WorldWideScience

Sample records for 21st international isfg

  1. 21st International Meshing Roundtable

    Weill, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the articles presented at the 21st International Meshing Roundtable (IMR) organized, in part, by Sandia National Laboratories and was held on October 7–10, 2012 in San Jose, CA, USA. The first IMR was held in 1992, and the conference series has been held annually since. Each year the IMR brings together researchers, developers, and application experts in a variety of disciplines, from all over the world, to present and discuss ideas on mesh generation and related topics. The technical papers in this volume present theoretical and novel ideas and algorithms with practical potential, as well as technical applications in science and engineering, geometric modeling, computer graphics, and visualization.

  2. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG)

    Prinz, M; Carracedo, A; Mayr, W R;

    2006-01-01

    The ISFG membership consists of scientists and medical professionals specialized in using genetic testing for kinship analysis and the individualization of biological material. This expertise makes the forensic geneticist a resource of advice to international and national organizations dealing...... discussion between scientists and pathologists that had been involved in the International Center in Khao Lak, Thailand, revealed the need for the scientific community to be better prepared to answer the local authorities' questions by formulating generally acceptable scientific standards for the most...... efficient use of DNA-based victim identification methods. These recommendations, as well as the many cited references, are intended to provide guidance on establishing preparedness for the forensic genetics laboratory, on collecting and storing ante-mortem and post-mortem samples suitable for DNA analysis...

  3. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): an update of the recommendations on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis

    Gusmão, L; Butler, J M; Carracedo, A;

    2006-01-01

    The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. A previous recommendation published in 2001 has already addressed Y...

  4. American Internal Medicine in the 21st Century: Can an Oslerian Generalism Survive?

    Huddle, Thomas S; Centor, Robert; Heudebert, Gustavo R

    2003-01-01

    American internal medicine suffers a confusion of identity as we enter the 21st century. The subspecialties prosper, although unevenly, and retain varying degrees of connection to their internal medicine roots. General internal medicine, identified with primary care since the 1970s, retains an affinity for its traditional consultant-generalist ideal even as primary care further displaces that ideal. We discuss the origins and importance of the consultant-generalist ideal of internal medicine ...

  5. 21st International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management

    Shen, Jiang; Dou, Runliang

    2015-01-01

    Being the premier forum for the presentation of new advances and research results in the fields of Industrial Engineering, IEEM 2014 aims to provide a high-level international forum for experts, scholars and entrepreneurs at home and abroad to present the recent advances, new techniques and applications face and face, to promote discussion and interaction among academics, researchers and professionals to promote the developments and applications of the related theories and technologies in universities and enterprises and to establish business or research relations to find global partners for future collaboration in the field of Industrial Engineering. All the goals of the international conference are to fulfill the mission of the series conference which is to review, exchange, summarize and promote the latest achievements in the field of industrial engineering and engineering management over the past year and to propose prospects and vision for the further development.

  6. Libraries in the early 21st century, v.2 an international perspective

    2012-01-01

    Following the pattern of the first volume, the second volume of Libraries in the early 21st century: An international perspective extends the range of countries covered. Each chapter covers a different country and describes the modern history, development of libraries and library technology. The careful selection of countries achieves good representation of professional library work on all continents.This two-volume work represents an excellent contribution to international librarianship and allows comparative studies both at graduate and professional level.

  7. 9th International Frumkin symposium: Electrochemical technologies and materials for 21st century. Abstracts

    Abstracts of the 9th International Frumkin symposium: Electrochemical technologies and materials for 21st century are presented. The symposium was held 24-29 October 2010 in Moscow. The symposium included the following microsymposiums: Electrical double layer and electrochemical kinetics (from phenomenological to molecular level); New processes, materials and devices for successful electrochemical transformation of energy; Corrosion and protection of materials; General and local corrosion; Electroactive composition materials; Bioelectrochemistry. The Frumkin symposium includes plenary lectures, oral and poster presentations. Official language of the symposium is English

  8. A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: implications for national curriculum policies

    Voogt, Joke; Pareja Roblin, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites

  9. DNA commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    Gill, P; Brenner, C H; Buckleton, J S;

    2006-01-01

    The DNA commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) was convened at the 21st congress of the International Society for Forensic Genetics held between 13 and 17 September in the Azores, Portugal. The purpose of the group was to agree on guidelines to encourage best practice...

  10. ISFG: Recommendations on biostatistics in paternity testing

    Gjertson, David W; Brenner, Charles H; Baur, Max P;

    2007-01-01

    The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations...... be adopted by all laboratories involved in paternity testing as the basis for their biostatistical analysis....

  11. 21st International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics

    2015-01-01

    The 21st International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics (FB21) will take place at the Crowne Plaza Chicago Metro Downtown Hotel in the West Loop area of Chicago, Illinois, USA, from May 18th to 22nd, 2015. The first conference of this series took place in London in 1959 and subsequent meetings were held in Brela (1967), Birmingham (1969), Budapest (1971), Los Angeles (1972), Laval (1974), Delhi (1976), Graz (1978), Eugene (1980), Karlsruhe (1983), Sendai (1986), Vancouver (1989), Adelaide (1992), Williamsburg (1994), Groningen (1997), Taipei (2000), Durham (2003),Santos (2006),Bonn (2009),and Fukuoka (2012) see also "History". FB21 will be conducted with the principles passed by the General Assembly in 2008. In particular, no bona fide scientist will be excluded from participation on the grounds of national origin, nationality, or political considerations unrelated to science.

  12. International Order in the 21st Century and China's Foreign Strategy

    Cui Liru; Fu Mengzi; Yuan Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dramatic changes have occurred in the post-Cold War world strategic configuration and international order with their replacements burgeoning. This confronts nations, big powers in particular, with new strategic choices. Indeed unfolding before us is a contention among them for seizing the initiative in the emerging international landscape in the 21st century.Thus how to correctly assess and respond to these changes for pursuing a reasonable strategy and selecting a right policy option is not only a matter of primary concern for the academic community, but also a major foreign policy task before a rapidly growing China. For this, a symposium on this theme was recently sponsored by the Editorial Department of Contemporary International Relations to solicit from a dozen or so Beijingbased well-known scholars and experts for their views on and policy suggestions for such issues as the current overall strategic picture, global configuration, trends of the international order and the strategic environment facing China. Excerpts of their major views are as follows.

