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Sample records for 23na izmenenie formy

  1. Low-spin states of 23Na

    A study of 23Na via the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na and 23Na(γ,γ)23Na reactions is presented. Only a limited number of resonances has been studied, selected on the basis of strong excitation of the lowest levels of which the spin was unknown. As a result the spins are now known of all levels of 23Na with excitation energies up to 7 MeV, except for a few high-spin states which are too weakly excited in the decay of the known 22Ne(p,γ) resonances. The mean lifetimes of the 23Na levels at 4.43 and 7.89 MeV were found to be 350±70 and 220±17 attoseconds (1 attosecond = 10-18 seconds) respectively. 97 refs.; 22 figs.; 12 tabs

  2. Functional MRI 2.0. 23Na and CEST imaging

    In recent years the purely morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly flanked by so-called functional imaging methods, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to obtain additional information about tissue or pathological processes. This review article presents two MR techniques that can detect physiological processes in the human body. In contrast to all other functional MR imaging techniques, which are based on hydrogen protons, the first technique presented (X-nuclei imaging) uses the spin of other nuclei for imaging and consequently allows a completely different insight into the human body. In this article X-nuclei imaging is focused on sodium (23Na) MRI because it currently represents the main focus of research in this field due to the favorable MR properties of sodium. The second MR technique presented is the relatively novel chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging that can detect exchange processes between protons in metabolites and protons in free water. The first part of this article introduces the basic technical principles, problems, advantages and disadvantages of these two MR techniques, whereas the second part highlights the potential clinical applications. Examples illustrate several potential applications in neuroimaging (e. g. stroke and tumors), musculoskeletal imaging (e. g. osteoarthritis and degenerative processes) and abdominal imaging (e. g. kidneys and hypertension). Both techniques inherently contain an incredible potential for future imaging but are still on the threshold of clinical use and are currently under evaluation in many university centers. (orig.)

  3. NMR study of 23Na shielding tensor in sodium bromate single crystal

    NMR-investigations of sodium bromate showed that the electronic shielding of the 23Na nucleus is anisotropic. The effect is qualitatively explained by the deformation of electronic shells of the Na+ ion

  4. Imaging of tumor viability in lung cancer. Initial results using 23Na-MRI

    23Na-MRI has been proposed as a potential imaging biomarker for the assessment of tumor viability and the evaluation of therapy response but has not yet been evaluated in patients with lung cancer. We aimed to assess the feasibility of 23Na-MRI in patients with lung cancer. Three patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lung were examined on a clinical 3 Tesla MRI system (Magnetom TimTrio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). Feasibility of 23Na-MRI images was proven by comparison and fusion of 23Na-MRI with 1H-MR, CT and FDG-PET-CT images. 23Na signal intensities (SI) of tumor and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the spinal canal were measured and the SI ratio in tumor and CSF was calculated. One chemonaive patient was examined before and after the initiation of combination therapy (Carboplatin, Gemcitabin, Cetuximab). All 23Na-MRI examinations were successfully completed and were of diagnostic quality. Fusion of 23Na-MRI images with 1H-MRI, CT and FDG-PET-CT was feasible in all patients and showed differences in solid and necrotic tumor areas. The mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF SI ratio were 13.3 ± 1.8 x 103 and 0.83 ± 0.14, respectively. In necrotic tumors, as suggested by central non-FDG-avid areas, the mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF ratio were 19.4 x 103 and 1.10, respectively. 23Na-MRI is feasible in patients with lung cancer and could provide valuable functional molecular information regarding tumor viability, and potentially treatment response. (orig.)

  5. Imaging of tumor viability in lung cancer. Initial results using {sup 23}Na-MRI

    Henzler, T.; Apfaltrer, P.; Haneder, S.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Fink, C. [University Medical Center Mannheim Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Konstandin, S.; Schad, L. [University Medical Center Mannheim Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Schmid-Bindert, G.; Manegold, C. [University Medical Center Mannheim Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Interdisciplinary Thoracic Oncology; Wenz, F. [University Medical Center Mannheim Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-04-15

    {sup 23}Na-MRI has been proposed as a potential imaging biomarker for the assessment of tumor viability and the evaluation of therapy response but has not yet been evaluated in patients with lung cancer. We aimed to assess the feasibility of {sup 23}Na-MRI in patients with lung cancer. Three patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lung were examined on a clinical 3 Tesla MRI system (Magnetom TimTrio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). Feasibility of {sup 23}Na-MRI images was proven by comparison and fusion of {sup 23}Na-MRI with {sup 1}H-MR, CT and FDG-PET-CT images. {sup 23}Na signal intensities (SI) of tumor and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the spinal canal were measured and the SI ratio in tumor and CSF was calculated. One chemonaive patient was examined before and after the initiation of combination therapy (Carboplatin, Gemcitabin, Cetuximab). All {sup 23}Na-MRI examinations were successfully completed and were of diagnostic quality. Fusion of {sup 23}Na-MRI images with {sup 1}H-MRI, CT and FDG-PET-CT was feasible in all patients and showed differences in solid and necrotic tumor areas. The mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF SI ratio were 13.3 {+-} 1.8 x 103 and 0.83 {+-} 0.14, respectively. In necrotic tumors, as suggested by central non-FDG-avid areas, the mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF ratio were 19.4 x 103 and 1.10, respectively. {sup 23}Na-MRI is feasible in patients with lung cancer and could provide valuable functional molecular information regarding tumor viability, and potentially treatment response. (orig.)

  6. Skin sodium measured with (23) Na MRI at 7.0 T

    Linz, P.; Santoro, D.; Renz, W.; J. Rieger; Ruehle, A.; Ruff, J; Deimling, M.; Rakova, N.; Muller, D.N.; Luft, F. C.; Titze, J.; Niendorf, T

    2015-01-01

    Skin sodium (Na+ ) storage, as a physiologically important regulatory mechanism for blood pressure, volume regulation and, indeed, survival, has recently been rediscovered. This has prompted the development of MRI methods to assess Na+ storage in humans (23 Na MRI) at 3.0 T. This work examines the feasibility of high in-plane spatial resolution 23 Na MRI in skin at 7.0 T. A two-channel transceiver radiofrequency (RF) coil array tailored for skin MRI at 7.0 T (f = 78.5 MHz) is proposed. Specif...

  7. Resonance neutron capture in 23Na and 27Al from 3 to 600 keV

    The radiative capture cross sections of 23Na and 27Al were measured with the high resolution facility at the 40 m station of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator. Resonance parameters for the individual resonances below 600 keV are given. Particular care was taken to correct the data for prompt neutron scattering effects by Monte Carlo methods

  8. Elastic Scattering between Ultracold 23Na and 85Rb Atoms in the Triplet State

    HU Qiu-Bo; ZHANG Yong-Sheng; SUN Jin-Feng; YU Ke

    2011-01-01

    @@ The elastic scattering Properties between ultracold 23Na and 85Rd atoms for the triplet state(a3∑u+ )are researched.The s-wave scattering lengts of 23Na and 85Rb are calculate by the Numerov ana semtc asstc method with two kinds of interatomic potentials, which are the interpolation potential and Lennard-Jones potential(LJ12,6)by the same phase 4φ Shape resonances appear clearly in the l= 5 partial waves for the a- Lu state.Moreover, the s-wave scattering cross section, total cross section and energy positions of shape resonances are also discussed.%The elastic scattering properties between ultracold 23Na and 85 Rb atoms for the triplet state (a3Σu+ ) are researched. The s-wave scattering lengths of 23Na and 85Rb are calculated by the Numerov and semiclassical method with two kinds of interatomic potentials, which are the interpolation potential and Lennard-Jones potential (LJ12,6) by the same phase φ. Shape resonances appear clearly in the l= 5 partial waves for the a3 Σu+state. Moreover, the s-wave scattering cross section, total cross section and energy positions of shape resonances are also discussed.

  9. {sup 23}Na-MRI of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme after intraoperative radiotherapy: technical note

    Haneder, Stefan; Buesing, Karen A.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Ong, Melissa M. [Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Giordano, Frank A.; Wenz, Frederik [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg University, Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Brehmer, Stefanie; Schmiedek, Peter [Heidelberg University, Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    We report the first case of an intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in a patient with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who was followed up with a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method - {sup 23}Na-MRI - in comparison to a standard contrast-enhanced {sup 1}H-MRI and {sup 18}F-FET-PET. A 56-year-old female patient with diagnosed GBM in July 2012 underwent tumor resection, radiochemotherapy, and three cycles of chemotherapy. After a relapse, 6 months after the initial diagnosis, an IORT was recommended which was performed in March 2013 using the INTRABEAM system (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany) with a 3-cm applicator and a surface dose of 20 Gy. Early post-operative contrast-enhanced and 1-month follow-up {sup 1}H-MRI and a {sup 18}F-FET-PET were performed. In addition, an IRB-approved {sup 23}Na-MRI was performed on a 3.0-T MR scanner (MAGNETOM TimTrio, Siemens Healthcare, Germany). After re-surgery and IORT in March 2013, only a faint contrast enhancement but considerable surrounding edema was visible at the medio-posterior resection margins. In April 2013, new and progressive contrast enhancement, edema, {sup 23}Na content, and increased uptake in the {sup 18}F-FET-PET were visible, indicating tumor recurrence. Increased sodium content within the area of contrast enhancement was found in the {sup 23}Na-MRI, but also exceeding this area, very similar to the increased uptake depicted in the {sup 18}F-FET-PET. The clearly delineable zone of edema in both examinations exhibits a lower {sup 23}Na content compared to areas with suspected proliferating tumor tissue. {sup 23}Na-MRI provided similar information in the suspicious area compared to {sup 18}F-FET-PET, exceeding conventional {sup 1}H-MRI. Still, {sup 23}Na-MRI remains an investigational technique, which is worth to be further evaluated. (orig.)

  10. 23Na and 1H NMR studies on melittin channels activated by tricyclic tranquilizers.

    Tanaka, H.; Matsunaga, K.; Kawazura, H

    1992-01-01

    A dynamic 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was applied to the exchange system of Na+ ions present inside and outside large unilamellar vesicles at an equivalent concentration. Addition of melittin to phosphatidylcholine vesicles did not induce any detectable Na+ transport across the membrane but subsequent addition of a trace of chlorpromazine or imipramine did induce Na+ transport. Because the formation of a drug-melittin adduct in a solution was detected by 1H NMR, the activa...

  11. Pionic 2p-1s X-ray transitions in 19F and 23Na

    Pi-atomic 2p-1s transitions have been studied in 19F and 23Na. The measured energies are 195.17 +-0.16 and 275.75 +- 0.26 keV, and the Lorentzian full-widths at half-maximum are 10.12 +- 0.74 and 12.0 +- 1.2 keV respectively. A comparison is made with optical model calculations. (Auth.)

  12. Three new low-energy resonances in the $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction

    Cavanna, F; Aliotta, M; Anders, M; Bemmerer, D; Best, A; Böltzig, A; Broggini, C; Bruno, C G; Caciolli, A; Corvisiero, P; Davinson, T; di Leva, A; Elekes, Z; Ferraro, F; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, Gy; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Menegazzo, R; Mossa, V; Pantaleo, F R; Prati, P; Scott, D A; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Szücs, T; Takács, M P; Trezzi, D

    2015-01-01

    The $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction takes part in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle affects the synthesis of the elements between $^{20}$Ne and $^{27}$Al in asymptotic giant branch stars and novae. The $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction rate is very uncertain because of a large number of unobserved resonances lying in the Gamow window. At proton energies below 400\\,keV, only upper limits exist in the literature for the resonance strengths. Previous reaction rate evaluations differ by large factors. In the present work, the first direct observations of the $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na resonances at 156.2, 189.5, and 259.7\\,keV are reported. Their resonance strengths have been derived with 2-7\\% uncertainty. In addition, upper limits for three other resonances have been greatly reduced. Data were taken using a windowless $^{22}$Ne gas target and high-purity germanium detectors at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in the Gran Sasso laboratory of the National I...

  13. High spin states in 26Mg and 23Na populated by heavy ion reactions

    Two experiments were used to produce high-spin states in sd-shell nuclei. Beams of 18O and 15N were extracted from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem van de Graaff accelerator. Alpha particles from the 12C(18O,α)26Mg and 12C-(15N,α)23Na reactions were detected with a Borkowski-Kopp proportional counter at the focal plane of an Enge split-pole magnetic spectrograph. The differential cross sections extracted for many levels in the respective residual nuclei were averaged over several bombarding energies. These cross sections were analyzed in the framework of the Hauser-Feshbach formalism applicable to compound nuclear reactions. Both reactions are shown to be generally well predicted by the statistical model, though an apparent anomaly exists for certain states observed in the 12C(15N,α)23Na reaction. Several of the high-spin states are discussed in terms of the rotational model, and levels in 23Na are compared to high-spin state predictions from large basis shell model calculations

  14. Three New Low-Energy Resonances in the 22Ne (p ,γ )23Na Reaction

    Cavanna, F.; Depalo, R.; Aliotta, M.; Anders, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Best, A.; Boeltzig, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C. G.; Caciolli, A.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; di Leva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Mossa, V.; Pantaleo, F. R.; Prati, P.; Scott, D. A.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Trezzi, D.; LUNA Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    The 22Ne (p ,γ )23Na reaction takes part in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle affects the synthesis of the elements between 20Ne and 27Al in asymptotic giant branch stars and novae. The 22Ne(p ,γ )23Na reaction rate is very uncertain because of a large number of unobserved resonances lying in the Gamow window. At proton energies below 400 keV, only upper limits exist in the literature for the resonance strengths. Previous reaction rate evaluations differ by large factors. In the present work, the first direct observations of the 22Ne (p ,γ )23Na resonances at 156.2, 189.5, and 259.7 keV are reported. Their resonance strengths are derived with 2%-7% uncertainty. In addition, upper limits for three other resonances are greatly reduced. Data are taken using a windowless 22Ne gas target and high-purity germanium detectors at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in the Gran Sasso laboratory of the National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Italy, taking advantage of the ultralow background observed deep underground. The new reaction rate is a factor of 20 higher than the recent evaluation at a temperature of 0.1 GK, relevant to nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars.

  15. Investigation of Sodium Distribution in Phosphate Glasses Using Spin-Echo {sup 23}Na NMR

    ALAM, TODD M.; BOYLE, TIMOTHY J.; BROW, RICHARD K.; CLICK, CAROL C.; CONZONE, SAM; McLAUGHLIN, JAY; ZWANZIGER, JOE

    1999-09-16

    The spatial arrangement of sodium cations for a series of sodium phosphate glasses, xNa{sub 2}O(100-x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (x<55), were investigated using {sup 23}Na spin-echo NMR spectroscopy. The spin-echo decay rate is a function of the Na-Na homonuclear dipolar coupling and is related to the spatial proximity of neighboring Na nuclei. The spin-echo decay rate in these sodium phosphate glasses increases non-linearly with higher sodium number density, and thus provides a measure of the Na-Na extended range order. The results of these {sup 23}Na NMR experiments are discussed within the context of several structural models, including a decimated crystal lattice model, cubic dilation lattice model, a hard sphere (HS) random distribution model and a pair-wise cluster hard sphere model. While the experimental {sup 23}Na spin-echo M{sub 2} are described adequately by both the decimated lattice and the random HS model, it is demonstrated that the slight non-linear behavior of M{sub 2} as a function of sodium number density is more correctly described by the random distribution in the HS model. At low sodium number densities the experimental M{sub 2} is inconsistent with models incorporating Na-Na clustering. The ability to distinguish between Na-Na clusters and non-clustered distributions becomes more difficult at higher sodium concentrations.

  16. 3D {sup 23}Na MRI of human skeletal muscle at 7 Tesla: initial experience

    Chang, Gregory; Wang, Ligong; Regatte, Ravinder R. [Center for Biomedical Imaging/Hospital for Joint Diseases, Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [Ottawa General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    To evaluate healthy skeletal muscle pre- and post-exercise via 7 T {sup 23}Na MRI and muscle proton T{sub 2} mapping, and to evaluate diabetic muscle pre- and post-exercise via 7 T {sup 23}Na MRI. The calves of seven healthy subjects underwent imaging pre- and post-exercise via 7 T {sup 23}Na MRI (3D fast low angle shot, TR/TE = 80 ms/0.160 ms, 4 mm x 4 mm x 4 mm) and 1 week later by {sup 1}H MRI (multiple spin-echo sequence, TR/TE = 3,000 ms/15-90 ms). Four type 2 diabetics also participated in the {sup 23}Na MRI protocol. Pre- and post-exercise sodium signal intensity (SI) and proton T{sub 2} relaxation values were measured/calculated for soleus (S), gastrocnemius (G), and a control, tibialis anterior (TA). Two-tailed t tests were performed. In S/G in healthy subjects post-exercise, sodium SI increased 8-13% (p < 0.03), then decreased (t{sub 1/2} = 22 min), and {sup 1}H T{sub 2} values increased 12-17% (p < 0.03), then decreased (t{sub 1/2} = 12-15 min). In TA, no significant changes in sodium SI or {sup 1}H T{sub 2} values were seen (-2.4 to 1%, p > 0.17). In S/G in diabetics, sodium SI increased 10-11% (p < 0.04), then decreased (t{sub 1/2} = 27-37 min) without significant change in the TA SI (-3.6%, p = 0.066). It is feasible to evaluate skeletal muscle via 3D {sup 23}Na MRI at 7 T. Post-exercise muscle {sup 1}H T{sub 2} values return to baseline more rapidly than sodium SI. Diabetics may demonstrate delayed muscle sodium SI recovery compared with healthy subjects. (orig.)

  17. 23Na-nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of gramicidin-induced ion transport through membranes under equilibrium conditions.

    Buster, D C; Hinton, J F; Millett, F S; Shungu, D C

    1988-01-01

    A technique for investigating the gramicidin-facilitated transport of Na+ ions across lipid bilayers of large unilamellar vesicles under the condition of ionic equilibrium has been developed using a combination of heat incubation of the gramicidin with the vesicles and 23Na-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Isolation of the two 23Na-NMR signals from the intra- and extravesicular Na+ with the shift reagent, dysprosium (III) tripolyphosphate, allows the equilibrium flux of Na+ thro...

  18. Optically pumped polarized 23Na vapor target for use in polarized ion source. Technical progress report

    We are currently measuring relaxation times in an optically pumped 23Na vapor target. Our research is directed toward improvements in the optically pumped Na vapor targets used for the production of polarized H- ions. In this progress report we review the properties of the optically pumped polarized H- ion source and especially the optically pumped Na vapor target employed in this source as well as discussing the progress of our research on relaxation times in an optically pumped Na vapor target. 30 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  19. R-Matrix Analysis of the Total and Inelastic Scattering Cross Section of 23Na

    Kopecky, Stefan; Plompen, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    Resonance parameters characterizing the interaction of neutrons with 23Na in the energy range from 0.3 to 2 MeV were obtained. These parameters describe the total and inelastic cross section. They were obtained from an analysis of data reported by Märten et al. for inelastic and elastic scattering and by D.C. Larson et al. for the total cross section. The data analysis and deduced resonance parameters are presented in some detail. This report serves to clarify the resonance parameters deliver...

  20. Decay properties of 266Bh and 262Db produced in the 248Cm+23Na reaction

    Decay properties of an isotope 266Bh and its daughter nucleus 262Db produced by the 248Cm(23Na,5n) reaction were studied by using a gas-filled recoil separator coupled with a position-sensitive semiconductor detector. 266Bh was clearly identified from the correlation of the known nuclide, 262Db. The obtained decay properties of 266Bh and 262Db are consistent with those observed in the 278113 chain, which provided further confirmation of the discovery of 278113. (author)

  1. Direct measurement of the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction cross section at LUNA

    Ferraro, Federico; LUNA Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The 22Ne(p, γ)23Na reaction takes part in the NeNa cycle of hydrogen burning, influencing the production of the elements between 20Ne and 27Al in red giant stars, asymptotic giant stars and classical novae. The 22Ne(p,γ)27Na reaction rate is very uncertain because of a large number of tentative resonances in the Gamow window, where only upper limits were quoted in literature. A direct measurement of the 22Ne(p, γ)23Na reaction cross section has been carried out at LUNA using a windowless differential-pumping gas target with two high- purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. A new measurement with a 4π bismuth germanate (BGO) summing detector is ongoing. During the HPGe phase of the experiment the strengths of the resonances at 156.2 keV, 189.5 keV and 259.7 keV have been directly measured for the first time and their contribution to the reaction rate has been calculated. The decay scheme of the newly discovered resonances has been established as well and some improved upper limits on the unobserved resonances have been put. The BGO detector with its 70% γ-detection efficiency allows to measure the cross section at lower energy. In order to further investigate the resonances at 71 keV and 105 keV and the direct-capture component, the data taking is ongoing.

  2. 23Na and 1H NMR Relaxometry of Shale at High Magnetic Field

    Yang, Donghan

    2016-01-01

    Formation evaluation of unconventional reservoirs is challenging due to the coexistence of different phases such as kerogen, bitumen, movable and bound light hydrocarbon and water. Current low-frequency (0.05 T) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) laboratory and logging methods are incapable of quantitatively separating the different phases. We demonstrate the utility of high-field (9 T) NMR 2D T1-T2 measurements for separating hydrocarbon and the clay-interacting aqueous phases in shale based on the difference in the frequency dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation time. Furthermore, we demonstrate 23Na NMR as a promising complementary technique to conventional 1H NMR for shale fluid typing, taking advantage of the fact that sodium ions are only present in the aqueous phase. We validate high-field (9 T) 23Na-1H NMR relaxometry for assessing brine-filled porosity and brine salinity in various porous materials, including porous glass, conventional rocks, clays, and shale, and apply it for differentiating hydro...

  3. Quadrupolar-coupling-specific binomial pulse sequences for in vivo 23Na NMR and MRI.

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Ringgaard, Steffen; Pedersen, Michael; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2010-09-01

    Aimed at selective detection of (23)Na with specific quadrupolar couplings for in vitro NMR and MRI, we present a series of quadrupolar binomial pulse sequences offering high specificity with respect to the quadrupolar couplings of the excited species. It is demonstrated that pulse sequences with an increasing number of elements, e.g., 11, 121, 1331, 14641, and 15101051, with the units representing flip angles smaller than the 90 degrees pulses typically encountered in binomial spin-1/2 solvent suppression experiments, and different phase combinations may provide a high degree of flexibility with respect to quadrupolar coupling selectivity and robustness towards rf inhomogeneity. This may facilitate efficient separation of, for example, intra and extracellular (23)Na in tissues with efficient control of the excitation (or suppression) of central as well as satellite transitions through on- and off-resonance irradiation. The pulse sequences are described in terms of their analogy to binomial liquid-state NMR solvent suppression experiments and demonstrated numerically and experimentally through NMR and MRI experiments on a 7 T horizontal small-bore animal magnet system. PMID:20673642

  4. 23Na-Magnetresonanzspektroskopie-Untersuchungen zum Verlauf der Narbenentwicklung nach Myokardinfarkt

    Scheffer H

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetresonanzspektroskopie (MRS erlaubt die nichtinvasive Untersuchung der Konzentrationen von Stoffwechselprodukten und Ionen im Herzen. Der Gesamtnatrium (Na-Gehalt könnte für die Untersuchung der Vitalität von Myokardgewebe verwendet werden, jedoch gibt es keine Berichte über die Entwicklung des Na-Gehalts in der chronischen Infarktnarbe im Vergleich zum normalen Myokard. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die Änderungen des myokardialen Na-Gehalts während der Narbenentwicklung nach einem Myokardinfarkt (MI am Modell der Koronarligatur in der Ratte. Ratten wurden einer Ligatur des Ramus intraventricularis anterior unterzogen. Myokardgewebe von Kontrolltieren sowie infarziertes Gewebe wurden 1, 3, 7, 28 und 56 Tage postoperativ entnommen und der Na-Gehalt mittels 23Na-MRS und Ionenchromatographie bestimmt. Der Na-Gehalt nach MI war zu allen Zeitpunkten bei beiden Bestimmungsmethoden auf Werte zwischen 306 und 160 % des Kontrollwertes erhöht (n = 6-8 je Gruppe, p 0,01 vs. Kontrolle. Der Na-Gehalt ist im chronisch infarzierten Myokardgewebe zu allen Zeitpunkten erhöht. Damit kann überlebendes Myokard von einer Infarktnarbe anhand des Na-Gehalts unterschieden werden. Diese Information könnte in der 23Na-Magnetresonanzbildgebung (MRI zur Bestimmung der Infarktnarbe eine klinische Anwendung finden.

  5. Functional MRI 2.0. {sup 23}Na and CEST imaging; Funktionelle MRT 2.0. {sup 23}Na- und CEST-Bildgebung

    Haneder, S. [Uniklinik Koeln, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Koeln (Germany); Konstandin, S. [Universitaet Bremen, MR-Bildgebung und -Spektroskopie, Fachbereich 1 (Physik/Elektrotechnik), Bremen (Germany); Fraunhofer MEVIS, Institut fuer Bildgestuetzte Medizin, Bremen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    In recent years the purely morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly flanked by so-called functional imaging methods, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to obtain additional information about tissue or pathological processes. This review article presents two MR techniques that can detect physiological processes in the human body. In contrast to all other functional MR imaging techniques, which are based on hydrogen protons, the first technique presented (X-nuclei imaging) uses the spin of other nuclei for imaging and consequently allows a completely different insight into the human body. In this article X-nuclei imaging is focused on sodium ({sup 23}Na) MRI because it currently represents the main focus of research in this field due to the favorable MR properties of sodium. The second MR technique presented is the relatively novel chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging that can detect exchange processes between protons in metabolites and protons in free water. The first part of this article introduces the basic technical principles, problems, advantages and disadvantages of these two MR techniques, whereas the second part highlights the potential clinical applications. Examples illustrate several potential applications in neuroimaging (e. g. stroke and tumors), musculoskeletal imaging (e. g. osteoarthritis and degenerative processes) and abdominal imaging (e. g. kidneys and hypertension). Both techniques inherently contain an incredible potential for future imaging but are still on the threshold of clinical use and are currently under evaluation in many university centers. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren wird die reine morphologische Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) zunehmend von sogenannten funktionellen Bildgebungsmethoden, wie der diffusionsgewichteten Bildgebung (''diffusion-weighted imaging'', DWI), flankiert, um zusaetzliche Informationen ueber Gewebe oder pathologische Prozesse zu

  6. Dose-dependent changes in renal {sup 1}H-/{sup 23}Na MRI after adjuvant radiochemotherapy for gastric cancer

    Haneder, Stefan [University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Budjan, Johannes Michael; Schoenberg, Stefan Oswald [University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar Rudi [University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Hofheinz, Ralf Dieter [University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, III. Department of Internal Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Gramlich, Veronika; Wenz, Frederik; Lohr, Frank; Boda-Heggemann, Judit [University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Combined radiochemotherapy (RCT) for gastric cancer with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) results in ablative doses to the upper left kidney, while image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) allows kidney sparing despite improved target coverage. Renal function in long-term gastric cancer survivors was evaluated with 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and {sup 23}Na imaging. Five healthy volunteers and 13 patients after radiotherapy were included: 11 x IG-IMRT; 1 x 3D-CRT; 1 x ''positive control'' with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of a metastasis between the spleen/left kidney. Radiation doses were documented for the upper/middle/lower kidney subvolumes. Late toxicity was evaluated based on CTC criteria, questionnaire, and creatinine values. Morphological sequences, DWI images, and {sup 23}Na images were acquired using a {sup 1}H/{sup 23}Na-tuned body-coil before/after intravenous water load (WL). Statistics for [{sup 23}Na] (concentration) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated for upper/middle/lower renal subvolumes. Corticomedullary [{sup 23}Na] gradients and [{sup 23}Na] differences after WL were determined. No major morphological alteration was detected in any patient. Minor scars were observed in the cranial subvolume of the left kidney of the 3D-CRT and the whole kidney of the control SBRT patient. All participants presented a corticomedullary [{sup 23}Na] gradient. After WL, a significant physiological [{sup 23}Na] gradient decrease (p < 0.001) was observed in all HV and IG-IMRT patients. In the cranial left kidney of the 3D-CRT patient and the positive control SBRT patient, the decrease was nonsignificant (p = 0.01, p = 0.02). ADC values were altered nonsignificantly in all renal subvolumes (all participants). Renal subvolumes with doses ≥ 35 Gy showed a reduced change of the [{sup 23}Na] gradient after WL (p = 0

  7. Application of potential harmonic expansion method to BEC: Thermodynamic properties of trapped 23Na atoms

    Anasuya Kundu; Barnali Chakrabarti; Tapan Kumar Das

    2005-07-01

    We adopt the potential harmonics expansion method for an ab initio solution of the many-body system in a Bose condensate containing interacting bosons. Unlike commonly adopted mean-field theories, our method is capable of handling two-body correlation properly. We disregard three- and higher-body correlations. This simplification is ideally suited to dilute Bose Einstein condensates, whose number density is required to be so small that the interparticle separation is much larger than the range of two-body interaction to avoid three- and higher-body collisions, leading to the formation of molecules and consequent instability of the condensate. In our method we can incorporate realistic finite range interactions. We calculate energies of low-lying states of a condensate containing 23Na atoms and some thermodynamical properties of the condensate.

  8. Investigation of thermal neutron capture in 23Na, 138Ba, 140Ce and 142Ce

    A measurement of the angular correlation of γ-rays emitted in the capture of thermal neutrons in 23Na has been used to determine the multipole mixing ratio delta for seventeen transitions in 24Na, of which seven are primary transitions. For these primary transitions also the capture state spin admixture α has been derived. The neutron capture reaction proceeds predominantly through the Jsup(π)=1+ channel, as expected from previous cross-section measurements. A measurement of the circular polarization of γ-rays resulting from the capture of polarized thermal neutrons in 138Ba, 140Ce and 142Ce has yielded spin assignments for p-states in the final nuclei. Excitation energies and reaction Q-values have been obtained from the analysis of singles spectra taken with unpolarized neutrons. (Auth.)

  9. Změna formy živnostenského podnikání

    Megová, Simona

    2012-01-01

    Táto bakalárska práca sa zaoberá zmenou formy živnostenského podniku na spoločnosť s ručením obmedzeným. Informuje o výhodách a nevýhodách spoločnosti s ručením obmedzeným oproti živnosti a navrhuje postup pri založení spoločnosti. Cieľom bakalárskej práce je poskytnúť firme Mego pravdivé a aktuálne informácie o výhodách a nevýhodách transformácie živnosti na spoločnosť s ručením obmedzeným a navrhnúť postup pri zmene právnej formy, ako aj rozvoji spoločnosti....

  10. Measurement of (23)Na(n,2n) cross section in well-defined reactor spectra.

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Baroň, Petr; Milčák, Ján; Mareček, Martin; Uhlíř, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The present paper aims to compare the calculated and experimental reaction rates of (23)Na(n,2n)(22)Na in a well-defined reactor spectra of a special core assembled in the LR-0 reactor. The experimentally determined reaction rate, derived using gamma spectroscopy of irradiated NaF sample, is used for average cross section determination. The resulting value averaged in spectra is 0.91±0.02µb. This cross-section is important as it is included in International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File and is also relevant to the correct estimation of long-term activity of Na coolant in Sodium Fast Reactors. The calculations were performed with the MCNP6 code using ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, ROSFOND-2010 and CENDL-3.1 nuclear data libraries. Generally the best C/E agreement, within 2%, was found using the ROSFOND-2010 data set, whereas the worst, as high as 40%, was found using the ENDF/B-VII.0. PMID:26894323

  11. Long Hyperfine Coherence Time of Ultracold Fermionic 23 Na40 K Molecules

    Park, Jee Woo; Yan, Zoe; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold molecules created and trapped at sub uK temperatures allow the full control of the molecule's external and internal degrees of freedom down to a single hyperfine state. In particular, an ensemble of molecules all initialized in a single rotational and hyperfine state can be prepared and be coherently addressed using microwave fields. In this talk, we report on the observation of long coherence time between two hyperfine states of fermionic 23 Na40 K molecules in the ro-vibronic ground state (v = 0 , J = 0). A direct two-photon microwave transition via the J = 1 state is used to prepare a superposition of two lowest hyperfine states of J = 0 , and we perform Ramsey spectroscopy as a direct probe of phase coherence between these states. The fermionic nature of the molecules and the lack of electronic angular momentum in the ro-vibronic ground state heavily suppress the decoherence from collisions and external fields, respectively, and we observe long coherence times upto 0.5 sec for this hyperfine superposition state. The observed long coherence time is a crucial step for applications of trapped dipolar molecules in quantum information processing schemes.

  12. Quantitative sodium MR imaging of native versus transplanted kidneys using a dual-tuned proton/sodium (1H/23Na) coil: initial experience

    To compare sodium (23Na) characteristics between native and transplanted kidneys using dual-tuned proton (1H)/sodium MRI. Six healthy volunteers and six renal transplant patients (3 normal function, 3 acute allograft rejection) were included. Proton/sodium MRI was obtained at 3 T using a dual-tuned coil. Signal to noise ratio (SNR), sodium concentration ([23Na]) and cortico-medullary sodium gradient (CMSG) were measured. Reproducibility of [23Na] measurement was also tested. SNR, [23Na] and CMSG of the native and transplanted kidneys were compared. Proton and sodium images of kidneys were successfully acquired. SNR and [23Na] measurements of the native kidneys were reproducible at two different sessions. [23Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys was significantly lower than those of the native kidneys: 153.5 ± 11.9 vs. 192.9 ± 9.6 mM (P = 0.002) and 8.9 ± 1.5 vs. 10.5 ± 0.9 mM/mm (P = 0.041), respectively. [23Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys with normal function vs. acute rejection were not statistically different. Sodium quantification of kidneys was reliably performed using proton/sodium MRI. [23Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys were lower than those of the native kidneys, but without a statistically significant difference between patients with or without renal allograft rejection. (orig.)

  13. Quantitative sodium MR imaging of native versus transplanted kidneys using a dual-tuned proton/sodium ({sup 1}H/{sup 23}Na) coil: initial experience

    Moon, Chan Hong; Furlan, Alessandro [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Jung-Hwan; Bae, Kyongtae Ty [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Bioengineering, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Zhao, Tiejun [MR R and D Collaborations, Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Shapiro, Ron [Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, Department of Surgery, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    To compare sodium ({sup 23}Na) characteristics between native and transplanted kidneys using dual-tuned proton ({sup 1}H)/sodium MRI. Six healthy volunteers and six renal transplant patients (3 normal function, 3 acute allograft rejection) were included. Proton/sodium MRI was obtained at 3 T using a dual-tuned coil. Signal to noise ratio (SNR), sodium concentration ([{sup 23}Na]) and cortico-medullary sodium gradient (CMSG) were measured. Reproducibility of [{sup 23}Na] measurement was also tested. SNR, [{sup 23}Na] and CMSG of the native and transplanted kidneys were compared. Proton and sodium images of kidneys were successfully acquired. SNR and [{sup 23}Na] measurements of the native kidneys were reproducible at two different sessions. [{sup 23}Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys was significantly lower than those of the native kidneys: 153.5 ± 11.9 vs. 192.9 ± 9.6 mM (P = 0.002) and 8.9 ± 1.5 vs. 10.5 ± 0.9 mM/mm (P = 0.041), respectively. [{sup 23}Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys with normal function vs. acute rejection were not statistically different. Sodium quantification of kidneys was reliably performed using proton/sodium MRI. [{sup 23}Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys were lower than those of the native kidneys, but without a statistically significant difference between patients with or without renal allograft rejection. (orig.)

  14. Formy a metody motivace manažera ve stavebnictví

    Mlčoch, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Diplomová práce „Formy a metody motivace manažera ve stavebnictví“ se zabývá problematikou motivování vedoucích pracovníků stavebních firem. Teoretická práce obsahuje vysvětlení základních pojmů potřebných k pochopení základního pohledu na motivaci a řízení, motivačních teorií a stylů řízení. Praktická část práce analyzuje současnou situaci ve stavebnictví a doporučuje postupy pro možná zlepšení pracovního prostředí firmy.

  15. Discrimination of intra- and extracellular 23Na + signals in yeast cell suspensions using longitudinal magnetic resonance relaxography

    Zhang, Yajie; Poirer-Quinot, Marie; Springer, Charles S.; Balschi, James A.

    2010-07-01

    This study tested the ability of MR relaxography (MRR) to discriminate intra- (Nai+) and extracellular (Nae+)23Na + signals using their longitudinal relaxation time constant ( T1) values. Na +-loaded yeast cell ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) suspensions were investigated. Two types of compartmental 23Na +T1 differences were examined: a selective Nae+T1 decrease induced by an extracellular relaxation reagent (RR e), GdDOTP 5-; and, an intrinsic T1 difference. Parallel studies using the established method of 23Na MRS with an extracellular shift reagent (SR e), TmDOTP 5-, were used to validate the MRR measurements. With 12.8 mM RR e, the 23Nae+T1 was 2.4 ms and the 23Nai+T1 was 9.5 ms (9.4T, 24 °C). The Na + amounts and spontaneous efflux rate constants were found to be identical within experimental error whether measured by MRR/RR e or by MRS/SR e. Without RR e, the Na +-loaded yeast cell suspension 23Na MR signal exhibited two T1 values, 9.1 (±0.3) ms and 32.7 (±2.3) ms, assigned to 23Nai+ and 23Nae+, respectively. The Nai+ content measured was lower, 0.88 (±0.06); while Nae+ was higher, 1.43 (±0.12) compared with MRS/SR e measures on the same samples. However, the measured efflux rate constant was identical. T1 MRR potentially may be used for Nai+ determination in vivo and Na + flux measurements; with RR e for animal studies and without RR e for humans.

  16. Experimental study of the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction and its implications for novae scenarios

    The 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction belongs to the catalytic neon-sodium cycle and has an important role in the explosive hydrogen burning. The neon-sodium cycle takes place at temperatures of T = 0.1 - 0.5 GK and is assumed to occur in different astrophysical systems: e.g. in novae, in super novae of type Ia and during the shell-burning of red giant branch stars. The implications of 22Ne(p,γ)23Na and the neon-sodium cycle in a nova scenario have been studied by using the nuclear network code libnucnet at GSI in Darmstadt. A nova is an outburst of matter in a binary system consisting of a white dwarf and a red giant star. It is therefore a representative phenomenon for explosive hydrogen burning. For the calculation of the nucleosynthesis during the nova outburst, the code libnucnet requires the initial mass composition of the novae partners, the temperature and density profiles of the nova explosion and the thermonuclear reaction rates of the participating reactions. In the following, the code determined the flow and the final atomic abundance in the neon-sodium cycle during the entire nova process. Additionally, the influence of the temperature profile of the novae outburst as well as the thermonuclear reaction rate of the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction on the final atomic abundance in the outburst has been studied. A characteristic measure for the reactions in astrophysical environments is the thermonuclear reaction rate. The reaction rate of 22Ne(p,γ)23Na has still strong uncertainties in the temperature range of T = 0.03 - 0.3 GK. These uncertainties are based on insufficient upper limits of the resonance strengths as well as the possible existence of tentative states that are populated in the energy range of Elabp = 30 - 300 keV. The research presented in this thesis is dedicated to the experimental study of the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction for an improved determination of the thermonuclear reaction rate. Furthermore, the implications of 22Ne(p,γ)23Na and the neon

  17. Experimental study of the {sup 22}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Na reaction and its implications for novae scenarios

    Menzel, Marie-Luise

    2013-08-01

    The {sup 22}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Na reaction belongs to the catalytic neon-sodium cycle and has an important role in the explosive hydrogen burning. The neon-sodium cycle takes place at temperatures of T = 0.1 - 0.5 GK and is assumed to occur in different astrophysical systems: e.g. in novae, in super novae of type Ia and during the shell-burning of red giant branch stars. The implications of {sup 22}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Na and the neon-sodium cycle in a nova scenario have been studied by using the nuclear network code libnucnet at GSI in Darmstadt. A nova is an outburst of matter in a binary system consisting of a white dwarf and a red giant star. It is therefore a representative phenomenon for explosive hydrogen burning. For the calculation of the nucleosynthesis during the nova outburst, the code libnucnet requires the initial mass composition of the novae partners, the temperature and density profiles of the nova explosion and the thermonuclear reaction rates of the participating reactions. In the following, the code determined the flow and the final atomic abundance in the neon-sodium cycle during the entire nova process. Additionally, the influence of the temperature profile of the novae outburst as well as the thermonuclear reaction rate of the {sup 22}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Na reaction on the final atomic abundance in the outburst has been studied. A characteristic measure for the reactions in astrophysical environments is the thermonuclear reaction rate. The reaction rate of {sup 22}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Na has still strong uncertainties in the temperature range of T = 0.03 - 0.3 GK. These uncertainties are based on insufficient upper limits of the resonance strengths as well as the possible existence of tentative states that are populated in the energy range of E{sup lab}{sub p} = 30 - 300 keV. The research presented in this thesis is dedicated to the experimental study of the {sup 22}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Na reaction for an improved determination of the

  18. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for [Na+]i. Five rat RBC specimens had [Na+]i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing [6,6-2H2]glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in [Na+]i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in [Na+]i in the two groups of patients. The [Na+]i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the [Na+]i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism

  19. 23Na NMR and FT-IR studies of sodium complexes with the ionophore lasalocid in solution

    Schroeder, G.; Gierczyk, B.; Brzezinski, B.; Różalski, B.; Bartl, F.; Zundel, G.; Sośnicki, J.; Grech, E.

    2000-01-01

    Lasalocid forms 1:1 or 2:2 complexes with sodium ions. The process of complexation was studied in different solvents at various temperatures by 23Na NMR. The formation constants and Δ G values were determined. The nature of the complex between lasalocid and Na + ions was also studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. In chloroform, a 2:2 complex of lasalocid and Na + ions is formed. A continuous absorption is observed in the far FT-IR spectrum of this complex. It indicates the large Na + polarizability due to fast fluctuations of the Na + ions in multiminima potentials, in the dimeric structure.

  20. A double-tuned 1H/23Na dual resonator system for tissue sodium concentration measurements in the rat brain via Na-MRI

    A method for quantifying the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in the rat brain from 23Na-MR images was developed. TSC is known to change in a variety of common human diseases and holds considerable potential to contribute to their study; however, its accurate measurement in small laboratory animals has been hindered by the extremely low signal to noise ratio (SNR) in 23Na images. To address this, the design, construction and characterization of a double-tuned 1H/23Na dual resonator system for 1H-guided quantitative 23Na-MRI are described. This system comprises an SNR-optimized surface detector coil for 23Na image acquisition, and a volume resonator producing a highly homogeneous B1 field (23Na resonance frequency. A quantification accuracy of TSC of <10 mM was achieved in Na-images with 1.2 μl voxel resolution acquired in 10 min. The potential of the quantification technique was demonstrated in an in vivo experiment of a rat model of cerebral stroke, where the evolution of the TSC was successfully monitored for 8 h after the stroke was induced.

  1. Crystalline phase of sodium germanate system determined by x-ray diffraction and 23Na magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    Crystalline products of sodium germanate glasses system with composition from 10 mol% to 50 mol% Na2O have been investigated using 23Na magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Fitting of the 23Na NMR spectra of the crystalline phases concerning different crystallographically sodium atom in sodium germanate system are reasonably reproducible as observed by the spectra obtained. The line shape simulations of the 23Na NMR spectra yielded NMR quadrupolar parameters such as nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (CQ), asymmetry parameters (η), and isotropic chemical shifts (δi). 23Na NMR isotropic chemical shift may also provide further information on the structural environment of the sodium atom. A simple correlation between structure and NMR parameters to be tested can be used to probe the structure of sodium germanate glasses. The experimental 23Na chemical shifts correlate well with an empirical shift parameter based on the total oxygen-cation bond valence and Na-O distances of all oxygen atoms in the first coordination sphere of the sodium cation. In this study the different phases in the sodium germanate system were identified. These results show that 23Na NMR can provide examples of the types of structural information for sodium germanate system. (Author)

  2. Practical design of a 4 Tesla double-tuned RF surface coil for interleaved 1H and 23Na MRI of rat brain

    Alecci, M.; Romanzetti, S.; Kaffanke, J.; Celik, A.; Wegener, H. P.; Shah, N. J.

    2006-08-01

    MRI is proving to be a very useful tool for sodium quantification in animal models of stroke, ischemia, and cancer. In this work, we present the practical design of a dual-frequency RF surface coil that provides 1H and 23Na images of the rat head at 4 T. The dual-frequency RF surface coil comprised of a large loop tuned to the 1H frequency and a smaller co-planar loop tuned to the 23Na frequency. The mutual coupling between the two loops was eliminated by the use of a trap circuit inserted in the smaller coil. This independent-loop design was versatile since it enabled a separate optimisation of the sensitivity and RF field distributions of the two coils. To allow for an easy extension of this simple double-tuned coil design to other frequencies (nuclei) and dimensions, we describe in detail the practical aspects of the workbench design and MRI testing using a phantom that mimics in vivo conditions. A comparison between our independent-loop, double-tuned coil and a single-tuned 23Na coil of equal size obtained with a phantom matching in vivo conditions, showed a reduction of the 23Na sensitivity (about 28 %) because of signal losses in the trap inductance. Typical congruent 1H and 23Na rat brain images showing good SNR ( 23Na: brain 7, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid 11) and spatial resolution ( 23Na: 1.25 × 1.25 × 5 mm 3) are also reported. The in vivo SNR values obtained with this coil were comparable to, if not better than, other contemporary designs in the literature.

  3. A 125Te and 23Na NMR investigation of the structure and crystallisation of sodium tellurite glasses.

    Holland, D; Bailey, J; Ward, G; Turner, B; Tierney, P; Dupree, R

    2005-01-01

    125Te static nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 23Na and 125Te magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR have been used, in conjunction with X-ray diffraction, to examine the structure and crystallisation behaviour of glasses of composition xNa2O.(1-x)TeO2 (0.075 x 0.4). The MAS NMR 23Na spectra from the glasses are broad and featureless but shift by approximately +5 ppm with increased x, i.e. as the system becomes more ionic. The static 125Te NMR spectra show an increase in axial symmetry with increasing x, indicating a shift from predominantly [TeO4] to [TeO3] structural units. The 23Na and 125Te spectra from the crystallised samples have been fitted to obtain information on the sites in the metastable crystal phases, which are the first to form on heating and which are therefore more closely related to the glass structure than thermodynamically stable crystal phases. New sodium tellurite phases are reported, including a sodium stabilised, face centred cubic phase related to delta-TeO2; a metastable form of Na2Te4O9 containing 3 sodium and 4 tellurium sites; and a metastable form of Na2Te2O5 containing 2 sodium sites. There is evidence of oxidation of TeIV to TeVI occurring in glasses with high values of x and, at x=0.40 and 0.50 (outside the glass forming range), some sodium metatellurate (Na2TeO4) is formed at the same time as sodium metatellurite (Na2TeO3). The 125Te shift is very sensitive to environment within the sodium tellurite system, covering more than 320 ppm, with anisotropies varying from 640 to 1540 ppm. The lack of features in the 125Te spectra of the glass phases, combined with the large shift range and high but variable anisotropy, means than it is not possible to obtain a unique fit to any presumed species present. Furthermore, the chemical shift anisotropy parameters for three of the four Te sites in the Na2Te4O9 phase are found to lie outside the range used for previous simulations of glass spectra. PMID:15589724

  4. Positive and Negative Mixed Glass Former Effects in Sodium Borosilicate and Borophosphate Glasses Studied by (23)Na NMR.

    Storek, Michael; Adjei-Acheamfour, Mischa; Christensen, Randilynn; Martin, Steve W; Böhmer, Roland

    2016-05-19

    Glasses with varying compositions of constituent network formers but constant mobile ion content can display minima or maxima in their ion transport which are known as the negative or the positive mixed glass former effect, MGFE, respectively. Various nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used to probe the ion hopping dynamics via the (23)Na nucleus on the microscopic level, and the results are compared with those from conductivity spectroscopy, which are more sensitive to the macroscopic charge carrier mobility. In this way, the current work examines two series of sodium borosilicate and sodium borophosphate glasses that display positive and negative MGFEs, respectively, in the composition dependence of their Na(+) ion conductivities at intermediate compositions of boron oxide substitution for silicon oxide and phosphorus oxide, respectively. A coherent theoretical analysis is performed for these glasses which jointly captures the results from measurements of spin relaxation and central-transition line shapes. On this basis and including new information from (11)B magic-angle spinning NMR regarding the speciation in the sodium borosilicate glasses, a comparison is carried out with predictions from theoretical approaches, notably from the network unit trap model. This comparison yields detailed insights into how a variation of the boron oxide content and thus of either the population of silicon or phosphorus containing network-forming units with different charge-trapping capabilities leads to nonlinear changes of the microscopic transport properties. PMID:27092392

  5. Hyperfine splitting and isotope shift of 22Na, 23Na by high resolution laser spectroscopy at the atomic D2-line

    The hyperfine structure of D2 optical line in 22Na and 23Na has been investigated using high resolution laser spectroscopy of a well-collimated atomic beam. The hyperfine splitting constants A and B for the excited 3p2P3/2 level for both investigated sodium isotopes have been obtained. They are as follows: A(22)=7.31(4) MHz, B(22)=4.71(28) MHz, A(23)=18.572(24) MHz, B(23)=2.723(55) MHz. With these data, using the high precision MCHFF calculations for the electric field gradient at the nucleus, the electric quadrupole moment of 22Na has been deduced: Qs(22)=+0.185(11) b. The sign of Qs(22), determined for the first time, indicates a prolate nuclear deformation. Precise value of the isotope shift 22,23Na in D2-line has also been obtained

  6. Sodium ion dynamics in a sulfonate based ionomer system studied by 23Na solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and impedance spectroscopy

    A poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane-sulphonate) (PAMPS) ionomer containing both sodium and quaternary ammonium cations functionalised with an ether group, has been characterised in terms of its thermal properties, ionic conductivity and sodium ion dynamics. The ether oxygen was incorporated to reduce the Na+ association with the anionic sulfonate groups tethered to the polymer backbone, thereby promoting ion dissociation and ultimately enhancing the ionic conductivity. This functionalised ammonium cation led to a significant reduction in the ionomer Tg compared to an analogue system without an ether group, resulting in an increase in ionic conductivity of approximately four orders of magnitude. The sodium ion dynamics were probed by 23Na solid-state NMR, which allowed the signals from the dissociated (mobile) and bound Na+ cations to be distinguished. This demonstrates the utility of 23Na solid-state NMR as a probe of sodium dynamics in ionomer systems

  7. The 12C(12C,α)20Ne and 12C(12C,p)23Na reactions at the Gamow peak via the Trojan Horse Method

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Guardo, L.; Gulino, M.; Indelicato, I.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Spartá, R.

    2016-05-01

    A measurement of the 12C(14N,α20Ne)2H and 12C(14N,p23Na)2Hreactions has been performed at a 14N beam energy of 30.0 MeV. The experiment aims to explore the extent to which contributing 24Mg excited states can be populated in the quasi-free reaction off the deuteron in 14N. In particular, the 24Mg excitation region explored in the measurement plays a key role in stellar carbon burning whose cross section is commonly determined by extrapolating high-energy fusion data. From preliminary results, α and proton channels are clearly identified. In particular, ground and first excited states of 20Ne and 23Na play a major role.

  8. The 12C(12C,α20Ne and 12C(12C,p23Na reactions at the Gamow peak via the Trojan Horse Method

    Tumino A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A measurement of the 12C(14N,α20Ne2H and 12C(14N,p23Na2Hreactions has been performed at a 14N beam energy of 30.0 MeV. The experiment aims to explore the extent to which contributing 24Mg excited states can be populated in the quasi-free reaction off the deuteron in 14N. In particular, the 24Mg excitation region explored in the measurement plays a key role in stellar carbon burning whose cross section is commonly determined by extrapolating high-energy fusion data. From preliminary results, α and proton channels are clearly identified. In particular, ground and first excited states of 20Ne and 23Na play a major role.

  9. The measurement of (n,2n) cross section for 23Na at 13.3 to 18.5 MeV

    The (n,2n) cross-section for 23Na has been measured by the activation method in the energy range 13.3 to 18.5 MeV. Monoenergitic neutrons were obtained from T(d,n)4He reaction with 2.3 MeV deuteron energy. The induced specific activities were detected by a coincidence counting setup. For comparison existed data and theoretical calculation from 12∼20 MeV are also given

  10. Scan time reduction in {sup 23}Na-Magnetic Resonance Imaging using the chemical shift imaging sequence. Evaluation of an iterative reconstruction method

    Weingaertner, Sebastian; Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Wetterling, Friedrich [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Dublin Univ. (Ireland) Trinity Inst. of Neuroscience; Fatar, Marc [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Neumaier-Probst, Eva [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate potential scan time reduction in {sup 23}Na-Magnetic Resonance Imaging with the chemical shift imaging sequence (CSI) using undersampled data of high-quality datasets, reconstructed with an iterative constrained reconstruction, compared to reduced resolution or reduced signal-to-noise ratio. CSI {sup 23}Na-images were retrospectively undersampled and reconstructed with a constrained reconstruction scheme. The results were compared to conventional methods of scan time reduction. The constrained reconstruction scheme used a phase constraint and a finite object support, which was extracted from a spatially registered {sup 1}H-image acquired with a double-tuned coil. The methods were evaluated using numerical simulations, phantom images and in-vivo images of a healthy volunteer and a patient who suffered from cerebral ischemic stroke. The constrained reconstruction scheme showed improved image quality compared to a decreased number of averages, images with decreased resolution or circular undersampling with weighted averaging for any undersampling factor. Brain images of a stroke patient, which were reconstructed from three-fold undersampled k-space data, resulted in only minor differences from the original image (normalized root means square error < 12%) and an almost identical delineation of the stroke region (mismatch < 6%). The acquisition of undersampled {sup 23}Na-CSI images enables up to three-fold scan time reduction with improved image quality compared to conventional methods of scan time saving.

  11. In Situ 13C and 23Na Magic Angle Spinning NMR Investigation of Supercritical CO2 Incorporation in Smectite-Natural Organic Matter Composites

    Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Hoyt, David W.; Burton, Sarah D.; Ferguson, Brennan O.; Varga, Tamas; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

    2014-01-29

    This paper presents an in situ NMR study of clay-natural organic polymer systems (a hectoritehumic acid [HA] composite) under CO2 storage reservoir conditions (90 bars CO2 pressure, 50°C). The 13C and 23Na NMR data show that supercritical CO2 interacts more strongly with the composite than with the base clay and does not react to form other C-containing species over several days at elevated CO2. With and without organic matter, the data suggest that CO2 enters the interlayer space of Na-hectorite equilibrated at 43% relative humidity. The presence of supercritical CO2 also leads to increased 23Na signal intensity, reduced line width at half height, increased basal width, more rapid 23Na T1 relaxation rates, and a shift to more positive resonance frequencies. Larger changes are observed for the hectorite-HA composite than for the base clay. In light of recently reported MD simulations of other polymer-Na-smectite composites, we interpret the observed changes as an increase in the rate of Na+ site hopping in the presence of supercritical CO2, the presence of potential new Na+ sorption sites when the humic acid is present, and perhaps an accompanying increase in the number of Na+ ions actively involved in site hopping. The results suggest that the presence of organic material either in clay interlayers or on external particle surfaces can significantly affect the behavior of supercritical CO2 and the mobility of metal ions in reservoir rocks.

  12. Decay Properties of 266Bh and 262Db Produced in the 248Cm+23Na Reaction - Further Confirmation of the 278113 Decay Chain

    Decay properties of an isotope 266Bh and its daughter nucleus 262Db produced by the 248Cm(23Na,5n) reaction were studied by using a gas-filled recoil separator coupled with a position-sensitive semiconductor detector. 266Bh was clearly identified from the correlation of the known nuclide, 262Db. The obtained decay properties of 266Bh and 262Db are consistent with those observed in the 278113 chain by RIKEN collaboration, which provided further confirmation of the discovery of 278113.

