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Sample records for 231pa ionizatsionnykh kamer

  1. Prospection for natural 231Pa in India

    Protactinium-231 (231Pa) occurs in nature as a member of the decay chain of naturally occuring 235U of the 4n+ 3 radioactive series. The expected protactinium concentration in the Jaduguda ore body (with uranium concentration of 0.03-0.06 %) is around 0.2 parts per billion (ppb) and that in monazite ore (uranium concentration 0.3%) is 0.9 ppb. The process at uranium ore processing plant at Jaduguda was studied. 231Pa content in samples from the process streams of the plant was determined. The gamma ray spectrometry method was chosen and standardised in our laboratory to detect and measure 231Pa in parts per billion levels in these samples. A concentrated source of protactinium could not be found among the assessed streams of Jaduguda uranium plant. The Monazite processing plant at IRE, Aluva was then studied. From the known chemistry of protactinium, the possible distribution of the 231Pa was guessed at. Accordingly, the process streams of IRE process plant were selected to prospect for 231Pa and determine the fractionation of protactinium. For analysis of 231Pa, the thorium bearing samples were chemically treated to remove the thorium daughter products, which interfere in gamma spectrometry. This report describes the planning for prospecting, sample selection, the standardisation of the analysis procedure for determination of 231Pa content, and the analysis results. The 231Pa content in various streams of Indian Rare Earths plant was found in the range 0.2 -6.5 ppb. Some of the streams did not carry any protactinium. The fractionation of 231Pa in the various streams of the plant and the selection of source for recovery of protactinium are discussed in detail. (author)

  2. In-beam spectroscopy of 231Pa

    Information on energy levels and on E2 and M1 matrix elements in 231Pa has been obtained using conversion-electron and gamma-ray spectroscopy following the 232Th(p, 2p)231Pa reaction and Coulomb excitation of the radioactive target 231Pa by 4He and 32S ions. The results are analyzed in the framework of the rotational model, applied to the rotational band built on the 1/2-[530] Nilsson state whose 3/2- member forms the ground state of this nucleus. The deviations of the level energies from the rigidrotor values can be described by Coriolis couplings. The analysis of the Coulomb-excitation process shows that a constant set of rotational parameters Q0, gR, gK, and b can fairly well account for the measured line intensities. (orig.)

  3. 231Pa systematics in postglacial volcanic rocks from Iceland

    Turner, Simon; Kokfelt, Thomas; Hoernle, Kaj; Lundstrom, Craig; Hauff, Folkmar

    2016-07-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of combined 238U-230Th and 235U-231Pa systematics to constrain upwelling rates and the role of recycled mafic lithologies in mantle plume-derived basalts. Accordingly, we present measurements of the 231Pa concentrations from 26 mafic volcanic rocks from Iceland, including off-axis basalts from the Snaefellsnes Peninsula, to complement previously published 238U-230Th-226Ra data. 231Pa concentrations vary from 27 to 624 fg/g and (231Pa/235U) ratios from 1.12 to 2.11 with the exception of one anomalous sample from the Southeast Rift which has a 231Pa deficit with (231Pa/235U) = 0.86. An important new result is that basalts from the Southeast Rift and the Snaefellsnes Peninsula define a trend at relatively low (231Pa/235U) for a given (230Th/238U) ratio. Many of the remaining samples fall in or around the global field for ocean island basalts but those from the Mid-Iceland Belt and the Southwest Rift/Reykjanes Peninsula extend to higher (231Pa/235U) ratios at a given (230Th/238U), similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts. In principle, these lavas could result from melting of peridotite at lower pressures. However, there is no reason to suspect that the Mid-Iceland Belt and the Southwest Rift lavas reflect shallower melting than elsewhere in Iceland. In our preferred model, these lavas reflect melting of garnet peridotite whereas those from the Southeast Rift and the Snaefellsnes Peninsula contain a significant contribution (up to 20%) of melt from garnet pyroxenite. This is consistent with incompatible trace element and radiogenic isotope evidence for recycled oceanic crust in these lavas. There is increasing agreement that the displacement of ocean island basalts to lower (231Pa/235U) ratios at a given (230Th/238U), compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts, reflects the role of recycled mafic lithologies such as garnet pyroxenite as well as higher average pressures of melting. It now seems likely that this interpretation may

  4. Neutron-induced fission cross-section of 231 Pa

    Beside the importance of 231 Pa for basic fission studies it is also of interest in the field of future reactor design based on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The 232 Th/233 U breeder cycle, where the natural resources of the main fuel thorium are estimated to last for hundred thousands of years, is contemplated to provide 'clean' and almost inexhaustible nuclear energy. Among the first priority isotopes the IAEA had pointed out 231 Pa and 233 Pa. Both are of special interest being intermediate nuclei in the formation of the fissile 233 U from the fertile 232 Th. The latter has been investigated in the recent past in great detail. In particular, 231 Pa carry a similar risk as 239 Pu does in the standard uranium-plutonium cycle due to its comparable half-life and radio-toxicity. Despite the wealth of existing experimental data important discrepancies exist, a scenario, which holds for the existing evaluated data files ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3.3, too. Presently, the neutron-induced fission cross-section of 231 Pa is under investigation at the VdG neutron source at IRMM for incident neutron energies up to 20 MeV. The obtained cross-sections, representing the 3rd and higher chance fission in 233 Pa(n,f) will serve as precise input for the validation of the reaction cross-section calculations performed on 233 Pa up to 20 MeV and the envisaged extension up to 50 MeV. (authors)

  5. 231Pa and 233Pa neutron-induced fission up to 20 MeV

    Consistency of neutron-induced fission cross section data of 231Pa and 233Pa and data extracted from transfer reactions is investigated. Present estimate of 233Pa(n,f) fission cross section is supported by smooth level density parameter systematic, validated in case of 231Pa(n,f) data description up to En=20 MeV. The fission probabilities of Pa, fissioning in 231,233Pa(n,nf) reactions, are defined by fitting (3He,d) or (3He,t) transfer reaction data

  6. Removal of 230Th and 231Pa from the open ocean

    Concentrations of 230Th and 231Pa were measured in particulate matter collected by sediment traps deployed in the Sargasso Sea (Site S2), the north equatorial Atlantic (site E), and the north equatorial Pacific (Site P) as well as in particles collected by in situ filtration at Site E. Concentrations of dissolved Th and Pa were determined by extraction onto manganese dioxide adsorbers at Site P and at a second site in the Sargasso Sea (site D). Dissolved 230Th/231Pa activity ratios were 3-6 at Sites P and D. In contrast, for all sediment trap samples from greater than 2000 m, unsupported 230Th/231Pa ratios were 22-35 (average 29.7). Ratios were lower in particulate matter sampled at shallower depths. Particles filtered at 3600 m and 5000 m at Site E had ratios of 50 and 40. Results show that suspended particulate matter in the open ocean preferentially scavenges Th relative to Pa. Most of the 230Th produced by decay of 234U in the open ocean is removed by adsorption to settling particulate matter. In contrast, less than 50% of the 231Pa produced by decay of 235U is removed from the water column by this mechanism. Mixing processes transport the remainder to other sinks. (orig.)

  7. 231Pa and 233Pa Neutron-Induced Fission Data Analysis

    The 231Pa and 233Pa neutron-induced fission cross-section database is analyzed within the Hauser-Feshbach approach. The consistency of neutron-induced fission cross-section data and data extracted from transfer reactions is investigated. The fission probabilities of Pa, fissioning in 231,233Pa(n,nf) reactions, are defined by fitting (3He,d) or (3He,t) transfer-reaction data. The present estimate of the 233Pa(n,f) fission cross section above the emissive fission threshold is supported by smooth level-density parameter systematics, validated in the case of the 231Pa(n,f) data description up to En =20 MeV

  8. Some spectroscopic properties of fine structures observed near the 231Pa(n,f) fission threshold

    The 231Pa neutron-induced fission cross section from 140 to 400 keV was resolved into finer structures. For some of the fractionated vibrational resonances in this energy region, the assignment of spectroscopic parameters may support evidence for an asymmetrically deformed third minimum in the 232Pa fission barrier. Also, for the first time, narrow fission resonances are observed above 1.3 eV exhibiting an average fission width /sub obs/ = 8meV

  9. Irradiation studies of 231Pa in DHRUVA reactor for preparation of 232U

    In this paper, identification of the potential source of 231Pa, various stages of its recovery and the sample of 231Pa supplied for trial irradiation are described. For producing 232U, irradiation work is proposed in different stages of irradiation. Various trial irradiations and its results are discussed in this paper along with their specific objectives. A computational estimation of conversion efficiency of 231Pa (∼ 10μg) to 232U in DHRUVA reactor, was carried out. The computational result predicted the conversion efficiency and the results of γ-spectroscopy based analysis of the second trial sample matched well. A first level calculation was also carried out to estimate the tolerable quantity of 232Th to keep the concentration of 233U below 5% in the 232U sample. The radioactivity due to the presence of various impurities present in the sample, during the high fluence irradiation, is being estimated. The feasibility of production of the 232U isotope in DHRUVA reactor has thus been established. (author)

  10. Uranium age determination: Separation and analysis of 230Th and 231Pa

    In this work we focused on the age determination of uranium materials of different uranium enrichment. The radioactive decay of the uranium isotopes provides a chronometer that is inherent to the material, in particular the mother/daughter pairs 234U/230Th and 235U/231Pa can be advantageously used. Due to the relatively long half-lives of 234U (2.46 · 105 years) and 235U (7.04 · 108 years) only minute amounts of daughter nuclides are growing in, therefore both separation of Th and Pa from uranium must be of high chemical recovery and must afford large decontamination factors. Analytical methods for the age determination of uranium samples using the parent/daughter relations 234U/230Th and 235U/231Pa is demonstrated. Thorium is separated from bulk uranium using extraction chromatography and subsequently quantified using square-spectrometry, thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) and inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Protactinium is separated by highly selective sorption of protactinium to silica gel followed by square-spectrometric quantification. The methods were tested and validated using uranium reference materials of different uranium enrichment and of known ages. The experimental results obtained with both methods were found to agree with the assumed ages of the reference materials within the combined uncertainty of the measurement. The analysis exploiting the parent/daughter pair 235U/231Pa exhibits a slightly larger combined uncertainty and bias than the thorium method but is found valuable in validating the experimental results by means of a second, independent analysis

  11. The rotational bands in the nuclei 229Pa and 231Pa

    Experimental evidence is presented for the similarity between the rotational spectra built on the 1/2-[530] state in 231Pa, where the 3/2- member of the band forms the ground state, and in 229Pa, where this state lies within 20 keV of the ground state. Our findings are in contrast with earlier work invoking octupole deformations in the ground state to account for the different positions of low-lying Nilsson states in the two isotopes. (author)

  12. Testing the 231Pa/230Th paleo-circulation proxy: A data versus 2D model comparison

    Variations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are believed to have crucially influenced Earth's climate due to its key role in the inter-hemispheric redistribution of heat and carbon. To assess its past strength, the sedimentary 231Pa/230Th proxy has been developed and improved but also contested due to its sensitivity to other factors beyond ocean circulation. In order to provide a better basis for the understanding of the Atlantic 231Pa/230Th system, and therefore to shed light on the controversy, we compare new measurements of Holocene sediments from the north Brazilian margin to water column data and the output of a two-dimensional scavenging-circulation model, based on modern circulation patterns and reversible scavenging parameters. We show that sedimentary 231Pa/230Th data from one specific area of the Atlantic are in very good agreement with model results suggesting that sedimentary 231Pa/230Th is predominantly driven by the AMOC. Therefore, 231Pa/230Th represents an appropriate method to reconstruct past AMOC at least qualitatively along the western margin. (authors)

  13. Uranium age determination - Separation and analysis of 230Th and 231Pa

    Full text: In recent years several incidents involving illicit trafficking and smuggling of nuclear material, radioactive sources and radioactively contaminated materials have raised growing public concern about criminal acts involving nuclear materials. Consequently, research efforts in nuclear forensic science have been intensified in order to develop and improve methods for the identification of the nature and origin of seized materials. Information obtained from the analysis of unknown nuclear materials is of key importance in order to aide authorities that are in charge of developing fast and appropriate response action. For the identification of nuclear materials various sample characteristics are of relevance, including isotopic composition, the content of chemical impurities, material properties and the date of production. Information on the production date, respectively the 'age' of nuclear materials, will also be of key importance in other fields of nuclear science, i.e. for the verification of a Fissile Materials Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT) in order to distinguish freshly produced materials from 'old' excess weapons materials. The age of nuclear materials may also be of relevance under a strengthened safeguards regime to reveal clandestine production of weapons usable materials, i.e. the separation of plutonium or production of highly enriched uranium (HEU). The age dating of plutonium samples has been described in detail for bulk samples as well as for particles. In this work we focused on the age determination of uranium materials of different uranium enrichment. The radioactive decay of the uranium isotopes provides a chronometer that is inherent to the material, in particular the mother/daughter pairs 234U/230Th and 235U/231Pa can be advantageously used. Due to the relatively long half-lives of 234U (2.46·105 years) and 235U (7.04·108 years) only minute amounts of daughter nuclides are growing in, therefore both separation of Th and Pa from uranium must

  14. Exposure to radioactive aerosols in mining and milling operations: the importance of 227Ac and 231Pa

    'Full-Text:' 227Ac (half-life of 21.8 y) is the daughter or 231Pa; a beta emitter and parent of a subseries with five short-lived alpha-emitters. 231Pa (half-life of 3.27x104 y) is an alpha-emitter of the actinium series, the decay chain of 235U. As daughters of this uranium isotope they are thought to be unimportant as a radiological hazard, despite the fact that their ALI values for ingestion and inhalation are the lowest of any other radionuclide. Both nuclides can be considered as being in secular equilibrium with uranium in most geological media and so the mass concentration of 231Pa is the same of the 226Ra and that of 227Ac is the same of the 210Pa, to mention only two radionuclides of radiological concern. It is shown in this paper that if 231Pa and 227Ac are considered in the evaluations of dose commitments incurred by inhalation of aerosols in mining and milling operations, the results can be 70% higher than those calculated by the methodology of ICRP Publication 47. (author)

  15. Study of (n,p) and (n,α) cross-sections for 232Th, 231Pa, 233U isotopes

    The study of neutron induced reaction cross-sections in the charged particle emission in this energy region will help us to understand the energy dependence of activation cross-sections in detail, thereby providing a complete database that will lead to better understanding of mechanisms of the nuclear reactions. The present study describes nuclear model calculations of (n,p) and (n,α) reaction cross-sections for 232Th, 231Pa and 233U isotopes

  16. Sediment 231Pa/230Th as a recorder of the rate of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: insights from a 2-D model

    S. E. Allen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A two dimensional scavenging-circulation model is used to investigate the patterns of sediment 231Pa/230Th generated by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC and further advance the application of this proxy for ocean paleocirculation studies. The scavenging parameters and the geometry of the overturning circulation cell have been chosen so that the model generates meridional sections of dissolved 230Th and 231Pa consistent with published water column profiles and an additional 12 previously unpublished profiles measured in the North and Equatorial Atlantic. The processes that generate the meridional sections of dissolved and particulate 230Th, dissolved and particulate 231Pa, dissolved and particulate 231Pa/230Th, and sediment 231Pa/230Th are discussed in detail. The results indicate that the relationship between sediment 231Pa/230Th at any given site and the overturning circulation is very complex. They clearly show that constraining past changes in the strength and geometry of the AMOC requires an extensive data set and they suggest strategies to maximize information from a limited number of samples.

  17. Sediment 231Pa/230Th as a recorder of the rate of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: insights from a 2-D model

    S. E. Allen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two dimensional scavenging model is used to investigate the patterns of sediment 231Pa/230Th generated by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC and further advance the application of this proxy for ocean paleocirculation studies. The scavenging parameters and the geometry of the overturning circulation cell have been chosen so that the model generates meridional sections of dissolved 230Th and 231Pa consistent with published water column profiles and an additional 12 previously unpublished profiles measured in the North and Equatorial Atlantic. The processes that generate the meridional sections of dissolved and particulate 230Th, dissolved and particulate 231Pa, dissolved and particulate 231Pa/230Th, and sediment 231Pa/230Th are discussed in detail. The results indicate that the relationship between sediment 231Pa/230Th at any given site and the overturning circulation is very complex. They clearly show that constraining past changes in the strength and geometry of the AMOC requires an extensive data set and they suggest strategies to maximize information from a limited number of samples.

  18. High resolution measurement of the 231Pa(n,f) cross section from 0.4 eV to 12 MeV

    231Pa neutron induced fission is one of the reactions contributing to stop the generation of unwanted quantities of 232U produced along with 233U in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor using the 232Th/233U breeding cycle. 232U production is troublesome because of its short lifetime and because its decay chain yields to many α particles and γ rays including a 2.61 MeV penetrating γ radiation causing extra shielding problems. Since 231Pa is not listed in ENDF/B-IV and only scarce data of the 231Pa(n,f) cross section, sigmasub(f), are available from ENDF/B-V, a high resolution measurement of sigmasub(f) is mostly desirable to estimate properly the production rate of 232U. In addition to this reactor physics preoccupation, the opportunity was taken to study some fundamental aspects of the fission process, mainly to shed a light on the existence of a shallow third minimum in the fission barrier of 232Pa as calculated by Moeller and Nix

  19. Redundant 230Th/ 234U/ 238U, 231Pa/ 235U and 14C dating of fossil corals for accurate radiocarbon age calibration

    Chiu, Tzu-Chien; Fairbanks, Richard G.; Mortlock, Richard A.; Cao, Li; Fairbanks, Todd W.; Bloom, Arthur L.

    2006-09-01

    230Th/ 234U/ 238U dating of fossil corals by mass spectrometry is remarkably precise, but some samples exposed to freshwater over thousands of years may gain and/or lose uranium and/or thorium and consequently yield inaccurate ages. Although a δ 234U initial value equivalent to modern seawater and modern corals has been an effective quality control criterion, for samples exposed to freshwater but having δ 234U initial values indistinguishable from modern seawater and modern corals, there remains a need for additional age validation in the most demanding applications such as the 14C calibration (Fairbanks et al., 2005. Radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 0 to 50,000 years BP based on paired 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 14C dates on pristine corals. Quaternary Science Reviews 24(16-17), 1781-1796). In this paper we enhance screening criteria for fossil corals older than 30,000 years BP in the Fairbanks0805 radiocarbon calibration data set (Fairbanks et al., 2005) by measuring redundant 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U dates via multi-collector magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-MS-ICPMS) using techniques described in Mortlock et al. (2005. 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U ages from a single fossil coral fragment by multi-collector magnetic-sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69(3), 649-657.). In our present study, we regard paired 231Pa/ 235U and 230Th/ 234U/ 238U ages concordant when the 231Pa/ 235U age (±2 σ) overlaps with the associated 230Th/ 234U/ 238U age (±2 σ). Out of a representative set of 11 Fairbanks0805 (Fairbanks et al., 2005) radiocarbon calibration coral samples re-measured in this study, nine passed this rigorous check on the accuracy of their 230Th/ 234U/ 238U ages. The concordancy observed between 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U dates provides convincing evidence to support closed system behavior of these fossil corals and validation of their 230Th/ 234U/ 238U

  20. Webový portál pro přenos obrazu z IP kamer

    Čučka, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá metodami pro přenos obrazu z webových kamer, IP kamer, tvorbou živého přenosu z televizních kamer pomocí streamovacího serveru a následné umístění na web. První část se věnuje základním metodám přenosu obrazu z webové kamery. V další části jsou tyto informace rozšířeny a podrobně popsány. Také je zde uveden výběr programů pro přenos obrazu na web. Ve třetí části je popsáno využítí IP kamer pro živé přenosy i pro obyčejný přenos snímku. V poslední části je popsá...

