-01

    Quaking aspens (Populus tremuloides Michx.) are found in diverse habitats throughout North America. While the biogeography of aspens' distribution has been documented, the drivers of the phenotypic diversity of aspen are still being explored. In our study, we examined differences in climate between northern and southwestern populations of aspen, finding large-scale differences between the populations. Our results suggest that northern and southwestern populations live in distinct climates and support the inclusion of genetic and phenotypic data with species distribution modeling for predicting aspens' distribution. PMID:27217950

  17. 76 FR 69279 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy...

    2011-11-08

    ... Aspen Wind Energy Project, Wyoming, and Notice of Segregation of Public Lands AGENCY: Bureau of Land... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy Project (Quaking Aspen..._Aspen_Wind_Energy_WY@blm.gov ; or Mail: 280 Highway 191 N., Rock Springs, WY 82901. Documents...

  18. Radiation regime and canopy architecture in a boreal aspen forest

    This study was part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS). It took place in a mature aspen forest in Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, Canada. The aspen trees were 21.5 m high with a 2–3 m high hazelnut understory. The objectives were: (1) to compare the radiation regime beneath the overstory before and after leaf emergence; (2) to infer the structural characteristics of the aspen canopy leaf inclination and clumping; (3) to determine the seasonal course of the leaf area index (L) for both the overstory and understory. Above-stand radiation measurements were made on a 39m walk-up tower, and understory radiation measurements were made on a tram which moved horizontally back and forth at 0.10 m s−1 on a pair of steel cables 65m in length suspended 4 m above the ground. In addition, several LI-COR LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzers were used to determine the effective leaf area index and the zenith angle dependent extinction coefficient (G(θ)) for both the aspen and the hazelnut throughout the growing season. These measurements were supplemented with destructive sampling of the hazelnut at the peak of the growing season. Before leaf emergence, the ratios of below- to above-aspen solar radiation (S), photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and net radiation (Rn) during most of the day were 0.58, 0.55 and 0.47, respectively. By midsummer, these ratios had fallen to 0.33, 0.26 and 0.26, respectively. The aspen G(θ) was relatively invariant with θ, within ±0.05 of 0.5 throughout the growing season, indicating a spherical distribution of leaf inclination angles (i.e. the leaves were randomly inclined). The hazelnut G(θ) has a cosine response with respect to θ, which was consistent with the generally planophile leaf distribution for hazelnut. Using canopy gap size distribution theories developed by Chen and Black (1992b, Agric. For. Meteorol., 60: 249–266) and Chen and Cihlar (1995a, Appl. Opt., 34: 6211–6222) based on Miller and Norman

  19. Orbital Express mission operations planning and resource management using ASPEN

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    As satellite equipment and mission operations become more costly, the drive to keep working equipment running with less labor-power rises. Demonstrating the feasibility of autonomous satellite servicing was the main goal behind the Orbital Express (OE) mission. Like a tow-truck delivering gas to a car on the road, the "servicing" satellite of OE had to find the "client" from several kilometers away, connect directly to the client, and transfer fluid (or a battery) autonomously, while on earth-orbit. The mission met 100% of its success criteria, and proved that autonomous satellite servicing is now a reality for space operations. Planning the satellite mission operations for OE required the ability to create a plan which could be executed autonomously over variable conditions. As the constraints for execution could change weekly, daily, and even hourly, the tools used create the mission execution plans needed to be flexible and adaptable to many different kinds of changes. At the same time, the hard constraints of the plans needed to be maintained and satisfied. The Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) tool, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was used to create the schedule of events in each daily plan for the two satellites of the OE mission. This paper presents an introduction to the ASPEN tool, an overview of the constraints of the OE domain, the variable conditions that were presented within the mission, and the solution to operations that ASPEN provided. ASPEN has been used in several other domains, including research rovers, Deep Space Network scheduling research, and in flight operations for the NASA's Earth Observing One mission's EO1 satellite. Related work is discussed, as are the future of ASPEN and the future of autonomous satellite servicing.

  20. ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process

    Charles W. White III

    2003-09-30

    ASPEN Plus simulations have been created for a CO{sub 2} capture process based on adsorption by monoethanolamine (MEA). Three separate simulations were developed, one each for the flue gas scrubbing, recovery, and purification sections of the process. Although intended to work together, each simulation can be used and executed independently. The simulations were designed as template simulations to be added as a component to other more complex simulations. Applications involving simple cycle or hybrid power production processes were targeted. The default block parameters were developed based on a feed stream of raw flue gas of approximately 14 volume percent CO{sub 2} with a 90% recovery of the CO{sub 2} as liquid. This report presents detailed descriptions of the process sections as well as technical documentation for the ASPEN simulations including the design basis, models employed, key assumptions, design parameters, convergence algorithms, and calculated outputs.

  1. A flexible model for biomass fast pyrolysis in Aspen+

    Kohl, Thomas; Laukkanen, Timo; Järvinen, Mika

    2012-01-01

    In order to estimate the heat of condensation of fast pyrolysis product of woody biomass a model to be used in the chemical process simulation software Aspen+ has been developed based on the composition of wood fast pyrolysis product. A simulation model for biomass fast pyrolysis was developed. The results obtained are in good accordance with values found in the literature. With more specific data (e.g. from measurements) it should be possible to adjust the flexible model to other data. ...

  2. Elevated Rocky Mountain elk numbers prevent positive effects of fire on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment

    Smith, David Solance; Fettig, Stephen M.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most widespread tree species in North America and has supported a unique ecosystem for tens of thousands of years, yet is currently threatened by dramatic loss and possible local extinctions. While multiple factors such as climate change and fire suppression are thought to contribute to aspen’s decline, increased browsing by elk (Cervus elaphus), which have experienced dramatic population increases in the last ∼80 years, may severely inhibit aspen growth and regeneration. Fires are known to favor aspen recovery, but in the last several decades the spatial scale and intensity of wildfires has greatly increased, with poorly understood ramifications for aspen growth. Here, focusing on the 2000 Cerro Grande fire in central New Mexico – one of the earliest fires described as a “mega-fire” - we use three methods to examine the impact of elk browsing on aspen regeneration after a mega-fire. First, we use an exclosure experiment to show that aspen growing in the absence of elk were 3× taller than trees growing in the presence of elk. Further, aspen that were both protected from elk and experienced burning were 8.5× taller than unburned trees growing in the presence of elk, suggesting that the combination of release from herbivores and stimulation from fire creates the largest aspen growth rates. Second, using surveys at the landscape level, we found a correlation between elk browsing intensity and aspen height, such that where elk browsing was highest, aspen were shortest. This relationship between elk browsing intensity and aspen height was stronger in burned (r = −0.53) compared to unburned (r = −0.24) areas. Third, in conjunction with the landscape-level surveys, we identified possible natural refugia, microsites containing downed logs, shrubs etc. that may inhibit elk browsing by physically blocking aspen from elk or by impeding elk’s ability to move through the forest patch. We did not find any

  3. Analysis of Cryogenic Cycle with Process Modeling Tool: Aspen HYSYS

    Joshi, D. M.; Patel, H. K.

    2015-10-01

    Cryogenic engineering deals with the development and improvement of low temperature techniques, processes and equipment. A process simulator such as Aspen HYSYS, for the design, analysis, and optimization of process plants, has features that accommodate the special requirements and therefore can be used to simulate most cryogenic liquefaction and refrigeration processes. Liquefaction is the process of cooling or refrigerating a gas to a temperature below its critical temperature so that liquid can be formed at some suitable pressure which is below the critical pressure. Cryogenic processes require special attention in terms of the integration of various components like heat exchangers, Joule-Thompson Valve, Turbo expander and Compressor. Here, Aspen HYSYS, a process modeling tool, is used to understand the behavior of the complete plant. This paper presents the analysis of an air liquefaction plant based on the Linde cryogenic cycle, performed using the Aspen HYSYS process modeling tool. It covers the technique used to find the optimum values for getting the maximum liquefaction of the plant considering different constraints of other parameters. The analysis result so obtained gives clear idea in deciding various parameter values before implementation of the actual plant in the field. It also gives an idea about the productivity and profitability of the given configuration plant which leads to the design of an efficient productive plant.

  4. Analysis of Cryogenic Cycle with Process Modeling Tool: Aspen HYSYS

    Cryogenic engineering deals with the development and improvement of low temperature techniques, processes and equipment. A process simulator such as Aspen HYSYS, for the design, analysis, and optimization of process plants, has features that accommodate the special requirements and therefore can be used to simulate most cryogenic liquefaction and refrigeration processes. Liquefaction is the process of cooling or refrigerating a gas to a temperature below its critical temperature so that liquid can be formed at some suitable pressure which is below the critical pressure. Cryogenic processes require special attention in terms of the integration of various components like heat exchangers, Joule-Thompson Valve, Turbo expander and Compressor. Here, Aspen HYSYS, a process modeling tool, is used to understand the behavior of the complete plant. This paper presents the analysis of an air liquefaction plant based on the Linde cryogenic cycle, performed using the Aspen HYSYS process modeling tool. It covers the technique used to find the optimum values for getting the maximum liquefaction of the plant considering different constraints of other parameters. The analysis result so obtained gives clear idea in deciding various parameter values before implementation of the actual plant in the field. It also gives an idea about the productivity and profitability of the given configuration plant which leads to the design of an efficient productive plant

  5. The 23rd Stirling Physics Meeting

    1998-01-01

    This was how the chairman, Dennis Chisholm, described the morning's major topic `Higher Still' - the proposed successor to the Scottish Higher Grade and Sixth Year Studies Certificates. It was chosen for this one-day conference on 21 May as the documentation for it had been promised for 1 May. Alas, as the main speaker, Mary Webster, admitted, the materials were still `sitting in a warehouse in Dundee' and the programme has now been postponed for a year! Nevertheless the team, which included Rothwell Glen and Tony Keeley, bravely fielded a series of awkward questions from a critical audience of over 200 physics teachers. Physics with gusto If `Higher Still' was a damp squib Rebecca Crawford's team from Glasgow Science and Technology Outreach set the place ablaze. In their first spectacular demonstration Rebecca lay on a bed of sharp nails while someone stood on top of her! This was followed by a deafening explosion produced by cornflour powder igniting in a tin can used to model a grain silo. Hydrogen was then produced by aluminium foil in a solution of caustic soda, and used to inflate a balloon before exploding it with a flaming torch. Using two 2 mW lasers the green spot produced by one was shown to appear much brighter than the red spot from the other, The Australian demonstrator explained that some of their fire engines were now being painted green instead of red as our eyes are more sensitive to green. A small low-inertia electric motor turned when attached to copper and zinc electrodes inserted first in a glass of Coke and then in a fresh grapefruit. Gas-filled sausage balloons were packed into a flask of liquid nitrogen where they collapsed as the gas inside liquefied. When the bunch of deflated balloons was removed and thrown on to the bench the results were dramatic. As you might expect, the `best wine' was kept to the last. Kenneth Skeldon and two colleagues in the University of Glasgow have built a high voltage generator based on a resonant transformer derived from a standard Tesla coil with a high-Q secondary. This is capable of delivering around a million volts, which produce fantastic lightning flashes. A volunteer from the audience was invited to enter a huge Faraday Cage which was then subjected to these high voltage sparks! For a while the door of the cage jammed but eventually the victim emerged unscathed! This is, of course, not just an entertainment. The Gusto show is taken into schools and targeted at lower secondary pupils about to make their subject choices. The team also gives large scale physics demonstration lectures and could play to 10 000 children in a month. So physics is fun and physics is relevant to everyday life! Support for physics teachers Lesley Glasser chaired the afternoon session, which she opened by introducing the Institute's Education Officer. The Stirling Meeting would not be the same without the `commercial slot' presented again so ably by Catherine Wilson. Physics teachers are an endangered species and the Institute is determined to do whatever it can to support them. Plans are afoot to make sure the Schools Lectures are modified, if necessary, to take account of the educational differences in Scotland. The London-based `Physics in Perspective' course not only introduces sixth-formers to some of the frontiers of physics but gives enough free time for them to visit places of interest in the city - from the Science Museum to Soho. `So they associate physics with enjoyment!' Another Scottish Update Course is planned for teachers, and a brand new glossy booklet, sent free to all schools, will show pupils that choosing physics is a `Smart Move'. Finally the Institute has just started a major post-16 curriculum project which will include a variety of support materials to keep teachers abreast of continuing developments in physics. Each year, IoP Teacher of Physics Awards are given to `outstanding teachers of physics who inspire others to continue with and enjoy their physics'. Ann Jarvie, Deputy Head of St Ninian's High School in Kirkintilloch, certainly felt that this was a fitting description of their physics master Pat Cleary, who was presented with his Award at the Stirling Meeting. Of him she said `He encourages and supports his pupils. He doesn't talk down to them and he is concerned about all pupils, not just the high fliers. He has a great sense of humour and enthuses his pupils. Pat's passion for physics is all-consuming; he will beg, borrow and (almost) steal for physics! He only tolerates senior management because they supply him with money for physics!' Before giving his keynote lecture Professor Russell Stannard presented Pat Cleary with his Award. Venturing beyond physics In this stimulating presentation Russell Stannard not only summarized current thinking in cosmology, he also considered possible theological implications. The universe is a big place consisting of 1011 galaxies each containing 1011 stars. It may be that 1030 stars have planets and so the universe could be teeming with millions of different forms of life. Is size then the most important thing for us? What goes on in the human head is much more interesting than the nuclear reactions of the sun. Surely human consciousness, associated with the complexity of the brain, is of more importance to us than mere size. In the beginning If we ask about the origin of the universe, e.g. `How did it get started?' then we look to science for an answer. On the other hand we might ask a theological question about creation, e.g. `Why is there something rather than nothing?' Current ideas of the Big Bang are based on several independent strands of evidence which Russell discussed in some detail. Space-time `It is idle to look for time before creation, as if time can be found before time.... We should say that time began with creation rather than creation began with time.' This amazingly modern concept - that space and time were created together - was asserted by St Augustine 1500 years ago! If time and space are `welded' together time didn't exist before the Big Bang and so we cannot ask what caused the Big Bang. Cause precedes effect. The future The universe is expanding but at a reduced rate. Will it eventually stop expanding and start to contract? If so, will it reach a point where it again stops and starts to expand again - the Big Bounce? Or will it collapse completely - the Big Crunch? Alternatively will the universe go on expanding forever? The answers to these questions depend on the density of the universe. The density needed to make the universe start to contract is called the critical density. At present the observed density is around 0.3% of critical density. This would suggest that the universe should continue expanding forever. However, the movements of galaxies and clusters of galaxies indicate that there must be some undetected `dark matter' which, calculations show, increases the density of the universe to within a factor of two of critical density. If this is correct the density at the early stages of the Big Bang would have had to be correct to within 1 part in 1060. DIY universe A final word of warning to anyone who aspires to building a better universe! If you make your Big Bang less violent the universe will expand and then collapse to a Big Crunch before life has time to develop. Make it more violent and gases will disperse quickly so that stars and planets cannot form. If you make gravity (G) weaker, nuclear reactions won't be triggered and only brown dwarfs will form. Life will be impossible. Make gravity stronger and only fast-burning massive stars will form. These blue giants last for only a million years and there will be no time for life to evolve. In summary: are we in one of an infinite number of universes because the conditions happen to be just right for us or is this universe a one-off put-up job designed by God? Cosmology neither proves nor disproves the existence of God. However if, on other grounds, you are a believer, current thinking in cosmology shouldn't worry you. Thanks To circle the world in 80 days may be interesting. To encompass the universe in less than 80 minutes is, in the chairperson's words, mind-blowing. The day ended with votes of thanks to all contributors and to Jack Woolsey and his team for organizing the meeting. Jim Jardine

  6. 23rd International Conference on Systems Engineering

    Zydek, Dawid; Chmaj, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    This collection of proceedings from the International Conference on Systems Engineering, Las Vegas, 2014 is orientated toward systems engineering, including topics like aerospace, power systems, industrial automation and robotics, systems theory, control theory, artificial intelligence, signal processing, decision support, pattern recognition and machine learning, information and communication technologies, image processing, and computer vision as well as its applications. The volume’s main focus is on models, algorithms, and software tools that facilitate efficient and convenient utilization of modern achievements in systems engineering.

  7. Genetic Variation in Functional Traits Influences Arthropod Community Composition in Aspen (Populus tremula L.)

    Robinson, Kathryn M; Pär K Ingvarsson; Jansson, Stefan; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod ...

  8. Aquatic Ecosystem Response to Timber Harvesting for the Purpose of Restoring Aspen

    Bobette E Jones; Monika Krupa; Kenneth W Tate

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010) involved two projects located ...

  9. Restoring Aspen Riparian Stands With Beaver on the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    McColley, Samuel D; Tyers, Dan B; Sowell, Bok F

    2011-01-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides) on the Gardiner Ranger District, Gallatin National Forest, have declined over the last half-century. In an attempt to reverse this trend, beaver (Castor canadensis) were reintroduced in Eagle Creek in 1991. In 2005, we assessed the long-term effects of beaver on aspen stands and the associated riparian area in the Eagle Creek drainage. Aspen recovery was estimated by comparing vegetative changes among control sites with (n = 5), active beaver sites (n = 6), sites a...

  10. 2012 Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy and Astrophysics

    Campbell, John; Olivier, Dore; Fox, Patrick; Furic, Ivan; Halkiadakis, Eva; Schmidt, Fabian; Senatore, Leonardo; Smith, Kendrick M; Whiteson, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Aspen Center for Physics Project Summary DE-SC0007313 Budget Period: 1/1/2012 to 12/31/2012 The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 11 to February 17, 2012. Sixty-seven participants from nine countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies. There were 53 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The weeks events included a public lecture-Hunting the Dark Universe given by Neal Weiner from New York University) and attended by 237 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists conducted by Spencer Chang (University of Oregon), Matthew Reece (Harvard University) and Julia Shelton (Yale University) and attended by 67 locals and visitors. While there were no published proceedings, some of the talks are posted online and can be Googled. The workshop was organized by John Campbell (Fermilab), Patrick Fox (Fermilab), Ivan Furic (University of Florida), Eva Halkiadakis (Rutgers University) and Daniel Whiteson (University of California Irvine). Additional information is available at http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=143360. Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era. It was held from January 30 to February 4, 2012. The 62 participants came from 7 countries and attended 43 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists

  11. Design and simulation of heat exchangers using Aspen HYSYS, and Aspen exchanger design and rating for paddy drying application

    Janaun, J.; Kamin, N. H.; Wong, K. H.; Tham, H. J.; Kong, V. V.; Farajpourlar, M.

    2016-06-01

    Air heating unit is one of the most important parts in paddy drying to ensure the efficiency of a drying process. In addition, an optimized air heating unit does not only promise a good paddy quality, but also save more for the operating cost. This study determined the suitable and best specifications heating unit to heat air for paddy drying in the LAMB dryer. In this study, Aspen HYSYS v7.3 was used to obtain the minimum flow rate of hot water needed. The resulting data obtained from Aspen HYSYS v7.3 were used in Aspen Exchanger Design and Rating (EDR) to generate heat exchanger design and costs. The designs include shell and tubes and plate heat exchanger. The heat exchanger was designed in order to produce various drying temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70°C of air with different flow rate, 300, 2500 and 5000 LPM. The optimum condition for the heat exchanger were found to be plate heat exchanger with 0.6 mm plate thickness, 198.75 mm plate width, 554.8 mm plate length and 11 numbers of plates operating at 5000 LPM air flow rate.

  12. Using Aspen plus in thermodynamics instruction a step-by-step guide

    Sandler, Stanley I

    2015-01-01

    A step-by-step guide for students (and faculty) on the use of Aspen in teaching thermodynamics Used for a wide variety of important engineering tasks, Aspen Plus software is a modeling tool used for conceptual design, optimization, and performance monitoring of chemical processes. After more than twenty years, it remains one of the most popular and powerful chemical engineering simulation programs used both industrially and academically. Using Aspen Plus in Thermodynamics Instruction: A Step by Step Guide introduces the reader to the use of Aspen Plus in courses in thermodynamics. It prov

  13. On Failure of China Team in the 23rd Uber Cup Badminton Finals%第23届羽毛球尤伯杯决赛中国队失利分析

    杨宗友; 白莹; 隆承宏

    2012-01-01

    运用录像观察法和数理统计法对第23届尤伯杯羽毛球决赛中国队和韩国队4场比赛的得分情况进行统计分析.结果表明:在单打、双打比赛中,中国队和韩国队在得分方面各有优势,中国队失误太多是造成失利的直接原因,心理素质不够强硬、缺乏比赛经验是造成失利的内在因素.%With the methods of video observation and statistics, an analysis has been made in this paper to generalize the failure elements in the final four games between China and Korea in the 23rd Uber Cup Badminton. Results show that, in singles and doubles games, both China team and Korea team have different advantages in scoring, and that the failure of China team is caused by too many losses, with some inner factors such as weak psychological quality and lack in experience, etc. Thus, this paper, in which some experience and lessons in finals are summed up, can serve as a reference for China women's badminton team.

  14. 23rd June 2010 - IATA Director-General and CEO G. Bisignani signing the guest book with Research and Computing Director S. Bertolucci; visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with L. Bottura; throughout accompanied by Adviser for International relations M. Bona.

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    23rd June 2010 - IATA Director-General and CEO G. Bisignani signing the guest book with Research and Computing Director S. Bertolucci; visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with L. Bottura; throughout accompanied by Adviser for International relations M. Bona.

  15. 23rd May 2011 - University of Liverpool Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Public Orator K. Everest (UK) Mrs Everest in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson D. Charlton, in LHCb surface building with Collaboration Spokesperson A. Golutvin, accompanied throughout by P. Wells and Liverpool University T. Bowcock and M. Klein.

    Maximilen Brice

    2011-01-01

    23rd May 2011 - University of Liverpool Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Public Orator K. Everest (UK) Mrs Everest in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson D. Charlton, in LHCb surface building with Collaboration Spokesperson A. Golutvin, accompanied throughout by P. Wells and Liverpool University T. Bowcock and M. Klein.

  16. 23rd June 2010 - University of Bristol Head of the Aerospace Engineering Department and Professor of Aerospace Dynamics N. Lieven visiting CERN control centre with Beams Department Head P. Collier, visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with R. Veness and CMS control centre with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli and CMS User J. Goldstein.

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2010-01-01

    23rd June 2010 - University of Bristol Head of the Aerospace Engineering Department and Professor of Aerospace Dynamics N. Lieven visiting CERN control centre with Beams Department Head P. Collier, visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with R. Veness and CMS control centre with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli and CMS User J. Goldstein.

  17. 23rd June 2010 - Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization Chief Executive Officer A. Paterson signing a Joint Statement of Intent and the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer; in the ATLAS visitor centre and control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    23rd June 2010 - Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization Chief Executive Officer A. Paterson signing a Joint Statement of Intent and the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer; in the ATLAS visitor centre and control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni.

  18. 23rd May 2008 - CERN Director-General R. Aymar with German Federal Minister of Education and Research A. Schavan, CERN Director-General Designate R. Heuer, Swiss Federal Councillor M. Calmy-Rey and CERN Deputy Director-General and Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen.

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    23rd May 2008 - CERN Director-General R. Aymar with German Federal Minister of Education and Research A. Schavan, CERN Director-General Designate R. Heuer, Swiss Federal Councillor M. Calmy-Rey and CERN Deputy Director-General and Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen.

  19. Ecology, management, and use of aspen and balsam poplar in the Prairie Provinces, Canada. Special report No. 1

    Peterson, E.B.; Peterson, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the ecology, management, and use of aspen and balsam poplar in the ecosystems of the main zone of commercially important aspen-balsam poplar from southern Manitoba to northeastern British Columbia.

  20. Modelling and Simulation of Gas Engines Using Aspen HYSYS

    M. C. Ekwonu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper gas engine model was developed in Aspen HYSYS V7.3 and validated with Waukesha 16V275GL+ gas engine. Fuel flexibility, fuel types and part load performance of the gas engine were investigated. The design variability revealed that the gas engine can operate on poor fuel with low lower heating value (LHV such as landfill gas, sewage gas and biogas with biogas offering potential integration with bottoming cycles when compared to natural gas. The result of the gas engine simulation gave an efficiency 40.7% and power output of 3592kW.

  1. Tank SY-102 remediation project summary report: ASPEN modeling

    The U.S. Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. As a part of this program, personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed and demonstrated a flow sheet to remediate tank SY-102, which is located in the 200 West Area and contains high-level radioactive waste. In the conceptual design report issued earlier, an ASPEN plus trademark computer model of the flow sheet was presented. This report documents improvements in the flow sheet model after additional thermodynamic data for the actinide species were incorporated

  2. 76 FR 77591 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Aspen American Insurance Company

    2011-12-13

    ... Supplement No. 3 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Aspen American Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Aspen American Insurance Company (NAIC 43460). Business Address:...

  3. Simulation of Quaking Aspen Potential Fire Behavior in Northern Utah, USA

    R. Justin DeRose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current understanding of aspen fire ecology in western North America includes the paradoxical characterization that aspen-dominated stands, although often regenerated following fire, are “fire-proof”. We tested this idea by predicting potential fire behavior across a gradient of aspen dominance in northern Utah using the Forest Vegetation Simulator and the Fire and Fuels Extension. The wind speeds necessary for crowning (crown-to-crown fire spread and torching (surface to crown fire spread were evaluated to test the hypothesis that predicted fire behavior is influenced by the proportion of aspen in the stand. Results showed a strong effect of species composition on crowning, but only under moderate fire weather, where aspen-dominated stands were unlikely to crown or torch. Although rarely observed in actual fires, conifer-dominated stands were likely to crown but not to torch, an example of “hysteresis” in crown fire behavior. Results support the hypothesis that potential crown fire behavior varies across a gradient of aspen dominance and fire weather, where it was likely under extreme and severe fire weather, and unlikely under moderate and high fire weather. Furthermore, the “fire-proof” nature of aspen stands broke down across the gradient of aspen dominance and fire weather.

  4. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO2 and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO2 protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO2 increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO2 treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO2 were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO2. Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO2 confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  5. Using user models in Matlab® within the Aspen Plus® interface with an Excel® link

    Javier Fontalvo Alzate

    2014-01-01

    Process intensification and new technologies require tools for process design that can be integrated into well-known simulation software, such as Aspen Plus®. Thus, unit operations that are not included in traditional Aspen Plus software packages can be simulated with Matlab® and integrated within the Aspen Plus interface. In this way, the user can take advantage of all of the tools of Aspen Plus, such as optimization, sensitivity analysis and cost estimation. This paper gives a detailed desc...

  6. Contrasting the patterns of aspen forest and sagebrush shrubland gross ecosystem exchange in montane Idaho, USA

    Fellows, A.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the environmental controls on Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE) at an aspen forest and a sagebrush shrubland in southwest Idaho. The two sites were situated within a mosaic of vegetation that included temperate deciduous trees, shrublands, and evergreen conifer trees. The distribution of vegetation was presumably linked to water availability; aspen were located in wetter high-elevations sites, topographic drainages, or near snow drifts. Local temperatures have increased by ~2-3 °C over the past 50 years and less precipitation has arrived as snow. These ongoing changes in weather may impact snow water redistribution, plant-water availability, and plant-thermal stress, with associated impacts on vegetation health and production. We used eddy covariance to measure the exchange of water and carbon dioxide above the two sites and partitioned the net carbon flux to determine GEE. The sagebrush record was from 2003-2007 and the aspen record was from 2007-12. The region experienced a modest-to-severe drought in 2007, with ~73% of typical precipitation. We found that aspen were local "hotspots" for carbon exchange; peak rates of aspen GEE were ~ 60% greater than the peak rates of sagebrush GEE. Light, temperature, and water availability were dominant controls on the seasonality of GEE at both sites. Sagebrush and aspen were dormant during winter, limited by cold temperatures during winter and early spring, and water availability during mid-late summer. The onset of summer drought was typically later in the aspen than in the sagebrush. Drifting snow, lateral water redistribution, or increased rooting depths may have increased water availability in the aspen stand. Seasonal patterns of observed soil moisture and evaporation indicated aspen were rooted to >= 1 m. The sagebrush and aspen both responded strongly to the 2007 drought; peak GEE decreased by ~75%, peak GEE shifted to earlier parts of the year, and mid-summer GEE was decreased. We consider potential

  7. Modeling water/lithium bromide absorption chillers in ASPEN Plus

    Highlights: → Single- and double-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chiller designs are numerically modeled using ASPEN. → The modeling procedure is described and the results are compared to published modeling data to access prediction accuracy. → Predictions for the single- and double-effect designs are within 3% and 5%, respectively of published data for all cycle parameters of interest. → The absorption cycle models presented allow investigation of using absorption chillers for waste heat utilization in the oil and gas industry. -- Abstract: Absorption chillers are a viable option for providing waste heat-powered cooling or refrigeration in oil and gas processing plants, thereby improving energy efficiency. In this paper, single- and double-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chiller designs are numerically modeled using ASPEN. The modeling procedure is described and the results are compared to published modeling data to access prediction accuracy. Predictions for the single- and double-effect designs are within 3% and 5%, respectively of published data for all cycle parameters of interest. The absorption cycle models presented not only allow investigation into the benefits of using absorption chillers for waste heat utilization in the oil and gas industry, but are also generically applicable to a wide range of other applications.