  13. Strengths of the resonances at 436, 479, 639, 661, and 1279 keV in the $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction

    Depalo, Rosanna; Ferraro, Federico; Slemer, Alessandra; Al-Abdullah, Tariq; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Anders, Michael; Bemmerer, Daniel; Elekes, Zoltán; Mattei, Giovanni; Reinicke, Stefan; Schmidt, Konrad; Scian, Carlo; Wagner, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction is included in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. A number of narrow resonances in the Gamow window dominates the thermonuclear reaction rate. Several resonance strengths are only poorly known. As a result, the $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na thermonuclear reaction rate is the most uncertain rate of the cycle. Here, a new experimental study of the strengths of the resonances at 436, 479, 639, 661, and 1279 keV proton beam energy is reported. The data have been obtained using a tantalum target implanted with $^{22}$Ne. The strengths $\\omega\\gamma$ of the resonances at 436, 639, and 661 keV have been determined with a relative approach, using the 479 and 1279 keV resonances for normalization. Subsequently, the ratio of resonance strengths of the 479 and 1279 keV resonances was determined, improving the precision of these two standards. The new data are consistent with, but more precise than, the literature with the exception of the resonance at 661 keV, which i...

  14. Development of a magnetic resonance sensor for on-line monitoring of 99Tc and 23Na in tank waste cleanup processes: Final report and implementation plan

    In response to US Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for advanced cross-cutting technologies, Argonne National Laboratory is developing an on-line sensor system for the real-time monitoring of 99Tc and 23Na in various locations throughout radioactive-waste processing facilities. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the highly automated sensor system can provide near-real-time response with minimal sampling. The technology, in the form of a flow-through nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based on-line process sensing and control system, can rapidly monitor 99Tc speciation and concentration (from 0.1 molar to 10 micro molar) in the feedstocks and eluents of radioactive-waste treatment processes. The system is nonintrusive, capable of withstanding harsh plant environments, and reasonably immune to contaminants. Furthermore, the system is capable of operating over large variations in pH, conductivity, and salinity. This document describes design parameters, results from sensitivity studies, and initial results obtained from oxidation-reduction studies that were conducted on technetium standards and waste specimens obtained from DOE's Hanford site. A cursory investigation of the system's capabilities to monitor 23Na at high concentrations are also reported, as are descriptions of site requirements, implementation recommendations, and testing techniques

  15. 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO2 selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    Arévalo-Hidalgo, Ana G.; Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2012-07-01

    The location of extraframework cations in Sr2+ and Ba2+ ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO2 adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium.

  16. Investigating the astrophysical 22Ne(p, γ23Na and 22Mg(p, γ23Al reactions with a multi-channel scattering formalism

    Fraser P. R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction 22Ne(p, γ23Na is key to the NeNa cycle of stellar nucleogenesis, and better understanding of the 22Mg(p, γ23Al reaction is needed to understand the 22Na puzzle in ONe white dwarf novae. We aim to study these reactions using a multi-channel algebraic scattering (MCAS formalism for low-energy nucleon-nucleus scattering, recently expanded to investigate radiative capture. As a first step towards this goal, we here calculate the energy levels of the mass-23 (Ne, Mg, Na, Al nuclei. This is not only because the resonant structure of these nuclei are related to the astrophysical -rates of interest, but also because the interaction parameters determined for describing the energy levels are an integral part of the future calculation of the astrophysical reactions when using the MCAS scheme.

  17. Measurement of thermal neutron distribution from a medical cyclotron using auto radiography with 23Na activation detector and medical imaging plate

    When the generated activity of 18F was 100 GBq, about 1015 neutrons are emitted by the nuclear reaction in target of the medical cyclotron. These neutrons induce activity in the cyclotron and the indoor concrete of the cyclotron room, and will contribute to the exposure of the staff maintaining the cyclotron. This paper describes the basic characteristics of the thermal neutron measurement method of 23Na activation detector by auto radiography (ARG) using the medical imaging plate (IP). Simple linear regression lines were able to describe the relationship between the scanner unit and the activity of 24Na. The optimal S value and exposure time of ARG method was found to be 1,000 and 24 hours. This method that uses the salt instead of gold foil allows hospitals to measure the thermal neutron fluencies easily at many locations for the radiation safety management of routine work and the decommissioning of the cyclotron facility. (author)

  18. Investigating the astrophysical 22Ne(p,γ)23Na and 22Mg(p,γ)23Al reactions with a multi-channel scattering formalism

    The reaction 22Ne(p,γ)23Na is key to the NeNa cycle of stellar nucleogenesis, and a better understanding of the 22Mg(p,γ)23Al reaction is needed to understand the 22Na puzzle in ONe white dwarf novae. We aim at studying these reactions using a multi-channel algebraic scattering (MCAS) formalism for low-energy nucleon-nucleus scattering, recently expanded to investigate radiative capture. As a first step towards this goal, we here calculate the energy levels of the mass-23 (Ne, Mg, Na, Al) nuclei. This is not only because the resonant structure of these nuclei are related to the astrophysical γ-rates of interest, but also because the interaction parameters determined for describing the energy levels are an integral part of the future calculation of the astrophysical reactions when using the MCAS scheme. (authors)

  19. 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO2 selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    The location of extraframework cations in Sr2+ and Ba2+ ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO2 adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium. - Graphical abstract: MAS NMR was used to elucidate the position the cationic species in alkaline earth metal exchanged silicoaluminophosphates. These species played a significant role during the ion exchange process and, therefore, the materials ultimate CO2 adsorption performance. Highlights: ► Location of extraframework Sr2+ or Ba2+ cations was estimated by means of 1H and 23Na MAS NMR. ► Level of Sr2+ or Ba2+ ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations. ► Presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange. ► Sr2+ and Ba2+ ion exchanged SAPOs are outstanding CO2 adsorbents.

  20. Výběr vhodné formy financování developerských projektů

    Podhorná, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Cílem diplomové práce je výběr vhodné varianty financování developerského projektu. Práce je rozdělena na teoreticko - metodologickou a praktickou část. Teoreticko - metodologická část se zaměřuje na problematiku strukturování developerských projektů a jejich formy financování, včetně hlavních produktů a postupů. Praktická část je postavena na komparaci variant financování daného projektu. Autor se zde pokusil analyzovat finanční strukturu projektu, následně aplikoval finanční instrumenty pro...

  1. Study of the 23Na EFG (Electrostatic Field Gradient) tensor on single crystals of Na2S.9H2O by wideline NMR

    The quadrupole coupling constant |e2qQ/n| if 23Na has been determined by measuring single crystals of Na2S.9H2O at room temperature. A value of 687.5 +- 1.2 kHz was found. The asymmetry parameter eta = (qsub(x'x') - qsub(y'y')) / qsub(z'z') of the efg-tensor is zero, there is axial symmetry. The principle axis of the efg-tensor runs parallel to the main crystallographic axis c, the value of the main component of the efg-tensor in c-direction is 171.875 +- 0.6 kHz. The longitudinal relaxation time T1 has been evaluated as 1.8 s. On this account, the mean distance between two Na-atoms has been determined by measuring the splitting of the central line due to dipole-dipole interaction. The Na-Na distance was found with 0.36 +- 0.007 nm. This value is in good agreement with results from neutron diffraction studies. It was not possible to determine direction and length of hydrogen bonds by NMR-results. A method of growing single crystals of Na2S.9H2O of demanded size and purity has been described. Constructional details and technical data of a self-made wideline-NMR-spectrometer are added in an appendix. (Author)

  2. Estimation of multi-group cross section covariances for 235,238U, 239Pu, 241Am, 56Fe, 23Na and 27Al

    This paper presents the methodology used to estimate multi-group covariances for some major isotopes used in reactor physics. The starting point of this evaluation is the modelling of the neutron induced reactions based on nuclear reaction models with parameters. These latest are the vectors of uncertainties as they are absorbing uncertainties and correlation arising from the confrontation of nuclear reaction model to microscopic experiment. These uncertainties are then propagated towards multi-group cross sections. As major breakthroughs were then asked by nuclear reactor physicists to assess proper uncertainties to be used in applications, a solution is proposed by the use of integral experiment information at two different stages in the covariance estimation. In this paper, we will explain briefly the treatment of all type of uncertainties, including experimental ones (statistical and systematic) as well as those coming from validation of nuclear data on dedicated integral experiment (nuclear data oriented). We will illustrate the use of this methodology with various isotopes such as 235,238U, 239Pu, 241Am, 56Fe, 23Na and 27Al. (authors)

  3. Definice a formy eutanazie

    Hříbek, Tomáš

    Praha: Academia, 2015, s. 3-8. (Strategie AV21) Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : euthanasia * argument from autonomy * argument from compassion * slippery-slope argument Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  4. Niestandardowe formy komunikacji marketingowej

    Pilarczyk, Bogna

    2004-01-01

    The changes taking place in the market environment encourage the usage of, apart from traditional promotion tools, non-standard forms of marketing communications. Among the stimuli to the development of new forms of communications one should particularly emphasize the excessive saturation with classical ways of communications, rapid development of information technology, the restrictions on companies' promotion expenditures, the increase in advertisers' creativity and demand for more customiz...

  5. Darwinismus a formy kreacionismu

    Hříbek, Tomáš

    Praha: Filosofia, 2011, s. 21-73. ISBN 978-80-7007-358-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/08/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Darwinism * theory of evolution * creationism * intelligent plan * Catholic theology * naturalism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. Prezentacja sprawozdań finansowychw formie elektronicznej przez największe jednostki gospodarcze w Polsce w kontekście oczekiwań interesariuszy

    Jan Michalak

    2010-12-01

    oczekiwań interesariuszy dotyczących zawartości i formy sprawozdań finansowych w wersji elektronicz-nej. W części drugiej zostały przeanalizowane trendy w rozwoju elektronicznej komunikacji z interesariuszami. W części trzeciej zaprezentowano metodykę i wyniki badań empirycznych prowadzonych przez autora. Badania literaturowe i empiryczne autora wskazują na istnienie istotnej luki między oczekiwaniami interesariuszy a praktyką prezentacji sprawozdań finanso-wych w formie elektronicznej przez jednostki gospodarcze. Możliwości zwiększenia użyteczności sprawozdań finansowych w formie elektronicznej nie są wykorzystane ze względu na zachowawcze podejście jednostek sporządzających sprawozdania finansowe. Podejście to polega na prostym odwzorowaniu wersji papierowej w wersji elektronicznej sprawozdania.

  7. A new study of the {sup 22}Ne(p, γ){sup 23}Na reaction deep underground: Feasibility, setup and first observation of the 186 keV resonance

    Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Ferraro, F.; Prati, P. [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova (Italy); Depalo, R. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); Menzel, M.L.; Anders, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Aliotta, M.; Bruno, C.G.; Davinson, T.; Scott, D.A. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bemmerer, D.; Szuecs, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Broggini, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Rossi Alvarez, C. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Caciolli, A. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); Di Leva, A.; Imbriani, G. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Z.; Gyuerky, G.; Somorjai, E. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Formicola, A.; Junker, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Gervino, G. [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Guglielmetti, A.; Trezzi, D. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Gustavino, C. [INFN, Sezione di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Roma (Italy); Straniero, O. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Strieder, F. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Collaboration: LUNA Collaboration

    2014-11-15

    The {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na reaction takes part in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle is active in asymptotic giant branch stars as well as in novae and contributes to the nucleosythesis of neon and sodium isotopes. In order to reduce the uncertainties in the predicted nucleosynthesis yields, new experimental efforts to measure the {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na cross section directly at the astrophysically relevant energies are needed. In the present work, a feasibility study for a {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na experiment at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 400 kV accelerator deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, Italy, is reported. The ion-beam-induced γ-ray background has been studied. The feasibility study led to the first observation of the E{sub p}=186 keV resonance in a direct experiment. An experimental lower limit of 0.12 x 10{sup -6} eV has been obtained for the resonance strength. Informed by the feasibility study, a dedicated experimental setup for the {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na experiment has been developed. The new setup has been characterized by a study of the temperature and pressure profiles. The beam heating effect that reduces the effective neon gas density due to the heating by the incident proton beam has been studied using the resonance scan technique, and the size of this effect has been determined for a neon gas target. (orig.)

  8. Application of 1H and 23Na magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy to define the HRBC up-taking of MRI contrast agents

    Calabi, Luisella; Paleari, Lino; Biondi, Luca; Linati, Laura; De Miranda, Mario; Ghelli, Stefano

    2003-09-01

    The up-take of Gd(III) complexes of BOPTA, DTPA, DOTA, EDTP, HPDO3A, and DOTP in HRBC has been evaluated by measuring the lanthanide induced shift (LIS) produced by the corresponding dysprosium complexes (DC) on the MAS-NMR resonances of water protons and free sodium ions. These complexes are important in their use as MRI contrast agents (MRI-CA) in diagnostics. 1H and 23Na MAS-NMR spectra of HRBC suspension, collected at 9.395 T, show only one signal due to extra- and intra-cellular water (or sodium). In MAS spectra, the presence of DC in a cellular compartment produces the LIS of only the nuclei (water proton or sodium) in that cellular compartment and this LIS can be related to the DC concentrations (by the experimental curves of LIS vs. DC concentrations) collected in the physiological solution. To obtain correct results about LIS, the use of MAS technique is mandatory, because it guarantees the only the nuclei staying in the same cellular compartment where the LC is present show the LIS. In all the cases considered, the addition of the DC to HRBC (100% hematocrit) produced a shift of only the extra-cellular water (or sodium) signal and the gradient of concentration ( GC) between extra- and intra-cellular compartments resulted greater than 100:1, when calculated by means of sodium signals. These high values of GC are direct proofs that none of the tested dysprosium complexes crosses the HRBC membrane. Since the DC are iso-structural to the gadolinium complexes the corresponding gadolinium ones (MRI-CA) do not cross the HRBC membrane and, consequently, they are not up-taken in HRBC. The GC values calculated by means of water proton signals resulted much lower than those obtained by sodium signals. This proves that the choice of the isotope is a crucial step in order to use this method in the best way. In fact, GC value depends on the lowest detectable LIS which, in turn, depends on the nature of the LC (lanthanide complex) and the observed isotopes.

  9. Vliv filtrů na plnění formy při odlévání slitin hliníku

    Makalouš, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Tato studie se zabývá vlivem filtrů na plnění formy při odlévání slitin hliníku. Hlavním cílem práce bylo popsat hydraulické odpory různých druhů filtrů a průběh zanášení vměstky. V teoretické části popisuje problematiku filtrace obecně, specifika filtrace hliníkových slitin a také hlavní charakteristiky vměstků vyskytující se v hliníkových slitinách. Experimentální část se zabývá prolévacími zkouškami filtrů, vlivem filtrů na naplynění taveniny a metalografickým rozborem. Bylo zjištěno, že n...

  10. Development of a magnetic resonance sensor for on-line monitoring of {sup 99}Tc and {sup 23}Na in tank waste cleanup processes: Final report and implementation plan

    Dieckman, S. L.; Jendrzejczyk, J. A.; Raptis, A. C.

    2000-02-24

    In response to US Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for advanced cross-cutting technologies, Argonne National Laboratory is developing an on-line sensor system for the real-time monitoring of {sup 99}Tc and {sup 23}Na in various locations throughout radioactive-waste processing facilities. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the highly automated sensor system can provide near-real-time response with minimal sampling. The technology, in the form of a flow-through nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based on-line process sensing and control system, can rapidly monitor {sup 99}Tc speciation and concentration (from 0.1 molar to 10 micro molar) in the feedstocks and eluents of radioactive-waste treatment processes. The system is nonintrusive, capable of withstanding harsh plant environments, and reasonably immune to contaminants. Furthermore, the system is capable of operating over large variations in pH, conductivity, and salinity. This document describes design parameters, results from sensitivity studies, and initial results obtained from oxidation-reduction studies that were conducted on technetium standards and waste specimens obtained from DOE's Hanford site. A cursory investigation of the system's capabilities to monitor {sup 23}Na at high concentrations are also reported, as are descriptions of site requirements, implementation recommendations, and testing techniques.

  11. FORMY NAUCZANIA POPRZEZ GRę W KSZTAłTOWANIU KOMPETENCJI EKONOMICZNEJ PRZYSZłYCH MENEDżERóW OśWIATY: „KROK PO KROKU RAZEM DO SUKCESU!”

    Burłajenko, T.

    2015-01-01

    Prezentujemy wypracowania optymalnego programu „Krоk po kroku razem dо sukcesu!” z użyciem nauki w formie gry przy kształtowaniu kompetencji ekonomicznej przyszłych menedżerów oświaty, w którym przyszli zawodowcy mogą zdobyć doświadczenia w komunikacji, aktywnej współpracy, umiejętność mówienia krótko i konstruktywnie, oceniać siebie i innych, zrozumieć innychWe present an optimal program using the game in training education managers of education which reflects process of formation of economi...

  12. {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO{sub 2} selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    Arevalo-Hidalgo, Ana G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez, PR 00681-9000 (Puerto Rico); Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J., E-mail: arturoj.hernandez@upr.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez, PR 00681-9000 (Puerto Rico)

    2012-07-15

    The location of extraframework cations in Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO{sub 2} adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium. - Graphical abstract: MAS NMR was used to elucidate the position the cationic species in alkaline earth metal exchanged silicoaluminophosphates. These species played a significant role during the ion exchange process and, therefore, the materials ultimate CO{sub 2} adsorption performance. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Location of extraframework Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} cations was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion exchanged SAPOs are outstanding CO{sub 2} adsorbents.

  13. Elektronické formy marketingu

    Habart, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    Obsahem této bakalářské práce je analýza marketingu společnosti. Ve své práci se budu zabývat, zda společnost dostatečně využívá zejména elektronického marketingu, shrnu nejvýznamnější druhy elektronického marketingu, jeho trendy a vyberu pro společnost nejlépe vyhovující.

  14. Nové formy marketingu

    Khalilova, Nazila

    2008-01-01

    The bachelor thesis "New trends in marketing communication" focuses on the new methods in a communication mix, such as guerilla, buzz, mobile, direct and event marketing, and product placement. The primary goal of the thesis is to define these tools and show the importance of implementing these methods in a globalised world. Samples of implementations of these new tools are shown on both, the Azerbaijanian and world market, in the practical part of the thesis. Also, Azerbaijanian market is sh...

  15. Daňová optimalizace při změně právní formy podnikání z fyzické osoby na společnost s ručením omezeným

    Němcová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá analýzou změny právní formy podnikání z fyzické osoby na právnickou, konkrétně na společnost s ručením omezeným. Práce je zaměřená na způsob zdanění fyzických a právnických osob, na jednotlivé možnosti přechodu mezi těmito právními formami a zhodnocení záporů a kladů jednotlivých forem podnikání. Cílem práce je sdělit podnikateli výhody a nevýhody zdanění jednotlivých forem podnikání, navrhnout podnikateli změnu právní formy a seznámit ho s jednotlivými kroky, které ...

  16. {sup 23}Na and {sup 87}Rb relaxation study of the structural phase transitions in the Tutton salts Na{sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O and Rb{sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O single crystals

    Lim, Ae Ran; Lee, Ju Ha [Department of Science Education, Jeonju University (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    The NMR spectrum, spin-lattice relaxation times, T{sub 1}, and the spin-spin relaxation times, T{sub 2}, for the {sup 23}Na and {sup 87}Rb nuclei in Tutton salts Na{sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O and Rb{sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O single crystals were determined by using an FT NMR spectrometer. The NMR spectrum and relaxation times for the {sup 23}Na and {sup 87}Rb nuclei in two crystals undergo significant changes near T{sub C}. These changes close to T{sub C} were the only detectable result of the structural transformation; the change is due to the fact that the electric field gradient value becomes 0. Especially, T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} for {sup 87}Rb in the Rb{sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O crystals at high temperature have similar values on the order of milliseconds, which is indicative of a liquid-like system. The motion giving rise to this liquid-like behavior is probably related to superionic motion at high temperature. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Mudrosloví: jeho formy a funkce

    Vítek, Tomáš

    Praha: Herrmann & synové, 2009, s. 8-27. (Svět archaických kultur). ISBN 978-80-87054-17-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/08/0436 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : the wisdom literature * Archaic Greece Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  18. FORMY DYSKRYMINACJI KOBIET NA POLSKIM RYNKU PRACY

    Kalinowska-Nawrotek, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the analysis of gender inequalities in the professional sphere on the Polish labour markets from 1992 till 2003. In the beginning the definition and the forms of discrimination against women on the labour market were presented. Next the trial of the identification and the materialization of discrimination of women on the Polish labour market was raised on the basis of statistical data (GUS, Eurostat) and the results of public survey (bulletins of CB...

  19. Akademickie i pozaakademickie formy edukacji w marketingu

    Chapman, David; Kozielski, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article is a missionary tract arguing for marketing education as a fundamental requirement for a successful marketing career. Marketing can be defined as a process for understanding markets, for quantifying present and forecasting future value required by different customer groups, ensuring the sourcing of identified demand, ensuring effective communication between market constituents and for measuring the effectiveness of the value delivered. This is not just common sense, it is require...

  20. The brute-force polarization of 23Na and the 23Na(n,γ)24Na reaction

    A Na target has been polarized by brute force to 22% and the γ radiation produced by polarized thermal neutron capture has been investigated. The 2+ channel spin contribution has been determined model independently and unambiguously for 22 primary transitions. The average 2+ channel contribution is 5.8(5)%. Spins of final levels are in agreement with previous assignments. For three levels spin restrictions have been made. The energies of positive parity levels are in agreement with a shell model calculation in the complete sd shell. (Auth.)

  1. Kategorie Formy v díle Witolda Gombrowicze

    Olšovský, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 1 (2011), s. 60-68. ISSN 0037-6736 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90920516 Keywords : Phenomenolgy * Narration * Polish modernism Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  2. Formy motivace a stimulace ve vybraném podniku

    DOLNÁ, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Currently, human resource management is one of the most important system operations of specific companies. Due to the growing effort to achieve higher competitiveness, companies are looking for new resources, namely human ones, and the importance of human capital within the global society is on the rise. The dynamic management approach involving motivational approaches strenghtens the unique role of information technology and, along with the improved quality of staff, increases general awaren...

  3. Formy a způsoby psychologické pomoci

    TRNKOVÁ, Vendula

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this thesis, called ?Forms and methods psychological help?, the theory defined psychological help as a potential tool of knowledge, as well as finding ways to himself. Key issues are the development stages and related crises, the crisis of mental and psychological support, psychotherapy, helping profession. Examines the practical interest in psychological help, the specific reasons and criteria that are decisive for the choice of this sort of help. It also investigates specific forms, ...

  4. Modernizem in njegove poteze v lirski, narativni in dramski formi

    Škulj, Jola

    2015-01-01

    Modernist features in lyrical, narrative and dramatic form. - The crisis of consciousness as the background of establishing modernist literary phenomena enables the approach to the features of the lyrical, narrative and dramatic genres and their basic logic of inconclusiveness through Husserlian comments on the issue. Following his views on the problem going back to the turn of thecentury, the discussion of the complex and contradictory reality in modernist forms and of their fundamental stra...

  5. 2D 23Na-23Na DQ/MAS NMR spectroscopy: interface induced clustering and immobilization of sodium ions in nanostructured aluminosilicates

    Kobera, Libor; Urbanová, Martina; Brus, Jiří

    International Society of Magnetic Resonance, 2015. P 112. [Alpine Conference on Solid-State NMR /9./. 13.09.2015-17.09.2015, Chamonix Mont-Blanc] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-24155S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : MAS NMR * geopolymers * zeolites Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  6. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) Using 23Na and Proton MRI

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-01-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/hour concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/ PMID:25261742

  7. Characterization of 22Ne implanted target by 22Ne(p,γ)23Na resonance reaction

    Studies of nuclear reactions relevant to astrophysical scenario, often require measurement of cross section in picobarn to nano-barn range (1 barn = 10−24 cm2). So we need targets which are isotopically pure and can withstand high beam load over a long time. Even the backings used should contain no or very low concentration of impurities. Implantation technique has been found to be one of the most effective methods to produce such targets

  8. Time-efficient interleaved human (23)Na and (1)H data acquisition at 7 T.

    de Bruin, Paul W; Koken, Peter; Versluis, Maarten J; Aussenhofer, Sebastian A; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Börnert, Peter; Webb, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate a flexible and time-efficient interleaved imaging approach for the acquisition of proton and sodium images of the human knee at 7 T within a clinically relevant timescale. A flexible software framework was established which allowed the interleaving of multiple, different, fully specific absorption ratio (SAR)-validated scans. The system was able to switch between these different scans at flexible time points. The practical example presented consists of interleaved proton (Dixon imaging and T2* mapping) and sodium (mapping the sodium content and fluid-suppressed component separately) sequences with the key idea to perform proton MRI whilst the sodium nuclei relax towards thermal equilibrium, and vice versa. Comparisons were made between these four scans being acquired sequentially in the normal mode of scanner operation and those acquired in an interleaved fashion. Images acquired in the interleaved mode were very similar to those acquired in sequential scans with no image artifacts produced by the slight intra-sequence variation in steady-state magnetization. A reduction in scanning time of almost a factor of two was established using the interleaved scans, allowing such a protocol to be completed within 30 min. Phantom experiments and in vivo scans performed in healthy volunteers and in one patient proved the basic feasibility of this approach. This approach for the interleaving of multiple proton and sodium scans, each with different contrasts, is an efficient method for the design of new practical clinical protocols for sodium MRI. PMID:26269329

  9. Second-Scale Nuclear Spin Coherence Time of Trapped Ultracold $^{23}$Na$^{40}$K Molecules

    Park, Jee Woo; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian A; Zwierlein, Martin W

    2016-01-01

    Coherence, the stability of the relative phase between quantum states, lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. Applications such as precision measurement, interferometry, and quantum computation are enabled by physical systems that have quantum states with robust coherence. With the creation of molecular ensembles at sub-$\\mu$K temperatures, diatomic molecules have become a novel system under full quantum control. Here, we report on the observation of stable coherence between a pair of nuclear spin states of ultracold fermionic NaK molecules in the singlet rovibrational ground state. Employing microwave fields, we perform Ramsey spectroscopy and observe coherence times on the scale of one second. This work opens the door for the exploration of single molecules as a versatile quantum memory. Switchable long-range interactions between dipolar molecules can further enable two-qubit gates, allowing quantum storage and processing in the same physical system. Within the observed coherence time, $10^4$ one- and two-...

  10. Interface induced growth and transformation of polymer-conjugated proto-crystalline phases in aluminosilicate hybrids: a multiple-quantum 23Na-23Na MAS NMR correlation spectroscopy study

    Brus, Jiří; Kobera, Libor; Urbanová, Martina; Doušová, B.; Lhotka, M.; Koloušek, D.; Kotek, Jiří; Čuba, P.; Czernek, Jiří; Dědeček, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 11 (2016), s. 2787-2797. ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-24155S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14010; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Grant ostatní: European Commission(XE) COST Action MP1202 HINT Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : aluminosilicate hybrids * hybrid geopolymers * interface Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.457, year: 2014

  11. Vitamin D improves viral response in hepatitis C genotype 2-3 na(i)ve patients

    Assy Nimer; Abu Mouch

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To examine whether vitamin D improved viral response and predicted treatment outcome in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2-3.METttODS:Fifty patients with chronic HCV genotype 2-3 were randomized consecutively into two groups:Treatment group [20 subjects,age 48 ± 14 years,body mass index (BMI) 30 ± 6,65% male],who received 180 μg pegylated α-interferon-2a plus oral ribavirin 800 mg/d (Peg/RBV),together with oral vitamin D3 (Vitamidyne D drops; 2000 IU/d,10 drops/d,normal serum level > 32 ng/mL) for 24 wk; and control group (30 subjects,age 45 ± 10 years,BMI 26 ± 3,60% male),who received identical therapy without vitamin D.HCV RNA was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.Undetectable HCV RNA at 4,12 and 24 wk after treatment was considered as rapid virological response,complete early virological response,and sustained virological response (SVR),respectively.Biomarkers of inflammation were measured.RESULTS:The treatment group with vitamin D had higher BMI (30±6 vs 26 ± 3,P < 0.02),and high viral load (> 400 000 IU/mL,65% vs 40%,P < 0.01)than controls.Ninety-five percent of treated patients were HCV RNA negative at week 4 and 12.At 24 wk after treatment (SVR),19/20 (95%) treated patients and 23/30 (77%) controls were HCV RNA negative (P < 0.001).Baseline serum vitamin D levels were lower at baseline (20 ± 8 ng/mL) and increased after 12 wk vitamin D treatment,to a mean level of (34 ± 11 ng/mL).Logistic regression analysis identified vitamin D supplement [odds ratio (OR) 3.0,95% CI 2.0-4.9,P <0.001],serum vitamin D levels (< 15 or > 15 ng/mL,OR 2.2,P < 0.01),and BMI (< 30 or > 30,OR 2.6,P < 0.01) as independent predictors of viral response.Adverse events were mild and typical of Peg/RBV.CONCLUSION:Low vitamin D levels predicts negative treatment outcome,and adding vitamin D to conventional Peg/RBV therapy for patients with HCV genotype 2-3 significantly improves viral response.

  12. Low-energy resonances in the 22Ne(p,γ23Na reaction directly observed at LUNA

    Cavanna Francesca

    2015-01-01

    A study of this reaction has been carried out at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA, in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, using a windowless gas target and two high-purity germanium detectors. Several resonances have been observed for the first time in a direct experiment.

  13. Formy činnosti veřejné správy

    VEBER, Luděk

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Forms of public administration activity" talks about possible implementation of magistracy which is exercised by administrative authorities (administrative body, territorial autonomous body and other bodies). The activity of public administration is always legal and can have various legal forms as for example legal form (general application orders, regulations, statutory rules and public arrangements), internal rules and also individual public administrative acts (decision, r...

  14. Testování slabé formy efektivnosti devizového trhu

    Havel, Radek

    2009-01-01

    The goal of my thesis is to verify the weak form of the efficiency of the exchange market. The paper results from the presumptions for efficient price movements on the financial markets. They are applied to the time series of exchange rates of five currency pairs. After definitions of testing methodology, the given exchange rates series are analysed with the help of correlation and autocorrelation test, runs test and a test based on technical analysis. The conclusion of the thesis anwers the ...

  15. Elastyczne formy pracy w aktywizacji zawodowej osób niepełnosprawnych

    Niedźwiedziński, Marian; Bąkała, Anna Maria

    2007-01-01

    In the age of Electronic Commerce each solution that could enhance the competitiveness is worth considering. Telework seems to be a perfect way to use a great potential of many workers being able to work effectively with the use of computer and internet tools. In the case of telework it doesn’t matter whether the worker is a disabled person - his skills are all that matters. In this paper the possibility of employing the disabled as teleworkers is presented. The economic and so...

  16. Penzijní připojištění a jeho formy

    Lášková Dlabačová, Milada

    2011-01-01

    This Diploma thesis „Types of Supplementary Pension Insurance” deals with pension scheme systems in the Czech Republic. This subject is particularly important, given the upcoming pension reforms. This paper defines the purpose of pension schemes, and further highlights the benefits for pension plan participants, employers and employees. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the existing options available on the Czech pension insurance market, mutual comparison of the existing pens...

  17. WPŁYW OPODATKOWANIA NA WYBÓR FORMY INWESTYCJI BEZPOŚREDNIEJ W POLSCE

    Jamroży, Marcin

    2003-01-01

    The paper makes a comparison by means of the net terminal value method the current tax charges of two basic forms of direct investment, i.e. partnership/branch and company. The analysis shows that in the case of a German private businessman or partnership in Poland it is generally more advantageous in terms of tax to establish a partnership/branch than a company. This refers especially to highly profitable investments (i.e. yielding high profits in terms of absolute figures), s...

  18. Formy regionální kooperace z pohledu podpory produkce

    KARBULKA, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was the analysis of a local action group and definition of its potential in the field of local production support. This namely concerned Local action group Hlubocko - Lišovsko. Analyses of primary data showed that local action group support local production.

  19. Formy regionální kooperace z pohledu podpory produkce

    TONDROVÁ, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis I looked at the analysis of the activities of Local action group. Specifically, the Local action group Pomalší. The main task was to characterize the aktivity of Local action group Pomalší and to define its potential in promoting production.

  20. Vybrané formy vstupu podniku na zahraniční trh

    Bitnarová, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the possible forms of entry on foreign markets. Various inputs are compared according to an advantages and disadvantages. Diploma thesis is focused on trading with West Africa, particularly with Nigeria. Therefore I will bring the importance of the process of discussions and negotiations with respect to awareness of differences in cultural aspects of the negotiations and contracts. In conclusion, I refer to the establishment of ...

  1. Bezpośrednie formy demokracji przemysłowej w krajach Europy Zachodniej

    Rudolf, Stanisław

    1985-01-01

    The author his made an attempt at determining the role of new forms of work organization for the industrial life democratization in the West. Growing interest taken in these forms recently is connected with the fact that they allow to mitigate the difficulties accumulating in the enterprise. From among the analyzed forms of organization of work such as job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment and autonomous groups, mainly the two last mentioned forms afford a higher autonomy for em...

  2. Formy kompenzace stresu u vedoucích pracovníků

    Šíma, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis deals with the issueof stress in managersand with the way managers compensate their stress. This Bachelor thesis concentrated the theoretical part on the causes, clasification, signs, consequences and compensation of stress with focus on work stress related to managers

  3. Vražda formy a "rozkouskované tělo"

    Lahoda, Vojtěch

    Praha : Arbor vitae, 2008 - (Srp, K.; Rakušanová, M.), s. 30-47 ISBN 978-80-87164-11-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : painting * modernism * Cubism * Emil Filla * figure Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  4. Regionální využití franchisingové formy obchodu

    Exnerová, Jovana

    2012-01-01

    Disertation discourses regional utilization of franchise bussiness model, primarily analyzing todays economic situation of researched enterprises. It is separated into two parts: Theoretical part presents keystone of dissertation. In the beginning, basic concepts are defined, followed up with history and present of franchising around the world and in the Czech Republic. We also pay attention to economic indicators in detail. Conclusion of first part is formed by characteristics of research...

  5. Sofistikované formy násilí na pracovišti

    Mládková, Libuše

    2013-01-01

    Various forms of workplace violence can sort between socially pathological phenomena that can affect how the affected workers and their families, colleagues and the organization itself, as well as society at large. Psychological terror in the workplace must be taken seriously because the consequences are complex. Relationships to others are an essential part of our lives and not just the work. It is therefore no coincidence that the good relations in the workplace, the organization pays. M...

  6. Formy násilí na pracovišti

    Veselá, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    The thesis focuses on violence in the workplace. The theoretical part explains all important terms related to bullying in the workplace. The aim is to determine how the problem is perceived and awareness of mobbing and other forms of violence. The analytical section interprets results of the questionnaire, to do this. The survey was conducted at the Fire and Rescue Service Central Region.

  7. FLEXIBILNÍ FORMY PRÁCE V ČESKÉ REPUBLICE A NORSKU

    Drapáková, Karolína

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the master thesis is the research and comparison of the flexible forms of work in the Czech Republic and Norway in the 2004 - 2013. The theoretical part of the thesis is dedicated to the changes on the labour markets leading to higher unemployment and insecurities of the labour market. In the practical part are listed the forms of working contracts according to the labour law in the Czech Republic and Norway. The analysis of the Czech and Norwegian labour market has the focus on t...

  8. Formy regenerace a její současné trendy

    PEKÁRKOVÁ, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The thesis comprises a comprehensive summary of particular types of regeneration and their contemporary trends. The introduction focuses on regeneration and relaxation in general, and then the attention is given to the mechanotherapy- massage, its types, health effects and history. The heat therapy which is specialized in sauna and its new trends is connected with the mechanotherapy. To the heat therapy belong also packs and compresses. The hydrotherapy and its several types are characterized...

  9. Formiści. Pomiędzy tradycją a awangardą

    Geron, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Formists were the first avant-garde movement in Polish art that integrated the creators coming from various artistic milieus: Krakow, Warsaw and Lvov. The members of the group on principle rejected Naturalism and Impressionism and took their inspiration from Expressionism, Cubism, and Futurism. Nevertheless, apart from the works that presented purposeful deformation of form, color and space, the painters created works drawing from both classical and folk art. This current was particularly vis...

  10. Rodina, její formy a přeměny

    Tesařová, Žaneta

    2014-01-01

    My bachelor thesis deals with the issue of family, its changes and different forms of family life. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on the definition of family from different points of view. It also describes its functions and compares traditional and modern families. An essential part of this work deals with modern or more precisely postmodern family. It is concerned with the theme of marriage and its alternatives, as well as questions abo...

  11. Pracovní doba a flexibilní formy práce

    Rombaldová, Karolína

    2011-01-01

    Suitable working time arrangements, implementation of flexible forms of work and a provision of sufficient rest periods are vital prerequisites for the creation of favourable working conditions leading to a satisfaction of both employees and employers. This bachelor thesis deals with the legal regulation of working hours and rest periods in the Labour Code, comparison of the duration of working hours in the Czech Republic and other countries of the European Union and furthermore deals with th...

  12. Růstové formy lučních rostlin

    Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš; Latzel, Vít

    Veselí nad Moravou : ZO ČSOP Bílé Karpaty, 2008 - (Jongepierová, I.), s. 95-100 ISBN 978-80-903444-6-4 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant functional traits * plant height * clonality Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  13. „PRANIE PIENIĘDZY” - FORMY I ZAGROŻENIA SPOŁECZNE

    Prengel, Marek

    2000-01-01

    In the beginning of his article the Author discusses acs that necessarily must precede the money laundering, i.e. a so-called illicit activity of primary nature. For instance, these acts are: illicit production o f drugs and next trading them, illegal gambling, white slave trade, living on the earnings of a prostitute and giving her protection, illegal immigration, trading of radioactive materials or of weapons, etc., briefly - all acts committed in order to acquire dirty sums of ...

  14. Tvorba zájezdu podle druhu(formy) cestovního ruchu

    Tomšů, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to create an untraditional incoming tourism original tour based on the demand of the foreign travel agency which consists of a recognizing mainly of the South Moravian region and a staying in Priessnitz's health resort in Jesenik with a wellness program. The South Moravia is very attractive region as well as mentioned helth resort. This thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part basic terms are characterized, the tour is created in the second part. The whol...

  15. Formy a typy nevolební politické participace v Evropě

    Vlachová, Klára; Lebeda, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2009), s. 8-10. ISSN 1214-1720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : active-conventional participation * passive participation * active- protest participation Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://www.socioweb.cz/upl/editorial/download/162_socioweb_01_09.pdf

  16. Testování slabé formy efektivnosti akciových trhů

    Čmedlová, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with testing the weak form of the efficiency of the Czech and German stock markets during the particular years 2000-2013. First the principle of theory of efficient market and prerequisite for functioning are illustrated and the characteristics and forms of efficient market are defined. The reader is also introduced to a random walk model. The main section deals with brief characteristics of stock index PX and stock index DAX and subsequently testing if the behavior of Czech...

  17. Alternativní formy finančního řešení rizikovosti

    Müller, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with a considerable innovation of modern finance, insurance securitization. For better understanding of this concept it is important to consider insurance securitization in a broader context of financial securitization, which is presented in the first chapter. In the second part of this work the factors which have led to the development of insurance securitization are mentioned. Then there is a short comparison of insurance securitization with financial securitizatio...

  18. Formy náhradní rodinné péče v ČR

    NAUŠOVÁ, Jitka

    2008-01-01

    My work contains the basic forms of substitute family care in the Czech republic and also a brief history of adoption and foster-parent´s care. It describes a family, its importance and functions. It mentions the defects in a family and parenhood. It makes clear both the criteria of child´s location in the substitute family care and the selection of the applicants. It shows the way how to ask for the substitute family care. The legal norms how make substitute family care posible are mentioned...

  19. Formy działania jednostek samorządu terytorialnego w odniesieniu do pieczy zastępczej

    Szwaja, Jacek Z.

    2012-01-01

    Artykuł recenzowany / peer-reviewed article Local government units are legally obliged to carry out a number of tasks in the foster care system for children. These tasks generally referred to the Family and Guardianship Code specifi es support for families and foster care system. The proper execution of these tasks requires appropriate forms of action. The paper presents: the type and form of tasks as well as and the legal action and actual actions taken in the field by the various local g...

  20. Vybrané formy podnikání a jejich zdaňování

    Ištvánková, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá zdaňováním příjmů fyzických osob z podnikání a jiné samostatné činnosti. Jejím cílem je porovnat daňovou zátěž živnostníků a společnosti s ručením omezeným a na základě zjištěných poznatků navrhnout kroky vedoucí k daňové optimalizaci. Za pomoci modelové situace porovnává, za kterých podmínek je vhodné podnikat jako živnostník a kdy jako společnost s ručením omezeným u konkrétního poplatníka. The bachelor thesis deals with taxation of personal business and o...

  1. Původ a formy titanu v historické a moderní malbě

    Hradilová, J.; Hradil, David; Grygar, Tomáš; Šímová, Veronika

    Praha: STOP, 2003, s. 21-25. [Restaurování barevné vrstvy obrazu. Praha (CZ), 27.11.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : microstructural pattern * stratigraphy of colour layers * bole grounds Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  2. Střešní zahrady - návrh extenzivní a intenzivní formy

    Vášová, Denisa

    2012-01-01

    Green roof – design of extensive and intensive form This diploma thesis discusses the benefits and importance of the creation of roof gardens, especially in cities. It introduces green roofs as an ecological and aesthetical part of buildings. A Brief History provides an overview of the original idea of roof gardens and their development through the ages until today recent since 1989, when we got to the fresh wind from the western countries and development in this sector began to spread acr...

  3. Opodatkowanie IKE i IKZE jako formy gromadzenia środków emerytalnych oraz instrument optymalizacji podatkowej

    Witczak, Radosław

    2012-01-01

    In the article the tax effects of „IKE” and „IKZE” were presented. The areas of tax risk concerning the use of „IKE” and „IKZE” in the Personal Income Tax were given. The tax avoidance instruments by using „IKE” and „IKZE” were discussed.

  4. Mesostruktura poroskov Gd(OH)CO3xH20 s casticami sfericeskoy formy zadanogo razmera

    Chuvasheva, I. G.; Vanetsev, A. S.; Kopitsa, G. P.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Angelov, Borislav

    Gatchina : National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute", Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute B. P. Konstantinov, 2014. s. 128. [PNPI School on condensed state physics /48./ - CSP-2014. 10.03.2014-15.03.2014, St. Petersburg] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : gadolinium nanoparticle * controlled nanoparticle size * small-angle X-ray scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  5. Volba právní formy podnikání - ekonomická kritéria

    Krejčová, Šárka

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis Choice od the Form of a Business - Economics´Criterions is written as a methodological guidance for the entrepreneurs starting their business. The methodological guidance is focused on selection of appropriate type of business entity considering tax burden. Using model examples profit figure and tax burden for specific situations were found and these results set limits to advantageousness of specific types of business entity. This thesis also comprises the guide for na...

  6. Formy vybraných kovů ve vodních systémech.

    Němec, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Technika difuzního gradientu v tenkém filmu (DGT) byla použita ke stanovení koncentrací labilních forem vybraných kovů (Cu, Ni, Pb) v odpadní vodě odcházející z Fakulty chemické VUT v Brně.

  7. Cestovní pojištění a jeho formy v ČR

    HOŠKOVÁ, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The subject of my work „Travel insurance and its forms in Czech Republic“ is to discribe the travel insurance. In the first part, there is insurance discribed in the theory. The second part is focus on travel insurance. I selected sixt insurance companies and I focus on their history and offer in the travel insurance. In the end I compared products of those insurance companies including calculation of insurance rate.

  8. „Titofania”. Formy obecności symbolicznej Josipa Broza Tity w Jugosławii doby socjalizmu

    Bogusławska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Text is an analysis of symbolic strategies, servingcreation of Josip Broz Tito’s authority as the leader of the socialist Yugoslavia; it also reveals their cultural and political motivations. Author indicates three dominant factors in the process of cult creation, which are characteristic for the cult of personality in totalitarian systems; as such they also remain a specific continuation of traditions as a base of the local power culture. In this perspective, the T...

  9. TRADIČNÉ NÁSTROJE VERZUS NOVÉ FORMY A TRENDY V MARKETINGOVEJ KOMUNIKÁCII PODNIKOV NA SLOVENSKU

    Katarína Grančičová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes taking place in the marketing environment of companies since the beginning of the 21st century can be described as fundamental. Marketing reacts to them by changing its orientation and developing its tools, as well as the means of their use in practice. In marketing communication, and especially in establishing the communication mix, the following aspects are becoming key: below-the-line activities, direct marketing, the internet, social networks and creative communication campaigns with the aim of promoting communication among customers (WoM. In the context of the above-mentioned trends and using data from a questionnaire-based survey, this article evaluates the quality of marketing communication of Slovak companies, with an emphasis on the extent of use of current trends and new forms in their marketing communication. This analysis also includes a statistical verification of how the use of new trends and forms of marketing communication depends on selected factors, as well as an evaluation of the impact of these factors on the given area. The selection of factors, such as company size, presence of foreign capital, sector, or primary market orientation of the company, was based on a logical assumption of their potential relevance for the studied subject. The article concludes by summarizing the established facts and outlining both existing problems and their possible solutions. The main finding is that the marketing communication of Slovak companies has not yet seen the expected shift as regards the importance of the individual forms of communication. In other words, traditional forms of communication are still prevailing. The use of alternative forms of marketing is another problem, since they are generally not seen as trustworthy, they are underestimated, and there is a general lack of experience regarding their use.

  10. Mzdový systém a formy odměňování

    Fialová, Miroslava

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation work deals with characteristic of the wage system in the Czech republic and analysis of company remuneration in Center of social services Prague. The wage system can be also expressed as a group of standards, rules and regulations that regulate the employment and bonuses in company and the employees’ motivation to better performance. The literature search deals interpretation of relations between employer and employees and providing benefits. In the practical part is m...

  11. The study of proton transfer reactions and their application to nuclear level counting via the reactions 23Na, 28Si, 32S(d,n)

    This work was undertaken with two major objectives. The first objective was to resolve the discrepancies in the existing spectroscopic factors for the levels of 24Mg and to use this nucleus to test the suitability of (d,n) reactions for level counting. The second objective was to study proton transfer to unbound states in 29P and 33Cl within the framework of the standard DWBA formalism by using the form factors of the bound isobaric analog states of these nuclei. The time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer was used to measure differential cross sections and neutron energies for the three reactions studied in this work. The energy levels of 24Mg were studied at seven incident energies (2.5-9.0 MeV) with an energy resolution of 12-125 keV at both forward and back angles at each incident energy. Out of 157 levels taken from compilations, 124 of them were observed. This study has also resulted in the proposal of 24 additional new levels in 24Mg. These results show that the (d,n) reaction may be used for level counting

  12. Dopady finančnej krízy na využívanie teleworku ako flexibilnej formy práce

    Duľová, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes a concept of telework, its background, diffusion and penetration, the European Framework Agreement on Telework and provides a detailed analysis of home office as one form of telework in Czech Republic and Germany during the financial crisis. Evaluating the impacts of the financial crisis on using this form of flexible working is based on statistical data, researches and case studies from both countries and on interviews with representatives of two companies located in Cz...

  13. Automatizace stroje pro odebírání dílů z formy vstřikovacího lisu

    ŠEFČÍK, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor project is to make design and solution of machine-automation for taking parts from the injection molding machine. Based on the requirements of costumer, will be create a proposal design and mode of implementation for the automation. The next part focus on selection of sensors, that are the most optimal for this application, with regard to the right and error-free machine operation, than on selection and design of the control unit, whose parameters conform to the contr...

  14. Ideologizace vědy a školství. Formy a vlivy kulturní politiky KSČ (1945-1953)

    Devátá, Markéta; Olšáková, Doubravka

    Praha : Ústav pro soudobé dějiny AV ČR, 2011 - (Kocian, J.; Devátá, M.), s. 323-335 ISBN 978-80-7285-108-9. - (České křižovatky evropských dějin. 3) R&D Projects: GA ČR GA409/07/1415 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : history after 1945 * science and education * ideology Subject RIV: AB - History

  15. Komparace zdanění zisků podnikatelů podle právní formy podnikání

    Homolková, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This diploma Thesis was focused on comparison of profit taxation by legal form of business. Two legal forms were chosen - sole trader and limited company. The main objective was to compare the effective rate of taxation of defined incomes in the period 2003 to 2009. The maximum amount of income produced was set to 5 million CZK. A secondary goal of this work was to describe and analyze which types of income can one reach through doing business via Ltd. In the final analysis, when compared wit...

  16. Ekologické formy zemědělství v Krkonoších: krajina, ekoturismus, udržitelnost

    Klapka, Pavel; Klapková, E.; Martinát, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 42 (2005), s. 127-137. ISSN 0139-925X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : environmental-friendly farming * ecotourism * regional development * sustainability Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  17. Výskyt a formy mobbingu v českém pracovním prostředí

    Zábrodská, Kateřina; Květon, Petr

    Praha : Vysoká škola ekonomická, 2012. s. 26-27. [Konference Psychologie práce a organizace v ČR. 20.09.2012-21.09.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP407/10/P146 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : mobbing * prevalence * employee relationships Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  18. Formy zlepšujících (KAIZEN) aktivit ve firmách z vybraných oborů

    Sukdolák, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the thesis is to analyze continuous improvement (Kaizen) activities in companies, which operates in the Czech Rep. Based on this analysis, defining criteria for optimal selection of forms of continuous improvement activities, and aplling suitable tools and methods of continuous process improvement will follow.

  19. Podnikatelský záměr agroturistické farmy a možné formy financování

    ČÍŽKOVÁ, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this Diploma Thesis was created documentation for optimal business plan for a farm of agritourism. The Diploma Thesis analyses the development of provincial tourism in the region of Český Krumlov and its preconditions for rural tourism. In the analysis is monitored accommodation capacity, possible forms of financing, current trends and potential for diversification of farm.

  20. Szacowanie podstawy opodatkowania w podatku od towarów i usług jako formy przeciwdziałania oszustwom podatkowym – wybrane zagadnienia

    Witczak, Radosław

    2013-01-01

    The problem of tax assessment in the VAT tax was presented. The provisions point out different methods of assessment of the tax base. The analyse of use of different methods in assessment of the tax base in VAT was given. The associated enterprises can also diminish tax liabilities in the VAT. Tax authorities can assess the turnover in such situation but the provisions curtail the tax assessment. The possibility of changing the provisions in this respect was discussed.

  1. Vybrané právní formy podnikání zahraničního subjektu v ČR

    Pacovský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The work deals with the topic of entry of foreign entrepreneurs to the Czech market on the background of two different forms of business - franchising and a limited liability company. The main topic concentrates on the comparison of legislation and contractual framework of these two business forms, primarily focusing on intellectual property and the protection of intangible assets. The work presents general legal provisions related to contracts in the field of intellectual property rights, in...

  2. Podoby a formy aktivní imaginace: návrh konceptuálního rámce

    Chrz, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2011), 97-111. ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA701840901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : active imagination * transcendent function * semantic innovation Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.087, year: 2011

  3. Biodosažitelné formy vybraných nutrientů v luštěninách

    Landauf, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the quantitative determination of bioaccessible contents of selected elements (Cu, Fe, Zn) in legumes: chickpeas, pea, lentil, soybean, bean. The UBM in-vitro test was used for the study of bioaccessible forms. This method simulates human digestion using synthetic gastric juices. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the determination of the total content of selected elements in legumes and their bioaccessible contents in gastric and gastro-intestinal human tract....

  4. Analýza přesnosti výroby lamel formy pneumatiky vyráběných SLM technologií

    Tomeš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Práce se zprvu věnuje analýze a hodnocení stávající výroby lamel na dvou SLM zařízeních PXL a M2 Cusing, firem Phenix Systems a Concept Laser. Vzorky z obou strojů prošly stejným výrobním procesem a stejným procesem měření a vyhodnocení tak, aby mohlo proběhnout porovnání mezi jednotlivými stroji. Na vzorcích se porovnává geometrická přesnost, drsnost povrchu, mechanické vlastnosti a materiálová struktura. Pro lamely bylo nutné vytvořit digitální metodiku hodnocení geometrie. V další části pr...

  5. Ultracold collisions in a dual species 23Na-133Cs magneto-optical trap%磁光阱中超冷钠-铯原子碰撞的实验研究∗

    徐润东; 刘文良; 武寄洲; 马杰; 肖连团; 贾锁堂

    2016-01-01

    The production and research of ultracold heteronuclear molecules have aroused the great interest recently. On the one hand, these molecules are extremely popular in experiments for exploring the collision dynamic behaviors in threshold, photoassociative spectrum and strong dipole-dipole interactions. On the other hand, ultracold polar molecules populated at deeply bound levels in the singlet ground state are the right candidates to investigate quantum memories for quantum simulation, and to study strongly interacting quantum degenerate gases. The precise knowledge of cold collision processes between two different types of alkali atoms is necessary for understanding and utilizing ultracold heteronuclear molecules, sympathetic cooling, and thus formation of two species BEC. The goal of the present investigation is to study the collisions between ultracold sodium atoms and cesium atoms. We systematically demonstrate simultaneously trapping ultracold sodium and cesium atoms in a dual-species magneto-optical trap (MOT). The sodium atom trap loss rate coefficient βNa-Cs is measured as a function of Na trapping laser intensity. At low intensities, the trap loss is dominated by ground-state hyperfine-changing collisions, while at high intensities, collisions involving excited atoms are more important. A strong interspecies collision-induced loss for Na atoms in the MOT is observed. In order to obtain the trap loss coefficient βNa-Cs, we proceed in two steps. First, the Cs repumping laser is blocked to avoid the formation of ultraold Cs atoms. The loading process of Na atoms is recorded when the Cs trapping laser is on. Second, the loading curves of the Na atoms are obtained as Cs atoms are present with the repumping laser beams. The total losses PNa and P′Na are acquired by fitting the two loading curves of trapped Na atoms. Thus, the trap loss coefficientβNa-Cs can be derived from the difference between total losses PNa and P′Na divided by the density of the Cs atoms. The coefficient βNa-Cs decreases in a range of 5–10 mW/cm2, which originates from the hyperfine-state changing (HFC) collision. A Doppler model is used to calculate the Na atom trap depth, in that the atom trap depth and exoergic energy determine the behavior of the collisional trap loss rate coefficient. The three corresponding calculated critical intensities of Na trapping laser are 7.98, 14.82, 16.2 mW/cm2 respectively in the Na-Cs HFC collision process. The first calculated critical intensity value agrees well with the experimental result. Our work provides a valuable insight into HFC collision between Na and Cs atoms and also paves the way for the production of ultracold NaCs molecules using Photoassociation (PA) technology. Furthermore, the experimental results lay a great basis for the obtainments of high sensitive heteronuclear NaCs molecular PA spectrum and the creation of deeply bound ground state molecules.

  6. Measurement and Calculation of Relaxation Time T2 and diffusion of Gel Electrolytes Based on the NaClO4 Inorganic Salt During Polymerization by NMR Method with Focusing on 23Na and 1H Nuclei

    Kořínek, Radim; Bartušek, Karel; Vondrák, I.; Musil, M.

    Bratislava : Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2011, s. 131-134. ISBN 978-80-969672-4-7. [International Conference on Measurement 2011 /8./. Smolenice (SK), 27.04.2011-30.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : T2 relaxation * diffusion * NMR * measurement Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  7. Nieformalne związki jedno i dwupłciowe jako alternatywne formy życia małżeńsko-rodzinnego. Analiza jakości i stabilności relacji

    Jankowiak, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the characteristics of alternative forms of marriage and family life with special consideration of cohabitation and homosexual relations. These untraditional kinds of partnership relations are more and more common and become new socialization patterns. An analysis was carried out of the satisfaction and stability of informal same- and different sex relations and a comparison of these relations was made to the intimate relations of marriages in order to esta...

  8. Koncentrace a formy fosforu v odtoku z malých zemědělských povodí v povodí nádrže Orlík

    Richtr, J.; Hejzlar, Josef; Semančíková, E.

    České Budějovice: VŠTE, 2009, s. 65-74. ISBN 978–80–87278–29–1. [Revitalizace Orlické nádrže 2009. Písek (CZ), 06.10.2009-07.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : P transport * eutrophication * agriculture Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality

  9. Financování příspěvkových organizací z pohledu jejich hospodářsko - právní formy

    Bienová, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes funding of social services in view of different economic-legal forms. There are an accounting and funding of allowance organizations and other forms of companies and their advantages and disadvantages. The practical part is illustrated by Rest home "V Podzámčí" including its financial analysis and its cost calculation.