  1. The nuclear structure of 229Pa from the 231Pa(p,t)229Pa and 230Th(p,2nγ)229Pa reactions

    The level structure of the 229Pa nucleus has been investigated by means of the 231Pa(p,t)229Pa and 230Th(p,2nγ)229Pa reactions. Triton angular-distribution measurements were subjected to a CCBA analysis and combined with the results of in-beam conversion electron and γ-ray spectroscopy to establish a level scheme. Two low-lying bands of opposite parity were observed up to spins (23/2)- and (17/2)+, respectively. Rotational bands built on some 0+ excitations of the even-even core can be assigned. The lowest states of three further low-lying bands are observed. The level scheme is interpreted in terms of an octupole-deformed core with an unpaired proton. From the E1/E2 branching ratio the electric dipole moment can be deduced vertical stroke D0vertical stroke =(0.09 ±0.04) e .fm. ((orig.))

  2. 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U ages from a single fossil coral fragment by multi-collector magnetic-sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Mortlock, Richard A.; Fairbanks, Richard G.; Chiu, Tzu-chien; Rubenstone, James

    2005-02-01

    The 230Th/ 234U/ 238U age dating of corals via alpha counting or mass spectrometry has significantly contributed to our understanding of sea level, radiocarbon calibration, rates of ocean and climate change, and timing of El Nino, among many applications. Age dating of corals by mass spectrometry is remarkably precise, but many samples exposed to freshwater yield inaccurate ages. The first indication of open-system 230Th/ 234U/ 238U ages is elevated 234U/ 238U initial values, very common in samples older than 100,000 yr. For samples younger than 100,000 yr that have 234U/ 238U initial values close to seawater, there is a need for age validation. Redundant 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U ages in a single fossil coral fragment are possible by Multi-Collector Magnetic Sector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-MS-ICPMS) and standard anion exchange column chemistry, modified to permit the separation of uranium, thorium, and protactinium isotopes from a single solution. A high-efficiency nebulizer employed for sample introduction permits the determination of both 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U ages in fragments as small as 500 mg. We have obtained excellent agreement between 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U ages in Barbados corals (30 ka) and suggest that the methods described in this paper can be used to test the 230Th/ 234U/ 238U age accuracy. Separate fractions of U, Th, and Pa are measured by employing a multi-dynamic procedure, whereby 238U is measured on a Faraday cup simultaneously with all minor isotopes measured with a Daly ion counting detector. The multi-dynamic procedure also permits correcting for both the Daly to Faraday gain and for mass discrimination during sample analyses. The analytical precision of 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 231Pa/ 235U dates is generally better than ±0.3% and ±1.5%, respectively (2 Relative Standard deviation [RSD]). Additional errors resulting from uncertainties in the decay constant for 231Pa and from undetermined

  3. Fusion hybrids for generation of advanced (231Pa+232U+233U+234U)-fuel in closed (U-Pu-Th)-fuel cycle

    Technology of controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF) is traditionally regarded as a practically inexhaustible energy source. However, development, mastering, broad deployment of fast breeder reactors and closure of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) can also extend fuel base of nuclear power industry (NPI) up to practically unlimited scales. Under these conditions, it seems reasonable to introduce into a circle of the CTF-related studies the works directed towards solving some principal problems which can appear in a large-scale NPI in closed NFC. The first challenge is a large scale of operations in NFC back-end that should be reduced by achieving substantially higher fuel burn-up in power nuclear reactors. The use of 231Pa-232Th-232U-233U fuel in light-water reactor (LWR) opens a possibility of principle to reach very high (about 30% HM) or even ultra-high fuel burn-up. The second challenge is a potential unauthorized proliferation of fissionable materials. As is known, a certain remarkable quantity of 232U being introduced into uranium fraction of nuclear fuel can produce a serious barrier against switching the fuel over to non-energy purposes. Involvement of hybrid thermonuclear reactors (HTR) into NPI structure can substantially facilitate resolving these problems. If HTR will be involved into NPI structure, then main HTR mission consists not in energy generation but in production of nuclear fuel with a certain isotope composition. The present paper analyzes some neutron-physical features in production of advanced nuclear fuels in thorium HTR blankets. The obtained results demonstrated that such a nuclear fuel may be characterized by very stable neutron-multiplying properties during full LWR operation cycle and by enhanced proliferation resistance too. The paper evaluates potential benefits from involvement of HTR with thorium blanket into the international closed NFC. (author)

  4. SİNANOĞLU’S MASNAVİ ABOUT MIRACLE OF ŞAKKU’L-KAMER

    Fatma BÜYÜKKARCI YILMAZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The miracle which is the only evidence that legitimize prophecy is a super-naturalistic / oracular event that its analogue cannot be actualized by another person. One of the miracles which bestowed on Mohammed during his prophecy is dichotomy of moon and its reunification with his sign that is called the miracle of Şakku’l-kamer, one of the most studied topic except the event of Miraj. In masnavis or qasidas belong to folk or classic literature, the Prophet’s miracle of the Şakku’l-kamer is one of the most frequent themes. Some of the works about prophet’s life and miracles are breef narratives which can be read in a few hours. These works were written in order to read in religious meetings. Some of them are anonymous, their language is very simple and they are not literary perfect. One of the most obvious formal features of these short masnavis, introduced into Turkish by the ways of translation, narration and adaptation, is their prosody of fâilâtün fâilâtün fâilün which can quite easily be adapted into Turkish. These short religious works which have been written since 14th century sub-served the process of strengthening and separation of Islamisation. Sinanoğlu wrote a mawlid named Ümîdü’l-müznibîn. He lived in 15th century as regards that mentioned work had been written in 884 (Hijri/1478 (Gregorian. Sinanoğlu’s poetical work about the miracle, Şakku’l-kamer is a little masnavi which is consisted of 272 couplets. Its prosody is fâilâtün fâilâtün fâilün which is frequently seen in this kind of works. If it is taken note of the reason of why work was written, after the parts of eulogy to God and Mohammed, Sinanoğlu maintains that one day, when he read this miracle, he liked that and would like to narrate this in Turkish in verse. After that, Sinanoğlu gives a clue about the function of the text that ordinary people’s faith becomes stronger when they learn Mohammed’s miracle. The story of the work

  5. Neutron-induced fission cross-section of 231Pa

    A first series of fission cross-section measurements for incident neutron energies between 0.6 and 3.4 MeV has confirmed a first chance threshold value around 1b. In contrast to our findings for the fission cross-section in 233Pa, both the direct and the surrogate cross-section data lead to the same result. This seems to support the assumption, that only in cases, where ingoing and outgoing particle are similar, particle-transfer reactions give results that are in agreement with those obtained from direct compound nuclear reactions

  6. Sorption of 231Pa on silica and the effect of humic acid

    Sorption of protactinium on silica colloids was studied in the pH range of 1 to 12 in NaClO4 medium using radiotracer technique. Silica was characterized using X-ray diffraction, light scattering and surface area measurements. The point of zero charge for silica colloids was about pH 2. The sorption of protactinium was about 98% in the pH range of 3 to 9 and was lower (70-80 %) below pH 3 and above pH 9. The quantitative sorption in the pH range 3 to 9 could be explained by surface complexation model. The reduction in sorption was attributed to electrostatic repulsion as the fraction of protactinium exists as cationic species at pH ≤ 2 and anionic species above pH 9. There was reduction in the sorption of protactinium in the presence of humic acid below pH 2 and above pH 10. Sorption of protactinium on silica in presence of 0.05M HF was about 99% between pH 3 to 8 and below 30% in the low and high pH region. Isotherm study revealed an exponential decrease in protactinium activity in solution with increase in silica. (author)

  7. Schipperen op de Aziatische vaart. De financiering van de voc kamer Enkhuizen, 1602-1622

    Ruben Schalk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Negotiating the Asiatic Route: Financing the Dutch East India Company, Enkhuizen Chamber, 1602-1622During its first twenty years the Dutch East India Company, orvoc, struggled with the disadvantages of operations being spread over six local chambers, as imposed by its 1602 charter. Mirroring the Dutch Republic’s urban particularism, this operational fragmentation effectively bankrupted chambers if ships failed to return. Using the ledgers of Enkhuizen, one of the smaller chambers, we detail the difficulties with which it grappled and chart the slow process of overcoming them through the harmonisation of administrative procedures and other trust-building measures. These culminated in the company directors claiming limited liability for debt, which until now they were generally thought to have possessed from the start.

  8. Schipperen op de Aziatische vaart. De financiering van de voc kamer Enkhuizen, 1602-1622

    2012-01-01

    Negotiating the Asiatic Route: Financing the Dutch East India Company, Enkhuizen Chamber, 1602-1622

  9. Měření absolutní kvantové účinnosti iCCD kamer

    Michálek, Václav; Hamar, Martin; Haderka, O.; Peřina, J.; Machulka, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 24-27. ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100713; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum efficiency * intensified CCD camera * standardless measurement Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  10. Fission cross section calculations for Pa isotopes

    Based on the recently measured cross-section values for the neutron-induced fission of 231Pa and our experience gained with other isotopes, new self consistent neutron cross section calculations for n+231Pa have been performed up to 30 MeV. The results are quite different to the existing evaluations, especially above the first chance fission threshold. (authors)

  11. Preliminary Neutronics Analysis Of Fuel Pebble With Thorium Fuel Cycle

    A new fuel pebble was designed based on Thorium fuel cycle. 231Pa has been added into fuel pebble for obtaining the minimum reactivity swing. The results show that the new designed pebble fuel with 7.0 % 233U enrichment adding 3.2% 231Pa, the keff is to be controlled up to 65 GWd/t; the other design with 8.0 % 233U enrichment requires 3.9% 231Pa, the keff therefore is remain up to 80 GWd/t. About 95% of loaded 231Pa in fuel pebble is depleted after 120 GWd/t. The results imply that it is optimistic to design the fuel pebble with 233U, 231Pa and 232Th; but some effects such as fuel temperature effect, distribution of TRISO particle in pebble fuel, etc. are required to investigate. (author)

  12. HIBRIDNI SISTEM STEREOSKOPSKEGA RAČUNALNIŠKEGA VIDA

    Šelekar, Blaž

    2011-01-01

    Diplomska naloga predstavlja osnove stereoskopskega računalniškega vida. Podani so načini umerjanja stereoskopskega sistema in odpravljanje popačenja preslikave 3D prostora v 2D sliko. V diplomski nalogi smo se lotili izdelave hibridnega sistema stereoskopskega računalniškega vida, ki je sestavljen iz treh kamer. Hibridni sistem izkorišča lastnosti treh različnih globinskih funkcij stereoskopske neenakosti tako, da preklaplja med pogledi treh parov kamer. Kamere so razmaknjene na različne med...

  13. Optimization of small long-life PWR based on thorium fuel

    Subkhi, Moh Nurul; Suud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-01

    A conceptual design of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium fuel has been investigated in neutronic aspect. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.2, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in three-dimension X-Y-Z geometry of core by COREBN. The excess reactivity of thorium nitride with ZIRLO cladding is considered during 5 years of burnup without refueling. Optimization of 350 MWe long life PWR based on 5% 233U & 2.8% 231Pa, 6% 233U & 2.8% 231Pa and 7% 233U & 6% 231Pa give low excess reactivity.

  14. Optimization of small long-life PWR based on thorium fuel

    Subkhi, Moh Nurul, E-mail: nsubkhi@students.itb.ac.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Bandung Institute of Technology. Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung (Indonesia); Physics Dept., Faculty of Science and Technology, State Islamic University of Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung Jalan A.H Nasution 105 Bandung (Indonesia); Suud, Zaki, E-mail: szaki@fi.itb.ac.id; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Bandung Institute of Technology. Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    A conceptual design of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium fuel has been investigated in neutronic aspect. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.2, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in three-dimension X-Y-Z geometry of core by COREBN. The excess reactivity of thorium nitride with ZIRLO cladding is considered during 5 years of burnup without refueling. Optimization of 350 MWe long life PWR based on 5% {sup 233}U & 2.8% {sup 231}Pa, 6% {sup 233}U & 2.8% {sup 231}Pa and 7% {sup 233}U & 6% {sup 231}Pa give low excess reactivity.

  15. Protactinium and isotopes of thorium in metalliferous sediments from the Bauer depression

    Results are presented of a study of the vertical distribution of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, and 231Pa isotopes in a column of metalliferous sediments from the Bauer depression (southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean). On the basis of the obtained data a hypothesis is formulated concerning the authigenic production of 230Th and 231Pa in these deposits, i.e, the similarity of the physicochemical behavior of 230Th and 231Pa found in pelagic sediments is found in these specific sediments also. We present arguments in favor of the identical behavior of these radionuclides in the marine environment. With the help of the ionium method of dating marine sediments, the average rate of sedimentation of the investigated column of metalliferous sediments from the Bauer depression was calculated

  16. Protactinium and thorium isotopes in metal-containing precipitates from Bauer depression

    The results studying vertical distribution of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th and 231Pa isotopes in the colomn of metalliferous sediments from Bauer depression (South-East part of the Pacific ocean) are presented. On the basis of the data obtained the supposition about the authigenic origin of 230Th and 231Pa in these ocean sedimentations, is stated, i.e. even in such specific ocean sediments closeness of physical chemical behaviour of 230Th and 231Pa is fixed. Arguments for identical behaviour of these radionuclides in sea water are presented. Average rate of sedimentation of the column investigated of metalliferous sediments from Bauer depression is calculated using the ionic method of ocean deposition dating

  17. Optimization of small long-life PWR based on thorium fuel

    A conceptual design of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium fuel has been investigated in neutronic aspect. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.2, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in three-dimension X-Y-Z geometry of core by COREBN. The excess reactivity of thorium nitride with ZIRLO cladding is considered during 5 years of burnup without refueling. Optimization of 350 MWe long life PWR based on 5% 233U & 2.8% 231Pa, 6% 233U & 2.8% 231Pa and 7% 233U & 6% 231Pa give low excess reactivity

  18. Toxicty of thorium cycle nuclides

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the biological hazards associated with uranium-thorium breeder fuels and fuel recycle process solutions. Initial studies emphasize the metabolism and long-term biological effects of inhaled 233U-232U nitrate and oxide fuel materials andof 231Pa, a major, long-lived, radioactive waste product

  19. The Tautavel cave and dating methods

    Main age estimation methods are described, datable materials and limits of application are given in each case. Methods studied are: carbon 14, 230Th/234U, 231Pa/235U, potassium-argon, thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance, fission tracks. Indirect methods like paleomagnetism and paleoclimates are briefly described

  20. ‘Promoveren en degraderen’ van gedetineerden : Het wetsvoorstel elektronische detentie en de dreigende afschaffing van de detentiefasering

    Boone, Miranda; van Hattum, Wiene

    2014-01-01

    Het wetsvoorstel dat beoogt het huidige systeem van detentiefasering in het Nederlandse gevangeniswezen te vervangen door elektronische detentie (hierna: ‘het wetsvoorstel’) is in april maar nipt door de Tweede Kamer gekomen. Alleen de regeringspartijen en de eenmansfractie Van Vliet stemden voor. D

  1. Protocol invulling Duurzaamheidsindicatoren begroting 2015

    Blokland, P.W.; Wisman, J.H.; Jukema, G.D.; Meer, van der R.W.; Jager, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Op verzoek van de Tweede Kamer worden de prestaties van het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) jaarlijks gemeten op basis van indicatoren voor landbouw, tuinbouw en visserij die in de Rijksbegroting van 2015 tot uitdrukking moeten komen. De indicatoren zijn opgedeeld in vier domeinen, te weten: D

  2. Social media en politiek : Gelijke middelen, gelijke macht?

    Effing, R. (Robin); Huibers, T. (Theo); Krosse, de L. (Luc)

    2010-01-01

    In de aanloop naar de Tweede Kamerverkiezingen in Nederland van 2010 is er veel gesproken in de pers over het gebruik van social media door politici. Dit onderzoek van het Saxion Kenniscentrum Design en Technologie houdt zich specifiek bezig met het thema social media en de impact op de Tweede Kamer

  3. HEU age determination

    A technique has been developed to determine the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Age which is defined as the time since the HEU was produced in an enrichment process. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium parents and their daughters viz 230Th/234U and 231Pa/235U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gammas and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of 231Pa since there is negligible quantity of 230Th due to very low atom concentrations of 234U in the sample. In this paper we have presented data and methodology of finding the age of two HEU samples

  4. Measurement of fission cross sections and fragment angular distributions using solid state track detectors

    Fission cross sections and angular distributions of fission fragments from fissions induced by 14.1 and 15.8 MeV neutrons, respectively, in 232Th, 231Pa, 233U, 235U, 238U, 237Np, 239Pu and 241Am have been studied using Lexan plastic track detectors. A novel experimental set-up evolved from considerations of neutron economy allows simultaneous measurement of angular distribution of fission fragments from five independently fissioning nuclides at a time. The data on angular anistropy were analysed in the perspective of different chances of fissions taking place simultaneously in this energy region. Third-chance fission thresholds for 231Pa and 241Am were estimated from the measured anisotropy values to be 13.2 and 11.1 MeV, respectively. (author)

  5. Study for 228Th reduction in thermal reactor with Th-U fuel cycls

    1999-01-01

    By using computercode WIMS/CENDL, the effects of some parameters, core configuration such as fuel element structure, neutron flux and burn-up, are discussed in thispaper.It is shown that high neutron flux, small fuel rod diameter,large volume ratio of coolant to fuel, seed-blank heterogeneous corearrangement and 231Pa chemical separation are necessary for reducing 228Th production in reactor.

  6. Analysis for the radionuclides of the natural uranium and thorium decay chains with special reference to uranium mine tailings

    A detailed review is made of the experimental techniques that are available, or are in the process of development, for the determination of 238U, 235U, 234U, 231Pa, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, 226Ra, 223Ra, 210Po and 210Pb. These products of the uranium and thorium decay chains are found in uranium mine tailings. Reference is also made to a procedure for the selective phase extraction of mineral phases from uranium mine tailings

  7. Mound Facility activities in chemical and physical research: July-December 1979

    Research is reported in the following fields: isotope separation (Ar, C, He, Kr, Ne, O, Xe), low-temperature research (H intermolecular potential functions, gas analysis in trennschaukel), separation chemistry (229Th, 231Pa, 230Th, 234U), separation research (liquid thermal diffusion, Ca isotope separation, molecular beam scattering, mutual diffusion of noble gas mixtures, lithium chemical exchange with cryptands), and calculations in plutonium chemistry (algorithms, valence in natural water)

  8. Measurements of radium in water using impregnated fibers

    The technique perfected by Moore and Reid for sampling radium in seawater is well adapted for environmental sampling. Using this method, we have examined runoff from mine tailings and have observed relatively high amounts of 223Ra (from the 235U series). Apparently the fiber is able to absorb a precursor, 231Pa or 227Ac, and hence retains the 223Ra concentrations for long storage periods. Examples of high-resolution alpha spectrometry of these activities are presented

  9. Mound Facility activities in chemical and physical research: July-December 1979

    1980-06-18

    Research is reported in the following fields: isotope separation (Ar, C, He, Kr, Ne, O, Xe), low-temperature research (H intermolecular potential functions, gas analysis in trennschaukel), separation chemistry (/sup 229/Th, /sup 231/Pa, /sup 230/Th, /sup 234/U), separation research (liquid thermal diffusion, Ca isotope separation, molecular beam scattering, mutual diffusion of noble gas mixtures, lithium chemical exchange with cryptands), and calculations in plutonium chemistry (algorithms, valence in natural water). (DLC)

  10. Design study of Thorium-232 and Protactinium-231 based fuel for long life BWR

    Trianti, N.; Su'ud, Z.; Riyana, E. S.