  13. International nuclear institutions and utilities structures for the 21st century

    The development of international nuclear institutions during the 20th Century has been extraordinary. It has included international government institutions, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency; international scientific organizations, such as the International Committee on Radiological Protection; international operating support organizations, such as the World Association of Nuclear Operators; and international professional society organizations, such as the International Nuclear Societies Council. We should now examine the relevance of the current institutions and how they can be enhanced for the 21st Century. Examples of potential changes include the following. The scope of government's international responsibilities is being significantly expanded by the Convention of Nuclear Safety of Radioactive Waste Management and Spent Fuel. The implementation of these new conventions will require major actions during the next century. The science upon which international standards have been developed is vastly improved and the assessment is changing. Thus, the guidance provided by organizations such as the ICRP will need to be re-evaluated. The World Association of Nuclear Operators has focuses on operating programs but this scope may be too narrow for the future as designs and standards evolve. The nuclear professional societies have contributed a great deal to the exchange of technology throughout the world but this traditional role may need to be revised in order that political decisions match the relevant scientific data. In addition to the changes within these institutions for the next century, the electric utilities that produce nuclear power will be restructured in many countries. The concept of privatization of utilities and their disaggregation from an integrated generation, transmission and distribution company into separate entities is proceeding quickly. The structure of the utility system will be markedly different in a few years from that which we

  14. International Lunar Observatory Association Advancing 21st Century Astronomy from the Moon

    Durst, Steve

    2015-08-01

    Long considered a prime location to conduct astronomical observations, the Moon is beginning to prove its value in 21st Century astronomy through the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope aboard China’s Chang’e-3 Moon lander and through the developing missions of the International Lunar Observatory Association (ILOA). With 24 hours / Earth day of potential operability facilitating long-duration observations, the stable platform of the lunar surface and extremely thin exosphere guaranteeing superior observation conditions, zones of radio-quiet for radio astronomy, and the resources and thermal stability at the lunar South Pole, the Moon provides several pioneering advantages for astronomy. ILOA, through MOUs with NAOC and CNSA, has been collaborating with China to make historic Galaxy observations with the Chang’e-3 LUT, including imaging Galaxy M101 in December 2014. LUT has an aperture of 150mm, covers a wavelength range of 245 to 340 nanometers and is capable of detecting objects at a brightness down to 14 mag. The success of China’s mission has provided support and momentum for ILOA’s mission to place a 2-meter dish, multifunctional observatory at the South Pole of the Moon NET 2017. ILOA also has plans to send a precursor observatory instrument (ILO-X) on the inaugural mission of GLXP contestant Moon Express. Advancing astronomy and astrophysics from the Moon through public-private and International partnerships will provide many valuable research opportunities while also helping to secure humanity’s position as multi world species.

  15. Window for Russia and Eastern Europe——The 21st International China Harbin Fair for Trade and Economic Cooperation

    Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 21st International China Harbin Fair for Trade and conomic Cooperation will be held in Harbin International Conference and Exhibition Center from June 15 to 19, 2010. At this edition of China Harbin Trade Fair,there will be 3000 international standard booths available,with a total indoor and outdoor exhibition area of 86,000Uare meters, according to the announcement from Mr. Sun Yao, Vice governor of Heilongjiang Province on March 26,2010 in Beijing.

  16. The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach for 21st Century Ocean Health and International Sustainable Development

    Honey, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The global coastal ocean and watersheds are divided into 66 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which encompass regions from river basins, estuaries, and coasts to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and margins of major currents. Approximately 80% of global fisheries catch comes from LME waters. Ecosystem goods and services from LMEs contribute an estimated US 18-25 trillion dollars annually to the global economy in market and non-market value. The critical importance of these large-scale systems, however, is threatened by human populations and pressures, including climate change. Fortunately, there is pragmatic reason for optimism. Interdisciplinary frameworks exist, such as the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach for adaptive management that can integrate both nature-centric and human-centric views into ecosystem monitoring, assessment, and adaptive management practices for long-term sustainability. Originally proposed almost 30 years ago, the LME approach rests on five modules are: (i) productivity, (ii) fish and fisheries, (iii) pollution and ecosystem health, (iv) socioeconomics, and (v) governance for iterative adaptive management at a large, international scale of 200,000 km2 or greater. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), World Bank, and United Nations agencies recognize and support the LME approach—as evidenced by over 3.15 billion in financial assistance to date for LME projects. This year of 2014 is an exciting milestone in LME history, after 20 years of the United Nations and GEF organizations adopting LMEs as a unit for ecosystem-based approaches to management. The LME approach, however, is not perfect. Nor is it immutable. Similar to the adaptive management framework it propones, the LME approach itself must adapt to new and emerging 21st Century technologies, science, and realities. The LME approach must further consider socioeconomics and governance. Within the socioeconomics module alone, several trillion-dollar opportunities exist

  17. Developing skills for youth in the 21st century: The role of elite International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme schools in China

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing body of research suggesting that schools need to respond to changing social and economic dynamics by prioritising "21st-century skills". Proponents of this view, who have been termed "the 21st century skills movement", have called for greater emphasis on cognitive and non-cognitive skills development, alongside the learning of subject content and technical skills. This paper explores the potential of International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) schools to respond to this mandate in China, one of the fastest-growing markets for International Baccalaureate® (IB) schools globally. The authors' research team undertook a multi-site case study of five elite IBDP schools in China. Their findings revealed confidence among interviewees that the IB educational philosophy was conducive to 21st-century skills development, especially through the provision of the three IBDP "Core Requirements", which are Creativity, Action, Service (CAS), Extended Essay (EE) and Theory of Knowledge (TOK). Despite this confidence, concerns remain about the implementation of the IB educational philosophy in the context of IBDP schools in China.

  18. Summary(First Session "Innovating Higher Education by Networking: Toward the Building of International Education Networks in the 21st Century",AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM'97 HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE 21st CENTURY -BRINGING TODAY'S EDUCATION INTO THE HI-TECH WORLD OF TOMORROW-)

    コンドウ, キミオ; Kimio, Kondo

    1998-01-01

    Summary(First Session "Innovating Higher Education by Networking: Toward the Building of International Education Networks in the 21st Century",AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM'97 HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE 21st CENTURY -BRINGING TODAY'S EDUCATION INTO THE HI-TECH WORLD OF TOMORROW-)

  19. Virginia Tech Computer-Programming Team Places 3rd In Nation And 21st In World In International Competition; Wins Java Challenge

    Harris, Sally L.

    2003-01-01

    A team of students from Virginia Tech placed third in the country and 21st out of 70 teams from around the world in the ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest and also took first in the Java Challenge.

  20. Proceedings of an international ministerial conference on nuclear power for the 21st century

    objectives of the conference were the following: 1) To review the role of nuclear power and to define the potential benefits (energy security, sustainability and improved environmental protection) that expanding nuclear power offers to meet the increasing energy needs of the world. 2) To facilitate a discussion on the issue of nuclear energy and society involving experts and decision makers. The conference consisted of two major elements. The first element was invited ministerial presentations on the current and future role of nuclear power in the context of national energy strategies, while the second was round table discussions involving renowned international experts to discuss: World energy needs and resources; Environmental challenges of the 21st century; Driving factors for strategies and choices; Governance issues. This conference was held to enable the future of nuclear power to be discussed at the ministerial level. Participation included 465 experts from 69 IAEA Member States and eight international organizations. Presentations of national visions on the future of nuclear power by 25 ministers in person, and seven presentations made on behalf of Ministers, demonstrated the timeliness and importance of the conference. The participation of about 75 press and media representatives and broad media coverage were further indications of the wide interest in the future of nuclear power. In many views presented, and in two round table discussions, the potential significant role of nuclear energy in meeting the energy needs of the planet was recognized, in particular that: 1) Developments in technology and improvements in management resulted in better safety, and that the economics of nuclear power made it increasingly attractive and fully competitive. 2) Nuclear power can contribute in meeting the needs of the Millennium Development Goals and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, such as the eradication of poverty and hunger, universal access to plentiful fresh water and