  10. Formy podpory rozvoje konceptu sociálního podnikání posledních deseti let ve vyspělých zemích

    Parkánová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    The Master thesis offers an analysis of different forms of social enterpreneurship support in developled countries. Perspective of various economic thoughts and concepts is applied. Firstly, the social entrerpise is introduced in a broader sector, historical, geographical and societal context. Secondly, different motives of social enterpreneurship support are introduced while applying mainstream economic thinking, insitutional theories and economic localisation approach. After summary of vari...

  11. Kulovité železité konkrece v křídových pískovcích severních Čech: geneze a formy výskytu

    Adamovič, Jiří; Rückl, P.; Langrová, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2009, - (2010), s. 12-16. ISSN 0514-8057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : hematite * goethite * concretions * Ostwald-Liesegang cycle * Bohemian Cretaceous Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2009/2009-4.pdf

  12. Metody a formy práce s mládeží v domech dětí a mládeže a v nízkoprahových klubech

    JAKEŠ, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis describes ways and methods of work with children and young people in community centers. Theoretical part states the expression of ?Leisure Time? and historical development of the way people have spent their free time, based on literature. It deals with the problem of bringing up young people in their free time and also with the field of Leisure Time Pedagogy. The thesis includes a list of institutions offering meaningful activities to children and young people within the ...

  13. Veřejný prostor současného města - nové formy, aktuální problémy

    Kratochvíl, Petr

    Brno : Ústav územního rozvoje, 2013, s. 20-24. ISBN 978-80-87318-27-0. [Veřejný prostor, veřejná prostranství. Znojmo (CZ), 21.11.2013-22.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP409/11/2220 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : public space * contemporary architecture * town planning * public art Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  14. Návrh změny právní formy podnikání - založení společnosti s ručením omezeným

    Líkař, Václav

    2011-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with formulation of the proposal to change the legal form of business for a selected business entity doing business as an association of individuals who decided to transform into a limited liability company. There is an analysis procedure for establishing a limited liability company in this paper and allocation of the costs involved. The analysis of the change from business of individuals to limited liability company focused on the aggregation of both types of busine...

  15. The Problem of Form in Objects under Redevelopment (On the Basis of Bytom Market Square Redevelopment Design) / Problem Formy W Obiektach Przebudowywanych (Na Przykładzie Projektu Realizacyjnego Przebudowy Bytomskiego Rynku)

    Maryńczuk, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    The author believes that if a designer has performed many design or research works entailing solutions to various problems, it is recommendable to consider and become aware of previously used methods whose application might have been unwitting or instinctive. The outcome of such reflection can be worth describing and recording in order to formulate a set of guidelines useful in the future. Such methods, being intuitive in nature, are often tied to the designer's subconsciousness, thus are rarely expressed in a clear manner. By using own methods a designer can prove that space should be composed in a given way in order to address specific needs and defined objectives. All this is aimed at preventing accidental formation of space. An example of reasoning serving the aforementioned purpose can be found in a method referred to as CQC or Composition Quality Control, the application of which facilitates intentional shaping of an architectural piece of work. Autor uważa uważa, że jeśli projektant ma za sobą wiele prac projektowych lub też prac badawczych, które połączone były z rozwiązywaniem różnych problemów, to warto zastanowić się i uświadomić sobie sposoby, które dotychczas - może nieświadomie lub odruchowo - były stosowane. Wynik refleksji warto opisać i zapisać po to, żeby ująć go w układ wskazań na przyszłość. Metody te, mając charakter intuicyjny, często związane są z podświadomością projektanta, w związku z tym rzadko można spotkać je jako wyrażone w sposób wyraźny. Stosując metody własne można dowieść, że przestrzeń winna być komponowana tak, a nie inaczej dla określonych potrzeb i wytyczonych celów tak, aby jej forma nie była przypadkowa. Przykładem takiego rozumowania jest przyjeta metoda KJK, której zastosowanie pomaga w swiadomym kształtowaniu dzieła architektonicznego.

  16. Šikana na pracovišti v prostředí českých univerzit: výskyt, formy a organizační souvislosti

    Zábrodská, Kateřina; Květon, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Workplace bullying (or mobbing) refers to a destructive form of behaviour that occurs within organisations and that inflicts psychological and social harm on targeted employees, creates a hostile work environment, and affects organisations negatively. This article presents findings from the first Czech study into workplace bullying and other forms of negative workplace behaviour in Czech universities. The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence of bullying among university employees and...

  17. Priame formy účasti občanov na činnosti orgânov štâtnej moci a sprâvy v ĆSSR

    Palúš, Igor

    1991-01-01

    In his paper the author analyses the participation of citizens in the activity of state and administrative organs, within the system of federal Czechoslovak authorities. The introductory part consists of considerations of the conception of participation of the working people in control of the socialist community, stressing by the way the mutual importance of political and economic postulates in the process of managing the social and national matters. In the essential part of th...

  18. Šikana na pracovišti v prostředí českých univerzit: výskyt, formy a organizační souvislosti

    Zábrodská, Kateřina; Květon, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2012), s. 641-668. ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP407/10/P146 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : workplace bullying * mobbing * universities * organisational context * toxic workplace Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.652, year: 2012

  19. Экслибрисы Юрия Орлова получили признание в Польше

    2009-01-01

    Graafik Juri Orlov sai Poolas toimunud Rahvusvahelisel graafiliste väikevormide ja eksliibriste biennaalil (XIII Międzyanrodowe Biennale Małej Formy Graficznej i Ekslibrisu, Ostrów Wielkopolski 2009) laureaadi tiitli

  20. Teoretické přístupy a praktické formy řešení sociálně-ekonomických problémů nejméně rozvinutých zemí (LDCs)

    Harmáček, Jaromír

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on theoretical and empirical analysis of economic growth and its implications for economic and social development of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The thesis proceeds from the assumption that economic growth is the necessary (but not sufficient) condition for economic, social and human development of societies and nations. In context of the LDCs, this assumption can be modified: it is assumed that it has been the low average rate of growth in the long-run that is as...

  1. 水蒸气法提取黑皮油松松针挥发油及GC/MS分析%Volatile Oil Extraction from Pinus tabulae formis var .mukdensis Uyeke Pine Needle by Vapor Method and Its GC-MS Analysis

    王得道; 朱玉; 刘洪章

    2013-01-01

      For the purpose of optimizing the extraction process of volatile oil from the Pinus tabulae f ormis var .mukdensis Uyeki pine needle and providing scientific basis for its further development ,the volatile oil was ex-tracted from the Pinus tabulae f ormis var .mukdensis Uyeki pine needle by vapor method .The effects of the particle sides ,ratio of material to liquid ,soaking time and extracting time on the extraction yield of volatile oil were studied through orthogonal experiment .Then ,the chemical constituents of volatile oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) .The results showed that the optimum conditions for extrac-ting the volatile oil from the Pinus tabulae f ormis var .mukdensis Uyeki pine needle :particle size was 100 ,ratio of material to liquid was 1∶16 ,soaking time was 16 h ,extracting time was 8 h ;Gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry technology identified 23 compounds ,accounting for 57 .84% of the total volatile oil ,including olefin tired accounted for 25 .13% ,12 .2% aromatic hydrocarbon ,lipid accounted for 9 .54% ,and a small amount of alcohol ,ester compounds .%  为优选黑皮油松挥发油的最佳提取条件,为黑皮油松松针的进一步综合开发利用提供科学依据,采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取马尾松松针挥发油,通过正交试验,研究颗粒大小、液料比、浸泡时间以及提取时间对黑皮油松松针挥发油提取得率的影响进行研究,并用气相色谱-质谱联用技术对其挥发油中化学成分进行分析。结果表明:黑皮油松最佳提取条件为颗粒大小100目,料液比1∶16,浸泡时间16 h ,提取时间8 h ;气相色谱-质谱联用技术从黑皮油松松针挥发油中鉴定出23种化合物,占挥发油总量的57.84%,其中烯烃类占25.13%,芳香烃占12.2%,脂类占9.54%,以及少量的醇、酯类化合物。

  2. Discrimination of press fit candidate microorganism (Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus licheniformis) by restriction fragment length polymorphic analysis of the 16SrRNA gene; 16S rRNA idenshi no sengen danpen kchotakei kaiseki niyoru atsunyukoho biseibutsu (Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus licheni-formis) no shikibetsu

    Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Otsuka, Makiko; Ichimura, Naoya; Yonebayashi, Eiji; Enomoto, Heiji

    1999-09-01

    In MeOH viewed as one of the improvement method for recovery of the petroleum with hope, the development of discrimination technique of press fit candidate microorganism and oil reservoir resident microorganism which exists in the test object oil reservoir was tried in order to monitor the survival situation of the microorganism which inserted in the oil reservoir under pressure. 16S rRNA amplified by the PCR using the universal primer The microorganism that it cut off the gene at restriction enzyme HhaI,MspI, AluI and inhabits oil reservoir water and oil reservoir rock in the object oil reservoir by ( necessarily TaqI ) and restriction fragment length polymorphic analysis was classified. As the result, the effectiveness of the this PCR-RFLP method was indicated the microorganism which showed RFLP pattern which is identical with the press fit candidate microorganism in the oil reservoir resident microorganism for the discrimination of the press fit candidate microorganism without existing. And, it was indicated that the this PCR-RFLP method was effective for the investigation of oil reservoir resident microbial community which can positively utilize source of nutrition inserted to oil reservoir with the press fit candidate microorganism under pressure, and it was possible to grasp oil reservoir resident microorganism to be especially considered in MEOR. (translated by NEDO)

  3. Neolitické osídlení v Černém Vole (Praha-západ). Formy objektů, keramika a štípaná industrie z výzkumů 1975-77 a 1914

    Řídký, Jaroslav; Stolz, D.; Zápotocká, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2009), s. 177-236. ISSN 0231-5432 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Neolithic * pottery * chipped stone industry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Vazba mutantní formy proteinu p53 k intronovým a intergenním sekvencím tvořícím triplex DNA reguluje expresi genů u buněk U251

    Tichý, Vlastimil; Quante, T.; Tögel, L.; Walter, K.; Navrátilová, Lucie; Lexa, M.; Deppert, W.; Tolstonog, G.V.; Paleček, Emil; Brázdová, Marie

    Praha, 2009. s. 452. ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků. Konference Sigma-Aldrich /9./. 26.05.2009-29.05.2009, Devět skal - Žďárské vrchy] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1K04119; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035; GA ČR(CZ) GP204/06/P369; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/08/1560; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500040701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : mutant p53 * gene regulation * glioblastoma cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  5. Formy zvětrávání skalního podloží v Průčelské rokli a Čertově jizbě v Českém středohoří

    Raška, P.; Cajz, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2007, Prosinec (2008), s. 109-112. ISSN 0514-8057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : weathering forms * solid bedrock * palaeogeomorphology * České středohoří Mts. volcanic range Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www. geology .cz/zpravy/obsah/2007/2007-30.pdf

  6. Formy komunikace doby husitské. Listy pražských obcí proti odběhlým měšťanům aneb vysoká hra o velké majetky

    Musílek, Martin

    Opava: European Social Fund, 2014, s. 151-162 ISBN 978-80-7510-109-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP405/11/1982 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Old Town Prague * confiscation * Hussite revolution * urban society * emigration Subject RIV: AB - History

  7. Užívání návykových látek studenty prezenční formy studia na Zdravotně sociální fakultě Jihočeské univerzity

    MUŽÍK, Petr

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis presents findings of a research related to the usage of tobacco products, alcohol and drugs among full-time students at the Faculty of health and social studies of the University of South Bohemia. The aim of research was to find out whether the students use addictive substances, in which form and how often do they use them, what the negative effects are, what the prevalence of substances is, in which period of school year are the addictive substances used more, etc. The t...

  8. Účetní, daňové a právní aspekty přeměny právní formy podnikání fyzické osoby na právnickou osobu v podmínkách ČR

    BENDOVÁ, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the accounting, tax and legal aspects of the change in the legal form of business in a particular case in connection with the legal regulations of the Czech Republic. The aim of the research is to analyze the legal forms of business, including the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of business, on which is followed by possible variants of transformation, furthermore the creation of a draft for the establishment of a limited liability company ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1252 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1252 ref|YP_001130163.1| O-antigen polymerase [Prosthecochloris vibrio...formis DSM 265] gb|ABP36661.1| O-antigen polymerase [Chlorobium phaeovibrioides DSM 265] YP_001130163.1 0.002 27% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-07-0095 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-07-0095 ref|YP_001130163.1| O-antigen polymerase [Prosthecochloris vibrio...formis DSM 265] gb|ABP36661.1| O-antigen polymerase [Prosthecochloris vibrioformis DSM 265] YP_001130163.1 0.33 27% ...

  11. Elimination of Pathogenic Bacterium (Micrococcus sp.) by the Use of Probiotics

    , Tejpal Dahiya; , S. K. Gahlawat; R.C. Sihag

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics 1 (Lactobacillus sporogenes), 2 (Saccharomyces boulardii) and 3 (Nitromonas, Rhodococcus, Bacilus megaterium, Lecheni formis, Desulphovibrio sulphuricum, Psuedomonas, Chromatium, Chlorobium, Thiobacillus, Thioxidants, Thiobacilus ferroxidant, Methylomonas methyanica, Glucon acetobactor, Azospirillum, Trichoderma, Shizophyllum commune and Sclertium gluconicum) were tested against the pathogenic Micrococcus sp. oxt in vitro as well a...

  12. Triple-quantum filtered NMR imaging of sodium in the human brain

    Keltner, J.R.

    1993-04-01

    In the past multiple-quantum filtered imaging of biexponential relaxation sodium-23 nuclei in the human brain has been limited by low signal to noise ratios; this thesis demonstrates that such imaging is feasible when using a modified gradient-selected triple-quantum filter at a repetition time which maximizes the signal to noise ratio. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of biexponential relaxation sodium-23 ({sup 23}Na) nuclei in the human brain may be useful for detecting ischemia, cancer, and pathophysiology related to manic-depression. Conventional single-quantum NMR imaging of in vivo biexponential relaxation {sup 23}Na signals is complicated by the presence of single-exponential relaxation {sup 23}Na signals. Multiple-quantum filters may be used to selectively image biexponential relaxation {sup 23}Na signals since these filters suppress single-exponential relaxation {sup 23}Na signals. In this thesis, the typical repetition times (200--300 ms) used for in vivo multiple-quantum filtered {sup 23}Na experiments are shown to be approximately 5 times greater than the optimal repetition time which maximizes multiple-quantum filtered SNR. Calculations and experimental verification show that the gradient-selected triple-quantum (GS3Q) filtered SNR for {sup 23}Na in a 4% agarose gel increases by a factor of two as the repetition time decreases from 300 ms to 55 ms. The measured relaxation times of the {sup 23}Na in the 4% agarose gel were similar to in vivo {sup 23}Na relaxation times.

  13. Rodzina dotknięta przemocą – możliwości i formy pomocy na podstawie badań Specjalistycznych Ośrodków Wsparcia dla Ofiar Przemocy w Rodzinie w regionie dolnośląskim/ Violence Affected Family – Possibilities and Forms of Assistance Based on the Research of Specialist Centers of Support for Victims of Domestic Violence in the Region of Lower Silesia

    BEATA ŚWIĄTEK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Family has always created an indispensable environment for a man to fulfill his needs and for his development. Family makes our lives meaningful, helps to put plans into practice and to assign goals. The need for belonging to a family constitutes a value dear to all communities. In the literature of the subject there exists a general division into functional and non-functional families. One of the factors determining a family's capability is violence. It influences the quality of the offspring upbringing, family relationships and bonds. In its air social competence of parents declines and their attitude to family-related responsibilities deteriorates. The issue of domestic violence is tackles by specialists of the area of law, psychology, sociology, pedagogy and medicine, who are studying sources and methods of fighting with this phenomenon. Its social damage is so devastating that its unambiguous definition is almost impossible. In the face of a serious threat generated by domestic violence in recent years, there have been held campaigns, workshops, local and nationwide conferences to promote assistance to violence-stricken victims. Preventive schemes have also been developed to restrain violence in schools and local community. Violence affected individuals can seek help in centers founded especially for this purpose and maintained by local councils (MOPS or county councils (PCPR, as well as non-government organizations and associations. A comprehensive support for families suffering from domestic violence is provided by Emergency Intervention Centers and Specialist Centers of Support for Victims of domestic Violence. In the region of Lower Silesia there exist two institutions of such a character, one inWroclaw and the other one in Walbrzych. Their activity involves therapeutic tasks, aid and provision for victims of domestic violence.

  14. Český šlechtický testament pozdního středověku - reálné badatelské téma? (Prolegomena k výzkumnému záměru)

    Šimůnek, Robert

    Praha: Scriptorium, 2006 - (Jíšová, K.; Doležalová, E.), s. 95-115 ISBN 80-86197-72-7. [Pozdně středověké testamenty v českých zemích. Prameny, metodologie a formy využití. Praha (CZ), 30.11.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : history * Nobility * Last will Subject RIV: AB - History

  15. Rapid detection of malto-oligosaccharide-forming bacterial amylases by high performance anion-exchange chromatography

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Larsen, K. L.; Zimmermann, W.

    2000-01-01

    High performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection was applied for the rapid analysis of malto-oligosaccharides formed by extracellular enzyme preparations from 49 starch-degrading bacterial strains isolated from soil and compost samples. Malto-oligosaccharide-formi......-oligosaccharide-forming amylases, indicated by a predominant formation of maltohexaose from starch, were produced by enzyme preparations from four of the isolates growing at pH 7.0 and 10....

  16. Zaključenje, punovažnost i dokazivanje elektronskih ugovora: komparativna analiza

    Trnavci, Genc

    2009-01-01

    Pravna regulacija transakcija elektronskim putem doživjela je pravi procvat u posljednje vrijeme. Usporedna zakonodavastva posebnu pažnju su posvetila problemima u vezi sa zaključivanjem elektronskih ugovora, odnosno postizanjem pravno relevantne suglasnosti prilikom njihovog zaključenja, dokazivanju postojanja i tumačenju sadržaja elektronskih ugovora i elektronskoj formi kao uvjetu punovažnosti ugovora. Zahtjevom primjene sigurnog (naprednog, kvalificiranog) elektronskog potpisa pravni prop...

  17. Preparation and Crystallographic Analysis of Gliclazide Polymorphs

    Rajamma, A. J.; S B Sateesha; Narode, M. K.; V R S S Prashanth; A M Karthik

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of gliclazide in the pharmaceutical industry, a large number of research groups have been engaged in various investigations aiming to enhance its biomedical application. But, very limited efforts have been made to study polymorphism of gliclazide. Therefore, this study focuses on solvent-induced polymorphism of gliclazide and its characterization by thermal methods. Three polymorphs namely, Form-I, II and III and an amorphous powder were produced from different solvents...

  18. Preparation and crystallographic analysis of gliclazide polymorphs.

    Rajamma, A J; Sateesha, S B; Narode, M K; Prashanth, V R S S; Karthik, A M

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of gliclazide in the pharmaceutical industry, a large number of research groups have been engaged in various investigations aiming to enhance its biomedical application. But, very limited efforts have been made to study polymorphism of gliclazide. Therefore, this study focuses on solvent-induced polymorphism of gliclazide and its characterization by thermal methods. Three polymorphs namely, Form-I, II and III and an amorphous powder were produced from different solvents and solvent mixtures. Crystals were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and single crystal x-ray diffraction. Polymorph Form-I is found to exist in centro-symmetric triclinic P-1 space group and has endothermic peak at 162.93°. Form-II has endothermic peak from 171.2° to 172.35° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P21/a space group while Form-III has endothermic peak from 168.93° to 169.86° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P21/n space group. The equilibrium solubility values of Form-I, II, III and the amorphous form were 0.4825±0.025, 0.2341±0.042, 0.2581±0.038 and 0.5213±0.072 mg/ml, respectively. The Form-I has relatively higher solubility and similar to that of amorphous gliclazide. Form-II and Form-III are relatively most stable and least soluble. However, there was no remarkable difference in their aqueous solubility under the conditions in which study was conducted. PMID:25767316

  19. Coastal polynyas in the southwestern Weddell Sea: ice production and bottom water formation

    Haid, Verena; Timmermann, Ralph; Ebner, Lars; Heinemann, Günther

    2011-01-01

    Coastal polynyas are areas in the ice-covered ocean from which the sea-ice cover has been mechanically removed, primarily by winds. They are areas of enhanced exchange processes between ocean and atmosphere. The increased heat flux allows for exceptionally high freezing rates, which lead to locally increased brine-rejection. In the southwestern Weddell Sea, wide continental shelves and a weak exchange with the open ocean provide conditions that allow for substantial salinity enrichment, formi...

  20. Doplňující informace k testamentu královny Žofie s přihlédnutím k pozůstalostnímu inventáři

    Kopičková, Božena

    Praha : Scriptorium, 2006 - (Jíšová, K.; Doležalová, E.), s. 121-137 ISBN 80-86852-11-3. [Pozdně středověké testamenty v českých zemích. Prameny, metodologie a formy využití. Praha (CZ), 30.11.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : history * middle ages * analysis of source Subject RIV: AB - History

  1. Back Street Bounty

    DAVID SPARKES

    2010-01-01

    @@ As soon as I stepped into the main street of the old city in Pingyao.Shanxi Province.I had a feeling I would not like the place.In fact.I basically made my mind up on the spot that I disliked it.It looked overly touristy.clichéd and lacking in the authenticity I was hoping for.My escape from Beijing's expat scene was looking shaky.

  2. Preparation and crystallographic analysis of gliclazide polymorphs

    A J Rajamma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of gliclazide in the pharmaceutical industry, a large number of research groups have been engaged in various investigations aiming to enhance its biomedical application. But, very limited efforts have been made to study polymorphism of gliclazide. Therefore, this study focuses on solvent-induced polymorphism of gliclazide and its characterization by thermal methods. Three polymorphs namely, Form-I, II and III and an amorphous powder were produced from different solvents and solvent mixtures. Crystals were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and single crystal x-ray diffraction. Polymorph Form-I is found to exist in centro-symmetric triclinic P-1 space group and has endothermic peak at 162.93°. Form-II has endothermic peak from 171.2° to 172.35° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P2 1 /a space group while Form-III has endothermic peak from 168.93° to 169.86° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P2 1 /n space group. The equilibrium solubility values of Form-I, II, III and the amorphous form were 0.4825±0.025, 0.2341±0.042, 0.2581±0.038 and 0.5213±0.072 mg/ml, respectively. The Form-I has relatively higher solubility and similar to that of amorphous gliclazide. Form-II and Form-III are relatively most stable and least soluble. However, there was no remarkable difference in their aqueous solubility under the conditions in which study was conducted.

  3. Využití elektronického marketingu

    Červená, Renata

    2007-01-01

    Obsahem bakalářské práce je analýza elektronického marketingu a jeho využití v internetovém prostředí. Základem je nalezení nejvýhodnější formy internetové reklamy a její srovnání s ostatními formami reklamy na Internetu.

  4. The Relationship with Self Esteem Between Assertiveness Levels of Sub-Elite In-Door Soccer Players

    Serdar SUCAN; TURAN, Mehmet Behzat; Osman PEPE; Doğan DOĞAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigated the relationship with self esteem between assertiveness levels of sub-elite in-door soccer players. For this aim, 18–28 aged, 86 male and 91 female athletes studying 7 universities which joined in-door soccer championship of Turkish University Sport Federation was participated to study volunteerly.Participants were performed socio- demographic data formi Rathus Assertiveness Schedule and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Data were analyzed by using IBM ...

  5. Spiral Ganglion Stem Cells Can Be Propagated and Differentiated Into Neurons and Glia

    Diensthuber, Marc; Zecha, Veronika; Wagenblast, Jens; Arnhold, Stefan; Albert S. B. Edge; Stöver, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The spiral ganglion is an essential functional component of the peripheral auditory system. Most types of hearing loss are associated with spiral ganglion cell degeneration which is irreversible due to the inner ear's lack of regenerative capacity. Recent studies revealed the existence of stem cells in the postnatal spiral ganglion, which gives rise to the hope that these cells might be useful for regenerative inner ear therapies. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of sphere-formi...

  6. Microcyle Conidiation in Filamentous Fungi

    Jung, Boknam; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-01-01

    The typical life cycle of filamentous fungi commonly involves asexual sporulation after vegetative growth in response to environmental factors. The production of asexual spores is critical in the life cycle of most filamentous fungi. Normally, conidia are produced from vegetative hyphae (termed mycelia). However, fungal species subjected to stress conditions exhibit an extremely simplified asexual life cycle, in which the conidia that germinate directly generate further conidia, without formi...

  7. FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE FLOATING TABLETS BY USING TWO VISCOSITY GRADE OF HPMC

    Shubhrajit Mantry et al

    2012-01-01

    Metoprolol is a beta1-selective (cardio selective) adrenergic receptor blocking agent used in the treatment of Hypertension. The purpose of this investigation is to improve bioavailability by preparing a gastroretentive drug delivery system. Floating tablets of Metoprolol Succinate were prepared by employing two different grades of HPMC K4M and HPMC E15M in different concentrations by effervescent granulation technique. These grades of HPMC K4M and HPMC E15M were evaluated for their gel formi...

  8. Activation methods of retrospective dosimetry using biological samples

    23Na and 32S are stable isotopes which are present in humans - 23Na in blood and other tissues, 32S in hair. When human body is irradiated by neutrons, nuclear reactions 23Na(n,γ)24Na and 32S(n,p)32P occur, the products, 24Na and 32P, being radioactive. The induced activity can be used for retrospective assessment of the neutron dose. The principle of this dosimetry application is described. As a particular case, the relations between the activity and neutron dose were derived for irradiation of a human by the fission neutron spectrum. (orig.)

  9. Study of the astrophysically important $\\boldsymbol{^{23}\\mathrm{Na}(\\alpha,p)^{26}\\mathrm{Mg}}$ and $\\boldsymbol{^{23}\\mathrm{Na}(\\alpha,n)^{26}\\mathrm{Al}}$ reactions

    Avila, M L; Almaraz-Calderon, S; Ayangeakaa, A D; Dickerson, C; Hoffman, C R; Jiang, C L; Kay, B P; Lai, J; Nusair, O; Pardo, R C; Santiago-Gonzalez, D; Talwar, R; Ugalde, C

    2016-01-01

    The $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg and $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al reactions are important for our understanding of the $^{26}$Al abundance in massive stars. The aim of this work is to report on a direct and simultaneous measurement of these astrophysically important reactions using an active target system. The reactions were investigated in inverse kinematics using $^{4}$He as the active target gas in the detector. We measured the excitation functions in the energy range of about 2 to 6 MeV in the center of mass. We have found that the cross sections of the $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg and the $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al reactions are in good agreement with previous experiments, and with statistical model calculations.

  10. The registration of signals from the nuclei other than protons at 0.5 T MRI scanner

    Anisimov, N.; Volkov, D.; Gulyaev, M.; Pavlova, O.; Pirogov, Yu

    2016-02-01

    The practical aspects of the adaptation of the medical MRI scanner for multinuclear applications are considered. Examples of high resolution NMR spectra for nuclei 19F, 31P, 23Na, 11B, 13C, 2H, and also NQR spectrum for 35Cl are given. Possibilities of MRI for nuclei 19F, 31P, 23Na, 11B are shown. Experiments on registration of signals 19F from the fluorocarbons injected in laboratory animals are described.

  11. Spectroscopic Studies with N-Chloroarylsulphonamides: IR and 1H, 13C and 23Na Nmr Spectra of Sodium Salts of N-Chloro-Mono- and Di-Substituted-Benzenesulphonamides, 4-X-C6H4SO2NANCl (X = H; CH3; C2H5; F; Cl; Br; I or NO2) and i-X, j-YC6H3SO2NANCl (i-X, j-Y = 2,3-(CH3)2; 2,4-(CH3)2; 2,5-(CH3)2; 2-CH3, 4-Cl; 2-CH3, 5-Cl; 3-CH3, 4-Cl; 2,4-Cl2 or 3,4-Cl2)

    Gowda; D'Souza, J. D.; Kumar, B. H. Arun

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to introduce N-chloroarylsulphonamides of different oxydising strengths, sixteen sodium salts of N-chloro-mono- and di-substituted benzenesulphonamides of the configuration, 4- X-C6H4SO2NaNCl (where X = H; CH3; C2H5; F; Cl; Br; I or NO2) and i-X, j-YC6H3SO2NaNCl (where i-X, j-Y = 2,3-(CH3)2; 2,4-(CH3)2; 2,5-(CH3)2; 2-CH3,4-Cl; 2-CH3,5-Cl; 3-CH3,4-Cl; 2,4- Cl2 or 3,4-Cl2) are prepared, characterized through their infrared spectra in the solid state and NMR spectra in solution. The υN-Cl frequencies vary in the range 950 - 927 cm-1. Effects of substitution in the benzene ring in terms of electron donating and electron withdrawing groups have been considered, and conclusions drawn. The chemical shifts of aromatic protons and carbon-13 in all the N-chloroarylsulphonamides have been calculated by adding substituent contributions to the shift of benzene. Considering the approximation employed the agreement between the calculated and experimental chemical shift values for different protons or carbon-13 is quite good. Effects of phenyl ring substitution on chemical shift values of both 1H and 13C are also graphically represented in terms of line diagrams.

  12. Whole body sodium MRI at 3T using an asymmetric birdcage resonator and short echo time sequence: first images of a male volunteer

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (23Na MRI) is a non-invasive technique which allows spatial resolution of the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in the human body. TSC measurements could potentially serve to monitor early treatment success of chemotherapy on patients who suffer from whole body metastases. Yet, the acquisition of whole body sodium (23Na) images has been hampered so far by the lack of large resonators and the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) achieved with existing resonator systems. In this study, a 23Na resonator was constructed for whole body 23Na MRI at 3T comprising of a 16-leg, asymmetrical birdcage structure with 34 cm height, 47.5 cm width and 50 cm length. The resonator was driven in quadrature mode and could be used either as a transceiver resonator or, since active decoupling was included, as a transmit-only resonator in conjunction with a receive-only (RO) surface resonator. The relative B1-field profile was simulated and measured on phantoms, and 3D whole body 23Na MRI data of a healthy male volunteer were acquired in five segments with a nominal isotropic resolution of (6 × 6 × 6) mm3 and a 10 min acquisition time per scan. The measured SNR values in the 23Na-MR images varied from 9 ± 2 in calf muscle, 15 ± 2 in brain tissue, 23 ± 2 in the prostate and up to 42 ± 5 in the vertebral discs. Arms, legs, knees and hands could also be resolved with applied resonator and short time-to-echo (TE) (0.5 ms) radial sequence. Up to fivefold SNR improvement was achieved through combining the birdcage with local RO surface coil. In conclusion, 23Na MRI of the entire human body provides sub-cm spatial resolution, which allows resolution of all major human body parts with a scan time of less than 60 min. (paper)

  13. Sodium-23 MRI of whole spine at 3 Tesla using a 5-channel receive-only phased-array and a whole-body transmit resonator

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (23Na MRI) is a unique and non-invasive imaging technique which provides important information on cellular level about the tissue of the human body. Several applications for 23Na MRI were investigated with regard to the examination of the tissue viability and functionality for example in the brain, the heart or the breast. The 23Na MRI technique can also be integrated as a potential monitoring instrument after radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The main contribution in this work was the adaptation of 23Na MRI for spine imaging, which can provide essential information on the integrity of the intervertebral disks with respect to the early detection of disk degeneration. In this work, a transmit-only receive-only dual resonator system was designed and developed to cover the whole human spine using 23Na MRI and increase the receive sensitivity. The resonator system consisted of an already presented 23Na whole-body resonator and a newly developed 5-channel receive-only phased-array. The resonator system was first validated using bench top and phantom measurements. A threefold SNR improvement at the depth of the spine (∝7 cm) over the whole-body resonator was achieved using the spine array. 23Na MR measurements of the human spine using the transmit-only receive-only resonator system were performed on a healthy volunteer within an acquisition time of 10 minutes. A density adapted 3D radial sequence was chosen with 6 mm isotropic resolution, 49 ms repetition time and a short echo time of 540 μs. Furthermore, it was possible to quantify the tissue sodium concentration in the intervertebral discs in the lumbar region (120 ms repetition time) using this setup.

  14. Sodium-23 MRI of whole spine at 3 Tesla using a 5-channel receive-only phased-array and a whole-body transmit resonator

    Malzacher, Matthias; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Haneder, Stefan [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; University Hospital of Cologne, Koeln (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-05-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging ({sup 23}Na MRI) is a unique and non-invasive imaging technique which provides important information on cellular level about the tissue of the human body. Several applications for {sup 23}Na MRI were investigated with regard to the examination of the tissue viability and functionality for example in the brain, the heart or the breast. The {sup 23}Na MRI technique can also be integrated as a potential monitoring instrument after radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The main contribution in this work was the adaptation of {sup 23}Na MRI for spine imaging, which can provide essential information on the integrity of the intervertebral disks with respect to the early detection of disk degeneration. In this work, a transmit-only receive-only dual resonator system was designed and developed to cover the whole human spine using {sup 23}Na MRI and increase the receive sensitivity. The resonator system consisted of an already presented {sup 23}Na whole-body resonator and a newly developed 5-channel receive-only phased-array. The resonator system was first validated using bench top and phantom measurements. A threefold SNR improvement at the depth of the spine (∝7 cm) over the whole-body resonator was achieved using the spine array. {sup 23}Na MR measurements of the human spine using the transmit-only receive-only resonator system were performed on a healthy volunteer within an acquisition time of 10 minutes. A density adapted 3D radial sequence was chosen with 6 mm isotropic resolution, 49 ms repetition time and a short echo time of 540 μs. Furthermore, it was possible to quantify the tissue sodium concentration in the intervertebral discs in the lumbar region (120 ms repetition time) using this setup.

  15. Obytné prostředí v území postiženém útlumem těžby (na příkladu Ostravska)

    Kallabová, Eva; Pokluda, František

    Olomouc : Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, Katedra geografie Přírodovědecké fakulty, 2004 - (Fňukal, M.; Szczyrba, Z.), s. 103-111 ISBN 80-2440937-2. [Bydlení – nové formy a dimenze. Olomouc (CZ), 23.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK3046108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : inhibition of underground mining * dwelling environment * Ostrava region * land use Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  16. Primjena informacijske i komunikacijske tehnologije (ICT) u slovenskom obrazovnom sustavu

    Gerlič, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Istraživački projekt Didaktički aspekti primjene informacijske i komunikacijske tehnologije (ICT) – učenje i vježbanje pokriva slijedeće teme: analiza ICT-a, kreiranje i određivanje didaktičkih aspekata ICT-a u slovenskom obrazovnom sustavu, kreiranje i određivanje didaktičkih formi, metoda, pristupa, modela informacijske i komunikacijske tehnologije u obrazovanju i vježbanju, njihove praktične vrijednosti te kompatibilnost sa suvremenim ciljevima obrazovnih sustava.

  17. Stare nje i (ne)moć. U povodu 100. obljetnice rođenja Simone de Beauvoir

    Polić, Rajka

    2009-01-01

    Na pragu starosti, sa šezdeset godina, Simone de Beauvoir piše o egzistencijalnim pitanjima starih ljudi. Svojom knjigom Starost pokušava razriješiti dvojbe koje se emancipiranoj osobi starenjem nezaobilazno postavljaju. Starost je nužnost dugog života za koju nismo dovoljno pripremljeni pa je Simone de Beauvoir temu obuhvatila kao antropološko, ekonomsko, sociološko, povijesno, političko i civilizacijsko pitanje. Napisana u formi eseja, knjiga je obilato protkana osobnošću autorice. Pišuć...

  18. You can be a wizard of IDS. Is your practice ready to form an integrated delivery system?

    Fabrizio, Nick A

    2007-09-01

    To combat declining reimbursement and strengthen their positions in a highly competitive provider environment, leaders of large medical groups may consider forming an integrate delivery system (IDS) to gain a business advantage. Managing the array of organizational, operational, financial and human relationships affected by an IDS requires careful planning, good timing and a bit of luck. This article, the first of a two-part series, examines what questions physician practice leaders should ask--and answer--before formiing an IDS. PMID:17910216

  19. Zagonetka nadolazećega događaja. Između vjere i tehno-znanosti (Heidegger i Deleuze)

    Paić, Žarko

    2014-01-01

    U članku se tematizira problem trijumfa tehno-znanosti u stvaranju umjetne inteligencije i umjetnoga života spram mišljenja suvremene filozofije. Autor pokazuje kako je tzv. svjetonazorni spor između »uma« i »vjere« u suočenju s pitanjem o ljudskoj egzisten- ciji u formi kibernetičkih sustava kaosa i kontrole ispod razine mišljenja primjerenoga suvremenosti. U ekstenzivnoj analizi mišljenja Heideggera i Deleuzea kao paradigmat- skih filozofa za pitanje o sudbini metafizike danas naglašava se ...

  20. Structure of the Sierra de Lujar (Alpujarride Complex, Betic Cordillera)

    Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; López Garrido, Angel Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Sierra de Lujar constitutes one of the best examples of fold superposition of the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera (S Spain). In this paper, the members of its Triassic carbonate series have been used for the first time to obtain the cartography of the Sierra de Lujar, providing knowledge of the two folding systems, the older trending E-W and the younger (far better represented), NNE-SSW. The most important fold is a large reverse syncline with a convex axis towards the SE, formi...

  1. Društveno-gospodarske reforme 1950-1952. i njihov odraz na upravu Narodne Republike Hrvatske

    Holjevac Tuković, Ana

    2004-01-01

    U članku su u kraćim crtama prikazane društveno-gospodarske prilike 1950-ih u Jugoslaviji, koje su uvjetovale provođenje niza reformi. Istaknute su glavne odrednice ideološko-političkih promjena uvjetovane pokušajima uvođenja samoupravljanja. Nadalje se analizira državna uprava i upravne reforme na saveznoj razini kao i njihov odraz na republike, odnosno upravu u Hrvatskoj. Posebno je naznačen proces napuštanja upravnih organizacijskih formi uspostavljenih u poslijeratnoj fazi državne uprave ...

  2. Transfer technologii a gospodarka

    Mączyński, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Transfer technologii jest obecnie kluczem do konkurencyjności i rozwoju ekonomicznego państw. Już wiele lat temu tacy ekonomiści, jak Robert Solow i Joseph Schumpeter, uznali inwestowanie w nowe technologie i ich upowszechnianie za siłę napędową wzrostu gospodarczego. Transfer technologii wpływa na tempo i kierunki rozwoju gospodarczego, strukturę gospodarki, a także na powstawanie jej nowych gałęzi, w tym wysoko zaawansowanych technologicznie. Rynek technologii tworzy nowe formy walki konkur...

  3. Dynamika tożsamości instytucjonalnej wyrażana w zachowaniach komunikacyjnych wewnętrznych i zewnętrznych komunikatorów

    Krawczak, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Wydział Neofilologii: Katedra Ekokomunikacji Instytucje stanowią najdoskonalsze formy społecznej organizacji, które zostały powołane do sfery publicznej w celu realizowania specyficznych funkcji. Niniejsza dysertacja zmierza do określenia dynamiki instytucjonalnej tożsamości wyrażanej przez wewnętrznych i zewnętrznych komunikatorów w zachowaniach komunikacyjnych. Kolektywna aktywność instytucji jest osiągalna dzięki działalności wyżej wymienionych komunikatorów tj. ludzkich agensów komunik...

  4. Bis{2-[1-(8-hydroxy-2-quinolylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinolin-8-ol} toluene solvate

    Qing-Ming Wang; Qi Ma; Hui-Li Chen

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of the title compound, 2C26H18N4O2·C7H8, were obtained from the reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline with 1,2-phenylenediamine in methanol and recrystallized from toluene. The compound contains three essentially planar ring systems: the benzimidazole ring (r.m.s. deviation = 0.039 Å) and two 8-hydroxyquinoline rings (r.m.s. deviations of 0.0056 Å in both rings). The benzimidazole ring and one 8-hydroxyquinoline ring are almost co-planar, formi...

  5. 各向异性网格下具有数值积分的非协调有限元逼近%Nonconforming Finite Element Approximation on Anisotropic Meshes with Numerical Quadrature

    杨乔; 石东洋

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we mainly discuss the nonconforming finite element method for second order elliptic boundary value problems on anisotropic meshes. By changing the discretization form(i.e., by use of numerical quadrature in the procedure of computing the left load ), we obtain the optimal estimate O(h), which is as same as in the traditional finite element analysis when the load f∈H1(Ω)∩C0(Ω) which is weaker than the previous studies. The results obtained in this paper are also valid to the conforming triangular element and nonconforming Carey's element.

  6. Structural and mechanistic investigations on Salmonella typhimurium acetate kinase (AckA: identification of a putative ligand binding pocket at the dimeric interface

    Chittori Sagar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium can utilize acetate as the sole source of carbon and energy. Acetate kinase (AckA and phosphotransacetylase (Pta, key enzymes of acetate utilization pathway, regulate flux of metabolites in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, glyoxylate bypass and fatty acid metabolism. Results Here we report kinetic characterization of S. typhimurium AckA (StAckA and structures of its unliganded (Form-I, 2.70 Å resolution and citrate-bound (Form-II, 1.90 Å resolution forms. The enzyme showed broad substrate specificity with kcat/Km in the order of acetate > propionate > formate. Further, the Km for acetyl-phosphate was significantly lower than for acetate and the enzyme could catalyze the reverse reaction (i.e. ATP synthesis more efficiently. ATP and Mg2+ could be substituted by other nucleoside 5′-triphosphates (GTP, UTP and CTP and divalent cations (Mn2+ and Co2+, respectively. Form-I StAckA represents the first structural report of an unliganded AckA. StAckA protomer consists of two domains with characteristic βββαβαβα topology of ASKHA superfamily of proteins. These domains adopt an intermediate conformation compared to that of open and closed forms of ligand-bound Methanosarcina thermophila AckA (MtAckA. Spectroscopic and structural analyses of StAckA further suggested occurrence of inter-domain motion upon ligand-binding. Unexpectedly, Form-II StAckA structure showed a drastic change in the conformation of residues 230–300 compared to that of Form-I. Further investigation revealed electron density corresponding to a citrate molecule in a pocket located at the dimeric interface of Form-II StAckA. Interestingly, a similar dimeric interface pocket lined with largely conserved residues could be identified in Form-I StAckA as well as in other enzymes homologous to AckA suggesting that ligand binding at this pocket may influence the function of these

  7. Have Library Symbols Been Changed by Cultural Differences? A Comparative Study of the Example of the Logos of Libraries

    Anameriç, Hakan; Kruszewski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Pierwotna wersja arykułu została wygłoszona w formie referatu podczas: 5th International Conference on Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Libraries 4 - 7 June 2013, "La Sapienza" University, Rome Italy. Artykuł złożono do druku u organizatora konferencji. This article analyses some visual artifacts which are using by libraries. Due to the spaciousness of the topic they focused on two of the main and popular artifacts: the watchwords and the logos of libraries from two cultural areas, ...

  8. Ples i upotreba droga kao značenjske prakse u sociologiji rave-kulture

    KRNIĆ, Rašeljka

    2013-01-01

    Potreba za modificiranjem ili odbacivanjem pojma subkulture javlja se početkom devedesetih, uglavnom kao reakcija na pojavu plesne elektronske glazbe i kulture koja oko nje nastaje. Upravo na tom primjeru postavlja se teza o promjenjivoj i kompleksnoj prirodi suvremenih mladenačkih kulturnih praksi, formi i stilova koji, da bi se razumjeli, zahtijevaju novu perspektivu i nove analitičke alate. Osim što su rave-kultura i različite scene elektronske glazbe poslužile kao “teren” n...

  9. Pravna kultura srednjovjekovne Dalmacije između usmenosti i pismenosti

    Lonza, Nella

    2013-01-01

    Analizom izvorne građe, uz primjenu komparativnih i teorijskih saznanja, autorica razmatra proces širenja pisanih oblika u privatnopravnim poslovima, sudskom postupku i normativnim oblicima u srednjovjekovnoj Dalmaciji. Revidirajući neka uvriježena shvaćanja u pravnopovijesnoj literaturi, analizira prijelazne faze i rani “suživot” usmenih i pisanih pravnih formi, vrijeme oblikovanja “pisanog standarda” te katalizatore tog procesa. Također prikazuje strategije stranaka u korištenju pisanih pra...

  10. Terroryzm współczesny zagrożeniem o charakterze globalnym

    Żuber, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Autor prezentuje terroryzm współczesny, jako zagrożenie o charakterze globalnym. Omawia cele terroryzmu współczesnego wykorzystywanego przez słabszych wobec silniejszych przeciwników. Zwraca uwagę na trudności w definiowaniu samego zjawiska, co wynika z braku jednolitych kryteriów pozwalających na określenie jednoznacznej definicji. następnie krótko charakteryzuje różnorodne formy działań o charakterze terrorystycznym, odbiegajace od terroryzmu konwencjonalnego (agroterroryzm, cyberterroryzm,...

  11. Capitolo III. Fenomeni religiosi all’origine della pittura rupestre

    Piazza, Simone

    2013-01-01

    1– L’eremitismo Il portico della basilica di Sant’Angelo in Formis conserva un breve ciclo pittorico del xii secolo che narra la vita dell’eremita Paolo di Tebe, nato all’inizio del iii secolo (tav. 51 a). Nelle quattro lunette ai lati della porta d’ingresso è raccontato l’incontro che, all’età di centotredici anni, secondo quanto tramandato da san Girolamo, il venerando Paolo avrebbe avuto con il monaco novantenne Antonio venuto in visita presso la sua dimora, una grotta nel deserto della Te...

  12. Nejnovější účinné látky přírodního původu pro anti-aging kosmetiku

    Fleková, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce studuje problematiku vybraných moderních anti-aging látek v kosmetických prostředcích. V literární rešerši byly popsány základní vlastnosti kůže a faktory ovlivňující její stárnutí. Dále byly popsány základní fyzikální formy kosmetických prostředků, základní kosmetické suroviny a nejnovější trendy v použití anti-aging látek. V experimentální části byly připraveny celkem čtyři fyzikální formy kosmetických prostředků – tonika, séra, masky a krémy. V této práci byly testován...

  13. A study of triton radiative capture in some light nuclei

    The aim of this work is to complete the knowledge of the nucleon Giant Dipole Resonance (G.D.R.) by means of the study of radiative capture of complex particles: tritons. The following reactions were studied: 12C(t,γ0)15N, 16O(t,γ)19F, 20Ne(t,γ)23Na, 24Mg(t,γ0)27Al, 24Mg(t,γ1)27Al*, 23Na(t,γ0)26Mg, 23Na(t,γ)26Mg* between between 1.5 and 3.5MeV incident triton energy. The detector was a 25x30cm NaI(Tl) crystal

  14. Calculation of the elastic collision properties of Na and Li atoms at ultracold temperature

    Zhang Ji-Cai; Zhang Ying; Du Bing-Ge; Sun Jin-Feng

    2009-01-01

    This paper firstly reports a theoretical study of elastic scattering properties in a mixture of 23Na and 7Li atoms at cold and ultracold temperatures in detail.Based on the new constructed accurate singlet X1∑+g and the triplet a3∑+u states interatomic potentials for 23Na7Li mixture,it calculates the scattering lengths and the effective ranges by three computational methods,and obtains good agreements.Using the mass scaling method,it also calculates 23Na6Li scattering lengths and s-wave and total elastic cross sections,whose rich resonance structures were found and interpreted in terms of quasibound diatomic levels trapped behind a centrifugal barrier.

  15. Sodium MRI in human heart: a review.

    Bottomley, Paul A

    2016-02-01

    This paper offers a critical review of the properties, methods and potential clinical application of sodium ((23)Na) MRI in human heart. Because the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in heart is about ~40 µmol/g wet weight, and the (23)Na gyromagnetic ratio and sensitivity are respectively about one-quarter and one-11th of that of hydrogen ((1)H), the signal-to-noise ratio of (23)Na MRI in the heart is about one-6000th of that of conventional cardiac (1)H MRI. In addition, as a quadrupolar nucleus, (23)Na exhibits ultra-short and multi-component relaxation behavior (T1 ~ 30 ms; T2 ~ 0.5-4 ms and 12-20 ms), which requires fast, specialized, ultra-short echo-time MRI sequences, especially for quantifying TSC. Cardiac (23)Na MRI studies from 1.5 to 7 T measure a volume-weighted sum of intra- and extra-cellular components present at cytosolic concentrations of 10-15 mM and 135-150 mM in healthy tissue, respectively, at a spatial resolution of about 0.1-1 ml in 10 min or so. Currently, intra- and extra-cellular sodium cannot be unambiguously resolved without the use of potentially toxic shift reagents. Nevertheless, increases in TSC attributable to an influx of intra-cellular sodium and/or increased extra-cellular volume have been demonstrated in human myocardial infarction consistent with prior animal studies, and arguably might also be seen in future studies of ischemia and cardiomyopathies--especially those involving defects in sodium transport. While technical implementation remains a hurdle, a central question for clinical use is whether cardiac (23)Na MRI can deliver useful information unobtainable by other more convenient methods, including (1)H MRI. PMID:25683054

  16. Optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of F=1 atomic gases

    Kim, Sooshin; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Shin, Y

    2016-01-01

    We report our study of the optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of $^{23}$Na atoms in the $F=1$ hyperfine spin states. Solving a set of rate equations for the spin populations under a probe beam, we obtain an analytic expression for the optical signal of the $F=1$ absorption imaging. Furthermore, we verify the result by measuring the absorption spectra of $^{23}$Na Bose-Einstein condensates prepared in various spin states with different probe beam pulse durations. The analytic result can be used in quantitative analysis of $F=1$ spinor condensate imaging and readily applied to other alkali atoms with $I=3/2$ nuclear spin such as $^{87}$Rb.

  17. A Practical Multinuclear Transceiver Volume Coil for in-vivo MRI/MRS at 7T

    Wang, Chunsheng; Li, Ye; Wu, Bing; Xu, Duan; Nelson, Sarah; Daniel B Vigneron; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2011-01-01

    A practical multinuclear transceiver RF volume coil with improved efficiency for in-vivo small animal 1H/13C/23Na MR applications at the ultrahigh magnetic field of 7T is reported. In the proposed design, the coil’s resonance frequencies for 1H and 13C are realized by using a traditional double-tuned approach while the resonant frequency for 23Na, which is only some 4-MHz away from the 13C frequency, is tuned based upon 13C channel by easy-operating capacitive “frequency switches”. In contras...

  18. A polarized alkali ion source

    The beam foil technique has been applied to detect nuclear vector polarization of a 10 keV 23Na+ beam. The result was about 70% of the atomic beam polarization thus limiting the depolarization by the surface ionizer to at most 30%. In a Coulomb excitation experiment with a tensor polarized 42 MeV 23Na7+ beam an effect of 0.011 +- 0.003 was measured yielding a value of t20 approx. 0.04 for the beam polarization. The depolarization during the acceleration process can be estimated to be about 0.8. (orig.)

  19. The potential of the ground state of NaRb

    Docenko, O; Ferber, R; Pashov, A; Knoeckel, H; Tiemann, E

    2003-01-01

    The X$^{1}\\Sigma ^{+}$ state of NaRb was studied by Fourier transform spectroscopy. An accurate potential energy curve was derived from more than 8800 transitions in isotopomers $^{23}$Na$^{85}$Rb and $^{23}$Na$^{87}$Rb. This potential reproduces the experimental observations within their uncertainties of 0.003 \\rcm to 0.007 \\rcm. The outer classical turning point of the last observed energy level ($v''=76$, $J''=27$) lies at $\\approx 12.4$ \\AA, leading to a energy of 4.5 \\rcm below the ground state asymptote.

  20. Optimal nuclear magnetic resonance excitation schemes for the central transition of a spin 3/2 in the presence of residual quadrupolar coupling.

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R; Jerschow, Alexej

    2008-12-14

    Optimal control theory is applied for enhancing the intensity of the central peak of a spin 3/2 signal in the presence of a residual quadrupolar coupling. While a maximum enhancement is always possible in the regime omega(rf) control and test these with (23)Na NMR in this regime. In addition to enhancing the intensity of the central transition signal, the satellite peaks can be effectively suppressed, which is a useful feature for the implementation in (23)Na imaging sequences. PMID:19071931

  1. Measurements of gamma rays from keV-neutron resonance capture by odd-Z nuclei in the 2s-1d shell region

    Igashira, Masayuki; Lee, Sam Yol; Mizuno, Satoshi; Hori, Jun-ichi [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors; Kitazawa, Hideo

    1998-03-01

    Measurements of gamma rays from keV-neutron resonance capture by {sup 19}F, {sup 23}Na, and {sup 27}Al, which are odd-Z nuclei in the 2s-1d shell region, were performed, using an anti-Compton HPGe spectrometer and a pulsed neutron source by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. Capture gamma rays from the 27-, 49-, and 97-keV resonances of {sup 19}F, the 35- and 53-keV resonances of {sup 23}Na, and the 35-keV resonance of {sup 27}Al were observed. Some results are presented. (author)

  2. Nuclear physics research. Progress report, April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985

    Reaction products arising from the interaction of 11B + 12C and 10B + 13C have been studied in the energy range 4 23Na excitation energy of 60 MeV. Above this excitation energy, the experimental uncertainties make this point less clear. Up to an excitation energy of 60 MeV in 23Na, a fusion limitation based on reaching a critical density of compound nucleus states like the yrast or statistical yrast line can not be responsible for the fusion cross section limitations observed for these entrance channels. The present data suggests that competing entrance channel processes are responsible for the observed fusion cross section limitations

  3. Study of $\\boldsymbol{(\\alpha,p)}$ and $\\boldsymbol{(\\alpha,n)}$ reactions with a Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber

    Avila, M L; Almaraz-Calderon, S; Ayangeakaa, A D; Dickerson, C; Hoffman, C R; Jiang, C L; Kay, B P; Lai, J; Nusair, O; Pardo, R C; Santiago-Gonzalez, D; Talwar, R; Ugalde, C

    2016-01-01

    A large number of $(\\alpha,p)$ and $(\\alpha,n)$ reactions are known to play a fundamental role in nuclear astrophysics. This work presents a novel technique to study these reactions with the active target system MUSIC whose segmented anode allows the investigation of a large energy range of the excitation function with a single beam energy. In order to verify the method, we performed a direct measurements of the previously measured reactions $^{17}$O$(\\alpha,n)^{20}$Ne, $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg, and $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al. These reactions were investigated in inverse kinematics using $^{4}$He gas in the detector to study the excitation function in the range of about 2 to 6 MeV in the center of mass. We found good agreement between the cross sections of the $^{17}$O$(\\alpha,n)^{20}$Ne reaction measured in this work and previous measurements. Furthermore we have successfully performed a simultaneous measurement of the $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg and $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al reactions.

  4. 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles in an antiferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate

    Stoof, H.T.C.; Vliegen, E.; Al Khawaja, U.

    2001-01-01

    We show that an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, which can for instance be created with 23-Na atoms in an optical trap, has not only singular line-like vortex excitations, but also allows for singular point-like topological excitations, i.e., 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles. We discuss the static and dynamic properties of these monopoles.