  8. Conservation and yield aspects of old European aspen Populus tremula L. in Swedish forestry

    Hazell, Per [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products

    1999-06-01

    Biodiversity issues are becoming integrated parts of Swedish forest management. In this context, the amount and distribution of broadleaved species, including aspen, are important. This thesis summarises results of two studies in which species from the rich epiphytic flora on aspen were used to evaluate important features of aspens, and two studies relating these features to production losses due to retention of aspen. The presence and abundance of four epiphytic, bark-living bryophytes in relation to stand and host-tree characteristics, were investigated in four mixed forest stands in central Sweden. There was no general and consistent relation between aspen density and bryophyte presence. Large diameter and rough bark of the aspen host, together with site factors and stand density around the host, were important. On 35 clearfelled areas, the bryophyte Antitrichia curtipendula (Hedw.) Brid. and the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., species considered sensitive to clearfelling, were transplanted on retained aspen stems. As a reference, transplants were made on aspens in adjacent old stands. After two years the bryophyte showed its highest vitality in the forest, but was also vigorous on the north side of retained trees. The lichen thrived best on the clearfelled areas, on the north side of trees retained in groups. For conservation purposes, aspen are best retained in groups. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of retained large aspens (diameter 49.6{+-}7.0 cm and height 29.4{+-}1.0 m) were studied in a 110-year-old aspen stand. Twelve trees were destructively analysed to establish allometric equations relating stem, bark and branch biomass and current annual stem increment (CAI{sub s}) to diameter at breast height. Biomass of the mean tree was 1172 kg, of which 80% was stemwood. CAI{sub s} was 1.5% of total stem biomass. Finally, the yield of a 44-year-old Norway spruce stand under an aspen overstorey was compared with that of pure Norway spruce, estimated

  9. Ruffed grouse feeding behavior and its relationship to secondary metabolites of quaking aspen flower buds.

    Jakubas, W J; Gullion, G W; Clausen, T P

    1989-06-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) staminate flower buds and the extended catkins are primary food resources for ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). Winter feeding observations indicate that ruffed grouse select specific trees or clones of quaking aspen to feed in. Flower buds and catkins of quaking aspen were analyzed for secondary compounds (tannins, alkaloids, and phenolics) that might cause ruffed grouse to avoid trees with high levels of these compounds. Coniferyl benzoate, a compound that has not been previously found in quaking aspen, exists in significantly higher concentrations in buds from trees with no feeding history as compared to ruffed grouse feeding trees. Aspen catkins were also significantly lower in coniferyl benzoate than buds from the same tree. Ruffed grouse feeding preference was not related to the tannin or total phenolic levels found in buds or catkins. Buds from feeding trees had higher protein levels than trees with no feeding history; however, catkins did not differ from buds in protein concentration. The high use of extended catkins in the spring by ruffed grouse is probably due to a lower percentage of bud scale material in the catkin as opposed to the dormant bud. Bud scales contain almost all of the nontannin phenolics in catkins and dormant buds. A feeding strategy where bud scales are avoided may exist for other bird species that feed on quaking aspen. Dormant flower buds are significantly lower in protein-precipitable tannins than catkins and differ in secondary metabolite composition from other aspen foliage. PMID:24272191

  10. Inventory of aspen trees in spruce dominated stands in conservation area

    Matti Maltamo; Annukka Pesonen; Lauri Korhonen; Jari Kouki; Mikko Vehmas; Kalle Eerikinen

    2015-01-01

    Background:The occurrence of aspen trees increases the conservation value of mature conifer dominated forests. Aspens typically occur as scattered individuals among major tree species, and therefore the inventory of aspens is challenging. Methods:We characterized aspen populations in a boreal nature reserve using diameter distribution, spatial pattern, and forest attributes:volume, number of aspens, number of large aspen stems and basal area median diameter. The data were collected from three separate forest stands in Koli National Park, eastern Finland. At each site, we measured breast height diameter and coordinates of each aspen. The comparison of inventory methods of aspens within the three stands was based on simulations with mapped field data. We mimicked stand level inventory by locating varying numbers of fixed area circular plots both systematically and randomly within the stands. Additionally, we also tested if the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data as auxiliary information would improve the accuracy of the stand level inventory by applying the probability proportional to size sampling to assist the selection of field plot locations. Results:The results showed that aspens were always clustered, and the diameter distributions indicated different stand structures in the three investigated forest stands. The reliability of the volume and number of large aspen trees varied from relative root mean square error figures above 50%with fewer sample plots (5–10) to values of 25%–50%with 10 or more sample plots. Stand level inventory estimates were also able to detect spatial pattern and the shape of the diameter distribution. In addition, ALS-based auxiliary information could be useful in guiding the inventories, but caution should be used when applying the ALS-supported inventory technique. Conclusions:This study characterized European aspen populations for the purposes of monitoring and management of boreal conservation areas. Our results suggest that

  11. Inventory of aspen trees in spruce dominated stands in conservation area

    Matti Maltamo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The occurrence of aspen trees increases the conservation value of mature conifer dominated forests. Aspens typically occur as scattered individuals among major tree species, and therefore the inventory of aspens is challenging. Methods We characterized aspen populations in a boreal nature reserve using diameter distribution, spatial pattern, and forest attributes: volume, number of aspens, number of large aspen stems and basal area median diameter. The data were collected from three separate forest stands in Koli National Park, eastern Finland. At each site, we measured breast height diameter and coordinates of each aspen. The comparison of inventory methods of aspens within the three stands was based on simulations with mapped field data. We mimicked stand level inventory by locating varying numbers of fixed area circular plots both systematically and randomly within the stands. Additionally, we also tested if the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS data as auxiliary information would improve the accuracy of the stand level inventory by applying the probability proportional to size sampling to assist the selection of field plot locations. Results The results showed that aspens were always clustered, and the diameter distributions indicated different stand structures in the three investigated forest stands. The reliability of the volume and number of large aspen trees varied from relative root mean square error figures above 50% with fewer sample plots (5–10 to values of 25%–50% with 10 or more sample plots. Stand level inventory estimates were also able to detect spatial pattern and the shape of the diameter distribution. In addition, ALS-based auxiliary information could be useful in guiding the inventories, but caution should be used when applying the ALS-supported inventory technique. Conclusions This study characterized European aspen populations for the purposes of monitoring and management of boreal conservation areas. Our

  12. Orbital Express Mission Operations Planning and Resource Management using ASPEN

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The Orbital Express satellite servicing demonstrator program is a DARPA program aimed at developing "a safe and cost-effective approach to autonomously service satellites in orbit". The system consists of: a) the Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) vehicle, under development by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, and b) a prototype modular next-generation serviceable satellite, NEXTSat, being developed by Ball Aerospace. Flexibility of ASPEN: a) Accommodate changes to procedures; b) Accommodate changes to daily losses and gains; c) Responsive re-planning; and d) Critical to success of mission planning Auto-Generation of activity models: a) Created plans quickly; b) Repetition/Re-use of models each day; and c) Guarantees the AML syntax. One SRP per day vs. Tactical team

  13. Simulation of IGFC power generation system by Aspen Plus

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Sayem, Abu Sadahat;

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for electricity generation. Sulfur free syngas from the gas cleaning unit serves as a fuel for SOFC in IGFC (Integrated gasification Fuel cell) power plant. It converts the chemical energy of the fuel gas directly to electric energy and...... therefore, very high efficiencies can be achieved. The outputs from SOFC can be utilized by HRSG which drives steam turbine for electricity production. The SOFC stack model developed using the process flow sheet simulator Aspen Plus which is of equilibrium type. The results indicate there must be tread off...... efficiency and power with respect to a variety of SOFC inputs. HRSG which is located after the SOFC is also included in current simulation study with various operating parameters. This paper also describes for the IGFC Power Plants, the optimization of the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) is of...

  14. Aqueous electrolyte modeling in ASPEN PLUS{trademark}

    Bloomingburg, G.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Simonson, J.M.; Moore, R.C.; Mesmer, R.E.; Cochran, H.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The presence of electrolytes in aqueous solutions has long been recognized as contributing to significant departures from thermodynamic ideality. The presence of ions in process streams can greatly add to the difficulty of predicting process behavior. The difficulties are increased as temperatures and pressures within a process are elevated. Because many chemical companies now model their processes with chemical process simulators it is important that such codes be able to accurately model electrolyte behavior under a variety of conditions. Here the authors examine the electrolyte modeling capability of ASPEN PLUS{trademark}, a widely used simulator. Specifically, efforts to model alkali metal halide and sulfate systems are presented. The authors show conditions for which the models within the code work adequately and how they might be improved for conditions where the simulator models fail.

  15. Best Practices Case Study: Shaw Construction Burlingame Ranch Ph.1, Aspen, CO

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory & Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2010-12-01

    Shaw Construction built 84 energy efficient, affordable condominiums forthe City of Aspen that achieved HERS scores of less than 62 with help from Building America’s research team lead Building Science Corporation.

  16. ASPEN: A Framework for Automated Planning and Scheduling of Spacecraft Control and Operations

    Yan, David; Fukunaga, Alex S.; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we describe ASPEN (Automated Planning/Scheduling Environment), a modular, reconfigurable application framework which is capable of supporting a wide variety of planning and scheduling applications.

  17. Coal conversion systems design and process modeling. Volume 1: Application of MPPR and Aspen computer models

    1981-01-01

    The development of a coal gasification system design and mass and energy balance simulation program for the TVA and other similar facilities is described. The materials-process-product model (MPPM) and the advanced system for process engineering (ASPEN) computer program were selected from available steady state and dynamic models. The MPPM was selected to serve as the basis for development of system level design model structure because it provided the capability for process block material and energy balance and high-level systems sizing and costing. The ASPEN simulation serves as the basis for assessing detailed component models for the system design modeling program. The ASPEN components were analyzed to identify particular process blocks and data packages (physical properties) which could be extracted and used in the system design modeling program. While ASPEN physical properties calculation routines are capable of generating physical properties required for process simulation, not all required physical property data are available, and must be user-entered.

  18. Enhancement of production of eugenol and its glycosides in transgenic aspen plants via genetic engineering.

    Koeduka, Takao; Suzuki, Shiro; Iijima, Yoko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; SUZUKI Hideyuki; Watanabe, Bunta; Shibata, Daisuke; UMEZAWA, Toshiaki; Pichersky, Eran; Hiratake, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Eugenol, a volatile phenylpropene found in many plant species, exhibits antibacterial and acaricidal activities. This study attempted to modify the production of eugenol and its glycosides by introducing petunia coniferyl alcohol acetyltransferase (PhCFAT) and eugenol synthase (PhEGS) into hybrid aspen. Gas chromatography analyses revealed that wild-type hybrid aspen produced small amount of eugenol in leaves. The heterologous overexpression of PhCFAT alone resulted in up to 7-fold higher eug...

  19. Continental-scale assessment of genetic diversity and population structure in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)

    Callahan, Colin M.; Rowe, Carol A.; Ryel, Ronald J.; Shaw, John D.; Madritch, Michael D.; Mock, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) has the largest natural distribution of any tree native to North America. The primary objectives of this study were to characterize range-wide genetic diversity and genetic structuring in quaking aspen, and to assess the influence of glacial history and rear-edge dynamics. Location: North America. Methods: Using a sample set representing the full longitudinal and latitudinal extent of the species’ distribution, we examined geographical patterns o...

  20. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L..

    Kathryn M Robinson

    Full Text Available We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  1. Managed Mixtures of Aspen and White Spruce 21 to 25 Years after Establishment

    Richard Kabzems

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intimate mixtures of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss are a key feature of western Canadian boreal forests. These mixtures have the potential to produce high yields of merchantable fibre and provide numerous ecological services. Achievement of this potential has been difficult, and often expensive, to realize as a regeneration goal in managed forests. We report 21 to 25 year results of managed mixtures on two study sites where the white spruce was planted, and the density of aspen natural regeneration manipulated within five years of the stand initiation disturbance. On both sites, white spruce mortality did not increase with increasing aspen density. While height and diameter growth of white spruce declined with increasing aspen density, the effect was not entirely consistent across the two sites. Abrasion from aspen branches was the most common source of damage to spruce crowns. Mixed stands had greater merchantable volume production than pure spruce stands based on model projections. Application of aspen harvest at year 60, while protecting the spruce component for a second harvest entry at year 90, was projected to optimize combined yield for the mixedwood stands.

  2. Aspen Simulation of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends Combustion

    Pérez-Sánchez Armando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a fuel produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, which currently is gaining attention as a diesel substitute. It represents an opportunity to reduce CO2, SO2, CO, HC, PAH and PM emissions and contributes to the diversification of fuels in Mexico's energetic matrix. The results of the simulation of the combustion process are presented in this paper with reference to an engine specification KUBOTA D600-B, operated with diesel-biodiesel blends. The physicochemical properties of the compounds and the operating conditions of equipment were developed using the simulator Aspen® and supplementary information. The main aspects of the engine working conditions were considered such as diesel-biodiesel ratio, air/fuel mixture, temperature of the combustion gases and heat load. Diesel physicochemical specifications were taken from reports of PEMEX and SENER. Methyl esters corresponding to the transesterification of fatty acids that comprise castor oil were regarded as representative molecules of biodiesel obtained from chromatographic analysis. The results include CO2, water vapor, combustion efficiency, power and lower calorific value of fuels.

  3. Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade.

    Kauffman, Matthew J; Brodie, Jedediah F; Jules, Erik S

    2010-09-01

    Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades (BMTCs) occur when the fear of predation among herbivores enhances plant productivity. Based primarily on systems involving small-bodied predators, BMTCs have been proposed as both strong and ubiquitous in natural ecosystems. Recently, however, synthetic work has suggested that the existence of BMTCs may be mediated by predator hunting mode, whereby passive (sit-and-wait) predators have much stronger effects than active (coursing) predators. One BMTC that has been proposed for a wide-ranging active predator system involves the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park, USA, which is thought to be leading to a recovery of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by causing elk (Cervus elaphus) to avoid foraging in risky areas. Although this BMTC has been generally accepted and highly popularized, it has never been adequately tested. We assessed whether wolves influence aspen by obtaining detailed demographic data on aspen Stands using tree rings and by monitoring browsing levels in experimental elk exclosures arrayed across a gradient of predation risk for three years. Our study demonstrates that the historical failure of aspen to regenerate varied widely among stands (last recruitment year ranged from 1892 to 1956), and our data do not indicate an abrupt cessation of recruitment. This pattern of recruitment failure appears more consistent with a gradual increase in elk numbers rather than a rapid behavioral shift in elk foraging following wolf extirpation. In addition, our estimates of relative survivorship of young browsable aspen indicate that aspen are not currently recovering in Yellowstone, even in the presence of a large wolf population. Finally, in an experimental test of the BMTC hypothesis we found that the impacts of elk browsing on aspen demography are not diminished in sites where elk are at higher risk of predation by wolves. These findings suggest the need to further evaluate how trophic

  4. Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade

    Kauffman, Matthew J.; Brodie, Jedediah F.; Jules, Erik S.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades (BMTCs) occur when the fear of predation among herbivores enhances plant productivity. Based primarily on systems involving small-bodied predators, BMTCs have been proposed as both strong and ubiquitous in natural ecosystems. Recently, however, synthetic work has suggested that the existence of BMTCs may be mediated by predator hunting mode, whereby passive (sit-and-wait) predators have much stronger effects than active (coursing) predators. One BMTC that has been proposed for a wide-ranging active predator system involves the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park, USA, which is thought to be leading to a recovery of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by causing elk (Cervus elaphus) to avoid foraging in risky areas. Although this BMTC has been generally accepted and highly popularized, it has never been adequately tested. We assessed whether wolves influence aspen by obtaining detailed demographic data on aspen stands using tree rings and by monitoring browsing levels in experimental elk exclosures arrayed across a gradient of predation risk for three years. Our study demonstrates that the historical failure of aspen to regenerate varied widely among stands (last recruitment year ranged from 1892 to 1956), and our data do not indicate an abrupt cessation of recruitment. This pattern of recruitment failure appears more consistent with a gradual increase in elk numbers rather than a rapid behavioral shift in elk foraging following wolf extirpation. In addition, our estimates of relative survivorship of young browsable aspen indicate that aspen are not currently recovering in Yellowstone, even in the presence of a large wolf population. Finally, in an experimental test of the BMTC hypothesis we found that the impacts of elk browsing on aspen demography are not diminished in sites where elk are at higher risk of predation by wolves. These findings suggest the need to further evaluate how trophic

  5. Forest stand structure, productivity, and age mediate climatic effects on aspen decline

    Bell, David M.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Because forest stand structure, age, and productivity can mediate the impacts of climate on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality, ignoring stand-scale factors limits inference on the drivers of recent sudden aspen decline. Using the proportion of aspen trees that were dead as an index of recent mortality at 841 forest inventory plots, we examined the relationship of this mortality index to forest structure and climate in the Rocky Mountains and Intermountain Western United States. We found that forest structure explained most of the patterns in mortality indices, but that variation in growing-season vapor pressure deficit and winter precipitation over the last 20 years was important. Mortality index sensitivity to precipitation was highest in forests where aspen exhibited high densities, relative basal areas, quadratic mean diameters, and productivities, whereas sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit was highest in young forest stands. These results indicate that the effects of drought on mortality may be mediated by forest stand development, competition with encroaching conifers, and physiological vulnerabilities of large trees to drought. By examining mortality index responses to both forest structure and climate, we show that forest succession cannot be ignored in studies attempting to understand the causes and consequences of sudden aspen decline.

  6. The yield of natural trembling aspen (populus tremula L.) stands (northern and eastern anatolia)

    Trembling aspen (Populus tremula L.) is one of the most resistant to cold natural species in Turkey. In spite of its importance, there is no research on the yield. Hence, site productivity was determined and yield Table for undisturbed natural trembling aspen stands in Turkey was developed. Data were obtained from a total of 46 plots ranging in age from 17 to 82 years. Yield Table indicates that trembling aspen is very slow growing in young and middle age and Current Annual Increment (CAI) and Mean Annual Increment (MAI) values do not reach its maximum value, even at age 70. This is a proof that trembling aspen is not a fast growing species as expected. The reason for its slow growth is attributed to very short period of growth at very high altitudes. However, in the event of 50 years rotation age, mean annual volume increments of 8.0, 3.6 and 1.1 m3 are estimated for trembling aspen for site classes I, II and III, respectively. At extended rotations, trees of pole sizes could be obtained on all site classes. (author)

  7. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

  8. 76 FR 15306 - Aspen Merchant Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Aspen Merchant Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Aspen Merchant Energy LP's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  9. Wood Quality and Growth Characterization across Intra- and Inter-Specific Hybrid Aspen Clones

    Shawn D. Mansfield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. is one of the most abundant poplar species in North America; it is native, displays substantial breadth in distribution inhabiting several geographical and climatic ecoregions, is notable for its rapid growth, and is ecologically and economically important. As the demand for raw material continues to increase rapidly, there is a pressing need to improve both tree quality and growth rates via breeding efforts. Hybridization is considered one of the most promising options to simultaneously accelerate these tree characteristics, as it takes advantage of heterosis. Two aspen species showing particular promise for hybridization with trembling aspen are European aspen (P. tremula and Chinese aspen (P. davidiana because their native climates are similar to that of P. tremuloides and are also very easy to hybridize. In 2003, aspen clones were planted in Athabasca, Alberta from the following species crosses: open pollinated (OP P. tremuloides (NN, OP P. davidiana (CC, P. tremula × P. tremula (EE, P. tremula × P. tremuloides (EN, and P. tremuloides × P. davidiana (CN. In November 2010, growth measurements and core samples were taken from seven-year field grown clones. Comparisons of the mean growth and cell wall traits were made between crosses using generalized linear model least squares means tests for stem volume, fiber length, fiber width, coarseness, wood density, microfibril angle, total cell wall carbohydrate and lignin content, and lignin composition. The results clearly indicated that the inter-specific crosses offer a means to breed for more desirable wood characteristics than the intra-specific Populus spp. crosses.

  10. Stem and merchantable volume equations for hybrid aspen growing on farmland in Sweden

    Johansson, Tord

    2014-01-01

    In this study, stem volume models for hybrid aspen were developed. The study was based on 29 stands located in middle and southern Sweden (latitudes 55 – 60° N.). The mean total age of the hybrid aspen was 22 years (range 15 – 50 years) with a mean stand density of 1006 stems ha-1 (90 – 2402) and a mean diameter at breast height (over bark) of 19.7 cm (8.5 – 40.8 cm). A number of equations were assessed for modeling stem volume. Standing volume was examined in relation to soil type. Multiple ...

  11. Synergetic hydrothermal co-liquefaction of crude glycerol and aspen wood

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Jasiunas, Lukas; Casamassima, Luca; Singh, Shashank; Jensen, Thomas; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2015-01-01

    Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co-processing ......Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co...

  12. Physical property parameter set for modeling ICPP aqueous wastes with ASPEN electrolyte NRTL model

    The aqueous waste evaporators at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) are being modeled using ASPEN software. The ASPEN software calculates chemical and vapor-liquid equilibria with activity coefficients calculated using the electrolyte Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) model for local excess Gibbs free energies of interactions between ions and molecules in solution. The use of the electrolyte NRTL model requires the determination of empirical parameters for the excess Gibbs free energies of the interactions between species in solution. This report covers the development of a set parameters, from literature data, for the use of the electrolyte NRTL model with the major solutes in the ICPP aqueous wastes

  13. Polypropylene /Aspen/ liquid polybutadienes composites: maximization of impact strength, tensile and modulus by statistical experimental design

    Kokta, B. V.; Fortelný, Ivan; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Horák, Zdeněk; Michálková, Danuše

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, - (2005), s. 10-11. ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polymeric Materials in Automotive , Slovak Rubber Conference /17./. 10.5.2005-12.5.2005, Bratislava] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polypropylene * Aspen-PP composite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  14. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  15. ASPEN Plus in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum: Suitable Course Content and Teaching Methodology

    Rockstraw, David A.

    2005-01-01

    An established methodology involving the sequential presentation of five skills on ASPEN Plus to undergraduate seniors majoring in ChE is presented in this document: (1) specifying unit operations; (2) manipulating physical properties; (3) accessing variables; (4) specifying nonstandard components; and (5) applying advanced features. This…

  16. New dimension analyses with error analysis for quaking aspen and black spruce

    Woods, K. D.; Botkin, D. B.; Feiveson, A. H.

    1987-01-01

    Dimension analysis for black spruce in wetland stands and trembling aspen are reported, including new approaches in error analysis. Biomass estimates for sacrificed trees have standard errors of 1 to 3%; standard errors for leaf areas are 10 to 20%. Bole biomass estimation accounts for most of the error for biomass, while estimation of branch characteristics and area/weight ratios accounts for the leaf area error. Error analysis provides insight for cost effective design of future analyses. Predictive equations for biomass and leaf area, with empirically derived estimators of prediction error, are given. Systematic prediction errors for small aspen trees and for leaf area of spruce from different site-types suggest a need for different predictive models within species. Predictive equations are compared with published equations; significant differences may be due to species responses to regional or site differences. Proportional contributions of component biomass in aspen change in ways related to tree size and stand development. Spruce maintains comparatively constant proportions with size, but shows changes corresponding to site. This suggests greater morphological plasticity of aspen and significance for spruce of nutrient conditions.

  17. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  18. Risk Communication, Metacommunication, and Rhetorical Stases in the Aspen-EPA Superfund Controversy.

    Stratman, James F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores the relationship between current theoretical definitions of risk communication, the unique national role that EPA plays in defining health and environmental risks, and possible explanations for EPA's inability to persuade Aspen, Colorado, to accept a cleanup plan. Explores ownership messages conveyed through metacommunication conflict…

  19. 75 FR 13805 - Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet...

    2010-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet Communications Corp., Geneva Steel Holdings Corp., Orderpro Logistics, Inc. (n/k/a Securus Renewable Energy, Inc.), and Sepragen Corp.; Order...

  20. Using user models in Matlab® within the Aspen Plus® interface with an Excel® link

    Javier Fontalvo Alzate

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Process intensification and new technologies require tools for process design that can be integrated into well-known simulation software, such as Aspen Plus®. Thus, unit operations that are not included in traditional Aspen Plus software packages can be simulated with Matlab® and integrated within the Aspen Plus interface. In this way, the user can take advantage of all of the tools of Aspen Plus, such as optimization, sensitivity analysis and cost estimation. This paper gives a detailed description of how to implement this integration. The interface between Matlab and Aspen Plus is accomplished by sending the relevant information from Aspen Plus to Excel, which feeds the information to a Matlab routine. Once the Matlab routine processes the information, it is returned to Excel and to Aspen Plus. This paper includes the Excel and Matlab template files so the reader can implement their own simulations. By applying the protocol described here, a hybrid distillation-vapor permeation system has been simulated as an example of the applications that can be implemented. For the hybrid system, the effect of membrane selectivity on membrane area and reboiler duty for the partial dehydration of ethanol is studied. Very high selectivities are not necessarily required for an optimum hybrid distillation and vapor permeation system.

  1. A simple and efficient transient transformation for hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides

    Takata Naoki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Populus is accepted as a model system for molecular tree biology. To investigate gene functions in Populus spp. trees, generating stable transgenic lines is the common technique for functional genetic studies. However, a limited number of genes have been targeted due to the lengthy transgenic process. Transient transformation assays complementing stable transformation have significant advantages for rapid in vivo assessment of gene function. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and efficient transient transformation for hybrid aspen and to provide its potential applications for functional genomic approaches. Results We developed an in planta transient transformation assay for young hybrid aspen cuttings using Agrobacterium-mediated vacuum infiltration. The transformation conditions such as the infiltration medium, the presence of a surfactant, the phase of bacterial growth and bacterial density were optimized to achieve a higher transformation efficiency in young aspen leaves. The Agrobacterium infiltration assay successfully transformed various cell types in leaf tissues. Intracellular localization of four aspen genes was confirmed in homologous Populus spp. using fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein. Protein-protein interaction was detected in transiently co-transformed cells with bimolecular fluorescence complementation technique. In vivo promoter activity was monitored over a few days in aspen cuttings that were transformed with luciferase reporter gene driven by a circadian clock promoter. Conclusions The Agrobacterium infiltration assay developed here is a simple and enhanced throughput method that requires minimum handling and short transgenic process. This method will facilitate functional analyses of Populus genes in a homologous plant system.

  2. Drought characteristics drive patterns in widespread aspen forest mortality across the western United States

    Anderegg, W.; Anderegg, L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Berry, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread drought-induced forest mortality has been documented across the globe in the last few decades and influences land-atmosphere interactions, biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and biophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks to climate change. These rapid mortality events are currently not well-captured in current vegetation models, limiting the ability to predict them. While many studies have focused on the plant physiological mechanisms that mediate vegetation mortality, the characteristics of drought seasonality, sequence, severity and duration that drive mortality events have received much less attention. These characteristics are particularly relevant in light of changing precipitation regimes, changes to snowpack and snowmelt, and increasing temperature stress associated with climate change. We examine the characteristics of drought associated with the recent widespread mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) across much of the western United States. We combine a regional model of watershed-level aspen mortality with in situ tissue isotopic analysis of water source to analyze the roles of drought seasonality, severity, and duration in this mortality event, including raw climate variables, derived drought indices, and variables generated by a climate envelope approach. We found that variables pertaining to spring temperatures and spring-summer water deficit, especially during the peak severity of drought, best capture regional mortality patterns, though multi-year drought variables did improve the model. Field water isotopic analysis of aspen water source over a growing season and during moderate seasonal water stress corroborate the regional model by indicating that aspen clones generally utilize surface water with little plasticity during drought stress. These results suggest that drought characteristics can play an important role in mediating widespread forest mortality and have implications for the future vulnerability of trembling aspen

  3. Spring frost and decay fungi are implicated in suppressing aspen re-growth following partial cleaning in juvenile stands

    Wolken, Jane M; Lieffers, Victor J.; Landhausser, Simon M; Mulak, Tara

    2009-01-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) regenerates at high densities following manual cleaning. Ten-year-old stands located near Lac La Biche and Peace River, Alberta were manually cleaned to three densities (0, 500 or 1 500 stems ha−1 ) at three times (bud set, dormancy or bud flush) to test the hypothesis that maintaining residual aspen reduces regeneration. At Lac La Biche up to 98% of the aspen regeneration died in the partially-cleaned plots compared to 67% at Peace River five years post-tre...

  4. Stanley Ivan Dodson: Distinguished Ecologist and Mentor and Friend (1944-2009 Stanley Ivan Dodson Stanley I. Dodson passed away after a tragic bicycle accident on August 23rd, 2009, leaving the world and scientific community to deal with the loss of a gr

    Kenneth J. Forshay

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stanley I. Dodson passed away after a tragic bicycle accident on August 23rd, 2009, leaving the world and scientific community to deal with the loss of a great man and mind, whose contributions to freshwater ecology are legendary. He will always be remembered for all his contributions to the study of community ecology of zooplankton and population ecology of Daphnia. We will always remember Stanley for his keen insight, generosity, positive outlook, and ability to guide without force but with respect and love. We will miss witnessing his ability to draw elegant conclusions from simple experiments, and how he managed to enjoyed every day of his life. He was an incredible man, amazing mentor and loyal friend. We were blessed to have had the opportunity to be mentored by him and share his friendship.

  5. Transcriptome responses to aluminum stress in roots of aspen (Populus tremula

    Grisel Nadine

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ionic aluminum (mainly Al3+ is rhizotoxic and can be present in acid soils at concentrations high enough to inhibit root growth. Many forest tree species grow naturally in acid soils and often tolerate high concentrations of Al. Previously, we have shown that aspen (Populus tremula releases citrate and oxalate from roots in response to Al exposure. To obtain further insights into the root responses of aspen to Al, we investigated root gene expression at Al conditions that inhibit root growth. Results Treatment of the aspen roots with 500 μM Al induced a strong inhibition of root growth within 6 h of exposure time. The root growth subsequently recovered, reaching growth rates comparable to that of control plants. Changes in gene expression were determined after 6 h, 2 d, and 10 d of Al exposure. Replicated transcriptome analyses using the Affymetrix poplar genome array revealed a total of 175 significantly up-regulated and 69 down-regulated genes, of which 70% could be annotated based on Arabidopsis genome resources. Between 6 h and 2 d, the number of responsive genes strongly decreased from 202 to 26, and then the number of changes remained low. The responses after 6 h were characterized by genes involved in cell wall modification, ion transport, and oxidative stress. Two genes with prolonged induction were closely related to the Arabidopsis Al tolerance genes ALS3 (for Al sensitive 3 and MATE (for multidrug and toxin efflux protein, mediating citrate efflux. Patterns of expression in different plant organs and in response to Al indicated that the two aspen genes are homologs of the Arabidopsis ALS3 and MATE. Conclusion Exposure of aspen roots to Al results in a rapid inhibition of root growth and a large change in root gene expression. The subsequent root growth recovery and the concomitant reduction in the number of responsive genes presumably reflect the success of the roots in activating Al tolerance mechanisms. The

  6. How to Create, Modify, and Interface Aspen In-House and User Databanks for System Configuration 1:

    Camp, D W

    2000-10-27

    The goal of this document is to provide detailed instructions to create, modify, interface, and test Aspen User and In-House databanks with minimal frustration. The level of instructions are aimed at a novice Aspen Plus simulation user who is neither a programming nor computer-system expert. The instructions are tailored to Version 10.1 of Aspen Plus and the specific computing configuration summarized in the Title of this document and detailed in Section 2. Many details of setting up databanks depend on the computing environment specifics, such as the machines, operating systems, command languages, directory structures, inter-computer communications software, the version of the Aspen Engine and Graphical User Interface (GUI), and the directory structure of how these were installed.

  7. Identifying and Characterizing Important Trembling Aspen Competitors with Juvenile Lodgepole Pine in Three South-Central British Columbia Ecosystems

    Teresa A. Newsome

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical height ratios for predicting competition between trembling aspen and lodgepole pine were identified in six juvenile stands in three south-central British Columbia ecosystems. We used a series of regression analyses predicting pine stem diameter from the density of neighbouring aspen in successively shorter relative height classes to identify the aspen-pine height ratio that maximized R2. Critical height ratios varied widely among sites when stands were 8–12 years old but, by age 14–19, had converged at 1.25–1.5. Maximum R2 values at age 14–19 ranged from 13.4% to 69.8%, demonstrating that the importance of aspen competition varied widely across a relatively small geographic range. Logistic regression also indicated that the risk of poor pine vigour in the presence of aspen varied between sites. Generally, the degree of competition, risk to pine vigour, and size of individual aspen contributing to the models declined along a gradient of decreasing ecosystem productivity.

  8. The efficacy of six elite isolates of the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum against the sprouting of European aspen.