    2012-06-01

    A preliminary design study for the utilization of thorium added with 231Pa based fuel on BWR type reactor has been performed. In the previous research utilization of fuel based Thorium-232 and Uranium-233 show 10 years operation time with maximum excess-reactivity about 4.075% dk/k. To increase reactor operation time and reduce excess-reactivity below 1% dk/k, Protactinium (Pa-231) is used as Burnable Poison. Protactinium-231 has very interesting neutronic properties, which enable the core to reduce initial excess-reactivity and simultaneously increase production of 233U to 231Pa in burn-up process. Optimizations of the content of 231Pa in the core enables the BWR core to sustain long period of operation time with reasonable burn-up reactivity swing. Based on the optimization of fuel element composition (Th and Pa) in various moderation ratio we can get reactor core with longer operation time, 20 ˜ 30 years operation without fuel shuffling or refuelling, with average power densities maximum of about 35 watt/cc, and maximum excess-reactivity 0.56% dk/k.

  11. Determination of the 233Pa(n, f) reaction cross section from 0.5 to 10 MeV neutron energy using the transfer reaction 232Th(3He, p)234Pa

    The fission probability distributions of 232,233,234Pa and 231Th have been measured up to an excitation energy of 15 MeV, using the transfer reactions 232Th(3He, t)232Pa, 232Th(3He, d)233Pa, 232Th(3He, p)234Pa and 232Th(3He, 4He)231Th. From these measurements, the neutron induced fission cross sections of 231Pa, 233Pa and 230Th have been determined from the product of the fission probabilities of 232Pa, 233Pa and 231Th respectively with the calculated compound nucleus formation cross sections in the 231Pa+n, 233Pa+n and 230Th+n reactions. The validity of the applied method has been successfully tested with the existing neutron induced fission cross sections of 230Th and 231Pa. Special emphasis is put on the 233Pa(n, f) reaction which is of importance for thorium fueled nuclear reactors. Based on a statistical model analysis of the neutron induced fission cross section as a function of neutron energy, it has been possible to determine the barrier parameters of the 234Pa fissioning nucleus. Cross sections for the compound nucleus inelastic scattering 233Pa(n, n') and radiative capture 233Pa(n, γ) reactions have also been calculated and compared with recent evaluations

  12. Politiële bewapening in perspectief: over gebruik en effectiviteit van pepperspray & wapenstok

    Kruize, P.; Gruter, P.

    2012-01-01

    De evaluatie van het gebruik en de effectiviteit van pepperspray en de korte en lange wapenstok is verbonden met het programma- en actieplan Versterking professionele weerbaarheid Nederlandse politie dat op 27 juni 2011 aan de Voorzitter van de Tweede Kamer is gestuurd. Daarnaast bestaat er een Adviescommissie bewapening en uitrusting, die zich ook richt op een toekomstvisie over de bewapening en uitrusting van de politie in 2020. Het doel van het onderzoek is te evalueren, in hoeverre de hui...

  13. De "Wellness-trend" op de Vlaamse hotelmarkt.

    Joosten, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Het investeren in wellness/spa-faciliteiten binnen hotels vergt een belangrijke bijkomende investering, toch blijkt dergelijke investering succesvol voor de Vlaamse hotels. De hotels in Vlaanderen zien het toevoegen van wellness/spa-faciliteiten in de eerste plaats als een extra troef bij het kunnen verhuren van kamers, wat nog altijd de core business is van een hotel.Daarnaast biedt het hebben van dergelijke faciliteiten vooral voor de Vlaamse hotels aan de Kust de mogelijkheid om minder sei...

  14. Open online onderwijs: disruptieve innovatie of oude wijn in nieuwe zakken?

    KALZ Marco; Karel, Kreijns; Rubens, Wilfred; Bahreini, Kiavash; Heinen, Mat; Vos, Marcel; Berkhout, Jeroen; Storm, Jeroen; Roks, Sabine; Kluijfhout, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Open online onderwijs (OOO) staat binnen het (hoger) onderwijs op het moment sterk in de belangstelling. Universiteiten en andere organisaties wereldwijd hebben OOO-activiteiten opgestart en bieden Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCS) aan. Ook in Nederland heeft de Minister van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap deze ontwikkelingen in haar brief aan de Tweede Kamer erkend. De hype rondom MOOCs lijkt inmiddels over haar hoogpunt heen en sommige media kondigen al aan dat het achteraf gezien een st...

  15. Evaluatie Penitentiaire beginselenwet en Penitentiaire maatregel

    Laemers, M.T.A.B.; Vegter, P.C.; Fiselier, J.P.S.

    2001-01-01

    Op 1 januari 1999 zijn de Penitentiaire beginselenwet (PBW), ter vervanging van de Beginselenwet gevangeniswezen, en de Penitentiaire maatregel (PM), ter vervanging van de Gevangenismaatregel, van kracht geworden. Aan de Tweede kamer is toegezegd dat de uitvoering van de regelgeving nauwgezet gevolgd zal worden en dat daartoe de eerste twee jaar na inwerkingtreding geëvalueerd zou worden. In dit rapport wordt van deze evaluatie verslag gedaan. De hoofdstukindeling correspondeert in grote lijn...

  16. Separation of 230Th (ionium) from uranium ores sulfuric acid and in nitric acid solutions

    230Th (ionium) is of interest for production of 231Pa, the Pa isotope with the longest half life, and for production of 232U which can be used in radionuclide batteries. Two procedures are presented which have been worked out for separation of 230Th from sulfuric acid and from nitric acid solutions. In the first case the effluents from the anion exchange resins are the starting material for recorvery of 230Th, in the second case the cation exchange resins which are for purification of U. The procedures selected are simple, economic and can be performed in any uranium mill or uranium purification plant without additional investments. (orig.)

  17. Total half-lives for selected nuclides

    Measurements of the half-lives of 3H, 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 40K, 39Ar, 53Mn, 87Rb, 92Nb, 129I, 138La, 147Sm, 176Lu, 174Hf, 180Ta, 187Re, 186Os, 190Pt, 204Pb, 210Pb, 210Po, 222Rn, 224Th, 226Ra, 227Ac, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 231Pa have been compiled and evaluated. The effect of the 14C half-life value on carbon dating ages is discussed as well as the stability of 204Pb. 237 refs., 30 tabs

  18. γ-ray spectrometry investigation of radioactive equilibrium in ancient uranium ores of Ukraine

    The nuclear-physics technique of determining the radioactive equilibrium. The degree of deviations from the radioactive equilibrium strongly correlates with the mineral content of ores. The possible models of loss/import of radioactive nuclides are investigated. As the more probable the complex model with the loss of 231Pa, 234U and 230Th and further secondary precipitation of 234U is examined. The geologically young ages of the losses of radionuclides were estimated to be equal to the times of the water level lifting for the periods of interglacial temperature optimums

  19. A review of the current status of nuclear data for major and minor isotopes of thorium fuel cycle

    In this paper, we present a critical overview of the status of the available nuclear data of isotopes of thorium fuel cycle, viz., 230Th, 232Th, 231Pa, 233Pa, 232U, 233U and 234U. Induced in the main body of the paper is a critical analysis of information contained in the two basic evaluated nuclear data files JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI (Rev.5) recently released by the IAEA/NDS as a result of truly international efforts. In some of the cases, the information and data given in EXFOR is examined to get an idea of the status of measured nuclear data of these isotopes. Some comments regarding gaps in experimental data as of 1999 are included in the discussion. Most of these experimental data were those generated two decades ago. In addition, generally, these experimental data are very limited in comparison to the voluminous nuclear data generated for the uranium-plutonium cycle. Experimental data is absent in most of the cases and, in such cases, evaluated cross sections in the two basic evaluated nuclear data files JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI(Rev.5) are based upon theoretical models and nuclear systematics. Some of these differences between JEF-2.2 and its source ENDF/B-V that were carried over to ENDF/B-VI(Rev.5) are explained. The role and the importance of 231Pa and 233Pa in the thorium fuel cycle in advanced concepts such as the Energy Amplifier are mentioned. New calculations of criticality property of 231Pa and 233Pa are presented using the neutron reaction data of JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI(Rev.5). The possible influence of 230Th is examined with respect to its cross sections and production of 231Pa in a typical Indian PHWR environment. The quality assurance in design and safety studies in nuclear energy in the next few decades and centuries require new and improved data with high accuracy and energy resolution. As a starter, the nuclear data of the set of isotopes of thorium fuel cycle discussed in this paper is a challenging sample for consideration as a trial project

  20. Breaking the silence, easing the pain: efforts, challenges and hopes of feminist organizations in Turkey and India working with survivors of incest

    Misra, Akanksha

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, incest and child sexual abuse has been gaining increasing media and civil society interest in Turkey and India. Yet the voices of the many adult survivors, a lot of whom are women, continue to be lost and silenced in both these countries. The purpose of this ethnographic study is to analyze how three feminist organizations, Mor Çatı and KAMER in Turkey and RAHI in India, work within and against the existing media and legal discourses to break the silence surrounding incest an...

  1. Pametni pralni stroj

    Kebrič, Matej

    2012-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je predstavljen idejni koncept pametnega pralnega stroja. Kot ključni problem je izpostavljeno polnjenje pralnega stroja z različnim perilom in določitev ustreznega pralnega programa, ki ne bo poškodoval perila. Perilo različnih tkanin in barv zahteva različne programe. Predstavljena je idejna rešitev problema v obliki avtomatizacije tega procesa s pomočjo kamere in računalniškega programa za odločanje o izbiri programa. Izvedena je bila ergonomska študija na podlagi katere ...

  2. Brezžično upravljanje robota preko spletnega vmesnika

    Kastelic, Klemen

    2016-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo razvili prototip robota, ki ga uporabnik lahko nadzira preko spletnega vmesnika, do katerega dostopa preko spletnega brskalnika na osebnem računalniku. Spletni vmesnik v realnem času sporoča stanje senzorjev in prenaša video s spletne kamere, ki je pritrjena na robota. Zaledni del sistema poganja računalnik Raspberry Pi. Splošnonamenski vhodno-izhodni vmesnik komunicira z gonilnikom motorjev in s senzorji. Preko vtičnika USB povezana spletna kamera in brezžična karti...

  3. Nuclear program of Iran. Towards de-escalation of a nuclear crisis. Advisory letter; Nucleair programma van Iran. Naar de-escalatie van een nucleaire crisis. Briefadvies

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    The Dutch government, partly at the request of the House of Representatives (Second Chamber), the AIV asked to give an opinion about the position of Iran in the region and the role of the nuclear program of Iran in the geopolitical relations, in view of the most recent developments [Dutch] De Nederlandse regering heeft, mede op verzoek van de Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal, de AIV gevraagd advies uit te brengen over de positie van Iran in de regio en de rol van het nucleaire programma van Iran in de geopolitieke verhoudingen hierin, mede gelet op de meest recente ontwikkelingen.

  4. Računalniški vid za pametno knjižnico

    Trček, Matej

    2016-01-01

    S prostoročnimi vmesniki lahko tehnologijo na udoben način vključimo v vsakdanje dejavnosti. Diplomsko delo opisuje izdelavo aplikacije za prepoznavanje knjižnih platnic z barvno-globinsko kamero za rabo v pametni knjižnici. Aplikacija v globinski sliki zazna ravnino, v njej najde štirikotnik in ga naravna v ravnino kamere. V naslednjem koraku s tehnikami računalniškega vida primerja najdeno sliko s pripravljeno podatkovno bazo posnetkov knjižnih platnic in najde najboljše ujemanje. Globinska...

  5. Nadzor in izboljšave proizvodnega procesa z uporabo senzorskih sistemov

    MARN, DEJAN

    2016-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je na začetku predstavljen koncept in razvoj Industrije 4.0. V naslednjem poglavju je predstavljen pomen Interneta stvari v sodobni industriji ter kakšno vlogo igra v prihajajoči industrijski revoluciji, imenovani Industrija 4.0. V nadaljevanju pa se osredotočimo na pomen nadzora proizvodnih procesov s pametnimi senzorji ter uporabo strojnega vida v industriji. V empiričnem delu diplomske naloge se s pomočjo pametne kamere in razvojnega vezja Arduino UNO realizira regu...

  6. OPTEREĆENJE TENISAČA NA RAZLIČITIM PODLOGAMA

    Barbaros Tudor, Petar; Matković, Branka R.; Novak, Dario

    2007-01-01

    Cilj ovoga istraživanja je usporediti opterećenje tenisača s obzirom na igru na različitoj podlozi – beton i zemlja. U tu svrhu 20 tenisača seniorskog uzrasta, koji su bili rangirani na ATP ljestvici odnosno do 25 mjesta rang liste Hrvatskog teniskog saveza, odigrali su 20 susreta. Od ukupnog broja 10 susreta su igrali na zemljanoj podlozi, a 10 susreta na betonskoj podlozi uz uvjet da su isti parovi igrača odigrali susrete na obje podloge. Svaki susret je snimljen s dvije kamere radi dobivan...

  7. OCENJEVANJE VELIKOSTI RASTLIN S POMOČJO DIGITALNIH POSNETKOV

    Videc, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Tema diplomskega dela je preučiti možnost ocenjevanja velikosti rastlin s pomočjo digitalnih posnetkov zajetih z običajnim digitalnim fotoaparatom. Ti sceno digitalizirajo in jo predstavijo v slikovnem prostoru, kjer metrični podatki niso več neposredno dostopni, se pa ohranijo razmerja velikosti. V kolikor sta za izbrano sceno na voljo dve takšni slikovni predstavitvi, lahko določimo metrične lastnosti, vendar morata biti znani medsebojna oddaljenost in zorni kot kamere. Postopek v delu je r...

  8. Seasonality in the flux of natural radionuclides and plutonium in the deep Sargasso Sea

    A record of radionuclide fluxes at a deep-ocean station near Bermuda was obtained from analysis of a 3-year collection of sediment-trap samples. The trap was placed at a depth of 3200 m, 1000 m above the sea floor, and the samples were recovered at 2-month intervals. Concentrations of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 231Pa, 210Pb, 210Po, and sup(239,240)Pu were measured in the trapped material. Most of the radionuclide activity was found in the 230Th and 231Pa, considering that most of their production occurs in the water column below the euphotic zone. Evidently the seasonal influence is transmitted downward by the varying particle flux so that radionuclide scavenging rates at depth, as well as at the surface, are affected. It is suggested that this could be brought about by seasonal variations in the flux of marine snow or in the rate of fecal-matter production in the deep-water column. (author)

  9. High fuel burn-up and nonproliferation in PWR-type reactor on the basis of modified Th-fuel

    Neutronics-physical characteristics of the fuel lattice of a PWR-type reactor cooled by light water and by a mixture of light and heavy water have been analyzed. Th-fuel containing an essential amount of 231Pa and 232U is used, which allows an increase in fuel burn-up by a factor of 2-5 compared with that of traditional oxide uranium fuel with light water. It is important to underline that this is attained under the negative coolant density reactivity effect using cross sections of 231Pa and 232U from the updated JENDL-3.2 nuclear library. This radical increase of fuel burn-up is accompanied by a small change of reactivity during fuel irradiation (K∞=1.1 / 1.0), that favorably affects safety parameters of the reactor operation. A considerable percentage of 232U in fuel, and consequently in U, is a strong barrier against the proliferation of such weapon nuclide as 233U. (authors)

  10. Design study of long-life PWR using thorium cycle

    Subkhi, Moh. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2012-06-01

    Design study of long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle has been performed. Thorium cycle in general has higher conversion ratio in the thermal spectrum domain than uranium cycle. Cell calculation, Burn-up and multigroup diffusion calculation was performed by PIJ-CITATION-SRAC code using libraries based on JENDL 3.2. The neutronic analysis result of infinite cell calculation shows that 231Pa better than 237Np as burnable poisons in thorium fuel system. Thorium oxide system with 8% 233U enrichment and 7.6˜ 8% 231Pa is the most suitable fuel for small-long life PWR core because it gives reactivity swing less than 1% Δk/k and longer burn up period (more than 20 year). By using this result, small long-life PWR core can be designed for long time operation with reduced excess reactivity as low as 0.53% Δk/k and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  11. Deep water provenance and dynamics of the (de)glacial Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Lippold, Jörg; Gutjahr, Marcus; Blaser, Patrick; Christner, Emanuel; de Carvalho Ferreira, Maria Luiza; Mulitza, Stefan; Christl, Marcus; Wombacher, Frank; Böhm, Evelyn; Antz, Benny; Cartapanis, Olivier; Vogel, Hendrik; Jaccard, Samuel L.

    2016-07-01

    Reconstructing past modes of ocean circulation is an essential task in paleoclimatology and paleoceanography. To this end, we combine two sedimentary proxies, Nd isotopes (εNd) and the 231Pa/230Th ratio, both of which are not directly involved in the global carbon cycle, but allow the reconstruction of water mass provenance and provide information about the past strength of overturning circulation, respectively. In this study, combined 231Pa/230Th and εNd down-core profiles from six Atlantic Ocean sediment cores are presented. The data set is complemented by the two available combined data sets from the literature. From this we derive a comprehensive picture of spatial and temporal patterns and the dynamic changes of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation over the past ∼25 ka. Our results provide evidence for a consistent pattern of glacial/stadial advances of Southern Sourced Water along with a northward circulation mode for all cores in the deeper (>3000 m) Atlantic. Results from shallower core sites support an active overturning cell of shoaled Northern Sourced Water during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Furthermore, we report evidence for a short-lived period of intensified AMOC in the early Holocene.