  5. Evaluation of sodium-23 neutron capture cross section data for the ENDF/B V-III file

    The evaluation of neutron cross sections of 23Na, material number 1156, for the ENDF/B File is described. Cross sections were evaluated between 10-5 eV and 15 MeV. Experimental data available up to March 1971 were included in the evaluation

  6. Sodium MRI of the human heart at 7.0 T: preliminary results.

    Graessl, Andreas; Ruehle, Anjuli; Waiczies, Helmar; Resetar, Ana; Hoffmann, Stefan H; Rieger, Jan; Wetterling, Friedrich; Winter, Lukas; Nagel, Armin M; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) and whole heart coverage (23)Na cardiac MRI at 7.0 T including single-cardiac-phase and cinematic (cine) regimes. A four-channel transceiver RF coil array tailored for (23)Na MRI of the heart at 7.0 T (f = 78.5 MHz) is proposed. An integrated bow-tie antenna building block is used for (1)H MR to support shimming, localization and planning in a clinical workflow. Signal absorption rate simulations and assessment of RF power deposition were performed to meet the RF safety requirements. (23) Na cardiac MR was conducted in an in vivo feasibility study. 3D gradient echo (GRE) imaging in conjunction with Cartesian phase encoding (total acquisition time T(AQ)  = 6 min 16 s) and whole heart coverage imaging employing a density-adapted 3D radial acquisition technique (T(AQ)  = 18 min 20 s) were used. For 3D GRE-based (23)Na MRI, acquisition of standard views of the heart using a nominal in-plane resolution of (5.0 × 5.0) mm(2) and a slice thickness of 15 mm were feasible. For whole heart coverage 3D density-adapted radial (23)Na acquisitions a nominal isotropic spatial resolution of 6 mm was accomplished. This improvement versus 3D conventional GRE acquisitions reduced partial volume effects along the slice direction and enabled retrospective image reconstruction of standard or arbitrary views of the heart. Sodium cine imaging capabilities were achieved with the proposed RF coil configuration in conjunction with 3D radial acquisitions and cardiac gating. Cardiac-gated reconstruction provided an enhancement in blood-myocardium contrast of 20% versus the same data reconstructed without cardiac gating. The proposed transceiver array enables (23)Na MR of the human heart at 7.0 T within clinical acceptable scan times. This capability is in positive alignment with the needs of explorations that are designed to examine the potential of (23)Na MRI for the assessment of cardiovascular and

  7. Validation of the sodium void reactivity effect prediction using JEFF-3.1 nuclear data

    Tommasi, J., E-mail: jean.tommasi@cea.f [CEA, DEN, CEA-Cadarache, DER/SPRC Bldg, 230, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Archier, P.; Ruggieri, J.M. [CEA, DEN, CEA-Cadarache, DER/SPRC Bldg, 230, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2010-11-15

    Near 60 Na void experiments performed in the zero power reactors MASURCA (CEA-Cadarache) and ZPPR (Argonne West - Idaho) have been analyzed using JEFF-3.1 nuclear data and the ERANOS-2.1 (deterministic) and TRIPOLI-4 (Monte-Carlo) codes. Some comparative calculations have been performed also using either JEFF-3.1, ENDF/B-VII.0 or JENDL-3.3 nuclear data for {sup 23}Na, as these three {sup 23}Na evaluations show marked differences. The Na void experiments have been selected to cover spectral conditions ranging from the relatively hard flux in the outer zone of a small fast reactor to the relatively soft flux in the inner zone of a large fast reactor. For in-fuel Na void patterns, there is a good agreement between ERANOS and TRIPOLI computations, while the deterministic calculations significantly underestimate the leakage component for Na void patterns in fertile regions. The agreement between ERANOS-2.1 + JEFF-3.1 predictions and experimental values is excellent for in-fuel Na void patterns in MASURCA experiments, but a significant underestimation of the leakage component occurs for in-fuel Na void patterns in ZPPR. For fertile Na void patterns, there is a clear underestimation of the leakage component, quantitatively different for MASURCA and ZPPR experiments. Variations in {sup 23}Na cross-section data also result in significant differences: ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 nuclear data for {sup 23}Na increase noticeably the predicted Na void worth values with respect to JEFF-3.1 data. The three {sup 23}Na evaluations differ at high energy (>500 keV, and especially >2 MeV), and this stresses the need for accurate additional measurements in this energy range.

  8. Finanční optimalizace dovozu zboží do tuzemska v režimu volného oběhu z pohledu deklaranta

    Sobotová, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    Bakalářská práce si klade za hlavní cíl optimalizaci finanční nákladovosti dovozu zboží ze třetích zemí do tuzemska z pohledu deklaranta. Při dosahování tohoto cíle vycházím z metod výpočtu celní hodnoty a z mezinárodních dodacích podmínek INCOTERMS 2000. Závěr učiněný v mé práci potvrzuje, že je možné docílit určité formy finanční optimalizace dovozu zboží pro deklaranta.

  9. Franchising ako jedna z možných foriem vstupu podniku na medzinárodné trhy

    Telgárska, Lýdia

    2006-01-01

    Práca pojednáva o franchisingu zo všeobecného hľadiska, to znamená teoretické vymedzenie, hlavné rysy franchisingu a výhody a nevýhody tejto formy podnikania. Ďalej sa zaoberá franchisingovými zmluvami, postupom ich uzatvárania a vzťahmi, ktoré vznikajú medzi poskytovateľom a príjemcom franšízy. Taktiež sa v nej rozoberajú špecifické rysy medzinárodného franchisingu a v neposlednej rade aplikácia franchisingu v medzinárodnej spoločnosti Starbucks.

  10. Návrh optimalizace prodeje internetové reklamy

    Benda, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Cílem práce je analyzovat reklamní kampaň, která proběhla na serveru Game-Park.cz z pohledu využití a prodeje internetové reklamy a vytvořit návrh optimálního prodeje internetové reklamy. Práce popisuje jednotlivé formy internetové reklamy a jejich vhodnost použití, dále je zde navrhnuto využití internetové reklamy pro úspěšné splnění cílů reklamní kampaně.

  11. Turystyka literacka i filmowa

    Stasiak, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Turystyka literacka i filmowa jest na początku XXI w. jedną z najdynamiczniej rozwijających się form turystyki kulturowej. Jej celem są zarówno miejsca i obiekty związane z życiem i działalnością twórców, jak i uwiecznione w dziełach plenery. Szczególne zainteresowanie turystów wzbudzają interaktywne teatralne formy zwiedzania, udział w różnorodnych wydarzeniach kulturalnych, wędrówki szlakami tematycznymi etc. W artykule zaprezentowano fenomen turystyki literacko-filmowej na świecie i w Euro...

  12. Humor a vtip v reklamě

    Krůtová, Iva

    2007-01-01

    Práce se zabývá problematikou využití humoru v reklamě. V teoretické části mapuje současnou situaci využití humorných reklam, sleduje historii, formy ale i právní stránku reklamy obecně. Podrobněji rozebírá problematiku erotiky, hudby a osobnosti v reklamě, ale také guerilla marketing, sociální reklamu a lidovou tvořivost. Hlavní důraz je však kladen na praktickou část práce, která popisuje marketingovou komunikaci společnosti Oskar (dnes Vodafone) a podrobněji ji rozebírá pomocí obsahové ana...

  13. Ocena oczekiwań studentów względem procesu nauczania jako źródła wiedzy i umiejętności niezbędnych do podjęcia pracy zawodowej – wyniki badań ankietowych

    Bąk, Iwona; Wawrzyniak, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Celem badań jest zwrócenie uwagi na oczekiwania studentów i pracodawców względem procesu nauczania, który powinien przygotować absolwentów uczelni do pracy zawodowej. Jest to szczególnie istotne w sytuacji, w której stopa bezrobocia w Polsce wśród osób w wieku 15–24 lata w IV kwartale 2013 roku wynosiła 27,3%1. Znajomość tych oczekiwań może być pomocna dla nauczycieli akademickich, którzy aby sprostać nowym wyzwaniom edukacyjnym, powinni dostosować zarówno treści, jak i formy n...

  14. Háðheimildamyndir. Samanburður við form heimildamynda, staða kvikmyndagerðamannsins og almenn umfjöllun

    Kristín Henný Moritz 1987

    2015-01-01

    Upphaf heimildamynda (e. documentary) má rekja allt aftur til upphaf kvikmyndagerðar. Háðheimildamyndir (e. mockumentary) eru uppspunnar heimildir kvikmyndaðar og settar fram í formi heimilda. Háðheimildamyndir er náskyldar heimildamyndum og hægt er að yfirfæra þær yfir á form og flokkun heimildamynda samkvæmt kenningum kvikmyndafræðingsins Bill Nichols. Í þessari ritgerð rýni ég í tilgang háðheimildamynda, stöðu kvikmyndagerðamanns kvikmyndanna og þær undirgreinar kvikmyndafræðinnar sem þær ...

  15. AcEST: DK951331 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0011_C01 708 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0011_C01. 5' end seq ... 4D1V1|Q4D1V1_TRYCR Formin, putative OS=Trypanosoma cruzi ... Align length 38 Score (bit) 37.0 E-value 1.2 Repor ... 4D1V1|Q4D1V1_TRYCR Formin, putative OS=Trypanosoma cruzi ... GN=... 37 1.2 tr|Q1HMI6|Q1HMI6_TRYCR Formin A OS=T ... rypanosoma cruzi ... strain CL B... 37 1.2 tr|Q4DJ48|Q4DJ48_TRYCR Formi ... n, putative OS=Trypanosoma cruzi ... GN=... 36 2.1 tr|Q1HMI8|Q1HMI8_TRYCR Formin A OS=T ...

  16. Ženski nadimci u starom Dubrovniku

    Stojan, Slavica

    2003-01-01

    Ženski nadimci nemaju samo identifikacijsku funkciju već pružaju i dodatne obavijesti o ženi, zadirući u pitanje njezina zanimanja, seksualne reputacije, izgleda, karakternih osobina, te iskazujući mišljenje društvene sredine u formi trajne stigme. Nositeljice nadimaka bile su žene iz puka, najčešće one s društvene margine, siromašne, zapuštene, zapale u duševnu i fizičku bijedu, osobito one koje su trgovale svojim tijelom. Ti nadimci vjerno odražavaju ženinu životnu zbilju i njezinu poziciju...

  17. E-learning jako forma wspomagania procesu nauczania informatyki

    Winnicki, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Wydział Studiów Edukacyjnych We współczesnym świecie dobra edukacja jest ważnym elementem jego prawidłowego rozwoju. Szybko rozwijająca się technologia XXI wieku sprawia, że każdy nauczyciel powinien sukcesywnie włączać ją w codzienny tryb swoich zajęć. Szkoły, chcąc być atrakcyjnymi i ciekawymi dla ucznia, będą musiały dostosować swoje formy i metody pracy z uczniem, przez uwzględnienie nowych technologii. W przedstawionej przeze mnie koncepcji pracy doktorskiej omówiłem planowany cyk...

  18. Branding vlastní značky s přesahem do obalového designu

    Domorád, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá vývojem mé vlastní značky, především definováním základních a důležitých informací v daném tématu. Představí vývoj vlastní značky, její jméno, logo, barevnost, charakter a vizuální formy. Stěžejním prvkem jsou sítotiskem tištěné prototypy papírových produktů a jejich prezentace na webu. This thesis deals with the development of my own brand, primarily by defining the basic and important information on the topic. Introduces the development of their own brand, ...

  19. Der Slogan - sprachliche Merkmale und Strategien

    Jońca, Anna Magdalena

    2000-01-01

    Artykuł poświęcony został relewantnym cechom języka reklamy. Już we wstępie autorka stwierdza, że obszerne przedstawienie języka reklamy jest utrudnione poprzez splot cech werbalnych i pozajęzykowych badanych tekstów. W celu przedstawienia najistotniejszych elementów definicji sloganu powołano się na wybrane wyniki badań Ruth Romer, Volkera Klotza, Nigela Forstera czy też Yahya Hassana Bajwy. Omawiając funkcje języka w sloganie jako ważnej formy werbalnej tekstów reklamowych...

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16142-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available formis cDNA, cleaving embryo clone:m... 50 0.20 1 ( FL483265 ) ScMD-4C3 suppressive subtractive hybridization... %: nuclear 24.0 %: mitochondrial 20.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for Contig-U16142-1 is nuc VS (DIR, S) 1..... 46 3.2 1 ( AM989984 ) Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain CBS 732 Contig5. 46 3.2 1 ( AL161559 ) Arabidopsis thalia...Nam... 78 6e-17 AY896243_1( AY896243 |pid:none) Trichomonas vaginalis strain G3 sm... 80 6e-17 BT076341_1( BT076341 |pid:none) Cali...se: 8402 Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Gapped Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Matrix: blastn matrix:1 -3 Gap Penalties: Exist

  1. Gŭqín (古琴) – muzyczny instrument filozofów. W jaki sposób gra na gu qin i słuchanie muzyki na nim wykonywanej prowadzi do mądrości?

    Mazur, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    Gŭqín, starożytny, chiński instrument strunowy sam w sobie jest zjawiskiem niezwykłym. Prawdopodobnie jest najstarszym instrumentem solowym, zachowanym do naszych czasów w formie nie zmienionej, co najmniej od 2500 lat. Wraz z upływem czasu instrument i muzyka na nim wykonywana obrosły w symbolikę nadającą sztuce gry na gŭqín wymiar kosmologiczny i filozoficzny. Gŭqín stał się jednym z atrybutów chińskiego mędrca-filozofa, a zrozumienie znaczenia instrumentu stało się obowiązkowym elementem w...

  2. Vyhledávání objektu v digitálních snímcích

    Šramko, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Tato práce se venuje detekci objektu v digitálních snímcích. Popisuje teoretické predpokladyk vyhledávání pomocí algoritmu template matching a SURF a jejich následné využití prirešení korespondencního problému. Dále se práce venuje návrhu, implementaci a testováníaplikace využívající zmínené algoritmy v jazyku C++ za využití knihoven OpenCV a Qt.Na záver popisuje formy testování a shrnuje získané výsledky. This work deals with pattern matching in digital images. It describes theoretical pr...

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11694-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ykyknknkik*nktif**f*kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kk Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: kksqslfyfkinlnl*kqiflfiyfnh**pnnyl...88 2e-15 CP000510_2119( CP000510 |pid:none) Psychromonas ingrahamii 37, com... 88 2e-15 (Q92I22) RecName: Full=Succinyl...ne) Pseudomonas aeruginosa succinyl-Co... 91 2e-16 AM711867_2575( AM711867 |pid:none) Clavibacter michiganen...ococcus capsulatus str. B... 85 1e-14 (P0AGE9) RecName: Full=Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-formi...one 39462 m... 82 1e-13 ( P53596 ) RecName: Full=Probable succinyl-CoA ligase [GDP-forming... 82 1e-13 CP000931_2467( CP000931 |pid

  4. Ochrana ocelových konstrukcí proti korozi

    Mareš, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Práce se zabývá problematikou koroze a možnostmi protikorozní ochrany ocelových konstrukcí. Postupně jsou zmíněny principy a mechanismy elektrochemické koroze, formy korozního napadení a vlivy prostředí na korozní procesy. Dále je věnována pozornost specifickým ocelovým konstrukcím a možnosti jejich protikorozní ochrany. V závěru jsou popsány metody korozního monitoringu.

  5. Neolitička keramička figurica iz Pupićine peći

    Hulina, Mateja

    2012-01-01

    U ovom radu predstavljena je keramička figurica iz srednjeg neolitika pronađena u špilji Pupićina peć u sjeveroistočnoj Istri. Figurica je najvjerojatnije antropomorfna, a sačuvane su samo noge i donji dio trupa. Ovo je jedina do sada objavljena neolitička figurica iz Istre i jedna od malobrojnih s hrvatske obale i zaleđa koje su ovdje također detaljnije opisane. Najbliže tipološke paralele za figuricu iz Pupićine peći mogu se pronaći u Bugarskoj, u obliku kamenih figurica/privjesaka M-formi...

  6. Viðhorf ungmenna til kannabis: Samanburður á nemendum 10. bekkjar grunnskóla og 3. árs nemum framhaldsskóla

    Anna Rut Tryggvadóttir 1989

    2015-01-01

    Markmið þessarar rannsóknar var að reyna að varpa ljósi á viðhorf ungmenna til kannabis og kannabisneyslu. Einnig var skoðað hvort aldur og félagsleg staða hefði áhrif á viðhorf og neyslu ungmenna á kannabis. Við framkvæmd rannsóknarinnar var notast við megindlega rannsóknaraðferð í formi spurningalista. Hann var lagður fyrir nemendur á 3. ári í Fjölbrautaskóla Suðurlands, sem náð hafa 18 ára aldri. Til samanburðar var notast við gögn úr ESPAD (the European School Survey Project on Alcohol an...

  7. Lögleiðing kannabisefna

    Sigurður Magnús Sigurðsson 1985

    2012-01-01

    Þessi ritgerð eða rannsókn fjallar um hvort lögleiðsla kannabisefna á Íslandi muni hafa neikvæð eða jákvæð áhrif fyrir samfélagið. Í aldanna rás hefur mannkynið haft mikla reynslu af kannabis/marijúana plöntunni og afurðum hennar. Kannabisefni birtast okkur í ýmsu formi, svo sem í fatnaði, byggingavörum og jafnvel í matvælum, en stærsta ágreiningsefnið hvað kannabis varðar er hampurinn sem marijúana plantan framleiðir. Manneskjur geta reykt, borðað eða drukkið þessa afurð plöntunnar með...

  8. Model e-marketingu pro firmu SSK Třinec, a.s.

    Klusová, Alena

    2007-01-01

    Tato práce je zaměřena na marketing, internet a zejména na spojení marketingu a internetu, tzv. elektronický marketing. V teoretické části je popsán marketing, formy elektronického marketingu a nejrozsáhlejší forma elektronického marketingu, což je webová prezentace. Praktická část je v prvé řadě věnována charakteristice společnosti S.S.K., a.s., dále analýze webové prezentace společnosti a návrhu nového webu společnosti.

  9. Effects of phosphorous fertilizer on seedlings growth and nodulation capabilities of some popular agroforestry tree species of Bangladesh

    Mohammad Belal Uddin; Sharif Ahmed Mukul; Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin Khan; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Phosphorous (P) fertilizer (I.e. TSP or triple super phosphate @ 80 kg/hm2) on seedling growth and nodulation capabilities of three potentially important agroforestry tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Albizia lebbeck and Albizia procera) of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in nursery beds with six-month-old polybag seedlings of A. Auriculi formis, A. Lebbeck and A. Procera. The effects of P fertilizer on seedling growth and nodulation were compared with that of the seedlings grown in control (I.e. Unfertilized soil). The observations revealed that the seedling growth was enhanced significantly with the application of P fertilizer.hegrowth was found more pronounced in A. Auriculiformis, whereas it was not apparent and shows depressed growth in case of A. Lebbeck. The study also suggests that the nodulation in terms of nodule number and size was also increased significantly with the application of P fertilizer.

  10. Bilans społecznej wyobraźni. Komentarz socjologiczny do Poznańskiego Budżetu Obywatelskiego

    Drozdowski, Rafał; Frąckowiak, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Przedmiotem artykułu jest krytyczna analiza budżetu obywatelskiego ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem jego poznańskiej odsłony z 2013 r. Autorzy rozważają, jakich informacji o priorytetach inwestycyjnych mieszkańców, a także o preferowanych przez nich typach relacji obywatel–urzędnik, dostarczają wnioski zgłoszone do poznańskiego budżetu obywatelskiego. Rozpatrują i komentują prawdopodobne linie krytyki tej formy partycypacji; zastanawiają się także nad ograniczeniami i potencjalnymi ścieżkami roz...

  11. Free Vibration of Piezo-Nanowires Using Timoshenko Beam Theory with Consideration of Surface and Small Scale Effects

    Oveisi Atta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available W pracy badano wpływ efektów powierzchniowych na poprzeczne drgania swobodne nanodrutów piezoelektrycznych (nanowires, NW. Model dynamiczny NW stworzono posługujac sie nielokalna teoria belki Timoszenki. Stosujac te teorie, przy uwzglednieniu zarówno efektów powierzchniowych i efektów nielokalnych, obliczono czestotliwosci drgan własnych nanodrutu. Uzyskane rozwiazanie, o formie zamknietej, pozwala takze obliczyc podstawowe napiecie wyboczenia. Ponadto, zbadano wpływ efektów małej skali na resztkowe naprezenie powierzchniowe i potencjał elektryczny. Wyniki pracy moga byc uzyteczne przy projektowaniu przyrzadów wykorzystujacych nanodruty piezoelektryczne.

  12. Wybrane Aspekty Zużywania Się Połączeń Wpustowych I Wielowypustowych W Procesie Eksploatacji

    Gębura Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available W artykule przedstawiono wybrane wady połączeń wielowypustowych: mimośrodowości, przekoszenia, zwiększonych luzów. Przedstawiono znaczenie tych wad dla poprawności funkcjonowania całego zespołu napędowego. Zaprezentowano swoisty katalog tych wad w formie: wizualnego zużycia, pomiarów mechanicznych płaszczyzn przyporu, opisu matematycznego przebiegów dynamiki ruchu takiego połączenia, zobrazowań dla metod FAM-C i FDM-A. Zaznaczono skutki długotrwałej eksploatacji połączeń wielowypustowych o nadmiernym zużyciu dla bezpieczeństwa latania

  13. Návrh komunikačního mixu společnosti

    Mrňousová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zaměřuje na návrh efektivního komunikačního mixu prodejny s oblečením. Definuje důležité pojmy a formy marketingového mixu, se zaměřením na nástroje marketingové komunikace. Obsahuje podrobnou analýzu současné situace, která je výchozím podkladem při výběru jednotlivých nástrojů komunikačního mixu prodejny.

  14. Daňové benefity zaměstnanců

    Česal, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá možnostmi daňově výhodného odměňování zaměstnanců pomocí zaměstnaneckých výhod. Popisuje jak peněžní, tak nepeněžní formy odměňování a motivování pracovníků a zároveň ukazuje jejich dopady na daňové zatížení mzdy. Druhá část práce se věnuje aplikaci vybraných forem odměn s následnou ukázkou jejich uplatnění v podniku.

  15. Determination of boron, fluorine and some medium Z elements in diet samples

    As part of the study on 'Reference Asian Man' project, dried food from different Asian countries, in powdered form, was analyzed applying different techniques. Boron was determined by measuring prompt alphas in 11B(p,α)8Be reaction with 800 keV protons. Coulomb excitation was used for F and Na determination based on 19F(p,p'γ)19F (γ-rays: 110 and 197 keV) and 23Na(p,p'γ)23Na (γ-ray: 440 keV) reactions with 2.3 MeV protons. The elements Sc, Co, Zn, Rb, Ag and Ce were determined by neutron activation analysis. The elements Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Mo were determined by X-ray fluorescence technique. (author)

  16. Proton induced γ-ray emission yields for external beam analysis of F and Na in aerosol samples

    Proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) is commonly used as a complementary technique of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the analysis of light elements in aerosol samples. In order to get the best operating conditions of PIGE for F and Na determination in aerosol samples relative to thin reference standards in an external beam setup, the γ-ray yields of the reaction 19F (p, p' γ) 19F (Eγ=110 keV and 197 keV) and 23Na (p, p' γ) 23Na (Eγ=440 keV) were measured for incident protons in the energy range of 1.8-2.9 MeV at the external beam facility of the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator in Beijing Normal University. (authors)

  17. $\\mathbf{\\alpha}$-induced reaction cross sections in the mass range $\\mathbf{A \\approx 20 - 50}$: a critical review

    Mohr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In a recent review it was shown that the cross sections of $\\alpha$-induced reactions in the $A \\approx 20 - 50$ mass range follow a general and smooth trend in most cases. For comparison of cross sections of different targets at various energies the method of reduced cross sections $\\sigma_{\\rm{red}}$ and reduced energies $E_{\\rm{red}}$ was used. Four outliers were identified: $^{36}$Ar and $^{40}$Ar with unusally small cross sections and $^{23}$Na and $^{33}$S with unusually large cross sections. New data for $^{23}$Na were presented at this NPA-7 conference; contrary to the previous data, these new data fit into the general systematics. In addition, a relation between the most effective energy $E_0$ for astrophysical reaction rates (the so-called Gamow window) and the reduced energy $E_{\\rm{red}}$ is presented.

  18. Proton capture in the nuclei 21Ne and 22Ne and its influence on the solar hydrogen burning in the neon-sodium cyclus

    The aim of this thesis was to remove the uncertainties in the reaction rates of 21Ne(p,γ)22Na and 22Ne(p,γ)23Na in order to can make founded statements about the hydrogen burning in the NeNa cyclus. After the description of the experimental arrangement the search for resonances in the reaction 21Ne(p,γ)22Na below Esub(p)=355 keV is reported. While the theory of the direct radiation capture is discussed the experimental results of the search for this transitions in 21Ne(p,γ)22Na respectively 22Ne(p,γ)23Na are presented. The astrophysical aspects of the results of this thesis are discussed and summarizingly presented. (orig./HSI)

  19. Relations entre mobilité du sodium, libération du sel et des composés d'arôme en bouche et perception de la flaveur : application à des modèles fromagers

    Boisard, Lauriane

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the effects of changes in the composition of model cheeses on mobility, release and perception of flavor molecules (salt, aroma compounds). Six flavoured model cheeses were formulated (3 lipid/protein (L/P) ratios and 2 salt contents). The microstructure and the rheological properties of the model cheeses were characterized respectively by confocal microscopy and by uniaxial compression test. The mobility of sodium ions was analyzed by 23Na NMR. The kinet...

  20. Ground Band and Excited Band of Spin-1 BEC in Cigar Shaped Laser Trap

    Pang, Wei; Li, Zhi-Bing; Bao, Cheng-Guang

    2007-10-01

    The wavefunctions that conserve the total spin are constructed for the fully condensed states and the states with one particle excited. A set of equations are deduced for the spatial longitudinal wavefunctions and the chemical potentials. These equations are solved numerically for 23Na and 87Rb condensates. The deformed trap shows significant effects on the spectrum. This implies that the spin effect of the spinor BEC are more easily detected in an optical trap of larger aspect ratio.

  1. A New Look at the Structural Properties of Trisodium Uranate Na3UO4

    SMITH ANNA; RAISON Philippe; MARTEL LAURA; PRIEUR DAMIEN; CHARPENTIER THIBAULT; Wallez, G.; Suard, E.; Scheinost, Andreas; HENNIG Christoph; Martin, P.; Kvashnina, Kristina; CHEETHAM A.k.; KONINGS Rudy

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of trisodium uranate, which forms following the interaction between sodium and hyperstoichiometric urania, has been solved for the first time using powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, and solid-state 23Na multiquantum magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance. The compound, isostructural with Na3BiO4, has monoclinic symmetry, in space group P2/c. Moreover, it has been shown that this structure can accommodate som...

  2. Magnetic resonance-determined sodium removal from tissue stores in hemodialysis patients

    Dahlmann, Anke; Dörfelt, Kathrin; Eicher, Florian; Linz, Peter; Kopp, Christoph; Mössinger, Irina; Horn, Stephan; Büschges-Seraphin, Beatrix; Wabel, Peter; Hammon, Matthias; Cavallaro, Alexander; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kotanko, Peter; Levin, Nathan W.; Johannes, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported sodium is stored in skin and muscle. The amounts stored in hemodialysis (HD) patients are unknown. We determined whether 23Na magnetic resonance imaging (sodium-MRI) allows assessment of tissue sodium and its removal in 24 HD patients, and 27 age-matched healthy controls. We also studied 20 HD patients before and shortly after HD with a batch dialysis system with direct measurement of sodium in dialysate and ultrafiltrate. Age was associated with higher tissue sodi...

  3. Tissue sodium storage: evidence for kidney-like extrarenal countercurrent systems?

    Hofmeister, Lucas H.; Perisic, Stojan; Titze, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from chemical analysis of tissue electrolyte and water composition has shown that body Na+ content in experimental animals is not constant, does not always readily equilibrate with water, and cannot be exclusively controlled by the renal blood purification process. Instead, large amounts of Na+ are stored in the skin and in skeletal muscle. Quantitative non-invasive detection of Na+ reservoirs with 23NaMRI suggests that this mysterious Na+ storage is not only an animal researc...

  4. Quantum Spin Nematic States in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Zhou, Fei

    2001-01-01

    We review some recent results on discrete symmetries and topological order in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of $^{23}Na$. For spin one bosons with two-body scatterings dominated by a total spin equal to two channel, the BECs are in quantum spin nematic states at a low density limit. We study spin correlations in condensates at different limits and analyze hidde$ symmetries using a non-perturbative approach developed recently. We further more investigate the influence of hidden $Z_2$...

  5. Quantitative Sodium MR Imaging at 7 T: Initial Results and Comparison with Diffusion-weighted Imaging in Patients with Breast Tumors.

    Zaric, Olgica; Pinker, Katja; Zbyn, Stefan; Strasser, Bernhard; Robinson, Simon; Minarikova, Lenka; Gruber, Stephan; Farr, Alex; Singer, Christian; Helbich, Thomas H; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical feasibility of a quantitative sodium 23 ((23)Na) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol developed for breast tumor assessment and to compare it with 7-T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Materials and Methods Written informed consent in this institutional review board-approved study was obtained from eight healthy volunteers and 17 patients with 20 breast tumors (five benign, 15 malignant). To achieve the best image quality and reproducibility, the (23)Na sequence was optimized and tested on phantoms and healthy volunteers. For in vivo quantification of absolute tissue sodium concentration (TSC), an external phantom was used. Static magnetic field, or B0, and combined transmit and receive radiofrequency field, or B1, maps were acquired, and image quality, measurement reproducibility, and accuracy testing were performed. Bilateral (23)Na and DWI sequences were performed before contrast material-enhanced MR imaging in patients with breast tumors. TSC and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated and correlated for healthy glandular tissue and benign and malignant lesions. Results The (23)Na MR imaging protocol is feasible, with 1.5-mm in-plane resolution and 16-minute imaging time. Good image quality was achieved, with high reproducibility (mean TSC values ± standard deviation for the test, 36 mmol per kilogram of wet weight ± 2 [range, 34-37 mmol/kg]; for the retest, 37 mmol/kg ± 1 [range, 35-39 mmol/kg]; P = .610) and accuracy (r = 0.998, P correlated (r = -0.881, P correlation with ADC. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27007803

  6. Three dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of sodium ions using stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients

    Frederick, B.deB. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic imaging of {sup 23}Na holds promise as a non-invasive method of mapping Na{sup +} distributions, and for differentiating pools of Na{sup +} ions in biological tissues. However, due to NMR relaxation properties of {sup 23}Na in vivo, a large fraction of Na{sup +} is not visible with conventional NMR imaging methods. An alternate imaging method, based on stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients, has been developed which is well adapted to measuring nuclei with short T{sub 2}. Contemporary NMR imaging techniques have dead times of up to several hundred microseconds between excitation and sampling, comparable to the shortest in vivo {sup 23}Na T{sub 2} values, causing significant signal loss. An imaging strategy based on stochastic excitation has been developed which greatly reduces experiment dead time by reducing peak radiofrequency (RF) excitation power and using a novel RF circuit to speed probe recovery. Continuously oscillating gradients are used to eliminate transient eddy currents. Stochastic {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na spectroscopic imaging experiments have been performed on a small animal system with dead times as low as 25{mu}s, permitting spectroscopic imaging with 100% visibility in vivo. As an additional benefit, the encoding time for a 32x32x32 spectroscopic image is under 30 seconds. The development and analysis of stochastic NMR imaging has been hampered by limitations of the existing phase demodulation reconstruction technique. Three dimensional imaging was impractical due to reconstruction time, and design and analysis of proposed experiments was limited by the mathematical intractability of the reconstruction method. A new reconstruction method for stochastic NMR based on Fourier interpolation has been formulated combining the advantage of a several hundredfold reduction in reconstruction time with a straightforward mathematical form.

  7. Solvent history dependence of gramicidin A conformations in hydrated lipid bilayers.

    LoGrasso, P V; Moll, F; Cross, T A

    1988-01-01

    Reconstituted lipid bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and gramicidin A' have been prepared by cosolubilizing gramicidin and DMPC in one of three organic solvent systems followed by vacuum drying and hydration. The conformational state of gramicidin as characterized by 23Na NMR, circular dichroism, and solid state 15N NMR is dependent upon the cosolubilizing solvent system. In particular, two conformational states are described; a state in which Na+ has minimal interactions wit...

  8. Sodium magnetic resonance imaging. Development of a 3D radial acquisition technique with optimized k-space sampling density and high SNR-efficiency

    A 3D radial k-space acquisition technique with homogenous distribution of the sampling density (DA-3D-RAD) is presented. This technique enables short echo times (TE23Na-MRI, and provides a high SNR-efficiency. The gradients of the DA-3D-RAD-sequence are designed such that the average sampling density in each spherical shell of k-space is constant. The DA-3D-RAD-sequence provides 34% more SNR than a conventional 3D radial sequence (3D-RAD) if T2*-decay is neglected. This SNR-gain is enhanced if T2*-decay is present, so a 1.5 to 1.8 fold higher SNR is measured in brain tissue with the DA-3D-RAD-sequence. Simulations and experimental measurements show that the DA-3D-RAD sequence yields a better resolution in the presence of T2*-decay and less image artefacts when B0-inhomogeneities exist. Using the developed sequence, T1-, T2*- and Inversion-Recovery-23Na-image contrasts were acquired for several organs and 23Na-relaxation times were measured (brain tissue: T1=29.0±0.3 ms; T2s*∼4 ms; T2l*∼31 ms; cerebrospinal fluid: T1=58.1±0.6 ms; T2*=55±3 ms (B0=3 T)). T1- und T2*-relaxation times of cerebrospinal fluid are independent of the selected magnetic field strength (B0 = 3T/7 T), whereas the relaxation times of brain tissue increase with field strength. Furthermore, 23Na-signals of oedemata were suppressed in patients and thus signals from different tissue compartments were selectively measured. (orig.)

  9. Determination of covariance matrices for several cross-section data in JENDL-3

    Covariance matrices were determined for the 14N elastic scattering, 14N(n, p) reaction, 15N elastic scattering, 23Na inelastic scattering, Fe inelastic scattering and 240Pu fission cross sections stored in JENDL-3.1 and JENDL-3.2. By considering their evaluation method and experimental data, standard deviations and correlation matrices for these reaction data were determined in the 18 energy group structure. (author)

  10. 238U + n resolved resonance energies

    Neutron transmission measurements from 100 eV to 170 keV at 150 m through four 238U samples are reported. The energy calibration is described, and the resultant 233U resolved resonance energies are found to be intermediate between those from other workers. In addition, some energies for sharp resonances in 23Na, 27Al, 32S, and 206Pb are given

  11. Three dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of sodium ions using stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic imaging of 23Na holds promise as a non-invasive method of mapping Na+ distributions, and for differentiating pools of Na+ ions in biological tissues. However, due to NMR relaxation properties of 23Na in vivo, a large fraction of Na+ is not visible with conventional NMR imaging methods. An alternate imaging method, based on stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients, has been developed which is well adapted to measuring nuclei with short T2. Contemporary NMR imaging techniques have dead times of up to several hundred microseconds between excitation and sampling, comparable to the shortest in vivo 23Na T2 values, causing significant signal loss. An imaging strategy based on stochastic excitation has been developed which greatly reduces experiment dead time by reducing peak radiofrequency (RF) excitation power and using a novel RF circuit to speed probe recovery. Continuously oscillating gradients are used to eliminate transient eddy currents. Stochastic 1H and 23Na spectroscopic imaging experiments have been performed on a small animal system with dead times as low as 25μs, permitting spectroscopic imaging with 100% visibility in vivo. As an additional benefit, the encoding time for a 32x32x32 spectroscopic image is under 30 seconds. The development and analysis of stochastic NMR imaging has been hampered by limitations of the existing phase demodulation reconstruction technique. Three dimensional imaging was impractical due to reconstruction time, and design and analysis of proposed experiments was limited by the mathematical intractability of the reconstruction method. A new reconstruction method for stochastic NMR based on Fourier interpolation has been formulated combining the advantage of a several hundredfold reduction in reconstruction time with a straightforward mathematical form

  12. Effects of nuclear data library and ultra-fine group calculation for large size sodium-cooled fast reactor OECD benchmarks

    The present paper summarizes calculation results for an international benchmark proposed by the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor core Feed-back and transient response (SFR-FT) under the framework of the Working Party on scientific issues of Reactor Systems (WPRS) of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD. It focuses on the large size oxide-fueled SFR. Library effect for core performance characteristics and reactivity feedback coefficients is analyzed using sensitivity analysis. The effect of ultra-fine energy group calculation in effective cross section generation is also analyzed. The discrepancy is about 0.4% for a neutron multiplication factor by changing JENDL-4.0 with JEFF-3.1. That is about -0.1% by changing JENDL-4.0 with ENDF/B-VII.1. The main contributions to the discrepancy between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are 240Pu capture, 238U inelastic scattering and 239Pu fission. Those to the discrepancy between JENDL-4.0 and JEFF-3.1 are 23Na inelastic scattering, 56Fe inelastic scattering, 238Pu fission, 240Pu capture, 240Pu fission, 238U inelastic scattering, 239Pu fission and 239Pu nu-value. As for the sodium void reactivity, JEFF-3.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 underestimate by about 8% compared with JENDL-4.0. The main contributions to the discrepancy between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 and 23Na elastic scattering, 23Na inelastic scattering and 239Pu fission. That to the discrepancy between JENDL-4.0 and JEFF-3.1 is 23Na inelastic scattering. The ultra-fine energy group calculation increases the sodium void reactivity by 2%. (author)

  13. Studies on NaXe Clusters

    2001-01-01

    The chemical shift of 23Na in excimer NaXe was measured by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, which is in good agreement with the theoretical value obtained by ab initio calculations. The bond length, dissociation energy, dipole of NaXe and Mulliken charges at Na and Xe in NaXe were calculated, respectively. The spectra of ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of NaXe were also measured.

  14. 19F-decoupling of half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei in solid-state NMR: application of frequency-swept decoupling methods.

    Chandran, C Vinod; Hempel, Günter; Bräuniger, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    In solid-state NMR studies of minerals and ion conductors, quadrupolar nuclei like (7)Li, (23)Na or (133)Cs are frequently situated in close proximity to fluorine, so that application of (19)F decoupling is beneficial for spectral resolution. Here, we compare the decoupling efficiency of various multi-pulse decoupling sequences by acquiring (19)F-decoupled (23)Na-NMR spectra of cryolite (Na(3)AlF(6)). Whereas the MAS spectrum is only marginally affected by application of (19)F decoupling, the 3Q-filtered (23)Na signal is very sensitive to it, as the de-phasing caused by the dipolar interaction between sodium and fluorine is three-fold magnified. Experimentally, we find that at moderate MAS speeds, the decoupling efficiencies of the frequency-swept decoupling schemes SW(f)-TPPM and SW(f)-SPINAL are significantly better than the conventional TPPM and SPINAL sequences. The frequency-swept sequences are therefore the methods of choice for efficient decoupling of quadrupolar nuclei with half-integer spin from fluorine. PMID:21856132

  15. Nuclear magnetic relaxation studies on polyelectrolytes with water

    Studies on the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times (T1 and T2) of 1H and 23Na in water-polyelectrolytes systems were carried out. The polyelectrolyte samples used were sodium polystyrene sulfonate, sodium lignosulfonate and sodium cellulose sulfate. The water content (Wc's) of the samples was varied from 0 to 2.0 (grams of water per gram of polyelectrolyte). A minimum value for 1HT1 values of water in the system was observed at a temperature ranging from -25 to -40 degree C. The temperature where the 1HT1 minimum value was observed depended on Wc, corresponding to the crystallization of water in each system. From 1HT1 two groups of water molecules (bound and free water) are considered to exist in water-polyelectrolyte systems. The calculated τc values of bound water increased with decreasing temperature from the order of 10-7 sec to 10-6 sec. The observed 23Na in the water-polyelectrolyte systems relaxed with a single T1. 23NaT2 values showed that the relaxation process was separated into two fractions

  16. Cation substitution in β-tricalcium phosphate investigated using multi-nuclear, solid-state NMR

    The substitution of aluminium, gallium and sodium cations into β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP; Ca3(PO4)2) has been investigated, and the Ca sites involved successfully determined, using a combination of 1D 31P, 27Al, 71Ga, 23Na and 43Ca (natural abundance) NMR and 2D 27Al(31P), 71Ga(31P) and 23Na(31P) rotary-resonance-recoupled heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation (R3-HMQC) NMR. Over the compositional range studied, substitution of Ca2+ by Al3+ or Ga3+ was observed only on the Ca(5) site, whilst substitution by Na+ was confined to the Ca(4) site. Some AlPO4 or GaPO4 second phase was observed at the highest doping levels in the Al3+ and Ga3+ substituted samples. - Graphical abstract: 2D contour plots with skyline projections showing recoupling of 27Al, 71Ga and 23Na to different 31P sites. - Highlights: • β-Ca3(PO4)2 has been prepared pure and also with Al3+, Ga3+ and Na+ substituents. • Multi-nuclear 1D NMR and heteronuclear X(31P) recoupling have been used. • Models for substitution correctly predict site preference and occupancy. • Progressive changes in 31P spectra have been explained. • Al3+ and Ga3+ substitute onto the Ca(5) site, and Na+ onto the Ca(4) site

  17. Exploitation of inverse reaction kinematics in a search for non-fusion yield in the heavy residue spectra of light heavy-ion reactions

    The purpose of the present work was to subject the heavy residues which result from the 11B +12C interaction to a specific experimental test to determine whether or not the residues do indeed result from fusion-evaporation through the 23Na compound nucleus. Of particular concern is the possible presence of direct transfer and incomplete fusion strength. The test which is employed in the present work exploits the fact that in a nearly symmetric system such as 11B + 12C, the laboratory energy of the fusion products is essentially independent of which entrance channel nucleus is used as the target and which is used as the projectile, while the energy of direct transfer and incomplete fusion products depends strongly on which nucleus is the target or projectile. A careful, mass-by-mass comparison of the heavy residue energy spectra has been made for the two reactions 12C(11B,X) and 11B(12C,X). For the present experimental data, the systems leading to the 23Na compound nucleus, an accurate extraction of the fusion cross section is important as the authors can now clearly say that the fusion cross sections and, therefore, the critical angular momenta were correctly determined in earlier works. Therefore, a critical density of states can not be responsible for the limitations occurring in the entrance channels leading to the 23Na compound system

  18. Faktoring – jedna z hlavních forem financování malých a středních podniků

    Müllerová Libuše

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Faktoring představuje službu, kterou poskytují specializované faktoringové společnosti svým klientům v souvislosti s postoupením nebo se správou pohledávek. Ve své podstatě se jedná o určitý způsob úvěrování, využívaný zejména malými a středními podniky. V praxi existuje několik forem faktoringu v závislosti na tom, do jaké míry přechází na faktora vlastnictví pohledávek a rizika jejich nesplacení. Podle toho se pak faktoringové transakce promítají do účetnictví faktora i klienta. Vzhledem k tomu, že tato služba ani její formy není upravená žádným právním předpisem, postupují faktoringové společnosti často tak, že podmínky ve smlouvách – z důvodu daňových – často zakrývají svojí formou skutečný stav. Uvedený příspěvek základní formy faktoringu vymezuje, popisuje jejich správné účtování včetně daňových dopadů. Factoring is a service, which is offered by specialized factoring agencies to their clients in case of transfer (sale or governance of receivables. In fact, it represents a specific mode of crediting which is mostly preferred by small and medium enterprises. In practices of factoring several forms are differentiated depending on scale of property and risk transfer to the factor. According to these circumstances the factoring transactions are recognized by the factor and the client. The factoring services are not so far regulated by any legal provision. For this reason factoring agencies are proceeding in such a way, that contract conditions – because of tax considerations – hide by their form the substance. The paper describes the factoring forms and interprets their correct recognition on accounting, including tax consequences.

  19. Study on Soil Fertility of Different Forest Types in Jialing River Source%嘉陵江源头几种林地土壤肥力状况调查

    谭胡燕; 刘瑞英; 杨改河; 任学敏; 王得祥

    2011-01-01

    Based on analysis of soil pH, the content of organic matter and main nutrient at the different levels of soil under seven different forest types (Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis , Pinus armandii , Abies fargesii , coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, shrub forest)in Jialing river of source, this paper studied on soil fertility of different forest types. The result showed that the soil in Pinus armandii, Pinus tabulae formis and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest were near neutral, the soil in Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis and shrub forest were slightly acidic, the soil in Abies fargesii was acidic. The soil pH, the contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, alkali-hydro N and available P tended to decrease with soil depth. The soil fertility was increased in the order of Pinus armandii <Lpinus tabulae formis <coniferous and broad-leaved mixed ioresKQuercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate<shrub forest<Abies fargesii<L Betula albo-sinensis.%以嘉陵江源头风景区7种林型(锐齿栎林、红桦林、油松林、华山松林、巴山冷杉林、针阔混交林及灌木林)土壤为研究对象,通过对林地土壤不同层次pH、有机质及主要养分含量的测定,分析不同林型下土壤肥力的差异状况.结果表明,华山松林、油松林和针阔混交林的土壤趋于中性,锐齿栎林、红桦林、灌木林的土壤趋于弱酸性,而巴山冷杉林的土壤呈酸性.随土壤深度增加,土壤pH升高,土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、有效磷含量均呈下降趋势.土壤综合肥力优劣为华山松林<油松林<针阔混交林<锐齿栎林<灌木林<巴山冷杉林<红桦林.

  20. Kennsla í fjölmiðlalæsi í íslenskum framhaldsskólum

    Elsa Ófeigsdóttir 1983

    2016-01-01

    Fjölmiðlar gegna mikilvægu upplýsinga- og afþreyingarhlutverki í nútímasamfélagi. Sú færni sem felst í að geta greint skilaboð frá þeim með gagnrýnum hætti er því gríðarlega mikilvæg. Fjölmiðlar í dag eru á margvíslegu formi. Efni þeirra geta ýmist hafa farið í gegnum rýningarferli hliðvarða eða ritstjórna eða það getur einfaldlega verið texti skrifaður af óþekktri manneskju um málefni sem henni þykir áhugavert. Það getur reynst þrautin þyngri að greina ástæðurnar sem liggja að baki smíði fjö...

  1. Nýtist Scrum við annað en hugbúnaðarþróun?

    Hinrik Reynisson 1990

    2014-01-01

    Í ritgerð þessari er leitast eftir því að svara því hvort möguleiki sé að nota Scrum aðferðina, sem er hluti af Agile aðferðafræði, í öðrum verkefnum en hugbúnaðarþróun. Ljóst er að Scrum hefur aðallega verið notað í hugbúnaðarþróun þó svo að dæmi séu til um að það hafi verið notað í öðrum verkefnum. Þátttakendur rannsóknarinnar voru sjö talsins. Eru þeir allir starfsmenn hugbúnaðarfyrirtækja og hafa haldgóða reynslu af notkun á Scrum. Rannsóknin var gerð í formi viðtala þar sem viðmælendur v...

  2. Podatkowa Księga Przychodów i Rozchodówjako źródło prognozowania i ocenykondycji finansowej mikroprzedsiębiorstwa

    Jacek Jaworski

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Głównym celem artykułu jest zaprezentowanie modelu prognozowania i oceny kondycji finansowej przedsiębiorstw prowadzących podatkową księgę przychodów i rozchodów (KPiR. W pierwszej części artykułu dokonano analizy struktury systemów ewidencyjnych funkcjonujących w sektorze mikroprzedsiębiorstw w Polsce. Następnie omówiono pojemność informacyjną dominującej formy ewidencyjnej, czyli podatkowej księgi przychodów i rozchodów, a także wskazano na ewidencje najczęściej jej towarzyszące. W kolejnych punktach artykułu skupiono się na prostych i możliwych do wykorzystania w małej firmie metodach prognozowania sytuacji finansowej oraz w konsekwencji omówiono i zweryfikowano procedury jej oceny.

  3. SDS-PAGE in conjunction with match lane statistical analysis for the detection of meat adulteration

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seven meat types and two component mixtures of them were made. Banding patterns of resulting denstograms in conjunction with cluster analysi and match lane statistical analysis were used for the detection of meat adulteration. The use of beef as a reference meat have resulted in a clear distinction from goat, pork, chicken, turkey, camel meats and their mixture and camel meat. The use of pork meat as a reference was more assurate because of the low degrees of matching with all meats and their mixtures and consequently high abilities of differentiations. The purpose of identification. the purpose of identification of meat species arises from the desire of human, in general, to confirm what he eat ? for moslems the establisment that meat is free from pork type is most important. Another economic purpose is the detection of adulteration of valuable meat by less valuable types. Several attempts in different laboratories were done to serve this object but most of analytical techniques. Barbieri and formi (1999) were able to detect 5% of meat type in mixtures by isolelectric focusing and 1% of meat type by PCR technique in beef, pork, chicken and turkey meats. By crossover immunoelectrophoresis technique, zanon and vianello (1998) were also to detect a limit of 5% of specific meat in mixuters of beef, pork, mutton/lamb, horse and chicken meats

  4. Fosfór og hringrás hans á Íslandi

    Snjólaug Tinna Hansdóttir 1991

    2014-01-01

    Náttúruleg hringrás fosfórs í heiminum og þar með talið á Íslandi hefur verið rofin. Með aukinni vinnslu á fosfór úr bergi til áburðarframleiðslu, flæðir fosfór á mun meiri hraða til sjávar en hann gerði í sinni náttúrulegu hringrás. Á Íslandi er fosfór fluttur inn í formi matvæla, fóðurs og áburðar um 155 tonn árlega. Að auki innihalda kjötvörur, fiskmeti, ávextir og grænmeti, sem framleitt er og ræktað hérlendis, um 1.355 tonn af fosfór. Það fosfórmagn sem er útflutt eða er skilað til sjáva...

  5. Stefnumiðuð markaðsáætlun fyrir rafræna akstursdagbók. Úr smiðju Uppvís ehf.

    Hreinn Þorvaldsson 1989

    2016-01-01

    Markmiðið með ritgerðinni er að greina markaðs- og rekstrarumhverfi fyrirtækisins Uppvís ehf. með tilliti til nýrrar vöru fyrirtækisins, rafrænnar akstursdagbókar. Tilgangur slíkrar vinnu er að þróa og leggja fram nothæfa, stefnumiðaða markaðsáætlun sem er hagnýt fyrir fyrirtækið. Ritgerðin byggir á eigindlegri rannsóknaraðferð en gagna var aflað í formi þriggja viðtala á tímabilinu 25. janúar til 11. apríl. Viðtölin voru tekin við verkefnastjóra rafrænu akstursdagbókarinnar. Í fræðilega hlut...

  6. Hugurinn ber þig hálfa leið : hvernig birtist trú á eigin getu í líkamsrækt og námi?

    Ellen Baldursdóttir 1990

    2014-01-01

    Kenningin um trú á eigin getu (self-efficacy) er sett fram af Albert Bandura. Bandura lýsir trú á eigin getu sem formi af sjálfstrú sem hefur áhrif á daglegt líf okkar. Trú á eigin getu er trú viðkomandi um hvort þeir hafi það sem til þarf til að sýna vissa hegðun sem umhverfið væntir af okkur. Í þessari rannsókn var trú á eigin getu í líkamsrækt og námi skoðað. Tilgangur rannsóknarinnar var að reyna að varpa ljósi á hvernig trú á eigin getu hefur áhrif á fólk í námi, sem og í líkamsrækt....

  7. Moderní trendy v oslovování zákazníků prostřednictvím komerčních komunikací

    Smejkalová, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    Práce vychází z historie vývoje oboru komerčních komunikací. Popisuje východiska pro moderní trendy v oslovení zákazníků, jako je situace na trhu zboží a služeb, spotřební trendy a změny na mediálním trhu. Věnuje se otázce přesycení klasickou reklamou a alternativním způsobům oslovení zákazníků. Konkrétně jsou charakterizovány následující formy oslovení: virální reklama, interaktivní webové stránky a video na webu, sociální sítě a blogy v komerční komunikaci, reklama v počítačových hrách a vi...

  8. Základní anorganické výroby Tvorba e-learningových studijních materiálů

    Valenčík, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Bakalářská práce pojednává o e-learningu (objasnění pojmu, formy, využití, klady a zápory), o systémech LMS, LCMS a základních prvcích pro tvorbu interaktivních učebních pomůcek, které napomáhají zvýšit kvalitu e-learningu. Výstupem je výukový software obsahující vizuální animace pro výuku základních anorganických výrob v chemickém průmyslu (výrobu kyselin, kovů, plynů, atd.) určených zejména pro studenty 1. ročníku FCH VUT v Brně, ale i pro širokou veřejnost. Vizualizace byly vypracovány pom...

  9. Hvar liggja tækifæri í nýsköpun í Kötlu jarðvangi að mati ferðaþjónustuaðila á svæðinu?

    Guðlaug Ósk Svansdóttir 1974

    2014-01-01

    Rannsókn höfundar tekur til ferðaþjónustu á Kötlu jarðvangssvæðinu. Kannað var hvar tækifæri liggja í nýsköpun á svæðinu að mati tíu ferðaþjónustuaðila sem þar eru. Rannsakandi notaði eigindlegt rannsóknarsnið í formi hálf opinna viðtala. Stuðst var við sömu skilgreiningar á markhópum og Boston Consulting Group (BCG) notaði í skýrslu sinni Northern Sights: The future of tourism in Iceland sem kom út árið 2013. Nýsköpunarferli BCG er kynnt og kortlagning auðlinda í Kötlu jarðvangi. Þá eru hels...

  10. Řešení vybraných problémů v rámci mikrologistiky daného podniku

    Vinický, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Práce hodnotí možnosti zavedení dílčích logistických, kvalitativních a výrobních procesů při plánování výrobní linky. V práci jsou popisovány jednotlivé metody, které umožňují docílit zkapacitnění výrobní linky. V oblati mikrologistiky se jedná především o formy zásobování - milkrun, zásobování zezadu, přeseřízení v taktu, nivelizace, v oblasti kvality - Poka-Yoke, 5S a v oblasti výroby - Hanedashi, ztaktování linky, flexibilní počet lidí na lince....

  11. Montessori, Freire og UNICEF : eiga þau samleið?

    Karl Sigtryggsson 1984

    2013-01-01

    Menntun á erindi við alla og á sér stað í flestum löndum og við margvíslegar aðstæður. Hér verður fjallað um ævi og kenningar tveggja frömuða, á sviði menntunar þar sem fátækt og eymd var við líði, þeirra Paulo Freire og Mariu Montessori. Þá verður fjallað um handbók UNICEF um barnvænt skólastarf. Þetta verður gert með þá spurningu í huga: hvort hægt sé að ganga inn í skólastarf hjá UNICEF á hugmyndafræðilegum forsendum þeirra Freire eða Montessori? Þetta verður gert í hefðbundnu formi rannsó...

  12. Ímynd ESB meðal íslenskra kjósenda og mikilvægi áhersluþátta í umræðunni um aðild

    Friðrik Eysteinsson; Dagbjört Ágústa H. Diego 1979; Kári Kristinsson 1976

    2013-01-01

    Íslendingar sóttu um aðild að ESB árið 2009 en gert var hlé á viðræðum um umsókn árið 2013 þegar ný ríkisstjórn tók við völdum. ESB og möguleg aðild að sambandinu hefur verið bitbein hjá þjóðinni í fjölmörg ár. Í því ljósi þótti höfundum áhugavert að skoða hver væri munurinn á ímynd sambandsins eftir afstöðu kjósenda til inngöngu í það og / eða eftir því hvaða stjórnmálaflokk þeir kjósa og hversu miklu máli áhersluþættir umræðunnar um aðild skipta þá. Gerð var megindleg rannsókn í formi spurn...

  13. Podnikatelský záměr

    Elčknerová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá podnikatelským záměrem rozvoje firmy, která provozuje velkoobchod a maloobchod s obuví. Řeší dílčí cíl v rámci tohoto podnikatelského záměru, a to změnu právní formy podnikání z fyzické osoby, vedoucí daňovou evidenci, na právnickou osobu – společnost s ručením omezeným, vedoucí účetnictví. První část je zaměřena na teoretický úvod do problematiky. Druhá část specifikuje podnikatelský plán, analyzuje současnou situaci firmy a řeší otázku rozdílů výkaznictví pro...

  14. 绿色威雷防治几种主要森林害虫试验研究初报

    庄宏伟

    2006-01-01

    栗山天牛[Massicus raddei(Blessig)]、松纵坑切梢小蠹[Tomicus pinipreda Linnaeus]和美国白蛾[Hyphantria cunea(Drury)]是我省的主要森林害虫,分别危害柞树[Quercus spp.],油松[Pinus tablae formis]杨树[Populus spp.]等针阔叶林,其发生面积达百万亩以上。前两种害虫为干、枝蛀虫,使受害林木枝、千千疮百孔,木材失去利用价值,后一种为食叶害虫,使受害树冠叶片全失,三种害虫危害严重时导致林木死亡。为提高防治技术水平,有效控制害虫的发生危害,实现持续控灾,我们选用了高效、低毒、低残留量、环保无公害型的农药—8%绿色威雷触破式微胶囊新药剂,在辽宁省抚顺市、辽阳市、本溪地区的林分内首次进行三种害虫防治试验。

  15. 5-Minutes Neighbourhood

    Kejdová, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Řešené území se nachází v městské části Brno - Trnitá na nábřeží řeky Svitavy. Předmětem diplomové práce je architektonická studie vybrané části návrhu městské prostorové struktury s intenzivním využitím intravilánu města, řešené v předdiplomovém projektu, který předcházel vlastní diplomové práci. Návrh umožní míchání většího množství různých funkcí na relativně malé zastavěné ploše, která sníží nároky na dopravu a zajistí obyvatelům domu různé formy bydlení, služeb i zaměstnání. Půdorysný tv...