  1. Results from the 2010 INMM International Containment and Surveillance Workshop focused on Concepts for the 21st Century

    The Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) held an International Workshop on 'Containment and Surveillance: Concepts for the 21st Century' on June 6-11, 2010 at the Oak National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The National Nuclear Security Administration Offices of Non-proliferation Research and Development and Office of Nuclear Safeguards sponsored the event. The workshop focused on determining concepts and needs for 21st century containment and surveillance (C/S) systems that support International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards and future arms control agreements. Panel discussions from subject matter experts and international practitioners provided the daily topical theme of the following areas of C/S: authentication, tagging, sealing, containment verification, and surveillance systems. Each panel discussion was followed with a question and answer session with the audience and an afternoon breakout session. The facilitated breakout sessions were used to compile and determine future needs. Individuals attending the workshop included C/S experts and practitioners; IAEA and arms control inspectors, technology providers, vendors, students and individuals with an interest in or desire to learn about future C/S system needs. The primary goal for the workshop was to produce a document that details the future research and development needs for C/S systems that support nuclear safeguards and arms control missions. This paper will present a compilation of the information obtained from breakout sessions at the workshop. (author)

  2. PREFACE: 21st International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP2015)

    Sakamoto, H.; Bonacorsi, D.; Ueda, I.; Lyon, A.

    2015-12-01

    quickly formed, have already started, and presumably have also followed previously unpredictable directions. In this scenario, it is normal and healthy for the entire community to question itself as of whether it is a set of proceedings the best way to document and communicate to peers (present and future) the work that has been done at a precise time and the vivid and live ideas of a precise moment in the evolution of the discipline. Pointing the attention to a specific CHEP event alone does not give the right answer: in fact, the heritage value lies in the quality and continuity of the documentation work, despite the changes of times, trends and actors. The CHEP proceedings, in their variety and thanks to the condensed form of knowledge they offer, are what most likely will be more easily preserved for future generations, thanks to the outstanding efforts over digital libraries for all kinds of cultural heritage. Since 1985, this long-standing tradition continued with the 21st CHEP edition in Okinawa. The successful model that brings together high-energy and nuclear physicist and computer scientists was repeated in the Okinawa prefecture, an outstanding location consisting of a few dozen small islands in the southern half of the Nansei Shoto, the island chain which stretches over about one thousand kilometres from Kyushu to Taiwan. The OIST (Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology) centre hosted the event, and offered an outstanding location and efficient facilities for the event. As for the CHEP history, contributions from 'general purpose' physics experiments mixed together with highly specialized work on the frontier of precision and intensity. The year 2015 is marked by the LHC restart in Run 2. Experimental groups at the LHC reviewed and presented their Run 1 experiences in detail, and reported the work done in acquiring the latest computing and software technologies, as well as in evolving their computing models in preparation for Run 2 (and beyond). On the

  3. PREFACE: 21st International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP2015)

    Sakamoto, H.; Bonacorsi, D.; Ueda, I.; Lyon, A.

    2015-12-01

    quickly formed, have already started, and presumably have also followed previously unpredictable directions. In this scenario, it is normal and healthy for the entire community to question itself as of whether it is a set of proceedings the best way to document and communicate to peers (present and future) the work that has been done at a precise time and the vivid and live ideas of a precise moment in the evolution of the discipline. Pointing the attention to a specific CHEP event alone does not give the right answer: in fact, the heritage value lies in the quality and continuity of the documentation work, despite the changes of times, trends and actors. The CHEP proceedings, in their variety and thanks to the condensed form of knowledge they offer, are what most likely will be more easily preserved for future generations, thanks to the outstanding efforts over digital libraries for all kinds of cultural heritage. Since 1985, this long-standing tradition continued with the 21st CHEP edition in Okinawa. The successful model that brings together high-energy and nuclear physicist and computer scientists was repeated in the Okinawa prefecture, an outstanding location consisting of a few dozen small islands in the southern half of the Nansei Shoto, the island chain which stretches over about one thousand kilometres from Kyushu to Taiwan. The OIST (Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology) centre hosted the event, and offered an outstanding location and efficient facilities for the event. As for the CHEP history, contributions from 'general purpose' physics experiments mixed together with highly specialized work on the frontier of precision and intensity. The year 2015 is marked by the LHC restart in Run 2. Experimental groups at the LHC reviewed and presented their Run 1 experiences in detail, and reported the work done in acquiring the latest computing and software technologies, as well as in evolving their computing models in preparation for Run 2 (and beyond). On the

  4. Report of the fourth international symposium on symbiotic nuclear power systems for 21st century (ISSNP2013)

    The 5th International Symposium on Symbiotic Nuclear Power Systems for 21st Century (ISSNP2013) was held in Beijing, China in November 22-24, 2013, with the main objective for the nuclear power of international arena to overcome the Fukushima Daiichi accident towards more symbiotic nuclear power for post-Fukushima era. There were seventeen invited presentations and ca. seventy technical papers at the ISSNP2013, the subject of which were mostly related with (1) lessens from Fukushima Daiichi accident, (2) severe accident, (3) digital I and C systems, (4) human-machine interface, and (5) human factors engineering. This article provides the overview of the ISSNP2013 with giving condensed summaries of major invited presentations given by international experts. (author)

  5. Global economic governance and the challenge facing traditional international law in the 21st century

    Maniruzzaman, Munir

    2004-01-01

    The present movement toward globalisation has posed a tremendous challenge to traditional international law and, in fact, its various branches including international economic law. The challenge is both horizontal and vertical. It is horizontal in the sense that various new actors such as multinationals, civil society and other non-state actors are increasingly playing an important role in international life and society which is not recognized in traditional international law. (Jessica T Matt...

  6. Massively parallel sequencing of forensic STRs: Considerations of the DNA commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) on minimal nomenclature requirements.