  12. Measurements of neutron-induced fission cross section of protactinium-231 from 0.1 eV to 10 keV with lead slowing-down spectrometer and at 0.0253 eV with thermal neutron facility

    Protactinium(Pa)-231 is one of the most interesting nuclei which are related to the production of 232U in the 232Th-233U fuel cycle. The fission phenomena, fission energy and mass distributions for the neutron-induced fission of 231Pa have been investigated. Although several measurements of the 231Pa(n, f) cross section have been reported at higher energies, the fission cross section has rarely been measured in the lower/resonance energy region. One of the reasons may be due to sub-barrier fission which results in a low fission cross section. In addition, 231Pa is a radioactive actinide element. Then, a pure sample and an intense neutron source are required to overcome the severe experimental conditions for the fission cross section measurement. The thermal neutron-induced fission cross section of 231Pa was measured by Ghiorso and Van Winkle using a fission chamber and by Wagemans et al. with a surface barrier detector to detect the fission fragments at a neutron guide of the ILL. Mughabghab shows the thermal neutron cross section in the literature. Leonard and Odegaarden made the cross section measurement at 20 energy points between 0.37 eV and 0.52 eV by use of a crystal spectrometer. No experimental datum has been obtained at energies between 0.0253 eV and 100 keV except for those measured by Leonard and Odegaarden. The evaluated fission cross section data appear in ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3.2 and JEF-2.2 (which is essentially same as ENDF/B-VI). The ENDF/B-VI data are markedly discrepant from the JENDL-3.2 data in the relevant energy region, especially above about 10 eV. In the present study, the neutron-induced fission cross section of 231Pa has been measured in the range of 0.1 eV to 10 keV relative to that of the 235U(n, f) reaction by making use of a back-to-back (BTB) type double fission chamber and a lead slowing-down spectrometer driven by a 46 MeV electron linear accelerator (linac) of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI). Below 1 keV, the

  13. Mound Facility activities in chemical and physical research: July--December 1977

    Isotope separation of Ar, C, 3He, Kr, Ne, O, and Xe isotopes is reported. TiFeH/sub x/, TiCoH/sub x/, TiCuH/sub x/, and VH/sub x/ were studied using NMR (proton relaxation times). VD/sub x/ and VT/sub x/ were synthesized. The problem of calculating the valence state of Pu is discussed. A series solution to the plutonium (N,H) characteristic equation is suggested. Shipments of 231Pa, 230Th, and 229Th are reported. Separation and processing of 234U are also reported. Theoretical methods were developed to calculate temperature distributions as functions of water flow rate in liquid thermal diffusion columns. Diffusion coefficients were measured from 300 to 12000K for Kr-Xe and Kr-Ar. New thermal diffusion factors are submitted for Ne-Ar

  14. Pacific deep circulation: A velocity increase at the end of the interglacial stage 5?

    Mangini, A.; Dominik, J.; Müller, P. J.; Stoffers, P.

    1982-12-01

    Re-evaluation of 230Th and 231Pa data on 16 sediment cores recovered in the equatorial North Pacific, between the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone and in the Aitutaki Passage, suggests that a major event modifying the sedimentary regime occurred about 70,000 y B.P. The change is recorded in 12 cores either as the onset of sediment accumulation following a period of sediment erosion or as a remarkable increase in the accumulation rate resulting from enhanced accumulation of redistributed sediment in abyssal plains. Both the onset of sediment accumulation and the enhanced accumulation of redistributed sediment could be attributed to bottom water velocities similar to present ones. Erosion, by contrast, is related to a period of maximum bottom water flow at the boundary of interglacial stage 5 and glacial stage 4.

  15. Developing 226Ra and 227Ac age-dating techniques for nuclear forensics to gain insight from concordant and non-concordant radiochronometers

    The model age or 'date of purification' of a nuclear material is an important nuclear forensic signature. In this study, chemical separation and MC-ICP-MS measurement techniques were developed for 226 Ra and 227Ac: grand-daughter nuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains respectively. The 230Th-234U, 226Ra-238U, 231Pa-235U, and 227Ac-235U radiochronometers were used to calculate model ages for CRM-U100 standard reference material and two highly-enriched pieces of uranium metal from the International Technical Working Group Round Robin 3 Exercise. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the accuracy of the 226Ra-238U and 227Ac-235U chronometers and provide information about nuclide migration during uranium processing

  16. Developing 226Ra and 227Ac age-dating techniques for nuclear forensics to gain insight from concordant and non-concordant radiochronometers

    The model age or 'date of purification' of a nuclear material is an important nuclear forensic signature. In this study, chemical separation and MC-ICP-MS measurement techniques were developed for 226Ra and 227Ac: grand-daughter nuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains, respectively. The 230Th-234U, 226Ra-238U, 231Pa-235U, and 227Ac-235U radiochronometers were used to calculate model ages for CRM-U100 standard reference material and two highly-enriched pieces of uranium metal from the International Technical Working Group Round Robin 3 Exercise. Results demonstrate the accuracy of the 226Ra-238U and 227Ac-235U chronometers and provide information about nuclide migration during uranium processing. (author)

  17. Trace determination of uranium and thorium in biological samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) is an excellent method for determining uranium and thorium; it offers unique possibilities for their ultratrace analysis using selective radiochemical separations. Regarding the favourably sensitive nuclear characteristics of uranium and of thorium with respect to RNAA, but the different half-lives of their induced nuclides, two different approaches were used. In the first approach uranium and thorium were determined separately via 239U, 239Np and 233Pa. In the second approach these elements were 239239233 determined simultaneously in a single sample using U and/or Np and Pa. Isolation of induced nuclides was based on separation by extraction and/or anion exchange chromatography. Chemical yields were measured in each sample aliquot using added 235U, 238Np and 231Pa radioisotopic tracers. (author)

  18. Hybrid fusion-fission reactor with a thorium blanket: Its potential in the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.; Kurnaev, V. A.; Salahutdinov, G. H.; Kulikov, E. G.; Apse, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Discussions are currently going on as to whether it is suitable to employ thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle. This work demonstrates that the 231Pa-232U-233U-Th composition to be produced in the thorium blanket of a hybrid thermonuclear reactor (HTR) as a fuel for light-water reactors opens up the possibility of achieving high, up to 30% of heavy metals (HM), or even ultrahigh fuel burnup. This is because the above fuel composition is able to stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties in the process of high fuel burnup. In addition, it allows the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) to be better protected against unauthorized proliferation of fissile materials owing to an unprecedentedly large fraction of 232U (several percent!) in the uranium bred from the Th blanket, which will substantially hamper the use of fissile materials in a closed NFC for purposes other than power production.

  19. Non-destructive γ spectrum analysis of polymetallic nodules from the eastern Pacific

    刘广山; 黄奕普; 蔡毅华; 陈敏

    2002-01-01

    -- Non-destructive γ spectrum analyses of 20 polymetallic nodules from the eastern Pacific were carried out. Numerous nuclides, such as 238 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 235 U, 227 Ac ( or 231pa) and 40K were detected. The count rates of the nuclides in the top or bottom side of nodules facing detector were measured and the ratio R of the count rates of nuclides in the top and the bottom sides was obtained. From counts and ratios, some useful information relating to the growth and movement of the nodules, the source of nuclide and relationship between those and environment can be gotten. A new method for clear distinction between the top and bottom sides of the nodule based on the R value of 226Ra or 210pb was developed. In addition, one can infer the turnover of nodules according to the R value of 230Th.

  20. High-temperature X-ray diffraction studies on La1-2xCaxThxPO4(s) (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5) solid-solution

    Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), Compact High Temperature Reactor (CHTR) and Accelerator Driven System (ADS) are being developed in India to use 232Th-233U fuel cycle. Unlike natural uranium, natural thorium contains only trace amounts of fissile material (231Th), which are insufficient to initiate a nuclear chain reaction. It can be used with 233U, 235U and 239Pu as fissile fuel. Because of it, the back end of thorium fuel cycle contains long-lived 231Pa, 229Th, 230Th and low level of minor actinides (237Np, 241Am, 243Am, 244Cm) for final disposal in geological repositories. From a geochemical point of view, monazite (LnPO4 with Ln: rare earths) is the most abundant lanthanide phosphate observed in natural samples). Such minerals appear as the major thorium source on earth, especially in several ores which contain up to 29 wt% of ThO2, 16wt% of UO2, respectively

  1. Experiments to produce odd-mass neutron-deficient isotopes of superheavy elements by 48Ca ion-induced reactions

    Experimentals to produce neutron-deficient isotopes of superhevy elements in the reactions 233U (48Ca, 2n)279112, sup(231)Pa(48Ca, 3n)sup(276)111 and sup(232)Th(48Ca,2-3n)sup(277-276)110 have been carried out using a heavy ion beam of the U-300 accelerator. In these reactions, the upper limits of production cross sections and spontaneous-fission half-lives been determined to be 7x10-35 cm2, 5x10-35 cm2 and 2x10-35 cm2, and 0.05 s, 0.003 s and 0.003 s, respectively

  2. Neutron measurements for innovative fuel cycle and transmutation performed at the CEN Bordeaux-Gradignan : transfer techniques applied to the protactinium case

    Transfer reaction techniques have been used to determine neutron induced fission cross section (σn,f) of the short lived 233Pa nucleus, which is of importance for the Th-U fuel cycle for innovative reactors. The σn,f of 233Pa has been determined from the product of the fission probability of 234Pa measured in transfer reaction 232Th(3He,p) with the calculated compound nucleus formation cross section in the 233Pa+n reaction. The validity of this method has been tested with the existing data for direct neutron experiments on long-lived target nuclei 231Pa and 230Th. Transfer reaction techniques have been used too for the determination of capture cross section (σn,y) of 233Pa. This method will be extended to other highly radioactive actinides (such as 242-245Cm isotopes). (author)

  3. U-Th-Ra-Pa Disequilibria in the Kasuga Seamounts: recent "sediment" flux melting in the Mariana rear arc

    Gill, J.; Holden, P.

    2002-12-01

    Mariana volcanic front lavas define a U-Th isotope mixing line with an apparent age of 30 Ka between U-enriched "basalt fluid"-dominated Guguan and "sediment melt"-dominated Uracas in 238U-230Th equilibrium (Elliott et al., 1997). However, new results for basalts collected by dredging and diving on the shoshonitic Kasuga Seamounts, 10-20 km behind the VF, require re-interpretation of both Mariana components. Kasuga basalts are the local "sediment" extreme, reaching La/Sm = 5, Th/Nb=0.75, and eNd=3 in the most K-rich samples. Despite this extremity, their U-Th disequilibria lie along the same mixing line as for the VF, but extend to 20 percent 230Th-enrichment and (230Th)/(232Th) lower than at the intersection with the equiline. This indicates deeper melting than at the VF, and that the source's Th/U ratio was higher than the intersection. (226Ra)/(230Th) ratios extend to 3.5 even though samples have unknown eruption ages and Ba/Th is only 100, much lower than at the VF. (231Pa)/(235U) is mostly 1.7, higher than at the VF. (231Pa)/(230Th) correlates positively with excess U, consistent with recent flux melting. However, the mantle being melted is more fertile than at the VF, and the flux is more "sedimentary" apart from its disequilibria. Disequilibria in the highest-K Kasuga are most like Kick-em-Jenny, the most sediment-rich part of the Antilles.

  4. Dutch climate and energy policy. Analysis of policy reviews 1989-2012; Het Nederlandse Klimaat- en Energiebeleid. Analyse van beleidsevaluaties 1989-2012

    Faber, J.; Blom, M.J.; De Bruyn, S.M.; Nelissen, D.; Aarnink, S.J.; De Buck, A.; Bennink, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Oosterhuis, F.H.; Kuik, O.J. [Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken IVM, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    The Dutch government has had climate policy in place since 1989. Since 1999 that policy has been intensified with a view to meeting Kyoto commitments for the period 2008-2012. The Dutch Parliament requested a review of the costs and effects of the measures implemented in the context of Dutch climate and energy policy, based on the available review studies, with led to the commissioning of the present report [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid voert sinds 1989 klimaatbeleid. Vanaf 1999 is het beleid geïntensiveerd met het oog op het halen van de Kyoto-doelstelling in de periode 2008-2012. De Tweede Kamer wil een overzicht hebben van de kosten en effecten van beleidsinstrumenten van het Nederlandse klimaat- en energiebeleid, op basis van bestaande evaluatiestudies en heeft daarom deze studie laten uitvoeren.

  5. Umbrella covenant energy conservation for the built environment [in the Netherlands]; Koepelconvenant Energiebesparing Gebouwde Omgeving

    NONE

    2012-06-28

    In the Action Plan Energy Conservation in the Built Environment, which was discussed by the Dutch Lower House in March 2011, it was determined that the current agreements need to be reconsidered because of changed targets and the changed economic situation. In this overarching covenant the changed targets and objectives are presented. Participating parties agree to engage in reducing building-related energy consumption (residential and utility buildings, existing buildings and newly constructed buildings) [Dutch] In het in maart 2011 door de Tweede Kamer besproken Plan van Aanpak Energiebesparing Gebouwde Omgeving is vastgelegd dat de bestaande convenanten, in overleg met de convenantpartijen, tegen het licht worden gehouden in verband met de veranderde doelstellingen en de veranderde economische situatie. In dit overkoepelende convenant worden de veranderende doelstellingen weergegeven. Convenantspartijen spreken af zich in te zetten ten behoeve van vermindering van het gebouwgebonden energieverbruik in de volle breedte van de gebouwde omgeving (woningen en utiliteitsgebouwen, bestaande bouw en nieuwbouw)

  6. INTRODUCTION

    Team, Editorial

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT / İÇİNDEKİLER    Öğretmen Yetiştirmede Kastamonu Kız İlköğretmen Okulu Uygulaması (1956-1975) Kastamonu Teacher’s Training School for Girls in Teacher Training (1956-1975) S. Tunay Kamer 1 – 17   Fen Bilgisi I. Sınıf Öğretmen Adaylarının Elektrik Konusundaki Problemleri Anlama ve Çözme Durumları Üzerine Bir Araştırma An Investigation on Science Students’ Understanding and Solving Of Electric Problems Nevzat Yiğit, Nedim Alev, Güner Tural, M. Şahin Bülbül 18 – 36   9 Yaş Çocuklarını...

  7. Stereo Based 3D Face Reconstruction

    Falešník, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá vytvořením programu pro rekonstrukc trojrozměrného modelu lidské tváře za pomocí dvojice kamer. Pro řešení využívá výpočtu hloubkové mapy a následný převod do trojrozměrného prostoru. Využívá Viola-Jones detektor pro detekci tváře. Využívá knihovny OpenCV a také částečně PCL. This thesis presents a system for reconstruction of three-dimensional model of human face by using pair of cameras. To solve this problem, depth map calculation is used and then the depth map is t...

  8. REKONSTRUKCIJA AKCIJE V RAČUNALNIŠKI IGRI

    Mojzeš, Mišel

    2012-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi smo predstavili načine za rekonstrukcijo akcije v računalniški igri. V prvem pristopu igra shranjuje množico parametrov, na podlagi katerih je kasneje možno tvoriti sliko ob zahtevi za predvajanje. Pristop omogoča realnočasovno beleženje vseh potrebnih parametrov, s pomočjo katerih si je možno ogledati potek igre iz drugačnih zornih kotov kamere, kot so bili uporabljeni med samim igranjem. Pri omenjenem pristopu je možno ponovno predvajati igro le, če je igra naložena na ra...

  9. Parliamentary study on Cost and Effects of Climate and Energy Policy [in the Netherlands]; Parlementair onderzoek Kosten en effecten klimaat- en energiebeleid

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Nederlandse klimaatbeleid te kunnen duiden, hebben de vaste commissies voor Infrastructuur en Milieu (IenM) en voor Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (ELI) van de Tweede Kamer behoefte aan een integraal overzicht van de kosten en effecten van klimaatbeleidsinstrumenten. In de afgelopen jaren is een groot aantal evaluaties uitgevoerd naar de bijdrage van diverse klimaat- en energiebeleidsinstrumenten in verschillende sectoren van de economie aan het realiseren van beleidsdoelen. Deze studies zijn zowel voorafgaand aan het introduceren van instrumenten (ex-ante evaluaties) als achteraf gedaan (ex-post evaluaties). Het doel van deze studie is om een overzicht te geven van de kosten en baten van beleidsinstrumenten van het Nederlandse klimaat- en energiebeleid aan de hand van de gepubliceerde ex-ante en ex-post evaluaties. Dit geeft de Tweede Kamer inzicht in de voor- en nadelen van mogelijk in te zetten instrumenten. Het biedt daarmee een basis voor de Tweede Kamer om toekomstige inzet van beleidsinstrumenten te kunnen beoordelen en de kwaliteit van het evaluatie-instrument zelf te helpen verbeteren.

  10. Neutron reaction cross section data for advanced nuclear applications

    Full text of publication follows: Worldwide major research efforts are currently being carried out in order to develop a new concept of nuclear power generation, so-called accelerator driven systems (ADS) for energy production and transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste. A suggested approach is the energy amplifier (EA), which is a sub-critical reactor using a powerful proton accelerator and a spallation reaction as neutron source. Since the EA is based on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle, where the natural resources of the main fuel thorium are estimated to last for hundred thousands of years, it is considered to provide clean and almost inexhaustible nuclear energy. Apart from necessary new technical developments, the realization of these concepts depends strongly on the availability of accurate nuclear reaction data. In particular, precise knowledge about cross sections for fission, neutron capture and scattering is required for the nuclides involved in the Th-U fuel cycle. Among the first priority isotopes the IAEA had pointed out 231Pa and 233Pa. The latter one, 233Pa, is of specific interest, since it plays an important role as an intermediate nucleus in the formation of the fissile 233U from the fertile 232Th. With its half life of 27.0 days for β-decay, 233Pa is not a 'long-lived' nucleus, but it still requires careful attention in the design and operation of thorium-fueled reactors. When a thorium-fueled reactor is stopped, the present amount of 233Pa will continue to decay into 233U, leading to an increase in reactivity, which may even cause criticality. This mechanism is known as 'protactinium effect' and is proportional to the power level of the reactor. Also the precise knowledge of the fission cross section of 231Pa (above 1 b for fast neutrons) is essential for simulations of the balance of nuclei in and, thus, the reactivity behavior of the reactor. We present recent cross section data from direct, energy resolved measurements of the neutron

  11. Deep circulation changes in the South Atlantic since the Last Glacial Maximum from Nd isotope and multi-proxy records

    Wei, R.; Abouchami, W.; Zahn, R.; Masque, P.

    2016-01-01

    We report down-core sedimentary Nd isotope (εNd) records from two South Atlantic sediment cores, MD02-2594 and GeoB3603-2, located on the western South African continental margin. The core sites are positioned downstream of the present-day flow path of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and close to the Southern Ocean, which makes them suitable for reconstructing past variability in NADW circulation over the last glacial cycle. The Fe-Mn leachates εNd records show a coherent decreasing trend from glacial radiogenic values towards less radiogenic values during the Holocene. This trend is confirmed by εNd in fish debris and mixed planktonic foraminifera, albeit with an offset during the Holocene to lower values relative to the leachates, matching the present-day composition of NADW in the Cape Basin. We interpret the εNd changes as reflecting the glacial shoaling of Southern Ocean waters to shallower depths combined with the admixing of southward flowing Northern Component Water (NCW). A compilation of Atlantic εNd records reveals increasing radiogenic isotope signatures towards the south and with increasing depth. This signal is most prominent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and of similar amplitude across the Atlantic basin, suggesting continuous deep water production in the North Atlantic and export to the South Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. The amplitude of the εNd change from the LGM to Holocene is largest in the southernmost cores, implying a greater sensitivity to the deglacial strengthening of NADW at these sites. This signal impacted most prominently the South Atlantic deep and bottom water layers that were particularly deprived of NCW during the LGM. The εNd variations correlate with changes in 231Pa/230Th ratios and benthic δ13C across the deglacial transition. Together with the contrasting 231Pa/230Th: εNd pattern of the North and South Atlantic, this indicates a progressive reorganization of the AMOC to full strength during the Holocene.