  16. Návrh přední časti trupu letounu TL-4000 a zástavby motoru

    Löffelmann, František

    2014-01-01

    Práce řeší zástavbu motoru Continental IO-550N do čtyřmístného celokompozitového letounu. Byl proveden rozbor hmot nesených motorovým ložem a podle předpisu CS-23 bylo vypočítáno zatížení lože a příďového podvozku, který je na loži přímo zavěšen. Na základě dostupných informací o obdobných letounech bylo navrženo konstrukční řešení lože, které bylo dimenzováno s ohledem na pevnostní analýzu v systému Nastran/Patran. Dále bylo navrženo vyztužení motorové přepážky, kryty motoru a formy pro jeji...

  17. Application of full 42 Factorial Design for the Development and Characterization of Insecticidal Soap from Neem Oil

    A. S. KOVO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the extraction, characterization and production of insecticidal soap from Neem oil using full 42 factorial design. Soxhlet extractor was used for the extraction purpose and two solvent was chosen to determine which is better. N-hexane gives a Neem oil yield of 45.43% while ethanol gives a yield of 46.38%, confirming the earlier literature result giving ethanol as better solvent for Neem oil extraction. The basic properties of the oil were determined as follows, saponification value 215.95ml/g, acid value 1.122g/mol, unsaponifiable matter 19.66 etc. The Neem oil was found to have a colour of golden yellow due to the presence of Nimbidin.Full 42 factorial design and mathematical model was applied to the extraction process and a first order regression equation of the form:Y = 9.548 + 0.144X1 + 0.1931X2 + 0.1892 X12was obtained growing the individual effect of time and solvent type as parameter and their interaction in the entire extraction process the Neem insecticidal soap was found to be effective in insect and pest control.

  18. Financování projektu veřejného zájmu prostřednictvím Public Private Partnership

    Rovenská, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá analýzou možností financování konkrétního projektu veřejného zájmu s akcentem na financování formou Public Private Partnership (PPP). Stěžejní část teoretických poznatků tvoří právě informace týkající se výše zmíněné formy financování. V následující části je poté připravovaný projekt představen, a to včetně vyčíslení nákladů a výnosů týkajících se realizace projektu. Poslední část práce je věnována zhodnocení realizovatelnosti celého projektu....

  19. Financování bydlení v České republice

    Žaroský, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Předmětem diplomové práce „Financování bydlení v České republice“ je popis, analýza a charakteristika možnosti financování bydlení a srovnání jejich výhodnosti. V teoretické části práce jsou popsány základní druhy financování bydlení - stavební spoření, hypoteční úvěry a další formy. Analytická část porovnává varianty stavebního spoření u tuzemských stavebních spořitelen a hypotečních úvěrů u vybraných bank. Tato část popisuje a hodnotí základní charakteristiky jednotlivých produktů. Třetí čá...

  20. Odlewy bimetalowe z chromowo-nikolową warstwą roboczą

    T. Wróbel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available W prac przedstawiono technologię bimetalicznych odlewów warstwowych opartą na odlewniczej metodzie nakładania warstwbezpośrednio w procesie odlewania tzw. metodę preparowania wnęki formy. Wykonane tą metodą bimetaliczne odlewy warstwowezłożone są z dwóch zasadniczych elementów tj. części nośnej oraz części (warstwy roboczej. Część nośną bimetalicznego odlewuwarstwowego stanowiło typowe tworzywo odlewnicze tj. staliwo niestopowe lub żeliwo szare z grafitem płatkowym, natomiast częśćroboczą stanowiła stal stopowa austenityczna gatunku X2CrNi 18-9 lub ferrytyczno-austenityczna gatunku X2CrNiMoN 22-5-3.Weryfikację wykonanych bimetalicznych odlewów warstwowych przeprowadzono w oparciu o nieniszczące badania ultradźwiękowe,badania struktury oraz mikrotwardości. Ponadto wykonano symulację komputerową procesu krzepnięcia bimetalicznych odlewówwarstwowych w programie NovaFlow&Solid.

  1. Selected Aspects of Numerical Analysis of Layered Flexible Structures Subjected to Impact of Soft Core Projectile

    Morka Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Przedmiotem pracy jest wskazanie istotnych aspektów numerycznej analizy zagadnienia ud­erzenia pocisków z miękkim rdzeniem w pakiet cienkich wiotkich warstw ulokowanych na plas­tycznym położu. W celu ilustracji problemu wybrano normalne uderzenie pocisku 7,62x25 mm TT w pakiet 36 warstw Dyneema SB71 swobodnie oparty na podłożu plastycznym. Problem rozwiązano z wykorzystaniem metody elementów skończonych (MES z jawnym schematem (różnic centralnych całkowania równania ruchu w formie macierzowej MES. Na podstawie przeprowad­zonych analiz wykazano, że uzyskanie ekstremalnych deformacji miękkiego rdzenia pocisku oraz plastycznego podłoża w analizie numerycznej w ujęciu Lagrange’a wymaga zastosowania technik adaptacyjnych. Zaproponowana technika R-adaptive spełnia swoja rolę, ale musi być stosowana z rozwagą ze względu na negatywną cechę powodującą utratę masy modelu.

  2. The Relations h ip with Self Esteem Between Assertiveness Levels of Sub - Elite In - Door Soccer Players

    Serdar SUCAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigated the relationship with self esteem between assertiveness levels of sub - elite in - door soccer players. For this aim, 18 – 28 aged, 86 male and 91 female athletes studying 7 universities which joined in - door soccer champio nship of Turkish University Sport Federation was participated to study volunteerly. Participants were performed socio - demographic data formi Rathus Assertiveness Schedule and Coopersmith Self - Esteem Inventory. Data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS (versi on 20.0. Spearman Correlation parameter calculated in order to comment the relationship with data, Multiple regretion analysis was performed for the predictive power of self - esteem for assertiveness levels of participants. According to analysis, a positi ve relationship was found between self esteem and assertivenes levels and it was found that self - esteem levels predictived assertiveness levels substantially. As a result of this study, high self - eseteemed athletes could transfer their feelings to others a nd could increase their assertiveness levels. It was known that highly self - esteemed athletes could increase their performance. Therefore, we could say that necessary studies about athletes’ gaining assertiveness behaviors, should take part of primary stud ies of trainers.

  3. Aplikace moderních technologií pro výrobu modelu hlavolamu ježka v kleci

    Dratva, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce je výroba zábavného modelu hlavolamu Ježek v kleci. Jednotlivé tvary a rozměry hlavolamu byly navrženy a zkonstruovány ve 3D parametrickém softwaru Autodesk Inventor. Model hlavolamu byl vyroben pomocí metody Fused Deposition Modeling s využitím 3D tiskárny uPrint. Součástí práce byla výroba silikonové formy, která bude sloužit pro odlití potřebného počtu modelů klece z komerčně dostupného materiálu (plast). Práce byla ukončena technicko-ekonomickým zhodnocením s násled...

  4. Aplikace moderních technologií pro návrh výroby prototypu automobilového dílu

    Bachorík, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Cieľom bakalárskej práce je návrh a výroba prototypového dielu pre automobilový priemysel. Jednotlivé tvary a rozmery prototypového dielu boli skonštruované v 3D parametrickom software Autodesk Inventor 2015. Pre výrobu prototypového dielu bola využitá aditívna metóda Fused Deposition Modeling – 3D tlačiareň uPrint. Súčasťou práce bola výroba silikónovej formy pomocou vákuového liateho systému, ktorá slúžila na odliatie určitého počtu prototypových dielov z komerčne dostupných materiálov. V p...

  5. Konstrukce a výroba nástavce nášlapného pedálu jízdního kola

    Jurka, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Bakalářská práce je zaměřena na konstrukci a výrobu nástavce nášlapného pedálu jízdního kola, který bude sloužit při jízdě bez cyklistických treter. Součást bude zkonstruovaná ve 3D parametrickém softwaru Autodesk Inventor. Model součásti bude vyroben pomocí metody Fused Deposition Modeling s využitím 3D tiskárny uPrint. Součástí práce je výroba silikonové formy, která bude sloužit pro odlití plastového modelu nástavce nášlapného pedálu. Práce je ukončena technicko-ekonomickým zhodnocením. ...

  6. Analyses of the Current Rural Elementary School Music Education Teaching Present Situation and Countermeasures of Application%浅析目前农村小学音乐教育教学现状及应用对策

    袁福和

    2014-01-01

    Music art as the main content of art form,is one of the important performance art form. But development in economy of rural schools,due to the influence of early education,music class in the countryside as long as with simple music element, its status is also not high, the status quo of the rural class,with the time development,on the basis of these problems,the rural music education teaching situation to make some discussions.%音乐艺术①作为艺术形式的主要内容,是艺术表现形式的重要表现手段。但在经济发展不景气的农村学校,由于早期教育的影响,音乐在农村课堂上只能以简单的音乐元素表现出来,其地位也不高,这些农村课堂上的现状,与时代发展相背离。依据这些问题,对农村的音乐教育教学现状做出一些探讨。

  7. Možnosti uplatnění nových trendů v péči o zaměstnance

    Uchytilová, Iveta

    2008-01-01

    Práce se zabývá péčí o zaměstnance a zejména o moderní trendy v této oblasti. Teoretická část popisuje jedntlivé formy péče o zaměstnance a jejich trendy. Část praktická analyzuje stávající situaci ve firmě LGECZ. Pomocí statistických metod - analýza kontingenčních tabulek a shluková analýza - zjišťuje spokojenost a preference zaměstnanců. Na základě těchto podkladů je navržen nový systém zaměstnaneckých výhod. Systém je zároveň optimalizován z nákladového hlediska....

  8. Komparativní analýza nákladů státního rozpočtu na náhradní péči o dítě v ČR

    Kolesár, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Práce rozebírá a srovnává jednotlivé náhradní péče o dítě v ČR použitím metody minimalizace nákladů (CMA). Základem je přehled současného systému náhradní péče v ČR a popis jeho financování. Analýza je provedena s použitím předpokladu jednoho dítěte nespecifikovaného věku v různých formách péče o dítě. Na tomto příkladu je zjištěna výše nákladů na jednotlivé formy náhradní péče. Cílem práce není zjistit nejefektivnější a nejlepší náhradní péči pro dítě, ale spíše zhodnotit, která ze současnýc...

  9. Fosfor a jeho sloučeniny v životním prostředí

    Lefnerová, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá problematikou fosforu ve vodách, hlavně v zahradních jezírkách, rozebírá jeho vlastnosti, formy výskytu a negativní vliv při nadměrném výskytu. Další část se zaměřuje na nejčastější metody odstranění fosforu z vod a metody stanovení ve vodách a půdách. Pro práci je důležitá především kapitola o mobilní analytice. Poslední část pojednává přímo o koupacích ekologických jezírkách a Svazu zakládání a údržby zeleně. Rozebírá cíle tohoto svazu a snahu o zavedení kont...

  10. Assesment of air concentration in water depending on pressure

    Uttendorfský, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce pojednává o koncentraci vzduchu ve vodě. Hlavní koncepce vychází z Henryho zákona o rozpouštění plynů v kapalinách v závislosti na tlaku. Je zde uvedeno jeho základní odvození, faktory ovlivňující rozpustnost a formy Henryho konstanty. Dále je věnována pozornost využití aerace v průmyslu a konstrukci aeračních systémů. Pro realizaci experimentu slouží speciální zařízení na bázi plynového akumulátoru. Naměřené hodnoty byly vyjádřeny pomocí tabulek a grafů. Údaje z experim...

  11. Návrh rozvoje internacionalizační strategie společnosti Heinrich Huhn na mexickém trhu

    Andrlová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Předložená diplomová práce „Návrh rozvoje internacionalizační strategie společnosti Heinrich Huhn na mexickém trhu” je založená na identifikaci kritických faktorů ovlyvňujících volbu konkrétní mezinárodní formy vstupu. Teoretická čásť je zaměřená na otázku globalizace a internacionalizace, její strategie a forem vstupu. Analytická čásť zahrnuje analýzu interního podnikatelského prostředí firmy Heirich Huhn, přehled odvětví, analýzu externího mexického prostředí, které sú následně shrnuty v an...

  12. Field evaluation of durum wheat landraces for prevailing abiotic and biotic stresses in highland rainfed regions of Iran

    Reza Mohammadi; Behzad Sadeghzadeh; Hasan Ahmadi; Nowzar Bahrami; Ahmed Amri

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses are major limiting factors for high crop productivity worldwide. A landrace collection consisting of 380 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) entries originating in several countries along with four check varieties were evaluated for biotic stresses:yellow rust (Puccinia stri formis Westendorf f. sp. tritici) and wheat stem sawfly (WSS) Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera:Cephidae), and abiotic stresses:cold and drought. The main objectives were to (i) quantify phenotypic diversity and identify variation in the durum wheat landraces for the different stresses and (ii) characterize the agronomic profiles of landraces in reaction to the stresses. Significant changes in reactions of landraces to stresses were observed. Landraces resistant to each stress were identified and agronomically characterized. Percentage reduction due to the stresses varied from 11.4% (yellow rust) to 21.6% (cold stress) for 1000-kernel weight (TKW) and from 19.9 (yellow rust) to 91.9%(cold stress) for grain yield. Landraces from Asia and Europe showed enhanced genetic potential for both grain yield and cold tolerance under highland rainfed conditions of Iran. The findings showed that TKW and yield productivity could be used to assess the response of durum wheat landraces to different stresses. In conclusion, landraces showed high levels of resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses, and selected landraces can serve in durum wheat breeding for adaptation to cold and drought-prone environments.

  13. Leidenschaftliche Liebe? : Überlegungen zur Darstellung von Liebe im ausgehenden 18. Jahrhundert bei Sophie von La Roche und Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

    Charvát, Filip

    2010-01-01

    Ve své studii se autor soustředí na měnící se kulturu emocí a formy lásky v německé literatuře koncem 18. století. Do popředí zájmu se postupně dostává otázka po historiĉnosti smyslné lásky, přiĉemţ autor zastává tezi, ţe smyslná láska není v první řadě přirozený, ale spíše kulturní jev. Hlavní ĉást studie obsahuje tři interpretace: Na příkladu románu "Geschichte des Fräuleins von Sternheim" autorky Sophie von La Roche nejprve prezentuje, ţe v období sentimentalizmu se pochopení lásky zakláda...

  14. Izolace obsahových látek Cannabis sativa a jejich biologický účinek

    Baranová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Predmetom záujmu tejto práce je tradičná a zároveň kontroverzná rastlina Cannabis sativa. V teoretickej časti je popísaná botanická stránka rastliny a jej súčasné medicínske formy. Podrobnejšie sú popísané doposiaľ izolované látky spolu s ich biologickou aktivitou. Experimentálna časť práce sa zaoberá izoláciou a identifikáciou látok chloroformovej frakcie extraktu získaného z tejto rastliny. Pre izoláciu boli použité chromatografické metódy –analytická a semipreparatívna HPLC. Získané látky ...

  15. Cenzura na Internetu

    Žila, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá problémem cenzury na internetu v Číně. Práce popisuje formy a způsoby internetové cenzury v Číně. Zároveň uvádí i možnosti zjištění, ověření a obcházení cenzury pomocí různých nástrojů, aplikací a internetových služeb. Práce obsahuje výsledky provedených testů určených k ověření a zjištění cenzurovaných webových stránek a klíčových slov z různých lokací v Číně. Na základě těchto testů jsou vyvozeny závěry o cenzuře na internetu v Číně. This thesis deals with the p...

  16. Development of sodium leak detection technology using laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Design and functional test using prototype sodium detection system

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor, highly sensitive technology is required to detect small amounts of sodium leaking from the cooling system piping or components. The conventional sodium leak detectors have a fundamental difficulty in improving the detection sensitivity for a sodium leak because of the presence of salinity (23NaCl) in the atmosphere around the components and piping of cooling systems. In order to overcome this problem, an innovative technology has been developed to selectively detect the radioactive sodium (22Na) produced by a neutron reaction in the primary cooling system using Laser Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS). In this method, sodium ions produced with the two processes of (1) atomization of sodium aerosols and (2) resonance ionization of sodium atom, are detected selectively using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The 22Na can be distinguished from the stable isotope (23Na) by mass spectrometry, which is the advantage of RIMS comparing to the other methods. The design and the construction of the prototype system based on fundamental experiments are shown in the paper. The aerodynamic lens was newly introduced, which can transfer aerosols at atmospheric pressure into a vacuum chamber while increasing the aerosol density at the same time. Furthermore, the ionization process was applied by using the external electric field after resonance exciting from the ground level to the Rydberg level in order to increase the ionization efficiency. The preliminary test results using the stable isotope (23Na) showed that prototype system could easily detect sodium aerosol of 100 ppb, equivalent to the sensitivity of the conventional detectors. (author)

  17. Thermal oscillations during carbon burning in an electron-degenerate stellar core

    Carbon-burning reactions in an electron-degenerate core of mass approaching the Chandrasekhar limit initiate a sequence of thermal oscillations. Prominent roles in driving convection near the center are played both by exothermic nuclear reactions and by the rearrangement of electrons in the Fermi sea that accompanies electron capture on 23Na. Convection provides the energy for driving electrons inward from the outer edge of the core, where they are created by the electron decay of 23Ne, to the center. During the high-temperature phase of an oscillation, the neutrinos emitted from regions near the center of the convective core as a consequence of electron capture are an order of magnitude more energetic than antineutrinos emitted from the edge of the core. During the rising temperature phase of an oscillation, the heating produced by exothermic nuclear reactions and by the electron Fermi sea in response to transfers of electrons to and from the sea is greater than the cooling due to Urca-neutrino losses. Rising temperatures cause an increase in the heating rate. The increased flux of energy forces an increase in the size of the convective core and the Urca-neutrino (neutrinloss rate also increases. Eventually the loss rate overtakes the heating rate temperatures in the convective core drop, and the core shrinks in size. The neutrino loss rate does not, at first, drop as rapidly as does the heating rate. Ultimately, however, the neutrino-loss rate drops below the heating rate, and a new heating phase sets in. Once central density reaches the threshold for electron capture on 21Ne, the convective zone breaks into two parts: a new, smaller core, in which 21Ne and 21F play the same role as did 23Na and 23Ne in the old core; and a convective shell whose edges are limited by the thresholds for electron captures on 23Na and21Ne. The shell continues to oscillate thermally

  18. Cross sections of α-induced reactions for targets with masses A ∼ 20-50 at low energies

    A simple reduction scheme using so-called reduced energies Ered and reduced cross sections σred allows the comparison of heavy-ion-induced reaction cross sections for a broad range of masses of projectile and target and over a wide energy range. A global behavior has been found for strongly bound projectiles whereas much larger reduced cross sections have been observed for weakly bound and halo projectiles. It has been shown that this simple reduction scheme works also well for α -particle-induced reactions on heavy target nuclei, but very recently significant deviations have been seen for α + 33S and α + 23Na. Motivated by these unexpected discrepancies, the present study analyses α -induced reaction cross sections for targets with masses A ∼ 20-50. The study shows that the experimental data for α-induced reactions on nuclei with A ∼ 20-50 deviate slightly from the global behavior of reduced cross sections. However, in general the deviations evolve smoothly towards lower masses. The only significant outliers are the recent data for 33S and 23Na which are far above the general systematics, and some very old data may indicate that 36Ar and 40Ar are below the general trend. As expected, also the doubly magic 40Ca nucleus lies slightly below the results for its neighboring nuclei. Overall, the experimental data are nicely reproduced by a statistical model calculation utilizing the simple α-nucleus potential by McFadden and Satchler. Simultaneously with the deviation of reduced cross sections σred from the general behavior, the outliers 23Na, 33S, 36Ar, and 40Ar also show significant disagreement between experiment and statistical model calculation. (orig.)

  19. Investigation of the hydrothermal crystallisation of the perovskite solid solution NaCe1−xLaxTi2O6 and its defect chemistry

    Perovskites of nominal composition NaCe1−xLaxTi2O6 (0≤x≤1) crystallise directly under hydrothermal conditions at 240 °C. Raman spectroscopy shows distortion from the ideal cubic structure and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction reveals that the materials represent a continuous series in rhombohedral space group R3-bar c. Ce LIII-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy shows that while the majority of cerium is present as Ce3+ there is evidence for Ce4+. The paramagnetic Ce3+ affects the chemical shift and line width of 23Na MAS NMR spectra, which also show with no evidence for A-site ordering. 2H MAS NMR of samples prepared in D2O shows the inclusion of deuterium, which IR spectroscopy shows is most likely to be as D2O. The deuterium content is highest for the cerium-rich materials, consistent with oxidation of some cerium to Ce4+ to provide charge balance of A-site water. - Graphical abstract: A multi-element A-site perovskite crystallises directly from aqueous, basic solutions at 240 °C; while the paramagnetic effect of Ce3+ on the 23Na NMR shows a homogeneous solid-solution, the incorporation of A-site water is also found from 2H NMR and IR, with oxidation of some cerium to charge balance proved by XANES spectroscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Direct hydrothermal synthesis allows crystallisation of a perovskite solid-solution. • XANES spectroscopy shows some oxidation of Ce3+ to Ce4+. • The paramagnetism of Ce3+ shifts and broadens the 23Na solid-state NMR. • The perovskite materials incorporate water as an A-site defect

  20. The (γ, γ')-experiment at the injection for the Moscow racetrack microtron

    Investigations into nuclei structures, their energy levels and transients are carried out using the racetrack injector of the Moscow University. The application of (γ, γ') reactions in the experiment enables generation of information about the population of excited states of the nuclei under considerations, as well as about γ-decay of final nuclei. The results obtained for the excited states of atomic nuclei of 11B, 19F, 23Na, 28Si, 32S, 39K, 63Cu, 208Pb and their transients are presented. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Solid state NMR study of minerals and glasses : application of off-resonance mutation spectroscopy

    Dirken, P.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis solid state NMR experiments on a variety of minerals and glasses are described with the aim of studying the dependence of their structure on the chemical composition. Chapter 1 introduces the reader to the subject. Chapter 2 describes 23Na and 27Al NMR experiments on a number of alkali fluoroaluminates. These substances consist of AIF6 octahedra which can be linked together to form a variety of structures, similar to the way in which Si04 and AI04 tetrahedra are linked together...

  2. X-ray Diffraction and NMR Studies of Na3-nLinAlH6 (n=0, 1, 2) Alanates Synthesized by High-Pressure Reactive Ball Milling

    The present work combines X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and NMR Study of Na3-nLinAlH6 (n = 0, 1, 2) alanates synthesized by high-pressure reactive ball milling. Reactive ball-milling of alkali hydrides and Al Under it hydrogen pressure of 10 MN allows for the synthesis of Na3AlH6 and Na2LiAlH6 with a yield higher than 90 wt % When using 2 mol % of TiCl3 as a dopant The synthesis of NaLi2AlH6 compound by reactive ball Milling was not Successful The crystal Structure of both Na3AlH6 and Na2LiAlH6 phases are in agreement with previous publications. The phase compositions of the synthesized samples obtained from XRD analysis are in good agreement with the results determined from NMR refinements Without the addition of TiCl3, Na3AlH6 compound Could also be formed, although the reaction was not complete due to slow kinetics. For the magic angle spinning NMR 26Al, 23Na, 6Li, and 1H spectra, strong bulk magnetic Susceptibility (BMS) effects have been observed to affect to the same extent all detected lines and thus indicates that paramagnetic species (Ti3+ or Ti0 bearing phase) are present and well dispersed in the samples. 23Na and 27Al NMR spectra call be refined with very similar NMR parameters for both doped and non doped samples, suggesting that Ti does not incorporate the crystal structure of these materials. Accurate values of 23Na and 27Al NMR parameters and quantification of the studied phases have been obtained thanks to a new treatment allowing for taking into account the BMS effects. Finally, it good agreement of experimental 23Na and 27Al quadrupolar parameters with density functional theory using the gauge-including projector augmented wave (DFT-GIPAW) predicted values is obtained. This work validates the use of DFT-GIPAW calculations for future NMR studies. (authors)

  3. Magnetic-field-induced dynamical instabilities in an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate

    Pu, Zhengguo; Zhang, Jun; Yi, Su; Wang, Dajun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate four types of dynamical instability, in particular the periodic and oscillatory type IO, in an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in a nonzero magnetic field, by employing the coupled-mode theory and numerical method. This is in sharp contrast to the dynamical stability of the same system in zero field. Remarkably, a pattern transition from a periodic dynamical instability IO to a uniform one IIIO occurs at a critical magnetic field. All four types of dynamical instability and the pattern transition are ready to be detected in 23Na condensates within the availability of the current experimental techniques.

  4. Long-range states of the NaRb molecule near the Na($3^2S_{1/2}$)+Rb($5^2P_{3/2}$) asymptote

    Zhu, Bing; Li, Xiaoke; He, Xiaodong; Guo, Mingyang; Wang, Fudong; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Wang, Dajun

    2016-01-01

    We report a high-resolution spectroscopic investigation of the long-range states of the $^{23}$Na$^{87}$Rb molecule near its Na($3^2S_{1/2}$)+Rb($5^2P_{3/2}$) asymptote. This study was performed with weakly bound ultracold molecules produced via magneto-association with an inter-species Feshbach resonance. We observed several regular vibrational series, which are assigned to the 5 attractive long-range states correlated with this asymptote. The vibrational levels of two of these states have s...

  5. Communication of nuclear data progress: No.6 Supplement (1992)

    This is a supplement to No.6 of Communication of Nuclear Data Progress (CNDP), in which the second and final part of the papers of CENDL-2 (Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, Version 2.0) is published. It includes the evaluation reports of 17 elements and isotopes with incident neutron energy from 10-5 eV to 20 MeV, they are 16O, 23Na, 31P, Ca, Zn, Mn, 59Co, Cd, In, Hf, 232Th, 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am, 249Bk, 249Cf

  6. Entrance channel independence in the decay of 47V formed in nearly symmetric and asymmetric reactions

    A light mass CN 47V*, produced via different reaction channels, is observed to have fully energy damped binary decay process, supported by the statistical model calculations based on the transition-state model (TSM). In the present contribution, the decay of excited CN 47V* formed in nearly symmetric and asymmetric reactions 23Na+24Mg (Elab=89.1 MeV) and 35Cl+12C (Elab=200 MeV), respectively, with the same excitation energy ECN*=64.1 MeV, is studied by using the Dynamical Cluster decay Model (DCM) of Gupta and collaborators

  7. Recommendations concerning magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    In medicine the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is applied in the form of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In vivo MRS can be carried out non-invasively. The committee of the Dutch Health Council briefly discusses the qualities and potentialities of the nuclei that will probably be used in future clinical spectroscopy: 31P, 13C, 1H (and possibly 19F and 23Na). The committee discusses several possibilities of combining imaging and spectroscopy. The imaging of nuclei other than protons is also possible with MRS. Potential applications are considered in oncology, cardiology, neurology and hepatology. (Auth.)

  8. Sodium magnetic resonance imaging. Development of a 3D radial acquisition technique with optimized k-space sampling density and high SNR-efficiency; Natrium-Magnetresonanztomographie. Entwicklung einer 3D radialen Messtechnik mit optimierter k-Raum-Abtastdichte und hoher SNR-Effizienz

    Nagel, Armin Michael

    2009-04-01

    A 3D radial k-space acquisition technique with homogenous distribution of the sampling density (DA-3D-RAD) is presented. This technique enables short echo times (TE<0.5 ms), that are necessary for {sup 23}Na-MRI, and provides a high SNR-efficiency. The gradients of the DA-3D-RAD-sequence are designed such that the average sampling density in each spherical shell of k-space is constant. The DA-3D-RAD-sequence provides 34% more SNR than a conventional 3D radial sequence (3D-RAD) if T{sub 2}{sup *}-decay is neglected. This SNR-gain is enhanced if T{sub 2}{sup *}-decay is present, so a 1.5 to 1.8 fold higher SNR is measured in brain tissue with the DA-3D-RAD-sequence. Simulations and experimental measurements show that the DA-3D-RAD sequence yields a better resolution in the presence of T{sub 2}{sup *}-decay and less image artefacts when B{sub 0}-inhomogeneities exist. Using the developed sequence, T{sub 1}-, T{sub 2}{sup *}- and Inversion-Recovery-{sup 23}Na-image contrasts were acquired for several organs and {sup 23}Na-relaxation times were measured (brain tissue: T{sub 1}=29.0{+-}0.3 ms; T{sub 2s}{sup *}{approx}4 ms; T{sub 2l}{sup *}{approx}31 ms; cerebrospinal fluid: T{sub 1}=58.1{+-}0.6 ms; T{sub 2}{sup *}=55{+-}3 ms (B{sub 0}=3 T)). T{sub 1}- und T{sub 2}{sup *}-relaxation times of cerebrospinal fluid are independent of the selected magnetic field strength (B0 = 3T/7 T), whereas the relaxation times of brain tissue increase with field strength. Furthermore, {sup 23}Na-signals of oedemata were suppressed in patients and thus signals from different tissue compartments were selectively measured. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of cross-sections for particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) spectroscopy

    The extension of the cross-section evaluation procedure to PIGE data was investigated and the first results are reported. Two different cases were studied: the gamma emission accompanying inelastic scattering of protons, and the (p,γ)-reaction. The corresponding theoretical calculations were performed in the framework of R-matrix and DWBA for the (p,p′γ) reaction on 23Na, and using statistical model for the proton radiative capture by 52Cr. The possibility of achieving a close fit to the experimental data is demonstrated

  10. Negative muon spin precession measurement of the hyperfine states of muonic sodium

    Both hyperfine states of muonic 23Na and the rate R of conversion between them have been observed directly in a high field negative muon spin precession experiment using a backward muon beam with transverse spin polarization. The result in metallic sodium, R=13.7±2.2 μs-1, is consistent with Winston's prediction in 1963 based on Auger emission of core electrons, and with the measurements of Gorringe et al. in Na metal, but not with their smaller result in NaF. In NaOH we find R=23.5±8 μs-1, leaving medium-dependent effects ambiguous

  11. Effects of intermittent fasting on age-related changes on Na,K-ATPase activity and oxidative status induced by lipopolysaccharide in rat hippocampus.

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Kinoshita, Paula Fernanda; Yshii, Lidia Mitiko; Marques Orellana, Ana Maria; Böhmer, Ana Elisa; de Sá Lima, Larissa; Alves, Rosana; Andreotti, Diana Zukas; Marcourakis, Tania; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2015-05-01

    Chronic neuroinflammation is a common characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling is linked to glutamate-nitric oxide-Na,K-ATPase isoforms pathway in central nervous system (CNS) and also causes neuroinflammation. Intermittent fasting (IF) induces adaptive responses in the brain that can suppress inflammation, but the age-related effect of IF on LPS modulatory influence on nitric oxide-Na,K-ATPase isoforms is unknown. This work compared the effects of LPS on the activity of α1,α2,3 Na,K-ATPase, nitric oxide synthase gene expression and/or activity, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, 3-nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in CNS of young and older rats submitted to the IF protocol for 30 days. LPS induced an age-related effect in neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in rat hippocampus that was linked to changes in α2,3-Na,K-ATPase activity, 3-nitrotyrosine proteins, and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression. IF induced adaptative cellular stress-response signaling pathways reverting LPS effects in rat hippocampus of young and older rats. The results suggest that IF in both ages would reduce the risk for deficits on brain function and neurodegenerative disorders linked to inflammatory response in the CNS. PMID:25818175

  12. Measurement of the relationship of {sup 24} Na activity and the received neutron dose; Medicion de la relacion de la actividad de {sup 24}Na y la dosis de neutrones recibida

    Gossio, S.; Carrelli, J.; Villella, A.; Soppe, E., E-mail: sgossio@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    In cases of criticality accidents it is required a fast dosimetric system that allows to evaluate the doses of the personnel involved. The reaction (n,y) with sodium presented in the body ({sup 23}Na), generates {sup 24}Na, that emits two gamma of 1369KeV and 2754 KeV that can be measured using a whole body counter. The experienced were carried out with the irradiation of {sup 252} Cf of a phantom with a solution of NaCl in water. After the irradiation it was measured the {sup 24}Na activity in the whole body counter, which has a HPGe detector previously calibrated in energy and efficiency. Considering the correction by decay, the quantity of {sup 23}Na presented in the body of an adult and elimination curve of {sup 24}Na, it was established a coefficient of neutronic doses by unity of activity of {sup 24}Na measured in the whole body counter. This method is useful for the retrospective estimation of the doses, as well as to carry out a radiological sorting in case of criticality.

  13. 12C+12C reactions at astrophysical energies: Tests of targets behaviour under beam bombardment

    12C(12C,α)20Ne and 12C(12C,p)23Na are the most important reactions during the carbon burning phase in stars. Direct measurements at the relevant astrophysical energy (E=1.5±0.3MeV) are very challenging because of the extremely small cross sections involved and of the high beam-induced background originating from impurities in the targets. In addition, persistent resonant structures at low energies are not well understood and make the extrapolation of the cross section from high energy data very uncertain. As a preliminary step towards the measurements of the 12C(12C,α)20Ne and 12C(12C,p)23Na reactions we intend to investigate the behaviour of targets under beam bombardment, specifically the quantitative measurement of hydrogen and deuterium content of highly pure stable carbon targets in relation to target temperature. Experiments are taking place at the CIRCE accelerator in Caserta, Italy and preliminary results are presented here

  14. Fluorescence studies on 20Na and excited neon atoms in proton-induced plasmas

    In this thesis, an experimental study on the application of the optical fluorescence technique for the detection of excited and ground-state atoms in a neon plasma produced by 20-MeV protons is presented. By making use of a continuous-wave dye laser tuned to the D2-line of sodium, the 20Na atoms, produced via the reaction 20Ne(p,h)20Na, were excited and the intensity of the fluorescence light measured for several positions in the reaction vessel. From the time dependence of the fluorescence signal after a period of production by the proton beam, the diffusion of the 20Na atoms through the reaction vessel could be studied. Using single-mode operation of the dye laser the absorption line shape of the 23Na D-lines and the isotope shift of the 20Na D-lines with respect to the 23Na D-lines were determined. The proton beam was used as a well-defined excitation source to study the kinetic behaviour of neon atoms in the 1S2, 1S4 and 1S5 states. To learn the effect of plasma conditions on the results of the experiments, the electron density and the electron temperature in the plasma were measured

  15. Energy levels of 24Na

    Four experiments are reported yielding excitation energies, spins, parities, mean lifetimes, γ-ray branching ratios of 24Na. The applied methods include particle-γ angular correlations and Doppler shift attenuation method lifetime measurements. From a 23Na(d,pγ)24Na experiments using a large Ge(Li) γ-detector excitation energies, branching ratios and mean lifetimes are determined. A 26Mg(d,αγ)24Na experiment using a NaI(Te) γ-detector enables the assignment of spins and γ-ray mixing ratios. From a 22Ne(3He,pγ)24Na measurement with a deeply implanted 22Ne target, preliminary data from the γ-decay of levels with Ex = 4 - 6 meV and additional nuclear lifetime data are decided. Finally a 23Na(n,γ)24Na γ-spectrum obtained with thermal neutrons and a Ge(Li) detector enabled the adjustment of some of the level energies. The data from these and other experiments were collected and compared with theory. It turned out that the statistical model of nuclear reactions does not give reliable information about nuclear spin-parity combinations. However recent shell-model calculations of Chung give remarkable agreement for low-lying levels (Ex < 3.3 meV)

  16. Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project

    The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium (23Na) and two isotopes of iron, 56Fe and 54Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on 23Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-@@energy (few MeV) fast-@@neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-@@region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., @@2 must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.

  17. Structural Characterization of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Using EPR Techniques

    Udo Kielmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCNCs containing either a rubber or an acrylate polymer were prepared by drying or co-precipitating polymer latex and nanolayered clay (synthetic and natural suspensions. The interface between the polymer and the clay nanoparticles was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR techniques by selectively addressing spin probes either to the surfactant layer (labeled stearic acid or the clay surface (labeled catamine. Continuous-wave (CW EPR studies of the surfactant dynamics allow to define a transition temperature T* which was tentatively assigned to the order-disorder transition of the surfactant layer. CW EPR studies of PCNC showed that completely exfoliated nanoparticles coexist with agglomerates. HYSCORE spectroscopy in PCNCs showed couplings within the probe −assigned with DFT computations− and couplings with nuclei of the environment, 1H and 23Na for the surfactant layer probe, and 29Si, 7Li, 19F and 23Na for the clay surface probe. Analysis of these couplings indicates that the integrity of the surfactant layer is conserved and that there are sizeable ionic regions containing sodium ions directly beyond the surfactant layer. Simulations of the very weak couplings demonstrated that the HYSCORE spectra are sensitive to the composition of the clay and whether or not clay platelets stack.

  18. A monopole/loop dual-tuned RF coil for ultrahigh field MRI.

    Yan, Xinqiang; Xue, Rong; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-08-01

    Proton and heteronuclear MRI/MRS using dual-tuned (DT) coils could provide both anatomical and metabolic images without repositioning the subject. However, it is technologically challenging to attain sufficiently electromagnetic (EM) decoupling between the heteronuclear channel and proton channel, and keep the imaging areas and profiles of two nuclear channels highly matched. In this study, a hybrid monopole/loop technique was proposed for DT coil design and this technique was validated by implementing and testing a DT (1)H/(23)Na coil for MR imaging at 7T. The RF fields of the monopole ((1)H channel) and regular L/C loop ((23)Na channel) were orthogonal and intrinsically EM decoupled. Bench measurement results demonstrated the isolation between the two nuclear channels was better than -28 dB at both nuclear frequencies. Compared with the conventional DT coil using trap circuits, the monopole/loop DT coil had higher MR sensitivity for sodium imaging. The experimental results indicated that the monopole/loop technique might be a simple and efficient design for multinuclear imaging at ultrahigh fields. Additionally, the proposed DT coils based on the monopole/loop technique can be used as building blocks in designing multichannel DT coil arrays. PMID:25202657

  19. Progress on Nuclear Data Covariances: AFCI-1.2 Covariance Library

    Oblozinsky,P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Mattoon,C.M.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Pigni,M.T.; Talou,P.; Hale,G.M.; Kahler,A.C.; Kawano,T.; Little,R.C.; Young,P.G

    2009-09-28

    Improved neutron cross section covariances were produced for 110 materials including 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural materials and fission products, and 20 actinides. Improved covariances were organized into AFCI-1.2 covariance library in 33-energy groups, from 10{sup -5} eV to 19.6 MeV. BNL contributed improved covariance data for the following materials: {sup 23}Na and {sup 55}Mn where more detailed evaluation was done; improvements in major structural materials {sup 52}Cr, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Ni; improved estimates for remaining structural materials and fission products; improved covariances for 14 minor actinides, and estimates of mubar covariances for {sup 23}Na and {sup 56}Fe. LANL contributed improved covariance data for {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu including prompt neutron fission spectra and completely new evaluation for {sup 240}Pu. New R-matrix evaluation for {sup 16}O including mubar covariances is under completion. BNL assembled the library and performed basic testing using improved procedures including inspection of uncertainty and correlation plots for each material. The AFCI-1.2 library was released to ANL and INL in August 2009.

  20. Multinuclear high-resolution NMR study of compounds from the ternary system NaF-CaF2-AlF3: from determination to modeling of NMR parameters.

    Martineau, C; Body, M; Legein, C; Silly, G; Buzaré, J-Y; Fayon, F

    2006-12-11

    27Al and 23Na NMR satellite transition spectroscopy and 3Q magic-angle-spinning spectra are recorded for three compounds from the ternary NaF-CaF2-AlF3 system. The quadrupolar frequency nuQ, asymmetry parameter etaQ, and isotropic chemical shift deltaiso are extracted from the spectrum reconstructions for five aluminum and four sodium sites. The quadrupolar parameters are calculated using the LAPW-based ab initio code WIEN2k. It is necessary to perform a structure optimization of all compounds to ensure a fine agreement between experimental and calculated parameters. By a comparison of experimental and calculated values, an attribution of all of the 27Al and 23Na NMR lines to the crystallographic sites is achieved. High-speed 19F NMR MAS spectra are recorded and reconstructed for the same compounds, leading to the determination of 18 isotropic chemical shifts. The superposition model developed by Bureau et al. is used, allowing a bijective assignment of the 19F NMR lines to the crystallographic sites. PMID:17140229

  1. Polityka bilansowa spółek akcyjnych– uwarunkowania skutecznościoraz skutki rozpoznania przez inwestorów 

    Rafał Grabowski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardy i normy prawne określające zasady rachunkowości zawierają szereg praw wyboru i pól swobodnego działania. Ich wykorzystywanie w celu oddziaływania na oceny formułowane przez interesariuszy było często poddawane krytyce. Jednak wykorzystanie swobody pozostawionej na płaszczyźnie uregulowań w zakresie rachunkowości nie umożliwia oddziaływania na oceny formułowane przez interesariuszy, jeżeli są spełnione dwa warunki. Warunek I wymaga, aby rynek kapitałowy odznaczał się przynajmniej tzw. efektywnością w średniej formie. Skutkiem odznaczania się przez rynek kapitałowy efektywnością w średniej formie jest między innymi to, że inwestorzy wyceniający akcje danej spółki natychmiast uwzględniają w swych ocenach wszystkie publicznie dostępne informacje dotyczące tej spółki, w tym także dane zawarte w informacji dodatkowej. Warunek II wymaga, aby sprawozdanie finansowe umożliwiało poznanie, jakie wartości (tych pozycji byłyby ujęte, gdyby zastosowano opcjonalną metodę rachunkową. W literaturze przedmiotu opisanych jest wiele badań, których celem było ustalenie, czy tendencyjne ukształtowanie bilansu oraz rachunku zysków i strat umożliwia oddziaływanie na inwestorów giełdowych. Trzeba jednak podkreślić, że praktycznie we wszystkich opracowaniach, koncentrowano się na warunku I, dotyczącym efektywności rynków kapitałowych. Kwestia warunku II odnoszącego się do zawartości informacyjnej sprawozdań finansowych nie była gruntownie badana. To skłoniło współautora niniejszego referatu do podjęcia próby ustalenia, czy opisane powyżej warunki braku skuteczności polityki bilansu handlowego są spełnione. Wyniki, jakie uzyskał autor badania pozwoliły stwierdzić, że pomimo, iż warunek I jest spełniony, polityka bilansu handlowego kształtowana na podstawie MSSF może być nadal skutecznie wykorzystywana do kształtowania ocen formułowanych przez interesariuszy. Wynika to z

  2. 木寡糖-地衣芽孢杆菌合生元对保育猪生产性能的影响

    应琳琳; 张杨

    2015-01-01

    A total of 176 piglets (Duroc×Landrace×Large white),weaned on (28±2)days,were chosen and divided (randomly) into 4 groups with 4 replicates of 11 each.Group A was added 0.2% xylooligosaccharide - bacillus licheni-formis synbiotics and colistin sulfate 20 mg/kg,group B was added 0.2% isxylooligosaccharide - bacillus licheniformis synbiotics with,Group C was added colistin sulfate 20 mg/kg,group D was control group.The feeding period was 30 days. All pigs had free access to diet and water.The experiment results showed that the xylooligosaccharide - bacillus licheni-formis synbiotics and colistin sulfate combined or individual use,all improved the production performance of nursery pigs, and there was no significant difference among the adding groups (P > 0.05).In view of economy,xylooligosaccharide -bacillus licheniformis synbiotics could be used alone to improve the production performance of piglets in practical produc-tion.Compared with the control group, adding 0.2%xylooligosaccharide-bacillus licheniformis synbiotics increased aver-age daily gain by 4.24%,improved feed efficiency by 4.20%,and reduced diarrhea rate by 33.83%.%随机选择176 头健康的(28±2)日龄杜×长×大三元杂交断奶仔猪,体重平均为(7.13±0.06)kg,分4个处理组,分别为试验组A(0.2%木寡糖-地衣芽孢杆菌合生元+硫酸粘杆菌素20 mg/kg)、试验组B(0.2%木寡糖-地衣芽孢杆菌合生元)、试验组C(硫酸粘杆菌素20 mg/kg)、试验组D(空白对照组),每个处理4 个重复,每个重复11 头仔猪. 饲养期30 d,自由采食和饮水. 试验结果表明:木寡糖-地衣芽孢杆菌合生元与硫酸粘杆菌素联用或二者单独使用,均可改善保育猪生产性能,且各添加组间差异不显著(P>0.05). 从经济效益角度考虑,生产中可单独使用木寡糖-地衣芽孢杆菌合生元来提高保育猪生产性能.与对照组相比,0.2%木寡糖-地衣芽孢杆菌合生元可提高仔猪日增重4.24%(P<0.05),降低料肉比4.20%(P

  3. On Translation of English Film Titles%英文电影片名翻译

    张欢

    2012-01-01

    电影这种艺术形式非常容易被各种文化层次的观众所接受。观众对于电影的第一印象来自片名,电影片名隐含着独特的本国文化。优秀电影片名译作是对文化与信息传递和实现商业价值的前提条件之一。本文通过分析英文电影片名翻译的方法和技巧,指出在翻译的过程中,可以根据具体情况,采用直译、意译、音译这三种翻译方法。%Movie,as an art form,is easily accepted by audiences of various cultural levels.The audience gets the first impression of a film from its title which involves much of their native culture.Good translations of the film titles can not only attract more audience to realize its commercial value,but also be one of prerequisites that make sure the culture and information pass on.The paper mainly discussed the translation of English movie titles,with the consideration of culture,recognizes the distinctions of cultures and languages between English and Chinese.The author draws a conclusion that,in the process of translation,according to the specific circumstances,there are three methods of translation of English film titles,which are literal translation,free translation and transliteration.

  4. „10 PRAKTYCZNYCH SPOSOBÓW NA INTEGRACJĘ ROMÓW”, CZYLI ANALIZA WSPÓŁCZESNEJ SYTUACJI SPOŁECZNOŚCI ROMSKICH Z PERSPEKTYWY ANTROPOLOGII DARÓW

    Maciej Witkowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available W artykule przedstawione zostaną przeprowadzone na przestrzeni ostatnich trzech lat wyniki etnograficznych badań terenowych w osadach romskich w Polsce i ich społecznym otoczeniu. Społeczności romskie w Polsce poddawane są obecnie intensywnym oddziaływaniom ze strony społeczeństwa większościowego, których celem jest społeczno-ekonomiczna integracja. Podobnie jak w klasycznym studium Marcela Maussa tu także mamy do czynienia z oczekiwaną wymianą wartości. Społeczeństwo większościowe składa dar w formie funduszy na „praktyki integracyjne” i jednocześnie liczy, że społeczności romskie na zasadzie wzajemności porzucą te elementy swojego tradycyjnego sposobu życia, które wydają się nie do zaakceptowania w „demokratycznym” i „zintegrowanym” społeczeństwie. W wymianie darów, w przeciwieństwie do działań w zakresie gospodarki towarowej, zazwyczaj bardziej chodzi o działanie symboliczne niż zaspokajanie „obiektywnych” potrzeb. Wy- miana darów jest raczej znakiem wzajemnego uznania, taktyką budowania więzi społecznej. Badania pokazują, że dotychczasowa praktyka integrowania przez dary czasem prowadzi do moralnego poniżenia i pogłębienia marginalnej pozycji Romów.

  5. Labour Market Developments in the Maritime Industry of the South Baltic Region

    Bernacki Dariusz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dwa główne cele badań, to analiza stanu gospodarki morskiej i zatrudnienia w Rejonie Południowego Bałtyku oraz zidentyfikowanie sektorów gospodarki morskiej wykazujących potencjał dla rozwoju i określenie wpływu, jaki będzie to miało na zatrudnienie i wymagane kwalifikacje zawodowe, a także na możliwości wymiany międzyregionalnej pracowników. Badania porównawcze przeprowadzono dla czterech nadmorskich regionów UE, a mianowicie Meklemburgii-Przedpomorza Przedniego(D, województw: Zachodniopomorskiego i Pomorskiego (PL oraz Regionu Kłajpedy (LT. Wskazano na perspektywy rozwoju gospodarczego poszczególnych segmentów gospodarki morskiej i ustalono związany z tym wpływ na rynki pracy w poszczególnych regionach. Analiza porównawcza poszczególnych segmentów gospodarki morskiej Rejonu Południowego Bałtyku umożliwiła zidentyfikowanie różnic w możliwościach ich rozwoju i w efektach popytu na pracę i na kwalifikacje zawodowe dla każdego z regionów. Zjawisko zróżnicowanego potencjału rozwoju rynków pracy w wyróżnionych segmentach gospodarki morskiej w ujęciu międzyregionalnym przedstawiono w formie wielokryterialnych macierzy prognoz popytu na pracę.

  6. Comparative modeling and molecular dynamics suggest high carboxylase activity of the Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 RbcL protein.

    Siqueira, Andrei Santos; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo Teixeira; de Azevedo, Juliana Simão Nina; da Silva Gonçalves Vianez, João Lídio; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco catalyzes the first step reaction in the carbon fixation pathway, bonding atmospheric CO2/O2 to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate; it is therefore considered one of the most important enzymes in the biosphere. Genetic modifications to increase the carboxylase activity of rubisco are a subject of great interest to agronomy and biotechnology, since this could increase the productivity of biomass in plants, algae and cyanobacteria and give better yields in crops and biofuel production. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize in silico the catalytic domain of the rubisco large subunit (rbcL gene) of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14, and identify target sites to improve enzyme affinity for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. A three-dimensional model was built using MODELLER 9.14, molecular dynamics was used to generate a 100 ns trajectory by AMBER12, and the binding free energy was calculated using MM-PBSA, MM-GBSA and SIE methods with alanine scanning. The model obtained showed characteristics of form-I rubisco, with 15 beta sheets and 19 alpha helices, and maintained the highly conserved catalytic site encompassing residues Lys175, Lys177, Lys201, Asp203, and Glu204. The binding free energy of the enzyme-substrate complexation of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 showed values around -10 kcal mol(-1) using the SIE method. The most important residues for the interaction with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate were Arg295 followed by Lys334. The generated model was successfully validated, remaining stable during the whole simulation, and demonstrated characteristics of enzymes with high carboxylase activity. The binding analysis revealed candidates for directed mutagenesis sites to improve rubisco's affinity. PMID:26936271

  7. Pyrole-substituted barbituric derivatives as pharmaceutically significant compounds and intermediates

    Pyrrole- and indolecarbaldehydes are condensed with 5-unsubstituted barbituric acids targeting 16 new heterocyclic structures with a prospective pharmacological profile. So 1H-2-pyrrolecarbaldehyde, diethyl 5-formyl-3-methyl-1H-2,4-pyrroledicarboxylate, ethyl 5-formy 1-2,4-dimethyl-l.fl'-3-pyrrolecarboxylate, ethyl 4-formyl-3,5-dimethyl-1H-2-pyrrolecarboxylate, ethyl 4-formyl-2,5-dimethyl-1H-3-pyrrolecarboxylate and l-acetyl-1H-3-indolecarbaldehyde have been condensed in a molar ratio with hexahydro-2,4,6-pyrimidinetrione (barbituric acid) and its 1,3-dimethyl-, 1,3-diphenyl- and 1,3-dicyclohexyl- derivatives. The synthesis takes place in ethanol (or in ethanol/water in the cases of unsubstituted barbituric acid) within several hours at 200 - 600 C in the absence of any catalyst with yields in the range of 70-95%. An insufficient carbonyl activity of N-unsubstituted indole-3-carbaldehyde has been observed and overcome by a preliminary N-acethylation avoiding the inactive vinylene-carboxamide form. In addition to their pharmaceutical significance based on the interaction of two heterocyclic pharmacophores, the condensation products could also be useful as versatile intermediates for further synthesis of new heterocyclic systems. The synthesis of 5-[(4-acetyl-3,5-dimethyl-1H-2-pyrrolyl)(l-acetyl-1H-3-indolyl)methyl] hexahydr= o-2,4,6-pyrimidinetrione (60% in enol-form according to 1H-NMR) by refluxing of [(1-acetyl-1H-3-indolyl) methylene]hexahydro-2,4,6-pyrimidinetrione] and 3-acethyl-2,4-dimethylpyrrole for 6 h in CH3CN illustrates their capability to add C-nucleophiles to the double bound bridging 3 heterocyclic units together. The new 17 products are TLC pure and their structures are proved by 1H-NMR/IR-spectra which interpretation is displayed. (authors)

  8. W-reactivation and W-mutagenesis in bacteriophages lambda and T7: comparison of action of ultraviolet irradiation (254nm) and furocouma photosensitization

    When treating bacteriophage lambda with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and light (lambda>320 nm), two types of photoproducts are formed in DNA: monoadducts and diadducts or interstrand linkings. If a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli is used as horst, W-reactivation and W-mutagenesis (clear-mutation), approximately equal in magnitude to those of UV-irradiated phage lambda, are observed in the bacteriophage lambda treated with 8-MOP plus light. If mutant strains E coli uvrA-, recA- and lexA- are used as host W-reactivation and W-mutagenesis practically do not occur in phage lambda. Using the method of ''reirradiation'', it is shown that clear-mutations in 8-MOP plus light treated phage lambda are induced in the process of W-mutagenesis mainly due to the formation of diadducts (interstrand linking) in DNA. In the phage monoadducts of derived furocoumarins also have a mutageneous character but their mutagenesis effectiveness (mutation probability calculating on one photo product) is significantly inferior to that of diadducts (approximately 15-20 times). It has been demonstrated in the experiments on the determination of W-mutagenesis of phage lambda photosensitized with angelisine - an angular derivative of furocoumarins - that mainly formi monoadducts in DNA. It is also shown that W-reactivation and W-mutagenesis effects are observed when sowing UV-irradiated (254 nm) phage lambda on E coli uvrA- and wild-type strains treated with 8-MOP plus light. As to bacteriophage T7 treated with 8-MOP plus light, W-reactivation is not observed even on a wild strain E coli. Preliminary infection of cells with phage T7 that has been strongly inactivated using photosensitizer 8-MOP decreases repair's effectiveness of interstrand linkings in DNA of phage lambda

  9. Metodologija postavljanja diferencijalnih jednačina pri istraživanju dinamičkih parametara konstrukcije lansirne rampe na vozilu točkašu / Methodology make of differential equations at investigation of dynamic parameters of constructions of launcher on vehicle

    Vlado P. Đurković

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available U radu se određuju optimalni parametri konstrukcije lansirne rampe: položaj tačke vešanja hidrocilindra na rampi, dužina i materijal rampe, koeficijent viskoznog trenja ulja u hidrocilindru, koeficijent krutosti lansirne rampe i hidrocilindra, poprečni presek rampe, itd. Radi toga postavlja se mehanički model sa tri stepena slobode kretanja i odgovarajući model u vidu sistema od tri nelinearne diferencijalne jednačine drugog reda. Numeričkom analizom dobijenog matematičkog modela (primenom programskog jezika Compaq Visual Fortran, Version 6.5 dolazi se do optimalnosti pojedinih parametara. Dobijeni rezultati, predstavljeni u grafičkoj formi, mogu da budu veoma korisni projektantima raketnih lansera, kako stabilnih, tako i mobilnih, pri razvoju novih konstrukcija i modifikaciji postojećih. / This paper determines optimal construction parametrics of a missile launcher place of hydro-cylinder on launcher, length and material of ramp of launcher coefficient of the viscosity of friction oil in hydro-cylinder, coefficient of stiffness of launcher and hydro-cylinder, cross-section of launcher etc. In this purpose appointment mechanical model with three degrees of freedom motion and analogous model of system of three nonlinear differential equation second order. Numerical analysis obtained mathematical model (programming with language Compaq Visual Fortran, Version 6.5 coming to optimal parameters. Obtained results that are presented in graphical shapes can be very useful for designing stable and mobile missile launchers, both for development of new constructions and modification of existing structures.