    Parson, Walther; Ballard, David; Budowle, Bruce; Butler, John M; Gettings, Katherine B; Gill, Peter; Gusmão, Leonor; Hares, Douglas R; Irwin, Jodi A; King, Jonathan L; Knijff, Peter de; Morling, Niels; Prinz, Mechthild; Schneider, Peter M; Neste, Christophe Van; Willuweit, Sascha; Phillips, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    The DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) is reviewing factors that need to be considered ahead of the adoption by the forensic community of short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping by massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies. MPS produces sequence data that provide a precise description of the repeat allele structure of a STR marker and variants that may reside in the flanking areas of the repeat region. When a STR contains a complex arrangement of repeat motifs, the level of genetic polymorphism revealed by the sequence data can increase substantially. As repeat structures can be complex and include substitutions, insertions, deletions, variable tandem repeat arrangements of multiple nucleotide motifs, and flanking region SNPs, established capillary electrophoresis (CE) allele descriptions must be supplemented by a new system of STR allele nomenclature, which retains backward compatibility with the CE data that currently populate national DNA databases and that will continue to be produced for the coming years. Thus, there is a pressing need to produce a standardized framework for describing complex sequences that enable comparison with currently used repeat allele nomenclature derived from conventional CE systems. It is important to discern three levels of information in hierarchical order (i) the sequence, (ii) the alignment, and (iii) the nomenclature of STR sequence data. We propose a sequence (text) string format the minimal requirement of data storage that laboratories should follow when adopting MPS of STRs. We further discuss the variant annotation and sequence comparison framework necessary to maintain compatibility among established and future data. This system must be easy to use and interpret by the DNA specialist, based on a universally accessible genome assembly, and in place before the uptake of MPS by the general forensic community starts to generate sequence data on a large scale. While the established

  7. International pharmacovigilance: developing cooperation to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

    Lumpkin, M M

    2000-01-01

    Much has been accomplished internationally in the past decade to harmonise the much of the process of post-marketing drug risk detection. However, formidable challenges exist in harmonising analytical approaches to such data and in leveraging international database resources to improve the quality of such data. In addition, international challenges continue in the arena of drug risk management once a specific risk has been detected. Especially problematic are the questions of appropriate methodology and metrics to assess the public health impact of our risk management techniques. Finally, international challenges remain in the world of drug risk communication to practitioners, dispensers, and patients. The primary challenge confronting us is that of providing easily accessible, understandable, unbiased information on drug risk to these communities so that truly informed decisions about medicines can be made at the individual patient level. Only by meeting internationally these challenges in drug risk detection, management, and communication can our citizens know how to best use these wonderful pharmacological gifts to which we now have access. PMID:10905749

  8. Libraries in the early 21st century, volume 1 An international perspective

    Sharma, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    This unique volume gives a truly international overview over the modern history and development of libraries and library technology in selected countries of the world. The careful selection of countries achieves good representation of library work on all continents, covering examples of both the developed and the developing world. A further volume with further national profiles is planned for 2012. This multivolume work represents an excellent contribution to international librarianship and allows comparative studies both at graduate and professional level. Many of the contributors are well-kn

  9. The Challenges for New Principals in the 21st Century. International Research on School Leadership Series

    Shoho, Alan R., Ed.; Barnett, Bruce, Ed.; Tooms, Autumn K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book series, "International Research on School Leadership," focuses on how present-day issues affect the theory and practice of school leadership. For this inaugural book, the editors focused on the challenges facing new principals and headteachers. Because the professional lives of school leaders have increasingly impinged on their personal…

  10. Ministerial presentation: Republic of Korea [International ministerial conference on nuclear power for the 21st century

    His Excellency Myung Oh, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea, noted that the peaceful use of nuclear energy has contributed greatly to a sustainable and stable supply of energy over the past 50 years. Over the last two decades energy and electricity consumption in the Republic of Korea (ROK) has increased more than fivefold and sevenfold, respectively, and the ROK is now one of the top ten energy consuming economies. Furthermore, it is expected that the consumption of energy and electricity will continue to rise by 50% and 70%, respectively, by 2020. Given the scarce indigenous energy resources available in the ROK, he stated his firm belief that the application of nuclear energy is inevitable for future economic development. The ROK has recently launched national research and development projects to develop the VHTR (very high temperature reactor), which can produce high temperatures for hydrogen production by nuclear power. He predicted another nuclear renaissance in the future. For this, the global community should assign a larger role to nuclear energy in, for example, space heating, hydrogen production, vehicle propulsion and seawater desalination, and expand the application of radioisotopes to various industries. He confirmed that peaceful uses of nuclear energy are inevitable and indispensable options for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and future welfare. He stated that the ROK appreciates the international nuclear society's efforts in strengthening the non-proliferation regime, and commented that in the ROK there have been various measures in this regard, including reinforcement of an export control regime and IAEA safeguard measures. He also indicated that recently the ROK has expanded nuclear research and development activities for the innovation of nuclear technologies and enhanced international cooperation by joining international nuclear cooperation projects, such as GIF (Generation IV

  11. Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges. Proceedings of an International Ministerial Conference

    The International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century was organized by the IAEA and co-sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the China Nuclear Energy Association. The conference was hosted by the Government of China through the China Atomic Energy Authority and held in Beijing. A total of 16 ministers participated in the conference, and a further 13 ministers provided statements to be presented on their behalf. The aim of this conference was to provide an opportunity to review the status and prospects of nuclear power, including progress in the evolution of technology, and to discuss the actions necessary to carry forward the positive momentum that nuclear power has experienced in recent years. The conference also offered a forum for many countries considering the potential benefits of introducing nuclear power into their national energy mix to further assess the viability of the nuclear power option. These proceedings contain the conference summary and the presentations made during the opening ceremony, as well as the concluding statement by the President of the conference. This material, as well as all the ministerial and technical presentations from the conference, is included on the attached DVD

  12. An international education agenda in nuclear energy and radioactive waste management for the 21st century

    As many countries have turned to scientific and technological advancements for human well being and national security, there has emerged a pressing need to promote scientific and technological literacy in national work forces. One benefit of this literacy is scientifically informed decision making on issues related to energy conservation in general and nuclear energy in particular. Realizing the need for increased literacy relative to nuclear energy, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the Department of Energy, U.S.A., the Organization of Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) sponsored an international conference on education in the field of radioactive waste management. This paper discusses recommendations made at the conference for developing education materials. Also described is a three-phase international plan for developing school curriculum materials relative to nuclear waste management

  13. Ministerial presentation: Latvia [International ministerial conference on nuclear power for the 21st century

    His Excellency R. Vejonis, Minister of Environment, Latvia, indicated that the Government of Latvia is conscious that nuclear science, technology and applications contribute to many means of human socioeconomic development. He suggested that the skills and experience in the nuclear area are valuable to all and hence that there is no other option but to cooperate with other countries in order to maintain knowledge. He noted that disposal of long lived radiation sources, which could well be an international undertaking, remains a challenging task, which is being addressed under EU auspices, but that there is also opportunity for wider activities lead by the IAEA in this respect

  14. Magic Bullets, Dead Horses, and Flying Ostriches: International Development in the 21st Century

    Healey, F. Henry

    2002-03-01

    Over the past fifty years, countless billions of dollars and innumerable person-years of effort have been expended on international development. Sadly, what the development industry has to show for its labors is a present-day situation that is by many standards worse off in terms of total human misery than when they began. The shortcomings of international development are well documented. This is not to say that successes have not been achieved. They have; some have been quite significant. Rather, it is to say that development is much easier said than done. For science to have an impact on the wretched conditions evidenced throughout much of today’s developing and transition world, scientific organizations interested in making such a contribution must understand the realities of development. Biotechnology, fuel cells, the Internet, etc., hold much promise for pulling vast numbers of people out of the expansive morass of poverty. However, the development landscape is replete with botched “good ideas”. This session will, then, present the ways in which development has been and continues to be approached, the lessons learned from these experiences, and a framework for development assistance that can be used to guide the scientific community’s efforts to impact positively on the developing and transition world.