  12. Level Densities in the actinide region and indirect n,y cross section measurements using the surrogate method

    Wiedeking M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Results from a program of measurements of level densities and gamma ray strength functions in the actinide region are presented. Experiments at the Oslo cyclotron involving the Cactus/Siri detectors and 232Th(d,x and 232Th(3He,x reactions were carried out to help answer the question of which level density model is the most appropriate for actinide nuclei, since it will have an impact on cross section calculations important for reactor physics simulations. A new technique for extracting level densities and gamma ray strength functions from particle-gamma coincidence data is proposed and results from the development of this technique are presented. In addition, simultaneous measurements of compound nuclear gamma decay probabilities have been performed for the key thorium cycle nuclei 233Th, 231Th and 232Pa up to around 1MeV above the neutron binding energy and have enabled extraction of indirect neutron induced capture cross sections for the 232Th, 231Pa and 230Th nuclei using the surrogate reaction method. Since the neutron capture cross section for 232Th is already well known from direct measurements a comparison provides a stringent test of the applicability of the surrogate technique in the actinide region.

  13. Level Densities in the actinide region and indirect n,y cross section measurements using the surrogate method

    Wilson, J. N.; Gunsing, F.; Bernstein, L.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Thompson, I. J.; Guttormssen, M.; Larsen, A.-C.; Mansouri, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Siem, S.; Wiedeking, M.; Wiborg, T.

    2012-02-01

    Results from a program of measurements of level densities and gamma ray strength functions in the actinide region are presented. Experiments at the Oslo cyclotron involving the Cactus/Siri detectors and 232Th(d,x) and 232Th(3He,x) reactions were carried out to help answer the question of which level density model is the most appropriate for actinide nuclei, since it will have an impact on cross section calculations important for reactor physics simulations. A new technique for extracting level densities and gamma ray strength functions from particle-gamma coincidence data is proposed and results from the development of this technique are presented. In addition, simultaneous measurements of compound nuclear gamma decay probabilities have been performed for the key thorium cycle nuclei 233Th, 231Th and 232Pa up to around 1MeV above the neutron binding energy and have enabled extraction of indirect neutron induced capture cross sections for the 232Th, 231Pa and 230Th nuclei using the surrogate reaction method. Since the neutron capture cross section for 232Th is already well known from direct measurements a comparison provides a stringent test of the applicability of the surrogate technique in the actinide region.

  14. Deglacial diatom productivity and surface ocean properties over the Bermuda Rise, northeast Sargasso Sea

    Gil, Isabelle M.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Abrantes, Fatima G.

    2009-12-01

    Diatom assemblages document surface hydrographic changes over the Bermuda Rise. Between 19.2 and 14.5 ka, subtropical diatom species and Chaetoceros resting spores dominate the flora, as in North Atlantic productive regions today. From 16.9 to 14.6 ka, brackish and fresh water diatoms are common and their contribution is generally coupled with total diatom abundance. This same interval also contains rare grains of ice-rafted debris. Coupling between those proxies suggests that successive discharge of icebergs might have stimulated productivity during Heinrich event 1 (H1). Iceberg migration to the subtropics likely created an isolated environment involving turbulent mixing, upwelled water, and nutrient-rich meltwater, supporting diatom productivity in an otherwise oligotrophic setting. In addition, the occurrence of mode water eddies likely brought silica-rich waters of Southern Ocean origin to the euphotic zone. The persistence of lower-salinity surface water beyond the last ice rafting suggests continued injection of fresh water by cold-core rings and advection around the subtropical gyre. These results indicate that opal productivity may have biased estimates of meridional overturning based on 231Pa/230Th ratios in Bermuda Rise sediments during H1.

  15. Boundary processes traced by neodymium isotopes

    Jeandel, C.; Lacan, F.

    2003-04-01

    Continental margins have been identified as preferential sites for removing of reactive elements from the ocean, on the base of U-series measurements (more specifically 231Pa/230Th). This process is called boundary scavenging (Bacon, 1988). Five years of neodymium isotopes data in water masses along the ocean margins (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Greenland-Scotland ridge and Labrador Sea) suggests that Nd is transferred from the sediments to the ocean but the reverse also occurs via the so-called boundary scavenging. These processes are only detectable by isotopic ratio measurements because they affect the isotopic signature of the water mass coming in contact with the margin, without changing its concentration. They can involve much higher fluxes than net input processes: for example, the modification of the AAIW signature along the Papua New Guinea slope involves exchange processes only (Lacan and Jeandel, 2001). Since we suspect that such processes not only affect the Nd oceanic chemistry but also the chemical fate of other reactive elements in the ocean, we suggest that the concept of boundary scavenging should be extended to "boundary exchange".

  16. Be and Th isotopes in manganese nodules and adjacent sediments: nodule growth histories and nuclide behavior

    The concentration profiles of 9Be, 10Be, 230Th, 232Th, 231Pa (via 227Th) and 238U have been measured in three manganese nodules, one each from the North Pacific (A47-16(4)), the South Pacific (TF-5) and the Indian Ocean (R/V Vitiaz). In addition the 10Be concentration in deep water from the GEOSECS reoccupation station 500 of the North Pacific, and in box cores raised from the manganese nodule field in the North Pacific have been measured. The 10Be concentration in nodule and seawater samples was measured by the accelerator mass spectrometric technique employing the Yale Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The concentrations of 10Be, 230Thsub(exc) and 231Pasub(exc) and ratios of 10Be/9Be and 230Thsub(exc)/232Th all decrease with depth in the nodules. This decrease, interpreted in terms of nodule growth, yields 'average' growth rates of a few millimeters per million years for the nodules. The growth rates of the nodules exhibit temporal variations, both on short time (approx. equal to 50,000 years) and long time (several million years) scales. (orig./ME)

  17. A study of the generation of 232U in UO2 and MOX fuels

    To clarify the generation pathway of 232U, an important nuclide for dose evaluation at various stages in the reuse of uranium, concentrations of 232U generated through various pathways were evaluated for UO2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. Burnup calculation was conducted with ORIGEN2.2 code adopting ORLIBJ40 library, a set of cross-section libraries based on JENDL-4.0. It was found that differences in 232U concentrations in UO2 and MOX fuels mainly arise from differences in the initial compositions of 234U, 235U, and 236U. It was also found that the contribution of plutonium and americium isotopes in MOX fuels is small compared with that of uranium isotopes. The results clarified that the capture cross sections of 230Th, 231Pa, 235U, and 236U, as well as the (n,2n) cross sections of 237Np and 238U, have a large effect on the generation of 232U. Additional investigation showed that 232U concentration is strongly affected not only by time after irradiation but also by time before irradiation. (author)

  18. Phthalocyaninato complexes of thorium, protactinium and uranium

    For the preparation of Bis(phthalocyaninato)-actinoid(IV) complexes, AnPc2, a new optimizing synthesis procedure was developed, with which it was possible to prepare spectrally pure, that is, H2Pc-free, ThPc2, UPc2 and the isostructurally similar 231PaPc2.PaPc2. This was verified with the help of electron spectra, which were compared to preparations which were synthesized in another manner. The corresponding perfluorinated compounds were also produced for thorium and uranium by use of tetrafluorophthalic acid nitrile instead of phthalic acid nitrile as initial product. Electron and infrared spectra show the typical bands of the non-substituted complexes. By the attempt to produce a mono(phthalocyaninato)-thorium complex with the use of ThI4 as initial material a pyridine-extracted pure ThPcI2(py)2 was obtained with a typical mono(phthalocyaninato) complex electron spectrum, an extremely moisture sensitive compound which in water or acids decomposes and produces H2Pc. (orig./RB)

  19. Characterization of actinide physics specimens for the US/UK joint experiment in the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor

    The United States and the United Kingdom are engaged in a joint research program in which samples of the higher actinides are irradiated in the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor in Scotland. The purpose of the porogram is (1) to study the materials behavior of selected higher actinide fuels and (2) to determine the integral cross sections of a wide variety of the higher actinide isotopes. Samples of the actinides are incorporated in fuel pins inserted in the core. For the fuel study, the actinides selected are 241Am and 244Cm in the form of Am2O3, Cm2O3, and Am6Cm(RE)7O21, where (RE) represents a mixture of lanthanides. For the cross-section determinations, the samples are milligram quantities of actinide oxides of 248Cm, 246Cm, 244Cm, 243Cm, 243Am, 241Am, 244Pu, 242Pu, 241Pu, 240Pu, 239Pu, 238Pu, 237Np, 238U, 236U, 235U, 234U, 233U, 232Th, 230Th, and 231Pa encapsulated in vanadium. Coincident with the irradiations, neutron flux and energy spectral measurements are made with vanadium-encapsulated dosimeter materials located within the same fuel pins

  20. U-series dating using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS)

    U-series dating is based on the decay of the two long-lived isotopes238U(τ1/2=4.47 x 109 years) and 235U (τ1/2 0.7 x 109 years). 238U and its intermediate daughter isotopes 234U (τ1/2 = 245.4 ka) and 230Th (τ1/2 = 75.4 ka) have been the main focus of recently developed mass spectrometric techniques (Edwards et al., 1987) while the other less frequently used decay chain is based on the decay 235U to 231Pa (τ1/2 = 32.8 ka). Both the 238U and 235U decay chains terminate at the stable isotopes 206Pb and 207Pb respectively. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) has a number of inherent advantages, mainly the ability to measure isotopic ratios at high precision on relatively small samples. In spite of these now obvious advantages, it is only since the mid-1980's when Chen et al., (1986) made the first precise measurements of 234U and 232Th in seawater followed by Edwards et al., (1987) who made combined 234U-230Th measurements, was the full potential of mass spectrometric methods first realised. Several examples are given to illustrate various aspects of TIMS U-series

  1. Preparation of actinide specimens for the US/UK joint experiment in the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor

    A joint research program involving the United States and the United Kingdom was initiated about four years ago for the purpose of studying the fuel behavior of higher actinides using in-core irradiation in the fast reactor at Dounreay, Scotland. Simultaneously, determination of integral cross sections of a wide variety of higher actinide isotopes (physics specimens) was proposed. Coincidental neutron flux and energy spectral measurements were to be made using vanadium encapsulated dosimetry materials in the immediate region of the fuel pellets and physics samples. The higher actinide samples chosen for the fuel study were 241Am and 244Cm in the forms of Am2O3, Cm2O3, and Am6Cm(RE)7O21, where (RE) represents a mixture of lanthanides. Milligram quantities of actinide oxides of 248Cm, 246Cm, 244Cm, 243Cm, 243Am, 241Am, 244Pu, 242Pu, 241Pu, 240Pu, 239Pu, 238Pu, 237Np, 238U, 236U, 235U, 234U, 233U, 232Th, 230Th, and 231Pa were encapsulated to obtain nuclear cross section and reaction rate data for these materials

  2. The use of fission foils for plasma neutron diagnostics

    Commonly used fission foil materials have been examined for their application to plasma diagnostics as activation foils. Such foils have been used extensively in the past for fission reactor dosiemetry. They have very well known fission cross sections, and in most cases the fission yields are reasonably well known. The materials included in this study are 226Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 231Pa, 233U, 235U, 238U, 237Np, 238Pu, and 239Pu. Of these materials 232Th, 235U, and 238U are considered to be very good candidates for this application. The others have been eliminated because of high background radioactivity, impurities which present high backgrounds, or lack of knowledge about yield distribution of fission products. Production cross sections for fission products in the vicinity of the yield maxima (A = 85 - 101, 133 143) have been calculated from known fission cross sections and independent or cumulative yields at thermal energies (where applicable) and 14 MeV. Recent measurements at 2.5 MeV are also included. For one foil (232Th) results for 3 MeV and 11 MeV are also available. The decay schemes of the more prominent fission products have been thoroughly studied and good measurement precision should result from their use

  3. ORELA contribution to thorium cycle nuclear data

    The measurements of direct importance to the 232Th/233U fuel cycle using neutrons from the Oak Ridge Linear Accelerator facility are gathered together and discussed. These measurements were done in response to specific data discrepancies, as part of generic programs, and for basic fission physics studies. In particular, completed transmission and capture work on 232Th has yielded the most accurate parameters for the first four s-wave resonances; the largest average capture width, 25.2 meV; and the largest s-wave strength function of recent measurements. These results allow improved agreement between differential and integral capture rates. Moreover, the ORNL 252Cf ν-bar measurement of unprecedented accuracy and 233U ν-bar ratio measurement give a 233U prompt ν-bar (thermal) of 2.490 +- 0.009 neutron/fission. This result allows a much more satisfactory understanding of the 233U 2200 m/s constants. In addition, a 232Th γ-ray production measurement provides needed cross sections for shielding, and important data for both application and fission physics were obtained from 232Th fission and both 231Pa and 234U fission and total cross section measurements. Data requirements and discrepancies suggested from this work are discussed. (author)

  4. ORELA contribution to thorium-cycle nuclear data

    The measurements of direct importance to the 232Th/233U fuel cycle using neutrons from the Oak Ridge Linear Accelerator Facility are gathered together and discussed. These measurements were done in response to specific data discrepancies, as part of generic programs, and for basic fission physics studies. In particular, completed transmission and capture work on 232Th has yielded the most accurate parameters for the first four s-wave resonances; the largest average capture width, 25.2 MeV; and the largest s-wave strength function of recent measurements. These results allow improved agreement between differential and integral capture rates. Moreover, the ORNL 252Cf anti nu measurement of unprecedented accuracy and 233U anti nu ratio measurement give a 233U prompt anti nu (thermal) of 2.490 +- 0.009 neutron/fission. This result allows a much more satisfactory understanding of the 233U 2200 m/s constants. In addition, a 232Th γ-ray production measurement provides needed cross sections for shielding, and important data for both application and fission physics were obtained from 232Th fission and both 231Pa and 234U fission and total cross section measurements. Data requirements and discrepancies suggested from this work are discussed

  5. Contribution to the study of electromagnetic transitions in deformed nuclei

    This work deals with the interaction between the nucleus and the electromagnetic field. We have adapted the Nilsson formalism to deformed uneven-uneven nuclei. We have studied the probability of gamma transitions and energy levels. In the first chapter we have recalled the improvements brought successively in nuclear models to describe electromagnetic transitions, we begin with the spherical shell model, then present the rotational model and end with the unified model. We have applied the unified model to deformed uneven-uneven nuclei in order to compute probability transitions and energy levels. We have set an experiment to compare computed values and experimental data. Our gamma spectrometry equipment is composed of NaI(Tl) crystals and EMI-1954 photomultipliers. We have tested our method by studying the gamma rays appearing during the decay reaction: 233Pa → 233U. We have measured the energy levels of 234Pa and the Nilsson formalism appears to give good results for low energy levels. We have also studied the decay reaction: 231Pa → 227Ac, we give detailed gamma spectra and a preliminary energy level scheme but the interpretation of the energy levels with the unified model is all the more complicated because of the high density of levels between 0 and 130 KeV

  6. In-beam spectroscopy of the Kπ = 0- bands in 230-236U

    The Kπ = 0- bands in even uranium nuclei were studied in the compound reactions 231Pa(p,2n)230U, 230,232Th(α,2n)232,234U and 236U(d,pn)236U. In-beam γ-rays were measured in coincidence with conversion-electrons, which were detected with an iron-free orange spectrometer. The negative-parity levels are observed up to intermediate spins (I-). In addition, the 1- and 3- levels in 230U were confirmed by a decay study with an isotope separated 230Pa source. For the heavier isotopes (A > or approx. 232) the properties of the Kπ = 0- bands (energies and γ-branchings) are consistent with a vibrational character of these bands. For 230U the Kπ = 0- band lies at rather low energy (E(1-) = 367 keV), and the level spacings within this band are very similar to those of the isotones 228Th and 226Ra, which might indicate the onset of a stable octupole deformation. (orig.)

  7. 223Ra for endoradiotherapeutic applications prepared from an immobilized 227Ac/227Th source

    A method is described for the production of 223Ra (t1/2 = 11.4 d) in a quality useful for endoradiotherapeutic applications. The method is based on a long term operating generator with a source of 227Ac (t1/2 = 21.7 years), from which 223Ra is eluted. The 227Ac was isolated from a 231Pa source using the f-element selective extraction chromatographic material TRU-resin. The purified 227Ac/227Th source was subsequently applied to another extraction chromatographic resin, containing the extractant P,P'-di(2-ethylhexyl)methanediphosphonic acid on silica (Dipex-2) and used as a generator for 223Ra. From the generator column, the yield of 223Ra was about 60 kBq per 100 kBq of 227Ac with a highly effective separation of 223Ra from the precursors. In production runs, the activity of 227Ac was found to be 6 x 10-6 relative to the eluted activity of 223Ra. By using a second column of Dipex-2 for additional purification, the activity of Ac was reduced to below 7 x 10-8 relative to 223Ra with nearly quantitative recovery of 223Ra. The described procedure resulted in a high purity 223Ra preparation, potentially useful in, e.g., targeted radiotherapy of tumors. (orig.)

  8. Lokalizace kvadrokoptéry v 3D prostoru pomocí jedné kamery

    Kubica, Petr

    2015-01-01

    V této bakalářské práci jsou prozkoumány možnosti existujících metod pro určení polohy UAV AscTec Pelican za pomoci monokulární kamery. Jsou testovány metody SVO, PTAM a LSD-SLAM ve vnitřních i venkovních prostorách za použití různých kamer, objektivů a různě výkonného hardware. Na základě výstupů testů jsou doporučeny postupy pro získání co nejlepších možných výsledků. This bachelor thesis focuses on the possibilities of existing methods for locating the UAV AscTec Pelican using a monocul...

  9. Die verhaal as mitiese vraagstelling: die verhaalkuns van Henriette Grové

    Heilna du Plooy

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Story as mythical questioning: The narrative art of Henriette GrovéHenriette Grove's stories are mostly concerned with the nature and meaning of human experience, especially human suffering. In this article an effort is made to characterize these stories, indicating the relation between the stories and a way of thinking that is primarily concerned with metaphysical, mythical and religious issues. Texts like In die kamer was ’n kas and Die kêrel van die Pêrel and some short stories are examined to find indications of the underlying vision of man from which the stories generate. Special attention will be given to focalization in the stories, indicating the need to extend the meaning and use of the term so that textual as well as extratextual modal relations can be described. These relations may provide an indication of the vision of man which is favoured by the “abstract author" and which in this case seems to encompass much more than mere ideological thought patterns. Grové's stories posit questions which, being mythical questions, can only be answered in a religious manner. The stories do not provide solutions to the problematic nature o f experience and suffering, but insist on asking the type of questions with which religion concerns itself.

  10. Gesturální rozhraní pro jednoduché ovládání počítače

    Burdík, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    Tato práce se věnuje poměrně novému počítačovému oboru – počítačovému vidění. Zaměřuje se na rozpoznávání objektů, určení polohy a reakci na určitý pohyb. Cílem práce je sestavit program, který bude schopný pomocí pohybu ruky ovládat počítač, reagovat na definované gesto provedené prsty nebo dlaní a vytvořit na něj určitou akci. Tohoto cíle má být dosaženo bez použití speciálních čidel nebo více kamer, pouze s jednou obyčejnou webkamerou. Ke zpracování obrazu byly využity funkce z knihovny Op...