    Hamberg, Leena; Hantula, Jarkko

    2016-04-15

    The sprouting of broad-leaved trees after cutting is problematic in forest regeneration areas, along roads and railways, under electric power and above gas pipe lines. In Finland, one of the most difficult species to control in these areas is the European aspen (Populus tremula), which produces both stump sprouts and root suckers after saplings have been cut. In this study, we investigated whether a decay fungus of broad-leaved trees, Chondrostereum purpureum, could be used as a biological control agent against aspen sprouting. The efficacy of six elite strains of C. purpureum (improved earlier in a breeding process) was investigated on aspen for three years. The most efficient C. purpureum strain, R53, tested earlier on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), was efficient in causing mortality of aspen stumps and preventing the development of root suckers. With this strain, stump mortality was 78%, while significantly lower in control stumps which were cut only (47%). Aspen trees in the vicinity of the treatments (within a 10 m radius around each sapling) decreased the efficacy of C. purpureum. This study shows that the decay fungus C. purpureum can successfully be used in the sprout control of aspen saplings. PMID:26899306

  9. Modeling and optimization of a regenerative fuel cell system using the ASPEN process simulator

    Maloney, Thomas M.; Leibecki, Harold F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hydrogen-Oxygen Regenerative Fuel Cell System was identified as a key component for energy storage in support of future lunar missions. Since the H2-O2 regenerative electrochemical conversion technology has not yet been tested in space applications, it is necessary to implement predictive techniques to develop initial feasible system designs. The ASPEN simulation software furnishes a constructive medium for analyzing and optimizing such systems. A rudimentary regenerative fuel cell system design was examined using the ASPEN simulator and this modular approach allows for easy addition of supplementary ancillary components and easy integration with life support systems. The modules included in the preliminary analyses may serve as the fundamental structure for more complicated energy storage systems.

  10. Effects of Nitrogen Supplements on Degradation of Aspen Wood Lignin and Carbohydrate Components by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Reid, I D

    1983-03-01

    A supplement of KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4), CaCl(2), trace elements, and thiamine accelerated the initial rate of aspen wood decay by Phanerochaete chrysosporium but did not increase the extent of lignin degradation. Asparagine, casein hydrolysate, and urea supplements (1% added N) strongly inhibited lignin degradation and weight loss. The complex nitrogen sources peptone and yeast extract stimulated lignin degradation and weight loss. Albumen and NH(4)Cl had intermediate effects. Conversion of [C]lignin to CO(2) and water-soluble materials underestimated lignin degradation in the presence of the complex N sources. The highest ratio of lignin degradation to total weight loss and the largest increase in cellulase digestibility occurred during the decay of unsupplemented wood. Rotting of aspen wood by P. chrysosporium gives smaller digestibility increases than have been found with some other white-rot fungi. PMID:16346246

  11. Standardized Competencies for Parenteral Nutrition Order Review and Parenteral Nutrition Preparation, Including Compounding: The ASPEN Model.

    Boullata, Joseph I; Holcombe, Beverly; Sacks, Gordon; Gervasio, Jane; Adams, Stephen C; Christensen, Michael; Durfee, Sharon; Ayers, Phil; Marshall, Neil; Guenter, Peggi

    2016-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a high-alert medication with a complex drug use process. Key steps in the process include the review of each PN prescription followed by the preparation of the formulation. The preparation step includes compounding the PN or activating a standardized commercially available PN product. The verification and review, as well as preparation of this complex therapy, require competency that may be determined by using a standardized process for pharmacists and for pharmacy technicians involved with PN. An American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) standardized model for PN order review and PN preparation competencies is proposed based on a competency framework, the ASPEN-published interdisciplinary core competencies, safe practice recommendations, and clinical guidelines, and is intended for institutions and agencies to use with their staff. PMID:27317615

  12. The Effect of Air Preheating in a Biomass CFB Gasifier using ASPEN Plus Simulation

    Doherty, Wayne; Reynolds, Anthony; Kennedy, David

    2009-01-01

    In the context of climate change, increasing efficiency and energy security, biomass gasification is likely to play an important role in energy production. Atmospheric circulating fluidised bed (CFB) technology was selected for the current study. The primary objective of this research is to develop a computer simulation model of a CFB biomass gasifier that can accurately predict gasifier performance under various operating conditions. An original model was developed using ASPEN Plus (Advan...

  13. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Anna Oldén

    Full Text Available Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L. retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old

  14. Genetic Augmentation of Syringyl Lignin in Low-lignin Aspen Trees, Final Report

    Chung-Jui Tsai; Mark F. Davis; Vincent L. Chiang

    2004-11-10

    As a polysaccharide-encrusting component, lignin is critical to cell wall integrity and plant growth but also hinders recovery of cellulose fibers during the wood pulping process. To improve pulping efficiency, it is highly desirable to genetically modify lignin content and/or structure in pulpwood species to maximize pulp yields with minimal energy consumption and environmental impact. This project aimed to genetically augment the syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratio in low-lignin transgenic aspen in order to produce trees with reduced lignin content, more reactive lignin structures and increased cellulose content. Transgenic aspen trees with reduced lignin content have already been achieved, prior to the start of this project, by antisense downregulation of a 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (Hu et al., 1999 Nature Biotechnol 17: 808- 812). The primary objective of this study was to genetically augment syringyl lignin biosynthesis in these low-lignin trees in order to enhance lignin reactivity during chemical pulping. To accomplish this, both aspen and sweetgum genes encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase (Osakabe et al., 1999 PNAS 96: 8955-8960) were targeted for over-expression in wildtype or low-lignin aspen under control of either a constitutive or a xylem-specific promoter. A second objective for this project was to develop reliable and cost-effective methods, such as pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry and NMR, for rapid evaluation of cell wall chemical components of transgenic wood samples. With these high-throughput techniques, we observed increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratios in the transgenic wood samples, regardless of the promoter used or gene origin. Our results confirmed that the coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase gene is key to syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The outcomes of this research should be readily applicable to other pulpwood species, and promise to bring direct economic and environmental benefits to the pulp and paper industry.

  15. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Bobette E Jones

    Full Text Available The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010 involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management

  16. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Jones, Bobette E; Krupa, Monika; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010) involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i) Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii) Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii) Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S) showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management practices

  17. Quaking Aspen in the Residential-Wildland Interface: Elk Herbivory Hinders Forest Conservation

    Paul C. Rogers; Jones, Allison; Catlin, James C; Shuler, James; Morris, Arthur; Kuhns, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forests are experiencing numerous impediments across North America. In the West, recent drought, fire suppression, insects, diseases, climate trends, inappropriate management, and ungulate herbivory are impacting these high biodiversity forests. Additionally, ecological tension zones are sometimes created where the above factors intermingle with jurisdictional boundaries. The public-private land interface may result in stress to natural areas where g...

  18. Aspen Increase Soil Moisture, Nutrients, Organic Matter and Respiration in Rocky Mountain Forest Communities

    Buck, Joshua R.; Samuel B. St. Clair

    2012-01-01

    Development and change in forest communities are strongly influenced by plant-soil interactions. The primary objective of this paper was to identify how forest soil characteristics vary along gradients of forest community composition in aspen-conifer forests to better understand the relationship between forest vegetation characteristics and soil processes. The study was conducted on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah, USA. Soil measurements were collected in adjacent forest stands that were c...

  19. Analysis of aspen-and-birch separated small woods’ vegetation in North Steppe of Ukraine

    N. M. Nazarenko; I. M. Loza

    2010-01-01

    Conducted analysis of forest vegetation has allowed selecting and specifying classification and typological units of the aspen-and-birch separated small woods, which have statistically significant difference of ecotopic and coenotic parameters. Those parameters of studied forest ecosystems are characterised. Existence of the lines of hygrogenic and edaphogenic substitution, and succession rows are described. Phytoindication description of ecological factors’ pivotal conditions is presented. D...

  20. DECAY RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF OIL HEAT TREATED ASPEN WOOD

    Behzad Bazyar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The decay resistance of oil-heat treated aspen wood (Populus tremula l. against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor and brown rot fungi (Coniophora puteana was investigated. Three different temperature stages and two time levels for oil heat treatment for the selection of optimum conditions were determined. Linseed oil as a heating medium was used. The mass loss of treated samples that were exposed to both fungi was significantly lower than that of the control samples. Results also showed improvement in dimensional stability after oil heat treatment. Decay resistance and dimensional stability of aspen wood were increased significantly with temperature increasing, but time seemed to have no effect on those properties. Oil heat treatment is a suitable method to improve decay resistance of aspen wood as it reduced the mass loss by 71% and 77% against Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana compared with control samples, respectively. On the other hand, oil heat treatment improved the dimensional stability by about 20.5%.

  1. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Eric C. Xu; Yajun Zhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes.The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  2. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    EricC.Xu; YajunZhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes. The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  3. Methods to inventory and strip thin in dense stands of aspen root suckers

    Headlee WL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspen and their hybrids have demonstrated high biomass productivity and can produce abundant regeneration in the form of root suckers. This makes aspen particularly intriguing for bio-energy production, because replanting costs can be avoided and additional biomass can be obtained by thinning the regenerating stands. Mechanical strip thinning (removal of stems in parallel strips has been proposed as a fast and efficient method for capturing biomass that would otherwise be lost to mortality in such stands. However, determining the appropriate width for the residual rows is challenging, due to the difficulty of conducting inventories with traditional sampling tools and the variability in gap sizes between root suckers in the residual rows. In this study, we describe the development and testing of a simple inventory tool that may be used to conduct either fixed-area or variable-radius sampling in these stands. Also described is the development and testing of an equation that uses such inventory data along with Poisson distribution theory to predict the size of the largest gap between root suckers within residual rows, which in turn can be used to inform strip thinning operations. Based on the promising results of our limited tests, we encourage further evaluation of these methods with regeneration from planted and natural aspen stands, as well as other root suckering species.

  4. EFFECT OF THERMAL TREATMENT ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BIRCH AND ASPEN

    Duygu Kocaefe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature treatment of wood is one of the alternatives to chemical treatment. During this process, the wood is heated to higher temperatures than those of conventional drying. The wood structure changes due to decomposition of hemicelluloses, ramification of lignin, and crystallization of cellulose. The wood becomes less hygroscopic. These changes improve the dimensional stability of wood, increase its resistance to micro-organisms, darken its color, and modify its hardness. However, wood also might loose some of its elasticity. Consequently, the heat treatment conditions have to be optimized. Therefore, it is important to understand the transformation of the chemical structure of wood caused by the treatment. In this study, the modification of the surface composition of the wood was followed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and inverse gas chromatography (IGC under different experimental conditions. The effect of maximum treatment temperatures on the chemical composition of Canadian birch and aspen as well as the correlations between their chemical transformation and different mechanical properties are presented. FTIR analysis results showed that the heat treatment affected the chemical composition of birch more compared to that of aspen. The results of IGC tests illustrated that the surfaces of the aspen and birch became more basic with heat treatment. The mechanical properties were affected by degradation of hemicellulose, ramification of lignin and cellulose crystallization.

  5. 23rd International Workshop in Operator Theory and its Applications

    Dritschel, Michael; Elst, AFM; Portal, Pierre; Potapov, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This book comprises the proceedings of the Mathematical Physics and MathematicsIII International Workshop on Operator Theory and its Applications (IWOTA 2012), which was held at the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia) from 16 July to 20 July 2012. It includes twelve articles presenting both surveys of current research in operator theory and original results. The contributors are A. Amenta P. Auscher and S. Stahlhut W. Bauer C. Herrera Yañez and N. Vasilevski C.C. Cowen, S. Jung and E. Ko R.E. Curto, I.S. Hwang and W.Y. Lee S. Dey and K.J. Haria F. Gesztesy and R. Weikard G. Godefroy B. Jefferies S. Patnaik and G. Weiss W.J. Ricker A. Skripka

  6. Minutes of the 23rd Eplosives Safety Seminar, volume 2

    1988-08-01

    Some areas of discussion at this seminar were: Hazards and risks of the disposal of chemical munitions using a cryogenic process; Special equipment for demilitarization of lethal chemical agent filled munitions; explosive containment room (ECR) repair Johnston Atoll chemical agent disposal system; Sympathetic detonation testing; Blast loads, external and internal; Structural reponse testing of walls, doors, and valves; Underground explosion effects, external airblast; Explosives shipping, transportation safety and port licensing; Explosive safety management; Underground explosion effects, model test and soil rock effects; Chemical risk and protection of workers; and Full scale explosives storage test.

  7. NREL preprints for the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference

    Fitzgerald, M. [ed.

    1993-05-01

    Topics covered include various aspects of solar cell fabrication and performance. Aluminium-gallium arsenides, cadmium telluride, amorphous silicon, and copper-indium-gallium selenides are all characterized in their applicability in solar cells.

  8. 23rd annual meeting of German Society for Neuroradiology

    Book of abstracts of this annual meeting summarizing the 58 lectures that dealt with the following subjects: Pathologic changes of the cervical vertebral canal and of the cervico-occipital region, as detected by modern imaging techniques (18 papers); diagnostic examination of the urbita and the middle cranial fossa (12 papers); invasive methods of neuroradiology (13 papers); 15 papers on freely chosen subjects. (MG)

  9. Proceedings of the 23rd intersociety energy conversion engineering conference

    These proceedings collect papers on the subject of spacecraft power supplies. Topics include: Photovoltaics, silicon and indium phosphide solar cells, solar thermal power, space power reactors, SNAP reactors, radioisotope heat sources, thermoelectric generators, risk assessment for space nuclear power, Brayton and Rankine cycle power systems, MHD in space, space power automation, space power computer simulation, and high voltage in space

  10. Report by a participant in Colorado Conference. 23rd International Energy Conference and the 17th International Area Conference (ICEED-sponsored); Beikoku Colorado kaigi sanka hokoku. Dai 23 kai kokusai energy kaigi oyobi dai 17 kai kokusai chiiki kaigi (ICEED shusai)

    Fujii, H. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    The general theme of the 23rd International Energy Conference was `Anticipating Change in the Global Energy Sector: Government and Industry Response.` The sessions respectively dealt with `Supply, demand, and markets of oil, natural gas, and power,` `Current situation and prospects of North American/European electricity deregulation and market competition,` `Structural adjustment in energy industry and outlook of investment in oil refining facilities,` `Outlook of reducing CO2 emission and the impact of environmental regulation on oil markets in Europe,` `Future trends in the Gabonese oil industry,` `Energy outlook, Mexico and Canada,` `The energy watchers,` and `Financial situation and outlook of investment environment in Gulf countries.` The general theme of the 17th International Area Conference which followed was `Middle East Oil and Gas Supply and Asia-Pacific Demand: Fixed Equation to 2020`. The sessions respectively discussed `Geopolitics and energy supply,` `The diseconomies of long-haul LNG trading,` and `Asian gas markets: boom or bust?` 11 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Heterozygosity, gender, and the growth-defense trade-off in quaking aspen.

    Cole, Christopher T; Stevens, Michael T; Anderson, Jon E; Lindroth, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    Although plant growth is generally recognized to be influenced by allocation to defense, genetic background (e.g., inbreeding), and gender, rarely have those factors been addressed collectively. In quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), phenolic glycosides (PGs) and condensed tannins (CTs) constitute up to 30 % of leaf dry weight. To quantify the allocation cost of this chemical defense, we measured growth, defense chemistry, and individual heterozygosity (H obs at 16 microsatellite loci) for male and female trees in both controlled and natural environments. The controlled environment consisted of 12 juvenile genets grown for 3 years in a common garden, with replication. The natural environment consisted of 51 mature genets in wild populations, from which we sampled multiple ramets (trees) per genet. Concentrations of PGs and CTs were negatively correlated. PGs were uncorrelated with growth, but CT production represented a major cost. Across the range of CT levels found in wild-grown trees, growth rates varied by 2.6-fold, such that a 10 % increase in CT concentration occurred with a 38.5 % decrease in growth. H obs had a marked effect on aspen growth: for wild trees, a 10 % increase in H obs corresponded to a 12.5 % increase in growth. In wild trees, this CT effect was significant only in females, in which reproduction seems to exacerbate the cost of defense, while the H obs effect was significant only in males. Despite the lower growth rate of low-H obs trees, their higher CT levels may improve survival, which could account for the deficit of heterozygotes repeatedly found in natural aspen populations. PMID:26886130

  12. Detection of Aspens Using High Resolution Aerial Laser Scanning Data and Digital Aerial Images

    Kalle Eerikäinen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to use high resolution Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS data and aerial images to detect European aspen (Populus tremula L. from among other deciduous trees. The field data consisted of 14 sample plots of 30 m × 30 m size located in the Koli National Park in the North Karelia, Eastern Finland. A Canopy Height Model (CHM was interpolated from the ALS data with a pulse density of 3.86/m2, low-pass filtered using Height-Based Filtering (HBF and binarized to create the mask needed to separate the ground pixels from the canopy pixels within individual areas. Watershed segmentation was applied to the low-pass filtered CHM in order to create preliminary canopy segments, from which the non-canopy elements were extracted to obtain the final canopy segmentation, i.e. the ground mask was analysed against the canopy mask. A manual classification of aerial images was employed to separate the canopy segments of deciduous trees from those of coniferous trees. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to the correctly classified canopy segments of deciduous trees to classify them into segments belonging to aspen and those belonging to other deciduous trees. The independent variables used in the classification were obtained from the first pulse ALS point data. The accuracy of discrimination between aspen and other deciduous trees was 78.6%. The independent variables in the classification function were the proportion of vegetation hits, the standard deviation of in pulse heights, accumulated intensity at the 90th percentile and the proportion of laser points reflected at the 60th height percentile. The accuracy of classification corresponded to the validation results of earlier ALS-based studies on the classification of individual deciduous trees to tree species.

  13. Interactions between Bacteria And Aspen Defense Chemicals at the Phyllosphere - Herbivore Interface.

    Mason, Charles J; Lowe-Power, Tiffany M; Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Lindroth, Richard L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-03-01

    Plant- and insect-associated microorganisms encounter a diversity of allelochemicals, and require mechanisms for contending with these often deleterious and broadly-acting compounds. Trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides, contains two principal groups of defenses, phenolic glycosides (salicinoids) and condensed tannins, which differentially affect the folivorous gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and its gut symbionts. The bacteria genus Acinetobacter is frequently associated with both aspen foliage and gypsy moth consuming that tissue, and one isolate, Acinetobacter sp. R7-1, previously has been shown to metabolize phenolic glycosides. In this study, we aimed to characterize further interactions between this Acinetobacter isolate and aspen secondary metabolites. We assessed bacterial carbon utilization and growth in response to different concentrations of phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins. We also tested if enzyme inhibitors reduce bacterial growth and catabolism of phenolic glycosides. Acinetobacter sp. R7-1 utilized condensed tannins but not phenolic glycosides or glucose as carbon sources. Growth in nutrient-rich medium was increased by condensed tannins, but reduced by phenolic glycosides. Addition of the P450 enzyme inhibitor piperonyl butoxide increased the effects of phenolic glycosides on Acinetobacter sp. R7-1. In contrast, the esterase inhibitor S,S,S,-tributyl-phosphorotrithioate did not affect phenolic glycoside inhibition of bacterial growth. Degradation of phenolic glycosides by Acinetobacter sp. R7-1 appears to alleviate the cytotoxicity of these compounds, rather than provide an energy source. Our results further suggest this bacterium utilizes additional, complementary mechanisms to degrade antimicrobial phytochemicals. Collectively, these results provide insight into mechanisms by which microorganisms contend with their environment within the context of plant-herbivore interactions. PMID:26961755

  14. Process simulation of oxy-combustion for maximization of energy output using ASPEN plus

    Subhodeep Banerjee, Xiao Zhang, Suraj K. Puvvada, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a next-generation combustion technology that shows promise to address the need of low-cost carbon capture from fossil fueled power plants. Oxy-fuel combustion requires expensive pre-processing in an air separation unit to separate pure oxygen from air for the combustion process, which reduces the overall efficiency of the process. This paper employs ASPEN Plus process simulation software to model a simple oxy-fuel combustor and investigates the effect of various paramet...

  15. DEM modelling, vegetation characterization and mapping of aspen parkland rangeland using LIDAR data

    Su, Guangquan

    Detailed geographic information system (GIS) studies on plant ecology, animal behavior and soil hydrologic characteristics across spatially complex landscapes require an accurate digital elevation model (DEM). Following interpolation of last return LIDAR data and creation of a LIDAR-derived DEM, a series of 260 points, stratified by vegetation type, slope gradient and off-nadir distance, were ground-truthed using a total laser station, GPS, and 27 interconnected benchmarks. Despite an overall mean accuracy of +2 cm across 8 vegetation types, it created a RMSE (square root of the mean square error) of 1.21 m. DEM elevations were over-estimated within forested areas by an average of 20 cm with a RMSE of 1.05 m, under-estimated (-12 cm, RMSE = 1.36 m) within grasslands. Vegetation type had the greatest influence on DEM accuracy, while off-nadir distance (P = 0.48) and slope gradient (P = 0.49) did not influence DEM accuracy; however, the latter factors did interact (P physiognomy) including plant height, cover, and vertical or horizontal heterogeneity, are important factors influencing biodiversity. Vegetation over and understory were sampled for height, canopy cover, and tree or shrub density within 120 field plots, evenly stratified by vegetation formation (grassland, shrubland, and aspen forest). Results indicated that LIDAR data could be used for estimating the maximum height, cover, and density, of both closed and semi-open stands of aspen (P < 0.001). However, LIDAR data could not be used to assess understory (<1.5 m) height within aspen stands, nor grass height and cover. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types are important for rangelands as they provide a basis for the development and evaluation of management policies and actions. In this study, LIDAR data were found to be superior to digital classification schedules for their mapping accuracy in aspen forest and grassland, but not shrubland. No single classification schedule created a high classification

  16. 第23次"营养风险、不良、支持、结局与成本效益比"及"鱼油干预对结局与成本效益比的影响"工作坊纪要%The 23rd "Nutritional risk, malnutrition, nutritional support, outcome and cost/effective cohort study"and "Impact of fish oil for postoperative patients on outcome and cost/effectiveness: multi-center randomized clinical trial" workshop report

    于康; 蒋朱明; 许静涌; 李海龙

    2010-01-01

    中华医学会肠外肠内营养学分会的"营养风险、不良、支持、结局与费用"协作组第23次工作坊于2010年8月6日至8日在北京举行.本次工作坊由来自北京、天津、重庆、成都、昆明、贵阳、广州、松原、潍坊、桂林、乌鲁木齐、青岛、岳阳和秦皇岛14个中心的共30名代表参加.工作坊的内容主要分为两大部分.第一部分:学习与本协作组研究内容有关的已发表的3篇SCI论文,以及"如何评价论文质量"和"临床医学研究设计"专题报告;第二部分:研讨本协作组目前正进行的两个研究计划,并分别领取工作任务,其中"营养风险、不良、支持、结局与成本效益比"研究计划继续目前的炎症性肠病方面的研究,"鱼油干预对结局与成本效益比"研究计划从随机对照临床试验开始进行.工作坊是高度互动和交流的平台,收效显著.第24次工作坊定于2010年12月17至19日在北京举行.%From August 6 to 8, 2010, the 23 rd "Nutritional risk, malnutrition, nutritional support, outcome, and cost-effective" workshop was held in Beijing. There were 30 participants from Beijing, Tianjin,Chongqing, Chengdu, Kunming, Guiyang, Guangzhou, Songyuan, Weifang, Guilin, Urumqi, Qingdao, Yueyang, and Qinhuangdao. The workshop has 2 sections. Section 1: Learn the published papers from ( 1 ) Jie B,Jiang ZM, Nolan MT, et al. Impact of nutritional support on clinical outcome in patients at nutritional risk: a multicenter, prospective cohort study in Baltimore and Beijing teaching hospitals. Nutrition, 2010, (9); (2)Braga M, Gianotti L. Preoperative immunonutrition: cost-benefit analysis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr,2005, 29 ( 1 Suppl): S57-S61; and ( 3 ) Jiang ZM, Wilmore DW, Wang XR, et al. Randomized clinical trial of intravenous soybean oil alone versus soybean oil plus fish oil emulsion after gastrointestinal cancer surgery. Br J Surg, 2010, 97 (6): 804-809. Section 2: Discuss two protocols for

  17. Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action

    Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ► Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ► Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ► Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ► Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene.

  18. An evaluation of steam-treated aspen as a substitute for corn silage in the rations of lactating cows

    Fisher, L J

    1980-01-01

    Fifteen lactating Holsteins were used to test processed aspen added to corn silage at the levels of 0, 10 and 20% (dry matter basis). The experiment was designed as a latin square with three experimental periods each 42 days in length. The forage mixtures were fed free choice to the cows, which were housed in a free-stall barn, and their individual feed intakes were recorded by using electronic doors. The processed aspen contained 45.4% dry matter, 73.7% acid detergent fiber and 0.54% protein...

  19. New exposure-based metric approach for evaluating O(3) risk to North American aspen forests.

    Percy, K E; Nosal, M; Heilman, W; Dann, T; Sober, J; Legge, A H; Karnosky, D F

    2007-06-01

    The United States and Canada currently use exposure-based metrics to protect vegetation from O(3). Using 5 years (1999-2003) of co-measured O(3), meteorology and growth response, we have developed exposure-based regression models that predict Populus tremuloides growth change within the North American ambient air quality context. The models comprised growing season fourth-highest daily maximum 8-h average O(3) concentration, growing degree days, and wind speed. They had high statistical significance, high goodness of fit, include 95% confidence intervals for tree growth change, and are simple to use. Averaged across a wide range of clonal sensitivity, historical 2001-2003 growth change over most of the 26 Mha P. tremuloides distribution was estimated to have ranged from no impact (0%) to strong negative impacts (-31%). With four aspen clones responding negatively (one responded positively) to O(3), the growing season fourth-highest daily maximum 8-h average O(3) concentration performed much better than growing season SUM06, AOT40 or maximum 1h average O(3) concentration metrics as a single indicator of aspen stem cross-sectional area growth. PMID:17140714

  20. Urbanization-related changes in European aspen (Populus tremula L.): Leaf traits and litter decomposition

    We investigated foliar and litter responses of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) to urbanization, including factors such as increased temperature, moisture stress and nitrogen (N) deposition. Leaf samples were collected in 2006-2008 from three urban and three rural forest stands in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, southern Finland, and reciprocal litter transplantations were established between urban and rural sites. Urban leaves exhibited a higher amount of epicuticular waxes and N concentration, and a lower C:N ratio than rural ones, but there was no difference in specific leaf area. Urban litter had a slightly higher N concentration, lower concentrations of lignin and total phenolics, and was more palatable to a macrofaunal decomposer. Moreover, litter decay was faster at the urban site and for urban litter. Urbanization thus resulted in foliar acclimatization in terms of increased amount of epicuticular waxes, as well as in accelerated decomposition of the N-richer leaf litter. - Urbanization can modify leaf traits of aspen and accelerate litter decomposition through changes in litter traits as well as in environmental conditions at the decomposition site.

  1. Improving root-zone soil properties for Trembling Aspen in a reconstructed mine-site soil

    Dyck, M. F.; Sabbagh, P.; Bockstette, S.; Landhäusser, S.; Pinno, B.

    2014-12-01

    Surface mining activities have significantly depleted natural tree cover, especially trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), in the Boreal Forest and Aspen Parkland Natural Regions of Alberta. The natural soil profile is usually destroyed during these mining activities and soil and landscape reconstruction is typically the first step in the reclamation process. However, the mine tailings and overburden materials used for these new soils often become compacted during the reconstruction process because they are subjected to high amounts of traffic with heavy equipment. Compacted soils generally have low porosity and low penetrability through increased soil strength, making it difficult for roots to elongate and explore the soil. Compaction also reduces infiltration capacity and drainage, which can cause excessive runoff and soil erosion. To improve the pore size distribution and water transmission, subsoil ripping was carried out in a test plot at Genesee Prairie Mine, Alberta. Within the site, six replicates with two treatments each, unripped (compacted) and ripped (decompacted), were established with 20-m buffers between them. The main objective of this research was to characterize the effects of subsoil ripping on soil physical properties and the longevity of those effects.as well as soil water dynamics during spring snowmelt. Results showed improved bulk density, pore size distribution and water infiltration in the soil as a result of the deep ripping, but these improvements appear to be temporary.

  2. Analysis of CO2 Separation by Selexol Based on Aspen Plus%基于Aspen Plus对Selexol分离CO2流程的分析

    邱朋华; 李丹丹; 徐宝龙; 呼姚; 杜昌帅; 吴少华

    2014-01-01

    整体煤气化联合循环发电系统可采取燃烧前捕集CO2的方法,处理的合成气量少,能耗低,且能够实现 CO2的近零排放,在 CO2脱除方面具有很大的优势。文中基于Aspen Plus 对 CO2/H2S 联合脱除和分别脱除流程建立了模型,对2流程的能耗、CO2及H2S的脱除效率以及Selexol溶液的再生性能进行了分析。得出:在出口 CO2纯度相同的情况下,CO2/H2S联合脱除流程的能耗仅占CO2/H2S分别脱除的21%左右,CO2脱除效率高于分别脱除流程,2流程Selexol溶液的再生性能相差不大,且H2S脱除效率也可达到95%以上,因此CO2/H2S联合脱除流程更经济。%Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)power generation system can adopt pre-combustion CO2 capture methods, handling with less syngas and have low energy consumption, which can achieve near-zero emissions of CO2, resulting in great advantages in terms of CO2 removal. Based on Aspen Plus, combined removal of CO2/H2S (CRCH) and separate removal of CO2/H2S (SRCH) were modeled . Energy consumption, capture efficiency of CO2 and H2S, as well as the regeneration performance of Selexol were analyzed by the two models. The results indicate that:while keeping the same CO2 purity in outlet stream, the energy consumption of CRCH accounts for only 21% of SRCH; the CO2 capture efficiency is higher than that of SRCH, the regeneration performance of Selexol is almost the same for the two processes, and the capture efficiency of H2S in the two processes can be higher than 95%. All those prove that CRCH is more economic than SRCH.

  3. 77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...

    2012-05-25

    ... (69 FR 40004). In addition, in certain areas with monitored ambient carbon monoxide (CO) values... the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The criteria by which we determine whether a SIP... AGENCY Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans'...

  4. Simulation and validation of chemical-looping combustion using ASPEN plus

    Ling Zhou, Zheming Zhang, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale experimental studies have demonstrated that Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC is an advanced technology which holds great potential for high-efficiency low-cost carbon capture. The generated syngas in CLC is subsequently oxidized to CO2 and H2O by reaction with an oxygen carrier. In this paper, process-level models of CLC are established in ASPEN Plus code for detailed simulations. The entire CLC process, from the beginning of coal gasification to reduction and oxidation of the oxygen carrier is modeled. The heat content of each major component such as fuel and air reactors and air/flue gas heat exchangers is carefully examined. Large amount of energy is produced in the fuel reactor, but energy needs to be supplied to the air reactor. The overall performance and efficiency of the modeled CLC systems are also evaluated.

  5. Simulation and validation of chemical-looping combustion using ASPEN plus

    Zhou, Ling [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Laboratory-scale experimental studies have demonstrated that Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) is an advanced technology which holds great potential for high-efficiency low-cost carbon capture. The generated syngas in CLC is subsequently oxidized to CO2 and H2O by reaction with an oxygen carrier. In this paper, process-level models of CLC are established in ASPEN Plus code for detailed simulations. The entire CLC process, from the beginning of coal gasification to reduction and oxidation of the oxygen carrier is modeled. The heat content of each major component such as fuel and air reactors and air/flue gas heat exchangers is carefully examined. Large amount of energy is produced in the fuel reactor, but energy needs to be supplied to the air reactor. The overall performance and efficiency of the modeled CLC systems are also evaluated.

  6. A simulation study of Solid Oxide fuel cell for IGCC power generation using Aspen Plus

    Rudra, Souman; Kim, Hyung Taek

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for electricity generation. Sulfur free syngas from the gas cleaning unit serves as a fuel for SOFC in IGFC (Integrated gasification Fuel cell) power plant. It converts the chemical energy of the fuel gas directly to electric energy and...... more accurate fuel cell model giving an advantage over previous system studies based on simplified SOFC models. The objective of this work is to develop a simulation model of a SOFC for IGFC system, flexible enough for use in future development, capable of predicting system performance under various...... operating conditions and using diverse fuels. The SOFC stack model developed using the chemical process flow sheet simulator Aspen Plus which is of equilibrium type and is based on Gibbs free energy minimization. The SOFC model performs heat and mass balances and considers the ohmic, activation and...