  15. Ministerial presentation: Egypt [International ministerial conference on nuclear power for the 21st century

    His Excellency H.A. Younes, Minister for Electricity and Energy, Egypt, noted that currently Egypt is carefully studying technological developments in nuclear power, desalination designs and the performance of the nuclear reactor types and desalination systems suitable for the national requirements. He noted that most activities in the nuclear field in Egypt have been supported by the IAEA through technical cooperation programmes. He commented that Egypt highly appreciates the continuous technical support from the IAEA and is looking forward to continue this fruitful cooperation in areas of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. He reminded the conference that one of the challenges to be faced is ensuring nuclear security and non-proliferation and that Egypt has strongly supported the non-proliferation system from an early stage. He indicated that in this regard President Mubarak launched in April 1990 an initiative to make the Middle East free from weapons of mass destruction and looked for international support for this initiative

  16. Marine Language Exchange Program: A 21st Century International and Interdisciplinary Partnership

    Robigou, V.; Nichols-Pecceu, M.

    2001-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world\\'{}s oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even rarer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences who address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including Eckerd College (Florida), University of Washington (Washington), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their Marine Sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad including marine sciences specialization for full academic credit. This session will review the Marine Language Exchange program activities since 2000 and will discuss the ideological and practical aspects of the program. The program successes, difficulties and future directions will also be presented. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies. Based on this case study, other universities could initiate their own international and interdisciplinary

  17. Welcome to the 21st International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes

    2012-12-01

    Dear Participants and Guests On behalf of the Rector's Office, welcome to St. Petersburg University, one of the oldest, largest and most prestigious universities in Russia. The 12 Colleges Building (named after the Collegia of Peter the Great's time, Ministries in the modern sense of the word) has been home to the University since 1804. St. Petersburg State University is the successor of the first Russian University founded by Peter the Great on 24 January 1724. It's distinguished faculty members include mathematicians Chebyshev and Smirnov, physicists Lenz and Fock, chemists Mendeleev and Butlerov, embryologist Kovalevsky, and physiologist Sechenov. Several of our alumni won Nobel Prizes - Pavlov, Semenov, Kantorovich, Landau and Prokhorov. The University is the alma mater of two presidents of Russia, Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev. St. Petersburg State University today consists of 19 faculties on two campuses: in the historic downtown, on Vasilyevsky Island, and in Peterhof. The Faculty of Physics carries out research projects through the efforts of 260 employees, of which 150 hold doctoral degrees, and 50 have been awarded Grand Doctorates. The work is done in a vast variety of areas, from the physics of elementary particles to the physics of the atmosphere. Optics and spectroscopy has been a particularly significant area of research. This field of inquiry goes back to the work of Academician D S Rozhdestvensky more than 70 years ago, when he first suggested his famous hook method. After him the work was headed by S Frisch, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences and editor-in-chief of Optics and Spectroscopy Journal. Today research projects in optics involve over 50 staff members, graduate and post-graduate students. Work involves projects on spectroscopy of cold and hot plasma, atomic and molecular spectroscopy, non-linear spectroscopy and spectroscopic analysis. Our scholars support active international ties with their colleagues worldwide. The

  18. A brief history of international trade thought: from pre-doctrinal contributions to the 21st century heterodox international economics

    Dorobăț, Carmen Elena

    2015-01-01

    The present paper outlines the development of international trade thought, from the pre-doctrinal contributions of Greek philosophers and scholastic theologians, through the theories of the first schools of economic thought, and up to modern and contemporary trade theories. I follow filiations of ideas in a chronological order, and show how theoretical investigation into the causes and effects of international trade—and the rationale for government intervention—has evolved over the last two c...

  19. A brief history of international trade thought: From pre-doctrinal contributions to the 21st century heterodox international economics

    Carmen Elena Dorobat

    2015-01-01

    The present paper outlines the development of international trade thought, from the pre-doctrinal contributions of Greek philosophers and scholastic theologians, through the theories of the first schools of economic thought, and up to modern and contemporary trade theories. I follow filiations of ideas in a chronological order, and show how theoretical investigation into the causes and effects of international trade—and the rationale for government intervention—has evolved over the last two c...

  20. Defining a Communications Satellite Policy System for the 21st Century: A Model for a International Legal Framework and A New _Code of Conduct_

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper addresses the changing international communications environment and explores the key elements of a new policy framework for the 21st Century. It addresses the issues related to changing markets, trade considerations, standards, regulatory changes and international institutions and law. The most important aspects will related to new international policy and regulatory frameworks and in particular to a new international code of ethics and behavior in the field of satellite communications. A new communications satellite policy framework requires systematically addressing the following points: • Multi-lateral agreements at the nation state and the operating entity level • Systematic means to access both private and public capital • Meshing ITU regulations with regional and national policy guidelines including • landing rights" and national allocation procedures. • Systematic approach to local partnerships • Resolving the issue of the relative standing of various satellite systems (i.e. GEO, MEO, and LEO systems) • Resolving the rights, duties, and priorities of satellite facility providers versus types of service prviders. Beyond this policy framework and generalized legal infrastructure there is also another need. This is a need that arises from both increased globalism and competitive international markets. This is what might quite simply be called a "code of reasonable conduct:" To provide global and international communications services effectively and well in the 21st Century will require more than meeting minimum international legal requirements. A new "code of conduct" for global satellite communications will thus likely need to address: • Privacy and surveillance • Ethics of transborder data flow • Censorship and moral values • Cultural and linguistic sensitivity • Freedom of the press and respect for journalistic standards As expanding global information and telecommunications systems grow and impact every aspect of modern

  1. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  2. International Nuclear Conference: a new era in Nuclear Science and Technology - the challenge of the 21st century

    The part of address discusses the following issue: new era in science and technology: the challenge of the 21st century. Indeed it is in this part of the world that nuclear technology is making the most rapid and effective progress and will dramatically contribute to a new era of social progress and increased standards of living. Nuclear technology can offer the world limitless amounts of clean, economical, environmentally-benign electricity. It can also offer methods for medical diagnoses and treatments to save lives; provide a way to preserve our food supply and prevent foodborne diseases; provide accurate industrial measurements, leak detectors , and corrosion measurements; and literally hundreds of other applications. The challenge is to use this technology wisely and make sure the public understands that, while there are problems and difficulties commensurate with this technology (as there would be with any other technology), these problems can be solved and enormous benefits to humanity accrue when they are solved. It is worth the effort and one must have the courage and wisdom to proceed

  3. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  4. 21st Century Skills Map

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  5. Developing Degrees: An Exploratory Analysis of Laureate International Universities' 21st Century Entry into Mexico and Ecuador

    Hunsaker, Beau Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Laureate International Universities (LIU) embodies an emerging international phenomenon in which a multinational corporation (MNC) functions as a holding company that acquires and operates brick-and-mortar higher education institutions in a for-profit model; each individual portfolio institution granting degrees under its own name with any…

  6. Changing Academic Mobility Patterns and International Migration: What Will Academic Mobility Mean in the 21St Century?