  11. Hodnocení kvality snímků sítnice

    Tvarůžek, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá vlastnostmi barevných snímků sítnice, které jsou pořízeny digitální fundus kamerou a principem funkce těchto kamer. Podrobněji jsou zde popsány základní operace pro předzpracování nejen snímku sítnice, ale i pro ostatní biomedicínské obrazy. Teoretické poznatky z těchto základních operací pro zpracování obrazu jsou využíty k vytvoření algoritmu v programovém prostředí Matlab pro kvantitativní hodnocení kvality snímku sítnice i modelových dat z hlediska zaostření. Zjištěné...

  12. A Validation of Object-Oriented Design Metrics as Quality Indicators

    Basili, Victor R.; Briand, Lionel C.; Melo, Walcelio

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study in which we empirically investigated the suits of object-oriented (00) design metrics introduced in another work. More specifically, our goal is to assess these metrics as predictors of fault-prone classes and, therefore, determine whether they can be used as early quality indicators. This study is complementary to the work described where the same suite of metrics had been used to assess frequencies of maintenance changes to classes. To perform our validation accurately, we collected data on the development of eight medium-sized information management systems based on identical requirements. All eight projects were developed using a sequential life cycle model, a well-known 00 analysis/design method and the C++ programming language. Based on empirical and quantitative analysis, the advantages and drawbacks of these 00 metrics are discussed. Several of Chidamber and Kamerer's 00 metrics appear to be useful to predict class fault-proneness during the early phases of the life-cycle. Also, on our data set, they are better predictors than 'traditional' code metrics, which can only be collected at a later phase of the software development processes.

  13. Radionuclide studies in the North Atlantic as a contribution to a better understanding of particle dynamics in the water column. Final report; Radionukliduntersuchungen im Nordatlantik als Beitrag zum Verstaendnis der Partikeldynamik in der Wassersaeule. Endbericht

    Scholten, J.C.; Vogler, S.; Fietzke, J.; Mangini, A.; Stoffers, P.

    1997-12-31

    As part of the German Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) the distribution of natural radionuclides in the water column and in sediment traps have been investigated. The main objective was to estimate the trapping efficiency of sediment traps deployed at three locations in the eastern North Atlantic (L1: 33 N, L2: 47 N; L3: 54 N; all situated at about 20 W) and to obtain information about particle exchange processes in the water column. In the upper water column the {sup 230}Th concentrations are similar at all locations investigated and a reversible scavenging model was able to describe the {sup 230}Th distribution. In the deep water-column at L2 and L3, however, the {sup 230}Th concentrations were significantly lower than predicted from the reversible scavenging model. The {sup 230}Th concentrations here could be described by a scavenging-mixing model which assumes an advection of {sup 230}Th depleted water masses and a rapid ventilation between 3 and 25 years. Seasonal variations in the radionuclide fluxes were observed in the sediment traps. The {sup 228}Th/{sup 230}Th ratios in the traps indicate particle exchange rates (aggregation/disaggregation) to be higher during the spring blooms. Based on the {sup 230}Th and {sup 231}Pa distribution in the water column and in the sediment traps, trapping efficiencies were calculated to be between 15% and 181%. Overtrapping was observed in a trap deployed near the seafloor. The lowest efficiencies (15%-26%) were determined in the 500 m and 1000 m traps. No direct relation between water currents and trapping biases were observed in this study. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der Deutschen JOINT GLOBAL OCEAN FLUX STUDY wurde die Verteilung natuerlicher Radionuklide in der Wassersaeule und in Sinkstoffallen an drei Lokationen (L1: 34 N, L2: 47 N, L3: 54 N; alle bei 20 W) im oestlichen Nordatlantik untersucht. Wesentliche Ziele des Projektes waren, die Fangeffizienz von Sinkstoffallen und die Partikeldynamik (Partikel

  14. Uranium Series Diagenesis in Corals Exposed to Fresh Water: Toward Better Prospecting for Closed System Samples for High Accuracy Dating

    Mey, J.; Fairbanks, R.; Mortlock, R.; Bradtmiller, L.

    2005-12-01

    A better understanding of U-series diagenesis in corals exposed to the vadose and phreatic freshwater environments is required to help prospect for closed-system samples needed for high-accuracy dates. Disequilibrium U-series are common in corals exposed to fresh water and a priori screening is generally insufficient to reject samples prior to dating. As a result, a vast number of U-series dates reported in the literature are open system and numerous authors have resorted to various correction models (Bender et al., 1979; Gallup et al., 1994; Thompson et al., 2003; Villemant and Feuillet, 2003; and Scholz et al., 2004). The majority of studies assumes or models continuous or episodic addition of 234U and/or 230Th over time and relies on the low solubility of 230Th and/or 234Th. Several recent studies emphasize progressive production of 234U via α-recoil (Thompson et al., 2003; Villemant and Feuillet, 2003), however the application of these models may lead to over-parameterization and are mainly idiosyncratic to host sample locations (Scholz et al., 2004). Already, some studies make model corrections to open system ages and draw critical conclusions about sea level change (e.g. Scholz et al., 2004; Thompson and Goldstein, 2005). Characteristic of all of these studies is a general correlation between the 234U/238U activity ratio and the 230Th/238U activity ratio between intra-reef samples. On Barbados, the largest activity ratio offsets appear in the youngest samples exposed to fresh water; just the opposite finding of most diagenesis models. Our measurements are consistent with the observations of Scholz et al. (2004) from the Red Sea. The greatest addition of 234U, 230Th, and 231Pa to the Barbados samples occurred during the first exposure to fresh water, in this case Marine Isotope State 3 (MIS3), when 234U, 230Th, and 231Pa are added to samples in similar proportions, but varying amounts. The bulk of reef sands and rubble is aragonite, which releases U

  15. Origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department); Origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes dans la riviere Ellez a proximite du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement (Mont d'Arree - departement du Finistere). Resultats et premiers constats annee 2006

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 ({sup 227}Ac), non born by its ascendents which are {sup 235}U and {sup 231}Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of {sup 235}U and able to reach these ones of {sup 238}U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil ({sup 210}Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  16. Behavior studies of natural uranium radioactive families descendants in organic rich sediments: the sapropels

    The element uranium with the particular oxido-reducing properties is often associated with environments rich in organic matter; this is why several authors have proposed to use it as tracer of paleo-productivity in marine sediments. This work describes the distribution of the uranium natural families' radionuclides in organic rich Mediterranean sediments: the sapropels. Several techniques of measurements were used such as mass spectrometry (TIMS, ICP-QMS), alpha and gamma spectrometry. Activity ratios 234U/238U as well as the ages U-Th of the sapropels present irregular profiles which do not correspond to the assumptions which had been made to explain their formation. Using an 1D diffusion model we have showed that these profiles result from the migration of the radionuclides out of the sapropels. We validated these observations by analyzing several levels of sapropels presenting a spatio-temporal variability. Our study confirms the migration of radiogenic uranium 234Urad, which is produced in situ by his father the 238U, as well as the migration of the 226Ra. However the mobility of radiogenic uranium (234Urad) is not sufficient to explain the drift of the 230Th/238U and 231Pa/235U activity ratios in the S5 sapropel. An important result is that authigenic uranium also migrates, but with lower effective diffusion coefficients than those of the 234Urad. Because of this mobility, the use of U authigenic of the sediments as an indicator of paleo-productivity must thus be used with precaution. (author)

  17. Field experiment determinations of distribution coefficients of actinide elements in alkaline lake environments

    Measurements of the radioisotope concentrations of a number of elements (Am, Pu, U, Pa, Th, Ac, Ra, Po, Pb, Cs, and Sr) in the water and sediments of a group of alkaline (pH = 9-10), saline lakes demonstrate greatly enhanced soluble-phase concentrations of elements with oxidation states of (III)-(VI) as the result of complexing by carbonate ion. Ratios of soluble radionuclide concentrations in Mono Lake to those in seawater ([CO32-] in Mono Lake = 200 times that of seawater) were: Pu(approx. =10), 238U(approx. =150), 231Pa, 228Th, 230Th(approx. =103), and 232Th(approx. =105). Effective distribution coefficients of these radionuclides in high CO32- environments are several orders of magnitude lower (i.e., less particle reactive) than in most other natural waters. The importance of CO32- ion on effective K/sub d/ values was also strongly suggested by laboratory experiments in which most of the dissolved actinide elements became adsorbed to particles after a water sample normally at a pH of 10 was acidified, stripped of all CO2, and then returned to pH 10 by adding NH4OH. Furthermore, the effect of complexation by organic ligands is of secondary importance in the presence of appreciable carbonate ion concentration. Neither pure phase solubility calculations nor laboratory scale K/sub d/ determinations accurately predicted the measured natural system concentrations. Therefore, measurements of the distribution of radionuclides in natural systems are essential for assessment of the likely fate of potential releases from high level waste repositories to groundwater. 50 references, 31 figures, 43 tables

  18. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  19. Application of the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment to a generic high-level waste disposal site.

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Simón, I; Cancio, D; Moraleda, M; Trueba, C; Pérez-Sánchez, D

    2008-09-15

    A methodological approach which includes conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools have been developed in the Spanish context, based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology". The biosphere assessments have to be undertaken with the aim of demonstrating compliance with principles and regulations established to limit the possible radiological impact of radioactive waste disposals on human health and on the environment, and to ensure that future generations will not be exposed to higher radiation levels than those that would be acceptable today. The biosphere in the context of high-level waste disposal is defined as the collection of various radionuclide transfer pathways that may result in releases into the surface environment, transport within and between the biosphere receptors, exposure of humans and biota, and the doses/risks associated with such exposures. The assessments need to take into account the complexity of the biosphere, the nature of the radionuclides released and the long timescales considered. It is also necessary to make assumptions related to the habits and lifestyle of the exposed population, human activities in the long term and possible modifications of the biosphere. A summary on the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment are presented here as well as its application in a Spanish generic case study. A reference scenario has been developed based on current conditions at a site located in Central-West Spain, to indicate the potential impact to the actual population. In addition, environmental change has been considered qualitatively through the use of interaction matrices and transition diagrams. Unit source terms of (36)Cl, (79)Se, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135)Cs, (226)Ra, (231)Pa, (238)U, (237)Np and (239)Pu have been taken. Two exposure groups of infants and adults have been chosen for dose calculations. Results are presented and their robustness is evaluated through the use of uncertainty and

  20. JGOFS IV. Subproject: natural radionuclides as tracers for particle dynamics in the water column. Final report

    As part of the German JOINT GLOBAL OCEAN FLUX STUDY (JGOFS) the aim of the project was to investigate the particle dynamics in the water column, especially to estimate the trapping efficiencies of sediment traps deployed in the eastern North Atlantic (L1: 33 N 21 W; L2: 47 N 19.5 W; L3: 54,4 N 21,1 W; ESTOC: 29,07 N 15,25 W; OMEX: 49 N 12,5 W). This investigation was based on measurements of the distribution of natural radionuclides in the water column and in sediment traps. In the upper water column (≤1000 m) the 230Th concentrations are similar at all locations investigated and a reversible scavenging model was able to describe the 230Th distribution. In the deep water-column at L2 and L3 the 230Th concentrations were significantly lower than predicted from the reversible scavenging model. The 230Th concentrations here could be described by a scavenging-mixing model which assumes an advection of 230Th depleted water masses and a rapid ventilation between 3 and 25 years. Based on two models, a mass balance for 230Th and 231Pa and a constant removal model, sediment trap efficiencies were calculated to be between 9% and 143%. The lowest efficiencies (9%-36%) were determined in the 500 m and 1000 m traps and no direct relation between water currents velocities and trapping biases were observed. The correction for trapping biases were found to be important for the understanding of the regional differences in the particle flux in the eastern north Atlantic. (orig.)

  1. origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department)

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 (227Ac), non born by its ascendents which are 235U and 231Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of 235U and able to reach these ones of 238U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil (210Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  2. REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison. ''U Age Dating - determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample''

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison aimed at determining the production date of a uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chemical separation date of the material). Participants in REIMEP-22 on ''U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample'' received one low-enriched 20 mg uranium sample for mass spectrometry measurements and/or one 50 mg uranium sample for a-spectrometry measurements, with an undisclosed value for the production date. They were asked to report the isotope amount ratios n(230Th)/n(234U) for the 20 mg uranium sample and/or the activity ratios A(230Th)/A(234U) for the 50 mg uranium sample in addition to the calculated production date of the certified test samples with its uncertainty. Reporting of the 231Pa/235U ratio and the respective calculated production date was optional. Eleven laboratories reported results in REIMEP-22. Two of them reported results for both the 20 mg and 50 mg uranium certified test samples. The measurement capability of the participants was assessed against the independent REIMEP-22 reference value by means of z- and zeta-scores in compliance with ISO 13528:2005. Furthermore a performance assessment criterion for acceptable uncertainty was applied to evaluate the participants' results. In general, the REIMEP-22 participants' results were satisfactory. This confirms the analytical capabilities of laboratories to determine accurately the age of uranium materials with low amount of ingrown thorium (young certified test sample). The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC-JRC) organised REIMEP-22 in parallel to the preparation and certification of a uranium reference material certified for the production date (IRMM-1000a and IRMM-1000b).

  3. Uranium and thorium series radioisotopes and the cycle of chemical materials in the ocean

    This article summarizes the author's work on the distributions of U, 234Th, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in seawater. Some recent studies of other investigators relevant to them are also reviewed. Removal of uranium from seawater occur in anoxic sediments where soluble U (VI)is reduced to insoluble U (IV). Radium isotopes are useful tracers for the study of water movement althouth distribution of 226Ra is largely governed by the biogeochemical cycle. Based on the 226Ra distribution and a box-model of the Japan Sea, the residence times of the Japan Sea Proper Water with respect to exchange with the surface water by vertical mixing and with the open ocean water were estimated to be 300 ∼400 years and 700 ∼ 1,000 years, respectively. Measurements of 234Th/238U in the surface waters indicates that the degree of the radioactive disequilibrium is large in the northern North and the equatorial Pacific suggesting that the biological particles are responsible for 234Th removal. In the deep sea, the removal of 210Pb and 231Pa occurs intensively in the high productivity areas. The increase of 210Pb concentration was observed in the bottom water of Funka Bay in summer when the sediment became a weakly reducing condition. The concentration of 210Po, the daughter nuclide of 210Pb, was also extremely high in the bottom water of the anoxic marine lake in Palau. These observations suggest that lead and polonium are naturally mobilized in anoxic surface sediments. (author)

  4. Neutron-induced fission cross sections of short-lived actinides with the surrogate reaction method

    We present a review of the fission cross section measurements made by the CENBG collaboration over the last years using the surrogate reaction method. For example the neutron-induced fission cross sections of 233Pa (T1/2=27 d), 242Cm (T1/2=162.8 d) and 243Cm (T1/2=29.1 y) have been obtained by our group with this technique. The advantages and the difficulties of the surrogate method are discussed. Special attention is paid to the comparison between cross sections measured with the surrogate method and those obtained directly with neutrons at low energies. This comparison provides information on possible differences between the spin-parity distributions achieved in the two methods. We measured for the first time the fission cross section of 233Pa. Our results for 231Pa(n,f) revealed that the existing neutron-induced data overestimated the fission cross section above 1.5 MeV. The deduced 241Am(n,f) and 242Cm(n,f) cross sections agree with the available data obtained via neutron-induced reactions. The good agreement observed at the lowest neutron energies between the present results and the neutron-induced data for 242Cm(n,f) and 243Cm(n,f) indicates that the population of excited states generated by the transfer reactions used in this work is similar to the distribution fed in neutron induced reactions. This agreement illustrates the potential of the surrogate reaction method to provide neutron-induced fission cross sections for short-lived nuclei

  5. REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison. ''U Age Dating - determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample''

    Venchiarutti, Celia; Richter, Stephan; Jakopic, Rozle; Aregbe, Yetunde [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Geel (Belgium). Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM); Varga, Zsolt; Mayer, Klaus [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU)

    2015-07-01

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison aimed at determining the production date of a uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chemical separation date of the material). Participants in REIMEP-22 on ''U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample'' received one low-enriched 20 mg uranium sample for mass spectrometry measurements and/or one 50 mg uranium sample for a-spectrometry measurements, with an undisclosed value for the production date. They were asked to report the isotope amount ratios n({sup 230}Th)/n({sup 234}U) for the 20 mg uranium sample and/or the activity ratios A({sup 230}Th)/A({sup 234}U) for the 50 mg uranium sample in addition to the calculated production date of the certified test samples with its uncertainty. Reporting of the {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U ratio and the respective calculated production date was optional. Eleven laboratories reported results in REIMEP-22. Two of them reported results for both the 20 mg and 50 mg uranium certified test samples. The measurement capability of the participants was assessed against the independent REIMEP-22 reference value by means of z- and zeta-scores in compliance with ISO 13528:2005. Furthermore a performance assessment criterion for acceptable uncertainty was applied to evaluate the participants' results. In general, the REIMEP-22 participants' results were satisfactory. This confirms the analytical capabilities of laboratories to determine accurately the age of uranium materials with low amount of ingrown thorium (young certified test sample). The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC-JRC) organised REIMEP-22 in parallel to the preparation and certification of a uranium reference material certified for the production date (IRMM-1000a and IRMM-1000b).

  6. Uranium-series coral ages from the US Atlantic Coastal Plain-the "80 ka problem" revisited

    Wehmiller, J. F.; Simmons, K.R.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Martin-McNaughton, J.; York, L.L.; Krantz, D.E.; Shen, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium series coral ages for emergent units from the passive continental margin US Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) suggest sea level above present levels at the end of marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 5, contradicting age-elevation relations based on marine isotopic or coral reef models of ice equivalent sea level. We have reexamined this problem by obtaining high precision 230Th/238U and 231Pa/235U thermal ionization mass spectrometric ages for recently collected and carefully cleaned ACP corals, many in situ. We recognize samples that show no evidence for diagenesis on the basis of uranium isotopic composition and age concordance. Combining new and earlier data, among those ages close to or within the age range of MIS 5, over 85% cluster between 65 and 85 ka BP. Of the corals that we have analyzed, those that show the least evidence for diagenesis on the basis of uranium isotopic composition and age concordance have ages between 80 and 85 ka BP, consistent with a MIS 5a correlation. The units from which these samples have been collected are all emergent and have elevations within ???3-5m of those few units where early stage 5 (???125,000 ka BP) coral ages have been obtained. The ACP appears to record an unusual history of relative sea level throughout MIS 5, a history that is also apparent in the dated coral record for Bermuda. We speculate that this history is related to the regional (near-to intermediate-field) effects of ancestral Laurentide Ice sheets on last interglacial shorelines of the western North Atlantic. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  7. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO2 as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with 231Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise

  8. Chuck Palahniuk: Negdje mora puknuti / S engleskog prevela Valentina Lisak

    Chuck Palahniuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Iza zaključanih vrata zahoda u stražnjem dijelu antikvarnice Claire Upton razgovara na telefon. Glas joj odjekuje od poda i zidova: Koliko je teško provaliti nadzornu kameru? Ukrasti snimku? upita svog muža i počne plakati.U zadnjih tjedan dana bila je u tom dućanu već tri ili četiri puta. Jedan od onih gdje moraš ostaviti torbu na blagajni, inače te ne puste unutra. Moraš ostaviti i kaput, ako ima duboke, prostrane džepove. I kišobran, jer bi ljudi u nabore mogli ubacivati sitne predmete, češljeve, nakit i druge drangulije. Kraj starog blagajnika stoji sivi karton na kojem crnim markerom piše: “Ne volimo kad nas kradete!”Skidajući kaput, Claire reče: “Ja nisam lopov.”Stari blagajnik pogledom ju je odmjerio od glave do pete. Coknuo je jezikom i pitao: “Po čemu ste vi iznimka?”Za svaki ostavljeni predmet dao je Claire polovicu karte. Za torbicu hercova asa. Za kaput trefovu devetku. Za kišobran pikovu trojku.Pogledom je prešao preko Claireinih ruku, obrisa džepova na prsima i najlonki tražeći izbočine, nešto ukradeno. Iza prednjeg pulta po cijeloj su trgovini visjeli mali natpisi koji su upozoravali da je ovdje zabranjeno krasti. Kamere su nadzirale svaki prolaz, svaki kutak i sve prikazivale na malenom ekranu punom drugih ekrana. Trezor malih, crno-bijelih tv-ekrana iza blagajne gdje je sjedio starac i sve ih promatrao.