  7. Continuous Hydrothermal Co-liquefaction of Aspen Wood and Glycerol with Water Phase Recirculation

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Grigoras, Ionela; Hoffmann, Jessica;

    2016-01-01

    reactors, although a continuous and energy-efficient operation is paramount for such process to be feasible. In this work an experimental campaign in a continuous bench scale unit is presented. The campaign is based on glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of aspen wood carried out with the presence...... having a higher heating value of 34.3 MJ/kg. The volatile fraction of the biocrude consisted mostly of compounds having number of carbon atoms in the C6–C12 range similar to gasoline. In terms of process feasibility, it was revealed that total organic carbon (TOC) and ash significantly accumulated in the...... water phase when such is recirculated for the proceeding batch. After four batches the TOC and the ash mass fraction of the water phase were 136.2 [g/L] and 12.6 [%], respectively. Water phase recirculation showed a slight increase in the biocrude quality in terms on an effective hydrogen...

  8. Three Stage Equilibrium Model for Coal Gasification in Entrained Flow Gasifiers Based on Aspen Plus

    KONG Xiangdong; ZHONG Weimin; DU Wenli; QIAN Feng

    2013-01-01

    A three stage equilibrium model is developed for coal gasification in the Texaco type coal gasifiers based on Aspen Plus to calculate the composition of product gas,carbon conversion,and gasification temperature.The model is divided into three stages including pyrolysis and combustion stage,char gas reaction stage,and gas phase reaction stage.Part of the water produced in the pyrolysis and combustion stage is assumed to be involved in the second stage to react with the unburned carbon.Carbon conversion is then estimated in the second stage by steam participation ratio expressed as a function of temperature.And the gas product compositions are calculated from gas phase reactions in the third stage.The simulation results are consistent with published experimental data.

  9. Process simulation of oxy-combustion for maximization of energy output using ASPEN plus

    Subhodeep Banerjee, Xiao Zhang, Suraj K. Puvvada, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxy-fuel combustion is a next-generation combustion technology that shows promise to address the need of low-cost carbon capture from fossil fueled power plants. Oxy-fuel combustion requires expensive pre-processing in an air separation unit to separate pure oxygen from air for the combustion process, which reduces the overall efficiency of the process. This paper employs ASPEN Plus process simulation software to model a simple oxy-fuel combustor and investigates the effect of various parameters on the energy output. The composition of the flue gas is carefully examined. The results of this study provide a starting point for optimized oxy-fuel combustion operation for maximum energy output, which will be crucial for future deployment of oxy-fuel combustion technology.

  10. Modeling of a High Temperature Sulfuric Acid Loop using Aspen Plus

    Hydrogen energy needs are growing with increased demands for alternatives to fossil fuel. Recently, many researchers have been investigating into hydrogen production technologies from a renewable and a nuclear energy. Very High Temperature gas cooled nuclear Reactor (VHTR) is considered to be suitable for massive hydrogen production systems when it coupled with Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermo-chemical cycle. Kim et al. are developing a hybrid heat exchanger as a process heat exchanger for the sulfur trioxide decomposition. Hong et al. constructed and are operating a small scale sulfuric acid loop for the integrity and feasibility tests of a process heat exchanger coupled with VHTR and SI cycle. In this study, we performed preliminary analysis of small scale sulfuric acid test loop using Aspen Plus chemical process simulator. In addition, we studied the behavior of main component in the sulfuric acid loop on the basis of experimental results

  11. Effects of aspen harvesting on groundwater recharge and water table dynamics in a subhumid climate

    Carrera-HernáNdez, J. J.; Mendoza, C. A.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Smerdon, B. D.

    2011-05-01

    Numerical experiments were developed using different water table depths and soil textures to investigate the impact of aspen harvesting on hydrological processes on the Western Boreal Plain. The effect of harvesting on soil moisture dynamics, fluxes at the water table, and water table fluctuation were compared for different harvesting scenarios simulated under wet and dry climatic cycles. Strong interaction between shallow water tables (i.e., 2 m) and atmospheric variability is observed for all soil textures and is reduced as the vadose zone thickens, particularly after a dry cycle, as a series of positive net atmospheric fluxes are needed to reduce soil moisture storage in order for recharge to occur. Because of harvesting, the water table fluxes can increase by 50 mm month-1, while on a yearly basis, this increase can reach 200 mm yr-1, with rainfall events taking between 1 and 5 years to become recharge (i.e., time lag). Also, the water table is expected to rise between 1 and 3.5 m, with rainfall-water table rise time lags of 1-3 years; however, the peak manifestation of harvesting on water table elevation can take up to 7 years after harvesting. The effects of aspen harvesting are more pronounced during wet cycles, and the development of forestry activities in the Boreal Plain should consider not only preceding precipitation but also the preceding precipitation-reference evapotranspiration ratio, water table depth, and soil texture. The interaction of these factors needs to be considered in order to develop sustainable forestry plans and avoid waterlogging conditions.

  12. Lung Cancer Epidemiology in Mainland China

    Qingsheng Wang; Xiaoping Lin

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer incidence has increased rapidly in China over the last 20 years, especially in females. Among the 183 registered worldwide populations, lung cancer incidence in males was ranked as the 73rd, 74th, 127th and 23rd respectively for Shanghai, Tianjin, Qidong and Hong Kong, and in females the 52nd, 13th, 102nd and 23rd. The sex ratio (M/F) ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 for most areas. The ratio of squamous/ adenocarcinoma was 2.01 in males and 0.67 in females in Tianjin, 0.97 and 0.28 in Hong Kong, 1.00 and 0.61 in the US white population and 1.18 and 0.49 in US blacks. Much research on risk factors have been conducted and documented including the following: genetic predisposition/polymorphism, smoking/coal soot and DNA adduct, cytochrome p450-1A1 (CYP1A1), glutathione S-transferase-M (GST-M), viral infection/HPV infection, high background radiation, family history, tobacco consumption, mental health, prior lung diseases, coal soot indoor air pollution, cooking fume indoor air pollution, hormones, diet, occupational exposure, outdoor air pollution, socioeconomic level/education, alcohol consumption and their interactions(addition/synergy). Based on current information we should carefully devise a plan to control lung cancer that can be put into practice.

  13. Models for the distribution of quaking aspen in geographic and potential evapotranspiration spaces relevant to the Book Cliffs (Utah), 2000-2002

    Sexton, Joseph O.

    2003-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed tree species in North America and an asset to sociological, ecological, and hydrological land values in the western United States. In recognition of these values, land managers seek means to oppose a regional decline of aspen in the Intermountain West—a decline apparently in progress since the close of the Pleistocene and driven by climate change, fire suppression, and increasing ungulate densities. One location of special relevance to this decline...

  14. Composition of cavity-nesting bird communities in montane aspen woodland fragments: The roles of landscape context and forest structure

    Lawler, J.J.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    We compared cavity-nesting bird communities in aspen (Populus tremuloides) woodland fragments classified on the basis of vegetation structure (tree density) and landscape context (surrounding vegetation). We found very few cavity nesters in fragments predominantly surrounded by forests. Fragments adjacent to meadows contained more species and a greater abundance of cavity nesters. Species richness and abundance were higher in sparsely than in densely treed meadow fragments. Because secondary cavity nesters are often limited by cavity availability, we augmented natural cavities with nest boxes. Although only five boxes contained bird nests, these were all in sparse aspen fragments predominantly surrounded by meadows. However, we found 25 northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) nests in boxes, none of which were in sparse meadow fragments. In addition to high-lighting the importance of landscape context in avian and mammalian habitat relationships, our results suggest that predator or competitor interactions may help structure this cavity-nester community. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  15. Simulation of a tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack using AspenPlusTM unit operation models

    The design of a fuel cell system involves both optimization of the fuel cell stack and the balance of plant with respect to efficiency and economics. Many commercially available process simulators, such as AspenPlusTM, can facilitate the analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. A SOFC system may include fuel pre-processors, heat exchangers, turbines, bottoming cycles, etc., all of which can be very effectively modelled in process simulation software. The current challenge is that AspenPlusTM or any other commercial process simulators do not have a model of a basic SOFC stack. Therefore, to enable performing SOFC system simulation using one of these simulators, one must construct an SOFC stack model that can be implemented in them. The most common approach is to develop a complete SOFC model in a programming language, such as Fortran, Visual Basic or C++, first and then link it to a commercial process simulator as a user defined model or subroutine. This paper introduces a different approach to the development of a SOFC model by utilizing existing AspenPlusTM functions and existing unit operation modules. The developed ''AspenPlusTM SOFC'' model is able to provide detailed thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the SOFC operation and can easily be extended to study the entire power plant consisting of the SOFC and the balance of plant without the requirement for linking with other software. Validation of this model is performed by comparison to a Siemens-Westinghouse 100 kW class tubular SOFC stack. Sensitivity analyses of major operating parameters, such as utilization factor (Uf), current density (Ic) and steam-carbon ratio (S/C), were performed using the developed model, and the results are discussed in this paper

  16. Organo-mineral interactions promote greater soil organic carbon stability under aspen in semi-arid montane forests in Utah

    Van Miegroet, H.; Roman Dobarco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forest species influence soil organic carbon (SOC) storage through litter input, which in interaction with soil microclimate, texture and mineralogy, lead to different SOC stabilization and storage patterns. We sampled mineral soil (0-15 cm) across the ecotone between aspen (Populus tremuloides) and mixed conifers stands (Abies lasiocarpa and Pseudotsuga menziesii) in semi-arid montane forests from Utah, to investigate the influence of vegetation vs. site characteristics on SOC stabilization, storage and chemistry. SOC was divided into light fraction (LF), mineral-associated SOC in the silt and clay fraction (MoM), and a dense subfraction > 53 μm (SMoM) using wet sieving and electrostatic attraction. SOC decomposability and solubility was derived from long term laboratory incubations and hot water extractions (HWE). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study differences in chemical functional groups in LF and MoM. Vegetation cover did not affect SOC storage (47.0 ± 16.5 Mg C ha-1), SOC decomposability (cumulative CO2-C release of 93.2 ± 65.4 g C g-1 C), or SOC solubility (9.8 ± 7.2 mg C g-1 C), but MoM content increased with presence of aspen [pure aspen (31.2 ± 15.1 Mg C ha-1) > mixed (25.7 ± 8.8 Mg C ha-1) > conifer (22.8 ± 9.0 Mg C ha-1)]. Organo-mineral complexes reduced biological availability of SOC, indicated by the negative correlation between silt+clay (%) and decomposable SOC per gram of C (r = -0.48, p = 0.001) or soluble SOC (r = -0.59, p plant or microbial origin. FTIR spectra clustered by sites with similar parent material rather than by vegetation cover. This suggests that initial differences in litter chemistry between aspen and conifers converged into similar MoM chemistry within sites.

  17. Bioconcentration of zinc and cadmium in ectomycorrhizal fungi and associated aspen trees as affected by level of pollution

    Concentrations of Zn and Cd were measured in fruitbodies of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and leaves of co-occurring accumulator aspen. Samples were taken on three metal-polluted sites and one control site. Fungal bioconcentration factors (BCF = fruitbody concentration: soil concentration) were calculated on the basis of total metal concentrations in surface soil horizons (BCFtot) and NH4NO3-extractable metal concentrations in mineral soil (BCFlab). When plotted on log-log scale, values of BCF decreased linearly with increasing soil metal concentrations. BCFlab for both Zn and Cd described the data more closely than BCFtot. Fungal genera differed in ZnBCF but not in CdBCF. The information on differences between fungi with respect to their predominant occurrence in different soil horizons did not improve relations of BCF with soil metal concentrations. Aspen trees accumulated Zn and Cd to similar concentrations as the ECM fungi. Apparently, the fungi did not act as an effective barrier against aspen metal uptake by retaining the metals. - Populus tremula and associated ectomycorrhizal fungi accumulate zinc and cadmium to similar concentrations

  18. Comparative simulation study of gas-phase propylene polymerization in fluidized bed reactors using aspen polymers and two phase models

    Shamiria Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study describing gas-phase propylene polymerization in fluidized-bed reactors using Ziegler-Natta catalyst is presented. The reactor behavior was explained using a two-phase model (which is based on principles of fluidization as well as simulation using the Aspen Polymers process simulator. The two-phase reactor model accounts for the emulsion and bubble phases which contain different portions of catalysts with the polymerization occurring in both phases. Both models predict production rate, molecular weight, polydispersity index (PDI and melt flow index (MFI of the polymer. We used both models to investigate the effect of important polymerization parameters, namely catalyst feed rate and hydrogen concentration, on the product polypropylene properties, such as production rate, molecular weight, PDI and MFI. Both the two-phase model and Aspen Polymers simulator showed good agreement in terms of production rate. However, the models differed in their predictions for weight-average molecular weight, PDI and MFI. Based on these results, we propose incorporating the missing hydrodynamic effects into Aspen Polymers to provide a more realistic understanding of the phenomena encountered in fluidized bed reactors for polyolefin production.

  19. Hydraulic conductivity and aquaporin transcription in roots of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by Laccaria bicolor.

    Xu, Hao; Cooke, Janice E K; Kemppainen, Minna; Pardo, Alejandro G; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2016-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi have been reported to increase root hydraulic conductivity (L pr) by altering apoplastic and plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP)-mediated cell-to-cell water transport pathways in associated roots, or to have little effect on root water transport, depending on the interacting species and imposed stresses. In this study, we investigated the water transport properties and PIP transcription in roots of aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by the wild-type strain of Laccaria bicolor and by strains overexpressing a major fungal water-transporting aquaporin JQ585595. Inoculation of aspen seedlings with L. bicolor resulted in about 30 % colonization rate of root tips, which developed dense mantle and the Hartig net that was restricted in the modified root epidermis. Transcript abundance of the aspen aquaporins PIP1;2, PIP2;1, and PIP2;2 decreased in colonized root tips. Root colonization by JQ585595-overexpressing strains had no significant impact on seedling shoot water potentials, gas exchange, or dry mass; however, it led to further decrease in transcript abundance of PIP1;2 and PIP2;3 and the significantly lower L pr than in non-inoculated roots. These results, taken together with our previous study that showed enhanced root water hydraulics of L. bicolor-colonized white spruce (Picea glauca), suggest that the impact of L. bicolor on root hydraulics varies by the ectomycorrhiza-associated tree species. PMID:26861480

  20. Effectiveness of mycorrhizal inoculation in the nursery on root colonization, growth, and nutrient uptake of aspen and balsam poplar

    Quoreshi, A.M.; Khasa, D.P. [Symbiotech Research Inc. 201, 509-11 Avenue, Nisku, AB (Canada); Forest Biology Research Centre, University of Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Aspen and balsam poplar seedlings were inoculated with six species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Hebeloma longicaudum, Laccaria bicolor, Paxillus involutus, Pisolithus tinctorius, Rhizopogon vinicolor, and Suillus tomentosus), one species of endomycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices), two species of bacteria (Agrobacterium sp. and Burkholderia cepacia), treated with a growth hormone (SR3), and co-inoculated with a combination of Paxillus and Burkholderia. The seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under three different fertility regimes. Bacterial inoculation alone did not affect seedling growth and nutrition as observed when co-inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungus. The biomass and root collar diameter of aspen and balsam poplar were significantly increased when adequate mycorrhizas are formed and more prominent when co-inoculated with P. involutus and B. cepacia and grown at the 67% fertilizer level. Except for R. vinicolor and S. tomentosus, the other four species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and G. intraradices formed symbiotic associations with both plant species. Both ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal colonization were observed at all fertilizer levels and fertilizer applications did not affect the colonization rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly improved in both aspen and balsam poplar compared with control only when co-inoculated with P. involutus and B. cepacia. However, plant net nitrogen uptake (content) increased significantly in all successful inoculation treatments and co-inoculated treatment when compared with control. These results hold promise for incorporation of inoculation of Populus sp. with appropriate mycorrhizal fungi and selected bacteria into commercial nursery system to improve the establishment of Populus in various sites. (author)

  1. Growth, leaf traits and litter decomposition of roadside hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) clones

    Road traffic contributes considerably to ground-level air pollution and is therefore likely to affect roadside ecosystems. Differences in growth and leaf traits among 13 hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) clones were studied in relation to distance from a motorway. The trees sampled were growing 15 and 30 m from a motorway and at a background rural site in southern Finland. Litter decomposition was also measured at both the roadside and rural sites. Height and diameter growth rate and specific leaf area were lowest, and epicuticular wax amount highest in trees growing 15 m from the motorway. Although no significant distance x clone interactions were detected, clone-based analyses indicated differences in genotypic responses to motorway proximity. Leaf N concentration did not differ with distance from the motorway for any of the clones. Leaf litter decomposition was only temporarily retarded in the roadside environment, suggesting minor effects on nutrient cycling. - Highlights: → Roadside hybrid aspen displayed xeromorphic leaf traits and reduction in growth rate. → These responses were limited to trees close to the motorway and only to some clones. → Leaf litter decomposition was only temporarily retarded in the roadside environment. - Hybrid aspen had more xeromorphic leaves, displayed reduced growth, and showed retarded litter decomposition at an early stage in the roadside environment.

  2. ASPEN: A fully kinetic, reduced-description particle-in-cell model for simulating parametric instabilities

    A fully kinetic, reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) model is presented in which deviations from quasineutrality, electron and ion kinetic effects, and nonlinear interactions between low-frequency and high-frequency parametric instabilities are modeled correctly. The model is based on a reduced description where the electromagnetic field is represented by three separate temporal envelopes in order to model parametric instabilities with low-frequency and high-frequency daughter waves. Because temporal envelope approximations are invoked, the simulation can be performed on the electron time scale instead of the time scale of the light waves. The electrons and ions are represented by discrete finite-size particles, permitting electron and ion kinetic effects to be modeled properly. The Poisson equation is utilized to ensure that space-charge effects are included. The RPIC model is fully three dimensional and has been implemented in two dimensions on the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) parallel computer at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the resulting simulation code has been named ASPEN. The authors believe this code is the first particle-in-cell code capable of simulating the interaction between low-frequency and high-frequency parametric instabilities in multiple dimensions. Test simulations of stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and Langmuir decay instability are presented

  3. Thermochemical Equilibrium Model of Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Coal Gasification Using Aspen Plus

    Rolando Barrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG from coal is a process of interest in Colombia where the reserves-to-production ratio (R/P for natural gas is expected to be between 7 and 10 years, while the R/P for coal is forecasted to be around 90 years. In this work, the process to produce SNG by means of coal-entrained flow gasifiers is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium with the Gibbs free energy approach. The model was developed using a complete and comprehensive Aspen Plus model. Two typical technologies used in entrained flow gasifiers such as coal dry and coal slurry are modeled and simulated. Emphasis is put on interactions between the fuel feeding technology and selected energy output parameters of coal-SNG process, that is, energy efficiencies, power, and SNG quality. It was found that coal rank does not significantly affect energy indicators such as cold gas, process, and global efficiencies. However, feeding technology clearly has an effect on the process due to the gasifying agent. Simulations results are compared against available technical data with good accuracy. Thus, the proposed model is considered as a versatile and useful computational tool to study and optimize the coal to SNG process.

  4. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen.

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1). The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. PMID:25399006

  5. A Simulation Study of Downdraft Gasification of Oil-Palm Fronds using ASPEN PLUS

    Suzana Yusup

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass gasification for conversion of hydrocarbons to permanent fuel gas mainly composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, dates back to late 1700. However, the successful design and operation of gasifiers is not an easy task. No clear cut methods of performance prediction of gasifiers is yet available as the thermodynamics of gasifier operation is less understood and highly dependent on the specific biomass feedstock used. In this study, the performance study of downdraft gasification of oil-palm fronds, is carried out making use of ASPEN PLUS 0process simulator software, to study the effect of operating conditions (zone temperature, operating pressure, air fuel ratio and moisture content on syngas composition. In this study, the pyrolysis yield is calculated from the ultimate analysis (CHNS test values of the oil-palm fronds, rather than approximating typical yield distribution for pyrolysis products. The results of the simulation showed better agreement with the syngas composition results of other authors. From the simulation study it is shown that higher mass fraction of CO and CH4 can be obtained at lower air-fuel ratio and lower pressure (below 5 bars. The mass fraction of CO increases sharply with increase in the oxidation zone temperature, for the temperature range of 500-700C.

  6. Elevated CO{sub 2} response of photosynthesis depends on ozone concentration in aspen

    Noormets, Asko, E-mail: anoorme@ncsu.ed [Michigan Technological University, School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Kull, Olevi; Sober, Anu [University of Tartu, Institute of Botany and Ecology, Tartu, Estonia (United States); Kubiske, Mark E. [US Forest Service, Northern Research Lab, Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States); Karnosky, David F. [Michigan Technological University, School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on apparent quantum yield (phi), maximum photosynthesis (P{sub max}), carboxylation efficiency (V{sub cmax}) and electron transport capacity (J{sub max}) at different canopy locations was studied in two aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones of contrasting O{sub 3} tolerance. Local light climate at every leaf was characterized as fraction of above-canopy photosynthetic photon flux density (%PPFD). Elevated CO{sub 2} alone did not affect phi or P{sub max}, and increased J{sub max} in the O{sub 3}-sensitive, but not in the O{sub 3}-tolerant clone. Elevated O{sub 3} decreased leaf chlorophyll content and all photosynthetic parameters, particularly in the lower canopy, and the negative impact of O{sub 3} increased through time. Significant interaction effect, whereby the negative impact of elevated O{sub 3} was exaggerated by elevated CO{sub 2} was seen in Chl, N and J{sub max}, and occurred in both O{sub 3}-tolerant and O{sub 3}-sensitive clones. The clonal differences in the level of CO{sub 2} x O{sub 3} interaction suggest a relationship between photosynthetic acclimation and background O{sub 3} concentration. - Photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO{sub 2} depends on the background oxidant levels.

  7. Full employment and competition in the Aspen economic model: implications for modeling acts of terrorism.

    Sprigg, James A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew

    2004-11-01

    Acts of terrorism could have a range of broad impacts on an economy, including changes in consumer (or demand) confidence and the ability of productive sectors to respond to changes. As a first step toward a model of terrorism-based impacts, we develop here a model of production and employment that characterizes dynamics in ways useful toward understanding how terrorism-based shocks could propagate through the economy; subsequent models will introduce the role of savings and investment into the economy. We use Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool developed at Sandia, to demonstrate for validation purposes that a single-firm economy converges to the known monopoly equilibrium price, output, and employment levels, while multiple-firm economies converge toward the competitive equilibria typified by lower prices and higher output and employment. However, we find that competition also leads to churn by consumers seeking lower prices, making it difficult for firms to optimize with respect to wages, prices, and employment levels. Thus, competitive firms generate market ''noise'' in the steady state as they search for prices and employment levels that will maximize profits. In the context of this model, not only could terrorism depress overall consumer confidence and economic activity but terrorist acts could also cause normal short-run dynamics to be misinterpreted by consumers as a faltering economy.

  8. Estimation of Power Production Potential from Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations in Pakistan Using ASPEN HYSYS

    Imran Nazir Unar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a gas rich but power poor country. It consumes approximately 1, 559 Billion cubic feet of natural gas annually. Gas is transported around the country in a system of pressurized transmission pipelines under a pressure range of 600-1000 psig exclusively operated by two state owned companies i.e. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited and SSGCL (Sui Southern Gas Company Limited. The gas is distributed by reducing from the transmission pressure into distribution pressure up to maximum level of 150 psig at the city gate stations normally called SMS (Sales Metering Station. As a normal practice gas pressure reduction at those SMSs is accomplished in pressure regulators (PCVs or in throttle valves where isenthalpic expansion takes place without producing any energy. Pressure potential of natural gas is an untapped energy resource which is currently wasted by its throttling. This pressure reduction at SMS (pressure drop through SMS may also be achieved by expansion of natural gas in TE, which converts its pressure into the mechanical energy, which can be transmitted any loading device for example electric generator. The aim of present paper is to explore the expected power production potential of various Sales Metering Stations of SSGCL company in Pakistan. The model of sales metering station was developed in a standard flow sheeting software Aspen HYSYS®7.1 to calculate power and study other parameters when an expansion turbine is used instead of throttling valves. It was observed from the simulation results that a significant power (more than 140 KW can be produced at pressure reducing stations of SSGC network with gas flows more than 2.2 MMSCFD and pressure ration more than 1.3.

  9. Simulation of integrated pollutant removal (IPR) water-treatment system using ASPEN Plus

    Harendra, Sivaram; Oryshcyhn, Danylo [U.S. DOE/NETL; Ochs, Thomas [U.S. DOE/NETL; Gerdemann, Stephen; Clark, John

    2013-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from fossil fuel combustion provides an opportunity for tapping a significant water source which can be used as service water for a capture-ready power plant and its peripherals. Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have patented a process—Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR®)—that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO2 stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Water condensed from oxy-combustion flue gas via the IPR system has been analyzed for composition and an approach for its treatment—for in-process reuse and for release—has been outlined. A computer simulation model in ASPEN Plus has been developed to simulate water treatment of flue gas derived wastewater from IPR systems. At the field installation, water condensed in the IPR process contains fly ash particles, sodium (largely from spray-tower buffering) and sulfur species as well as heavy metals, cations, and anions. An IPR wastewater treatment system was modeled using unit operations such as equalization, coagulation and flocculation, reverse osmosis, lime softening, crystallization, and pH correction. According to the model results, 70% (by mass) of the inlet stream can be treated as pure water, the other 20% yields as saleable products such as gypsum (CaSO4) and salt (NaCl) and the remaining portion is the waste. More than 99% of fly ash particles are removed in the coagulation and flocculation unit and these solids can be used as filler materials in various applications with further treatment. Results discussed relate to a slipstream IPR installation and are verified experimentally in the coagulation/flocculation step.

  10. The effect of air preheating in a biomass CFB gasifier using ASPEN Plus simulation

    Doherty, Wayne; Reynolds, Anthony; Kennedy, David [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology, Bolton Street, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2009-09-15

    In the context of climate change, efficiency and energy security, biomass gasification is likely to play an important role. Circulating fluidised bed (CFB) technology was selected for the current study. The objective of this research is to develop a computer model of a CFB biomass gasifier that can predict gasifier performance under various operating conditions. An original model was developed using ASPEN Plus. The model is based on Gibbs free energy minimisation. The restricted equilibrium method was used to calibrate it against experimental data. This was achieved by specifying the temperature approach for the gasification reactions. The model predicts syn-gas composition, conversion efficiency and heating values in good agreement with experimental data. Operating parameters were varied over a wide range. Parameters such as equivalence ratio (ER), temperature, air preheating, biomass moisture and steam injection were found to influence syn-gas composition, heating value, and conversion efficiency. The results indicate an ER and temperature range over which hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO) are maximised, which in turn ensures a high heating value and cold gas efficiency (CGE). Gas heating value was found to decrease with ER. Air preheating increases H{sub 2} and CO production, which increases gas heating value and CGE. Air preheating is more effective at low ERs. A critical air temperature exists after which additional preheating has little influence. Steam has better reactivity than fuel bound moisture. Increasing moisture degrades performance therefore the input fuel should be pre-dried. Steam injection should be employed if a H{sub 2} rich syn-gas is desired. (author)

  11. Experimental Investigation and Aspen Plus Simulation of the MSW Pyrolysis Process

    Ansah, Emmanuel

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a potential feedstock for producing transportation fuels because it is readily available using an existing collection/transportation infrastructure and fees are provided by the suppliers or government agencies to treat MSW. North Carolina with a population of 9.4 millions generates 3.629 million metric tons of MSW each year, which contains about 113,396,356 TJs of energy. The average moisture content of MSW samples is 44.3% on a wet basis. About 77% of the dry MSW mass is combustible components including paper, organics, textile and plastics. The average heating values of MSW were 9.7, 17.5, and 22.7 MJ/kg on a wet basis, dry basis and dry combustible basis, respectively. The MSW generated in North Carolina can produce 7.619 million barrels of crude bio-oil or around 4% of total petroleum consumption in North Carolina. MSW can be thermally pyrolyzed into bio-oil in the absence of oxygen or air at a temperature of 500°C or above. As bio-oil can be easily stored and transported, compared to bulky MSW, landfill gas and electricity, pyrolysis offers significant logistical and economic advantages over landfilling and other thermal conversion processes such as combustion and gasification. Crude bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of MSW can be further refined to transportation fuels in existing petroleum refinery facilities. The objective of this research is to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of pyrolyzing MSW into liquid transportation fuels. A combined thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) instrument, which can serve as a micro-scale pyrolysis reactor, was used to simultaneously determine the degradation characteristics of MSW during pyrolysis. An ASPEN Plus-based mathematical model was further developed to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of pyrolysing of MSW into liquid transportation fuels in fixed bed reactors at varying operating conditions

  12. Aspen Plus simulation of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants

    Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems are employed to provide heat and electricity to a 0.19 hm3 y−1 (50 million gallon per year) corn ethanol plant using different fuels (syrup and corn stover, corn stover alone, and natural gas). Aspen Plus simulations of BIGCC/NGCC systems are performed to study effects of different fuels, gas turbine compression pressure, dryers (steam tube or superheated steam) for biomass fuels and ethanol co-products, and steam tube dryer exhaust treatment methods. The goal is to maximize electricity generation while meeting process heat needs of the plant. At fuel input rates of 110 MW, BIGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 20–25 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies (net power generated plus process heat rate divided by fuel input rate) of 69–74%. NGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 26–30 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 74–78%. BIGCC systems with superheated steam dryers provide 20–22 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 53–56%. The life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction for conventional corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 39% for process heat with natural gas (grid electricity), 117% for BIGCC with syrup and corn stover fuel, 124% for BIGCC with corn stover fuel, and 93% for NGCC with natural gas fuel. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. -- Highlights: •BIGCC and natural gas combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants are simulated. •The best performance results in 25–30 MW power to grid. •The best performance results in 74–78% system thermal efficiencies. •GHG reduction for corn ethanol with BIGCC systems compared to gasoline is over 100%

  13. Simulation of the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] refrigeration system using the ASPEN/SP process simulator

    The SSC Magnet must maintain at a super conducting temperature of 4 K. The proposed refrigeration cooling processes consist of fairly simple closed cycles which take advantage of the Joule-Thompson effect via a series of expansions and compressions of helium gas which has been precooled by liquid nitrogen. The processes currently under consideration consist of three cycles, the 20 K shield cooling, the 45 K helium refrigerator and the helium liquefier. The process units which are to be employed are compressors, turbines, expanders, mixers, flashes, two stream heat exchangers and multiple stream heat exchangers. The cycles are to be operated at or near steady state. Due to the large number of competing cooling sector designs to be considered and the high capital and operating costs of the proposed processes, the SSC Laboratory requires a software tool for the validation and optimization of the individual designs and for the performance of cost-benefit analyses among competing designs. Since these processes are steady state flow processes involving primarily standard unit operations, a decision was made to investigate the application of a commercial process simulator to the task. Several months of internal evaluations by the SSC Laboratory revealed that while the overall structure and calculation approach of number of the commercial simulators were appropriate for this task, all were lacking essential capabilities in the areas of thermodynamic property calculations for cryogenic systems and modeling of complex, multiple stream heat exchangers. An acceptable thermodynamics model was provided and a series of simple, but representative benchmark problems developed. The model and problems were provided to three software vendors. Based on the results of the benchmark test, the ASPEN/SP process simulator was selected for future modeling work