    Hoffman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Several scholars have underlined connections between academic mobility and international migration. This qualitative study explores a spectrum of academic mobility articulated by Teichler that empirically contributes to consideration of these connections. This analysis of e-mail excerpts from 20 migrant academics, living in seven countries,…

  7. Measuring up to the challenges of the 21st century. An international evaluation of the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation

    Clapman, P.; Kaarls, R.; Temmes, M.

    1997-04-01

    The international evaluation of the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES) is part of the process in which all relevant industrial and technology policy measures and organizations under the auspices of the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) are being evaluated with the aim of improving their effectiveness. The overall conclusion of the evaluation is that MIKES is serving the country well. An effective national measurement system (FINMET) is being maintained which provides a wide range of calibration services covering most of the nation`s needs. The accreditation service (FINAS) is now well established, is operating effectively, and has good prospects for growth. The evaluators present, however, a number of proposals (including 33 specific recommendations) where they feel that the metrology and accreditation arrangements could be better-suited to meet future national and international challenges. According to the recommendations the Finnish quality policy framework should be developed in a consistent way. There is a need of a comprehensive governmental quality policy statement upon which the inter-ministry coordination and harmonization of various conformity assessment activities can be based. MIKES should retain its current status as an agency within MTI. The national measurement system should be more centralised and a new purpose-built national standards laboratory should be procured. The responsibility for legal metrology should be transferred to MIKES. The terms of reference and membership of Advisory Committee for Metrology, as well as the Advisory Committee for Accreditation should be revised to ensure wider representation of all relevant, and especially industrial interests

  8. International Nuclear Conference: a new era in Nuclear Science and Technology - the challenge of the 21st century: welcoming speech

    The address discusses the following issues: Globalisation and the advent of new technologies and knowledge necessitate countries to depend on one another for progress and development; the need for international co-operation ; roles of nuclear science and technology in facing the challenges of the 2l st Century; food and energy supply as the greatest challenges facing many countries in the future, along with the provision of cheap and good health care, safe industrial development, and clean environment; the contribution of nuclear science and technology i.e In food production, techniques using radiation and isotopes are used to improve crop and animal production through soil fertilisation, plant and animal breeding, insect and pest control, and food preservation; In health and medical care, the use of radiation and isotopes for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes; In industry, activities in radiography, nondestructive testing, control systems and radioactive tracers, analytical techniques and quality control, radiation processing to enhance the properties of materials; In the environmental sector, the use of isotopes and the development of analytical tools, including radioactive tracer methods, neutron activation analysis, x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption in the investigation and detection of environmental pollutants such as pesticides and toxic materials. Other issues also discussed were safety ; public awareness and acceptance of the technology

  9. Keynote speech by Angel Gurria, OECD Secretary-General, at the International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century

    The global crisis has exposed not only the paramount challenges of today's global economy and the remarkable level of interdependence among our nations. It has also confronted us with our duty to define the kind of global economy we need for tomorrow. It is our responsibility to devise sound policies for a stronger, cleaner and fairer global economy. Clean and affordable energy, including access to safe and secure nuclear power, should be a central element of our efforts. This is essential not only for a sustainable economy, but also for the future of our planet. The crisis has prompted us to act immediately and in concert. Take the example of our hosts, the People's Republic of China. In the face of the economic slowdown, they responded rapidly and in a comprehensive fashion. Importantly, they increased government spending, stimulated domestic demand and are looking into effective ways to enhance social policies. The turmoil showed that China and all of us need to be more involved in international economic co-operation. We are profoundly affected by the policies implemented by each of our countries. There is no better example than energy to illustrate our interdependence. Holding this meeting in Beijing shows the importance China places in international co-operation and recognises the role China could play in designing clean and safe energy solutions for the future. For me, coming to Beijing is also an opportunity to stress the high significance of the OECD partnership with China. Our Organisation is now more open and plural, welcoming new members and having launched an 'enhanced engagement' process with the most important emerging economies. Forging a more structured and stronger partnership with China is fundamental in such a process. It is based on our mutual interest to develop global solutions to global challenges, such as nuclear energy in the 21st century. Thus, I urge you to look into three important issues, which we should address in the years to come

  10. The International System in the 21st Century: Considering the U.S. Role. Third Edition. Teacher Resource Book [and Student Text]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century.

    Fox, Sarah Cleveland

    Although the attacks of September 11, 2001, present new challenges and priorities for U.S. policy, it is uncertain what direction international relations will take. China's growth and power, Russia's political and economic problems, resentment and corruption in Russia, and global warming effect policymaking. While the war on terrorism may be a…

  11. PREFACE: International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - Eco-Materials and Eco-Innovation for Global Sustainability - The 21st Iketani Conference 2011

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2012-08-01

    Conference logo The 21st century has been called the century of environmental revolution. Green innovations and environmentally friendly production systems based on physics, chemistry, materials science, and electronic engineering will be indispensable for ensuring renewable energy and establishing a sustainable society. In particular, production design, materials processing, and fabrication technologies such as welding and joining will be very important components of such green innovations. For these reasons, the International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - eco-materials and eco-innovation for global sustainability - (ECO-MATES 2011) was organized by the Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI) and the Center of Environmental Innovation Design for Sustainability (CEIDS), Osaka University. ECO-MATES 2011 was held at Hotel Hankyu Expo Park, Osaka, Japan from 28-30 November 2011. 435 participants from 20 countries around the world attended the symposium. 149 oral presentations including 60 invited talks and 160 posters were presented at the symposium to discuss the latest research and developments in green innovations in relation to environmental issues. The topics of the symposium covered all environmentally related fields including renewable energy, energy-materials, environment and resources, waste and biomass, power electronics, semiconductor, rare-earth metals, functional materials, organic electronics materials, electronics packaging, smart processing, joining and welding, eco-efficient processes, and green applied physics and chemistry. Therefore, 55 full papers concerning green innovations and environmentally benign production were selected and approved by the editorial board and the program committee of ECO-MATES 2011. All papers were accepted through peer review processes. I believe that all the papers have many informative contents. On behalf of the steering committee of the symposium, I would like to express

  12. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  13. Remarks by the Honourable Donald J. Johnston Secretary-General of the OECD [International ministerial conference on nuclear power for the 21st century

    D.J. Johnston, OECD Secretary General, was unable to attend the conference and had recorded a video which was presented at the opening session. He identified that there are an enormous number of challenges to be addressed in the first part of the 21st century, and that climate change must be high on the list, but it is also in stiff competition with development and poverty reduction. He reminded the participants that in November 2004 a group of responsible non-governmental organizations published a report which alleged that global warming will hit the poor countries hardest. The consequences of the continuing rising trend of carbon dioxide levels are likely to be dramatic, maybe catastrophic. From transportation to electricity generation, major changes must take place, not only to at least stabilize the greenhouse effect but also to adapt to the dwindling supplies of oil, gas and even coal in the longer term. Mr. Johnston commented that many, including the renowned scientist J. Lovelock, originator of the Gaia hypothesis, deplore the fact that nuclear technology has been abandoned by many countries, and he reflected Mr. Lovelock's opinion that nuclear energy is critical to check runaway global warming, which would have potential catastrophic consequences. He concluded with the comment that presently some 1.5 billion people do not have access to electricity. Without the nuclear option, this situation is unlikely to change over the next 25 years

  14. Countering 21st Century Threats

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U.S. and......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas of...... shared interests pre-crisis. • Establish political agreements and/or intentions with partners to address potential threats. • Establishing mutual trust through Building Partnership Capacity with capable SOF and intelligence organizations....