  9. A history of coeliac disease.

    Losowsky, M S

    2008-01-01

    Coeliac disease may have an ancient history dating back to the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The first clear description was given by Samuel Gee in 1888. He suggested that dietary treatment might be of benefit. In the early 20th century various diets were tried, with some success, but without clear recognition of the toxic components. The doctoral thesis of Wim Dicke of 1950 established that exclusion of wheat, rye and oats from the diet led to dramatic improvement. The toxicity was shown to be a protein component, referred to as gluten. Dicke's colleagues, Weijers and Van de Kamer, showed that measurement of stool fat reflected the clinical condition. Early studies were in children but stool fat measurements documented that the condition could be recognised in adults. Histological abnormalities of the lining of the small intestine were demonstrated beyond doubt by Paulley in 1954 and techniques of per-oral biopsy described by Royer in 1955 and Shiner in 1956 afforded reliable diagnosis. Concurrence in monozygotic twins suggested a genetic component, confirmed by studies of HLA antigens. Additional, non-genetic factors seem likely. Circulating antibodies suggest an immunological mechanism of damage and provide non-invasive screening tests. Lymphoma, adenocarcinoma and ulceration of the small intestine and a range of immunological disorders are associated. A relationship with dermatitis herpetiformis was suggested by Samman in 1955 and established by Shuster and Marks in 1965 and 1968. The Coeliac Society (now Coeliac UK) was founded in 1968 and similar societies now exist across the world. They provide an extremely valuable service. Present problems include definition of the tolerated levels of gluten, whether oats are toxic for some or all coeliacs and the likelihood that the condition is relatively common and frequently without classical symptoms. Hope for the future is that more convenient methods of treatment will follow better understanding. PMID:18431060

  10. The distribution of radionuclides and some trace metals in the water columns of the Japan and Bonin trenches; Repartition des nucleides radioactifs et de quelques metaux-traces dans les fosses du Japon et des iles Bonin

    Nozari, Y.; Yamada, M. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Ocean Research Inst; Nakanishi, T. [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry; Nagaya, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Yamada, M. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan); Shitashima, K.; Tsubota, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences

    1998-05-01

    Presented here is the first geochemical data on the U/Th series Th, Pa, Ac, and Pb isotopes and artificial fallout radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and Pu isotopes), and some trace elements (V, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, and Ni) in two water columns of the Japan and Bonin trenches down to the bottom depths of 7585 m and 9750 m, respectively. Hydrographic properties such as temperature, salinity dissolved oxygen, and nutrient content within the trench valley remain constant at the same levels as those in the bottom water of the Northwest Pacific basin (typically {approx}6000 m in depth). The radionuclide activities and most trace metal concentrations are also not very different from those in the overlying water at depths of around 5000-6000 m. This means that any chemical alteration which sea water undergoes during its residence within the trench was not obviously detected by the techniques used here. The suggestion follows that the trench water is rather freely communicating y isopycnal mixing with the bottom water overlying the Northwest Pacific abyssal plain. The trench waters contain high {sup 239,240}Pu activities throughout, indicating that Pu is actively regenerating from rapidly sinking, large particles at the bottom interface, probably due to a change in the oxidation state. On the other hand, the vertical profiles of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 231}Pa show lower activities within the trench than those in the overlying deep waters, suggesting that the effect of boundary and bottom scavenging is significant in controlling their oceanic distributions. However, none of the trace metals studied here obviously follows the behaviour of the above nuclides. The {sup 228}Th data show scattering within the Bonin Trench that is largely ascribable to analytical errors. If, however we accept that the scatter of {sup 228}Th data is real and the variation is caused solely by decay of its parent {sup 228}Ra, we can set an upper limit of {approx}5 years for the renewal time of the

  11. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids. The characterization of the 241-AP-101 composite samples included: (1) Inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry for Ag, Al, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Ru, Rh, Si, Sr, Ti, U, Zn, and Zr (Note: Although not specified in the test plan, As, B, Be, Co, Li, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, W, and Y were also measured and reported for information only) (2) Radioisotopic analyses for total alpha and total beta activities, 3H, 14C, 60Co, 79Se, 90Sr, 99Tc as pertechnetate, 106Ru/Rh, 125Sb, 134Cs, 137Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 155Eu, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243+244Cm; (3) Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for 237Np, 239Pu, 240Pu, 99Tc, 126Sn, 129I, 231Pa, 233U, 234U, 235U, 236U, 238U, 241AMU, 242AMU, 243AMU, As, B, Be, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, I, Li, Mo, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Te, Th, Tl, V, and W; (4) total U by kinetic phosphorescence analysis; (5) Ion chromatography for Cl, F, NO2, NO3, PO4, SO4, acetate, formate, oxalate, and citrate; (6) Density, inorganic carbon and organic carbon by two different methods, mercury, free hydroxide, ammonia, and cyanide. The 241-AP-101 composite met all contract limits (molar ratio of analyte to sodium or ratio of becquerels of analyte to moles of sodium) defined in Specification 7 for Envelope A. Except for a few cases, the characterization results met or surpassed the

  12. A Nd Isotopic Composition Modeling Approach of the Oceanic Thermohaline Circulation Change During LGM

    Arsouze, T.; Dutay, J.; Lacan, F.; Jeandel, C.; Alkama, R.; Kageyama, M.; Piotrowski, A.

    2006-12-01

    The role of thermohaline circulation in climate change has been a matter of debate for a long time. Proxies of past ocean circulation such as δ13C or 231Pa/230Th suggest a relationship between North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) strength and rapid climate change. Neodymium isotopic composition (Nd IC) is a quasi conservative geochemical tracer of water masses in the ocean interior and thus can be used as a proxy for NADW. Seawater Nd IC being recorded in marine sediments, this proxy is used to infer paleo-circulations on various time scales. Recent studies of Nd IC records, in the ferromanganese oxide components of a South Atlantic core, confirm the close relation between thermohaline circulation and North Atlantic climate changes through the last deglaciation (Piotrowski et al., 2004). Our purpose here is to model the Nd IC during the LGM and the Holocene with the Ocean Global Circulation Model NEMO, in the ORCA2 (2°) configuration. The explicit simulation of this proxy in the model allows to investigate and quantify the circulation change that corresponds to the Nd isotopic composition variation recorded in the sediments. We consider that the main source of Nd into the ocean is the interaction between water masses and continental margins (Boundary Exchange process; (Lacan and Jeandel, 2005). Boundary exchange is parameterized using a relaxing term (Arsouze et al., 2006). Simulated Nd IC distributions are evaluated by comparison with available records for the LGM and Holocene. References: Arsouze, T., Dutay, J.-C., Lacan, F. and Jeandel, C., 2006. Modeling the neodymium isotopic composition with a global ocean circulation model Chemical Geology, in press. Lacan, F. and Jeandel, C., 2005. Neodymium isotopes as a new tool for quantifying exchange fluxes at the continent - ocean interface. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 232(3-4): 245-257. Piotrowski, A.M., Goldstein, S.L., Hemming, S.R. and Fairbanks, R.G., 2004. Intensification and variability of ocean

  13. Thermodynamic and structural properties in complexing media

    Protactinium is experiencing a renewal of interest in the frame of long-term energy production. Modelling the behaviour of this element in the geosphere requires thermodynamic and structural data relevant to environmental conditions. Now deep clayey formation are considered for the disposal of radioactive waste and high values of natural sulphate contents have been determined in pore water in equilibrium with clay surface. Because of its tendency to polymerisation, hydrolysis and sorption on all solid supports, the equilibria constants relative to monomer species were determined at tracer scale (ca. 10 - 12 M) with 233Pa. The complexation constants of Pa(V) and sulphate ions were calculated starting from a systematic study of the apparent distribution coefficient D in the system TTA/Toluene/H2O/Na2SO4/HClO4/NaClO4 and as a function of ionic strength, temperature, free sulphate, protons and chelatant concentration. First of all, the interaction between free species H+, SO4-, Na+ leads to the formation of HSO4- and NaSO4-, for which concentrations depend upon the related thermodynamic constants. For this purpose a computer code was developed in order to determine all free species concentration. This iterative code takes into account the influence of temperature and ionic strength (SIT modelling) on thermodynamic constants. The direct measure of Pa(V) in the organic and aqueous phase by g-spectrometry had conducted to estimate the apparent distribution coefficient D as function of free sulphate ions. Complexation constants have been determined after a mathematical treatment of D. The extrapolation of these constants at zero ionic strength have been realized by SIT modelling at different temperatures. Besides, enthalpy and entropy values were calculated. Parallelly, the structural study of Pa(V) was performed using 231 Pa. XANES and EXAFS spectra show unambiguously the absence of the trans di-oxo bond that characterizes the other early actinide elements like U and Np

  14. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age

    Costa, K. M.; McManus, J. F.; Anderson, R. F.; Ren, H.; Sigman, D. M.; Winckler, G.; Fleisher, M. Q.; Marcantonio, F.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age—the Last Glacial Period (LGP)—but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the 232Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, 231Pa/230Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ15N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0–10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000–27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  15. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    SK Fiskum; PR Bredt; JA Campbell; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; GJ Lumetta; GM Mong; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist; RG Swoboda; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-06-28

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids. The characterization of the 241-AP-101 composite samples included: (1) Inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry for Ag, Al, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Ru, Rh, Si, Sr, Ti, U, Zn, and Zr (Note: Although not specified in the test plan, As, B, Be, Co, Li, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, W, and Y were also measured and reported for information only) (2) Radioisotopic analyses for total alpha and total beta activities, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Co, {sup 79}Se, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc as pertechnetate, {sup 106}Ru/Rh, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm, and {sup 243+244}Cm; (3) Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 231}Pa, {sup 233}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 241}AMU, {sup 242}AMU, {sup 243}AMU, As, B, Be, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, I, Li, Mo, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Te, Th, Tl, V, and W; (4) total U by kinetic phosphorescence analysis; (5) Ion chromatography for Cl, F, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}, PO{sub 4}, SO{sub 4}, acetate, formate, oxalate, and citrate; (6) Density, inorganic carbon and organic carbon by two different methods, mercury, free hydroxide, ammonia, and cyanide. The 241-AP-101 composite met all

  16. 232Th(d,4n)230Pa cross-section measurements at ARRONAX facility

    Full text of publication follows. The ARRONAX cyclotron [Ref.1], acronym for 'Accelerator for Research in Radiochemistry and Oncology at Nantes Atlantique' is a new facility installed in Nantes, France. A dedicated program has been launched on production of innovative radionuclides for PET imaging and for β- and α- targeted radiotherapy using proton or α particle. Since the accelerator is also able to deliver deuteron beams up to 35 MeV, we have reconsidered the possibility to use them to produce medical isotopes. In this study, we have focused on cross section measurements using the stacked-foil technique [Ref. 2] of one isotope dedicated to alpha radio-immunotherapy (α RIT) [Ref.3], 226Th which can be produced through different routes. It's of great interest since it has been found to be a more potent alpha particle emitter for leukemia therapies than Bi213 [Ref.4]. Indeed, the 226Th decay produced a cascade of four α particles with a cumulated energy of 27.7 MeV. An additional interest is the possible use of a radionuclide generator system 230U/226Th. 230U could be produced directly via 231Pa(p, 2n)230U, and indirectly via 230Pa using proton or deuteron beams through 232Th(p, 3n)230Pa → 230U, 232Th(d, 4n)230Pa → 230U. Twelve data sets are published concerning the 230Pa cross section induced by proton [Ref 5], only one by deuteron [Ref.6]. As sometimes deuteron induced reaction gives higher cross section values, it seems interesting to focus our study on their use as projectile on 232Th target to produce 230Pa. Contaminants created during irradiation are also measured since a good optimization of the process is supposed to find the best compromise between production yield and purity of the final product. Our new sets of data are compared with the existing data [Refs.5,6] on other existing production routes and with results given by TALYS code calculations [Ref.7]. References: 1] F. Haddad and al., Eur. J. Med. Mol. Imaging (2008) 35

  17. Thermodynamic and structural properties in complexing media; Comportement chimique du protactinium (V) en presence d'ions sulfate

    Di Giandomenico, M.V

    2007-10-15

    Protactinium is experiencing a renewal of interest in the frame of long-term energy production. Modelling the behaviour of this element in the geosphere requires thermodynamic and structural data relevant to environmental conditions. Now deep clayey formation are considered for the disposal of radioactive waste and high values of natural sulphate contents have been determined in pore water in equilibrium with clay surface. Because of its tendency to polymerisation, hydrolysis and sorption on all solid supports, the equilibria constants relative to monomer species were determined at tracer scale (ca. 10 - 12 M) with {sup 233}Pa. The complexation constants of Pa(V) and sulphate ions were calculated starting from a systematic study of the apparent distribution coefficient D in the system TTA/Toluene/H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/HClO{sub 4}/NaClO{sub 4} and as a function of ionic strength, temperature, free sulphate, protons and chelatant concentration. First of all, the interaction between free species H{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup -}, Na{sup +} leads to the formation of HSO{sub 4}{sup -} and NaSO{sub 4}{sup -}, for which concentrations depend upon the related thermodynamic constants. For this purpose a computer code was developed in order to determine all free species concentration. This iterative code takes into account the influence of temperature and ionic strength (SIT modelling) on thermodynamic constants. The direct measure of Pa(V) in the organic and aqueous phase by g-spectrometry had conducted to estimate the apparent distribution coefficient D as function of free sulphate ions. Complexation constants have been determined after a mathematical treatment of D. The extrapolation of these constants at zero ionic strength have been realized by SIT modelling at different temperatures. Besides, enthalpy and entropy values were calculated. Parallelly, the structural study of Pa(V) was performed using 231 Pa. XANES and EXAFS spectra show unambiguously the absence of the

  18. Quaternary Antarctic ice-sheet fluctuations and Southern Ocean palaeoceanography: natural variability studies at the Antarctic CRC

    and carbonate radiocarbon dating. Measurements of unsupported 230Th and 231Pa may allow estimation of accumulation rates, although dating techniques using these radioisotopes require uniform sedimentation rates, which may not (and probably do not) apply to these cores. The principal chronostratigraphic tool employed in this work is radiocarbon dating of sedimentary bulk organic carbon (the cores contain ∼1-2% organic carbon). Radiocarbon ages have been determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation facility at Lucas Heights, New South Wales, or at the Rafter Radiocarbon Laboratory of the New Zealand Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences. In addition, unsupported 210Pb was measured in the core-top subsamples by gamma spectrometry at the University of Hawaii, in an effort to evaluate recent accumulation rates, bioturbation, and core-top loss

  19. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age.

    Costa, K M; McManus, J F; Anderson, R F; Ren, H; Sigman, D M; Winckler, G; Fleisher, M Q; Marcantonio, F; Ravelo, A C

    2016-01-28

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age--the Last Glacial Period (LGP)--but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the (232)Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, (231)Pa/(230)Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ(15)N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  20. Results For The Third Quarter 2009 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminant Results

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2009 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. Recently, a review of the radionuclide inventory in Saltstone Vaults 1 and 4 identified several additional radionuclides, not currently in the WAC, which require quantification (40K, 108mAg, 133Ba, 207Bi, 227Ac, 228Ra, 228Th, 231Pa, 247Cm, 249Cf, 251Cf). In addition, several of the radionuclides previously reported with minimum detection limits below the requirements listed in the WAC required analysis with reduced detection limits to support future inventory reporting requirements (22Na, 26Al, 59Ni, 94Nb, 106Ru, 144Ce, 152Eu, 155Eu, 226Ra). This added scope was formally requested in a revision to the standing Technical Task Request for CY2009 Saltstone support and is further discussed in several supporting documents. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants are less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limits for 59Ni, 94Nb, 247Cm, and 249Cf are above the limits requested by LWO; however, they are below the achievable limits established by Analytical Development (AD). (3) The reported detection limit of isopropanol is lower than its WAC Limit for accident analysis in Appendix 8.1, but higher than its WAC concentration given in Table 4 for vault flammability. The higher detection limit is expected based on current analytical capabilities and is documented in the Task

  1. Collective and single-particle excitations in the heavy deformable nuclei 234U, 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa

    In this thesis five heavy deformed isotopes from the mass region A≥230, namely 234U, 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa, were investigated by means of deuteron-induced neutron transfer reactions. The even-even isotope 234U has been studied with the 4π-γ-spectrometer MINIBALL at the Cologne Tandem accelerator. Excited nuclei in the isotope 234U were produced using the reaction 235U(d,t) at a beam energy of 11 MeV. The target thickness was 3.5 mg/cm2. The analysis of the γγ-coincidence data yielded a reinterpretation of the level scheme in 12 cases. Considering its decay characteristics, the 4+ state at an excitation energy of 1886.7 keV is a potential candidate for a two-phonon vibrational state. The isotopes 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa were investigated at the Munich Q3D spectrometer. For each isotope an angular distribution with angles between 5 and 45 were measured. In all four cases the energy of the polarized deuteron beam (vector polarization of 80%) was 22 MeV. As targets 234U (160 μg/cm2), 230Th (140 μg/cm2) and 231Pa (140 μg/cm2) were used. The experimental angular distributions were compared to results of DWBA calculations. For the odd isotope 233U spin and parity for 33 states are assigned and in the other odd isotope 231Th 22 assignments are made. The excitation spectra of the two odd-odd isotopes 230Pa and 232Pa were investigated for the first time. For the isotope 230Pa 63 states below an excitation energy of 1.5 MeV are identified. Based on the new experimental data the Nilsson configuration of the ground state is either 1/2[530]p-5/2[633]n or 1/2[530]p+3/2[631]n. In addition 12 rotational bands are proposed and from this six values for the GM splitting energy are deduced as well as two new values for the Newby shift. In the other odd-odd isotope 232Pa 40 states below an excitation energy of 850 keV are observed and suggestions for the groundstate band and its GM partner are made. From this one GM splitting energy was determined.