  10. The concentration of heavy metals in soils around the wetlands of the Ina valley near Sławęcin / Koncentracja metali ciężkich w glebach mokradeł doliny Iny koło Sławęcina

    Paprota Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mokradła w górnym odcinku doliny Iny to obszar cenny przyrodniczo i jednocześnie wolny od negatywnego oddziaływania przemysłu. Za ewentualne źródło zanieczyszczeń można przyjąć tu między innymi zanieczyszczenia z pól i łąk w postaci środków ochrony roślin oraz nawozów sztucznych, czy też zrzuty ścieków komunalnych z zabudowań wiejskich jak i niewielkiego miasta Recz. Badaniami objęto gleby mokradeł lewobrzeżnej części doliny Iny w pobliżu Sławęcina. Wykonano cztery charakterystyczne profile glebowe, z których pobrano materiał glebowy do badań laboratoryjnych. W próbkach glebowych oznaczono: zawartość materii organicznej, odczyn w 1 mol KCl·dm-3, w poziomach mineralnych skład granulometryczny oraz koncentrację metali ciężkich w formie wymiennej i ogólnej (Cd, Pb, Cu, Co, Zn, Fe. W wyniku przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono, że gleby mokradeł doliny Iny koło Sławęcina nie wykazują zanieczyszczenia metalami ciężkimi, przy czym obserwuje się ich większe nagromadzenie w poziomach powierzchniowych murszowych, niż w niżej występującym torfie niskim i niżej występujących osadach.

  11. Effect of Lectins from Diocleinae Subtribe against Oral Streptococci

    Edson Holanda Teixeira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface colonization is an essential step in biofilm development. The ability of oral pathogens to adhere to tooth surfaces is directly linked with the presence of specific molecules at the bacterial surface that can interact with enamel acquired pellicle ligands. In light of this, the aim of this study was to verify inhibitory and antibiofilm action of lectins from the Diocleinaesubtribe against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis. The inhibitory action against planctonic cells was assessed using lectins from Canavaliaensi formis (ConA, Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr, Canavalia maritima (ConM, Canavalia gladiata (CGL and Canavalia boliviana (ConBol. ConBol, ConBr and ConM showed inhibitory activity on S. mutans growth. All lectins, except ConA, stimulated significantly the growth of S. oralis. To evaluate the effect on biofilm formation, clarified saliva was added to 96-well, flat-bottomed polystyrene plates, followed by the addition of solutions containing 100 or 200 µg/mL of the selected lectins. ConBol, ConM and ConA inhibited the S. mutans biofilms. No effects were found on S. oralis biofilms. Structure/function analysis were carried out using bioinformatics tools. The aperture and deepness of the CRD (Carbohydrate Recognition Domain permit us to distinguish the two groups of Canavalia lectins in accordance to their actions against S. mutans and S. oralis. The results found provide a basis for encouraging the use of plant lectins as biotechnological tools in ecological control and prevention of caries disease.

  12. Contents of selected macroelements in soils, potatoes and fodder beets at variable soil reaction / Zawartość wybranych makroelementów w glebach oraz w ziemniakach i burakach pastewnych przy zmiennym odczynie gleby

    Rogóż Antoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Celem przeprowadzonych badañ było określenie koncentracji wybranych makroelementów w glebie i w roślinach okopowych (ziemniakach i burakach pastewnych przy zmiennym odczynie gleby. Zmiany wartości pH w badanych glebach decydowały o zawartości tych pierwiastków w formach rozpuszczalnych oznaczanych w HCl o stężeniu 0,1 mol·dm-3. Analiza statystyczna wykazała dodatnią zależność pomiędzy wartością pH gleb a zawartością wapnia i magnezu w formie zbliżonej do ogólnej oraz zawartością rozpuszczalnych form fosforu, wapnia i magnezu. Zawartość badanych makroelementów, tj. fosforu, wapnia, magnezu w uprawianych burakach pastewnych oraz ziemniakach zależała od zasobności i form, w jakiej badane pierwiastki występują w glebie, a także od gatunku oraz analizowanej części rośliny. Wraz ze wzrostem wartości pH gleb stwierdzano zwiększenie zawartości fosforu i zmniejszenie zawartości magnezu w korzeniach i częściach nadziemnych buraków. Zawartość wapnia w korzeniach uległa zwiększeniu wraz ze wzrostem wartości pH gleb, natomiast kierunek zmian zawartości tego pierwiastka w ogonkach i blaszkach liściowych buraków nie był jednoznaczny. W bulwach ziemniaków stwierdzono nieznaczne obniżenie się zawartości badanych pierwiastków wraz ze wzrostem wartości pH gleb.

  13. 红茶菌中优势微生物的分离鉴定及系统发育分析%Isolation and Identification of Predominant Microbes from Kombucha and Phylogenic Analysis

    乔宏萍; 沙大年; 金泰廙; 杭晓敏

    2011-01-01

    In this manuscript, , the predominant microbes were isolated from Kombucha by different medium, 8. 3 106 cfu/mL of yeasts and 1. 4 107 cfu/mL of acetic bacteria were obtained. There were 4 strains of yeasts and 2 strains of acetic bacteria through purified from different colonies. By molecular identified and phylogenic analyzed, the isolate AC1 was identified as Acetobacter - senegalensis, AC2 as Gluconacetobacter saccharivoran, Yl as Pichia membranifaciens, Y2 as Pichia galeiformis, Y3 as Dekkera anomala, Y4 as Zygosaccharomyces bailii.%采用不同的培养基对红茶菌优势微生物进行了分离,共得到酵母菌8.3×106个/mL,醋酸菌1.4×107个/mL,选取不同的菌落进行纯化后得到2株醋酸菌和4株酵母菌.经过分子生物学鉴定和系统发育树分析后,初步确定AC1为醋酸杆菌Acetobacter senegalensis,AC2为葡糖醋杆菌Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans;Y1为膜璞毕赤酵母Pichia membrani aciens,Y2为毕赤酵母Pichia galei formis,Y3为异型德克酵母Dekkera anomala,Y4为拜耳接合酵母Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

  14. Tracking Sodium-Antimonide Phase Transformations in Sodium-Ion Anodes: Insights from Operando Pair Distribution Function Analysis and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    Allan, Phoebe K; Griffin, John M; Darwiche, Ali; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Wiaderek, Kamila M; Chapman, Karena W; Morris, Andrew J; Chupas, Peter J; Monconduit, Laure; Grey, Clare P

    2016-02-24

    Operando pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and ex situ (23)Na magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS ssNMR) spectroscopy are used to gain insight into the alloying mechanism of high-capacity antimony anodes for sodium-ion batteries. Subtraction of the PDF of crystalline NaxSb phases from the total PDF, an approach constrained by chemical phase information gained from (23)Na ssNMR in reference to relevant model compounds, identifies two previously uncharacterized intermediate species formed electrochemically; a-Na(3-x)Sb (x ≈ 0.4-0.5), a structure locally similar to crystalline Na3Sb (c-Na3Sb) but with significant numbers of sodium vacancies and a limited correlation length, and a-Na(1.7)Sb, a highly amorphous structure featuring some Sb-Sb bonding. The first sodiation breaks down the crystalline antimony to form first a-Na(3-x)Sb and, finally, crystalline Na3Sb. Desodiation results in the formation of an electrode formed of a composite of crystalline and amorphous antimony networks. We link the different reactivity of these networks to a series of sequential sodiation reactions manifesting as a cascade of processes observed in the electrochemical profile of subsequent cycles. The amorphous network reacts at higher voltages reforming a-Na(1.7)Sb, then a-Na(3-x)Sb, whereas lower potentials are required for the sodiation of crystalline antimony, which reacts to form a-Na(3-x)Sb without the formation of a-Na(1.7)Sb. a-Na(3-x)Sb is converted to crystalline Na3Sb at the end of the second discharge. We find no evidence of formation of NaSb. Variable temperature (23)Na NMR experiments reveal significant sodium mobility within c-Na3Sb; this is a possible contributing factor to the excellent rate performance of Sb anodes. PMID:26824406

  15. Investigation of the hydrothermal crystallisation of the perovskite solid solution NaCe{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} and its defect chemistry

    Harunsani, Mohammad H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Woodward, David I. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7Al (United Kingdom); Peel, Martin D.; Ashbrook, Sharon E. [School of Chemistry, and EaStCHEM University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Walton, Richard I., E-mail: r.i.walton@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Perovskites of nominal composition NaCe{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} (0≤x≤1) crystallise directly under hydrothermal conditions at 240 °C. Raman spectroscopy shows distortion from the ideal cubic structure and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction reveals that the materials represent a continuous series in rhombohedral space group R3-bar c. Ce L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy shows that while the majority of cerium is present as Ce{sup 3+} there is evidence for Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetic Ce{sup 3+} affects the chemical shift and line width of {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectra, which also show with no evidence for A-site ordering. {sup 2}H MAS NMR of samples prepared in D{sub 2}O shows the inclusion of deuterium, which IR spectroscopy shows is most likely to be as D{sub 2}O. The deuterium content is highest for the cerium-rich materials, consistent with oxidation of some cerium to Ce{sup 4+} to provide charge balance of A-site water. - Graphical abstract: A multi-element A-site perovskite crystallises directly from aqueous, basic solutions at 240 °C; while the paramagnetic effect of Ce{sup 3+} on the {sup 23}Na NMR shows a homogeneous solid-solution, the incorporation of A-site water is also found from {sup 2}H NMR and IR, with oxidation of some cerium to charge balance proved by XANES spectroscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Direct hydrothermal synthesis allows crystallisation of a perovskite solid-solution. • XANES spectroscopy shows some oxidation of Ce{sup 3+} to Ce{sup 4+}. • The paramagnetism of Ce{sup 3+} shifts and broadens the {sup 23}Na solid-state NMR. • The perovskite materials incorporate water as an A-site defect.

  16. Neurosecretory effect of ouabain on isolated rabbit ileal mucosa

    Ouabain, when added to fluid bathing rabbit ileal mucosa mounted in a flux chamber, transiently increases short circuit current, implying a paradoxical secretory response. To determine the cause of this change, the authors studied unidirectional fluxes of 36Cl and 23Na and the effects of ion substitution, of reduced Ca concentration, verapamil, tetrodotoxin and atropine. Ouabain 0.1 mM, transiently increased the serosal to mucosal flux of Cl and Na, increased Isc and PD and reduced ion conductance. The Isc response to ouabain was diminished by reducing the bath fluid concentration of CL, of Ca, and by adding verapamil. Tetrodotoxin both delayed and reduced the maximal Isc response; atropine had no effect. They conclude that ouabain acts by releasing a neurotransmitter of unknown identity and by increasing the serosal to mucosal flux to Cl

  17. New JEFF-3.2 Sodium Neutron Induced Cross-sections Evaluation for Neutron Fast Reactors Applications: from 0 to 20 MeV

    Archier, P.; Noguère, G.; De Saint Jean, C.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Rouki, C.

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of the ASTRID project, a new 23Na evaluation, containing re-evaluated nuclear data and associated covariances, has been prepared to be submitted for the future JEFF-3.2 library. This work has been motivated mainly because the current JEFF-3.1.1 sodium evaluation showed large differences with microscopic measurements and does not have covariances data. Recent experimental data from IRMM and high resolution measurements from Larson have been simultaneously analyzed with the data assimilation code CONRAD and a good agreement with the evaluated cross-sections has been achieved. Experimental systematic uncertainties have been propagated to the nuclear reaction model parameters in order to produce a coherent set of covariance data. Several figures are provided in this paper to illustrate the new features of this evaluation.

  18. Neutron Inelastic Scattering Measurements for Na, Ge, Zr, Mo and U

    Bacquias, A.; Dessagne, Ph.; Kerveno, M.; Rudolf, G.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Drohé, J. C.; Rouki, C.; Nankov, N.; Nyman, M.; Borcea, C.; Negret, A.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Noguère, G.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Koning, A.; Domula, A.; Zuber, K.; Leal, L. C.

    2014-05-01

    Studies for advanced reactor systems such as sodium-cooled fast reactors designed for recycling of high level waste, accelerator driven systems for transmutation, and systems envisioning the use of the Th/U fuel cycle impose tight requirements on nuclear data for accurate predictions of their operation and safety characteristics. Among the identified needs established by sensitivity studies, neutron inelastic scattering on the main structural materials and actinides and some (n,xn) cross sections for actinides feature prominently. Prompt-gamma spectroscopy and time-of-flight techniques were used to measure (n,xnγ) cross-sections of interest. Experiments were performed at the GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility of IRMM. Results for 235U and 23Na are briefly recalled; pertaining theoretical discussions are mentioned to explain observations concerning 238U. The status of studies on 76Ge, Zr and Mo is also reported.

  19. HIE-ISOLDE Faraday cups tested with ion beams at TRIUMF

    Cantero, E D

    2014-01-01

    The future HIE-ISOLDE Faraday cups for both the intercryomodule regions and the HEBTs have been tested using 34S+7, 4He+, 23Na+6 and 20Ne+5 beams from the ISAC-II accelerator at TRIUMF. Their performance has been characterized together with the Faraday cups from REX-ISOLDE and those from ISAC-II. The measurements were done at E/A = 1.5, 2.85 and 5.5 MeV/u, with beam intensities in the range of 100 pA to 4 nA. The performance of these Faraday cups has been compared under the same beam conditions for different bias voltages up to -350 V. Within the experimental uncertainties, most of them coming from fluctuations in beam intensity, all devices showed similar results. Biasing the Faraday cup repeller ring to voltages of at least -60 V, the escape of secondary electrons was suppressed.

  20. Dose evaluation on the basis of 24Na activity in the human body for the criticality accident at JCO Tokai nuclear fuel processing plant

    Sodium-24(24Na) generated in human body due to neutron activation was measured by whole body counter (WBC) in JNC Tokai works. Total 148 persons (JCO employees and contractor, public member, fire fighters, etc.) were measured and 24Na was detected in the 62 persons. Neutron energy spectrum around the facility was calculated using ANISN and MCNP code and estimated mean capture probability ξ of neutron for human body at this accident was around 0.25-0.28 at any distance from the center of the precipitation tank. Effective dose equivalent for the 62 persons were estimated based on the calculated conversion factors from 24Na specific activity to neutron dose. Maximum 24Na activity was 7.7 kBq (83 Bq(24Na)/g(23Na)) in total body and the evaluated effective dose equivalent was 47 mSv. (author)

  1. Mass measurements and evaluation around A=22

    Frequency ratio measurements with different combinations of the singly charged ions from 21,22,23Na, 22,24Mg, and 37,39K were performed at the on-line Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP, CERN, Geneva. The masses and mass differences were deduced with a relative uncertainty of about or even below one part in 108 for the ions of interest using a least-squares analysis of all measured relations. The results have direct consequences for weak-interaction study as they give additional input to the test of CVC, and for nuclear astrophysics, because they help to establish the minimum observable signal for a NeNa cycle in a nova burst. We report here about the measurements and the detailed evaluation. (orig.)

  2. Prospects for Detecting Supernova Neutrino Flavor Oscillations

    Fuller, G M; McLaughlin, G C

    1999-01-01

    The neutrinos from a Type II supernova provide perhaps our best opportunity to probe cosmologically interesting muon and/or tauon neutrino masses. This is because matter enhanced neutrino oscillations can lead to an anomalously hot nu_e spectrum, and thus to enhanced charged current cross sections in terrestrial detectors. Two recently proposed supernova neutrino observatories, OMNIS and LAND, will detect neutrons spalled from target nuclei by neutral and charged current neutrino interactions. As this signal is not flavor specific, it is not immediately clear whether a convincing neutrino oscillation signal can be extracted from such experiments. To address this issue we examine the responses of a series of possible light and heavy mass targets, 9Be, 23Na, 35Cl, and 208Pb. We find that strategies for detecting oscillations which use only neutron count rates are problematic at best, even if cross sections are determined by ancillary experiments. Plausible uncertainties in supernova neutrino spectra tend to obs...

  3. NMR studies of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion

    In this study several aspects of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion were investigated in isolated perfused rat hearts, regionally ischemic rabbit hearts, and ex vivo human donor hearts during long term hypothermic cardioplegia. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy was used as a powerful tool to non-destructively follow the time course in changes in intracellular high-energy phosphates, (creatine phosphate and ATP), inorganic phosphate, and pH. In addition, changes in intracellular free magnesium were followed during ischemia and reperfusion. Sodium-23 (23Na) NMR spectroscopy was used to study intracellular sodium during ischemia and reperfusion and during calcium-free perfusion. (author). 495 refs.; 33 figs.; 11 tabs

  4. Nuclear Data Parameter Adjustment BNL-INL

    This presentation reports on the consistent adjustment of nuclear data parameters performed within a BNL-INL collaboration. The main advantage compared to the classical adjustment of multigroup constants is to provide final nuclear data constrained by the nuclear reaction theory and consistent with both differential and integral measurements. The feasibility of a single-isotope assimilation was tested on a few priority materials (23Na, 56Fe, 105Pd, 235,238U, 239Pu) using a selection of clean integral experiments. The multi-isotope assimilation is under study for the Big-3 (235,238U, 239Pu). This work shows that a consistent assimilation is feasible, but there are pitfalls to avoid (e.g. non-linearity, cross section fluctuations) and prerequisites (e.g. realistic covariances, good prior, realistic weighting of differential and integral experiments). Finally, only all experimental information combined with the state of the art modelling may provide a 'right' answer

  5. Evaluation of cross sections for neutron-induced reactions in sodium

    An evaluation of the neutron-induced cross sections of 23Na has been done for the energy range from 10-5 eV to 20 MeV. All significant cross sections are given, including differential cross sections for production of gamma rays. The recommended values are based on experimental data where available, and use results of a consistent model code analysis of available data to predict cross sections where there are no experimental data. This report describes the evaluation that was submitted to the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) for consideration as a part of the Evaluated Nuclear Data File, Version V, and subsequently issued as MAT 1311. 126 references, 130 figures, 14 tables

  6. Two-dimensional MAS NMR correlation protocols involving double-quantum filtering of quadrupolar spin-pairs.

    Edén, Mattias

    2010-05-01

    Three two-dimensional (2D) NMR homonuclear correlation techniques invoking double-quantum (2Q) filtration of the central transitions of half-integer spins are evaluated numerically and experimentally. They correlate directly detected single-quantum (1Q) coherences in the t(2) domain with either of 1Q, two-spin 2Q or single-spin multiple-quantum coherence-evolutions in the indirect (t(1)) dimension. We employ experimental (23)Na and (27)Al NMR on sodium sulfite and the natural mineral sillimanite (SiAl(2)O(5)), in conjunction with simulated 2D spectra from pairs of dipolar-recoupled spins-3/2 and 5/2 at different external magnetic fields, to compare the correlation strategies from the viewpoints of 2D spectral resolution, signal sensitivity, implementational aspects and their relative merits for establishing internuclear proximities and quadrupolar tensor orientations. PMID:20202872

  7. Impact of opal nanoconfinement on electronic properties of sodium particles: NMR studies

    The 23Na Knight shift of NMR line which is highly correlated with the electron spin susceptibility and density of states at the Fermi level was studied for the sodium loaded opal. The measurements were carried out within a temperature range from 100 to 400 K for solid and melted confined sodium nanoparticles. The NMR line below 305 K was a singlet with the Knight shift reduced compared to that in bulk. Above this temperature the NMR line split reproducibly into two components with opposite trends in the Knight shift temperature dependences which evidenced a nanoconfinement-induced transformation and heterogeneity in the electron system. The findings were suggested to be related to changes in the topology of the Fermi surface

  8. Comparison of the analog and digital pulse-shaping methods in signal processing in nuclear detections

    The goal of this article is to describe the potential applications of the new improved digital techniques and provide a meaningful figure of merit for the comparison of the analog and digital methods. The experimental operation of a typical digital pulse shaper used in a spectrometer with the 23 Na source and a Ge y-ray detector is discussed. The effect of different imposed dead time on the counted pulses is investigated. It is noticed that nuclear events distribution in all ranges of dead time does not obey Poisson's law and deviation from this distribution depends on the counting rate. For a given dead time, deviation from this distribution increases linearly by increasing imposed dead time. For a fixed dead time, when counting rate increases deviation from Poisson's distribution law increases accordingly, and vice versa. (Author)

  9. Technical improvements for high resolution ion beam experiments

    Wuestenbecker, S.; Schulte, W.H.; Ebbing, H.; Baumeister, H.; Becker, H.W.; Cleff, B.; Rolfs, C.; Trautvetter, H.P.; Mitchell, G.E.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1989-04-01

    Ion beams with high energy resolution are valuable tools for the investigation of a wide range of phenomena in nuclear, atomic, and condensed matter physics. For the study of such effects involving narrow nuclear resonances, the quality of the target is as important as the quality of the ion beam. Thus, a UHV system has been built including characteristics such as in situ target fabrication and variable target temperature. A number of improvements were also made to the newly installed 400 kV Muenster accelerator to achieve better energy resolution (/Delta/E/E /approx equal/ 1x10/sup -5/) for intense ion beams (/approx equal/ 100 /mu/A). Thick-target yield curves of narrow resonances in (p, /gamma/) reactions on /sup 23/Na and /sup 27/Al show the Lewis effect clearly. (orig.).

  10. Technical improvements for high resolution ion beam experiments

    Ion beams with high energy resolution are valuable tools for the investigation of a wide range of phenomena in nuclear, atomic, and condensed matter physics. For the study of such effects involving narrow nuclear resonances, the quality of the target is as important as the quality of the ion beam. Thus, a UHV system has been built including characteristics such as in situ target fabrication and variable target temperature. A number of improvements were also made to the newly installed 400 kV Muenster accelerator to achieve better energy resolution (ΔE/E ≅ 1x10-5) for intense ion beams (≅ 100 μA). Thick-target yield curves of narrow resonances in (p, γ) reactions on 23Na and 27Al show the Lewis effect clearly. (orig.)

  11. Improvements in targetry and high voltage stability for high resolution ion beam experiments

    Wuestenbecker, S.; Ebbing, H.; Schulte, W.H.; Baumeister, H.; Becker, H.W.; Cleff, B.; Rolfs, C.; Trautvetter, H.P.; Mitchell, G.E.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1989-07-15

    Ion beams with high energy resolution are valuable tools for the investigation of a wide range of phenomena in nuclear, atomic, and condensed matter physics. For the study of such effects, involving narrow nuclear resonances, the quality of the target is as important as the quality of the ion beam. Thus, an ultrahigh-vacuum system has been built including such characteristics as in situ target fabrication and variable target temperature. A number of improvements also were made to the newly installed 400 kV Muenster accelerator to achieve better resolution for intense ion beams. The thick-target yield curves of narrow resonances in (p, /gamma/) reactions on /sup 23/Na, /sup 26/Mg, and /sup 27/Al nuclides show the Lewis effect clearly. These measurements as well as other resolution tests are discussed. (orig.).

  12. Improvements in targetry and high voltage stability for high resolution ion beam experiments

    Ion beams with high energy resolution are valuable tools for the investigation of a wide range of phenomena in nuclear, atomic, and condensed matter physics. For the study of such effects, involving narrow nuclear resonances, the quality of the target is as important as the quality of the ion beam. Thus, an ultrahigh-vacuum system has been built including such characteristics as in situ target fabrication and variable target temperature. A number of improvements also were made to the newly installed 400 kV Muenster accelerator to achieve better resolution for intense ion beams. The thick-target yield curves of narrow resonances in (p, γ) reactions on 23Na, 26Mg, and 27Al nuclides show the Lewis effect clearly. These measurements as well as other resolution tests are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Formation of Ultracold NaRb Feshbach Molecules

    Wang, Fudong; Li, Xiaoke; Zhu, Bing; Chen, Jun; Wang, Dajun

    2015-01-01

    We report the creation of ultracold bosonic $^{23}$Na$^{87}$Rb Feshbach molecules via magneto-association. By ramping the magnetic field across an interspecies Feshbach resonance, at least 4000 molecules can be produced out of the near degenerate ultracold mixture. Fast loss due to inelastic atom-molecule collisions is observed, which limits the pure molecule number, after residual atoms removal, to 1700. The pure molecule sample can live for 21.8(8) ms in the optical trap, long enough for future molecular spectroscopy studies toward coherently transferring to the singlet ro-vibrational ground state, where these molecules are stable against chemical reaction and have a permanent electric dipole moment of 3.3 Debye. We have also measured the Feshbach molecule's binding energy near the Feshbach resonance by the oscillating magnetic field method and found these molecules have a large closed-channel fraction.

  14. Pilarização de esmectita brasileira para fins catalíticos. Emprego de argila pilarizada na alquilação de benzeno com 1-dodeceno Pillarization of Brazilian smectite for the catalytic of purpose. Use of pillared clay in the alkylation of benzene with 1-dodecene

    Sidnei Quezada M. Leite

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Al-pillared clay was prepared with a Brazilian bentonite from the Campina Grande region (Paraíba, BRAZIL. It was intercalated at 298 K, during 48 hours, with a solution containing [Al3+] = 0.10 mol/L and molar ratio OH/Al = 2.0 prepared at 333 K, and was calcined at 773K. The catalytic activity was evaluated by alkylation of benzene with 1-dodecene. The characterization methods were: X-ray fluorescence and diffraction analysis; 27Al, 29Si and 23Na MAS NMR and textural analysis by N2 adsorption. The thermal stability of the natural clay was improved by the pillaring procedure, as well as the catalytic activity. The intercalated clay presented the highest initial rate of reaction among the systems tested.

  15. Non-destructive analysis of materials by neutron resonance transmission

    Noguere, G.; Cserpak, F.; Ingelbrecht, C.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Quetel, C. R.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper a non-destructive technique Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) is presented and demonstrated. The technique has been applied at the Time-Of-Flight facility GELINA of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements at Geel in Belgium to characterize a radioactive PbI 2 sample, which was used to study the transmutation capabilities of 129I. A transmission experiment divided into three measuring sequences allowed the identification and quantification of light ( 16O, 23Na and 32S) and heavy nuclei ( 127I, 206Pb, 207Pb and 208Pb) with an accuracy better than 7%. In addition, an upper limit of the hydrogen content was deduced from the attenuation of the neutron beam by the non-resonant scattering contribution.

  16. Manchester nuclear physics report

    This report describes the experimental research of the Manchester University Nuclear Physics Group for the period August 1987 - December 1988. The experiments have been performed at the Daresbury Nuclear Structure Facility, mostly using the gamma-ray arrays and the Recoil Separator. However, experiments using the Daresbury Isotope Separator, the Oxford Folded Tandem and the new charged particle detector array are also reported. Studies of gamma decaying states in 21Ne and 23Na are reported. The spectroscopy of medium mass nuclei includes the investigation of the Gamow-Tellar decay of 98Cd. Fourteen studies of the spectroscopy of nuclei with A ≥ 100 are reported. Fission studies and instrumentation and computer developments are also included. (U.K.)

  17. Coherent Control of Ground State NaK Molecules

    Yan, Zoe; Park, Jee Woo; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold dipolar molecules exhibit anisotropic, tunable, long-range interactions, making them attractive for the study of novel states of matter and quantum information processing. We demonstrate the creation and control of 23 Na40 K molecules in their rovibronic and hyperfine ground state. By applying microwaves, we drive coherent Rabi oscillations of spin-polarized molecules between the rotational ground state (J=0) and J=1. The control afforded by microwave manipulation allows us to pursue engineered dipolar interactions via microwave dressing. By driving a two-photon transition, we are also able to observe Ramsey fringes between different J=0 hyperfine states, with coherence times as long as 0.5s. The realization of long coherence times between different molecular states is crucial for applications in quantum information processing. NSF, AFOSR- MURI, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, DARPA-OLE

  18. Improving heat treatment regime for semi-finished hot-rolled products of stainless steel

    The effect of increasing the rate and temperature of heat treatment of hot-rolled products of 08-12 Kh18N10T steel on the structure, mechanical properties and pickling of scale has been investigated. The procedure of heat treatment: temperature in the furnace 1100-1120 deg C temperature of metal 1090-1100 deg C, rate of strip motion -6.0 m/min permitting to attain the maximum possible efficiency of a continuous hardening unit has been chose, tested and introduced based on the results of laboratory and industrial experiments. The following composition of pickling solutions; 21-23% H2SO4, 3% NaNO3, 2-3% NaCl, at a temperature of 85 deg C has been chosen for obtaining the required quality of surface of strips without decreasing the efficiency of the pickling unit

  19. S-wave and p-wave scattering in a cold gas of Na and Rb atoms

    Ouerdane, H

    2008-01-01

    Using improved experimentally based $X{}^1\\Sigma^+$ and $a{}^3\\Sigma^+$ molecular potentials of NaRb, published recently by Pashov {\\it et al.} [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 72}, 062505 (2005)], we apply the variable phase method to compute new data for low energy scattering of $^{23}$Na atoms by $^{85}$Rb atoms and $^{87}$Rb atoms. These are scattering lengths and volumes, numbers of bound states and effective ranges. From an analysis of the contributions of s-wave and p-wave scatterings to the elastic cross section we estimate temperatures below which only s-wave scattering is dominant. We supply evidence for the existence of a near zero energy p-wave bound state supported by the singlet molecular potential.

  20. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-01-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516

  1. Automatized interpretation of 10B double nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra

    Effectiveness of the double NQR method was shown when studying transitions of 10B, 11B, 39K and 23Na nuclei in borax and K2B4O7x4H2O. An automatized program for ES-1022 computer was suggested for interpreting DNQR spectra of nuclei with the spin number of 3. To improve agreement with experiment, effects of NQR level distortion with magnetic field in the process of crossing of NMR and NQR levels, incomplete saturation of a quadrupole system with radiofrequency field, partial thermal mixing were taken into account. Correlation coefficients between theoretical and experimental DNQR spectra equal to ∼ 0.9 were obtained. Constants of eQ10qzz quadrupole interaction and η asymmetry parameters were determined for two nonequivalent positions of boron atoms in Na2B4O7x10H2O and for four positions in K2B4O7x4H2O

  2. Nonconventional MRI and microstructural cerebral changes in multiple sclerosis

    Enzinger, Christian; Barkhof, Frederik; Ciccarelli, Olga;

    2015-01-01

    MRI has become the most important paraclinical tool for diagnosing and monitoring patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, conventional MRI sequences are largely nonspecific in the pathology they reveal, and only provide a limited view of the complex morphological changes associated with MS....... Nonconventional MRI techniques, such as magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) promise to complement existing techniques by revealing more-specific information on microstructural tissue changes. Past years have witnessed dramatic advances...... in the acquisition and analysis of such imaging data, and numerous studies have used these tools to probe tissue alterations associated with MS. Other MRI-based techniques-such as myelin-water imaging, (23)Na imaging, magnetic resonance elastography and magnetic resonance perfusion imaging-might also...

  3. Impact of opal nanoconfinement on electronic properties of sodium particles: NMR studies

    Charnaya, E.V., E-mail: charnaya@live.com [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation); Lee, M.K. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); MoST Instrument Center at NCKU, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); Chang, L.J. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); Kumzerov, Yu.A.; Fokin, A.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Samoylovich, M.I. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow, 141700 (Russian Federation); Bugaev, A.S. [CSR Institute of Technology “Technomash”, Moscow, 121108 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-20

    The {sup 23}Na Knight shift of NMR line which is highly correlated with the electron spin susceptibility and density of states at the Fermi level was studied for the sodium loaded opal. The measurements were carried out within a temperature range from 100 to 400 K for solid and melted confined sodium nanoparticles. The NMR line below 305 K was a singlet with the Knight shift reduced compared to that in bulk. Above this temperature the NMR line split reproducibly into two components with opposite trends in the Knight shift temperature dependences which evidenced a nanoconfinement-induced transformation and heterogeneity in the electron system. The findings were suggested to be related to changes in the topology of the Fermi surface.

  4. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-07-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry.

  5. Multinuclear and pulsed gradient magnetic resonance studies of sodium cations and of water reorientation at the interface of a clay

    Grandjean, J.; Laszlo, P.

    Knowledge of the microdynamics of adsorbates is an important prerequisite to the understanding ofcatalysis of organic reactions by inorganic solids, such as phyllosilicates. We have studied gels formed by a bentonite suspended in an aqueous solution of p-cresol. We have applied the techniques of 1H, 2H, 13C, 17O, and 23Na NMR to this system. We have also determined by proton spin echoes, using pulsed gradients, the self-diffusion coefficients under the same conditions. A description by a two-site system with fast chemical exchange accounts for the measurements and for their temperature dependence from 278 to 320 K. One site is the bulk solvent. The other site, for which we have obtained the limiting parameters, is at the clay interface. A third contribution from exchange between two sites close to the solid interface is relatively minor.

  6. Crossover between itinerant ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetic fluctuations in filled skutterudites MFe4Sb12 (M=Na, Ba, La) as determined by NMR

    Nuclear resonance investigations on the 23Na and the 139La nuclei in filled skutterudites MFe4Sb12 (M=Na, La) are reported. In contrast to NaFe4Sb12 for the La compound the effective magnetic moment is remarkably lower and the Curie-Weiss temperature is negative which indicates antiferromagnetic correlations. The spin-lattice relaxation rates 1/T1 exhibit a qualitatively different temperature behavior which provides clear evidence for dissimilar types of itinerant magnetism in the two compounds. For NaFe4Sb12 1/T1 vs. T indicates itinerant ferromagnetism with ordering at Tc=85K, whereas for the La0.9Fe4Sb12 weak itinerant antiferromagnetism with no ordering is found. 1/T1 is analyzed in terms of Moriya's self-consistent renormalization theory (SCR) for itinerant magnetic materials

  7. Local structure of alkalis in mixed-alkali borate glass to elucidate the origin of mixed-alkali effect

    Yomei Tokuda; Yuya Takahashi; Hirokazu Masai; Shunichi Kaneko; Yoshikatsu Ueda; Shigeto Fujimura; Toshinobu Yoko

    2015-01-01

    We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium borate crystals and glasses using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy. The composition dependence of NMR spectra of the borate was similar to that of the silicate: (1) the peak position of cesium borate crystals shifted to upfield for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers, (2) the MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-3B2O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, x + y = 1) glass showe...

  8. Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium (II) With Semixylenol Orange

    Yuan Fuzhen

    1999-01-01

      A highly selective, reproducible and rapid spectrophotometry for the determination of palladium (Ⅱ) has been worked out. This method is based on the chelation of Pd (Ⅱ) with semixylenol orange (C24H23NaNO9S) in 1.00 mol.l-1 sulphuric acid medium (H2SO4), to chelate a stable orange complex of Pd (Ⅱ) . Beer′s law is obeyed over the range 0.2-1.6 μg ml-1 Palladium(Ⅱ),its maximum absorption wavelength λmax is at 540 nm,the apparent molar absorptivityε540 is 6.2*104 l mol-1 cm-1.The method has been successfully applied for the determaination of Palladium(Ⅱ)in Pd-C catalyst , Al-Si-Pd and Zr-Pd alloys.

  9. Particles and nuclei, letters

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on status of 116Cd double β decay study with 116CdWO4 scintillators, new limits on 2β processes in 40Ca and 46Ca by using low radioactive CaF2(Eu) crystal scintillators, the single state dominance in 2νββ-decay transitions to excited 0+ and 2+ final states, present status of the MONOLITH project, technique of neutrino-induced muon detection on the Earth surface, high-sensitive spectrometer of fast neutrons and the results of fast neutron background flux measurements at the gallium-germanium solar neutrino experiment (SAGE), new experimental limits on the electron stability and excitation of nuclear levels in 23Na, 127I and 129Xe induced by the electron decay on the atomic shell and element-loaded organic scintillators for neutron and neutrino physics

  10. Study of elastic and inelastic neutron cross-sections using time of flight technique

    High precision neutron scattering data has become increasingly important in the development of nuclear reactors and accelerator systems, astrophysics and space system design, radiation therapy and isotope production, and for shielding considerations. Previous evaluations of the neutron cross-section standards were completed in 1987 and disseminated as NEANDC/INDC and other databases. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for the heavy elements were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not considered standards, but assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross-sections and reduce their uncertainties. The focus of the present work is to measure elastic and inelastic neutron differential scattering cross-sections for 23Na using Time of Flight Technique for a range of energies with a high accuracy level

  11. Applications of high resolution NMR to geochemistry: crystalline, glass, and molten silicates

    The nuclear spin interactions and the associated quantum mechanical dynamics which are present in solid state NMR are introduced. A brief overview of aluminosilicate structure is presented and crystalline structure is then reviewed, with emphasis on the contributions made by 29Si NMR spectroscopy. The local structure of glass aluminosilicates as observed by NMR, is presented with analysis of the information content of 29Si spectra. A high-temperature (to 13000C) NMR spectroscopic investigation of the local environment and dynamics of molecular motion in molten aluminosilicates is described. A comparison is made of silicate liquid, glass, and crystalline local structure. The atomic and molecular motions present in a melt are investigated through relaxation time (T1 and T2) measurements as a function of composition and temperature for 23Na and 29Si

  12. COMAC. Nuclear data covariance matrices library for reactor applications

    Uncertainty quantification for new reactor concepts such as the ASTRID project (sodium-cooled FBR studies at CEA) requires a precise evaluation of nuclear data covariances. Since 2005, the SPRC at CEA-Cadarache has developed a covariance matrices library, called COMAC (COvariance MAtrices from Cadarache, version 0.1), for the most important nuclear data: cross sections, multiplicities (prompt and delayed neutrons), prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS), fission yields. This paper presents the methodology used to produce those covariance matrices, illustrated with representative cases (23Na, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu). We have used the CONRAD evaluation code to analyse simultaneously differential and specific integral experiments and to generate a coherent and realistic set of covariances. The quality of those covariances are illustrated with uncertainty propagation calculations on key parameters for ASTRID. (author)

  13. X-ray and MAS NMR characterization of the thermal transformation of Li(Na)-Y zeolite to lithium aluminosilicates

    The high temperature thermal transformation of Li-exchanged Na-Y zeolite has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and /sup 29/Si MAS NMR studies. At 7000C, the zeolite was transformed into an amorphous phase and upon further heating to 8000C, formation of lithium aluminosilicate with high-quartz structure, in addition to an amorphous phase, was noted. When heated above 9000C, the high-quartz structure was transformed into a β-spodumene related solid solution. X-ray and MAS NMR studies indicate the β-spodumene solid solution formed has the composition close to (Li/sub 0.23/Na/sub 0.06/)A iota /sub 0.29/Si/sub 0.71/O/sub 2/, which is in agreement with chemical analysis

  14. Study of the (p,α)-reaction on sd-shell nuclei and their microscopic analysis

    In the present thesis the (p,α) reaction on the 2s-1d-shell nuclei 23Na, 24Mg, 26Mg, 27Al, 35Cl, 37Cl, and 39K was measured. The experiments were performed at the isochronous cyclotron JULIC of the Institute for Nuclear Physics of the Nuclear Research Facility Juelich and at the Emperor Van-de-Graaff accelerator of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics Heidelberg. Angular distributions for transitions to several residual nucleus states were evaluated in the energy range between 18 and 45 MeV incident proton energy. By the application of magnetic spectrometers as detection device an energy resolution between 25 and 45 keV could be reached. (orig./HSI)

  15. Experimental studies on neutron attenuation with polyethylene slabs in the south beam end of KAMINI reactor

    The neutron attenuating properties of polyethylene slabs are studied in this experiment. Better thermal neutron attenuation is observed in high density slabs compared to low density slabs. In the fast neutron attenuation similar behaviour is seen between both high and low density slabs. The attenuation factors are found over a thickness of 18-30 cm for the measured reaction rates of 55Mn (n,γ) 56Mn, 63Cu (n,γ) 64Cu, 23Na (n,γ) 24Na, 197Au (n,γ)198Au, 180Hf (n,n') 180mHf, 195Pt (n,n') 195mPt, 111Cd(n, n') 111mCd; 115In(n,n') In115m and 56Fe (n,p) 56Mn reactions representative of thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes. A comparative analysis with the neutron attenuation behaviour in water is also made. (author)

  16. Atomic mirrors for a Λ-type three-level atom

    We propose atom mirror schemes for a three-level atom of Λ-type interacting with two evanescent fields, which are generated as a result of the total internal reflection of two coherent Gaussian laser beams at the interface of a dielectric prism with vacuum. The forces acting on the atom are derived by means of optical Bloch equations, based on the atomic density matrix elements. The theory is illustrated by setting up the equations of motion for 23Na atom. Two types of excited schemes are examined, namely the cases in which the evanescent fields have polarization types of σ+−σ− and σ+−π. The equations are solved numerically and we get results for atomic trajectories for different parameters. The performance of the mirror for the two types of polarization schemes is quantified and discussed. The possibility of reflecting atoms at pre-determined directions is also discussed. (paper)

  17. Superheavy research at RIKEN

    At RIKEN, Japan, we performed experiments to study the productions and decays of the heaviest elements produced by 208Pb- and 209Bi- based 'cold fusion' reactions. A gas-filled recoil separator GARIS was used for the study. In the study of 209Bi(70Zn, n) reaction, we observed two decay chains originating from an isotope of the 113th element, 178113, which were assigned firstly by generic correlation of the alpha decay chains connected into the previously known decay of 266Bh and 262Db via previously unknown alpha decays of 278113, 274Rg, and 270Mt. In addition, decay properties of an isotope 266Bh and its daughter nucleus 262Db produced by the 248Cm(23Na, 5n) reaction were studied. 266Bh was clearly identified from the correlation of the known nuclide, 262Db, providing further confirmation of the discovery of 278113.

  18. Implementing quantum electrodynamics with ultracold atomic systems

    Kasper, V; Jendrzejewski, F; Oberthaler, M K; Berges, J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the experimental engineering of model systems for the description of QED in one spatial dimension via a mixture of bosonic $^{23}$Na and fermionic $^6$Li atoms. The local gauge symmetry is realized in an optical superlattice, using heteronuclear boson-fermion spin-changing interactions which preserve the total spin in every local collision. We consider a large number of bosons residing in the coherent state of a Bose-Einstein condensate on each link between the fermion lattice sites, such that the behavior of lattice QED in the continuum limit can be recovered. The discussion about the range of possible experimental parameters builds, in particular, upon experiences with related setups of fermions interacting with coherent samples of bosonic atoms. We determine the atomic system's parameters required for the description of fundamental QED processes, such as Schwinger pair production and string breaking. This is achieved by benchmark calculations of the atomic system and of QED itself using function...

  19. Kinetics, equilibrium and isotope exchange in ion exchange systems Pt. 3

    The kinetics of isotope exchange in the sup(23)Na-sup(22)Na strongly acidic cation exchanger system was studied in a batch stirred reactor. Samples of exchangers OSTION KS (containing divinylbenzene (DVB) in the range of 1.5-12%) and AMBERLITE IR 120 were used for experimental work. In all cases the concentration of the aqueous solution was 02.M NaNOsub(3). Fick's equation was used for the description of diffusion of ions in the particle. By evaluating the experimental data, values were obtained for the self-diffusion coefficients of sodium ions in the exchangers and their dependences on the content of DVB and on the concentration of functional groups in the resin particle. (author)

  20. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, September 11, 1994--December 22, 1994

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced polymer systems that possess microstructural features that are responsive to temperature, electrolyte concentration, and shear conditions are being synthesized which will be superior to polymers presently used for mobility control in enhanced oil recovery. Improved polymer performance is accomplished by controlling hydrophobic or ampholytic interations between individual polymer chains in solution. The advanced polymers will circumbent major problems inherent in conventional EOR polymers in which molecular weight is usually compromised to allow sufficient solution viscosity and uniform reservoir permeation without plugging the porous media. Accomplishments are reported for the following tasks: quaternary ammonium cyclopolymer synthesis; characterization of molecular structure and solution behavior; {sup 23}Na NMR studies of non-binding to anionic polyelectrolytes and solution rheology.

  1. Study of 11B + 12C and 10B + 13C fusion cross sections

    In an effort to understand the mechanism responsible for fusion cross section limitations in light heavy-ion systems, four entrance channels which form the 23Na compound nucleus have been studied. A limitation mechanism based on a critical density of compound nucleus states does not appear to be responsible for the fusion cross section limitation at energies from approximately one to three times the Coulomb barrier energy. The possibility exists, however, that such a process becomes important at higher energies. To address this question, measurements which utilize the Argonne tandem-linac accelerator have now been completed in the energy range 42.5-80.9 MeV for the 11B + 12C and the 10B + 13C. The preliminary findings of this work are reported here

  2. Moissanite anvil cell design for giga-pascal nuclear magnetic resonance

    A new design of a non-magnetic high-pressure anvil cell for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments at Giga-Pascal pressures is presented, which uses a micro-coil inside the pressurized region for high-sensitivity NMR. The comparably small cell has a length of 22 mm and a diameter of 18 mm, so it can be used with most NMR magnets. The performance of the cell is demonstrated with external-force vs. internal-pressure experiments, and the cell is shown to perform well at pressures up to 23.5 GPa using 800 μm 6H-SiC large cone Boehler-type anvils. 1H, 23Na, 27Al, 69Ga, and 71Ga NMR test measurements are presented, which show a resolution of better than 4.5 ppm, and an almost maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio

  3. Moissanite anvil cell design for giga-pascal nuclear magnetic resonance

    Meier, Thomas; Herzig, Tobias; Haase, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    A new design of a non-magnetic high-pressure anvil cell for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments at Giga-Pascal pressures is presented, which uses a micro-coil inside the pressurized region for high-sensitivity NMR. The comparably small cell has a length of 22 mm and a diameter of 18 mm, so it can be used with most NMR magnets. The performance of the cell is demonstrated with external-force vs. internal-pressure experiments, and the cell is shown to perform well at pressures up to 23.5 GPa using 800 μm 6H-SiC large cone Boehler-type anvils. 1H, 23Na, 27Al, 69Ga, and 71Ga NMR test measurements are presented, which show a resolution of better than 4.5 ppm, and an almost maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio.

  4. Coaxial waveguide setup for multinuclear highfield-MRI with traveling waves

    Due to the increased Larmor frequencies in high-field MR imaging (B0≤7 Tesla), resonant volume coils can no longer be used to generate the homogenous spin excitation field within the human torso. As an alternative approach a coaxial waveguide setup to transmit traveling electromagnetic waves to a defined imaging area is proposed in this work. The object of interest is placed in the hollow inner conductor of the setup and the imaging area is formed by a gap in that conductor. The proposed method is characterized with respect to its transmission efficiency, field homogeneity and the resulting radiofrequency exposure of the patient. In this work numerical simulations (FDTD method) were used for evaluation. Furthermore, a prototype setup with reduced scale was constructed and MRI experiments with multiple test objects and anatomical samples were performed. Higher modes of propagation (TE) were also tested besides the basic coaxial mode (TEM). Due to the frequency independence of the TEM mode, the coaxial waveguide setup could be operated at five different Larmor frequencies from 29 to 297 MHz and MRI experiments with various nuclei (1H, 23Na and 35Cl) were performed. Using a frequency diplexer, combined MRI of 1H and 23Na was possible. The results of this work showed that the proposed method can be used for MRI at multiple frequencies and is therefore suitable for multinuclear MR studies. The achieved transmission efficiency of 0.5-6 μT/√(kW) and the variation in field homogeneity (one order of magnitude) were found to be similar to those of other traveling wave approaches, but are still not generally appropriate for clinical MRI at high fields.

  5. Wave-packet dynamics in alkaline dimers. Investigation and control through coherent excitation with fs-pulses

    During my PhD thesis I investigated alkaline dimers with coherent control in a molecular beam as well as with pump-probe spectroscopy in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The aim of the coherent control experiments were the isotope selective ionization with phase- and amplitude-shaped fs-pulses. Chapter 4 described the gained results of isotope selective ionization of NaK and KRb in a molecular beam by using different pulse formers. For the NaK dimer was the reached optimization factor RPh and Ampl770=Rmax/Rmin=25 between maximization and minimization of the isotopomer ratio (23Na39K)+/(23Na41K)+ with phase and amplitude modulation of the fs-pulse with a central wavelength of λ=770 nm. From the electronic ground-state X(1)1Σ+;ν''=0 transfers a one-photon-excitation population in the first excited A(2) 1Σ+ state. The coherent control experiment on KRb was used to maximize and minimize the isotopomer ratio (124KRb)+/(126KRb)+. It was the first coherent control experiment with a spectral resolution of 1.84 cm-1/Pixel. For the phase and amplitude optimization was the received optimization factor between minimization and maximization of the isotopomer ratio RPh and Ampl=Rmax/Rmin=7 at a central wavelength of 840 nm. The results showed a stepwise excitation process from the electronic ground-state in the first excited (2)1Σ+ state with a further excitation, that is possible over three resonant energy potential curves into the ionic ground-state. In the second part of my thesis I realized pump-probe spectroscopy of Rb2 dimers in a dark SPOT. (orig.)

  6. Intermolecular interactions and 3D structure in cellulose-NaOH-urea aqueous system.

    Jiang, Zhiwei; Fang, Yan; Xiang, Junfeng; Ma, Yanping; Lu, Ang; Kang, Hongliang; Huang, Yong; Guo, Hongxia; Liu, Ruigang; Zhang, Lina

    2014-08-28

    The dissolution of cellulose in NaOH/urea aqueous solution at low temperature is a key finding in cellulose science and technology. In this paper, (15)N and (23)Na NMR experiments were carried out to clarify the intermolecular interactions in cellulose/NaOH/urea aqueous solution. It was found that there are direct interactions between OH(-) anions and amino groups of urea through hydrogen bonds and no direct interaction between urea and cellulose. Moreover, Na(+) ions can interact with both cellulose and urea in an aqueous system. These interactions lead to the formation of cellulose-NaOH-urea-H2O inclusion complexes (ICs). (23)Na relaxation results confirmed that the formation of urea-OH(-) clusters can effectively enhance the stability of Na(+) ions that attracted to cellulose chains. Low temperature can enhance the hydrogen bonding interaction between OH(-) ions and urea and improve the binding ability of the NaOH/urea/H2O clusters that attached to cellulose chains. Cryo-TEM observation confirmed the formation of cellulose-NaOH-urea-H2O ICs, which is in extended conformation with mean diameter of about 3.6 nm and mean length of about 300 nm. Possible 3D structure of the ICs was proposed by the M06-2X/6-31+G(d) theoretical calculation, revealing the O3H···O5 intramolecular hydrogen bonds could remain in the ICs. This work clarified the interactions in cellulose/NaOH/urea aqueous solution and the 3D structure of the cellulose chain in dilute cellulose/NaOH/urea aqueous solution. PMID:25111839

  7. Two heteronuclear dipolar results at the price of one: Quantifying Na/P contacts in phosphosilicate glasses and biomimetic hydroxy-apatite

    Stevensson, Baltzar; Mathew, Renny; Yu, Yang; Edén, Mattias

    2015-02-01

    The analysis of S{I} recoupling experiments applied to amorphous solids yields a heteronuclear second moment M2 (S-I) that represents the effective through-space dipolar interaction between the detected S spins and the neighboring I-spin species. We show that both M2 (S-I) and M2 (I-S) values are readily accessible from a sole S{I} or I{S} experiment, which may involve either S or I detection, and is naturally selected as the most favorable option under the given experimental conditions. For the common case where I has half-integer spin, an I{S} REDOR implementation is preferred to the S{I} REAPDOR counterpart. We verify the procedure by 23Na{31P} REDOR and 31P{23Na} REAPDOR NMR applied to Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glasses and biomimetic hydroxyapatite, where the M2 (P-Na) values directly determined by REAPDOR agree very well with those derived from the corresponding M2 (Na-P) results measured by REDOR. Moreover, we show that dipolar second moments are readily extracted from the REAPDOR NMR protocol by a straightforward numerical fitting of the initial dephasing data, in direct analogy with the well-established procedure to determine M2 (S-I) values from REDOR NMR experiments applied to amorphous materials; this avoids the problems with time-consuming numerically exact simulations whose accuracy is limited for describing the dynamics of a priori unknown multi-spin systems in disordered structures.

  8. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol using lipases immobilized on highly crystalline PVA microspheres

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres with different degree of crystallinity were used as solid supports for Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilization, and the enzyme-PVA complexes were used as biocatalysts for the transesterification of soybean oil to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). The amounts of immobilized enzyme on the polymeric supports were similar for both the amorphous microspheres (PVA4) and the high crystalline microspheres (PVA25). However, the enzymatic activity of the immobilized enzymes was depended on the crystallinity degree of the PVA microspheres: enzymes immobilized on the PVA4 microspheres have shown low enzymatic activity (6.13 U mg−1), in comparison with enzymes immobilized on the high crystalline PVA25 microspheres (149.15 U mg−1). A synergistic effect was observed for the enzyme-PVA25 complex during the transesterification reaction of soybean oil to FAEE: transesterification reactions with free enzyme with the equivalent amount of enzyme that were immobilized onto the PVA25 microspheres (5.4 U) have yielded only 20% of FAEE, reactions with the pure highly crystalline microsphere PVA25 have not yielded FAEE, however reactions with the enzyme-PVA25 complexes have yielded 66.3% of FAEE. This synergistic effect of an immobilized enzyme on a polymeric support has not been observed before for transesterification reaction of triacylglycerides into FAEE. Based on ATR-FTIR, 23Na- and 13C-NMR-MAS spectroscopic data and the interaction of the polymeric network intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the lipases residual amino acids a possible explanation for this synergistic effect is provided. Highlights: • Rhizomucor miehei lipase was immobilized on PVA microspheres (PVA4, PVA12, PVA25). • Polymer-enzyme complex was characterized by XDR, SEM, ATR-FTIR, 13C-CPMAS-NMR, 23Na-MAS-NMR. • Polymer-enzymes (PVA12 and PVA25) enzymes yielded considerable amount of ethyl esters. • Synergistic effect was observed for the polymer-enzyme complexes with high

  9. Insight into sodium silicate glass structural organization by multinuclear NMR combined with first-principles calculations

    Short and medium range order of silica and sodium silicate glasses have been investigated from a quantitative analysis of 29Si MAS NMR and 23Na, 17O MQMAS NMR spectra. The method described enables the extraction of the underlying 17O NMR parameter distributions of bridging oxygens (BOs) and non-bridging oxygens (NBOs), and yields site populations which are confirmed by 29Si NMR data. The extracted NMR parameter distributions and their variations with respect to the glass chemical composition can then be analyzed in terms of local structural features (bond angles and bond lengths, coordination numbers) with the help of molecular dynamics simulations combined with first-principles calculations of NMR parameters. Correlations of relevant structural parameters with 23Na, 29Si and 17O NMR interactions (isotropic chemical shift δ(iso), quadrupolar coupling constant C(Q) and quadrupolar asymmetry parameter ηQ are re-examined and their applicability is discussed. These data offer better insights into the structural organization of the glass network, including both chemical and topological disorder. Adding sodium to pure silica significantly diminishes the Si-O-Si bond angles and leads to a longer mean Si-O bond length with a slight decrease of the mean Na-O bond length. Moreover, the present data are in favor of a homogeneous distribution of Na around both oxygen species in the silicate network. Finally, our approach was found to be sensitive enough to investigate the effect of addition of a small quantity of molybdenum oxide (about 1 mol%) on the 17O MAS spectrum, opening new possibilities for investigating the Mo environment in silicate glasses. (authors)

  10. 3D element imaging using NSECT for the detection of renal cancer: a simulation study in MCNP

    Viana, R. S.; Agasthya, G. A.; Yoriyaz, H.; Kapadia, A. J.

    2013-09-01

    This work describes a simulation study investigating the application of neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) for noninvasive 3D imaging of renal cancer in vivo. Using MCNP5 simulations, we describe a method of diagnosing renal cancer in the body by mapping the 3D distribution of elements present in tumors using the NSECT technique. A human phantom containing the kidneys and other major organs was modeled in MCNP5. The element composition of each organ was based on values reported in literature. The two kidneys were modeled to contain elements reported in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and healthy kidney tissue. Simulated NSECT scans were executed to determine the 3D element distribution of the phantom body. Elements specific to RCC and healthy kidney tissue were then analyzed to identify the locations of the diseased and healthy kidneys and generate tomographic images of the tumor. The extent of the RCC lesion inside the kidney was determined using 3D volume rendering. A similar procedure was used to generate images of each individual organ in the body. Six isotopes were studied in this work—32S, 12C, 23Na, 14N, 31P and 39K. The results demonstrated that through a single NSECT scan performed in vivo, it is possible to identify the location of the kidneys and other organs within the body, determine the extent of the tumor within the organ, and to quantify the differences between cancer and healthy tissue-related isotopes with p ≤ 0.05. All of the images demonstrated appropriate concentration changes between the organs, with some discrepancy observed in 31P, 39K and 23Na. The discrepancies were likely due to the low concentration of the elements in the tissue that were below the current detection sensitivity of the NSECT technique.