  15. Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century

    Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

  16. Challenges to learning and schooling in the digital networked world of the 21st century

    Voogt, J.M.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, gi

  17. IAEA safeguards for the 21st century

    The publication includes the lectures held during the seminar on IAEA safeguards for the 21st century. The topics covered are as follows: the nuclear non-proliferation regime; Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards; multilateral nuclear export controls; physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation; the evolution of safeguards; basis for the strengthening of safeguards; information required from states, including 'small quantities protocol'; processing and evaluation of new information for strengthened safeguards; additional physical access and new technologies for strengthened safeguards; equipping the IAEA Inspectorate with new skills; achievements to date the strengthened safeguards; complement of regional non-proliferation arrangements in international nuclear verification; promotion of transparency through Korean experience; and the future prospects of safeguards

  18. 21st Century Skills Map: Science

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Science.

  19. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  20. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  1. 21st Century Skills Map: Social Studies

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Social Studies.

  2. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  3. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  4. 21st Century Skills Map: English

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of English.

  5. Neutron scattering in the 21st century

    Full text: The watchwords for neutron scattering in the 21st Century will be complementarity and computing. Despite the enormous impact that is coming in condensed matter science, chemistry and biology from synchrotron light sources, the essential complementarity between x-ray and neutron scattering is likely to be not only preserved but enhanced. This will be achieved by current and foreseen investments in new neutron sources of high intensity and by technique developments involving neutron polarisation, neutron optics and neutron detection. The complementary relationship between neutrons and x-rays - especially using isotopic and spin polarisation contrast will be illustrated along with some challenges which might well be met in the next ten to 15 years. In meeting these challenges it is inevitable that the enormous growth in power of computing systems will play a key part. Computing must be combined very intimately in the design and interpretation of scattering experiments as well as the retention and the retrieval of experimental data. International organisations such as the International Union of Crystallography will play a part in this

  6. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions

  7. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    Environmental issues in the 21st century D.B. Chambers SENES Consultants Limited, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada Abstract. This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards -- environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others -- will be

  8. Evolution of the framework for 21st century competencies

    Sdenka Z. Salas-Pilco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the successive changes and evolution of the frameworks for 21st century competencies, since the appearance of the first conceptual models during the final years of the last century, and also it is a review of the competencies that are needed in the 21st century with a special focus on the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT competencies. The included frameworks have been elaborated by diverse institutions such as international organizations, private consortia and also governments as a guideline for educational policies in elementary and secondary schools. Later, the frameworks are compared and analyzed according to a classification of the competencies into general categories, in order to visualize some trends and obtain some insights about the direction they are heading. Finally, it provides some suggestions for the conception of future frameworks.

  9. Remarks made by Vice Premier Mr. Zhang Dejiang at the opening ceremony of the International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century

    Nuclear science and technology is one of the greatest scientific and technological achievements of mankind in the 20th century. Nuclear science and technology is widely applied in various sectors with over 50 years of development, such as energy, industry, agriculture, health, and environment protection, and is playing an important role in prospering economy, improving people's livelihood, and promoting sustainable development. With global economic development and rising energy consumption, supply of traditional energy source is becoming more stretched and climate change is becoming an increasingly severe challenge. It is a common task of the international community to develop and utilize clean and renewable energy sources and properly address growing contradiction among economic development, energy development and environment protection. Given its advantage as clean, safe and could be applied in large scale, more and more countries are placing importance on nuclear energy. Accelerating peaceful uses of nuclear energy is the common wishes and inevitable choice of many countries. China started the development of nuclear energy in the early 1950s, and with the efforts of over half a century, China has established a relatively complete nuclear industry system. The installed capacity of nuclear power reached 9100 MWe, and nuclear power generation accounts for 2% of the national total electricity generated. Nuclear energy is playing an incremental role for China's economic development. However, nuclear energy utilization is rather insufficient in China, its development level is behind countries which are advanced in nuclear energy use such as the United States and France, the rate of nuclear power generation in the total electricity generated still falls behind the world average level. China's energy supply mix is featured by coal dominant and low proportion of clean energy. To achieve sustainable energy and socio-economic development, China has formulated the energy

  10. Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities

    Bellotti, Francesco; Bottino, Rosa Maria; Nadolski, Rob; Fernández Manjón, Baltasar

    2012-01-01

    Bellotti, F., Bottino, R. M., Nadolski, R. J., & Fernández Manjón, B. (2012, 4-6 July). Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities. Presentation at the Workshop Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities, 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2012), Rome, Italy: IEEE Computer Society CPS.

  11. Energy in the 21st century

    Fanchi, John R

    2010-01-01

    Energy may be the most important factor that will influence the shape of society in the 21st century. The cost and availability of energy significantly impacts our quality of life, the health of national economies, the relationships between nations, and the stability of our environment. What kind of energy do we want to use in our future? Will there be enough? What will be the consequences of our decisions? Everyone has a stake in the answers to these questions and the decisions that are being made to provide energy. ""Energy in the 21st Century"", in its second edition, examines the energy so

  12. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience. PMID:1454278

  13. Energy in the 21st century

    Fanchi, John R

    2013-01-01

    Many events that affect global energy production and consumption have occurred since the second edition of Energy in the 21st Century appeared in 2011. For example, an earthquake and tsunami in Japan led to the disruption of the Fukushima nuclear facility and a global re-examination of the safety of the nuclear industry. Oil and natural gas prices continue to be volatile, and the demand for energy has been affected by the global economy. The third edition updates data and the discussion of recent events.Energy in the 21st Century has been used as the text for an introductory energy course for

  14. Gauging Teachers' Needs with Regard to Technology- Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) of 21st Century Skills in the Classroom

    Rusman, Ellen; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Boon, Jo; Rodríguez-Triana, María Jesús; Villagrá-Sobrino, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Several trends in society have led to a request towards schools to integrate 21st Century Skills and technology enhanced formative assessment (TEFA) in their curricula. Although there are frameworks defined at an international level, implementation of technology enhanced formative assessment of 21st