  2. The consequences of the proposed amendment of the Dutch Bankruptcy Code for the supply and transport of natural gas and electricity in a liberalized market; De gevolgen van de voorgenomen wijziging van de Faillisementswet voor de levering en transport van gas en elektriciteit in een geliberaliseerde markt

    Keijsers, P.; Hartendorp, R.C. [Sectie Energy and Utilities, Clifford Chance LLP, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2003-06-01

    Pursuant to the legislative proposal to amend the Bankruptcy Act, suppliers of energy can no longer terminate or suspend agreements for the supply of energy in case of bankruptcy of such customer. In addition, default under such an agreement relating to the period prior to bankruptcy is no ground to dissolve such an agreement. Furthermore, (a request for) bankruptcy or seizure of assets may no longer lead to termination by operation of law, unless approved by the receiver. The above applies as well to moratorium of payment. This legislative proposal will probably enter into force at some point during this year. The background of the legislative proposal is that suppliers of energy are 'essential suppliers' who should not be able to abuse their monopolistic position to suspend delivery of energy in order to force payment of unpaid bills relating to the period prior to bankruptcy. There is no justification for such a restriction to only apply to energy companies instead of to all 'essential suppliers'. If the regime were to apply to energy companies, it should only apply to network managers: these parties are the only energy-related parties who remain essential suppliers. In principle, the gas and electricity itself can also be obtained from other parties than the current supplier, although certain problems may arise in relation to switching supplier. In addition, the legislative proposal will probably lead to a situation where energy companies will require security or terminate the agreement in an earlier stage, as soon as they realise that there are problems with the payment of invoices for the supply/transport of electricity. The costs in relation thereto and in relation to the obligation to continue the supply during bankruptcy, may lead to higher costs of energy distribution companies which will probably be included in the terms for the supply of electricity. [Dutch] Onlangs heeft de Tweede Kamer het wetvoorstel met betrekking tot de

  3. Using U-series and beryllium isotopes to reveal the occurrence and relative timing of crustal and mantle processes in the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile

    Cooper, L. B.; Reubi, O.; Dungan, M. A.; Bourdon, B.; Langmuir, C. H.; Turner, S. J.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    the main edifice have been mixed with magma compositions similar to those at surrounding minor eruptive centers (Hickey-Vargas et al., 2002). The latter appear to be decompression melts of enriched mantle which manifest moderate U-Th-Ra disequilibrium and substantial 231Pa-excesses, whereas melts from Villarrica have substantial U- and Ra-excesses. Magmas from Osorno reflect a greater influence of sediments originating from the incoming slab. After discounting assimilated samples, all primary melts have uniformly high Pa-excesses (1.7-2.2) coincident with large variations in 238U-230Th disequilibria. Fluid addition-aging-melting successions at Antuco and Chillán may have led to compositions near U-Th equilibrium or with Th-excesses, respectively. Primary Ra-deficits at Chillán, Lonquimay, and Osorno are under investigation and potentially reflect melting of a cumulate body. Forthcoming 10Be data for select U-series samples will enable further clarification of the regional trend. Preliminary analyses of nine Llaima samples erupted between 1850 and 2009 confirm the successful elimination of a meteoric 10Be component and produce a data array consistent with assimilation. The invocation of radioactive decay to produce U-Th equilibrium (duration of at least 380 ky) could also explain the low 10Be/9Be compositions (half-life of 10Be=1,390 ky). Our comprehensive dataset may shed new light on melting processes in subduction zone systems.

  4. Update of 233U, 229-232Th and 230-233Pa Fission Data

    transfer reactions. These are pick-up, stripping or inelastic scattering reactions of charged- particle beams with stable actinide targets, which tremendously enhance the scarce neutron- induced fission cross section data base for the Th-Pa chain of nuclei. Consistent description of non-fissile 230,232Th(n,f) neutron-induced and surrogate fission data allows to quantify the consistency of surrogate, ratio surrogate and neutron-induced fission data. That, in turn, would allow to predict the fission cross sections in keV-energy range of fissile 229,231Th target nuclides. A similar approach in case of 231,233Pa(n,f) reactions with a less diverse data base, allows prediction of fissile targets cross sections of 230,232Pa. Unfortunately, even in the newest data library of JENDL-4.0 the consistency of the fissilities for chain of nuclides is not observed, adverse effect on (n, γ) and (n, xn) prediction is unavoidable. In clear-cut cases like 232Th(n,f) and 230Th(n,f), the fission chances partitioning was done in a simplified manner, the relative contributions of (n,f) and (n,xnf) reactions are defined as a phenomenological, non-Hauser-Feshbach, fit to the observed fission cross sections. In the less clear-cut cases of 231Pa(n,f) and 233Pa(n,f), the fission chances contribution prediction is not correlated with the fissilities of A+1-xPa nuclides, emerging in (n,xnf) reactions

  5. Analýza záběru vpřed na kajaku pro jízdu na divoké vodě v přírodních podmínkách An analysis of the forward stroke as used in a wild water kayak on flat waters

    František Vaverka

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Přímý záběr vpřed je jedna ze základních pohybových činností, jejichž zvládnutí je nezbytné pro dosažení kvalitní výkonnosti v kanoistice na divoké vodě. Analýzou záznamů přímého záběru (4 ženy, 5 mužů; juniorští reprezentanti a talentovaní závodníci jsme ze tří kamer, pomocí systému APAS, určili základní kinematické parametry této pohybové činnosti na pravé a levé straně lodi. Pohyb lodi ve sledovaném úseku byl realizován maximální rychlostí. Pro provedení záběru u lepších kajakářů je typická: menší ztráta rychlosti ve fázi zasazení a přenosu pádla, zkrácení doby trvání fáze tažení, větší frekvence záběrů. U těchto závodníků jsme dále nalezli lepší symetrii pohybu pravé a levé horní končetiny, minimální pohyb trupu v předozadním směru a zmenšení výchylek lodi do stran. The forward stroke is one of the basic motion activities that are typically used for canoeing in white water. Kinematic analysis (4 women, 5 men; junior representatives and talented competitors of records from three cameras was used. The movement of the kayak was carried out with maximal velocity. General parameters of the stroke on the left and right side of the kayak were determined utilizing the APAS system. Lower velocity losses in the catch and pull phase of the paddle, a shorter time of the pull phase, higher frequency of the strokes are typical for kayakers with better levels of efficiency. The movement of the right and left wrist of these competitors in the frontal plane is more symmetrical. The deviation of the trunk is less in the sagittal plane as well as the sideways movement of the kayak.

  6. ZZ MATXSLIBJ33, JENDL-3.3 based, 175 N-42 photon groups (VITAMIN-J) MATXS library for discrete ordinates multi-group

    -156, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Tb-159, Er-162, Er-164, Er-166, Er-167, Er-168, Er-170, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Hg-196, Hg-198, Hg-199, Hg-200, Hg-201, Hg-202, Hg-204, Pb-204, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-225, Ra-226, Ac-225, Ac-226, Ac-227, Th-227, Th-228, Th-229, Th-230, Th-232, Th-233, Th-234, Pa-231, Pa-232, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, U-238, Np-235, Np-236, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-244, Pu-246, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Am-244, Am-244m, Cm-240, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Cm-249, Cm-250, Bk-247, Bk-249, Bk-250, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252, Cf-254, Es-254, Es-255, Fm-255 Temperatures: 300 K. Origin: JENDL-3.3. Weighting spectrum: -- iwt=11 for NJOY-99. Legendre expansion: P6. Thermal scattering: free gas model. Self shielding: sigma-0, infinity, 10000, 1000, 300, 100, 30, 10, 1, 0.1, 1. E-5. Kerma factors are provided. NEA-1707/03: Corrections were made to the continuous inelastic scattering matrices (MT=91), for all nuclides for which this channel is open. This replaces the previous version. 2 - Methods: The nuclear data processing system NJOY-99.67 was used to produce MATXSLIBJ33. It can be further processed using TRANSX-2.15. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Accuracy of pointwise cross-section reconstruction: 0.1%; Upper limit of thermal region: 4.6 eV

  7. ZZ KASHIL-E70, 199 N, 42 Photon Groups Cross Sections in MATXS Format Based on ENDF/B-VII.0 for Shielding Applications

    1 - Description: Format: MATXS, 204 nuclides processed with NJOY99.245. Number of groups: 199 neutron-, 42 photon-groups. 204 Nuclides including 8 thermal scattering law data: H-1, H-2, H-3, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, Be-9, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-nat, C-nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, O-17, F-19, Na-23, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26, Al-27, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, P-31, S-32, S-33, S-34, S-36, Cl-35, Cl-37, K-39, K-40, K-41, Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48, Sc-45, Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, Ti-50, V-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ga-69, Ga-71, Y-89, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-94, Zr-96, Nb-93, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-100, Pd-102, Pd-104, Pd-105, Pd-106, Pd-108, Pd-110, Ag-107, Ag-109, Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, I-127, Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-134, Xe-136, Cs-133, Ba-138, Pr-141, Nd-143, Nd-145, Nd-146, Nd-148, Nd-150, Pm-147, Sm-147, Sm-151, Sm-152, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu-154, Eu-155, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Dy-164, Ho-165, Lu-175, Lu-176, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, Ta-182, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Re-185, Re-187, Ir-191, Ir-193, Au-197, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Th-230, Th-232, Pa-231, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, U-238, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-243, Pu-244, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Bk-249, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252, Cf-253, Es-253. Origin: ENDF/B-VII.0. Weighting spectrum: 300, 600, 1000, 2100 K. The KASHIL-E70 is a MATXS-format, 199-group neutron and 42-group photon cross section library for shielding applications based on ENDF/B-VII.0. The library contains 204 nuclide data including 8 thermal scattering law data processed by the NJOY99.259 code patched with NEA

  8. ZZ-SCALE5.1/COVA-44G, 44-group cross section covariance matrix library extracted from SCALE5.1

    ,Ba-134,Ba-135,Ba-136,Ba-137,Ba-138,Ba-140,La-139, La-140,Ce-140,Ce-141,Ce-142,Ce-143,Ce-144,Pr-141,Pr-142, Pr-143,Nd-142,Nd-143,Nd-144,Nd-145,Nd-146,Nd-147,Nd-148, Nd-150,Pm-147,Pm-148,Pm-148(m),Pm-149,Sm-144,Sm-147,Sm-148, Sm-149,Sm-150,Sm-151,Sm-152,Sm-153,Sm-154,Eu-151,Eu-152, Eu-153,Eu-154,Eu-155,Gd-152,Gd-154,Gd-155,Gd-156,Gd-157, Gd-158,Gd-160,Tb-159,Tb-160,Dy-160,Dy-161,Dy-162,Dy-163, Dy-164,Ho-165,Er-166,Er-167,Lu-175,Lu-176,Hf-0,Hf-174, Hf-176,Hf-177,Hf-178,Hf-179,Hf-180,Ta-181,Ta-182,W-0, W-182,W-183,W-184,W-186,Re-185(2),Re-187(2),Au-197(3),Pb-0(2), Pb-206,Pb-207,Pb-208,Bi-209(2),Th-230,Th-232(4),Pa-231,Pa-233(3), U-232,U-233,U-234,U-235,U-235(6),U-236,U-237,U-238(4), Np-237(2),Pu-238(7),Pu-239(9),Pu-240(10),Pu-241(11),Pu-242(3),Pu-243, Pu-244,Am-241(4),Am-242,Am-242(m),Am-243,Cm-242,Cm-243,Cm-244, Cm-245,Cm-246,Cm-247,Cm-248,Bk-249,Cf-249,Cf-250,Cf-251, Cf-252(3),Cf-253,Es-253. 2 - Related or auxiliary programs: ANGELO-2.3 and LAMBDA-2.3 codes (NEA-1798/01) can be used for the interpolation of the original 44-group data to a user defined energy group structure, and for the mathematical tests of the matrices, respectively

  9. ZZ MCB-JEF2.2, MCB Continuous-Energy Neutron Cross Section Libraries for Temperatures from 300 to 1800 K

    -154, Eu-155, Eu-156, Eu-157, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Tb-159, Tb-160, Dy-160, Dy-161, Dy-162, Dy-163, Dy-164, Ho-165, Er-166, Er-167, Lu-175, Lu-176, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, Ta-182, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Re-185, Re-187, Au-197, Pb-nat., Bi-209, Th-230, Th-232, Pa-231, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, U-238, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-243, Pu-244, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Bk-249, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252, Cf-253, Es-253. Temperatures: 300 K, 600 K, 900 K, 1200 K, 1500 K, and 1800 K. Origin: JEF-2.2. 2 - Methods: The library was generated using the NJOY processing code. An example of the input data is provided

  10. ZZ FSXJ32, MCNP nuclear data library based on JENDL-3.2. ZZ FSXLIBJ33, MCNP nuclear data library based on JENDL-3.3

    -103, Rh-105, Pd-102, Pd-104, Pd-105, Pd-106, Pd-107, Pd-108, Pd-110, Ag-107, Ag-109, Ag-110m,Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-126, Sb-121, Sb-123, Sb-124, Sb-125, Te-120, Te-122, Te-123, Te-124, Te-125, Te-126, Te-127m,Te-128, Te-129m,Te-130, I -127, I -129, I -131, Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-133, Xe-134, Xe-135, Xe-136, Cs-133, Cs-134, Cs-135, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-130, Ba-132, Ba-134, Ba-135, Ba-136, Ba-137, Ba-138, Ba-140, La-138, La-139, Ce-140, Ce-141, Ce-142, Ce-144, Pr-141, Pr-143, Nd-142, Nd-143, Nd-144, Nd-145, Nd-146, Nd-147, Nd-148, Nd-150, Pm-147, Pm-148, Pm-148m,Pm-149, Sm-144, Sm-147, Sm-148, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-151, Sm-152, Sm-153, Sm-154, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu-156, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Tb-159, Er-162, Er-164, Er-166, Er-167, Er-168, Er-170, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Hg-196, Hg-198, Hg-199, Hg-200, Hg-201, Hg-202, Hg-204, Pb-204, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-225, Ra-226, Ac-225, Ac-226, Ac-227, Th-227, Th-228, Th-229, Th-230, Th-232, Th-233, Th-234, Pa-231, Pa-232, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, U-238, Np-235, Np-236, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-244, Pu-246, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Am-244, Am-244m, Cm-240, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Cm-249, Cm-250, Bk-247, Bk-249, Bk-250, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252, Cf-254, Es-254, Es-255, Fm-255 Temperatures: 300 K. Origin: JENDL-3.3. Thermal scattering: Free gas model Kerma factors are provided. The original JENDL-3.3 has two problems in Am-241 data. One is the missing of MF/MT=4/18, and the other is the incorrect neutron spectra for MT=18 below 500 keV. The updated data have been produced as JENDL-3

  11. ZZ VITJEF22.BOLIB, JEF-2.2 Multigroup Coupled (199 n + 42 gamma) X-Section Library in AMPX Format for Nuclear Fission Applications

    1 - Description or function: VITJEF22.BOLIB /1/ is a multigroup coupled (199 neutron groups + 42 photon groups) pseudo-problem-independent cross section library in AMPX /2/ format for nuclear fission applications. VITJEF22.BOLIB is based on the JEF-2.2 /3/ European nuclear data file and it was processed, through the NJOY /4/ and SCAMPI /5/ systems, in the VITAMIN-B6 /6/ group structure using the same parameters and calculation procedures. Original nuclear data file: JEF-2.2. Data processing systems: NJOY-94.66 and SCAMPI. Format: AMPX. Number of groups: 199 neutron groups and 42 photon groups. Thermal neutron groups: 36 groups below 5.043 eV with up-scattering cross sections. Neutron energy range: 1.0 E-5 eV - 19.64 MeV. Photon energy range: 1.0 keV - 30.0 MeV. Temperatures [K]: 300, 600, 1000, and 2100 (same values as in VITAMIN-B6). Background cross sections (SIGMA-Zeros) [barns]: 1, 10, 50, 100, 300, 1.0 E+3, 1.0 E+4, 1.0 E+5, 1.0 E+6, 1.0 E+10 (infinite dilution) (same values as in VITAMIN-B6). Legendre order: P7 for materials with Z ≤ 29 (copper); P5 for the remainders. Number of materials: 138. Materials included: one file per material (nat=natural): H-H2O, H-CH2, H2-D2O, H-3, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, Be-TH, B-10, B-11, C-nat, C-GPH, N-14, N-15, O-16, O-17, F-19, Na-23, Mg-nat, Al-27, Si-nat, P-31, S-32, S-33, S-34, S-36, Cl-nat, K-nat, Ca-nat, Ti-nat, V-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-nat, Ga-nat, Y-89, Zr-nat, Nb-93, Mo-nat, Ag-107, Ag-109, Cd-nat, Cd-106, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-115m, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-125, Sn-126, Ba-138, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu-154, Eu-155, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, Ta-182, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Re-185, Re-187, Au-197, Pb-nat, Bi-209, Th-230, Th-232, Pa-231, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236

  12. Analysis of the beginning of the early flight phase of the ski jump in athletes with different performance levels [Analýza fáze přechodu do letu ve skoku na lyžích u skupin závodníků s různou výkonností

    Eva Janurová

    2011-09-01

    mezi závodníky s různou výkonností, ale i uvnitř skupin se srovnatelnou délkou skoku. CÍLE: Cílem studie bylo porovnat provedení zahájení přechodové fáze skoku mezi skupinami závodníků v severské kombinaci s různou výkonností. Určit rozdíly v provedení této fáze skoku mezi závodníky v severské kombinaci a ve skoku na lyžích. METODIKA: Odrazová a přechodová fáze skoku na můstku HS-134 m při závodech MS v klasickém lyžování v Liberci v r. 2009 byla zaznamenána s využitím tří kamer (50 Hz. Kamery byly umístěny tak, že jejich optické osy byly kolmé na rovinu pohybu závodníků. Vybrané body na těle a na lyžích závodníků byly vyhodnoceny manuálně. Ze souřadnic těchto bodů jsme určili základní úhlové a rychlostní charakteristiky pro polohu segmentů a lyží. Ze všech startujících závodníků v severské kombinaci jsme vybrali a porovnali skupiny, které dosáhly nejlepší (B, průměrné (M a nejkratší (P délky skoku. VÝSLEDKY: Nájezdová rychlost byla při porovnání skupiny závodníků severské kombinace (NC a skoku na lyžích (SJ významně vyšší u skupiny NC (p < 0,01. Skupina SJ měla na hraně můstku větší posun těla dopředu (p < 0,05. Velikost úhlové rychlosti v kolenním kloubu v úseku 0 až 5 m za hranou můstku byla vyšší u skupiny SJ (p < 0,05. Při porovnání skupin nejlepších závodníků v obou disciplínách byl nalezen rozdíl v poloze bérců na hraně můstku i v celém úseku za hranou. Skupina SJ se vyznačovala větším posunem dolních končetin dopředu (hrana, p < 0,05; 5 m za hranou, p < 0,01, úhlová rychlost v kolenním kloubu byla vyšší. V tomto parametru jsme také zjistili rozdíl mezi skupinami závodníků s průměrnou výkonností, s větší úhlovou rychlostí u skupiny SJ (p < 0,05. ZÁVĚRY: Závodníci ve skoku na lyžích mají ve sledovaném úseku za hranou můstku výhodnější aerodynamickou polohu těla, s v