  14. ASPEN Plus simulation of coal integrated gasification combined blast furnace slag waste heat recovery system

    Highlights: • An integrated system of coal gasification with slag waste heat recovery was proposed. • The goal of BF slag heat saving and emission reduction was achieved by this system. • The optimal parameters were obtained and the waste heat recovery rate reached 83.08%. • About 6.64 kmol/min syngas was produced when using one ton BF slag to provide energy. - Abstract: This article presented a model for the system of coal gasification with steam and blast furnace slag waste heat recovery by using the ASPEN Plus as the simulating and modeling tool. Constrained by mass and energy balance for the entire system, the model included the gasifier used to product syngas at the chemical equilibrium based on the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and the boiler used to recover the heat of the blast furnace slag (BF slag) and syngas. Two parameters of temperature and steam to coal ratio (S/C) were considered to account for their impacts on the Datong coal (DT coal) gasification process. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), cold gasification efficiency (CGE), syngas product efficiency (PE) and the heating value of syngas produced by 1 kg pulverized coal (HV) were adopted as the indicators to examine the gasification performance. The optimal operating temperature and S/C were 800 °C and 1.5, respectively. At this condition, CE reached above 90% and the maximum values of the CGE, PE and HV were all obtained. Under the optimal operating conditions, 1000 kg/min BF slag, about 40.41 kg/min DT pulverized coal and 77.94 kg/min steam were fed into the gasifier and approximate 6.64 kmol/min syngas could be generated. Overall, the coal was converted to clean syngas by gasification reaction and the BF slag waste heat was also recovered effectively (reached up to 83.08%) in this system, achieving the objective of energy saving and emission reduction

  15. The effect of air preheating in a biomass CFB gasifier using ASPEN Plus simulation

    In the context of climate change, efficiency and energy security, biomass gasification is likely to play an important role. Circulating fluidised bed (CFB) technology was selected for the current study. The objective of this research is to develop a computer model of a CFB biomass gasifier that can predict gasifier performance under various operating conditions. An original model was developed using ASPEN Plus. The model is based on Gibbs free energy minimisation. The restricted equilibrium method was used to calibrate it against experimental data. This was achieved by specifying the temperature approach for the gasification reactions. The model predicts syn-gas composition, conversion efficiency and heating values in good agreement with experimental data. Operating parameters were varied over a wide range. Parameters such as equivalence ratio (ER), temperature, air preheating, biomass moisture and steam injection were found to influence syn-gas composition, heating value, and conversion efficiency. The results indicate an ER and temperature range over which hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are maximised, which in turn ensures a high heating value and cold gas efficiency (CGE). Gas heating value was found to decrease with ER. Air preheating increases H2 and CO production, which increases gas heating value and CGE. Air preheating is more effective at low ERs. A critical air temperature exists after which additional preheating has little influence. Steam has better reactivity than fuel bound moisture. Increasing moisture degrades performance therefore the input fuel should be pre-dried. Steam injection should be employed if a H2 rich syn-gas is desired. (author)

  16. Estimation of power production potential from natural gas pressure reduction stations in pakistan using aspen hysys

    Pakistan is a gas rich but power poor country. It consumes approximately 1, 559 Billion cubic feet of natural gas annually. Gas is transported around the country in a system of pressurized transmission pipelines under a pressure-range of 600-1 000 psig exclusively operated by two state owned companies i.e. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited) and SSGCL (Sui Southern Gas Company Limited). The gas is distributed by reducing from the transmission pressure into distribution pressure up to maximum level of 150 psig at the city gate stations normally called SMS (Sales Metering Station). As a normal practice gas pressure reduction at those SMSs is accomplished in pressure regulators (PCVs or in of natural gas is an untapped energy resource which is currently wasted by its throttling. This pressure reduction at SMS (pressure drop through SMS) may also be achieved by expansion of natural gas in TE, which converts its pressure into the mechanical energy, which can be transmitted any loading device for example electric generator. The aim of present paper is to explore the expected power production potential of various Sales Metering Stations of SSGCL company in Pakistan. The model of sales metering station was developed in a standard flow sheeting software Aspen HYSYS at the rate 7.1 to calculate power and study other parameters when an expansion turbine is used instead of throttling valves. It was observed from the simulation results that a significant power (more than 140 KW) can be produced at pressure reducing stations of SSGC network with gas flows more than 2.2 MMSCFD and pressure ration more than 1.3. (author)

  17. Process optimization for bioethanol conversion to bioethylene using ASPEN PLUS%基于ASPEN PLUS平台的生物乙醇制生物乙烯的工艺优化

    王林; 崔国燊; 徐檬; 谭天伟

    2009-01-01

    生物乙醇与生物乙烯的过程耦合是降低生物乙烯成本的重要途径.在充分分析生物乙醇制乙烯工艺的特点后,以ASPEN PLUS模拟软件为平台,对乙醇分离与乙醇脱水反应过程的耦合进行了优化设计,优化后的工艺流程节省蒸汽73%,节省能耗6%.

  18. 2012 Aspen Winter Conference New Paradigms for Low-Dimensional Electronic Materials, February 5-10, 2012

    Moore, Joel; Rabe, Karin; Nayak, Chetan; Troyer, Matthias

    2012-05-01

    Aspen Center for Physics Project Summary DOE Budget Period: 10/1/2011 to 9/30/2012 Contract # DE-SC0007479 New Paradigms for Low-Dimensional Electronic Materials The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Condensed Matter Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 5 to 10, 2012. Seventy-four participants from seven countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, New Paradigms for Low-Dimensional Electronic Materials. There were 34 formal talks, and a number of informal discussions held during the week. Talks covered a variety of topics related to DOE BES priorities, including, for example, advanced photon techniques (Hasan, Abbamonte, Orenstein, Shen, Ghosh) and predictive theoretical modeling of materials properties (Rappe, Pickett, Balents, Zhang, Vanderbilt); the full conference schedule is provided with this report. The week's events included a public lecture (Quantum Matters given by Chetan Nayak from Microsoft Research) and attended by 234 members of the public, and a physics caf© geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists conducted by Kathryn Moler (Stanford University) and Andrew M. Rappe (University of Pennsylvania) and attended by 67 locals and visitors. While there were no published proceedings, some of the talks are posted online and can be Googled. The workshop was organized by Joel Moore (University of California Berkeley), Chetan Nayak (Microsoft Research), Karin Rabe (Rutgers University), and Matthias Troyer (ETH Zurich). Two organizers who did not attend the conference were Gabriel Aeppli (University College London & London Centre for Nanotechnology) and Andrea Cavalleri (Oxford University & Max Planck Hamburg).

  19. Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Stability in the Aspen-Conifer Ecotone in Montane Forests in Utah, USA

    Mercedes Román Dobarco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess the potential impact of conifer encroachment on soil organic carbon (SOC dynamics and storage in montane aspen-conifer forests from the interior western US, we sampled mineral soils (0–15 cm across the aspen-conifer ecotones in southern and northern Utah and quantified total SOC stocks, stable SOC (i.e., mineral-associated SOC (MoM, labile SOC (i.e., light fraction (LF, decomposable (CO2 release during long-term aerobic incubations and soluble SOC (hot water extractable organic carbon (HWEOC. Total SOC storage (47.0 ± 16.5 Mg C ha−1 and labile SOC as LF (14.0 ± 7.10 Mg C ha−1, SOC decomposability (cumulative released CO2-C of 5.6 ± 3.8 g C g−1 soil or HWEOC (0.6 ± 0.6 mg C g−1 soil did not differ substantially with vegetation type, although a slight increase in HWEOC was observed with increasing conifer in the overstory. There were statistically significant differences (p = 0.035 in stable MoM storage, which was higher under aspen (31.2 ± 15.1 Mg C ha−1 than under conifer (22.8 ± 9.0 Mg C ha−1, with intermediate values under mixed (25.7 ± 8.8 Mg C ha−1. Texture had the greatest impact on SOC distribution among labile and stable fractions, with increasing stabilization in MoM and decreasing bio-availability of SOC with increasing silt + clay content. Only at lower silt + clay contents (40%–70% could we discern the influence of vegetation on MoM content. This highlights the importance of chemical protection mechanisms for long-term C sequestration.

  20. Cancer

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  1. Cancer

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  2. Spring leaf flush in aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones is altered by long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide and elevated ozone concentration

    McGrath, Justin M., E-mail: jmcgrath@illinois.ed [Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 190 ERML, 1201 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Karnosky, David F., E-mail: karnosky@mtu.ed [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Ainsworth, Elizabeth A., E-mail: lisa.ainsworth@ars.usda.go [Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 190 ERML, 1201 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); USDA ARS Photosynthesis Research Unit, 147 ERML, 1201 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Early spring leaf out is important to the success of deciduous trees competing for light and space in dense forest plantation canopies. In this study, we investigated spring leaf flush and how long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO{sub 2}]) and elevated ozone concentration ([O{sub 3}]) altered leaf area index development in a closed Populus tremuloides (aspen) canopy. This work was done at the Aspen FACE experiment where aspen clones have been grown since 1997 in conditions simulating the [CO{sub 2}] and [O{sub 3}] predicted for approx2050. The responses of two clones were compared during the first month of spring leaf out when CO{sub 2} fumigation had begun, but O{sub 3} fumigation had not. Trees in elevated [CO{sub 2}] plots showed a stimulation of leaf area index (36%), while trees in elevated [O{sub 3}] plots had lower leaf area index (-20%). While individual leaf area was not significantly affected by elevated [CO{sub 2}], the photosynthetic operating efficiency of aspen leaves was significantly improved (51%). There were no significant differences in the way that the two aspen clones responded to elevated [CO{sub 2}]; however, the two clones responded differently to long-term growth at elevated [O{sub 3}]. The O{sub 3}-sensitive clone, 42E, had reduced individual leaf area when grown at elevated [O{sub 3}] (-32%), while the tolerant clone, 216, had larger mature leaf area at elevated [O{sub 3}] (46%). These results indicate a clear difference between the two clones in their long-term response to elevated [O{sub 3}], which could affect competition between the clones, and result in altered genotypic composition in future atmospheric conditions. - Spring leaf flush is stimulated by elevated [CO{sub 2}] and suppressed by elevated [O{sub 3}] in aspen (Populus tremuloides).

  3. Aspen Plus Applications in Low Temperature Heat Recyling Technology of Tail Oil of Hydrocracking Unit%Aspen Plus在加氢裂化尾油低温热利用技术改造中的应用

    尤秀伟; 单敏

    2012-01-01

    Recycling and energy consumption. In order using the to enlarge was used to simulate the tail oil heat for tower DA912 in 920 unit was low temperature heat was an important means in oil refining enterprise to reduce energy saving space to recovery the low temperature heat as possible, Aspen Plus exchange proposed in hydrocracking equipment, and the scheme of revamping the heat source to achieve the purpose of saving energy and reducing consumption. The eco- nomic benefit was remarkable, with annual savinz oroduction costs of 4.23 million vuan.%目前炼油企业低温热回收利用是降低能耗的一种重要手段[1]。扬子石化加氢裂化装置为了挖掘节能空间尽量回收低温热,利用Aspen Plus对尾油换热流程进行模拟分析,在此基础上提出了920单元DA912塔再沸器热源技术改造方案,达到了节能降耗的目的。每年可节约生产成本约423万元,经济效益显著。

  4. Parameter Changes Which Characterize the Wear of the Cutting Tool in the Milling Process of Aspen Wood

    Andis ĀBELE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine changesof parameters (cutting power, roughness of woodensurface and rounding of cutting edge whichcharacterize the wear of the cutting tool in the millingprocess of aspen wood (Populus tremula,depending on the rake angle of the cutting tool.The milling process was performed by meansof a computer numerical control milling machine andtwo cutterheads with a rake angle of the fixed cutterknife adjusted at 100, 150, 200 and 300. The cuttersmade of high speed steel and highly alloyed toolsteel. After reaching the definite length of the cuttingtrajectory, the cutting power and the roughness ofthe processed wood surface were measured, as wellas replicates of the cutting edge, by pressing it inlead sheet.By milling aspen wood with highly alloyed toolsteel cutter knives at rake angle of cutter 10º, theroughness of the processed wooden surface beganincreasing after 44 000m length of cutting trajectory,which corresponds to a cutting time of 15 hours.

  5. Modelling growth-competition relationships in trembling aspen and white spruce mixed boreal forests of Western Canada.

    Jian-Guo Huang

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of competition on stem growth of Picea glauca and Populus tremuloides in boreal mixedwood stands during the stem exclusion stage. We combined traditional approaches of collecting competition data with dendrochronology to provide retrospective measurements of stem diameter growth. Several competition indices including stand basal area (BA, the sum of stem diameter at breast height (SDBH, and density (N for the broadleaf and coniferous species, as well as similar indices considering only trees with diameters greater than each subject (BAGR, SDBHGR, and NGR, were evaluated. We used a nonlinear mixed model to characterize the basal area increment over the past 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 years as a function of growth of nearby dominant trees, the size of the subject trees, deciduous and coniferous competition indices, and ecoregions. SDBHGR and BAGR were better predictors for spruce, and SDBHGR and NGR were better for aspen, respectively, than other indices. Results showed strongest correlations with long-term stem growth, as the best models integrated growth for 10-25 years for aspen and ≥ 25 for spruce. Our model demonstrated a remarkable capability (adjusted R(2>0.67 to represent this complex variation in growth as a function of site, size and competition.

  6. [Cancer].

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  7. Wood properties of trembling aspen and paper birch after 5 years of exposure to elevated concentrations of CO(2) and O(3).

    Kostiainen, Katri; Kaakinen, Seija; Warsta, Elina; Kubiske, Mark E; Nelson, Neil D; Sober, Jaak; Karnosky, David F; Saranpää, Pekka; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2008-05-01

    We investigated the interactive effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO(2)]) and ozone ([O(3)]) on radial growth, wood chemistry and structure of five 5-year-old trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones and the wood chemistry of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.). Material for the study was collected from the Aspen FACE (free-air CO(2) enrichment) experiment in Rhinelander, WI, where the saplings had been exposed to four treatments: control, elevated [CO(2)] (560 ppm), elevated [O(3)] (1.5 x ambient) and their combination for five growing seasons. Wood properties of both species were altered in response to exposure to the treatments. In aspen, elevated [CO(2)] decreased uronic acids (constituents of, e.g., hemicellulose) and tended to increase stem diameter. In response to elevated [O(3)] exposure, acid-soluble lignin concentration decreased and vessel lumen diameter tended to decrease. Elevated [O(3)] increased the concentration of acetone-soluble extractives in paper birch, but tended to decrease the concentration of these compounds in aspen. In paper birch, elevated [CO(2)] decreased and elevated [O(3)] increased starch concentration. The responses of wood properties to 5 years of fumigation differed from those previously reported after 3 years of fumigation. PMID:18316312

  8. Process simulation of oxy-fuel combustion for a 300 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant using Aspen Plus

    Graphical abstract: This paper studied the combustion processes of pulverized coal in a 300 MW power plant using Aspen Plus software. The amount of each component in flue gas in coal-fired processes with air or O2/CO2 as oxidizer was obtained. The differences between the two processes were identified, and the parameter influences of temperature, excess oxygen ratio and molar fraction of O2/CO2 on the proportions of different components in flue gas were examined by sensitivity analysis. - Highlights: • Combustion processes were studied with Aspen Plus for a 300 MW pulverized coal power plant. • The amount of each flue gas component in coal-fired processes with air or O2/CO2 as oxidizer was obtained. • Differences between the two process models were identified. • The influences of operation parameters on the flue gas components were examined. - Abstract: This work focuses on the amounts and components of flue gas for oxy-fuel combustion in a coal-fired power plant (CFPP). The combustion process of pulverized coal in a 300 MW power plant is studied using Aspen Plus software. The amount of each component in flue gas in coal-fired processes with air or O2/CO2 as oxidizer is obtained. The differences between the two processes are identified, and the influences of temperature, excess oxygen ratio and molar fraction of O2/CO2 on the proportions of different components in flue gas are examined by sensitivity analysis. The process simulation results show that replacing atmospheric air by a 21%O2/79%CO2 mixture leads the decrease of the flame temperature from 1789 °C to 1395 °C. The equilibrium amount of NOx declines obviously but the SOx are still at the same level. The mass fraction of CO2 in flue gas increased from 21.3% to 81.5%. The amount of NOx is affected sensitively by the change of temperature and the excess oxygen ratio, but the change of O2/CO2 molar fraction has a little influence to the generation of NOx. With the increasing of O2 concentration, the

  9. Ecophysiology of Trembling Aspen in Response to Root-Zone Conditions and Competition on Reclaimed Mine Soil.

    Bockstette, S.; Landhäusser, S.; Pinno, B.; Dyck, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Reclaimed soils are typically characterized by increased bulk densities, penetration resistances and poor soil structure as well as associated problems with hydrology and aeration. As a result, available rooting space for planted tree seedlings is often restricted to a shallow layer of topsoil, which is usually of higher quality and is cultivated prior to planting. This may hinder the development of healthy root systems, thus drastically increasing the risk for plant stress by limiting access to soil resources such as water, nutrients and oxygen. These problems are exacerbated when herbaceous plants compete for the same resources within this limited root-zone. To understand how limited rooting space affects the physiology of young trees, we experimentally manipulated soil conditions and levels of competition at a reclaimed mine site in central Alberta, Canada. The site was characterized by heavily compacted, fine textured subsoil (~2.0 Mg ha-1), capped with 15 cm of topsoil (~1.5 Mg ha-1). In a replicated study (n=6) half the plots were treated with a subsoil plow to a depth of about 60 cm to increase available rooting spece. Subsequently, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and smooth brome (Bromus inermis L.) were planted to create four vegetation covers: aspen (a), brome (b), aspen + brome (ab) and control (c) (no vegetation). Various soil properties, including texture, bulk density, penetration resistance and water availability, in conjunction with plant parameters such as root and shoot growth, leaf area development, sap flow, and stomatal conductance have since been monitored, both in-situ and through destructive sampling. Our results indicate that the soil treatment was effective in lowering bulk densities and penetration resistance, while improving moisture retention characteristics. Tree seedling growth and leaf area development were significantly greater without competition, but did not differ between soil treatments. The soil treatment generally

  10. Integrated model of G189A and Aspen-plus for the transient modeling of extravehicular activity atmospheric control systems

    Kolodney, Matthew; Conger, Bruce C.

    1990-01-01

    A computerized modeling tool, under development for the transient modeling of an extravehicular activity atmospheric control subsystem is described. This subsystem includes the astronaut, temperature control, moisture control, CO2 removal, and oxygen make-up components. Trade studies evaluating competing components and subsystems to guide the selection and development of hardware for lunar and Martian missions will use this modeling tool. The integrated modeling tool uses the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) to accomplish pseudosteady-state simulations, and the general environmental thermal control and life support program (G189A) to manage overall control of the run and transient input output, as well as transient modeling computations and database functions. Flow charts and flow diagrams are included.

  11. Application of Aspen in Flare System Design%ASPEN在火炬排放系统设计的应用

    薛茂梅; 奚文杰; 曹枫; 沈红霞; 张世程

    2010-01-01

    火炬排放系统是石油化工及炼油装置不可缺少的安全配套设施.水力工况对系统的安全性有着莺要的影响.由于火炬排放工况的复杂性,水力计算也成为一个比较复杂的问题.本文介绍了Aspen Flare System Analyzer模拟软件及其特点和数学模型,并通过工程实例证明其在火炬排放系统设计中发挥的重要作用.

  12. Colocalization of low-methylesterified pectins and Pb deposits in the apoplast of aspen roots exposed to lead

    Low-methylesterified homogalacturonans have been suggested to play a role in the binding and immobilization of Pb in CW. Using root apices of hybrid aspen, a plant with a high phytoremediation potential, as a model, we demonstrated that the in situ distribution pattern of low-methylesterified homogalacturonan, pectin epitope (JIM5-P), reflects the pattern of Pb occurrence. The region which indicated high JIM5-P level corresponded with “Pb accumulation zone”. Moreover, JIM5-P was especially abundant in cell junctions, CWs lining the intercellular spaces and the corners of intercellular spaces indicating the highest accumulation of Pb. Furthermore, JIM5-P and Pb commonly co-localized. The observations indicate that low-methylesterified homogalacturonan is the CW polymer that determines the capacity of CW for Pb sequestration. Our results suggest a promising directions for CW modification for enhancing the efficiency of plant roots in Pb accumulation, an important aspect in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with trace metals. - Highlights: • Co-localization of low-methylesterified pectins and Pb was analysed in situ. • The pattern of Pb accumulation matched low-methylesterified pectins distribution. • Low-methylesterified pectins and Pb commonly co-localized in cell walls. • Low-methylesterified pectins revealed an important compound in Pb sequestration. • We suggest a new direction in enhancing plant efficiency for phytoremediation. - The distribution of lead in developing tissues of aspen root tips exposed to short-term lead treatment mimics the distribution of low-methylesterified pectin epitope

  13. Short day-mediated cessation of growth requires the downregulation of AINTEGUMENTALIKE1 transcription factor in hybrid aspen.

    Anna Karlberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Day length is a key environmental cue regulating the timing of major developmental transitions in plants. For example, in perennial plants such as the long-lived trees of the boreal forest, exposure to short days (SD leads to the termination of meristem activity and bud set (referred to as growth cessation. The mechanism underlying SD-mediated induction of growth cessation is poorly understood. Here we show that the AIL1-AIL4 (AINTEGUMENTALIKE transcription factors of the AP2 family are the downstream targets of the SD signal in the regulation of growth cessation response in hybrid aspen trees. AIL1 is expressed in the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia, and exposure to SD signal downregulates AIL1 expression. Downregulation of AIL gene expression by SDs is altered in transgenic hybrid aspen plants that are defective in SD perception and/or response, e.g. PHYA or FT overexpressors. Importantly, SD-mediated regulation of growth cessation response is also affected by overexpression or downregulation of AIL gene expression. AIL1 protein can interact with the promoter of the key cell cycle genes, e.g. CYCD3.2, and downregulation of the expression of D-type cyclins after SD treatment is prevented by AIL1 overexpression. These data reveal that execution of SD-mediated growth cessation response requires the downregulation of AIL gene expression. Thus, while early acting components like PHYA and the CO/FT regulon are conserved in day-length regulation of flowering time and growth cessation between annual and perennial plants, signaling pathways downstream of SD perception diverge, with AIL transcription factors being novel targets of the CO/FT regulon connecting the perception of SD signal to the regulation of meristem activity.

  14. Different growth strategies determine the carbon gain and productivity of aspen collectives to be used in short-rotation plantations

    Populus tremula is a favoured tree species in short-rotation forestry with a recognised large intraspecific variation in productivity. We compared the growth potential of 1-yr-old saplings of four Central European aspen collectives with different climate adaptation on a low-fertility site and searched for growth-determining physiological and morphological traits and their dependence on genetic constitution. Among the 35 investigated traits were photosynthetic capacity and mean assimilation rate, quantum yield and carboxylation efficiency, leaf water potential, leaf phaenology and the ratio of leaves lost to leaves produced (LP ratio), leaf size and total leaf area, axes length growth and canopy carbon gain as an estimate of productivity. The collectives differed by more than 30% in cumulative carbon gain with a large genotype effect, while mean assimilation rate and most photosynthetic and water status traits showed a relatively small intraspecific variation with no significant influence on the variation in C gain. The timing of the beginning of net leaf loss (leaf abscission > leaf production) in August differed between the four collectives and resulted in different maximum leaf areas and LP ratios, which were identified as key factors controlling C gain. Mean assimilation rate, though not related to cumulative C gain, was positively correlated with the light, CO2 and water use efficiencies of photosynthesis. We conclude that genotype selection for high-yielding aspen in short-rotation forestry at low-fertility sites should focus on the parameters leaf phaenology, LP ratio at the end of the growing season, and the resulting total leaf area as key traits.

  15. 基于Aspen Plus软件的循环流化床烟气脱硫模型%A model of flue gas desulfurization for circulating fluidized bed using Aspen Plus

    颜湘华; 朱廷钰; 王威; 何京东

    2009-01-01

    Model study and flow simulation of circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) were described in this pa-per. The mathematic model of flue gas desulfurization for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was buih on the basis of element analysis for mass transfer of SO2. The enhancement of the desulfurization reaction in the process of mass transfer of SO2 was analyzed with the doub-le-membrane theory in the model. And the real formation process of slurry droplet was accounted with the theory of inertia collision. And then a simulation study of CFB-FGD was conducted based on Aspen Plus, where a module subroutine was programmed in FOR-TRAN based on this model. The influences of the key parameters such as calcium-to-sulfur ration (Ca/S), flux of spay water, concen-tration of sorbent particles and water drop size on the desulfurization efficiency were analyzed. The modeling results were compared with the experimental data and the comparing results showed that this model could preferably predict the real trends, This paper would help the application of CFB-FGD as references.%本文研究和模拟循环流化床烟气脱硫的流程和模型.以微元分析SO2的传质为基础,建立循环流化床烟气脱硫的数学模型,模型用双膜理论分析脱硫反应对SO2传质过程的增强影响,并采用惯性碰撞理论解释浆滴的形成过程.借助Aspen Plus过程模拟平台,用FORTRAN语言编写基于该模型的用户单元模块,模拟循环流化床烟气脱硫工艺,分析Ca/S、增湿水量、塔内颗粒物浓度、水滴粒径等参数对脱硫的影响,模拟计算结果和实验数据的对比显示模型能如实反映实际的趋势.本文为应用循环流化床烟气脱硫技术提供参考.

  16. Pre- and Post-Harvest Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from an Upland Boreal Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Forest in Western Boreal Plain, Alberta, Canada

    Giroux, Kayla

    The Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) is located in north-central Alberta, Canada, in a region where aspen (Populus tremuloides) dominate the upland vegetation of the Western Boreal Plain Due to the heterogeneity of the surficial geology as well as the sub-humid climate where the water balance is dominated by evapotranspiration, the carbon balance across this landscape is highly variable. Moreover, the upland aspen regions represent significant stores of carbon. More recently, aspen stands have become valuable commercial resources for pulp and paper processing. These stands are harvested through a clear cutting process and are generally left to regenerate on their own, a process which occurs rapidly in clonal species like aspen. Since clonal species establish very quickly following harvest, information on the key ecohydrological controls on stand carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange from the years immediately following harvest are essential to understand the successional trajectory. However, most information currently available on these interactions are obtained several years following a disturbance. Thus, to determine the effects of harvest on aspen regeneration and productivity, ecosystem level fluxes of CO2 three years before and three years after timber harvest were analyzed. Prior to harvest, the ecosystem sequestered 1216 to 1286 g CO2 m-2period-1 over the growing season. Immediately after harvest, the ecosystem became a significant source of CO2 ranging from -874 to -1183 g CO2 m -2period-1, while the second growing season ranged from -233 to -577 g CO2 m-2period-1. The third growing season resulted in a net sink (76 g CO2 m -2period-1) over the same period, but if extrapolated over the whole year, the ecosystem would remain a source of carbon. The magnitude of Gross Ecosystem Productivity (GEP) returned pre-harvest range within two growing seasons. Ecosystem respiration (RE), on the other hand, increased year over year after harvest had taken place. Forest floor

  17. Intraspecific variation in root and leaf traits and leaf-root trait linkages in eight aspen demes (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides)

    Hajek, Peter; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Leaf and fine root morphology and physiology have been found to vary considerably among tree species, but not much is known about intraspecific variation in root traits and their relatedness to leaf traits. Various aspen progenies (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides) with different growth performance are used in short-rotation forestry. Hence, a better understanding of the link between root trait syndromes and the adaptation of a deme to a particular environment is essential in order to impro...

  18. Ten-year results from the long-term soil productivity study in aspen ecosystems of the northern Great Lakes region

    Voldseth, Richard; Palik, Brian; Elioff, John

    2011-01-01

    Impacts of organic matter removal and compaction on soil physical and chemical properties and forest productivity are reported from the first 10 years of the Long-Term Soil Productivity Study in Great Lakes aspen ecosystems. Organic matter removal treatments included main bole, total tree harvest, and total tree harvest with forest floor removal. Compaction treatments included no compaction beyond normal levels from harvest, moderate compaction, and heavy compaction. Main bole harvest with...

  19. Online community marketing of ski resorts : an in-depth best practice study of aspen/snowmass and breckenridge ski resort

    Kráľ, Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Online brand community is a novel phenomenon that carries a number of benefits, but lack of clarity in antecedents of its effectiveness as a marketing alternative. Aspen/Snowmass and Breckenridge Ski Resort are two leading players in the ski industry, and this paper analyzes their activity in-depth in order to bring clarity by extracting implications on best practice. For the purpose, a tailor-made methodology is constructed. It consists of combining two analytical frameworks, interviews with...

  20. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen.

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient +2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A+T and UV-B+T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B×temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone. PMID

  1. CANCER

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  2. 基于Aspen Plus模拟的垃圾衍生燃料富氧燃烧研究%Simulation on oxygen-enriched combustion of refuse derived fuel by aspen plus

    李延吉; 邹科威; 宋政刚; 李润东; 池涌

    2013-01-01

    利用Aspen Plus软件建立了垃圾衍生燃料(RDF)的富氧燃烧模型,对RDF在富氧和空气气氛下的燃烧产物生产进行了对比,研究了燃烧温度T和过氧系数δ对燃烧产物生成量的影响规律.结果表明:气氛对RDF燃烧后SOx及CO2生成量的影响较小;NOx生成量随燃烧温度T的升高和过氧系数δ的增大而逐渐增大;随燃烧温度T的升高SO2生成量逐渐增加而SO3生成量相应减少,而随过氧系数δ的增大二者呈现相反趋势;当燃烧温度T高于1 200℃时,CO生成量急剧增加,而当过氧系数δ大于1.0时,CO生成量急速减少.

  3. Simulation and experimental of refuse derived fuel pyrolysis based on aspen plus%基于aspen plus的垃圾衍生燃料热解模拟与实验

    李延吉; 姜璐; 邹科威; 赵宁; 李玉龙; 李润东; 池涌

    2013-01-01

    采用化工流程模拟软件aspen plus对垃圾衍生燃料(RDF)建立热解反应模型,得出RDF各热解产物产率及气体体积分数.在高温管式炉中进行RDF热解实验,利用气相色谱分析仪测出各气体体积分数.将模拟值与实验值进行比较,结果表明:热解终温增加,热解液和热解气产率增大,半焦产率下降H2体积分数增加,CO2体积分数下降;与添加废石灰的RDF相比,添加污泥的RDF热解液和半焦产率更低,热解气产率更高;生物质质量分数下降,CO2体积分数下降;与添加废石灰RDF相比,添加污泥的RDF的CO2体积分数下降.