  11. Commentary on four recently published papers on chronic pain and spinal surgery.

    Pawl, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This commentary evaluates four articles dealing with chronic pain from very different perspectives. The first paper by Tsantoulas and McMahon entitled "Opening paths to novel analgesics: the role of potassium channels in chronic pain" evaluates the membrane neurochemistry of the neural cells governing the transmission of pain impulses in the spinal cord and trigeminal systems. As potassium membrane potentials diminish excitability in the nociceptive pain pathways, damage to these pathways may result in excessive transmission of impulses that contribute to "chronic pain". Haneder et al. analyzed degeneration in lumbar discs utilizing 23Na magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to determine whether this would help analyze low back pain versus standard 1H MR imaging. As degenerated discs lose glycosaminoglycan, which attracts 23Na, this imaging could potentially be useful in detecting degenerating intervertebral discs. Mroz et al. analyzed how 445 spinal surgeons handled recurrent lumbar discs (first and second recurrences) herniations in the United States. Surgeons in practice for more than 15 years were more likely to select simple disc revision, while those with fewer years experience and performing more than 200 cases per year were more likely to select revision surgery that included some form of inter-body fusion. Lee et al. performed a multivariate analysis of more than 1532 patients to validate a predictive model of the risk of surgical site infection after various spine surgeries. Outcomes analyzed the frequency of reoperations for irrigation/debridement, and evaluated how patients' comorbidities helped predict the risk of infection (e.g. obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and the number of levels/extent of surgery). PMID:24843809

  12. Commentary on four recently published papers on chronic pain and spinal surgery

    Ronald Pawl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary evaluates four articles dealing with chronic pain from very different perspectives. The first paper by Tsantoulas and McMahon entitled "Opening paths to novel analgesics: the role of potassium channels in chronic pain" evaluates the membrane neurochemistry of the neural cells governing the transmission of pain impulses in the spinal cord and trigeminal systems. As potassium membrane potentials diminish excitability in the nociceptive pain pathways, damage to these pathways may result in excessive transmission of impulses that contribute to "chronic pain". Haneder et al. analyzed degeneration in lumbar discs utilizing 23 Na magnetic resonance (MR imaging to determine whether this would help analyze low back pain versus standard 1H MR imaging. As degenerated discs lose glycosaminoglycan, which attracts 23 Na, this imaging could potentially be useful in detecting degenerating intervertebral discs. Mroz et al. analyzed how 445 spinal surgeons handled recurrent lumbar discs (first and second recurrences herniations in the United States. Surgeons in practice for more than 15 years were more likely to select simple disc revision, while those with fewer years experience and performing more than 200 cases per year were more likely to select revision surgery that included some form of inter-body fusion. Lee et al. performed a multivariate analysis of more than 1532 patients to validate a predictive model of the risk of surgical site infection after various spine surgeries. Outcomes analyzed the frequency of reoperations for irrigation/debridement, and evaluated how patients′ comorbidities helped predict the risk of infection (e.g. obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and the number of levels/extent of surgery.

  13. 四参数普适物态方程%Four-Parameter Universal Equation of State

    陈俊祥; 金柯; 吴强

    2014-01-01

    多种材料的拉格朗日体模量都符合对压强展开到二阶项的关系。以此为基础,建立了一种四参数物态方程,比三参数物态方程适用压力宽、拟合精度高、外推性能好。方程参数关联一、二、三阶导数,根据 Hugoniot方程与等熵方程的导数关系,可以检验动高压与静高压实验数据是否相互适合。方程以统一形式表述冲击、等熵和等温压缩状态,适用于多种材料、全压力区,是一种普适物态方程。公式简单、运算方便,克服了传统的四参数物态方程结构复杂、公式冗长以及参数间高度关联而失去实用意义的缺陷。%Based on the fact that the Lagrangian bulk moduli of many materials can be expressed as a second order expansion with respect to pressure,a four-parameter equation of state has been proposed which,in comparison with the three-parameter equation of state,can be applied to a wider pressure range and has higher fitting accuracy and good extrapolation behavior.The parameters in the equation are dependent on the first,second and third order derivatives,hence,by using the derivative relations of the Hugoniot and isentropic equations,one can verify if the dynamic high-pressure experimental data match the static high-pressure experimental data.The equation describes shock,isentropic and isothermal compression states in a unified form,is suitable for a variety of materials in a wide pressure range,and therefore can be considered as a universal equation of state.Being simple and easy to operate,our equation overcomes the weakness of conventional four-parameter equations of state which are of no practical use due to their complicated structure,lengthy formula,and high correlation between parameters.

  14. Współczesne kierunki zainteresowaniateorii rachunkowości finansowejw świetle zarysu jej rozwoju

    Anna Szychta

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available W końcu pierwszej dekady XXI w. rachunkowość ma wielowiekową historię rozwo-ju praktyki, a także stosunkowo bogaty dorobek naukowy w postaci teorii o różnym zakresie i stopniu szczegółowości, powstałych w wyniku zarówno badań dedukcyj-nych, jak i empirycznych. W ostatnich kilku dekadach, wraz z procesami globalizacji, przemianami w sferze gospodarki i społeczeństwa, zwłaszcza w procesach i me-todach zarządzania oraz w technologii przetwarzania i komunikowania informacji, rozszerza się dziedzina przedmiotowa nauki rachunkowości, na którą składają się badania prowadzone w powiązaniu z praktyką rachunkowości oraz wyniki tych badań w formie teorii o różnym charakterze, zakresie i przedmiocie odniesienia. Celem artykułu jest próba zidentyfikowania głównych kierunków i problemów za-interesowania teorii rachunkowości finansowej w pierwszej dekadzie XXI wieku w świetle zarysu kształtowania się nurtów badawczych w tym zakresie rachunko-wości w przeszłości. Ograniczona objętość artykułu pozwoliła uwzględnić tylko naj-ważniejsze – zdaniem autorki – aspekty rozwoju teorii rachunkowości finansowej oraz nazwiska jedynie przedstawicieli prezentowanych nurtów. Niniejsze opraco-wanie stanowi syntezę prowadzonych przez autorkę studiów zagranicznej i polskiej literatury przedmiotu. Zawiera ono rozważania dotyczące istoty i dwóch typów teorii rachunkowości (normatywnych i deskryptywnych, teorii rachunkowości finansowej w ujęciu retrospektywnym, współczesnych wyzwań i problemów teorii rachunko-wości finansowej oraz krytycznych ocen rachunkowości jako nauki.

  15. 新型复合微生物制剂对垃圾填埋场的除臭效果%Deodorant Effect of a New-type Compound Microbiological Preperation in Landfill

    汪英学; 赵述淼; 吴定心; 李坤; 刘华梅; 梁运祥

    2012-01-01

    The deodorant effect of a new-type compound microbiological preperation in landfill in Zhongxiang, Hubei was studied. The compound microbial deodorants were prepared using Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Bacillus subtilis, B. Lichen-formis, B. Pumilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus and were sprayed directly to rotten garbage from July 28 to Auguest 16, 2010. The results indicated that pollution indexes of NH3, H2S were declined remarkably. In sample point inside landfill, the removal rate of NH3 was 65.85%, and H2S was 87.50%. And in sample point in residential area, the removal rate of NH3 was 59.38%, and H2S was 81.82%.%从2010年7月28日到8月16日,利用农业微生物学国家重点实验室保藏的沼泽红假单胞茵(Rhodopseudomonas palustris)、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、地衣芽孢杆菌(B.lichenformis)、短小芽孢杆菌(B.pumilus)、嗜酸乳杆菌(Lactobacillus acidophilus)等5种微生物制成茵剂,采用直接喷洒的方式,治理湖北省钟祥市沿山头垃圾填埋场垃圾恶臭问题.结果表明,治理结束后,垃圾填埋场内采样点处的NH3、H2S的浓度分别下降了65.85%、87.50%,居民区采样点处的NH3、H2S的浓度分别下降了59.38%、81.82%.利用微生物制剂消除垃圾填埋场臭气污染是可行的.

  16. Contents of folates in edible mushrooms commercialised in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Teor de folatos em cogumelos comestíveis comercializados na cidade de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

    Regina Prado Zanes Furlani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, folates were evaluated in the main species of mushroom cultivated in Brazil. The species analysed were Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom, Lentinula edodes (shiitake and Pleorotus ostreatus (shimeji. The five main forms of folate found in foods were determined: tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA, 10-methyl folic acid (10MFA, 5-methyl tetrahydrofolic acid (5MTHFA, 10-formyl folic acid (10FFA and 5-formy tetrahydrofolic acid (5FTHFA. The methodology employed used extraction with phosphate buffer, clean up with trichloroacetic acid and separation of the vitamins by high-performance liquid chromatography, with simultaneous ultraviolet and fluorescence detection. The results obtained for total folate were 551 to 1404 µg.100 g -1 for the button mushroom, 606 to 727 µg.100 g -1 for shiitake and 460 to 1325 µg.100 g-1 for shimeji. The data showed that mushrooms could be considered as sources of folates and that their contribution of these vitamins to the diet was meaningful.O teor de folatos nas principais espécies de cogumelos cultivados no Brasil foi avaliado neste trabalho. As espécies analisadas foram Agaricus bisporus (champignon de Paris, Lentinula edodes (shiitake e Pleorotus ostreatus (shimeji. Foram determinadas as cinco principais formas de folatos presentes em alimentos: tetrahidro ácido fólico (THAF, 10-metil ácido fólico (10MAF, 5-metil tetrahidro ácido fólico (5MTHAF, 10-formil ácido fólico (10FAF e 5formil tetrahidro ácido fólico (5FTHAF. A metodologia empregada utilizou extração com tampão fosfato, limpeza com ácido tricloroacético e separação das vitaminas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, com detecção em série por fluorescência e ultravioleta. Os resultados obtidos para o total de folatos foram 551 a 1404 µg.100 g -1 para o champignon de Paris, 606 a 727 µg.100 g -1 para o shiitake e 460 a 1325 µg.100 g -1 para o shimeji. Os dados mostram que os cogumelos podem ser considerados fontes

  17. 城市带状绿地林型与温湿效益的关系%Effects of the Forest Type of Urban Green Belts on Temperature and Humidity

    高玉福; 李树华; 朱春阳

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the ecological benefits on urban green belt of Yuan Dynasty Capital City Wall Relics Park in Beijing were investigated in July of 2010, and four green belts included Robinia pseudoacacia, and Pinus tabulae formis, both of them mixed woodland and lawn, which were studied in this experiment. The air temperature and relative humidity in the same width of green belts were measured once every two hours from 8:00 to 18:00 every day for seven days sequentially. The research showed that three kinds of green belts reached maximum in amplitude on the decrease of temperature, and reached minimum in amplitude on the increase of humidity from 14:00 to 16:00 except the lawn; Base on Duncan's paired comparison (P=0.05), the differences of air temperature between four kinds of green belts reached significance level, and relative humidity between four kinds of green belts reached significance level except between Robinia pseudoacacia and Pinus tabulaeformis; the lawn had a little effect on the decrease of temperature and unobvious effect on the increase of relative humidity; the amplitude of the mixed woodland on lowering temperature and increasing relative humidity was better than pure forest.%选择典型带状绿地——北京市元大都城垣遗址公园西土城段3种不同林型绿地及草坪作为研究对象,采用小尺度定量测定的方法,每天8:00-18:00,每2h一次,连续7d同步测定4块绿地及对照的温度、相对湿度值.结果表明:14:00-16:00时段刺槐纯林、油松纯林和刺槐—油松混交林降温幅度最大、增湿幅度最小;经SPSS方差分析(Duncan's两两比较,P=0.05),4块绿地间的温度差异均达到显著水平,湿度差异除刺槐纯林与油松纯林两者外,其余均达到显著水平;草坪具有一定的降温增湿效应,但效果不明显;混交林型绿地降温增湿幅度最大,明显优于纯林.

  18. Selected Aspects of the Structural Analysis of the North Dome in the 'Four Domes Pavilion'/ Wybrane Aspekty Analizy Konstrukcyjnej Kopuły Północnej W Pawilonie Czterech Kopuł

    Jasieńko, Jerzy; Raszczuk, Krzysztof; Moczko, Marta; Piechówka-Mielnik, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    The subject of the paper is north dome of the Four Domes Pavilion in Wroclaw, which was erected according to the project by architect Hans Poelzig in 1913. The geometry of the dome (plan, rise, thickness) has an essential influence on the stress distribution in the structure and may be a crucial factor determining the cracking pattern. The results of the study of archival documents and numerical analysis indicate that there is a need for increasing the bearing capacity of the structure. After carrying out 3D FEM analysis, it was decided to apply strengthening technology based on the FRCM system with carbon and P.B.O. fibers on the surface and on the external ring of the dome. Powszechnie występującą na całym świecie formą przekryć historycznych jest kopuła, która może być realizowana m.in. na rzucie koła, elipsy czy ośmioboku. Geometria kopuły (rzut, wyniesienie oraz grubość) wpływa na rozkład naprężeń w konstrukcji i może być decydującym czynnikiem wpływającym na propagację rys. Przedmiotem pracy jest Pawilon Czterech Kopuł we Wrocławiu, który powstał wg projektu Hansa Poelziga w 1913r. Analiza dokumentacji archiwalnej wykazuje, iż wszelkie zmiany jakich się podejmowano w trakcie realizacji prac były wynikiem: braku czasu, opóźnień w wykonaniu oceny statycznej, przekazaniu rysunków projektowych w nieodpowiedniej skali oraz prowadzenia prac budowlanych w zimie. Efektem powyższych działań jest niedostateczne zbrojenie kopuły, która uległa uszkodzeniom w formie pęknięć południkowych i równoleżnikowych od strony zewnętrznej i wewnętrznej. W wyniku przeprowadzonej analizy konstrukcyjnej przy użyciu Metody Elementów Skończonych (MES) podjęto decyzję o wzmocnieniu przekrycia przy użyciu siatek z włókien węglowych w systemie FRCM oraz wzmocnienie pierścienia górnego przy użyciu siatek z włókien P.B.O. w matrycy mineralnej.

  19. The statistical geoportal and the ``cartographic added value'' - creation of the spatial knowledge infrastructure

    Fiedukowicz, Anna; Gasiorowski, Jedrzej; Kowalski, Paweł; Olszewski, Robert; Pillich-Kolipinska, Agata

    2012-11-01

    tym danych statystycznych, i zapewnienie dostepu do nich w formie dedykowanych usług przyczyniłoby sie, zdaniem Autorów, do przetworzenia infrastruktury informacji przestrzennej (Spatial InformationInfrastructure - SII) w infrastrukture wiedzy przestrzennej (Spatial Knowledge Infrastructure - SKI). Rozwojowi SKI mógłby słuzyc geoportal statystyczny, którego propozycje funkcjonalnosci, obejmujace zarówno analize jak i wizualizacje danych, zarysowano w artykule. Zaprezentowano tez przykłady analiz statystycznych (ANOVA, regresja z uwzglednieniem sasiedztwa przestrzennego), mozliwych do zaimplementowania w takim portalu, a które mogłyby sie przyczynic do wytworzenia "kartograficznej wartosci dodanej”.

  20. 多浆旱生植物霸王18SrRNA基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene fragment from succulent xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum

    胡静; 谢俊仁; 王锁民

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the relationship between succulent xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum and other plants and to provide evidences for the biologically evolution, total DNA was extracted from leaves of Z. xanthoxylurn seedlings, and the 18S rRNA gene was cloned by PCR using general primers and cloned into pGEM-T vector. The positive clone identified by PCR was sequenced. The sequencing result revealed that the 18S rRNA gene fragment from Z. xanthoxylum contains 1808 bp. Homology comparison with other plants 18S rRNA gene sequences in the GenBank showed that it shared over 96% nucleotide sequence homology, so it is concluded that 18S rRNA is very conservative gene in plants. However, Homology matrix and Blast showed that Z. xanthoxylurn shared high similarity (98%) with the identified 18S rRNA in Galearia fili formis , Cnidoscolus aconiti folius and Hevea brasiliensis. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that Z. xanthoxylum and Panax notoginseng were most consanguineously grouped.%为探讨多浆旱生植物霸王(Zygophyllum xanthoxylum)的生物进化历程及与其他植物的亲缘关系,本研究以霸王叶基因组DNA为模板,使用通用引物扩增其18SrRNA基因片段,并克隆到pGEM—T载体,阳性克隆经鉴定后进行测序。核苷酸序列分析结果表明,该片段长1808bp,所得序列与GenBank中注册的18SrRNA基因序列的同源性均在96%以上。可见,高等植物18SrRNA的基因非常保守。同源性分析与Blast比较结果表明,霸王与小盘木(Galearia filiformis)、驱虫苋(Cnidoscolus aconitifolius)及橡胶树(Herera brasiliensis)同源性最高。系统进化树分析表明,霸王与三七(Panax notoginseng)的亲缘关系最近。

  1. Effect of Gracilaria lemaneiformis on the growth of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the environment%龙须菜对刺参生长及环境因子的影响

    王肖君; 孙慧玲; 谭杰; 高菲; 燕敬平; 陈爱华

    2011-01-01

    Polyculture of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and Gracilaria lemane-iformis was conducted in land-based enclosures at orthogonal design during May~July,2010. A. Japonicus was cultured at densities of 15,20,25 ind/m2 without feed,and G. Lemaneiformis was cultured at densities of 0,180,360 g/m2. The growth and survival of A. Japonicus and G. Lemanei formis were compared for different treatments and the changes of environmental nutrient were also detected. The results showed that the final average weight (Wf) , daily weight gain (Mdwg) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) of A. Japonicus were significantly affected by the density of A. Japonicus . Wf, Mdwg and SGR of A. Japonicus were not significantly affected by the density of G. Lemaneiformis. The highest Wf, Mdwg and SGR of A. Japonicus were obtained when the density of A. Japonicus and G. Lemaneiformis were 15 ind/m2and 360 g/m2 respectively. The highest yield of G. Lemaneiformis was acquired when the density of A. Japonicus and G. Lemaneiformis were 25 ind/m2 and 360 g/m2 respectively. The highest SGR of G. Lemaneiformis was obtained when the density of A. Japonicus and G. Lemanei formis were 25 ind/m2 and 180 g/m2 respectively. The analysis of water quality showed that the content of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in mud declined most sharply when the density of A. Japonicus was 15 ind/m2. In summary, polycukure of A. Japonicus and G. Lemaneiformis could improve water quality and increase the SGR of A. Japonicus.%2010年5~7月在山东威海乳山杜家岛基地,采用陆基围隔生态学实验方法和正交设计法,在不投饵模式下进行刺参Apostichopus japonicus和龙须菜Gracilaria lemanei ormis混养实验.刺参密度分别为15、20、25 ind/m2,龙须菜初始密度分别为0、180、360 g/m2,比较了不同处理下幼参和龙须菜的生长存活情况,并定期检测环境营养盐的变化.结果表明,刺参平均日增重率(Mdwg)、特定生长率(SGR)受刺参密度的影响显

  2. Tři pohyby lidského života s ohledem na tělesnou výchovu a sportovní praxi podle Jana Patočky Jan Patočka's three movements of human life with respect to physical education and sport practice

    Irena Martínková

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Článek představuje filosofii Jana Patočky, a to především jeho tři životní pohyby, kterými se zabývá v dílech "Přirozený svět jako filosofický problém", "Kacířské eseje o filosofii dějin" a "Tělo, společenství, jazyk, svět". Patočka tyto tři pohyby lidské existence nazývá "pohyb akceptace", "pohyb obrany" a "pohyb pravdy" (názvy podle knihy "Kacířské eseje o filosofii dějin". Tyto tři životní pohyby dělí toho, k čemu se člověk vztahuje (referent. Referent pak určuje každý jeho pohyb. Nejdříve se v textu věnujeme pojetí člověka jakožto žité tělesnosti a pojmu referent. Dále podle Patočkova díla popisujeme jeho chápání každého ze tří pohybů. Po popsání každého životního pohybu se zabýváme lidským pohybem z hlediska tělesné výchovy (v nejširším pojetí a sportu v rámci daného životního pohybu. Pohyb akceptace je chápán jako zakořenění a přijetí člověka do světa a prvotní pochopení vlastních možností. V kontextu tělesné výchovy se jedná o naučení se zacházet s vlastním tělem a zvládnutí vlastního pohybu coby tělesná bytost, především skrze napodobování ostatních a jejich snahu nás uvést do jejich světa. Pohyb obrany je sférou vlastní zaneprázdněnosti prací a možnostmi, které nacházíme ve světě. Patočka tento pohyb popisuje jako sebeprodloužení, projekci do věcí a sebeobjektivizaci. Člověk zde přebírá různé pravdy a řídí se jimi, aniž by je příliš revidoval. Toto se děje i s lidským pohybem. Formy pohybu jsou již vytvořené a člověk si je má osvojit (např. sportovní formy. Toto se často děje jen s malým sebepoznáním, proto je otázkou, co tento přístup k sobě opravdu způsobuje. Člověk je zde většinou spoután svými pohybovými návyky, o kterých ani neví. Pohyb pravdy je pohybem otřesení těchto domnělých pravd. Je pohybem sebenalézání a připuštění toho, co v p

  3. Przychody z tytułu dotacji unijnychw sprawozdaniu finansowymprzedsiębiorstwa

    Marzena Wrona

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Celem niniejszej publikacji jest przedstawienie sposobów ujęcia w księgach ra-chunkowych i prezentacji w sprawozdaniu finansowym przedsiębiorstw przychodów z tytułu dotacji unijnych. Od wejścia Polski do UE podmioty gospodarcze otrzymały możliwość korzystania z pomocy unijnej w formie dotacji na niespotykaną dotych-czas skalę. Spowodowało to również wiele problemów, w szczególności prawidłowe-go ujęcia w księgach rachunkowych, oraz w sprawozdaniu finansowym – przycho-dów z tytułu dotacji. Stąd też narodził się pomysł przedstawienia głównych zasad ujmowania i prezentacji w księgach rachunkowych i sprawozdaniu finansowym dotacji, jako źródła uzyskiwanego przychodu przez podmioty gospodarcze. W artykule wykorzystano analizę literatury przedmiotu, zapisy ustawy o ra-chunkowości i Międzynarodowych Standardów Rachunkowości oraz dokumentację programów wsparcia ze środków unijnych, a także uregulowania unijne, co umoż-liwiło zaproponowanie rozwiązań w zakresie ujęcia dotacji w sprawozdaniu finan-sowym. Artykuł podzielono na 4 główne punkty. W pierwszej części wprowadzono czy-telnika do funduszy unijnych w okresie programowym 2007–2013, przedstawiając główne instrumenty polityki strukturalnej Unii Europejskiej, podział tych instru-mentów na programy operacyjne w okresie 2007–2013 oraz cele, na które można otrzymać dofinansowanie. W drugiej części artykułu zaprezentowano zasady ujęcia dotacji w sprawozdaniu finansowym, w myśl przepisów ustawy o rachunkowości i MSR. Zgodnie z MSR 20 przedstawiono podejście kapitałowe oraz przychodowe do dotacji rządowych, a także prezentację dotacji w sprawozdaniu finansowym w po-dziale na dotacje do aktywów oraz do przychodów. W części trzeciej artykułu przed-stawiono dotacje do aktywów na przykładzie dotacji inwestycyjnych oraz na bada-nia i rozwój, ze szczególnym wskazaniem w każdym z przykładów zasad ujmowa-nia ich w

  4. Effect analysis of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules combined with Bacillus licheniformis capsule in the treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhea%枯草杆菌二联活菌肠溶胶囊联合地衣芽胞杆菌活菌胶囊治疗老年抗生素相关性腹泻的效果分析

    袁宏伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules combined with Bacillus licheniformis capsule in the treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhea. Methods 120 patients with an-tibiotic associated diarrhea in our hospital from February 2013 to February 2014 were selected,and were divided into three groups based on random number table,Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules group,Bacillus licheni-formis capsule group,and joint application of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheni-formis capsule group.The therapeutic effects among three groups were compared. Results The cure rate of joint applica-tion of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group was higher than that of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules group and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group,the differ-ence was significant (χ2=8.26,P=0.02).The number of diarrhea in healed patients of joint application of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group was less than that of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules group and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group,the difference was significant (F=91.03, P=0.00). Conclusion Both Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheniformis capsule are classified into probiotics,and have some effect on treating senile associated diarrhea caused by antibiotics.Joint applica-tion of the two drugs displays remarkable effect on treating antibiotic associated diarrhea,and plays a certain assistant role in clinical treatment.%目的:探讨枯草杆菌二联活菌肠溶胶囊联合地衣芽胞杆菌活菌胶囊对老年抗生素相关性腹泻的临床疗效。方法收集2013年2月~2014年2月本院老年抗生素相关性腹泻患者120例,根据随机数字表法分为枯草杆菌二联活菌肠溶胶囊组、地衣芽胞杆

  5. Wave-packet dynamics in alkaline dimers. Investigation and control through coherent excitation with fs-pulses; Wellenpaketdynamik in Alkali-Dimeren. Untersuchung und Steuerung durch kohaerente Anregung mit fs-Pulsen

    Sauer, F.N.B.

    2007-07-01

    During my PhD thesis I investigated alkaline dimers with coherent control in a molecular beam as well as with pump-probe spectroscopy in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The aim of the coherent control experiments were the isotope selective ionization with phase- and amplitude-shaped fs-pulses. Chapter 4 described the gained results of isotope selective ionization of NaK and KRb in a molecular beam by using different pulse formers. For the NaK dimer was the reached optimization factor R{sub Ph} and {sub Ampl}{sup 770}=R{sub max}/R{sub min}=25 between maximization and minimization of the isotopomer ratio ({sup 23}Na{sup 39}K){sup +}/({sup 23}Na{sup 41}K){sup +} with phase and amplitude modulation of the fs-pulse with a central wavelength of {lambda}=770 nm. From the electronic ground-state X(1){sup 1}{sigma}{sup +};{nu}''=0 transfers a one-photon-excitation population in the first excited A(2) {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} state. The coherent control experiment on KRb was used to maximize and minimize the isotopomer ratio ({sup 124}KRb){sup +}/({sup 126}KRb){sup +}. It was the first coherent control experiment with a spectral resolution of 1.84 cm{sup -1}/Pixel. For the phase and amplitude optimization was the received optimization factor between minimization and maximization of the isotopomer ratio R{sub Ph} and {sub Ampl}=R{sub max}/R{sub min}=7 at a central wavelength of 840 nm. The results showed a stepwise excitation process from the electronic ground-state in the first excited (2){sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} state with a further excitation, that is possible over three resonant energy potential curves into the ionic ground-state. In the second part of my thesis I realized pump-probe spectroscopy of Rb{sub 2} dimers in a dark SPOT. (orig.)

  6. Pion absorption in nuclei: The (π+-,p) reactions

    Reported here is the first experiment to measure the excitation of discrete final states following the (π-,p) reaction. The Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the High Resolution Pion Channel and Spectrometer (πM1-SUSI) at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Physics were used for this high resolution study of (π+-,p) reactions. An average energy resolution of 500 KeV and 700 KeV was achieved at EPICS and πM1-SUSI respectively. At EPICS these reactions were measured at T/sub π/ = 120 MeV and θ/sub lab/ = 250 on 24Mg, 27Al, 40Ca and 58Ni; 12C(π-,p) was measured at T/sub π/ = 145 MeV. At πM1-SUSI these reactions were measured at T/sub π/ = 90 MeV and at θ/sub lab/ = 200 on 23Na and 24Mg. The measurement includes both the differential cross sections and continuum up to an excitation energy of 40 MeV. In 23Na, 24Mg, and 27Al there are peaks in the low excitation region. The shape of the continuum in an excitation energy range of 10 to 40 MeV was found to be independent of pion charge and target mass. The magnitude of proton yield from all the targets at T/sub π/ = 120 MeV is more than twenty four times larger for π+ than for π-. Also, the cross sections for both reactions on 24Mg is slightly enhanced compared to other nuclei. At T/sub π/ = 90 MeV the ratio of the proton yield for π+ to π- absorption drops down to fourteen. This high ratio and its energy dependence supports the idea of a two nucleon pion absorption model. Pion absorption in the context of both the reaction mechanism and nuclear structure is discussed. 99 refs., 64 figs., 11 tabs

  7. Long-range interactions between polar bialkali ground-state molecules in arbitrary vibrational levels

    Vexiau, R.; Lepers, M., E-mail: maxence.lepers@u-psud.fr; Aymar, M.; Bouloufa-Maafa, N.; Dulieu, O. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS/Université Paris-Sud/ENS-Cachan, Bât. 505, Campus d’Orsay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2015-06-07

    We have calculated the isotropic C{sub 6} coefficients characterizing the long-range van der Waals interaction between two identical heteronuclear alkali-metal diatomic molecules in the same arbitrary vibrational level of their ground electronic state X{sup 1}Σ{sup +}. We consider the ten species made up of {sup 7}Li, {sup 23}Na, {sup 39}K, {sup 87}Rb, and {sup 133}Cs. Following our previous work [Lepers et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 032709 (2013)], we use the sum-over-state formula inherent to the second-order perturbation theory, composed of the contributions from the transitions within the ground state levels, from the transition between ground-state and excited state levels, and from a crossed term. These calculations involve a combination of experimental and quantum-chemical data for potential energy curves and transition dipole moments. We also investigate the case where the two molecules are in different vibrational levels and we show that the Moelwyn-Hughes approximation is valid provided that it is applied for each of the three contributions to the sum-over-state formula. Our results are particularly relevant in the context of inelastic and reactive collisions between ultracold bialkali molecules in deeply bound or in Feshbach levels.

  8. Structure and aqueous reactivity of silicate glasses high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance contribution

    This research aims at getting a better understanding of the relations which may exist between the chemical composition of the oxide silicate glasses, the structure and the aqueous reactivity. We study the cations present in most glasses, more particularly the radioactive waste glasses, and those which are more liable to bring information both about structure and reactivity. Among the experimental methods used, the nuclear magnetic resonance of multi-quantum magic-angle spinning (NMR MQ-MAS) has been carried out for the structural characterization of the pristine and altered glasses. In the first part, we discuss the possibility of deducting a type of information from a quantitative approach of the 23Na, 27Al and 17O NMR MQ-MAS. In the second part, we apply this method to glasses containing between two and six oxides. The vitreous compositions studied permit to focus our attention on the influence of sodium, aluminum and calcium on their local structural environment. We point out an evolution of the distributions of bond distances and angles in relation to the glass chemical composition. We show the strong potentiality of the 17O used to probe the pristine and altered glasses. The influence of the different cations studied on the rate of glass dissolution is debated from the alterations made on short periods. On the basis of all these data, we discuss the importance of the structural effect which may influence the kinetic phenomena of alteration. (author)

  9. The effect of inversion of matrix and inclusions composition in liquation phospho-silicate glasses.

    Sitarz, M

    2011-08-15

    Silico-phosphate glasses of XCaPO(4)-SiO(2) and XCaPO(4)-AlPO(4)-SiO(2) (X=Na(+) and/or K(+)) system have been the subject of the presented investigations. Glasses belonging to those systems are characterized by a liquation phenomenon-spherical amorphous inclusions dispersed in an amorphous matrix. Thorough EDX investigations have shown that introduction of aluminum ions into the structure of phospho-silicate glasses results in inversion of matrix and inclusions composition, when XCaPO(4) exceeds 25-35% mol. Such a substantial influence of aluminum ions on phospho-silicate glasses texture as well as matrix and inclusions composition (inversion) must be a result of structural changes. (27)Al MAS NMR research stated that aluminum ions in structures of XCaPO(4)-AlPO(4)-SiO(2) phospho-silicate glasses always acts as a glass-forming ion-i.e. aluminum always occupies fourfold coordinated sites. (23)Na and (31)P MAS NMR research has shown that the inversion of matrix and inclusions composition, brought about by introduction of aluminum ions into the structure of phospho-silicate glasses, is an outcome of a change in phosphorous and alkaline ions coordination. PMID:20864392

  10. Sensitivity enhancement of remotely coupled NMR detectors using wirelessly powered parametric amplification.

    Qian, Chunqi; Murphy-Boesch, Joseph; Dodd, Stephen; Koretsky, Alan

    2012-09-01

    A completely wireless detection coil with an integrated parametric amplifier has been constructed to provide local amplification and transmission of MR signals. The sample coil is one element of a parametric amplifier using a zero-bias diode that mixes the weak MR signal with a strong pump signal that is obtained from an inductively coupled external loop. The NMR sample coil develops current gain via reduction in the effective coil resistance. Higher gain can be obtained by adjusting the level of the pumping power closer to the oscillation threshold, but the gain is ultimately constrained by the bandwidth requirement of MRI experiments. A feasibility study here shows that on a NaCl/D(2) O phantom, (23) Na signals with 20 dB of gain can be readily obtained with a concomitant bandwidth of 144 kHz. This gain is high enough that the integrated coil with parametric amplifier, which is coupled inductively to external loops, can provide sensitivity approaching that of direct wire connection. PMID:22246567

  11. (γ,n) reaction in nuclei of the 12<=A<=238 interval in the intermediate energy region (300 MeV-1000MeV)

    The absolute cross section of the 12C(γ,n)11C, 19F(γ,n)18F, 23Na(γ,n)22Na, 31P(γ,n)30P, 52Cr(γ,n)51Cr, 55Mn(γ,n)54Mn, 59Co(γ,n)58Co, 75As(γ,n)74As, 103Rh(γn)102Rh, 127I(γ,n)126I, 197Au(γ,n)196Au and 238U(γ,n)237U reactions were determined, experimentally, in the energy range from 300 MeV to 1000 MeV, using Bremsstrahlung photons. The measured cross sections were compared with results estimated by Monte Carlo Method applied to intranuclear cascades initiated by phothons. A functional dependence between the average value of (γ,n) absolute cross section and the mass number, were established. The (γ,n) absolute cross sections from simple relations, which transparencies of complexe nuclei for mesons and nucleons photo produced were also determined. (M.C.K.)

  12. Dynamic effects in MAS and MQMAS NMR spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei: calculations and an application to the double perovskite cryolite.

    Kotecha, Mrignayani; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Grey, Clare P; Frydman, Lucio

    2005-11-30

    Dynamic processes such as chemical exchange or rotations between inequivalent orientations can affect the magic-angle spinning (MAS) and the multiple-quantum (MQ) MAS NMR spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. The present paper discusses such dynamic multisite MAS and MQMAS effects and applies them to study the dynamic processes that occur in the double perovskite cryolite, Na3AlF6. Dynamic line shape simulations invoking a second-order broadening of the central transition and relying on the semiclassical Bloch-McConnell formalism for chemical exchange were performed for a variety of exchange models possessing different symmetries. Fitting experimental variable-temperature cryolite 23Na NMR data with this formalism revealed that the two inequivalent sodium sites in this mineral undergo an exchange characterized by a broad distribution of rates. To further assess this dynamic process a variety of 27Al and 19F MAS NMR studies were also undertaken; quantitative 27Al-19F dipolar coupling measurements then revealed a dynamic motion of the AlF6 octahedra that were qualitatively consistent with predictions stemming from molecular dynamic simulations on this double perovskite. PMID:16305261

  13. Chiral Properties in ^134Pr

    Starosta, K.; Chiara, C. J.; Fossan, D. B.; Koike, T.; Beausang, C. W.; Hecht, A. A.; Boston, A. J.; Chantler, H. J.; Paul, E. S.; Scraggs, H. C.; Simons, A.; Wadsworth, R.; Clark, R. M.

    2001-04-01

    The πh_11/2νh_11/2 doublet bands in ^134Pr, which represent the best evidence to date for chiral symmetry breaking in odd-odd nuclei [1], were investigated with the GAMMASPHERE array using the ^116Cd(^23Na,5n) reaction at 115 MeV. From thin-target data, the nearly degenerate ΔI=1 side band was extended from a 9^+ bandhead up to a spin of 24^+ with E2 crossovers, a total of 15 units of spin, while the main yrast band was observed from an 8^+ bandhead to 24^+. Measured γ-ray intensities suggest a staggering of the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios in the main band with the ratio smaller for even-spin initial states; these compare well with those of other N=75 isotones. Relative transition rates for γ-rays linking the doublet bands have also been extracted. Analysis of backed-target data aimed at absolute transition rates is underway. The results will be compared to calculations with particle-hole triaxial-rotor and 3-D TAC models. [1mm] [1] C.M.Petrache, et al., Nucl.Phys.A597(1996)106; V.I.Dimitrov, et al., PRL 84(2000)5732; K. Starosta, et al., PRL 86(2001).

  14. Operational experience with the Argonne National Laboratory Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade facility and electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder

    Vondrasek, R.; Clark, J.; Levand, A.; Palchan, T.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2014-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility provides low-energy and accelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams to address key nuclear physics and astrophysics questions. A 350 mCi 252Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The ECR charge breeder has achieved stable beam charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for 23Na7+, 17.9% for 39K10+, 15.6% for 84Kr17+, and 12.4% for 133Cs27+. For the radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for 143Cs27+ and 14.7% for 143Ba27+. The typical breeding times are 10 ms/charge state, but the source can be tuned such that this value increases to 100 ms/charge state with the best breeding efficiency corresponding to the longest breeding times—the variation of efficiencies with breeding time will be discussed. Efforts have been made to characterize and reduce the background contaminants present in the ion beam through judicious choice of q/m combinations. Methods of background reduction are being investigated based upon plasma chamber cleaning and vacuum practices.

  15. Algebraic realization of the quantum rotor - odd-A nuclei

    An algebraic realization of the quantum rotor for non-zero spin values (integer as well as half-integer) is established by constructing a model Hamiltonian out of rotationally invariant functions of the generators of SU(3). The eigenvalues of this Hamiltonian in the leading normal-SU(3) symmetry for 25Mg and the so-called leading pseudo-SU(3) symmetries for 159Dy and 165Er are compared with the corresponding rotor results. For spin-free systems the internal symmetry group of the rotor and its SU(3) realization are known to be D2, the Vierergruppe. This symmetry extends to integral spin values, while for half-integer spins the rotor and its SU(3) realization are shown to display an internal quaternion group symmetry. The theory points to a microscopic (many-particle shell-model) picture of nuclear rotational motion with spin degrees of freedom taken fully into account. An algebraic realization of the many-particle Nilsson model for odd-A nuclei, with the orbit-orbit and spin-orbit terms included, is given and applied to 23Na. (orig.)

  16. Productions and decay studies of transactinide elements for superheavy element chemistry

    We developed a gas-jet transport system coupled to the GAs-filled Recoil Ion Separator GARIS at the RIKEN Linear Accelerator as a novel technique for superheavy element (SHE) chemistry. The isotopes of 261Rf (atomic number Z = 104), 262Db (Z = 105), and 265Sg (Z = 106) useful for chemistry studies were produced in the 248Cm(18O,5n), 248Cm(19F,5n), and 248Cm(22Ne,5n) reactions, respectively, and they were extracted to a chemistry laboratory by the gas-jet method after the separation by GARIS (1-4). The production and decay properties of those isotopes were investigated in detail for future chemistry studies using a rotating wheel apparatus for α and SF spectrometry. Recently, the chemical synthesis and gas-chromatographic analysis of the first organometallic compound of SHEs, Sg(CO)6, were successfully conducted with preseparated 265Sg. In the conference, preliminary results on the production of Bh (Z = 107) isotopes in the 248Cm(23Na,xn) reactions will also be presented. (author)

  17. Reconciling Local Structure Disorder and the Relaxor State in (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3.

    Groszewicz, Pedro B; Gröting, Melanie; Breitzke, Hergen; Jo, Wook; Albe, Karsten; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Rödel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Lead-based relaxor ferroelectrics are key functional materials indispensable for the production of multilayer ceramic capacitors and piezoelectric transducers. Currently there are strong efforts to develop novel environmentally benign lead-free relaxor materials. The structural origins of the relaxor state and the role of composition modifications in these lead-free materials are still not well understood. In the present contribution, the solid-solution (100-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 (BNT-xBT), a prototypic lead-free relaxor is studied by the combination of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT). For the first time it is shown that the peculiar composition dependence of the EFG distribution width (ΔQISwidth) correlates strongly to the dispersion in dielectric permittivity, a fingerprint of the relaxor state. Significant disorder is found in the local structure of BNT-xBT, as indicated by the analysis of the electric field gradient (EFG) in (23)Na 3QMAS NMR spectra. Aided by DFT calculations, this disorder is attributed to a continuous unimodal distribution of octahedral tilting. These results contrast strongly to the previously proposed coexistence of two octahedral tilt systems in BNT-xBT. Based on these results, we propose that considerable octahedral tilt disorder may be a general feature of these oxides and essential for their relaxor properties. PMID:27545094

  18. Laser-induced nuclear orientation and gamma anisotropy in sodium

    The use of laser optical pumping to induce nuclear orientation in several isotopes and one isomer of atomic sodium vapor is described. Essentially complete nuclear polarization, P > 90%, has been achieved in stable 23Na when pumping with modest laser intensities (I approx. = 10 mW/cm2). The volume of the sample cell was approximately 10 cc, and was filled with a sodium density of about 10'' atoms/cc. Complete coverage of the Doppler distribution was accomplished with the use of trace amounts (less than or equal to 1 torr) of argon buffer gas to induce velocity changing collisions. A theoretical model which accurately predicts the amount of polarization is developed. The orientation of nuclei which are unstable to gamma decay can manifest itself in anisotropic gamma ray emission. This anisotropy can be used to measure isotope and isomer shifts, from which nuclear properties can be derived. Gamma anisotropy was observed in two systems, 22Na and /sup 24m/Na. From the observed anisotropy in /sup 24m/Na, a negative sign for the g factor is determined. Values are derived for the magnetic moment, μ = 2.56 +- 0.64 nm, and the isomer shift, deltaν/sub 24m/ = 288 +- 191 MHz (D1 line). A model is described which relates various laser and fubber gas parameters to the observed gamma anisotropy lineshape. This model facilitates the extraction of physical parameters from knowledge of the laser frequency at which the anisotropy is a maximum

  19. Cross sections of $\\alpha$-induced reactions for targets with masses $A \\approx 20-50$ at low energies

    Mohr, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A simple reduction scheme using so-called reduced energies $E_{\\rm{red}}$ and reduced cross sections $\\sigma_{\\rm{red}}$ allows the comparison of heavy-ion induced reaction cross sections for a broad range of masses of projectile and target and over a wide energy range. A global behavior has been found for strongly bound projectiles whereas much larger reduced cross sections have been observed for weakly bound and halo projectiles. It has been shown that this simple reduction scheme works also well for $\\alpha$-particle induced reactions on heavy target nuclei, but very recently significant deviations have been seen for $\\alpha$+$^{33}$S and $\\alpha$+$^{23}$Na. Motivated by these unexpected discrepancies, the present study analyses $\\alpha$-induced reaction cross sections for targets with masses $A \\approx 20-50$. The study shows that the experimental data for $\\alpha$-induced reactions on nuclei with $A \\approx 20-50$ deviate slightly from the global behavior of reduced cross sections. However, in general th...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a novel layered sodium titanium silicate Na2TiSi2O7·2H2O

    A novel layered sodium titanium silicate Na2TiSi2O7·2H2O has been synthesized by the reaction of a titanium-hydrogen peroxide complex and silicic acid in alkaline media under mild hydrothermal conditions (200 degree C). The product was characterized by elemental analysis, TGA, FT-IR, MAS 29Si and 23Na NMR and X-ray spectroscopy. The intercalation reaction of n-alkylamines from the gaseous phase and the ion exchange behavior of Na2TiSi2O7·2H2O towards alkali, alkaline earth and some transition metal ions in model individual and complex solutions were studied. It was found that the layered sodium titanium silicate contains acidic hydroxyl functional groups, which results in cation uptake at pH>1.5. The high affinity of the exchanger for cesium in weakly acid and neutral solutions makes it a promising material for the treatment of some types of nuclear wastes, contaminated ground water and different biological liquors. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Nuclear data for design analyses of the test blanket modules in ITER: Review and recommendations for EFF/JEFF evaluations

    This ppt-presentation gives an overview of ITER materials for nuclear analysis (Test Blanket Modules (TBM); Shield modules, vacuum vessel, plasma facing components; superconducting magnet, minor importance materials), a review of available nuclear data evaluations (EFF-3/JEFF-3.0 (EU); FENDL-2.0, JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VI; MF=6 data, co-variances, γ-production; benchmark analyses (data quality)) and recommendations for evaluations (priorities for EFF data evaluations in FP6; update/revision/completion of data evaluations according to needs for TBM design; extension for E > 20 MeV (IFMIF application)) for the isotopes 9Be, natPb, 204Pb, 206Pb, 208Pb, 6Li, 7Li, 28Si, 29Si, 30Si, 16O, 54Fe, 56Fe, 57Fe, 58Fe, 50Cr, 52Cr, 53Cr, 54Cr, natW, 182W, 183W, 184W, 186W, 181Ta, 63Cu, 65Cu, natTi, 46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, 12C, 23Na, 39K, 1H and many more

  2. A structural investigation of the alkali metal site distribution within bioactive glass using neutron diffraction and multinuclear solid state NMR.

    Martin, Richard A; Twyman, Helen L; Rees, Gregory J; Smith, Jodie M; Barney, Emma R; Smith, Mark E; Hanna, John V; Newport, Robert J

    2012-09-21

    The atomic-scale structure of Bioglass and the effect of substituting lithium for sodium within these glasses have been investigated using neutron diffraction and solid state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR. Applying an effective isomorphic substitution difference function to the neutron diffraction data has enabled the Na-O and Li-O nearest-neighbour correlations to be isolated from the overlapping Ca-O, O-(P)-O and O-(Si)-O correlations. These results reveal that Na and Li behave in a similar manner within the glassy matrix and do not disrupt the short range order of the network former. Residual differences are attributed solely to the variation in ionic radius between the two species. Successful simplification of the 2 bioactive glasses, and an analogous splitting of the Li-O correlations. The observed correlations are attributed to the metal ions bonded either to bridging or to non-bridging oxygen atoms. (23)Na triple quantum MAS (3QMAS) NMR data corroborates the split Na-O correlations. The structural sites present will be intimately related to the release properties of the glass system in physiological fluids such as plasma and saliva, and hence to the bioactivity of the material. Detailed structural knowledge is therefore a prerequisite for optimizing material design. PMID:22868255

  3. The salt and lipid composition of model cheeses modifies in-mouth flavour release and perception related to the free sodium ion content.

    Boisard, Lauriane; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Septier, Chantal; Boissard, Vanessa; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-02-15

    Reducing salt and lipid levels in foodstuffs without any effect on acceptability is a major challenge, particularly because of their interactions with other ingredients. This study used a multimodal approach to understand the effects of changes to the composition of model cheeses (20/28, 24/24, 28/20 lipid/protein ratios, 0% and 1% added NaCl) on sodium ion mobility ((23)Na NMR), in-mouth sodium release and flavour perception. An increase in the salt content decreased cheese firmness and perceived hardness, and increased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release and both saltiness and aroma perception. With the same amount of salt, a lower lipid/protein ratio increased the firmness of the cheeses, perceived hardness, and decreased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release, saltiness and aroma perception. These findings suggest on one hand that it could be possible to increase saltiness perception by varying cheese composition, thus inducing differences in sodium ion mobility and in free sodium ion concentration, leading to differences in in-mouth sodium release and saltiness perception, and on the other hand that the reformulation of foods in line with health guidelines needs to take account of both salt content and the lipid/protein ratio. PMID:24128499

  4. Sodium insertion/extraction from single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes: The differences and similarities

    Goonetilleke, Damian; Pramudita, James C.; Choucair, Mohammad; Rawal, Aditya; Sharma, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    A comparative study on the sodium-ion insertion and extraction of commercially-available multi-wall and single-wall carbon nanotubes is reported. Single-wall carbon nanotubes exhibit charge/discharge capacities of 126 mA h g-1 and multi-wall carbon nanotubes produce a lower capacity of 28 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles at 25 mA g-1. To understand these differences, a combination of X-ray diffraction and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements were performed at various states of sodium insertion and extraction.23Na nuclear magnetic resonance studies, a technique previously rarely used for characterising electrodes from sodium-ion batteries, shows differences in the sodium chemical environment near multi-wall compared to single-wall carbon nanotubes with distinct sodium sites found to be active during sodium insertion and extraction for the carbon nanotubes. Both types of carbon nanotubes show a similar amount of reversible sodium available for insertion/extraction reactions, but multi-wall carbon nanotubes feature half the initial insertion capacity relative to single-wall carbon nanotubes. The electrochemical performance of the carbon nanotube electrodes are discussed in relation to the observed mechanism of sodium insertion.

  5. Four-wave mixing in Bose-Einstein condensate systems with multiple spin states

    We calculate the four-wave mixing (FWM) in a Bose-Einstein condensate system having multiple spin wave packets that are initially overlapping in physical space, but have nonvanishing relative momentum that causes them to recede from one another. Three receding condensate atom wave packets can result in production of a fourth wave packet by the process of FWM due to atom-atom interactions. We consider cases where the four final wave packets are composed of one, two, three, and four different internal spin components. FWM with one or two-spin state wave packets is much stronger than three- or four-spin state FWM, wherein two of the coherent moving Bose-Einstein condensate wave packets form a spin-polarization grating that rotates the spin projection of the third wave into that of the fourth diffracted wave (as opposed to the one- or two-spin state case where a regular density grating is responsible for the diffraction). Calculations of FWM for 87Rb and 23Na condensate systems are presented

  6. Updated stellar yields from Asymptotic Giant Branch models

    Karakas, Amanda I

    2009-01-01

    An updated grid of stellar yields for low to intermediate-mass thermally-pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are presented. The models cover a range in metallicity Z = 0.02, 0.008, 0.004, and 0.0001, and masses between 1Msun to 6Msun. New intermediate-mass Z = 0.0001 AGB models are also presented, along with a finer mass grid than used in previous studies. The yields are computed using an updated reaction rate network that includes the latest NeNa and MgAl proton capture rates, with the main result that between ~6 to 30 times less Na is produced by intermediate-mass models with hot bottom burning. In low-mass AGB models we investigate the effect on the production of light elements of including some partial mixing of protons into the intershell region during the deepest extent of each third dredge-up episode. The protons are captured by the abundant 12C to form a 13C pocket. The 13C pocket increases the yields of 19F, 23Na, the neutron-rich Mg and Si isotopes, 60Fe, and 31P. The increase in 31P is by f...

  7. A new look at the structural properties of trisodium uranate Na3UO4.

    Smith, Anna L; Raison, Philippe E; Martel, Laura; Prieur, Damien; Charpentier, Thibault; Wallez, Gilles; Suard, Emmanuelle; Scheinost, Andreas C; Hennig, Christoph; Martin, Philippe; Kvashnina, Kristina O; Cheetham, Anthony K; Konings, Rudy J M

    2015-04-01

    The crystal structure of trisodium uranate, which forms following the interaction between sodium and hyperstoichiometric urania, has been solved for the first time using powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, and solid-state (23)Na multiquantum magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance. The compound, isostructural with Na3BiO4, has monoclinic symmetry, in space group P2/c. Moreover, it has been shown that this structure can accommodate some cationic disorder, with up to 16(2)% sodium on the uranium site, corresponding to the composition α-Na3(U1-x,Nax)O4 (0 < x < 0.18). The α phase adopts a mixed valence state with the presence of U(V) and U(VI). The two polymorphs of this compound described in the literature, m- and β-Na3(U1-x,Nax)O4, have also been investigated, and their relationship to the α phase has been established. The completely disordered low-temperature cubic phase corresponds to a metastable phase. The semiordered high-temperature β phase is cubic, in space group Fd3̅m. PMID:25798917

  8. Modelling studies in aqueous solution of lanthanide (III) chelates designed for nuclear magnetic resonance biomedical applications

    Henriques, E. S.; Geraldes, C. F. G. C.; Ramos, M. J.

    Molecular dynamics simulations and complementary modelling studies have been carried out for the [Gd(DOTA)·(H2O)]- and [Tm(DOTP)]5- chelates in aqueous media, to provide a better understanding of several structural and dynamical properties of these versatile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probes, including coordination shells and corresponding water exchange mechanisms, and interactions of these complexes with alkali metal ions. This knowledge is of key importance in the areas of 1H relaxation and shift reagents for NMR applications in medical diagnosis. A new refinement of our own previously developed set of parameters for these Ln(III) chelates has been used, and is reported here. Calculations of water mean residence times suggest a reassessment of the characterization of the chelates' second coordination shell, one where the simple spherical distribution model is discarded in favour of a more detailed approach. Na+ probe interaction maps are in good agreement with the available site location predictions derived from 23Na NMR shifts.

  9. Examination of the validity of statistical models for the 12C + 12C fusion reaction at sub-barrier energies

    Dahlstrom, Erin

    2011-10-01

    Previous experimental studies of 12C + 12C fusion at sub-barrier energies using gamma spectroscopy have been limited by the use of a single detector. Use of the Gammasphere at the Argonne National Laboratory, however, allows for an array of germanium detectors to pick up the characteristic gamma rays, greatly increasing the information received. These decay products do not give us the total cross section for the fusion reaction though; we rely on statistical models that relate them to how the excited states are originally populated and decay. Using a combination of gamma spectroscopy based on data from the Gammasphere and proton spectroscopy from a recent 12C + 12C fusion experiment at Notre Dame, we tested these statistical models. The initial population of excited states for 23Na predicted by Empire, a standard statistical model for the decay of different 24Mg spins, was compared with the population determined from the gamma and proton spectroscopy. This comparison will potentially help us more accurately predict the spin population of 24Mg, further constraining the fusion reaction theory. Thanks: NSF grants PHY-1068192, PHY-0822648; ND REU.

  10. Form factors for dark matter capture by the Sun in effective theories

    Catena, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    In the effective theory of isoscalar and isovector dark matter-nucleon interactions mediated by a heavy spin-1 or spin-0 particle, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions can be generated in the dark matter scattering by nuclei. We compute the 8 nuclear response functions for the 16 most abundant elements in the Sun, i.e. H, $^{3}$He, $^{4}$He, $^{12}$C, $^{14}$N, $^{16}$O, $^{20}$Ne, $^{23}$Na, $^{24}$Mg, $^{27}$Al, $^{28}$Si, $^{32}$S, $^{40}$Ar, $^{40}$Ca, $^{56}$Fe, and $^{59}$Ni, through detailed numerical shell model calculations. We use our response functions to compute the rate of dark matter capture by the Sun for all isoscalar and isovector dark matter-nucleon effective interactions, including several operators previously considered for dark matter direct detection only. We study in detail the dependence of the capture rate on specific dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, and on the different elements in the Sun. We find that a so far neglected momentum dependent dark matter coupling to...