  4. Dynamic characteristics of Oxy-CFB combustion system based on Aspen%基于Aspen平台的Oxy-CFB燃烧侧动态特性模拟

    周建新; 邵壮; 李崇; 司风琪; 徐治皋

    2014-01-01

    Taking an oxy-fuel circulating fluidized bed (Oxy-CFB )combustor pilot facility as the simulation object,a steady-state model for the Oxy-CFB combustion system was built with the plat-form of Aspen Plus.After modifying the steady-state model for the dynamic process simulation,a new dynamic model for the combustion system was built based on Aspen Dynamics and the results were validated by the test data.The simulation study on the responses of the bed temperature and the components,including carbon dioxide,oxygen,carbon monoxide,and nitrogen monoxide in the flue gas,was carried out.The research results show that the dynamic model based on Aspen pro-vides a new method to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the Oxy-CFB combustion system. The dynamic response characteristics of bed temperature and gas components for the coal feed and primary air step changes can provide valuable information for design and implementation of the con-trol system of the Oxy-CFB combustion system.%以某循环流化床富氧燃烧中试系统为模拟对象,借助Aspen Plus流程模拟软件搭建了Oxy-CFB燃烧系统的稳态模型。在此基础上针对动态过程模拟进行改进,并利用Aspen Dynam-ics平台建立了该燃烧系统的动态模型,利用试验数据对模拟结果进行了验证。基于动态模型对Oxy-CFB床温以及燃烧排放产物中二氧化碳、氧气、一氧化碳、一氧化氮等进行了仿真研究。研究表明,基于Aspen平台的动态过程模拟为Oxy-CFB锅炉燃烧系统的动态特性分析提供了新的研究手段,模拟所得的床温及烟气各组分随给煤量、一次风量阶跃变化的动态响应规律可为今后Oxy-CFB燃烧系统的控制设计提供重要依据。

  5. Simulation of Synthesis Gas Production from Steam Oxygen Gasification of Colombian Coal Using Aspen Plus®

    Jorge E. Preciado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A steady state simulation of syngas production from a Steam Oxygen Gasification process using commercial technologies was performed using Aspen Plus®. For the simulation, the average proximate and ultimate compositions of bituminous coal obtained from the Colombian Andean region were employed. The simulation was applied to conduct sensitivity analyses in the O2 to coal mass ratio, coal slurry concentration, WGS operating temperature and WGS steam to dry gas molar ratio (SDG over the key parameters: syngas molar composition, overall CO conversion in the WGS reactors, H2 rich-syngas lower heating value (LHV and thermal efficiency. The achieved information allows the selection of critical operating conditions leading to improve system efficiency and environmental performance. The results indicate that the oxygen to carbon ratio is a key variable as it affects significantly both the LHV and thermal efficiency. Nevertheless, the process becomes almost insensitive to SDG values higher than 2. Finally, a thermal efficiency of 62.6% can be reached. This result corresponds to a slurry solid concentration of 0.65, a WGS process SDG of 0.59, and a LTS reactor operating temperature of 473 K. With these fixed variables, a syngas with H2 molar composition of 92.2% and LHV of 12 MJ Nm−3 was attained.

  6. Global modeling of Hanford tank waste pretreatment alternatives within a total cleanup system using ASPEN PLUS trademark

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate and compare radionuclide separations/processing technologies being developed or considered as Hanford tank waste pretreatment alternatives. These technologies are integrated into a total cleanup system that includes tank waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. Current Hanford flowsheets typically include only mature, developed technologies, not new technologies. Thus, this work examines the impact/benefits of inserting new technologies into Hanford flowsheets. Waste treatment must produce disposal fractions which are less troublesome than the original material. Researchers seeking effective treatment methods may lack the tools or expertise to fully understand the implications of their approach in terms of secondary and tertiary waste streams or the extent to which a unique new process will affect upstream or downstream processes. This work has developed and demonstrated mass balance methods that clarify the effect of including individual processes in an integrated waste treatment system, such as the Hanford cleanup system. The methods provide a measure of treatment effectiveness and a format for the researcher to understand waste stream interrelationships and determine how a particular treatment technology can best be used in a cleanup system. A description of the Hanford tank waste cleanup model developed using the ASPEN PLUS flowsheet simulation tool is given. Important aspects of the modeling approach are discussed along with a description of how performance measures were developed and integrated within the simulation to evaluate and compare various Hanford tank waste pretreatment alternatives

  7. Controls of the quantum yield and saturation light of isoprene emission in different-aged aspen leaves.

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong; Talts, Eero

    2015-12-01

    Leaf age alters the balance between the use of end-product of plastidic isoprenoid synthesis pathway, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), in prenyltransferase reactions leading to synthesis of pigments of photosynthetic machinery and in isoprene synthesis, but the implications of such changes on environmental responses of isoprene emission have not been studied. Because under light-limited conditions, isoprene emission rate is controlled by DMADP pool size (SDMADP ), shifts in the share of different processes are expected to particularly strongly alter the light dependency of isoprene emission. We examined light responses of isoprene emission in young fully expanded, mature and old non-senescent leaves of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) and estimated in vivo SDMADP and isoprene synthase activity from post-illumination isoprene release. Isoprene emission capacity was 1.5-fold larger in mature than in young and old leaves. The initial quantum yield of isoprene emission (αI ) increased by 2.5-fold with increasing leaf age primarily as the result of increasing SDMADP . The saturating light intensity (QI90 ) decreased by 2.3-fold with increasing leaf age, and this mainly reflected limited light-dependent increase of SDMADP possibly due to feedback inhibition by DMADP. These major age-dependent changes in the shape of the light response need consideration in modelling canopy isoprene emission. PMID:26037962

  8. Profile of Cancer Cases at a Tertiary Care Level Teaching Hospital in Rural Western Maharashtra, India

    Jayant D Deshpande , Kailash K Singh , Deepak B Phalke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Prevalence and pattern of cancer is known to vary from region to region. Epidemiological information on cancer including the pattern is an important basis for determining the priorities for cancer control in any population group. Objective: Present work is an attempt to study magnitude, profile and some epidemiological aspects in relation to cancer cases at a tertiary care level teaching hospital in rural area. Method: All records were studied and analyzed. A total of 1106 patients were treated during the period studied. A proforma was used to collect data such as age, sex, place of residence, type of cancers and treatment given. The data collected were entered into MS-Excel sheets and analysis was carried out. The information obtained was tabulated analyzed using the software GraphPad Instat demo version. Results: A total of 1106 cancer patients were treated during the January 2010 to December 2010. Among these, 626(56.60 were females and 480(43.39 were females. In males, the common cancers were oral cavity cancers, lung cancers and GIT cancers. The most common cancers among females were the cervical carcinomas, which constituted 32.10% of the total number of cancers cases followed by cancers of breast. Almost 2/3rd of cases occurred in the age group of 41 to 70 years. Maximum frequency was observed in 51–60 year age group in both sexes. Maximum numbers (74.59% of the cases were from rural area. The main methods of cancer treatment were surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, used alone or in combination. Conclusion: Tobacco and alcohol related cancers predominated in males. In females, cervical cancer predominated over breast cancer. Human behavior is a major determinant in the successful control of cancer. Understanding cancer magnitude, risk and trends will be of help in cancer control.

  9. Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant. 23rd semiannual report of operations, July--December 1976

    Net electrical power generated was 240,333.9 MWh(e) with the reactor on line 4,316.6 hr. Information is presented concerning operation, power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, changes, tests, experiments, and environmental monitoring

  10. 23rd Cracow Epiphany Conference on Particle Theory Meets the First Data from LHC Run 2

    2017-01-01

    The Cracow Epiphany Conference has had a different topic every year. The series started in 1995. By bringing in new subjects and inviting new participants every year the meetings offer a general forum to discuss the frontiers of physics.

  11. Kokes Awards for the 23rd North American Catalysis Society Meeting

    Jacobs, Gary [University of Kentucky Research Foundation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The Tri-State Catalysis Society awarded 107 Kokes Travel Awards. The program was very successful and to date this was the most Kokes Travel Awards ever awarded at a North American Catalysis Society Meeting. It provided students who merited an award the opportunity to attend the meeting, present a paper in the form of either an oral presentation or a poster presentation, and to serve the North American Catalysis Society by participating in the organization of the meeting. Students worked very hard during the week of the meeting to make it a success. Financial support for the Kokes awards was provided by DOE, NSF, NACS, as well as the Tri-State Catalysis Society, the latter through fund raising activities, and other donations. AT the meeting, each student received over $1050 in kind to offset the costs of registration fees ($260), hotel accommodations ($295.7), transportation ($400 travel allowance), as well as T-shirts ($20), and banquet tickets ($95 provided by donations from society members). In addition, for the first time, students received certificates that were signed by the President of NACS, Professor Enrique Iglesia, and by the Kokes Awards Chair, Gary Jacobs (see last page). A list of meeting co-chairs (i.e., Uschi M. Graham, Umit S. Ozkan, and Madan Bhassin) and the honorary chair (Burtron H. Davis) was also included on the certificate, along with the name of the recipient. The awardees were chosen on a merit-based guideline which also included the requirements of having a presentation accepted at the meeting and being a student at a North American University. The Richard J. Kokes Student Travel Award Committee (Gary Jacobs, Rodney Andrews, and Peter Smirniotis) with help from the Organizing Committee were able to secure money from four sources as detailed in Table 1. As detailed by our Treasurer, Dr. Helge Toufar of Clariant, the total amount spent was $105,000.

  12. The Winding Stair Set Lunch Menu, January 23rd-30th, 2012

    Winding Stair Restaurant

    2012-01-01

    The Winding Stair Restaurant is located at 40, Lower Ormond Quay Dublin on the north side of the river Liffey beside the Ha’penny Bridge. The proprietor is Elaine Murphy. The Winding Stair started life as a bookshop and café which was a popular meeting spot in Dublin during the 1970s and 1980s. The café closed in 2005 and in 2006 the current proprietor re-opened it as a restaurant. “The bookshop, located on the ground floor, was retained as were many of the old bookshelves, photos and memo...

  13. 23rd Annual seminar on theoretical physics, Grahamstown, 5-8 July 1988

    This seminar contains 18 papers. Twelve papers are indexed separately. Topics covered include: the Dirac equation in arbitrary space-time dimensions; next-to-leading corrections to jet multiplicity distributions in QCD; propagators and one loop diagrams in cavity field theory; cavity quantum chromodynamics in the presence of a classical background field; quark gluon plasma and hadronic matter in the early universe; deconfinement and chiral transitions in lattice QCD; J/Ψ suppression as a signal for quark deconfinement; geometrical interpretation of boson models of nuclear structure; the interacting boson model, BCS-RPA theory and the theory of pairing interactions applied to the Ge-nuclei; fluctuations and chaotic behaviour; test of the Bonn nucleon-nucleon potential in nucleon-antinucleon scattering; and new relativistic centre-of-mass corrections for the nucleon

  14. Summary talk 23rd Rencontre de Moriond 13-18 March 1988

    A personal view of some highlights of the meeting is presented. The subjects range from dark matter to colliding nuclei, small angle elastic scattering to high ρsub(τ) jets, and from π0 formation in γγ collisions to charm, beauty and top quark production. (author)

  15. 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: summary of sessions EX/C and ICC

    An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

  16. International SAMPE Technical Conference, 23rd, Kiamesha Lake, NY, Oct. 21-24, 1991, Proceedings

    Carri, R.L.; Poveromo, L.M.; Gauland, J. (Grumman Aircraft Systems, Bethpage, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The present conference discusses the cost of composite structures, microwave processing of thermoset resin-matrix composites at high pressure, the impact damage-tolerance of helicopter sandwich structures, novel fluorinated polybenzoxazole thermoplastics, low expansion coefficient polyimides containing metal-ion additives, thermoplastic polyimides for supersonic airframes, material properties and laser cutting of composites, fiber-matrix bond tests in composites, and a global/local stress analysis of stitched composites. Also discussed are moldless composite aircraft wing structural design modifications, advances in anhydride epoxy systems, medical applications of advanced composites, metal-joining processes for space fabrication, close-tolerance plastic master molds, the ballistic energy absorption of composites, soft and hard composite armors, resin-transfer molding of 3D composites, toughened cyanate ester resins, and thermoforming of thermoplastics.

  17. FOREWORD: 23rd National Symposium on Plasma Science & Technology (PLASMA-2008)

    Das, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    The Twentieth Century has been a defining period for Plasma Science and Technology. The state of ionized matter, so named by Irving Langmuir in the early part of twentieth century, has now evolved in to a multidisciplinary area with scientists and engineers from various specializations working together to exploit the unique properties of the plasma medium. There have been great improvements in the basic understanding of plasmas as a many body system bound by complex collective Coulomb interactions of charges, atoms, molecules, free radicals and photons. Simultaneously, many advanced plasma based technologies are increasingly being implemented for industrial and societal use. The emergence of the multination collaborative project International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project has provided the much needed boost to the researchers working on thermonuclear fusion plasmas. In addition, the other plasma applications like MHD converters, hydrogen generation, advanced materials (synthesis, processing and surface modification), environment (waste beneficiation, air and water pollution management), nanotechnology (synthesis, deposition and etching), light production, heating etc are actively being pursued in governmental and industrial sectors. For India, plasma science and technology has traditionally remained an important area of research. It was nearly a century earlier that the Saha ionization relation pioneered the way to interpret experimental data from a vast range of near equilibrium plasmas. Today, Indian research contributions and technology demonstration capabilities encompass thermonuclear fusion devices, nonlinear plasma phenomena, plasma accelerators, beam plasma interactions, dusty and nonneutral plasmas, industrial plasmas and plasma processing of materials, nano synthesis and structuring, astrophysical and space plasmas etc. India's participation in the ITER programme is now reflected in increased interest in the research and development efforts on Tokamak technology and physics of magnetized fusion plasmas. Our industries have already adopted a large number of plasma processes related to manufacturing, lighting and surface engineering. Indian universities and National Institutes have successfully taken up research projects and building of demonstration equipment that are being used in strategic as well as other industrial applications. In addition, and more importantly, plasma science has triggered research and development effort in many related areas like power supplies, specialized instrumentation and controls, magnets, diagnostics and monitoring, lasers, electron beams, vacuum systems, thermal engineering, material science, fluid dynamics, molecular and nano engineering, molecular chemistry etc. In short, plasma science and technology in India has reached a stage of maturity that can be harnessed for industrial and societal use. The expertise and core competence developed over the years need to be sustained through interactions among researchers as well as nurturing of new research efforts. The Annual Plasma Symposiums have eminently worked towards achievement of that purpose. Like all years, Plasma - 2008 is built around the entire national effort in this field with a special focus on 'Plasmas in Nuclear Fuel Cycle (PANFC)'. The program includes several plenary lectures, invited talks and contributed papers. The manuscripts have been peer reviewed and compiled in the form of Conference Proceedings. I am sure that the online proceedings will be useful and serve as a valuable reference material for active researchers in this field. I would like to take this opportunity to gratefully acknowledge the help and guidance of the National Advisory Committee Chaired by Professor P K Kaw, Director, Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhinagar during the organization of this symposium. My sincere thanks to Dr S Banerjee, Director, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, an acknowledged expert in the field of Materials Science and Technology, for delivering the key note address to set the tenor of the symposium. I would also like to thank the Plasma Science Society of India (PSSI) for agreeing to hold this important event at BARC. Thanks are due to Dr L M Gantayet, Director, BTDG, BARC and chairman, Scientific Program Committee and all my colleagues in the Symposium Organizing Committee who have made this symposium possible. Finally, our thanks to all the Funding agencies, Board of Research in Nuclear Science, Department of Science and Technology, The Board of Fusion Research, and all industrial exhibitor and sponsors for their unstinted support and encouragement. Dr A K Das Chairman, Organizing Committee Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai

  18. Solar activity phase diagram and forecast of the coming 23rd cycle.

    Pankratov, A. K.; Narmanskij, V. Ya.; Vladimirskij, B. M.

    1998-10-01

    The phase diagram method is used for investigation of relations between planetary dynamics and solar activity variations. It was found that the calculated moments of solar activity maxima/minima are disposed regularly in the coordinates of the difference of heliocentric longitudes of Uranus-Neptune versus the difference of heliocentric longitudes of Saturn-Neptune. There are separate zones containing maxima (minima) of only the northern (or southern) polarity of solar mean magnetic field. There is also a region where only maxima of small amplitudes are concentrated (Rz cycle. The minimum of activity must be observed in 1999±2. The maximum is forecast in 2006±2. The amplitude Rz can be as small as 60±20. Probably there will be no change of the polarity of the mean solar magnetic field.

  19. The Specialist Committee on Cavitation Induced Pressures, Final Report and Recommendations to the 23rd ITTC

    Friesch, J.; Kim, K.-H.; Andersen, Poul;

    2002-01-01

    General Technical Conclusions Propeller-excited hull pressure fluctuations are strongly influenced by intermittence of sheet cavitation, the dynamics of tip vortex cavitation, and the statistical properties of the cavitation. On modern propellers, tip vortex cavitation may be even more important...... than sheet cavitation for hull pressure fluctuation. The influence of turbulence and blade surface roughness on cavitation-induced pressure fluctuations is still not quantifiable. Both experimental and numerical procedures for predicting propeller excitation need to be validated using results of...... at full and model scale should be accompanied by propeller cavitation viewing and hull-surface vibration measurements. Calculations are done mostly with vortex-lattice or panel methods, and in most cases only sheet cavitation is included. With the propeller and cavity flows obtained, hull...

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels evaluation in urban area after October 23rd 1998 promulgation

    This paper reports the result concerning the air quality evaluation in an urban centre in the hinterland of Milan., with an high population density and an intense road traffic, relatively to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentration levels. The data, referred to the annual season, indicate that, near high traffic road, the above compounds are always present in the concentration level analytically detectable and that the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene is 2.7 ng/m3. The reported study is an useful instruments both for a road town planning, in order to people disease prevention, and for monitoring the evolution of PAH concentration levels in the future

  1. The seisniicity of Iran. The Silakhor (Luristan earthquake of 23rd Ianuary, 1909 (Part II

    N. N. AMBRASEYS

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows t h a t given certain conditions it is perfectly feasible to study an earthquake that occurred three-quarters of a century ago in a remote part of the world. Also, it shows that there are many large earthquakes which, because of lack of interdisciplinary efforts to study such events, have remained hitherto little known or totally unknown. The case of the Silakhor earthquake revealed deficiencies in the determination of epicentres by ISS and Gutenberg; the difference between macroseismic and instrumental position for the Silakhor earthquake is 380 kilometres, a difference which lias caused a serious problem in the assessment of seisniicity of Iran. Accurate macroseismic d a t a may be used to minimize bias in t h e instrumental relocation of the larger events and to study source mechanisms. Untili this study was undertaken, the faulting associated with the Silakhor earthquake was totally unknown. Even more important t h a n the value of recent faulting for its significance in resolving ambiguities in t h e choice of the t r u e source parametres, is the information that can be gleaned from evidence for the mechanism of earthquakes that occurred long before t h e advent of modern seismology and in particular, for the pattern of recent tectonic activity.

  2. 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: Summary Of Sessions EX/C and ICC

    An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

  3. A summary report on the 23rd quality control survey for immunoassays in Japan, 2001

    The purpose of the survey is to improve the quality of in vitro tests and this report is its summary of immunoassays (the old name: RI in vitro tests) conducted in 2001. The survey was performed in 143 facilities out of 1,655 in Japan, which involved 20 national and public university hospitals, 16 private university hospitals, 21 national and public hospitals, 26 private hospitals, 41 hygiene test institutes and 19 reagent manufacturers. Tests examined were on 6 substances related to functions of pituitary, 5 of thyroid, 1 of parathyroid, 4 of gastro-intestine and pancreas, 5 of gonad and placenta, 4 of adrenal, 1 of renal-blood pressure regulation, on IgE, on digoxin and on 12 tumor-related substances. Tests were done on 2-3 samples supplied from the Committee and the mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were calculated for one way analysis of variance of within- and between-kit. Methods included those (65.4% vs 62.7% in 2000) with non-radioisotope like enzyme immunoassay (non-RI) and with radioisotopes like radioimmunoassay (RI). Dissociation between manufacturers of non-RI values without a common standard substance and between non-RI and RI values even with the same antibody was noted: the Committee considered these problems as their future task. (K.H.)

  4. Abstracts of the 23rd European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    This document contains the abstracts of the invited and contributed papers presented at 23 EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics. The main contents are: tokamaks, stellarators; alternative magnetic confinement; plasma edge physics; plasma heating and current drive; plasma diagnostics; basic collisionless plasma physics; high intensity laser produced plasmas and inertial confinement; low-temperature plasmas

  5. 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: Summary Of Sessions EX/C and ICC

    Hawryluk, R J [PPPL

    2011-01-05

    An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

  6. Low-Latitude Coronal Holes at the Minimum of the 23rd Solar Cycle

    Abramenko, V.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.; Luhmann, J.; Lee, C.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan)

    2010-01-01

    Low and mid-latitude coronal holes (CHs) observed on the Sun during the current solar activity minimum (from September 21, 2006, Carrington rotation (CR) 2048, until June 26, 2009 (CR 2084)) were analyzed using {\\it SOHO}/EIT and STEREO-A SECCHI EUVI data. From both the observations and Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) modeling, we find that the area occupied by CHs inside a belt of $\\pm 40^\\circ$ around the solar equator is larger in the current 2007 solar minimum relative to the simila...

  7. Low-Latitude Coronal Holes at the Minimum of the 23rd Solar Cycle

    Abramenko, V; Linker, J; Mikic, Z; Luhmann, J; Lee, C

    2010-01-01

    Low and mid-latitude coronal holes (CHs) observed on the Sun during the current solar activity minimum (from September 21, 2006, Carrington rotation (CR) 2048, until June 26, 2009 (CR 2084)) were analyzed using {\\it SOHO}/EIT and STEREO-A SECCHI EUVI data. From both the observations and Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) modeling, we find that the area occupied by CHs inside a belt of $\\pm 40^\\circ$ around the solar equator is larger in the current 2007 solar minimum relative to the similar phase of the previous 1996 solar minimum. The enhanced CH area is related to a recurrent appearance of five persistent CHs, which survived during 7-27 solar rotations. Three of the CHs are of positive magnetic polarity and two are negative. The most long-lived CH was being formed during 2 days and existed for 27 rotations. This CH was associated with fast solar wind at 1 AU of approximately 620$\\pm 40$ km s$^{-1}$. The 3D MHD modeling for this time period shows an open field structure above this CH. We conclude that the...

  8. The role of phytochrome A and gibberellins in growth under long and short day conditions: Studies in hybrid aspen

    Eriksson, M.E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology

    2000-07-01

    This thesis addresses questions concerning the regulation of growth and, specifically, the cessation of growth in response to short days in deciduous tree species. The model tree used in the studies was hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.). We have exploited the possibility of transforming this species to modulate the level of expression of target genes using over-expression and antisense techniques. The target genes in the studies were the photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) and gibberellin 20-oxidase (GA 20-oxidase), the latter being a highly regulated enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs). The photoreceptor phyA has been implicated in photoperiodic regulation of growth, while GAs may regulate the physiological response further downstream. The endogenous expression of these genes has been investigated in parallel with studies of various plants with ectopic and reduced levels of expression. The main focus has been on the early stages of induction of growth cessation and its physiological and molecular mechanisms. Studies of hybrid aspen plants with an increased or reduced expression of phyA, show this receptor to mediate the photoperiodic regulation of growth. Plants with ectopic expression could not stop growing despite drastically shortened photoperiods, while the antisense plants showed the reverse phenotype, with a higher sensitivity resulting in earlier cessation of growth. The role of GAs in growth inhibition was also addressed using plants with a reduction in GA levels. These plants showed early cessation of growth and dormancy, and thus an increased sensitivity toward daylength. Conversely, plants with increased rates of GA biosynthesis showed increased growth and stopped growing much later. Furthermore, increases in GA biosynthesis, resulting in high levels of GAs have a major impact on growth. Plants with high GA levels have increased elongation and diameter growth, due to higher rates of cell production in the

  9. Biomass growth and element uptake by young trembling aspen in relation to site treatments in Northern Ontario, Canada

    Morrison, I.K. [Canadian Forest Service, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    A second-growth boreal mixed wood, consisting mainly of trembling aspen and balsam fir, with white spruce, balsam poplar and white birch admixed, defoliated in part by spruce budworm, was harvested in late autumn 1992 by conventional cut-and-skid, whole-tree logging. Four blocks, subdivided into 10-m by 10-m plots, separated by buffer strips, were laid out. The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and environmental implications of screening (i.e. organic layer removal) versus high-speed mixing (using a prototype forestry rototiller), both applied in strips and across whole plots, versus no treatment (cut control) in terms of regrowth biomass production and nutrient uptake. All plots were quickly occupied by a verdant herbaceous regrowth and, depending upon treatment, hardwood shoots. Screefing generally increased numbers of hardwood shoots relative to the control, whereas mixing generally reduced numbers. Above-ground standing crops including tree and non-tree species by the middle of 1997 ranged from 9500 kgha{sup -1} on cut control plots to 4400 kgha{sup -1} on whole-area mixed plots. Nutrient contents in the aboveground vegetation varied commensurately, ranging up to 91 kgha{sup -1} for N, 11 for P, 79 for K, 94 for Ca, 18 for Mg and 8 for S. Leafy matter recovery on the most responsive treatment (harvest with no further site preparation) was ca. 70% complete within five years and the N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S contents therein had reached or almost reached the same levels as the precut stand. This implies that nutrient cycling largely resumes within five years of harvest. (author)

  10. Bisphosphonate inhibitors reveal a large elasticity of plastidic isoprenoid synthesis pathway in isoprene-emitting hybrid aspen.

    Rasulov, Bahtijor; Talts, Eero; Kännaste, Astrid; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a feedback inhibition of the chloroplastic 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP)/2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid synthesis by end products dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) and isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) was postulated, but the extent to which DMADP and IDP can build up is not known. We used bisphosphonate inhibitors, alendronate and zoledronate, that inhibit the consumption of DMADP and IDP by prenyltransferases to gain insight into the extent of end product accumulation and possible feedback inhibition in isoprene-emitting hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). A kinetic method based on dark release of isoprene emission at the expense of substrate pools accumulated in light was used to estimate the in vivo pool sizes of DMADP and upstream metabolites. Feeding with fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of DXP reductoisomerase, alone or in combination with bisphosphonates was used to inhibit carbon input into DXP/MEP pathway or both input and output. We observed a major increase in pathway intermediates, 3- to 4-fold, upstream of DMADP in bisphosphonate-inhibited leaves, but the DMADP pool was enhanced much less, 1.3- to 1.5-fold. In combined fosmidomycin/bisphosphonate treatment, pathway intermediates accumulated, reflecting cytosolic flux of intermediates that can be important under strong metabolic pull in physiological conditions. The data suggested that metabolites accumulated upstream of DMADP consist of phosphorylated intermediates and IDP. Slow conversion of the huge pools of intermediates to DMADP was limited by reductive energy supply. These data indicate that the DXP/MEP pathway is extremely elastic, and the presence of a significant pool of phosphorylated intermediates provides an important valve for fine tuning the pathway flux. PMID:25926480

  11. Endogenous PttHb1 and PttTrHb, and heterologous Vitreoscilla vhb haemoglobin gene expression in hybrid aspen roots with ectomycorrhizal interaction

    Jokipii, Soile; Häggman, Hely; Brader, Günter; Kallio, Pauli T.; Niemi, Karoliina

    2008-01-01

    Present knowledge on plant non-symbiotic class-1 (Hb1) and truncated (TrHb) haemoglobin genes is almost entirely based on herbaceous species while the corresponding tree haemoglobin genes are not well known. The function of these genes has recently been linked with endosymbioses between plants and microbes. In this work, the coding sequences of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula×tremuloides) PttHb1 and PttTrHb were characterized, indicating that the key residues of haem and ligand binding of both ...

  12. Comparative analysis of the effect of pretreating aspen wood with aqueous and aqueous-organic solutions of sulfuric and nitric acid on its reactivity during enzymatic hydrolysis

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Osipov, D. O.; Zorov, I. N.;

    2016-01-01

    The effect of aspen wood pretreatment methods with the use of both aqueous solutions of sulfuric and nitric acids and aqueous-organic solutions (ethanol, butanol) of sulfuric acid (organosolv) on the limiting degree of conversion of this type of raw material into simple sugars during enzymatic...... hydrolysis are compared. The effects of temperature, acid concentration, composition of organic phase (for sulfuric acid), and pressure (for nitric acid) on the effectiveness of pretreatment were analyzed. It is shown that the use of organosolv with 0.5% sulfuric acid allows us to increase the reactivity of...

  13. Cancer Basics

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  14. ¿Son las herramientas recomendadas por la ASPEN y la ESPEN equiparables en la valoración del estado nutricional? Are the tools recommended by ASPEN and ESPEN comparable for assessing the nutritional status?

    M.ª A. Valero

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: No existe un método de valoración nutricional universalmente aceptado. Los expertos de ASPEN (2002 sugieren utilizar la valoración subjetiva global (VSG, mientras que los de ESPEN (2002 recomiendan el sistema NRS-2002. Objetivos y ámbito: Este estudio transversal tiene como objetivos: 1 conocer la prevalencia de malnutrición al ingreso hospitalario en un hospital terciario y 2 conocer el grado de asociación entre dos herramientas utilizadas para valorar el estado de nutrición: la VSG y el sistema NRS-2002. Material y métodos: Se estudian 135 pacientes (42,2 % mujeres y 58,8 % varones, edad 62,1 ± 14,5 años en los tres primeros días del ingreso hospitalario, ingresados en camas de Medicina Interna y Cirugía. Se analizan diferentes variables del estado nutricional. Se compara las necesidades calóricas (Harris Benedict x factor de agresión y la ingesta calórica del día anterior al ingreso, mediante recordatorio de 24 horas. Se calcula la prevalencia de malnutrición al ingreso con dos herramientas de screening: VSG y el sistema NRS-2002. Resultados: El 42,2 % de los pacientes reconocen haber perdido peso y el 39,3 % ingieren una dieta inferior a sus necesidades al ingreso en el hospital. Según el método utilizado de valoración nutricional, la prevalencia de malnutrición es del 40,7 y del 45,1/100 pacientes ingresados con el VSG y el NRS-2002, respectivamente. Existe una asociación significativa entre los resultados obtenidos con ambas herramientas (p = 0,000. Los niveles de albúmina sérica y linfocitos totales son inferiores en los pacientes malnutridos. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de malnutrición al ingreso hospitalario es elevada. Existe una asociación estrecha entre los resultados obtenidos con la VSG y el sistema NRS-2002. Aunque en la práctica clínica cualquiera de los dos métodos puede ser utilizado para valorar el estado de nutrición, consideramos que el sistema NRS-2002, aunque más complejo, es

  15. The incorporation of an organic soil layer in the Noah-MP Land Surface Model and its evaluation over a Boreal Aspen Forest

    Chen, L.; Li, Y.; Chen, F.; Barr, A.; Barlage, M.; Wan, B.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the multi-parameterization version of the Noah land-surface model (Noah-MP) was used to investigate the impact of adding a forest-floor organic soil layer on the simulated surface energy and water cycle components at a boreal aspen forest. The test site selected is BERMS Old Aspen Flux (OAS) field station in central Saskatchewan, Canada. The selection of different parameterization schemes for each process within the current Noah-MP model significantly affected the simulation results. The best combination options without incorporating organic soil is referred as the control experiment (CTL). By including an organic-soil parameterization within the Noah-MP model for the first time, the verification results (OGN) against site show significantly improved performance of the model in surface energy fluxes and hydrology simulation due to the lower thermal conductivity and greater porosity of the organic soil. The effects of including an organic soil layer on soil temperature are not uniform throughout the soil depth and year, and those effects are more prominent in summer and in deep soils. For drought years, the OGN simulation substantially modified the partition between direct soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration. For wet years, the OGN simulated latent heat fluxes are similar to CTL except for spring season where OGN produced less evaporation. The impact of the organic soil on sub-surface runoff is substantive with much higher runoff throughout the season.

  16. IMPACTS OF INTERACTING ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND O3 ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF A NORTHERN FOREST ECOSYSTEM: OPERATING AND DECOMMISSIONING THE ASPEN FACE PROJECT

    Burton, Andrew J. [Michigan Technological University; Zak, Donald R. [University of Michigan; Kubiske, Mark E. [USDA Forest Service; Pregitzer, Kurt S. [University of Idaho

    2014-06-30

    Two of the most important and pervasive greenhouse gases driving global change and impacting forests in the U.S. and around the world are atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3. As the only free air, large-scale manipulative experiment studying the interaction of elevated CO2 and O3 on forests, the Aspen FACE experiment was uniquely designed to address the long-term ecosystem level impacts of these two greenhouse gases on aspen-birch-maple forests, which dominate the richly forested Lake States region. The project was established in 1997 to address the overarching scientific question: “What are the effects of elevated [CO2] and [O3], alone and in combination, on the structure and functioning of northern hardwood forest ecosystems?” From 1998 through the middle of the 2009 growing season, we examined the interacting effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on ecosystem processes in an aggrading northern forest ecosystem to compare the responses of early-successional, rapid-growing shade intolerant trembling aspen and paper birch to those of a late successional, slower growing shade tolerant sugar maple. Fumigations with elevated CO2 (560 ppm during daylight hours) and O3 (approximately 1.5 x ambient) were conducted during the growing season from 1998 to 2008, and in 2009 through harvest date. Response variables quantified during the experiment included growth, competitive interactions and stand dynamics, physiological processes, plant nutrient status and uptake, tissue biochemistry, litter quality and decomposition rates, hydrology, soil respiration, microbial community composition and respiration, VOC production, treatment-pest interactions, and treatment-phenology interactions. In 2009, we conducted a detailed harvest of the site. The harvest included detailed sampling of a subset of trees by component (leaves and buds, fine branches, coarse branches and stem, coarse roots, fine roots) and excavation of soil to a depth of 1 m. Throughout the experiment, aspen and birch

  17. Aspen Code Development Collaboration

    none,; Cherry, Robert S. [INL; Richard, Boardman D. [INL

    2013-10-03

    Wyoming has a wealth of primary energy resources in the forms of coal, natural gas, wind, uranium, and oil shale. Most of Wyoming?s coal and gas resources are exported from the state in unprocessed form rather than as refined higher value products. Wyoming?s leadership recognizes the opportunity to broaden the state?s economic base energy resources to make value-added products such as synthetic vehicle fuels and commodity chemicals. Producing these higher value products in an environmentally responsible manner can benefit from the use of clean energy technologies including Wyoming?s abundant wind energy and nuclear energy such as new generation small modular reactors including the high temperature gas-cooled reactors.

  18. Systems analysis of a closed loop ECLSS using the ASPEN simulation tool. Thermodynamic efficiency analysis of ECLSS components. M.S. Thesis

    Chatterjee, Sharmista

    1993-01-01

    Our first goal in this project was to perform a systems analysis of a closed loop Environmental Control Life Support System (ECLSS). This pertains to the development of a model of an existing real system from which to assess the state or performance of the existing system. Systems analysis is applied to conceptual models obtained from a system design effort. For our modelling purposes we used a simulator tool called ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering). Our second goal was to evaluate the thermodynamic efficiency of the different components comprising an ECLSS. Use is made of the second law of thermodynamics to determine the amount of irreversibility of energy loss of each component. This will aid design scientists in selecting the components generating the least entropy, as our penultimate goal is to keep the entropy generation of the whole system at a minimum.

  19. Initial soil respiration response to biomass harvesting and green-tree retention in aspen-dominated forests of the Great Lakes region

    Kurth, Valerie J.; Bradford, John B.; Slesak, Robert A.; D'Amato, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary forest management practices are increasingly designed to optimize novel objectives, such as maximizing biomass feedstocks and/or maintaining ecological legacies, but many uncertainties exist regarding how these practices influence forest carbon (C) cycling. We examined the responses of soil respiration (Rs) to biomass harvesting and green-tree retention in an effort to empirically assess their impacts on C cycling. We measured Rs and soil microclimatic variables over four growing seasons following implementation of these management practices using a fully replicated, operational-scale experiment in aspen-dominated forests in northern Minnesota. Treatments included three levels of biomass removal within harvested areas: whole-tree harvest (no slash deliberately retained), 20% slash retained, and stem-only harvest (all slash retained), and two levels of green-tree retention: 0.1 ha aggregate or none. The relative amount of biomass removed had a negligible effect on Rs in harvested areas, but treatment effects were probably obscured by heterogeneous slash configurations and rapid post-harvest regeneration of aspen in all of the treatments. Discrete measurements of Rs and soil temperature within green-tree aggregates were not discernible from surrounding harvested areas or unharvested control stands until the fourth year following harvest, when Rs was higher in unharvested controls than in aggregates and harvested stands. Growing season estimates of Rs showed that unharvested control stands had higher Rs than both harvested stands and aggregates in the first and third years following harvest. Our results suggest that retention of larger forest aggregates may be necessary to maintain ecosystem-level responses similar to those in unharvested stands. Moreover, they highlight the innate complexity of operational-scale research and suggest that the initial impacts of biomass harvest on Rs may be indiscernible from traditional harvest in systems where incidental

  20. Clinical evaluation of parotid function of head and neck cancer patients treated with IMRT

    We presented our preliminary results of initial experience by Helical TomoTherapy held at the 23rd annual meeting of Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) on October 2010. In this analysis, 82 parotid glands from 41 patients, who were treated with definitive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with or without systemic chemotherapy, were assessed for the correlation of radiation dose with parotid function evaluated by salivary scintigraphy. Acquired results of salivary scintigraphy are well correlated with grade of xerostomia after IMRT. Initial experience of IMRT in our institute for head and neck cancer is thought to be promising at the viewpoint of both clinical efficacy and less toxicity. (author)

  1. ASPEN PLUS在氯碱工程设计中的应用——氯氢处理流程模拟开发%Application of ASPEN PLUS in chlorine- alkali engineering design —— Development of imitiative process of chlorine and hydrogen treatment

    杨萍; 邓敏

    2001-01-01

    The binary interaction parameters are derived from gas- liquid equilibrium regression by using the ASPEN PLUS 10. O. Main point in this paper is the introduction of the calculation of mass balance and heat balance in chlorine and hydrogen treatment process in ion - exchange membrane caustic soda production process with the above imitiative flow path software. The calcalation results are compared with actual data from plants,and agreeable results are obtained.%ASPEN PLUS 10.0版中有较为全面的气液平衡回归出来的二元交互作用参数,文中主要介绍了用该流程模拟软件对离子膜烧碱氯氢处理工序进行物料平衡和热量平衡的计算,并与工厂实际数据进行比较,获得满意的结果。

  2. 工业级催化重整装置的全流程模拟与优化%Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of a Whole Industrial Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Process on Aspen Plus Platform

    侯卫锋; 苏宏业; 胡永有; 褚健

    2006-01-01

    A new 18-lump kinetic model for naphtha catalytic reforming reactions is discussed. By developing this model as a user module, a whole industrial continuous catalytic reforming process is simulated on Aspen plus plat form. The technique utilizes the strong databases, complete sets of modules, and flexible simulation tools of the Aspen plus system and retains the characteristics of the proposed kinetic model. The calculated results are in fair agreement with the actual operating data. Based on the model of the whole reforming process, the process is optimized and the optimization results are tested in the actual industrial unit for about two months. The test shows that the process profit increases about 1000yuan·h-1 averagely, which is close to the calculated result.

  3. Clinal Variation in phyB2, a Candidate Gene for Day-Length-Induced Growth Cessation and Bud Set, Across a Latitudinal Gradient in European Aspen (Populus tremula)

    Ingvarsson, Pär K.; García, M. Victoria; Hall, David; Luquez, Virginia; Jansson, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The initiation of growth cessation and dormancy represents a critical ecological and evolutionary trade-off between survival and growth in most forest trees. The most important environmental cue regulating the initiation of dormancy is a shortening of the photoperiod and phytochrome genes have been implicated in short-day-induced bud set and growth cessation in Populus. We characterized patterns of DNA sequence variation at the putative candidate gene phyB2 in 4 populations of European aspen ...

  4. Contrasting Effects of Cattle Grazing Intensity on Upland-Nesting Duck Production at Nest and Field Scales in the Aspen Parkland, Canada

    Jeffrey M. Warren

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aspen Parkland of Canada is one of the most important breeding areas for temperate nesting ducks in North America. The region is dominated by agricultural land use, with approximately 9.3 million ha in pasture land for cattle grazing. However, the effects of using land for cattle grazing on upland-nesting duck production are poorly understood. The current study was undertaken during 2001 and 2002 to investigate how nest density and nesting success of upland-nesting ducks varied with respect to the intensity of cattle grazing in the Aspen Parkland. We predicted that the removal and trampling of vegetation through cattle grazing would reduce duck nest density. Both positive and negative responses of duck nesting success to grazing have been reported in previous studies, leading us to test competing hypotheses that nesting success would (1 decline linearly with grazing intensity or (2 peak at moderate levels of grazing. Nearly 3300 ha of upland cover were searched during the study. Despite extensive and severe drought, nest searches located 302 duck nests. As predicted, nest density was higher in fields with lower grazing intensity and higher pasture health scores. A lightly grazed field with a pasture score of 85 out of a possible 100 was predicted to have 16.1 nests/100 ha (95% CI = 11.7–22.1, more than five times the predicted nest density of a heavily grazed field with a pasture score of 58 (3.3 nests/100 ha, 95% CI = 2.2–4.5. Nesting success was positively related to nest-site vegetation density across most levels of grazing intensity studied, supporting our hypothesis that reductions in vegetation caused by grazing would negatively affect nesting success. However, nesting success increased with grazing intensity at the field scale. For example, nesting success for a well-concealed nest in a lightly grazed field was 11.6% (95% CI = 3.6–25.0%, whereas nesting success for a nest with the same level of nest-site vegetation in a heavily

  5. Power from the garden: plant compounds as inhibitors of the hallmarks of cancer.

    Orlikova, B; Diederich, M

    2012-01-01

    On December 23rd, 1971, President Richard Nixon signed the National Cancer Act and invested more than $ 100 million "to launch an intensive campaign to find a cure for cancer". Today, despite these considerable efforts, cancer still remains a very aggressive silent killer all over the world. Moreover, over the last decade, novel synthetic chemotherapeutic agents currently in use in the clinics did not succeed in fulfilling their expectations even though they are very cost-intensive. In parallel, there is increasing evidence for the potential of plant-derived compounds on the inhibition of different steps of tumor genesis and associated inflammatory processes, underlining the importance of these products in cancer prevention and therapy. This review summarizes the impact of selected natural compounds on the eight major alterations, known as the cancer hallmarks, and also on their two enabling characteristics that were coined by Hanahan and Weinberg earlier. Altogether these ten alterations are responsible for the progressive transition of healthy cells into neoplastic ones and their further dissemination in the body. With this review, we try to highlight molecular mechanisms by which plant extracts and their purified active components fight and overcome these pathological variations of the cell signaling pathways for the improvement of prevention and therapy. We truly believe that all diseases can be found in Nature and that Nature also provides the efficient cures. PMID:22414100

  6. STUDY ON THE STRUCTURAL CHANGE OF LIGNIN DURING AUTO-CATALYZED ETHANOL-WATER PULPING OF ASPEN BY 1H-NMR

    Jinghui Zhou

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the structural change of lignin during auto-catalyzed ethanol-water pulping of aspen by 1H-NMR. The results showed that the linkages of alkyl-aryl ether of lignin, such as the α-ether linkages (α-O-4 and the β-ether linkages (β-O-4, were broken and the alkyl part formed carbenium at the Cα and Cβ of the aliphatic branch. Meanwhile, the aryl part of ether accepted one H+ and formed phenol. Because of the electronegative effect originating from the electron cloud of phenyl, partial carbenium of Cβ was rearranged. Due to its ether or hydroxyl linkage, rearranging to Cβ, the Cα was changed into carbenium and formed a new β-O-4 alkyl-aryl ether. The β-O-4 alkyl-aryl ether was not stable and broken further. So the large molecule of lignin was disintegrated into a smaller one and dissolved into ethanol. Finally, the α+ carbenium reformed α-O-4 linkages of ether with phenol.

  7. Genotypic variation in growth and physiological responses of Finnish hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides x P. tremula) to elevated tropospheric ozone concentration.

    Oksanen, E; Amores, G; Kokko, H; Amores, J M; Kärenlampi, L

    2001-10-01

    Saplings of six Finnish hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. x P. tremula L.) clones were exposed to 0, 50, 100 and 150 ppb ozone (O3) for 32 days in a chamber experiment to determine differences in O3 sensitivity among genotypes. Based on the chamber experiment, three clones with intermediate sensitivity to O3 were selected for a free-air O3 enrichment experiment in which plants were exposed for 2 months to either ambient air (control) or air containing 1.3 x the ambient O3 concentration. We measured stem height and radial growth, number of leaves, dry mass and relative growth rate of leaves, stem and roots, visible leaf injuries, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of the clones. There was high clonal variation in susceptibility to O3 in the chamber experiment, indicated by foliar injuries and differential reductions in growth and net photosynthesis. In the free-air O3 enrichment experiment, ozone caused a shift in resource allocation toward stem height growth, thereby altering the shoot to root balance. In both experiments, low O3 concentrations tended to stimulate growth of most clones, whereas 100 and 150 ppb O3 in the chamber experiment impaired growth of most clones. However, growth of the most O3-tolerant clone was not significantly affected by any O3 treatment. PMID:11600339

  8. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    ... a third party. HPF: Did You Know? Endometrial Cancer Endometrial Cancer - Did you know that endometrial cancer ... mfhs0vbvWi8?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Endometrial Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ...

  9. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry Analysis of High Antioxidant Australian Fruits with Antiproliferative Activity Against Cancer Cells

    Sirdaarta, Joseph; Maen, Anton; Rayan, Paran; Matthews, Ben; Cock, Ian Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Background: High antioxidant capacities have been linked to the treatment and prevention of several cancers. Recent reports have identified several native Australian fruits with high antioxidant capacities. Despite this, several of these species are yet to be tested for anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: Solvent extracts prepared from high antioxidant native Australian fruits were analyzed for antioxidant capacity by the di (phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium free radical scavenging assay. Antiproliferative activities against CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cells were determined by a multicellular tumor spheroid-based cell proliferation assay. Toxicity was determined by Artemia franciscana bioassay. Results: Methanolic extracts of all plant species displayed high antioxidant contents (equivalent to approximately 7–16 mg of vitamin C per gram of fruit extracted). Most aqueous extracts also contained relatively high antioxidant capacities. In contrast, the ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extracts of most species (except lemon aspen and bush tomato) had lower antioxidant contents (below 1.5 mg of vitamin C equivalents per gram of plant material extracted). The antioxidant contents correlated with the ability of the extracts to inhibit proliferation of CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The high antioxidant methanolic extracts of all species were potent inhibitors of cell proliferation. The methanolic lemon aspen extract was particularly effective, with IC50 values of 480 and 769 μg/mL against HeLa and CaCo2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the lower antioxidant ethyl acetate and hexane extracts (except the lemon aspen ethyl acetate extract) generally did not inhibit cancer cell proliferation or inhibited to only a minor degree. Indeed, most of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts induced potent cell proliferation. The native tamarind ethyl acetate extract displayed low-moderate toxicity in the A. franciscana bioassay (LC50 values below 1000

  10. Cancer Statistics

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    ... PSA tests. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 10 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    ... advanced melanoma. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 12 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    ... certain people. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 11 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  14. Simulation by Aspen Plus on desolventizing of crude oil in soybean protein extracting process with reverse micelles%用 Aspen Plus 模拟反胶束萃取大豆蛋白过程中毛油脱溶操作

    王鑫; 于国萍; 杜成亮; 吴志光

    2013-01-01

    Compared with other traditional methods, the disadvantages of high production costs and pollution prevention were overcome in the soy-protein extraction process by reverse micelles. Soybean crude oil, containing organic solvent, can be extracted together with soybean protein by reverse micelles. It is necessary to control the purity of the organic solvent that is recycled, as well as the purity of the soybean crude oil in the circulating production process. The Aspen Plus 11.1 software is used for simulating the desolventizing of crude oil in the soy-protein extraction process by reverse micelles, which is aimed at recycling the organic solvent. This work aims to study continuous and circulating spirit distillation by computational simulation, presenting some strategies of process control to regulate the purity of the solvent and the soybean oil. With the modular analysis function of Aspen Plus, the purity of the oil and solvent, the stage number of distillation column, and the heat load of the reboiler and the condenser were analyzed. A generalized model (based on the NRTL model) for estimation of activity coefficients is applied to the simulation of the extraction process. The equilibrium stage model based on the RADFRAC module of Aspen Plus is employed for the steady-state simulation of the improved process flowsheet, and therefore rigorous simulations allow the appropriate operating conditions to be established in the separating process. It is shown in the results that the reflux ratio of the vacuum distillation was 0.352, the distillate flow was 10.348 kg/h, and the purity of the oil and solvent can be 98.9% and 99.7% respectively, while the actual heat loads of the reboiler and the condenser were 1398.824 W and -1626.226 W, respectively. According to the sensitivity analysis, the concentration of oil and solvent grew respectively with the number of stages, and the optimal number of stages was seven. The cost was analyzed based on simulation calculations, in

  15. Springs inventory and estimate of inflow contributions for Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge, May 21 -23rd, 2012

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Springs at Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge were visited in May of 2012 to verify locations of springs from previous mapping efforts and to estimate the total...

  16. 23rd Annual congress of the South African Society of Pathologists, Pretoria, 4-6 July 1983

    The proceedings of the twenty third annual congress of the South African Society of Pathologists are presented. Papers on the following topics were presented: anatomical pathology, virology, microbiology, chemical biochemistry, and haematology. Separate abstracts were prepared for thirteen of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered out of scope for INIS

  17. 41st Annual convention of the Austrian physical society, September 23rd to 27th 1991 in Graz, Austria

    This is a pre-convention collection of abstracts of about 250 contributions in the topical fields: (1) Atomic-, Molecular- and Plasma Physics, (2) Solid State Physics, (3) Nuclear- and Particle Physics, (4) Medical- and Biophysics, (5) Polymer Physics. 72 thereof are of INIS scope. (Quittner)

  18. The statistical properties of spread F observed at Hainan station during the declining period of the 23rd solar cycle

    G. J. Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variations of the low latitude nighttime spread F (SF observed by DPS-4 digisonde at low latitude Hainan station (geog. 19.5° N, 109.1° E, dip lat. 9.5° N during the declining solar cycle 23 from March 2002 to February 2008 are studied. The spread F measured by the digisonde were classified into four types, i.e., frequency SF (FSF, range SF (RSF, mixed SF (MSF, and strong range SF (SSF. The statistical results show that MSF and SSF are the outstanding irregularities in Hainan, MSF mainly occurs during summer and low solar activity years, whereas SSF mainly occurs during equinoxes and high solar activity years. The SSF has a diurnal peak before midnight and usually appears during 20:00–02:00 LT, whereas MSF peaks nearly or after midnight and occurs during 22:00–06:00 LT. The time of maximum occurrence of SSF is later in summer than in equinoxes and this time delay can be caused by the later reversal time of the E×B drift in summer. The SunSpot Number (SSN dependence of each type SF is different during different season. The FSF is independent of SSN during each season; RSF with SSN is positive relation during equinoxes and summer and is no relationship during the winter; MSF is significant dependence on SSN during the summer and winter, and does not relate to SSN during the equinoxes; SSF is clearly increasing with SSN during equinoxes and summer, while it is independent of SSN during the winter. The occurrence numbers of each type SF and total SF have the same trend, i.e., increasing as Kp increases from 0 to 1, and then decreasing as increasing Kp. The correlation with Kp is negative for RSF, MSF, SSF and total SF, but is vague for the FSF.

  19. 75 FR 71183 - 23rd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    2010-11-22

    ... revision to the Minimum Interoperability Standards (MIS) for ] Automated Meteorological Transmission... receipt, a Concept of Use for AIS and MET Data Link Services and an AIS and MET Services Delivery Architecture Recommendations are included in the TOR deliverables. The Concept of Use for AIS and MET Data...

  20. The incorporation of an organic soil layer in the Noah-MP land surface model and its evaluation over a boreal aspen forest

    Chen, Liang; Li, Yanping; Chen, Fei; Barr, Alan; Barlage, Michael; Wan, Bingcheng

    2016-07-01

    A thick top layer of organic matter is a dominant feature in boreal forests and can impact land-atmosphere interactions. In this study, the multi-parameterization version of the Noah land surface model (Noah-MP) was used to investigate the impact of incorporating a forest-floor organic soil layer on the simulated surface energy and water cycle components at the BERMS Old Aspen site (OAS) field station in central Saskatchewan, Canada. Compared to a simulation without an organic soil parameterization (CTL), the Noah-MP simulation with an organic soil (OGN) improved Noah-MP-simulated soil temperature profiles and soil moisture at 40-100 cm, especially the phase and amplitude (Seasonal cycle) of soil temperature below 10 cm. OGN also enhanced the simulation of sensible and latent heat fluxes in spring, especially in wet years, which is mostly related to the timing of spring soil thaw and warming. Simulated top-layer soil moisture is better in OGN than that in CTL. The effects of including an organic soil layer on soil temperature are not uniform throughout the soil depth and are more prominent in summer. For drought years, the OGN simulation substantially modified the partitioning of water between direct soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration. For wet years, the OGN-simulated latent heat fluxes are similar to CTL except for the spring season when OGN produced less evaporation, which was closer to observations. Including organic soil produced more subsurface runoff and resulted in much higher runoff throughout the freezing periods in wet years.

  1. Activation of Aspen Wood with Carbon Dioxide and Phosphoric Acid for Removal of Total Organic Carbon from Oil Sands Produced Water: Increasing the Yield with Bio-Oil Recycling

    Andrei Veksha; Tazul I. Bhuiyan; Josephine M. Hill

    2016-01-01

    Several samples of activated carbon were prepared by physical (CO2) and chemical (H3PO4) activation of aspen wood and tested for the adsorption of organic compounds from water generated during the recovery of bitumen using steam assisted gravity drainage. Total organic carbon removal by the carbon samples increased proportionally with total pore volume as determined from N2 adsorption isotherms at −196 °C. The activated carbon produced by CO2 activation had similar removal levels for total or...

  2. Colon cancer

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  3. Vulva cancer

    Cancer - vulva; Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer ... cells. Other types of cancers found on the vulva are: Adenocarcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Melanoma Sarcoma Vulvar ...

  4. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer ...

  6. Tobacco and Cancer

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  7. Radiobiological research for improving cancer therapy in India: rationale, problems and prospects

    Cancer is emerging as a very important health hazard in India. According to recent studies by the Indian Council of Medical Research, about 2.25 million patients are presently suffering from different types of cancer in India. Approximately one million new cases are diagnosed, and nearly 0.3 million deaths occur every year on account of this disease. About 2/3rd of the cancers are at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. However, the allocation of funds for healthcare in India to support the research efforts for developing more potent radio-chemotherapy protocols for cancer treatment is too little. Studies by the W.H.O. have estimated that less developed countries including India use less than 5% of world resources destined for cancer control. It follows from the above discussions that it is imperative to further encourage and diversify the radiobiological research in India. This can be achieved by creating radiobiological research facilities, mainly in all the cancer centers and post graduate medical institutions, and further expanding the upcoming laboratories in the universities such as Bikaner. Collaborative research programs between laboratories at different centers could facilitate systematic evaluation of various pharmacological agents and neutraceuticals for potential application for treatment of different cancers. Our studies on combination of radiation with temozolomide and certain adjuvants with selective effects on brain tumour cells will be very briefly discussed in this presentation. Finally the possible administrative set up and multi dimensional collaborations for cost effective utilization of existing resources to further augment radiation biology research will also be discussed

  8. ptr-MIR169 is a posttranscriptional repressor of PtrHAP2 during vegetative bud dormancy period of aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees

    Potkar, Rewati; Recla, Jill [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Busov, Victor, E-mail: vbusov@mtu.edu [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We show a novel microRNA-mediated mechanism for control of bud dormancy in trees. ► ptr-MIR169a and PtrHAP2–5 gene showed inverse expression during dormancy period. ► The PtrHAP2–5 decline in abundance correlated with high ptr-MIR169a levels. ► PtrHAP2–5 cleavage occurred at the miR169 site during PtrHAP2–5 transcript decline. ► Our results show that miR169 attenuates PtrHAP2–5 transcript during dormancy. -- Abstract: Dormancy is a mechanism evolved in woody perennial plants to survive the winter freezing and dehydration stress via temporary suspension of growth. We have identified two aspen microRNAs (ptr-MIR169a and ptr-MIR169h) which were highly and specifically expressed in dormant floral and vegetative buds. ptr-MIR169a and its target gene PtrHAP2–5 showed inverse expression patterns during the dormancy period. ptr-MIR169a transcript steadily increased through the first half of the dormancy period and gradually declined with the approach of active growing season. PtrHAP2–5 abundance was higher in the beginning of the dormancy period but rapidly declined thereafter. The decline of PtrHAP2–5 correlated with the high levels of ptr-MIR169a accumulation, suggesting miR169-mediated attenuation of the target PtrHAP2–5 transcript. We experimentally verified the cleavage of PtrHAP2–5 at the predicted miR169a site at the time when PtrHAP2–5 transcript decline was observed. HAP2 is a subunit of a nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) complex consisting of two other units, HAP3 and HAP5. Using digital expression profiling we show that poplar HAP2 and HAP5 are preferentially detected in dormant tissues. Our study shows that microRNAs play a significant and as of yet unknown and unstudied role in regulating the timing of bud dormancy in trees.

  9. Activation of Aspen Wood with Carbon Dioxide and Phosphoric Acid for Removal of Total Organic Carbon from Oil Sands Produced Water: Increasing the Yield with Bio-Oil Recycling

    Andrei Veksha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several samples of activated carbon were prepared by physical (CO2 and chemical (H3PO4 activation of aspen wood and tested for the adsorption of organic compounds from water generated during the recovery of bitumen using steam assisted gravity drainage. Total organic carbon removal by the carbon samples increased proportionally with total pore volume as determined from N2 adsorption isotherms at −196 °C. The activated carbon produced by CO2 activation had similar removal levels for total organic carbon from the water (up to 70% to those samples activated with H3PO4, but lower yields, due to losses during pyrolysis and activation. A method to increase the yield when using CO2 activation was proposed and consisted of recycling bio-oil produced from previous runs to the aspen wood feed, followed by either KOH addition (0.48% or air pretreatment (220 °C for 3 h before pyrolysis and activation. By recycling the bio-oil, the yield of CO2 activated carbon (after air pretreatment of the mixture was increased by a factor of 1.3. Due to the higher carbon yield, the corresponding total organic carbon removal, per mass of wood feed, increased by a factor of 1.2 thus improving the overall process efficiency.

  10. Bio energy production in birch and hybrid aspen after addition of residue based fertilizers - establishment of fertilization trials; Bioenergiproduktion hos bjoerk och hybridasp vid tillfoersel av restproduktbaserade goedselmedel - etablering av goedslingsfoersoek

    Thelin, Gunnar (EkoBalans Fenix AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Sewage sludge and wood ashes could be used as fertilizers in order to increase forest tree production. In southern Sweden forest growth normally increases with approximately 10 % after ash recycling due to increased N and/or P availability. P is added with the ashes and the pH-increasing effect of the wood ash can lead to increased N net mineralization. Other positive effects of wood ash recycling are improved nutrient sustainability and less acid run-off water. Possible negative effects are heavy metal accumulation, if the content of one or more heavy metals of the recycled ash exceeds the heavy metal content of the harvested biomass, and nitrate leaching if the vegetation cannot take up nitrified N. It is important to evaluate the sustainability of fertilization systems based on residues such as sludge and wood ash. Wood ash does not contain N and the P concentration often is too low for the ashes to function as an NP fertilizer. Thus N and sometimes P must be added. Sludge is an interesting alternative. The main purpose of the project is to study sustainable production of forest bio energy in intensively cultivated birch and hybrid aspen stands. Another purpose is to establish experiments that can be used for long term studies and as demonstration objects. In the first few years the goal is to study the short term effects of residue based fertilization compared to conventional NPK fertilization on tree nutrient uptake, nutrient leaching, sustainability and economy. In the long term the goal is to design appropriate fertilization strategies in a residue based fertilization system for the intensive cultivation of birch and hybrid aspen without negative side effects such as large scale nutrient leaching. Four field experiments were established in 2008 and one additional experiment in hybrid aspen will be established in the spring of 2009. Elevated bud N and P concentrations after fertilization with both Ashes+N and NPK means good possibilities for future growth

  11. Oral Cancer

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Puts Someone at Risk? Possible Signs & Symptoms Early Detection About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of ...

  12. Colon cancer

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... often lead to a complete cure. Almost all colon cancers start in the lining of the colon and ...

  13. Skandinaavia disainis seigeldes / Jay Aspen

    Aspen, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Rootsi uue disaini hulgi- ja jaemüüja Michael Asplundi korter Stocholmis Södermalmi linnaosas 1930-ndate keskel ehitatud majas. Tubades on palju disainerite, eriti rootsi disainerite loodud esemeid. Lk. 44: Kristjan Arunurm "Põhjamaine selgus" - valik esemeid kodu sisustamiseks samas võtmes

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  17. Attitudes and Technologies--Striving To Match New Electronic Information Products and Services to the Needs and Interests of Elderly People. Report of an Aspen Institute Conference: New Electronic Technologies To Meet the Needs of Elderly People: More Issues and Cases (Queenstown, Maryland, March 23-25, 1988). Communications and Society Forum Report #7.

    Tingay, Michael

    Participants in the Aspen Institute Conference considered how communications technologies may be applied to serve the needs and interests of this country's expanding community of retired and older citizens. Conference findings fell into two categories, reflecting questions originating in the human aspirations found in a public opinion survey…

  18. 基于ASPEN PLUS平台的生物质氧气气化制备合成气的模拟研究%Modeling and Simulation of Oxygen Gasification of Biomass for Syngas Gas Production Based on ASPEN PLUS

    李斌; 陈汉平; 杨海平; 王贤华; 张世红; 代正华

    2011-01-01

    A model of oxygen gasification of biomass for syngas gas production was built using ASPEN PLUS, and the effects of various factors on gasification characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that, as the oxygen biomass equivalence ratio increases, both the synthesis gas concentration and the yield increase first and then de-crease and they both reach the maximum values of 97.63% and 1.61 m3/kg respectively at the equivalence ratio of 0.16, and the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide also reaches the maximum value of 0.98. High temperature and low pressure are beneficial for syngas production, and under pressurized conditions, the temperature, at which a balanced concentration and yield of syngas can be achieved, increases. As the mass ratio of steam to biomass in-creases from 0 to 1.5, the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide rapidly increases from 0.98 to 3.06, while the vol-ume ratio of oxygen to carbon dioxide changes from 1 : 0 to 1 :5, and the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide decreases from 0.98 to 0.50 rapidly.%利用ASPEN PLUS软件建立了生物质氧气气化制备合成气模型,并对各种影响因素进行了深入分析,结果表明,随着O2当量比的增加,合成气的体积分数与产率均先增大后减小,且在当量比为0.16时,合成气的体积分数和产率均达到最大值,分别为97.63%和1.61 m3/kg,此φ(H2)/φ(CO)也有最大值0.98;高温和低压对制备合成气有利,在加压条件下,合成气体积分数和产率达到平衡组成时的温度提高;水蒸气与生物质之比由0增加到1.5时,φ(H2)/φ(CO)的值由0.98快速上升至3.06,而φ(O2)/φ(CO2)的值由1∶0变化到1∶5时,φ(H2)/φ(CO)的值由0.98快速下降至0.50.