  11. Reconciling Local Structure Disorder and the Relaxor State in (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3

    Groszewicz, Pedro B.; Gröting, Melanie; Breitzke, Hergen; Jo, Wook; Albe, Karsten; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Rödel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Lead-based relaxor ferroelectrics are key functional materials indispensable for the production of multilayer ceramic capacitors and piezoelectric transducers. Currently there are strong efforts to develop novel environmentally benign lead-free relaxor materials. The structural origins of the relaxor state and the role of composition modifications in these lead-free materials are still not well understood. In the present contribution, the solid-solution (100-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 (BNT-xBT), a prototypic lead-free relaxor is studied by the combination of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT). For the first time it is shown that the peculiar composition dependence of the EFG distribution width (ΔQISwidth) correlates strongly to the dispersion in dielectric permittivity, a fingerprint of the relaxor state. Significant disorder is found in the local structure of BNT-xBT, as indicated by the analysis of the electric field gradient (EFG) in 23Na 3QMAS NMR spectra. Aided by DFT calculations, this disorder is attributed to a continuous unimodal distribution of octahedral tilting. These results contrast strongly to the previously proposed coexistence of two octahedral tilt systems in BNT-xBT. Based on these results, we propose that considerable octahedral tilt disorder may be a general feature of these oxides and essential for their relaxor properties. PMID:27545094

  12. Two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the LBM [Lithium Blanket Module] experiments at LOTUS

    In a recent common Los Alamos/PSI effort, a sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty path for the modular code system AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) was developed. This path includes the cross-section code TRAMIX, the one-dimensional finite difference S/sub N/-transport code ONEDANT, the two-dimensional finite element S/sub N/-transport code TRISM, and the one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty code SENSIBL. Within the framework of the present work a complete set of forward and adjoint two-dimensional TRISM calculations were performed both for the bare, as well as for the Pb- and Be-preceeded, LBM using MATXS8 libraries. Then a two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for all cases was performed. The goal of this analysis was the determination of the uncertainties of a calculated tritium production per source neutron from lithium along the central Li2O rod in the LBM. Considered were the contributions from 1H, 6Li, 7Li, 9Be, /sup nat/C, 14N, 16O, 23Na, 27Al, /sup nat/Si, /sup nat/Cr, /sup nat/Fe, /sup nat/Ni, and /sup nat/Pb. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Characterization of sodium transport in Acholeplasma laidlawii B cells and in lipid vesicles containing purified A. laidlawii (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 22Na tracer techniques

    The active transport of sodium ions in live Acholeplasma laidlawii B cells and in lipid vesicles containing the (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase from the plasma membrane of this microorganism was studied by 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and 22Na tracer techniques, respectively. In live A. laidlawii B cells, the transport of sodium was an active process in which metabolic energy was harnessed for the extrusion of sodium ions against a concentration gradient. The process was inhibited by low temperatures and by the formation of gel state lipid in the plasma membrane of this organism. In reconstituted proteoliposomes containing the purified (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase, the hydrolysis of ATP was accompanied by the transport of sodium ions into the lipid vesicles, and the transport process was impaired by reagents known to inhibit ATPase activity. At the normal growth temperature (37 degrees C), this transport process required a maximum of 1 mol of ATP per mol of sodium ion transported. Together, these results provide direct experimental evidence that the (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase of the Acholeplasma laidlawii B membrane is the cation pump which maintains the low levels of intracellular sodium characteristic of this microorganism

  14. Development and applications of multi-step Hauser-Feshbach/pre-equilibrium model theory

    A recently developed model that combines compound and precompound reactions with conservation of angular momentum is discussed. This model allows a consistent description of intermediate excitations from which tertiary reaction cross sections can be calculated for transitions to the continuum as well as to the discrete residual levels with known spins and parities. Predicted neutron, proton, and alpha-particle production cross sections and emission spectra from 14-MeV neutron-induced reactions are compared favorably with angle-integrated experimental data for 12 nuclides. The model is further developed to include angular distributions of outgoing particles. The random phase approximation used for the compound stage is partially removed for the precompound stages, allowing off-diagonal terms of the collision matrix to produce both odd and even terms in the Legendre polynomial expansion for the angular distribution. Calculated double differential cross sections for the 14.6-MeV 23Na(n,n'x) reaction are compared with experimental data

  15. Dynamics and stability of stationary states for the spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates in a standing light wave

    Wang, Deng-Shan; Han, Wei; Shi, Yuren; Li, Zaidong; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-07-01

    The spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standing light wave can be described by three coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with a periodic potential. In this paper, nine families of stationary solutions without phase structures in the form of Jacobi elliptic functions are proposed, and their stabilities are analyzed by both linear stability analysis and dynamical evolutions. Taking the ferromagnetic 87Rb atoms and antiferromagnetic (polar) 23Na atoms as examples, we investigate the stability regions of the nine stationary solutions, which are given in term of elliptic modulus k. It is shown that for the same stationary solution the stability regions of condensates with antiferromagnetic (polar) spin-dependent interactions are larger than that of the condensates with ferromagnetic ones. The dn-dn-dn stationary solution is the most stable solution among the nine families of stationary solutions. Moreover, in the same standing light wave, the spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates are more stable than the scalar Bose-Einstein condensate.

  16. Communication of nuclear data progress No.25 (2001. 6)

    This is the 25th issue of Communication of Nuclear Data Progress (CNDP), in which the achievements in nuclear data field for the last year in China are carried. It includes the measurements of 10B(n, γ)7Li and 64Zn(n,α) 61Ni angular distributions and cross sections, 75As(n,γ) 76As cross section and fission product yields of n + 235,238U; theoretical calculations of n + 23Na, 93,95Nb, 99Tc, 99-105Ru, 132,134-138Ba, 133-135,137Cs, 136,138,140,142NatCe, 142-148,150Nd, 175,176NatLu, 174,176-180NatHf; evaluations of reference fission yield data and n + 93,95Nb, 99,100Ru, 121,123Sb, 127,135I and 241,242Pu complete data; method to set up file 6 in neutron data library of light nuclei, Kerma factor calculation, a code for automatically searching optimal optical potential parameters below 300 MeV, internal conversion electrons data calculation, a code for composition of a nuclear data file of natural element from its isotope files; and the developments of CWIMS code and its 69-group library. Also the activities and cooperation on nuclear data in China are summarized

  17. Cardiac magnetic resonance spectroscopy: potential clinical applications

    MR spectroscopy is the only method for non-invasive detection of various aspects of cardiac metabolism in humans. While the 1H nucleus of water and fat molecules is the signal source for MR imaging, the MR spectroscopic technique allows for the study of a number of other nuclei, such as 13C, 19F, 23Na, 31P, 39K and 87Rb. Clinical applications presently are confined to the 31P nucleus. 31P-MR spectroscopy allows the non-invasive study of cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolites ATP and phosphocreatine. The phosphocreatine/ATP ratio is considered an index of the energetic state of the heart. Possible clinical indications include heart failure, valve disease and coronary artery disease. In heart failure, the phosphocreatine/ATP ratio is reduced and correlates with clinical severity, ejection fraction and prognosis. In mitral and aortic valve disease, a reduced phosphocreatine/ATP ratio may indicate the optimum timing for valve replacement. In coronary artery disease, a regional decrease of phosphocreatine during stress (''biochemical ergometry'') may indicate local ischemia. Furthermore, absolute quantification of high-energy phosphates may allow diagnosis of myocardial viability. Major technical developments, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution will be necessary to establish MR spectroscopy as a routine clinical tool. (orig.)

  18. Putting in evidence the asymmetric fission in the desexcitation process of 47V nuclei

    The fusion-fission, which reflects the instability of the nuclei against the deformation and leads to a binary break up into nearly equal mass nuclei, have been considered as a general feature of the heavy ions (A>80). For lighter systems the fission decay of the compound nucleus is predicted by the rotating liquid drop model to be minor process and the fully-damped products observed in reactions between light heavy ions (A35 Cl+12 C, 31 P+16 O and 23 Na+24 Mg reactions used in order to populate the 47 V system at two excitation energies E = 59 and 64 MeV. This study shows that these fragments are the result of the emission from a source and their elemental distributions are asymmetric independently to the entrance channel asymmetry. The absence of entrance channel effect is a signature of the asymmetric fission process of the 47 V nucleus. The comparison of the experimental observations to the statistical model shows that the fission barriers in this mass region are lower than those predicted by the rotating liquid drop model and the need of introducing their angular momentum and mass asymmetry dependence is clearly shown. In conclusion, it is well established that the evidence of the asymmetric fission break up into the desexcitation process of the 47 V nucleus should be taken into account in the statistical calculations describing the complete fusion of light heavy ions

  19. Structure and aqueous reactivity of silicate glasses high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance contribution; Structure et reactivite aqueuse des verres silicates apport de la resonance magnetique nucleaire haute-resolution

    Angeli, F

    2000-10-25

    This research aims at getting a better understanding of the relations which may exist between the chemical composition of the oxide silicate glasses, the structure and the aqueous reactivity. We study the cations present in most glasses, more particularly the radioactive waste glasses, and those which are more liable to bring information both about structure and reactivity. Among the experimental methods used, the nuclear magnetic resonance of multi-quantum magic-angle spinning (NMR MQ-MAS) has been carried out for the structural characterization of the pristine and altered glasses. In the first part, we discuss the possibility of deducting a type of information from a quantitative approach of the {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al and {sup 17}O NMR MQ-MAS. In the second part, we apply this method to glasses containing between two and six oxides. The vitreous compositions studied permit to focus our attention on the influence of sodium, aluminum and calcium on their local structural environment. We point out an evolution of the distributions of bond distances and angles in relation to the glass chemical composition. We show the strong potentiality of the {sup 17}O used to probe the pristine and altered glasses. The influence of the different cations studied on the rate of glass dissolution is debated from the alterations made on short periods. On the basis of all these data, we discuss the importance of the structural effect which may influence the kinetic phenomena of alteration. (author)

  20. Sodium-Ion Intercalation Mechanism in MXene Nanosheets.

    Kajiyama, Satoshi; Szabova, Lucie; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Iinuma, Hiroki; Morita, Ryohei; Gotoh, Kazuma; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Okubo, Masashi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-03-22

    MXene, a family of layered compounds consisting of nanosheets, is emerging as an electrode material for various electrochemical energy storage devices including supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and sodium-ion batteries. However, the mechanism of its electrochemical reaction is not yet fully understood. Herein, using solid-state (23)Na magic angle spinning NMR and density functional theory calculation, we reveal that MXene Ti3C2Tx in a nonaqueous Na(+) electrolyte exhibits reversible Na(+) intercalation/deintercalation into the interlayer space. Detailed analyses demonstrate that Ti3C2Tx undergoes expansion of the interlayer distance during the first sodiation, whereby desolvated Na(+) is intercalated/deintercalated reversibly. The interlayer distance is maintained during the whole sodiation/desodiation process due to the pillaring effect of trapped Na(+) and the swelling effect of penetrated solvent molecules between the Ti3C2Tx sheets. Since Na(+) intercalation/deintercalation during the electrochemical reaction is not accompanied by any substantial structural change, Ti3C2Tx shows good capacity retention over 100 cycles as well as excellent rate capability. PMID:26891421

  1. A multinuclear static NMR study of geopolymerisation

    Favier, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.favier@epfl.ch [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Habert, Guillaume [Institute for Construction and Infrastructure Management, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Roussel, Nicolas [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); D' Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste [Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Indusrtrielles de la Ville de Paris (ESPCI), ParisTech, PSL Research University, Soft Matter Sciences and Engineering Laboratory SIMM, CNRS UMR 7615, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-09-15

    Geopolymers are inorganic binders obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicates. While the structure of geopolymers is now well understood, the details of the geopolymerisation reaction and their impact on the rheology of the paste remain uncertain. In this work, we follow the elastic properties of a paste made with metakaolin and sodium silicate solution. After the first sharp increase of elastic modulus occurring a few hundred of seconds after mixing and related to the heterogeneous formation of an alumina–silicate gel with a molar ratio Si/Al < 4 located at the grains boundaries, we focus on the progressive increase in elastic modulus on a period of few hours during the setting of the geopolymer. In this study, we combine the study of rheological properties of the paste with {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si static NMR measurement in order to better understand the origin of this second increase in elastic modulus. Our results show that, after a few hours, Al and Na evolution in the liquid phase are concomitant. This suggests the precipitation of an aluminosilicate phase where Al is in tetrahedral position and Na compensates the charge. Furthermore, Si speciation confirms this result and allows us to identify the precipitation of a product, which has a chemical composition close to the final composition of geopolymer. This study provides strong evidence for a heterogeneous formation of an aluminosilicate glass directly from the first gel and the silicate solution without the need for a reorganisation of Gel 1 into Gel 2.

  2. Long-range states of the NaRb molecule near the Na($3^2S_{1/2}$)+Rb($5^2P_{3/2}$) asymptote

    Zhu, Bing; He, Xiaodong; Guo, Mingyang; Wang, Fudong; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Wang, Dajun

    2016-01-01

    We report a high-resolution spectroscopic investigation of the long-range states of the $^{23}$Na$^{87}$Rb molecule near its Na($3^2S_{1/2}$)+Rb($5^2P_{3/2}$) asymptote. This study was performed with weakly bound ultracold molecules produced via magneto-association with an inter-species Feshbach resonance. We observed several regular vibrational series, which are assigned to the 5 attractive long-range states correlated with this asymptote. The vibrational levels of two of these states have sharp but complex structures due to hyperfine and Zeeman interactions. For the other states, we observed significant linewidth broadenings due to strong predissociation caused by spin-orbit couplings with states correlated to the lower Na($3^2S_{1/2}$)+Rb($5^2P_{1/2}$) asymptote. The long-range $C_6$ van der Waals coefficients extracted from our spectrum are in good agreement with theoretical values.

  3. Fast neutron induced reaction cross sections and their systematics

    14.6 MeV Neutron induced cross-sections have been measured by the activation technique on twenty-nine nuclei. Sixty-two reactions have been studied using high resolution Ge(Li) spectroscopy and by a detailed accounting for flux variations during the irradiations. The cross-section for the 128Xe(n,p)-128I has been reported for the first time. The values determined in this work have been compared to those reported by other investigators as well as to values predicted by semi-empirical and theoretical methods. The influence of shell closure is difficult to discern, though some evidence is reported for such effects on (n,2n) reactions having threshold energies near the neutron energy. The nuclei studied in this work included: 14N, 19F, 23Na, 27Al, 31P, 45Sc, 46Ti, 50Cr, 54Fe, 28Ni, 63Cu, 65Cu, 64Zn, 66Zn, 68Zn, 69Ga, 75As, 90Zr, 92Mo, 124Xe, 126Xe, 128Xe, 130Xe, 131Xe, 132Xe, 134Xe, 136Xe, 141Pr and 144Sm. The temperature scale for the solar xenon thermometer is reexamined in terms of excitation functions for (n,γ) reactions on 127I and 133Cs. The revised scale suggests that an upper limit of approximately 1060K can be set on the temperature of the sun during the deuterium burning stage

  4. Dipole Polarizability of Alkali-Metal (Na, K, Rb) - Alkaline-Earth-Metal (Ca,Sr) Polar molecules - Prospects of Alignment

    Gopakumar, Geetha; Hada, Masahiko; Kajita, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Electronic open-shell ground-state properties of selected alkali-metal (AM) - alkaline-earth-metal (AEM) polar molecules are investigated. We determine potential energy curves of the 2{\\Sigma}+ ground state at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with partial triples (CCSD(T)) level of electron correlation. Calculated spectroscopic constants for the isotopes (23Na, 39K, 85Rb) - (40Ca, 88Sr) are compared with available theoretical and experimental results. The variation of the permanent dipole moment (PDM), average dipole polarizability, and polarizability anisotropy with internuclear distance is determined using finite-field perturbation theory at the CCSD(T) level. Owing to moderate PDM (KCa: 1.67 D, RbCa: 1.75 D, KSr: 1.27 D, RbSr: 1.41 D) and large polarizability anisotropy (KCa: 566 a.u., RbCa: 604 a.u., KSr: 574 a.u., RbSr: 615 a.u.), KCa, RbCa, KSr, and RbSr are potential candidates for alignment and orientation in combined intense laser and external static electric fields.

  5. Role of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in voltage generation and Na(+) extrusion in Vibrio cholerae.

    Vorburger, Thomas; Nedielkov, Ruslan; Brosig, Alexander; Bok, Eva; Schunke, Emina; Steffen, Wojtek; Mayer, Sonja; Götz, Friedrich; Möller, Heiko M; Steuber, Julia

    2016-04-01

    For Vibrio cholerae, the coordinated import and export of Na(+) is crucial for adaptation to habitats with different osmolarities. We investigated the Na(+)-extruding branch of the sodium cycle in this human pathogen by in vivo (23)Na-NMR spectroscopy. The Na(+) extrusion activity of cells was monitored after adding glucose which stimulated respiration via the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR). In a V. cholerae deletion mutant devoid of the Na(+)-NQR encoding genes (nqrA-F), rates of respiratory Na(+) extrusion were decreased by a factor of four, but the cytoplasmic Na(+) concentration was essentially unchanged. Furthermore, the mutant was impaired in formation of transmembrane voltage (ΔΨ, inside negative) and did not grow under hypoosmotic conditions at pH8.2 or above. This growth defect could be complemented by transformation with the plasmid encoded nqr operon. In an alkaline environment, Na(+)/H(+) antiporters acidify the cytoplasm at the expense of the transmembrane voltage. It is proposed that, at alkaline pH and limiting Na(+) concentrations, the Na(+)-NQR is crucial for generation of a transmembrane voltage to drive the import of H(+) by electrogenic Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. Our study provides the basis to understand the role of the Na(+)-NQR in pathogenicity of V. cholerae and other pathogens relying on this primary Na(+) pump for respiration. PMID:26721205

  6. Progress report. P9

    China Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, version 3 (CENDL-3) was accomplished in 2000. CENDL-3 contains about 206 nuclides. Among them, the data of 161 nuclei will be newly or reevaluated: Fissile nuclei 15 ( 233-239 U, 237 Np, 238-242 Pu, 241Am , 242 Am); Structure material nuclei 34 (Natural elements Ni, Cu, Zr, Hf, Pb and their isotopes, 23 Na, Nat Si); Light nuclei 3 ( 6Li, 7 Li, 9Be); Fission product nuclei 109. The benchmark testing for CENDL-3 is being carried out. Several problems in physics and format have been found on major fissile nuclides, and are being improved. CINDA activities comprised compilation od 118 entries from the works in communication of Nuclear Data Progress in 1999-2000. Two young staff members of CNDC have started the EXFOR compilation, and fished 16 entries measured in China. 'Communication of Nuclear Data Progress' (CNDP) has been published for 24 issues by CNDC and Atomic Energy Press science 1989, and it has been distributed by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section as an NDC document

  7. Search for Oscillation of the Electron-Capture Decay Probability of $^{142}$Pm

    Vetter, P A; Dvorak, J; Freedman, S J; Gregorich, K E; Jeppesen, H B; Mittelberger, D; Wiedeking, M

    2008-01-01

    We have searched for time modulation of the electron capture decay probability of $^{142}$Pm in an attempt to confirm a recent claim from a group at the Gesellschaft f\\"{u}r Schwerionenforschung (GSI). We produced $^{142}$Pm via the $^{124}$Sn($^{23}$Na, 5n)$^{142}$Pm reaction at the Berkeley 88-Inch Cyclotron with a bombardment time short compared to the reported modulation period. Isotope selection by the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator is followed by implantation and a long period of monitoring the $^{142}$Nd K$_{\\alpha}$ x-rays from the daughter. The decay time spectrum of the x-rays is well-described by a simple exponential and the measured half-life of 40.68(53) seconds is consistent with the accepted value. We observed no oscillatory modulation at the proposed frequency at a level 31 times smaller than that reported by Litvinov {\\it et al.} (Phys. Lett. B 664 (2008) 162; arXiv:0801.2079 [nucl-ex]). A literature search for previous experiments that might have been sensitive to the reported modulation unco...

  8. An inside view on salinity tolerance

    Full text: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging has a range of biological uses NMR imaging of sodium (Na)is potentially a valuable tool for understanding physiological adaptations to salinity. The technique allows spatial localization of sodium in tissues and can give information about uptake and differing concentrations of Na in cells and tissues. Until now, the use of in vivo sodium NMR imaging in plant biology has been limited. Our study illustrates possible applications of this technique. Two species of the Casuarinaceae were compared Casuarina glauca is highly salinity-tolerant while Allocasuarina torulosa has little salinity tolerance. Both types of plants were exposed to various NaCl concentrations prior to imaging Sodium (23Na) imaging through seedling stems was combined with anatomical proton (1H) imaging and light microscopy of stem sections, allowing a comparison of sodium uptake and tissue localization. For a given NaCl concentration after a given time, Allocasuarina torulosa absorbed more Na than Casuarina glauca. Furthermore, whereas the Na was restricted to the primary xylem, phloem and parenchyma ray and pith tissues in Casuarina glauca stems, in Allocasuarina torulosa it was more homogeneously distributed throughout the stem tissues. This preliminary study indicates that differences in salinity tolerance between the two species may be explained by differences in salt uptake and tissue localization

  9. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy: clinical application in neuroradiology

    Full text: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) provides a non-invasive method of studying metabolism in vivo. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) defines neuro chemistry on a regional basis by acquiring a radiofrequency signal with chemical shift from one or many voxels or volumes previously selected on MRI. The tissue's chemical environment determines the frequency of a metabolite peak in an MRS spectrum. Candidates for MRS include: 1H, 31P, 13C, 23Na, 7Li, 19F, 14N, 15N, 17O, 39K The most commonly studied nuclei are 1H and 31P. This lecture is focused on Proton (1H) Spectroscopy. Proton MRS can be added on to conventional MR imaging protocols. It can be used to serially monitor biochemical changes in tumors, stroke, epilepsy, metabolic disorders, infections, and neurodegenerative diseases.The MR spectra do not come labeled with diagnoses. They require interpretation and should always be correlated with the MR images before making a final diagnosis. As a general rule, the single voxel, short TE technique is used to make the initial diagnosis, because the signal-to-noise is high and all metabolites are represented. Multi-voxel, long TE techniques are used to further characterize different regions of a mass and to assess brain parenchyma around or adjacent to the mass. Multi-voxel, long TE techniques are also used to assess response to therapy and to search for tumor recurrence. Each metabolite appears at a specific ppm, and each one reflects specific cellular and biochemical processes

  10. Summary Record

    This document is the proceedings of the first formal SG39 Subgroup meeting about methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files. First part of the meeting was devoted to recent data adjustments performances and trends for 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 56Fe and 23Na. The second part of the meeting delt with the strategy for selection of devoted experiments for these radionuclides. In addition to the bulk of integral experiments already used the issue is to select and calculate additional integral parameters that would focus more specifically on the above radionuclides nuclear data. A list of integral experiments already mentioned during the previous discussions was made and a list of benchmarks for future experiments was discussed. A third part of the meeting concerned the methodology issues and the nuclear data parameters adjustment. This document brings together the presentations (slides) given during the first and third part of the meeting as well as the issues and actions to be discussed at the next meeting

  11. 二维双量子魔角旋转核磁共振技术在功能材料研究中的应用%Application of Two-dimensional Double Quantum Magic Angle Spinning NMR to Solid Functional Materials

    喻志武; 郑安民; 王强; 邓风

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了二维双量子魔角旋转核磁共振(DQ-MAS NMR)新技术的基本原理,详细综述了1H,19F,29Si,31P和27 Al DQ-MAS NMR技术在各种固体功能材料中的应用,并展望了该技术的应用前景.%Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has been developed into a powerful tool for obtaining detailed information about the structure, ordering, and dynamics in various kinds of inorganic organic, and biological materials. Two-dimensional double quantum magic angle spinning(DQ-MAS) NMR experiment is a useful method for probing spatial proximities or interactions between nuclei in various solid materials. During the past decade, the DQ-MAS NMR technique has been successfully applied not only to spin I = 1/2 nuclei, such as 1H, 19F, 29Si' 31p, but also to quadrupolar nuclei system, such as 27Al, 11B and 23Na. In this paper, we briefly introduce the principle of two-dimensional DQ-MAS NMR, and review the recent applications of DQ-MAS NMR technique(including 1H, 19F, 29Si, 31p and 27Al DQ-MAS NMR) to various solid functional materials. In addition, a perspective for the future of DQ-MAS NMR is also given.

  12. X-Nuclei NMR Self-Diffusion Studies in Mesoporous Silica Foam and Microporous MOF CuBTC

    Frank Stallmach

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A standard X-observe NMR probe was equipped with a z-gradient coil to enable high-sensitivity pulsed field gradient NMR diffusion studies of Li+ and Cs+ cations of aqueous salt solutions in a high-porosity mesocellular silica foam (MCF and of CO2 adsorbed in metal-organic frameworks (MOF. The coil design and the necessary probe modifications, which yield pulsed field gradients of up to ±16.2Tm−1, are introduced. The system was calibrated at 2H resonance frequency and successfully applied for diffusion studies at 7Li, 23Na, 13C and 133Cs frequencies. Significant reductions of the diffusivities of the cations in LiClac and CsClac solution introduced into MCFs are observed. By comparison of the diffusion behavior with the bulk solutions, a tortuosity of the silica foam of 4.5 ± 0.6 was derived. Single component self-diffusion of CO2 and CH4 (measured by 1H NMR as well as self-diffusion of the individual components in CO2/CH4 mixtures was studied in the MOF CuBTC. The experimental results confirm high mobilities of the adsorbed gases and trends for diffusion separation factors predicted by MD simulations.

  13. Experimental evaluation of neutron performance in boron-doped low activation concrete

    Reaction rate distribution in concrete with/without boron dopant up to a thickness of 60 cm was measured using Yayoi fast reactor located at Univ. of Tokyo. The 7 reaction rates such as 197Au(n, γ), 59Co(n, γ), 115In(n, n'), 55Mn(n, γ), 23Na(n, γ), 94Zr(n, γ) and 96Zr(n, γ) were measured at 12 different depths, and the reduction of the reaction rate as a result of boron doping was quantitatively analysed. These reaction rates were also used to determine epithermal neutron spectrum shape parameter. Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental setup were performed using the MCNP-5 code. Simulated depth profiles of reaction rates and the epithermal neutron spectrum shape parameter agreed with the experimental results with fair accuracy. This experimental results provide useful data to benchmark the accuracy of neutron transport codes in the prediction of transmission and neutron spectrum distortion in boron-doped concrete. (authors)

  14. Search for Oscillation of the Electron-Capture Decay Probability of Pm-142

    Vetter, Paul A; Vetter, Paul; Clark, Roderick; Dvorak, Jan; Freedman, Stuart; Gregorich, Kenneth; Jeppesen, Henrik; Mittelberger, Daniel; Wiedeking, Mathis

    2008-07-03

    We have searched for time modulation of the electron capture decay probability of 142Pm in an attempt to confirm a recent claim from a group at the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI). We produced 142Pm via the 124Sn(23Na, 5n)142Pm reaction at the Berkeley 88-Inch Cyclotron with a bombardment time short compared to the reported modulation period. Isotope selection by the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator is followed by implantation and a long period of monitoring the 142Nd K alpha x-rays from the daughter. The decay time spectrum of the x-rays is well-described by a simple exponential and the measured half-life of 40.68(53) seconds is consistent with the accepted value. We observed no oscillatory modulation at the proposed frequency at a level 31 times smaller than that reported by Litvinov (Phys. Lett. B 664 (2008) 162). A literature search for previous experiments that might have been sensitive to the reported modulation uncovered another example in 142Eu electron-capture decay. A reanalysis of the published data shows no oscillatory behavior.

  15. Advanced MR methods at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) for clinical musculoskeletal applications

    This article provides an overview of the initial clinical results of musculoskeletal studies performed at 7 Tesla, with special focus on sodium imaging, new techniques such as chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and T2* imaging, and multinuclear MR spectroscopy. Sodium imaging was clinically used at 7 T in the evaluation of patients after cartilage repair procedures because it enables the GAG content to be monitored over time. Sodium imaging and T2* mapping allow insights into the ultra-structural composition of the Achilles tendon and help detect early disease. Chemical exchange saturation transfer was, for the first time, successfully applied in the clinical set-up at 7 T in patients after cartilage repair surgery. The potential of phosphorus MR spectroscopy in muscle was demonstrated in a comparison study between 3 and 7 T, with higher spectral resolution and significantly shorter data acquisition times at 7 T. These initial clinical studies demonstrate the potential of ultra-high field MR at 7 T, with the advantage of significantly improved sensitivity for other nuclei, such as 23Na (sodium) and 31P (phosphorus). The application of non-proton imaging and spectroscopy provides new insights into normal and abnormal physiology of musculoskeletal tissues, particularly cartilage, tendons, and muscles. (orig.)

  16. Critical analysis for nuclear data of thermal neutron capture cross section and the resonance integral from library based on neutron activation measurements

    For research reactor applications of neutron activation analysis, the evaluated neutron reaction cross sections and resonance integrals in some different libraries available were analyzed comparatively. In order to check these data, the thermal neutron capture cross section (σ0) and the resonance integral (I0) of 23Na(n, γ )24Na, 58Fe(n, γ) 59Fe, 59Co(n, γ )60Co, 27Al(n, γ )28Al, 109Ag(n, γ) 110mAg, 197Au(n, γ)198Au and 238U(n, γ )239U reactions from different libraries were used for comparative analysis with experimental measurements based on fundamental neutron activation equation. The targets were irradiated with neutrons in a research nuclear reactor 100 kW power, Triga Mark I. A high purity Ge detector was used for the gamma ray measurements of the irradiated samples. The evaluated results have been in general agreement with the current data according to different library sources. (author)

  17. Study on photon activation analysis of carbon in glasses for fiber amplifiers by using the flow method for the rapid separation of 11C

    We have studied nuclear interference from a matrix produced by (γ, n), (γ, 2n), (γ, p) and (n, γ) reactions and a flow method for 11C separation in order to develop an approach for the photon activation analysis of carbon in InF3-based fluoride, chalcogenide and tellurite glasses for fiber amplifiers. We found that seventeen radionuclides are produced from these glasses and chemical separation is necessary to determine carbon. For the flow method, which involves the fusion of an irradiated sample with an oxidizer, the conversion of 11C into 11CO2 and the absorption of 11C in ethanolamine solution, we used a mixture of Pb3O4 and B2O3 as the oxidizer. We also found that the reaction between 19F(γ, n) and 23Na(γ, αn) in the ethanolamine solution produced 18F contamination with fluoride and chalcogenide glasses and that this flow method can only be applied to tellurite glasses. We confirmed that the chemical yield of the flow method was close to 100% when determining carbon in standard steel samples by using lithium carbonate as a standard sample. We determined that the carbon concentrations in two kinds of tellurite glass were 8 to 13 and 21 to 28 ppm, respectively. (author)

  18. Molecular breast imaging. An update

    The aim of molecular imaging is to visualize and quantify biological, physiological and pathological processes at cellular and molecular levels. Molecular imaging using various techniques has recently become established in breast imaging. Currently molecular imaging techniques comprise multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRSI), nuclear imaging by breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission mammography (PEM) and combinations of techniques (e.g. PET-CT and multiparametric PET-MRI). Recently, novel techniques for molecular imaging of breast tumors, such as sodium imaging (23Na-MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy (31P-MRSI) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as specific radiotracers have been developed and are currently under investigation. It can be expected that molecular imaging of breast tumors will enable a simultaneous assessment of the multiple metabolic and molecular processes involved in cancer development and thus an improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring of response to treatment will become possible. (orig.)

  19. Simultaneous Acquisition of Multi-nuclei Enhanced NMR/MRI by Solution State Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    He, Yugui; Feng, Jiwen; Huang, Chongyang; Chen, Fang; Liu, Maili; Liu, Chaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has become a very important hyperpolarization method because it can dramatically increase the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of various molecules. Liquid-state DNP based on Overhauser effect is capable of directly enhancing polarizations of all kinds of nuclei in the system. The combination of simultaneous Overhauser multi-nuclei enhancements with the multi-nuclei parallel acquisitions provides a variety of important applications in both MR spectroscopy (MRS) and image (MRI). Here we present two simple illustrative examples for simultaneously enhanced multi-nuclear spectra and images to demonstrate the principle and superiority. We have observed very large simultaneous DNP enhancements for different nuclei, such as 1H and 23Na, 1H and 31P, 19F and 31P, especially for the first time to report sodium ion enhancement in liquid. We have also obtained the simultaneous imaging of 19H and 31P at low field by solution-state DNP for the first time. This method can ob...

  20. Advanced MR methods at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) for clinical musculoskeletal applications

    Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, MR Centre - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria); Zbyn, Stefan; Schmitt, Benjamin; Friedrich, Klaus; Bogner, Wolfgang [Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, MR Centre - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Juras, Vladimir; Szomolanyi, Pavol [Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, MR Centre - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-11-15

    This article provides an overview of the initial clinical results of musculoskeletal studies performed at 7 Tesla, with special focus on sodium imaging, new techniques such as chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and T2* imaging, and multinuclear MR spectroscopy. Sodium imaging was clinically used at 7 T in the evaluation of patients after cartilage repair procedures because it enables the GAG content to be monitored over time. Sodium imaging and T2* mapping allow insights into the ultra-structural composition of the Achilles tendon and help detect early disease. Chemical exchange saturation transfer was, for the first time, successfully applied in the clinical set-up at 7 T in patients after cartilage repair surgery. The potential of phosphorus MR spectroscopy in muscle was demonstrated in a comparison study between 3 and 7 T, with higher spectral resolution and significantly shorter data acquisition times at 7 T. These initial clinical studies demonstrate the potential of ultra-high field MR at 7 T, with the advantage of significantly improved sensitivity for other nuclei, such as {sup 23}Na (sodium) and {sup 31}P (phosphorus). The application of non-proton imaging and spectroscopy provides new insights into normal and abnormal physiology of musculoskeletal tissues, particularly cartilage, tendons, and muscles. (orig.)

  1. Unusual phase behavior in the piezoelectric perovskite system, Li(x)Na(1-x)NbO3.

    Peel, Martin D; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Lightfoot, Philip

    2013-08-01

    The system Li(x)Na(1-x)NbO3 has been studied by using a combination of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction and (23)Na solid-state NMR spectroscopy. For x = 0.05 we confirm a single polar orthorhombic phase. For 0.08 ≤ x ≤ 0.20 phase mixtures of this orthorhombic phase, together with a rhombohedral phase, isostructural with the low-temperature ferroelectric polymorph of NaNbO3, are observed. The relative fractions of these two phases are shown to be critically dependent on synthetic conditions: the rhombohedral phase is favored by higher annealing temperatures and rapid cooling. We also observe that the orthorhombic phase transforms slowly to the rhombohedral phase on standing in air at ambient temperature. For 0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.90 two rhombohedral phases coexist, one Na-rich and the other Li-rich. In this region the phase behavior is independent of reaction conditions. PMID:23855830

  2. Electrical properties of (Na2O)35.7(RE2O3)7.2(GeO2)57.1 (RE = Sm, Gd, Dy, Y, Ho, Er and Yb) glasses

    Seven kinds of sodium rare earth germanate glasses, (Na2O)35.7(RE2O3)7.2(GeO2)57.1 (RE = Sm, Gd, Dy, Y, Ho, Er, and Yb), were prepared, and their properties as a Na+ ionic conductor were compared with those of the previously reported silicate glass analogues, (Na2O)35.7(RE2O3)7.2(SiO2)57.1. Density was increased with increasing the atomic weight of rare earth element. Crystallization temperature for the (Na2O)35.7(Sm2O3)7.2(GeO2)57.1 glass was about 600 deg. C, which was about 150 deg. C lower than that of the corresponding (Na2O)35.7(Sm2O3)7.2(SiO2)57.1 glass. Conductivities of the Ge system glasses were little affected by the change in ionic radius of the rare earth. The conductivities of the (Na2O)35.7(Y2O3)7.2(GeO2)57.1 and (Na2O)35.7(Y2O3)7.2(SiO2)57.1 glasses were almost the same, though the covalent bond character between Na+ and oxide ions was found to be weakened in the Ge system from their 23Na NMR spectra

  3. My academic life with isotopes

    The present article outlines investigations and experience made by the author in carrying out a variety of studies on isotopes since 1939. First, he was interested in transuranic elements and his studies on artificial radioactive isotopes covered the detection of plutonium at Nagasaki, chemical separation of plutomium from atmosphere at Tokyo, spectral analysis of alpha rays from plutomium, application of 113mIn to emission spectral analysis as a tracer, chemical enrichment of 76As hot atom, and non-destructive analysis of the chemical state of 119Sn produced through EC disintegration in solid material. His studies on natural radioactivity include measurement of the radium content in rock and mineral samples collected in the Korean Peninsula, investigation on the formation process of minerals found around hot springs and determination of the age of rock and mineral samples. He started investigations on isotope enrichment around 1965. Studies in this field cover the application of cataphoretic processes to separation of 23Na and 22Na, enrichment of 7Li and other alkali metals, enrichment of 6Li by isotope exchange, derivation of an empirical equation (Saito-Kanno Equation) for mass effect in couter-current cataphoresis of molten halides, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Effect of lactobionic acid on the acidification, rheological properties and aroma release of dairy gels.

    Ribeiro, Jéssica C Bigaski; Granato, Daniel; Masson, Maria Lucia; Andriot, Isabelle; Mosca, Ana Carolina; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2016-09-15

    The food industry is investigating new technological applications of lactobionic acid (LBA). In the current work, the effect of lactobionic acid on the acidification of dairy gels (pH 5.5 and 6.2), rheological properties using a double compression test, sodium mobility using (23)Na NMR technique and aroma release using headspace GC-FID were studied. Our results showed that it is possible to use LBA as an alternative to glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) for the production of dairy gels with a controlled pH value. Small differences in the rheological properties and in the amount of aroma volatile organic compounds that were released in the vapour phase, but no significant difference in the sodium ion mobility were obtained. The gels produced with LBA were less firm and released less volatile aroma compounds than the gels produced with GDL. The gels at pH 6.2 were firmer than those at pH 5.5 and had a more organised structure around the sodium ions. PMID:27080885

  5. A multinuclear static NMR study of geopolymerisation

    Geopolymers are inorganic binders obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicates. While the structure of geopolymers is now well understood, the details of the geopolymerisation reaction and their impact on the rheology of the paste remain uncertain. In this work, we follow the elastic properties of a paste made with metakaolin and sodium silicate solution. After the first sharp increase of elastic modulus occurring a few hundred of seconds after mixing and related to the heterogeneous formation of an alumina–silicate gel with a molar ratio Si/Al < 4 located at the grains boundaries, we focus on the progressive increase in elastic modulus on a period of few hours during the setting of the geopolymer. In this study, we combine the study of rheological properties of the paste with 23Na, 27Al and 29Si static NMR measurement in order to better understand the origin of this second increase in elastic modulus. Our results show that, after a few hours, Al and Na evolution in the liquid phase are concomitant. This suggests the precipitation of an aluminosilicate phase where Al is in tetrahedral position and Na compensates the charge. Furthermore, Si speciation confirms this result and allows us to identify the precipitation of a product, which has a chemical composition close to the final composition of geopolymer. This study provides strong evidence for a heterogeneous formation of an aluminosilicate glass directly from the first gel and the silicate solution without the need for a reorganisation of Gel 1 into Gel 2

  6. Superheavy research at RIKEN

    Morita, Kosuke [Superheavy Element Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN Hirosawa 2-1, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    At RIKEN, Japan, we performed experiments to study the productions and decays of the heaviest elements produced by {sup 208}Pb- and {sup 209}Bi- based 'cold fusion' reactions. A gas-filled recoil separator GARIS was used for the study. In the study of {sup 209}Bi({sup 70}Zn, n) reaction, we observed two decay chains originating from an isotope of the 113th element, {sup 178}113, which were assigned firstly by generic correlation of the alpha decay chains connected into the previously known decay of {sup 266}Bh and {sup 262}Db via previously unknown alpha decays of {sup 278}113, {sup 274}Rg, and {sup 270}Mt. In addition, decay properties of an isotope {sup 266}Bh and its daughter nucleus {sup 262}Db produced by the {sup 248}Cm({sup 23}Na, 5n) reaction were studied. {sup 266}Bh was clearly identified from the correlation of the known nuclide, {sup 262}Db, providing further confirmation of the discovery of {sup 278}113.

  7. Form factors for dark matter capture by the Sun in effective theories

    In the effective theory of isoscalar and isovector dark matter-nucleon interactions mediated by a heavy spin-1 or spin-0 particle, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions can be generated in the dark matter scattering by nuclei. We compute the 8 nuclear response functions for the 16 most abundant elements in the Sun, i.e. H, 3He, 4He, 12C, 14N, 16O, 20Ne, 23Na, 24Mg, 27Al, 28Si, 32S, 40Ar, 40Ca, 56Fe, and 59Ni, through numerical shell model calculations. We use our response functions to compute the rate of dark matter capture by the Sun for all isoscalar and isovector dark matter-nucleon effective interactions, including several operators previously considered for dark matter direct detection only. We study in detail the dependence of the capture rate on specific dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, and on the different elements in the Sun. We find that a so far neglected momentum dependent dark matter coupling to the nuclear vector charge gives a larger contribution to the capture rate than the constant spin-dependent interaction commonly included in dark matter searches at neutrino telescopes. Our investigation lays the foundations for model independent analyses of dark matter induced neutrino signals from the Sun. The nuclear response functions obtained in this study are listed in analytic form in an appendix, ready to be used in other projects

  8. Recent experiments with ring Bose-Einstein condensates

    Eckel, S.; Kumar, A.; Anderson, N. W.; Campbell, G. K.

    2016-05-01

    Here, we present three recent results of our experiments with ring-shaped 23 Na Bose-Einstein condensates. First, we present results of the effect of temperature on the decay of persistent currents in the presence of a local, stationary perturbation, or weak link. When the weak link rotates, it can drive transitions between quantized persistent current states in the ring, that form hysteresis loops whose size depends strongly on temperature. We find that our data does not fit with a simple model of thermal activation. Second, we present a new method to measure the quantized persistent current state of the ring in a minimally-destructive way. This technique uses phonons as probes of the background flow through the Doppler effect. Finally, we present a set of experiments designed to reproduce the horizon problem in the early universe. Supersonic expansion of the ring creates causally-disconnected regions of BEC whose phase evolves at different rates. When the expansion stops and these regions are allowed to recombine, they form topological excitations. These excitations can be predicted using a simple theory that shows excellent agreement with the data.

  9. Anomalous dimers in quantum mixtures near broad resonances: Pauli blocking, Fermi surface dynamics, and implications

    We study the energetics and dispersion of anomalous dimers that are induced by the Pauli blocking effect in a quantum Fermi gas of majority atoms near interspecies resonances. Unlike in vacuum, we find that both the sign and magnitude of the dimer masses are tunable via Feshbach resonances. We also investigate the effects of particle-hole fluctuations on the dispersion of dimers and demonstrate that the particle-hole fluctuations near a Fermi surface (with Fermi momentum (ℎ/2π)kF) generally reduce the effective two-body interactions and the binding energy of dimers. Furthermore, in the limit of light minority atoms the particle-hole fluctuations disfavor the formation of dimers with a total momentum (ℎ/2π)kF, because near (ℎ/2π)kF the modes where the dominating particle-hole fluctuations appear are the softest. Our calculation suggests that near broad interspecies resonances when the minority-majority mass ratio mB/mF is smaller than a critical value (estimated to be 0.136), dimers in a finite-momentum channel are energetically favored over dimers in the zero-momentum channel. We apply our theory to quantum gases of 6Li40K, 6Li87Rb, 40K87Rb, and 6Li23Na near broad interspecies resonances, and discuss the limitations of our calculations and implications.

  10. The Reduction of the Electron Abundance during the Pre-explosion Simmering in White Dwarf Supernovae

    Chamulak, David A; Timmes, F X; Dupczak, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Prior to the explosion of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf in a Type Ia supernova there is a long "simmering," during which the 12C+12C reaction gradually heats the white dwarf on a long (~ 10^3 yr) timescale. Protons liberated by the 12C+12C->23Na+p branch capture onto 12C to make beta-unstable 13N, which in turn electron captures. Piro & Bildsten showed that, as a result of this electron capture, there is a maximum electron abundance Ye at the time of the explosion. We investigate the nuclear reactions during this simmering with a series of self-heating, at constant pressure, reaction network calculations. Unlike in AGB stars, p captures onto 22Ne and heavier trace nuclei do not play a significant role; at high concentrations of 22Ne (appropriate for progenitors with three times solar O/H), proton captures onto 22Ne reduce the production of 13N by < 10%. The reaction 13C(alpha,n)16O is a strong neutron source, but the 12C abundance is sufficiently high that the neutrons preferentially capture onto 12C, ra...

  11. Local structure of alkalis in mixed-alkali borate glass to elucidate the origin of mixed-alkali effect

    Yomei Tokuda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium borate crystals and glasses using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. The composition dependence of NMR spectra of the borate was similar to that of the silicate: (1 the peak position of cesium borate crystals shifted to upfield for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers, (2 the MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-3B2O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, x + y = 1 glass showed that the average coordination number (CN of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. However, the degree of decrement in borates is much smaller than that in silicates. We have considered that the small difference in CN is due to 4-coordinated B, because it is electrically compensated by the alkali metal ions resulting in the restriction of having various coordinations of O to alkali metal.

  12. Dlaczego edukacja domowa? Aksjologiczne uzasadnienia edukacji bez szkoły/ Why Home-Schooling? Axiological Justifications for an Education Outside of the School System

    ANNA MARIA KUCHARSKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Od lat 90. XX wieku Polacy na nowo odkrywają edukację domową. Kształcenie i wychowanie w rodzinie nie jest nową koncepcją – poprzedzało rozwój instytucjonalnie zorganizowanej edukacji, silnie związane było z klasą społeczną i jej potrzebami. Obecnie, choć raczej w nieuświadomiony sposób, część rodziców powraca do podobnego sposobu nauczania w środowisku rodzinnym, odchodząc jednocześnie od nauczania szkolnego ze wszystkimi jego wadami. Wzorce edukacji domowej to jednak częściej bardziej współczesne modele anglosaskie, gdzie taka forma uczenia formalnego ma wielu zwolenników. Idea edukacji domowej, jak również jej praktyczne formy realizacji są intensywnie wspierane przez sieć szkół chrześcijańskich współpracujących ze Stowarzyszeniem Edukacyjnym Integracja. Początkowo może wydawać się to paradoksem – szkoła,w dodatku niepubliczna, wspierająca nauczanie poza szkołą. Poparcie nauczania domowego spójne jest z rozumieniem dominującej roli rodziny w wychowaniu i kształceniu w szkołach chrześcijańskich. Przede wszystkim podkreślany jest pokoleniowy przekaz wartości chrześcijańskich oraz ukształtowanie na wczesnym etapie życia moralnści opartej na tych wartościach. Szkoy te realizują podobną wizję wychowania i stawiają na spójność oddziaływań wychowawczych ze środowiskiem rodzinnym i kościelnym, jednak uznają rodziców za najwyższy autorytet w dziedzinie wychowania i edukacji dzieci. Zgodnie z polskimi rozwiązaniami prawnymi, dyrektor szkoły musi wyrazić zgodę na prowadzenie tego rodzaju edukacji przez konkretnych rodziców, tym samym instytucje otwarte na taką współpracę, a wręcz do nich zachęcające, są dla rodziców ogromną pomocą. W swoim artykule chciałabym wspomnieć też o kontrowersjach wokół edukacjidomowej, zwią zanych z rozwojem społecznym dziecka, socjalizacją oraz hermetycznością środowiska wychowawczego, jednak przede wszystkim interesuje

  13. Деантропонимные топонимы белорусско-польского пограничья

    Юлия [IUliia] Гурская [Hurskaia

    2014-12-01

    ów wywodzi się od obcojęzycznych imion chrześcijańskich. Trzecia grupa obejmuje nazwy osad, pochodzące od złożonych nazw indoeuropejskich. Na grupę czwartą składają się hybrydy nazw bałto-słowiańskich, zrekonstruowane od podstaw słowiańsko-bałtyckich, odpowiadające stosunkom etnicznym i historii osadnictwa na badanym obszarze. Nazwy bałtyckie na badanym terytorium, w formie substytucji fonetycznej i morfologicznej, dowodzą bliskich bałto-słowiańskich kontaktów językowych i kulturalnych. Liczne ojkonimy pochodzenia bałtyckiego zachowały się na badanym terytorium jako element występujący we współczesnych nazwiskach białoruskich.

  14. 秦岭火地塘林区3种森林类型乔木层碳密度和碳储量研究%Carbon Storage and Density of Tree Layer of Three Types of Forest at Huoditang Forest Region in the Qinling Mountains

    任毅华; 蔡靖; 袁杰; 张硕新

    2012-01-01

    以秦岭火地塘林区锐齿栎(Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata)、华山松(Pinus armandi)和油松(Pinus tabulae formis)3种主要森林类型为研究对象,通过标准地调查和生物量回归模型计算其碳储量,并在此基础上估算了碳密度以及不同器官的碳储量.结果表明:不同森林类型碳密度具有显著差异,其中锐齿栎最高(118.724 t/hm2),油松次之(106.062 t/hm2),华山松最低(94.227t/hm2);3种森林类型的碳储量均随着林分径级的增大呈现出上升、下降和再上升的趋势,而大径级碳储量的上升主要取决于大径级单株林木的出现,具有明显的随机性;碳储量在不同树种各器官的分布表现为:干>枝>根>皮>叶(锐齿栎),干>枝>根>叶>皮(华山松),干>枝>叶>根>皮(油松),且不同树种同一器官及同一树种不同器官之间的碳储量所占比重差异显著.%The carbon storage of sharptooth oak(Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) forest,armand pine(Pinus armandi) forest and Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) forest was studied via plots investigation and regression models of biomass of the forests at Huoditang forest region in the Qinling Mountains, the carbon density and storage of different organs of the forests were also estimated. The results showed that there were significant differences among the carbon density of the three forests, sharptooth oak forest had the highest carbon density(118. 724 t/ha), follow by Chinese pine forest (106. 062 t/ha) , armand pine forest had the lowest carbon density (94. 026 t/ha). With the increase of diameter class of the stands,the carbon storage of the three forests increased first, and then decreased and finally increased again. The increased carbon storage of high diameter class depended on high diameter class trees at random. The order of carbon storage in different organs for sharptooth oak was stem-wood>branches>roots>bark> leaves. For armand pine, the order was stem

  15. Gardening the City: Neighbourliness and Appropriation of the Common Spaces in Bulgaria

    Meglena Ivanova Zlatkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gardening the City: Neighbourliness and Appropriation of the Common Spaces in BulgariaThe paper discusses the forms of public-private space division in a postcosialist Bulgarian city as everyday practices of inhabiting and appropriation of the common spaces in one neighborhood of Plovdiv. The anthropological research of the urban spaces includes a long term observation of the everyday practices in the city of socialism, the city in transition and the changed cities nowadays, following the line of the changing boundaries, distinction and expression of the public and private, common and individual.The cases of particular interest in my research are the forms of transgression of the physical borders and social boundaries as well as establishing new ones, according to the changing identities, social hierarchies, power relations, forms of social solidarity and networking and investment in social capital. The paper presents cases of blurring borders and boundaries as urban discourses – of the socialist city, the city in transition and the other – the city after 2007 when Bulgaria joined the EU. These cases are studied on the base of the everyday practices of urban gardening in common spaces – around block of flats, on the windowed balconies and small gardens (vegetable plots in the town outskirts. Uprawianie miasta: sąsiedzkość i zawłaszczanie przestrzeni wspólnej w BułgariiArtykuł omawia formy publiczno-prywatnego podziału przestrzeni w postsocjalistycznym mieście bułgarskim jako codzienne praktyki zamieszkiwania i zawłaszczania przestrzeni wspólnej na jednym z osiedli w Płowdiw. Antropologiczne badanie przestrzeni miejskiej koncentruje się na długookresowej obserwacji codziennych praktyk w mieście socjalistycznym, następnie przechodzącym okres transformacji, a wreszcie w mieście współczesnym, idąc za zmieniającą się linią granic, rozróżnieniem i wyrażaniem się publicznego i prywatnego, wspólnego i

  16. Akcentuacja zapożyczonych leksemów czasownikowych w gwarze staroobrzędowców mieszkających w regionie suwalsko-augustowskim

    Dorota Angelika Paśko-Koneczniak

    2015-12-01

    . Rodzimy zasób leksykalny badanej gwary staroobrzędowców zachowuje rosyjski system akcentuacyjny. Podobnie rzecz się ma z systemem akcentuacyjnym w leksemach zapożyczonych z języka polskiego, które podlegają adaptacji akcentuacyjnej, czyli następuje w nich przesunięcie miejsca akcentu w stosunku do języka dawcy. W zapożyczonych leksemach czasownikowych mamy do czynienia ze zmiennością akcentu uzależnioną od formy morfologicznej, niekiedy również z akcentem paroksytonicznym, wynikającym z wpływu języka polskiego.

  17. „Przeszłości ślad dłoń nasza zmiata”. Refleksje na marginesie wybranych tekstów literackich z obszaru słowiańskich krajów demokracji ludowych

    Celina Juda

    2014-11-01

    bezwzględne przeniesienie z „wzorca” maksy­malnej liczby czynników sankcjonujących akty dezawuowania przeszłości, a legitymizujących podległość wybranemu/idealnemu systemowi (wyparcie, dyskredytowanie starego porządku świata, nowe gatunki, formy, sposoby tłumaczenia przeszłości skutkujące zrealizowaniem idei „świetlanej przyszłości”.

  18. «Too many Gatsbys in the fire»: un’occasione mancata?

    Roberto Serrai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Da quando lo scadere del settantesimo anno dalla morte di Francis Scott Fitzgerald ha permesso di sfruttare commercialmente – e legalmente – le sue opere senza dover pagare i diritti d’autore, editori piccoli e grandi hanno invaso le librerie con nuove traduzioni dei suoi lavori più importanti. Nuove? Non sempre. Negli oltre sessant’anni che sono trascorsi dall’ultima versione italiana del Grande Gatsby (Fernanda Pivano per Mondadori, 1950, per esempio, il mondo ha «recuperato» il testo corretto dell’opera, grazie al lavoro di Matthew J. Broccoli; alcuni giovani studiosi – tra tutti, Keith Gandal del City College of New York – hanno guardato al romanzo con occhi nuovi e solida scholarship per offrirne punti di vista in parte inediti e, soprattutto, non viziati da pregiudizio; la teoria e la pratica della traduzione, infine, si sono evolute e il primato della traduzione scorrevole, accettabile e appropriante viene ormai sempre più eroso (almeno nei casi più virtuosi da traduzioni adeguate al testo e alla sua specificità culturale. Le nuove traduzioni tengono conto di tutto questo o sono solo operazioni commerciali? Questo contributo vorrebbe essere da stimolo alla nascita di una nuova tradizione nella ricezione di questo testo, che non risponda esclusivamente a logiche mercantili e narcisismi da catalogo, ma che come accadde per la versione di Fernanda Pivano formi nuove generazioni di lettori, entusiasti ma – soprattutto – consapevoli e informati. Since the coming of the seventieth year after Francis Scott Fitzgerald’s death allowed to commercially – and legally – take advantage of his works without having to pay royalties, publishers big and small flooded bookstores with new translations of his novels. New? Not always. In the more than sixty years since the last Italian version of The Great Gatsby (Fernanda Pivano, Mondadori, 1950 the world gained access to the correct text of the novel, thanks to the efforts of

  19. A Cylindrical Shielding Design Concept for the Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    In the Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR), a metal fueled, blanket-free, pool type SFR concept is adopted to acquire the inherent safety characteristics and high proliferation-resistance. In the pool type fast reactor, the intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs), which transfer heat from the primary sodium pool to a secondary sodium loop, are placed inside of the reactor vessel. Hence, secondary sodium passing the IHXs can be radioactivated by a 23Na(n,g)24Na reaction, and radioactivated secondary sodium causes a significant dose in the Steam Generator Building (SGB). Therefore, a typical core of a pool type fast reactor is usually surrounded by a massive quantity of shields. In addition, the blanket composed of depleted uranium plays a role as superior shielding material; a significant increase in shields is required in the blanket-free pool type SFR. In this paper, a new cylindrical shielding design concept is proposed for a blanket-free pool type SFR. In a conventional shielding design, massive axial shields are required to prevent irradiation of secondary sodium passing IHXs and they should be replaced according to the subassembly replacement in spite of negligible depletion of the shielding material. The proposed shielding design concept minimizes the quantity of shields without their replacement. In this paper, a new cylindrical shielding design concept is proposed for a blanket-free pool type SFR such as a PGSFR. The proposed design concept satisfied the dose limit in the steam generator building successfully without introducing a large quantity of B4C shielding inside the subassembly

  20. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of P-doped Na 4Si 4

    Wang, Jialing; Sen, Sabyasachi; Yu, Ping; Browning, Nigel D.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2010-11-01

    Na 4Si 4 is a Zintl salt composed of Na + cations and Si44- tetrahedral anions and is a unique solid-state precursor to clathrate structures and nanomaterials. In order to provide opportunities for the synthesis of complex materials, phosphorus was explored as a possible substituent for silicon. Phosphorus doped sodium silicides Na 4Si 4- xP x ( x≤0.04) were prepared by reaction of Na with the mechanically alloyed Si 4- x:P x ( x=0.04, 0.08, 0.12) mixture in a sealed Nb tube at 650 °C for 3 days. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirms the presence of P in all products. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns are consistent with the retention of the Na 4Si 4 crystal structure. As the amount of P increases, a new peak in the diffraction pattern that can be assigned to black phosphorus is apparent above the background. Raman and solid-state NMR provide information on phosphorus substitution in the Na 4Si 4 structure. Raman spectroscopy shows a shift of the most intense band assigned to the Si44- ν 1 (A 1) mode from 486.4 to 484.0 cm -1 with increasing P, consistent with P replacement of Si. Differential nuclear spin-lattice relaxation for the Si sites determined via 29Si solid-state NMR provides direct evidence for Si-P bonding in the (Si 1- xP x) 4- tetrahedron. The 23Na NMR shows additional Na…P interactions and the 31P NMR shows two P sites, consistent with P presence in both of the crystallographic sites in the (Si 4) 4- tetrahedron.