  19. Appendix Cancer

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Appendix Cancer Appendix Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Appendix Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Appendix Cancer Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...

  20. Cancer Statistics: Pancreas Cancer

    ... qnad9A-rfcw?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Pancreas Cancer Expand All Collapse All Statistics at a ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Pancreas Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Research Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia ...

  3. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration system for leaf explants of two elite aspen hybrid clones Populus alba × P. berolinensis and Populus davidiana × P. bolleana.

    Wang, Haihai; Wang, Cuiting; Liu, Hua; Tang, Renjie; Zhang, Hongxia

    2011-11-01

    Transgenic technology has been successfully used for gene function analyses and trait improvement in cereal plants. However, its usage is limited in woody plants, especially in the difficult-to-transform but commercially viable hybrid poplar. In this work, an efficient regeneration and transformation system was established for the production of two hybrid aspen clones: Populus alba × P. berolinensis and Populus davidiana × P. bolleana. A plant transformation vector designed to express the reporter gene uidA, encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS), driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was used to detect transformation event at early stages of plant regeneration, and to optimize the parameters that may affect poplar transformation efficiency. Bacterium strain and age of leaf explant are two major factors that affect transformation efficiency. Addition of thidiazuron (TDZ) improved both regeneration and transformation efficiency. The transformation efficiency is approximately 9.3% for P. alba × P. berolinensis and 16.4% for P. davidiana × P. bolleana. Using this system, transgenic plants were usually produced in less than 1 month after co-cultivation. The growth characteristics and morphology of transgenic plants were identical to the untransformed wild type plants, and the transgenes could be inherited by vegetative propagation, as confirmed by PCR, Southern blotting, RT-PCR and β-glucuronidase staining analyses. The establishment of this system will help to facilitate the studies of gene functions in tree growth and development at a genome level, and as well as the introduction of some valuable traits in aspen breeding. PMID:21717184

  4. Breast Cancer

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. ...

  5. Cancer Today

    ... Cancer) 59,940 8,110 Gynecologic (Cervical, Endometrial, Ovarian) 72,660 26,350 Source: American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2007 : NCI Cancer Screening Tests Screening tests can find diseases and conditions ...

  6. Role of nutritional status in predicting quality of life outcomes in cancer--a systematic review of the epidemiological literature.

    Lis, Christopher G; Gupta, Digant; Lammersfeld, Carolyn A; Markman, Maurie; Vashi, Pankaj G

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is a significant factor in predicting cancer patients' quality of life (QoL). We systematically reviewed the literature on the role of nutritional status in predicting QoL in cancer. We searched MEDLINE database using the terms "nutritional status" in combination with "quality of life" together with "cancer". Human studies published in English, having nutritional status as one of the predictor variables, and QoL as one of the outcome measures were included. Of the 26 included studies, 6 investigated head and neck cancer, 8 gastrointestinal, 1 lung, 1 gynecologic and 10 heterogeneous cancers. 24 studies concluded that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL, 1 study showed that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL only in high-risk patients, while 1 study concluded that there was no association between nutritional status and QoL. Nutritional status is a strong predictor of QoL in cancer patients. We recommend that more providers implement the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) guidelines for oncology patients, which includes nutritional screening, nutritional assessment and intervention as appropriate. Correcting malnutrition may improve QoL in cancer patients, an important outcome of interest to cancer patients, their caregivers, and families. PMID:22531478

  7. Gynaecological cancer

    Jeffcoate, T. N. A.

    1999-01-01

    Gynaecological cancer encompasses a number of tumours with different epidemiology, pathology and treatment strategies. This article reviews the principal clinical advances and areas of development in cancer of the ovary, cervix, endometrium and vulva.


Keywords: ovarian cancer; cervical cancer; endometrial cancer; vulval cancer

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  10. Role of nutritional status in predicting quality of life outcomes in cancer – a systematic review of the epidemiological literature

    Lis Christopher G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malnutrition is a significant factor in predicting cancer patients’ quality of life (QoL. We systematically reviewed the literature on the role of nutritional status in predicting QoL in cancer. We searched MEDLINE database using the terms “nutritional status” in combination with “quality of life” together with “cancer”. Human studies published in English, having nutritional status as one of the predictor variables, and QoL as one of the outcome measures were included. Of the 26 included studies, 6 investigated head and neck cancer, 8 gastrointestinal, 1 lung, 1 gynecologic and 10 heterogeneous cancers. 24 studies concluded that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL, 1 study showed that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL only in high-risk patients, while 1 study concluded that there was no association between nutritional status and QoL. Nutritional status is a strong predictor of QoL in cancer patients. We recommend that more providers implement the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN guidelines for oncology patients, which includes nutritional screening, nutritional assessment and intervention as appropriate. Correcting malnutrition may improve QoL in cancer patients, an important outcome of interest to cancer patients, their caregivers, and families.

  11. Thermodynamic Phase And Chemical Equilibrium At 0-110 C For The H+-K+-Na+-Cl--H2O System Up To 16 Molal And The HNO3-H2O System Up To 20 Molal Using An Association-Based Pitzer Model Compatible With ASPEN Plus

    Nichols,T.T.; Taylor,D.D.

    2003-09-26

    A status is presented of the parameterization during FY2003 of an association-based Pitzer model to simulate chemical and phase equilibria of acid-chloride-nitrate-mercury aqueous electrolyte systems at 0-100 C within the industry-standard process simulator, ASPEN Plus. Compatibility with ASPEN Plus requires that the Pitzer model used be limited to the third virial coefficient and have the values of b and a1 as originally proposed by Pitzer. Two aqueous models for 0-110 C at atmospheric pressure were parameterized in FY03. The model for the aqueous H+-K+-Na+-Cl- system is applicable for 0-16 molal, and the HNO3-H2O for 0-20 molal. An association-based Pitzer activity coefficient model is combined with Henry's law to predict activity/osmotic coefficient and VLE. The chloride model also predicts KCl and NaCl solubility, while the nitric acid model has the unique capability of predicting extent of dissociation with an average absolute deviation of 1.43%. The association-based approach presented here extends the utility of the molality-based Pitzer model past 6 molal to predict activity/osmotic coefficients up to 16-20 molal. The association-based approach offers the additional benefits of predicting extent of dissociation and of allowing the Pitzer model to be fully utilized in commercial simulators, such as ASPEN Plus, that require accounting for association to implement Henry's law. The Pitzer models presented here provide the chemical process simulation engineer with a superior alternative to the Electrolyte NRTL model that can easily be used in ASPEN Plus.

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Resources What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ... Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  18. Lung Cancer

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of ... in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  19. Bone Cancer

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  20. Thyroid Cancer

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  1. Cancer Moonshot

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  2. Uterine Cancer

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...

  3. Stomach Cancer

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  4. Bone Cancer

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  5. Ovarian Cancer

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  6. Cancer Chemotherapy

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  7. Skin Cancer

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  8. Anal cancer

    Cancer - anus; Squamous cell carcinoma - anal; HPV - anal cancer ... is unclear. However, there is a link between anal cancer and the human papillomavirus or HPV infection. HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that ...

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that makes ...

  10. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    2016-06-21

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  11. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  12. Cancer of the Uterus (Endometrial Cancer)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Cancer of the Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] Home For Patients Search FAQs Cancer of the ... Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] FAQ097, May 2011 PDF Format Cancer of the Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] Gynecologic Problems What ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research ...

  14. Vaginal Cancer

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  15. Cancer Clusters

    ... of cancer. Cancer clusters can help scientists identify cancer-causing substances in the environment. For example, in the early 1970s, a cluster ... the area and time period over which the cancers were diagnosed. They also ask about specific environmental hazards or concerns in the affected area. If ...

  16. Lung Cancer

    ... spreads in different ways, and each is treated differently. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common than small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer grows more quickly and is more likely to spread to other organs in the body. Learn more about non-small cell lung cancer. Learn ...

  17. Childhood Cancer

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  18. Lung Cancer

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  20. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Cryosurgery-prostate cancer; Cryoablation-prostate cancer ... Prostate Cancer. American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-treating-cryosurgery. Accessed August 31, 2015. Horwich ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals Precision Medicine Leadership Views 2017 Annual Plan & ...

  2. What Is Breast Cancer?

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  3. What Causes Cancer?

    ... this section you can get information on cigarette, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use, and learn how it ... Basics What Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer ...

  4. Diet and cancer

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  5. Breast Cancer Screening

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ... Using Trusted Resources What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening ...

  10. What Is Colorectal Cancer?

    ... Topic Key statistics for colorectal cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? How does colorectal cancer start? Most colorectal cancers begin as a growth ...

  11. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Cancer screening

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  13. Simulation of Continuous Distillation of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids by Aspen Plus%连续减压精馏分离椰子油脂肪酸的模拟研究

    谢萍; 翁居轼; 冯晖

    2012-01-01

    Simulation of continuous distillation of coconut oil fatty acids in the paper was researched by the strict calculation method RadFrac unit operation module of Aspen Plus software. Under the absolute pressure 2500 Pa the effect of continuous distillation of coconut oil fatty acids, including the stage numbers of distillation column, the number of feed stage, and reflux ratio was investigated. The results showed that when the flow rate of feed was 20 kg/h and two rectification towers were used, the operation parameters of B1 tower were as follows: the stage number for B 1 tower was 15, the feed stage was No.8 and reflux ratio(volume ratio) was 2. Under the optimized parameters, the flow of top products caprylic acid was 8.675 kg/h, the mass fraction was 98.58 %, and the yield can achieve 99.83 %. The flow at the bottom was further separated in B2 tower. The operation parameters of B2 tower were as follows: the stage number for B 1 tower was 15, the feed stage was No.9 and reflux ratio was 1. Under the optimized parameters, the flow of top products decoic acid was 10.86 kg/h, the mass fraction was 99.79 %, and the yield can achieve 98.81%.%文章利用AspenPlus化工模拟软件中的严格计算法RadFrac单元操作模块对椰子油脂肪酸进行了连续减压精馏分离模拟。考察了塔板数、回流比、进料位置对分离效果的影响。结果表明:采用两个精馏塔B1塔和B2塔串联操作.操作压强为2500Pa(绝压),原料进料质量流率20kg/h,B1塔理论板数为15,第8块塔板进料,同流比为2(体积比),塔顶可得到产物辛酸的质量流率为8.675kg/h,质量分数可达98.58%及回收率可达99.83%。塔底物料经B2进一步分离,B2塔板数为15,第9块塔板进料,回流比为1,塔顶可得到产物癸酸的质量流率为10.86kg,h,质量分数为99.79%及回收率为98.81%。模拟结果对实验研究及工业化生产具有指导意义。

  14. Validation of chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU using Cu-based oxygen carrier and comparative study of Cu, Mn and Co based oxygen carriers using ASPEN plus

    Xiao Zhang, Subhodeep Banerjee, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU has been demonstrated to be an effective technological pathway for high-efficiency low-cost carbon dioxide capture when particulate coal serves as the fuel. In this paper, complete process-level modeling of CLOU process conducted in ASPEN Plus is presented. The heat content of fuel and air reactors and air/flue gas heat exchangers is carefully examined. It is shown that the established model provides results which are in excellent agreement with the experiments for the overall power output of the CLOU process. Finally the effect of varying the air flow rate and three different types of coal as the solid fuel on energy output is investigated, and the performance of three – Copper (Cu, Manganese (Mn and Cobalt (Co based oxygen carriers in CLOU process is compared. It is shown that there exists an optimal air flow rate to obtain the maximum power output for a given coal feeding rate and coal type. The effect of three different oxygen carriers on energy output is also investigated using the optimal air flow rate. Among the three oxygen carriers - CuO, Mn2O3, and Co3O4; Mn2O3 shows the best performance on power output. The results presented in this paper can be used to estimate the amount of various quantities such as the air flow rate and oxygen carrier (and its type required to achieve near optimal energy output from a CLOU process based power plant.

  15. Cancer treatments

    ... focused beam of light to destroy cancer cells. Laser therapy can be used to: Destroy tumors and precancerous growths Shrink tumors that are blocking the stomach, colon, or esophagus Help treat cancer symptoms, such as bleeding Seal nerve endings after ...

  16. Pancreatic Cancer

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  17. Colorectal Cancer

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  18. Esophageal Cancer

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  19. Intestinal Cancer

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  20. Nasal Cancer

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  1. Prostate Cancer

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  2. Gallbladder Cancer

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  3. Thymus Cancer

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  4. Occupational Cancer

    ... on Carcinogens NIOSH Pocket Guide Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) Recent NIOSH Research on Cancer Risk Factors Regulation and Policy OSHA Standards Surveillance NIOSH Data & Statistics by Industry Sector - Cancer Click on one ...

  5. Prostate Cancer

    ... a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  6. Cervical Cancer

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  7. Cancer Chemotherapy

    ... cells grow and die in a controlled way. Cancer cells keep forming without control. Chemotherapy is drug ... Your course of therapy will depend on the cancer type, the chemotherapy drugs used, the treatment goal ...

  8. Testicular cancer

    ... health care provider if you have symptoms of testicular cancer. Prevention Performing a testicular self-examination (TSE) each month may help detect testicular cancer at an early stage, before it spreads. Finding ...

  9. Cancer prevention

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  10. Oral Cancer

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  11. Eye Cancer

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  12. Colorectal Cancer

    ... and rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... both men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  13. Primary Cosmic Rays with Energies above 1015 eV – Rapporteur Review of Poster Presentations at the 23rd ECRS – Session PCR 2

    Measurements of atmospheric Extensive Air Showers (EAS) are the only way of experimental studies of Primary Cosmic Rays (CR) with energies above 1015 eV. The final targets of these studies are search for astrophysical origin of these particles and properties of particle production in high energy particle interaction. Works presented at the PCR 2 session in the form of posters reflected the current progress in this area. In this review presented posters were grouped according to CR energy range, astrophysical significance, relation to high energy physics interaction properties and interaction models, and future experiments. 42 posters were submitted for this session. Some of the presented material in posters overlapped in parts with oral presentations.

  14. Study of the cosmogenic factors influence on temporal variation of 7Be air concentration during the 23rd solar cycle in Malaga (South Spain)

    Atmospheric 7Be activity concentrations were measured in Malaga (South Spain) during the period 1997-2007. Monthly concentrations of 7Be ranged between 2.47 and 8.12 mBq m-3 showing seasonal trend with maxima in spring-summer time. Influence of solar activity, cosmic rays and aerosol optical depth on airborne 7Be was analyzed. Weak negative correlation between sunspot number and 7Be is found. Instead, both solar energetic protons >100 MeV and cosmic rays show positive weak significant correlation with this radionuclide. Meteorology may contribute to the low correlation coefficients found. Aerosol optical depth exhibits significant correlation with 7Be, confirming that this radionuclide attaches to atmospheric particles. (author)

  15. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (23rd, Haifa, Israel, July 25-30, 1999). Volumes 1-4.

    Zaslavsky, Orit, Ed.

    This conference proceedings contains 135 research reports, 73 short oral reports, 30 poster session reports, 4 plenary addresses, 3 research forums, 6 project groups, and 5 discussion group reports. Only the research reports, research forums, and plenary addresses are full reports; the others are generally one-page abstracts. The first volume…

  16. Analysis of the GCR Dose Rate Increase onboard Spacecraft and Aircraft in the Declining Phase of the 23rd Solar Cycle

    Datchev, T.; Ploc, Ondřej; Tomov, B.; Spurný, František

    -: -, 2009, s. 139-143. [Fundamental Space Research 2009. - (BG), 20.09.2009-20.11.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : spacecraft * aircraft * solar cycle Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders http://www.stil.bas.bg/FSR2009/forms/press_copy.html

  17. International Agenda for the 1990s. Report of the United Nations of the Next Decade Conference (23rd, Brioni, Yugoslavia, July 17-22, 1988).

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The conference reported on in this document focused on the profound changes taking place in the world, changes characterized by their international nature and requiring multinational cooperation. The security of national borders continues to be a concern, but internal threats to governments are the more common phenomenon. The combination of…

  18. Thyroid cancer

    This paper reviews the relationship between A-bomb radiation and thyroid cancer in the literature. The previous studies have showed a similar outcome; that is, the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher with increasing radiation doses. Risk for thyroid cancer is significantly high in women. Latent cancer found at autopsy is also found to be significantly increased with increasing radiation doses, especially for women. (N.K.)

  19. Prostate cancer

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  20. Prostate cancer

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  1. Profiling cancer

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  2. Uterine Cancer

    ... It is the fourth most common cancer in women in the United States and it is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic cancer. Inside Knowledge is an initiative that supports the Gynecologic Cancer Education and Awareness Act of 2005, or Johanna’s Law, which was ...

  3. Breast Cancer

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  4. Testicular Cancer

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  5. Pancreatic cancer

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Alrawashdeh, Wasfi

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in higher-income countries, with 5-year survival only 10% (range 7%–25%), even in people presenting with early-stage cancer. Risk factors include age, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, a family history, and dietary factors. Diabetes mellitus may also increase the risk.

  6. Cervical Cancer

    ... to see your doctor. www.cdc.gov/cancer/knowledge 1-800-CDC-INFO Are there tests that can prevent cervical cancer or find it early? There are two tests that can either help prevent cervical cancer or find it early: • The Pap test (or Pap smear)looks for precancers, cell changes, on the cervix ...

  7. Cancer Statistics

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  8. Cancer Triptych.

    Faulkner, Sandra L

    2016-08-01

    The author uses personal narrative to show how the cold cloak of cancer covered her family during the polar vortex of 2013-2014. The use of a triptych form hinges together related themes of containment, coping, communicative responses, and social support after a cancer diagnosis. This narrative demonstrates the multiple responses and communicative coping strategies to a cancer diagnosis. PMID:26752448

  9. Breast cancer

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Financial Toxicity ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  12. Lung Cancer Prevention

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  13. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  14. Learning about Prostate Cancer

    ... of Information on Prostate Cancer What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American ... of page Additional Resources of Information on Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer [nlm.nih.gov] From Medline Plus Medical ...

  15. What is Prostate Cancer?

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » Detailed Guide » What is prostate cancer? Share ... how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ... Statistics Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening ...

  17. Throat or larynx cancer

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer What ... Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources What Is ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/ ... the Precision Medicine Initiative® Cancer Moonshot Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer Choices For Care Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/ ... Medicine Initiative® National Cancer Moonshot Initiative Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer ...

  5. Oral Cancer Prevention

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  6. SKIN CANCER

    Made Putri Hendaria

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases was happened in United States, which makes it become the most common cancer type in that country. Skin cancer diagnosis is build from anamnesis, physic examination about skin eufloressence, using dermoscopy, and histopatologic examination as the gold standar. Therapy for skin cancer is classified to surgery and non surgery therapy and its prognostic is depend to the types of the skin cancer itself.

  7. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  8. Cervical Cancer

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  9. SKIN CANCER

    Made Putri Hendaria; AAGN Asmarajaya; Sri Maliawan

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases ...

  10. Cancer cachexia

    Raghu Dhanapal; T R Saraswathi; N Govind Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a wasting syndrome characterized by weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. The pathogenicity of this syndrome is multifactorial, due to a complex interaction of tumor and host factors. The signs and symptoms of cachexia are considered as the prognostic parameters in cancer patients. This review gives an emphasis on the various mechanisms involved in cachexia and an insight into head and neck cancer cachexia.

  11. Cervical Cancer

    ... Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ...

  12. Prostate cancer

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  13. Contagious cancer.

    Welsh, James S

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer can on occasion be caused by infectious agents such as specific bacteria, parasites, and viruses, it is not generally considered a transmissible disease. In rare circumstances, however, direct communication from one host to another has been documented. The Tasmanian devil is now threatened with extinction in the wild because of a fatal transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). Another example is canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT or Sticker's sarcoma) in dogs. There is a vast difference in prognosis between these two conditions. DFTD is often fatal within 6 months, whereas most cases of CTVT are eventually rejected by the host dog, who then is conferred lifelong immunity. In man, only scattered case reports exist about such communicable cancers, most often in the setting of organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants and cancers arising during pregnancy that are transmitted to the fetus. In about one third of cases, transplant recipients develop cancers from donor organs from individuals who were found to harbor malignancies after the transplantation. The fact that two thirds of the time cancer does not develop, along with the fact that cancer very rarely is transmitted from person to person, supports the notion that natural immunity prevents such cancers from taking hold in man. These observations might hold invaluable clues to the immunobiology and possible immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:21212437

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer ... on YouTube. Barbara’s attitude since her diagnosis with pancreatic cancer? No doctor is going to tell her how ...

  15. Cancer in Patients With Gabapentin (GPRD)

    2012-02-02

    Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives ...

  17. What Is Bone Cancer?

    ... our document called Osteosarcoma . Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma (KON-droh-sar-KOH-muh) is a cancer of cartilage cells. ... AdditionalResources Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & ...

  18. Lung Cancer Screening

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  19. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate cancer overview? What are my treatment options? What ... any new developments in treating my disease? Prostate cancer overview Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  20. Progress against Prostate Cancer

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Progress Against Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives ... Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives ...

  3. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes ... Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home About Cancer Diagnosis and Staging Diagnosis ...

  5. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    ... chemotherapy and stem cell transplant for testicular cancer Chemotherapy for testicular cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

  6. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    ... TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » Thyroid cancer risk factors What causes thyroid cancer? Can thyroid cancer be prevented? Previous Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Next Topic Can thyroid cancer be prevented? What ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Ask About Cancer Research Advanced Cancer Choices for Care Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings ... to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  13. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Ovarian Cancer Home For Patients Search FAQs Ovarian Cancer ... Spanish Ovarian Cancer FAQ096, April 2015 PDF Format Ovarian Cancer Gynecologic Problems What is cancer? What is ...

  14. Ovarian Cancer Fact Sheet

    ... widgets/current/fahc.html/ Search Share Embed Ovarian cancer fact sheet Ovarian cancer is cancer that begins in the ovaries. ... make female hormones and produce a woman's eggs. Ovarian cancer is a serious cancer that is more ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask About Cancer Research Advanced Cancer Choices for Care Talking about Advanced ... Cancer and Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance ...

  16. Skin Cancer Screening

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  17. What Is Eye Cancer?

    ... tissues are called orbital cancers. Adnexal structures Adnexal (accessory) structures include the eyelids and tear glands. Cancers ... common cancers that spread to the eye are breast and lung cancers . Most often these cancers spread ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    ... Topics > Oral Cancer > The Oral Cancer Exam The Oral Cancer Exam Main Content See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and quick — it takes ...

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes ...

  2. What Is Lung Cancer?

    ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ... lung cancer. For more information, visit the National Cancer Institute’s Lung Cancer. Previous Basic Information Basic Information Basic Information ...

  3. Tests for Colorectal Cancer

    ... symptoms Next Topic Colorectal cancer stages Tests for colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer is often found after symptoms appear, ... of the cancer . Imaging tests to look for colorectal cancer Imaging tests use sound waves, x-rays, magnetic ...

  4. What Is Cancer?

    ... Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Understanding Children's Cancer Anxiety Around Procedures Childhood Cancer Statistics Late ...

  5. Breast Cancer

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  6. Vulvar Cancer

    ... sex painful and difficult. If found early, vulvar cancer has a high cure rate and the treatment options involve less surgery. ... people may also need radiation therapy. When vulvar cancer is found and treated early, the cure rate is over 90%. The key to a ...

  7. The Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence

    Perlstein, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The nation's community colleges share a common and vital purpose: preparing students--young and working adults--for jobs and continued academic study. Today, over 7 million community college students strive to attain a degree that will expand their opportunity, whether they aim to graduate directly into the workforce or continue on to seek a…

  8. Polypropylene/aspen/liquid polybutadienes composites

    Kokta, B. V.; Fortelný, Ivan; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Michálková, Danuše

    Erfurt : Thüringisches Institut für Textil - und Kunststoff-Forschung e.V, 2005, S1-03/1-S1-03/7. [International Symposium on Materials /5./. Erfurt (DE), 01.09.2005-02.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Polymer composites * cellulose fibers * polypropylene Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: quaking aspen [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available png Populus_tremuloides_S.png Populus_tremuloides_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Po...pulus+tremuloides&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NS ...

  10. Kasulikud raamatud lastega reisijatele / Lydia Aspen

    Aspen, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Tutvustus: London : laste reisijuht : suurlinna seiklused, mõistatused ja mängud. Tallinn : TEA Kirjastus, 2009 ; Pariis : laste reisijuht : suurlinna seiklused, mõistatused ja mängud. Tallinn : TEA Kirjastus, 2009

  11. Thyroid cancer

    Special place in oncology belongs to thyroid cancer as it is a cancer originating from hormonally active tissue. 90 % of endocrine neoplasia are represented by thyroid cancer. It is a relatively rare cancer and due to its heterogeneity it encompasses spectrum of therapeutic approaches with interdisciplinary management which includes various implications for prognosis and lethality. Generally, the prognosis for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is good, a 10 years survival rate is at 85 %. Standard treatment includes surgical therapy, TSH suppressive therapy and ablation of the thyroid remnant with radioactive iodine. Patients with recurrent disease, disseminated disease present at the time of diagnosis, patients unsuitable for surgical treatment or for treatment with radioiodine still remain a therapeutic challenge. As there is no effective systematic treatment there is a hope for new therapy with multiple kinase inhibitors such as vandetanib, sorafenib, cabozantinib a lenvatinib which is based on promising results of several studies. (author)

  12. Lung cancer

    There will be over 160,000 cases of lung cancer diagnosed in the US in 1991, and deaths from this disease account for a quarter of all cancer deaths in this country. The incidence of lung cancer has continued to increase, especially among women. With 31% of American men and 25% of American women identified in the 1985 census as cigarette smokers, it is likely that this trend will continue well into the next century. Unfortunately, the majority of patients present with locally advanced tumors or distant metastatic disease. Presently, most patients with lung cancer will receive radiation therapy either in an attempt to control inoperable or locally advanced disease, or for palliation of symptomatic intrathoracic or metastatic disease. Because of the poor prognosis of all patients excepting those with early stage resectable lesions, lung cancer is appropriately the subject of intense clinical investigation and controversy throughout the world

  13. Breast cancer

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  14. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  15. Breast Cancer -- Male

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  16. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... the affected area). Damage to the bowels, causing diarrhea and ... a second cancer caused by radiation exposure. Second cancers that develop ...

  17. Cancer world

    The author attempts to point out the relationships between various factors of our environment favouring disease (profession, chemicals, air pollution, nuclear power plants, ultra-violet rays etc.) respectively our ways of living (nutrition, drink, smoking), and the incidence and frequence of cancer. In his opinion, cancer is the toll man has to pay for industrialization and the destruction of the environment, and cancer therapy must begin long before the patient's treatment by changing that same einvironment. The different carcinogenous factors are discussed in detail and each chapter concludes with recommendations to those concerned and request for legislation. (MG)

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ...

  19. Breast Cancer

    ... click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner of the video screen. To reduce the videos, ... with breast cancer are under way. With early detection, and prompt and appropriate treatment, the outlook for ...

  20. Thyroid Cancer

    Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck, just above your collarbone. It makes hormones that help ... There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater risk if you ...

  1. Cancer Basics

    ... the more common symptoms of cancer include: extreme exhaustion swelling or lumps in certain parts of the ... talk to therapists or professional counselors about the emotional side of dealing with a health problem. You ...

  2. Breast cancer

    ... perform breast self-exams each month. However, the importance of self-exams for detecting breast cancer is ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  3. Thyroid cancer

    ... cancer Laryngoscopy (looking inside the throat using a mirror or flexible tube called a laryngoscope placed through ... the neck, these will also be removed. Radiation therapy may be done with or without surgery. It ...

  4. Breast cancer

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  5. Cervical Cancer

    ... 162 KB) This information in Spanish (en español) Female reproductive system Select image to view larger Related ... D., FACS, Captain, U.S. Public Health Service Medical Director, National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, ...

  6. Metastatic Cancer

    ... of recurrent disease and assessment of prognosis. Clinical Radiology 2007; 62(1):28–34. [PubMed Abstract] Talmadge ... your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. National Cancer Institute at ...

  7. Endometrial cancer

    ... Endometrial biopsy Dilation and curettage ( D and C ) Pap smear (may raise a suspicion for endometrial cancer, but ... for more than 2 years. Frequent pelvic exams, Pap smears and endometrial biopsy may be considered in some ...

  8. Ovarian cancer

    The radiosensitivity of 4 human ovarian cancer cell lines was investigated in vitro by a clonogenic assay and analyzed using the linear-quadratric model. 2 Cell lines were found to be highly radiosensitive (mean inactivation dose (D-bar) 0.82-0.92 Gy; surviving fraction 2 Gy (SF2)2 0.22-0.38). Although the use of external radiotherapy in ovarian cancer has been limited due to the pattern of metastatic spread of this cancer, the present data support the view that ovarian carcinomas are radiosensitive tumors. Investigations on the effects of new approaches, such as delivering radiation more specifically to intraperitoneal ovarian cancer cells, are warranted. (author). 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. Vaginal cancer

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  10. Endometrial Cancer

    ... medical conditions such as severe high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, or other types of cancer. These patients may not be able to safely have anesthesia. In these patients, imaging tests such as an ...

  11. Oral cancer

    ... the immune system (immunosuppressants) Poor dental and oral hygiene Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( leukoplakia ) or ... use Visiting the dentist regularly and practicing good oral hygiene

  12. Surviving Cancer

    ... his or her health status, when diagnosed with cancer may have an effect on their survival and recovery. Older adults are more likely to have other health conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. Managing these conditions can complicate ...

  13. Prostate cancer

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  14. Cancer nanotheranostics

    Gopinath, P; Matai, Ishita; Bhushan, Bharat; Malwal, Deepika; Sachdev, Abhay; Dubey, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    This Brief provides a clear insight of the recent advances in the field of cancer theranostics with special emphasis upon nano scale carrier molecules (polymeric, protein and lipid based) and imaging agents (organic and inorganic).

  15. Cancer Imaging

    ... Criteria Screening and Interventional Trials Radiology Network (ACRIN) Phase I/II Trials CIP ARRA-Funded Clinical Trials Informatics The Cancer Imaging Archive Imaging Informatics Challenges TCGA Imaging Genomics Quantitative Imaging Network LIDC-IDRI Imaging Informatics Resources News & ...

  16. Vulvar Cancer

    ... a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or have a history of genital warts. Your health care provider diagnoses vulvar cancer with a physical exam and a biopsy. Treatment varies, depending on your overall health and ...

  17. Contagious Cancer

    Welsh, James S

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer can on occasion be caused by infectious agents such as specific bacteria, parasites, and viruses, it is not generally considered a transmissible disease. In rare circumstances, however, direct communication from one host to another has been documented. The Tasmanian devil is now threatened with extinction in the wild because of a fatal transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). Another example is canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT or Sticker's sarcoma) in ...

  18. Prostate cancer

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask ... Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers Questions ...