  15. Nuclear power in the 21st century

    Full text: All plausible long term energy scenarios project significant growth of global energy, especially if the Millennium Declaration on poverty eradication and the Plan of Implementation agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) are to be met. Projected growth is the fastest in developing countries. While growth for affordable energy services is not subject to debate really - the question is rather by how much - this is not the case for energy supply. 21st century energy supply systems face several challenges and uncertainties including energy resource availability, technology change, environmental compliance, reliability and security, political and social acceptance. One of the uncertainties concerns the role of nuclear power in 21st century energy supplies. Paradoxically, its near term role appears less certain that its longer term role. In the short-run, i.e., until 2020, most studies project either a slight increase, a slight decrease or no change at all. Though regional differences exist in terms of growth and decline, the effectively balance each other. Longer-term energy demand and supply studies, however, paint a different future. Analyses developed by international working groups generally project a potentially significant increase in the use of nuclear power. There are several reasons for this. Foremost, longer-term studies are not subjected to short-term policy constraints. Next, they do factor anticipated technology change and innovation into the analysis. Then resource depletion effects become more visible and environmental constraints become more stringent. The starting point of this paper is the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Based on four of the SRES scenarios, one from each of the four SRES scenario families, this paper discusses the compatibility requirements of each for nuclear energy in terms of economics, environment, supply security, resources, waste

  16. Climate: Into the 21st Century

    Burroughs, William

    2003-08-01

    Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  17. Lexicography in the 21st Century

    This is a state-of-the-art volume on lexicography at the beginning of the 21st century. It also offers proposals for future theoretical and practical work. The contributions, inspired by the ground-breaking work of Henning Bergenholtz, address topics such as dictionary functions; dictionary users...

  18. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  19. Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    Goodnight, Ron

    The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

  20. Psychological Science in the 21st Century

    Cacioppo, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Science is constantly changing. If one hopes to keep pace with advances in science, one cannot simply repeat what one has done in the past, whether deciding how to invest limited research funds, searching to replace a retiring colleague, or teaching introductory psychology. Psychological science in the 21st century is more central and integrated…

  1. Nuclear Power in the 21st Century

    The International Atomic Energy Agency helps its Member States to use nuclear technology for a broad range of peaceful purposes, one of the most important of which is generating electricity. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011 caused anxiety about nuclear safety throughout the world and raised questions about the future of nuclear power. Two years on, it is clear that the use of nuclear power will continue to grow in the coming decades, although growth will be slower than was anticipated before the accident. Many countries with existing nuclear power programmes plan to expand them. Many new countries, both developed and developing, plan to introduce nuclear power. The factors contributing to this growing interest include increasing global demand for energy, as well as concerns about climate change, volatile fossil fuel prices, and security of energy supply. It will be difficult for the world to achieve the twin goals of ensuring sustainable energy supplies and curbing greenhouse gases without nuclear power. The IAEA helps countries that opt for nuclear power to use it safely and securely. Countries that have decided to phase out nuclear power will have to deal with issues such as plant decommissioning, remediation, and waste management for decades to come. The IAEA also assists in these areas. I am grateful to the Russian Federation for hosting the 2013 International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century in St Petersburg in June. This timely conference provides a valuable opportunity to take stock of nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. A high level of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power is essential for the future of the sector. Much valuable work has been done in the past two years to improve safety. But much remains to be done. It is vitally important that the momentum is maintained and that everything is done to ensure that nuclear power is as safe as humanly

  2. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  3. Life Sciences in the 21 st Century

    Zou Chenglu (C. L. Tsou)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective of the achievements of life sciences in the 20th century and a prospective in the 21 st century.primarily,because of the emergence of molecular biology in the 20th cetury,life sciences have grown up from a descriptive discipline to an exact science.Biology in the 21st century features a unification between analysis and integration,i.e.the unification of analysis and func-tional research.More and more interdisciplinary integration will be based on works of penetrating analyses.Secondly.the deeper understanding of all living phenomena will lead to a unified connition of the essence of life so that general biology in the genuine sese of the term will come into being.finally,basic research on the life sciences will produce an unprecedented influence on all aspects of human life.

  4. Detergents of the 21st century

    Ho Tan Tai Louis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  5. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008) and Zoo City (2010) are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published i...

  6. Cooperative learning in 21st century

    Johnson, David W.; JOHNSON, Roger T.

    2014-01-01

    The 21st century brings four important challenges in which cooperation plays a central role: (1) a rapidly increasing global interdependence that will result in increasing local diversity as well as more frequent and intense conflicts, (2) the increasing number of democracies throughout the world, (3) the need for creative entrepreneurs, and (4) the growing importance of interpersonal relationships that affect the development of personal identity. The tools for meeting these challenges includ...

  7. Metropolitan Taxation in the 21st Century

    Brunori, David

    1998-01-01

    As we enter the 21st Century, local governments will face challenges to how they raise revenue. Existing local tax systems are ill equipped to meet future basic revenue needs. Moreover, economic and technological changes will inevitably and profoundly alter tax systems of all governments. The problems with existing tax systems and future economic challenges will likely lead to an environment in which local taxation will be limited to an extent unseen in American history. The limitations will ...

  8. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  9. Managing Reliability in the 21st Century

    Dellin, T.A.

    1998-11-23

    The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

  10. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  11. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  12. Rethinking Global Water Governance for the 21st Century

    Ajami, N. K.; Cooley, H.

    2012-12-01

    Growing pressure on the world's water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. According to the United Nations, today, at least 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Pressures on water resources are likely to continue to worsen in response to decaying and crumbling infrastructure, continued population growth, climate change, degradation of water quality, and other challenges. If these challenges are not addressed, they pose future risks for many countries around the world, making it urgent that efforts are made to understand both the nature of the problems and the possible solutions that can effectively reduce the associated risks. There is growing understanding of the need to rethink governance to meet the 21st century water challenges. More and more water problems extend over traditional national boundaries and to the global community and the types and numbers of organizations addressing water issues are large and growing. Economic globalization and transnational organizations and activities point to the need for improving coordination and integration on addressing water issues, which are increasingly tied to food and energy security, trade, global climate change, and other international policies. We will present some of the key limitations of global water governance institutions and provide recommendations for improving these institutions to address 21st century global water challenges more effectively.

  13. Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2012-01-01

    For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

  14. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  15. Advances and Challenges for Nutrient Management in China in the 21st Century

    Sims, J.T.; Ma, L.; Oenema, O.; Dou, Z.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via pr

  16. Radiology in the 21st century

    On the leading edge in ''high-tech'' medicine, radiology is experiencing several revolutions simultaneously that promise an exciting future. New imaging methods and digital technologies not only offer novel ways to view tissues but also provide opportunities for quantitative evaluation of function and even permit determination of metabolic status. New approaches to technology assessment are being explored that alter the ways in which equipment and procedures are introduced into clinical medicine. With the plethora of radiology services available, the radiologist must serve as a consultant in the triage of patients in radiology and the dissemination of information from radiology. For similar reasons, training in diagnostic radiology may eventually accommodate to the concept of specialization along organ-system lines. Without question, radiology is destined for an exciting period as it moves into the 21st century

  17. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material are not...... digital in the same way, which a distinction between digitized, born-digital, and reborn-digital may help us acknowledge, thereby helping us to understand how each of these types of digital material affects different phases of scholarly work in its own way. This is illustrated by a detailed comparison of...... the nature of digitized collections and web archives....

  18. Engineering in the 21st century

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reasonable evolutionary trends in federal outlays for aerospace research and development predict a continuing decline in real resources (1970 dollars) until the mid eighties, and a growth thereafter to the 1970 level by 2000, still well below the 1966 peak. Employment levels will parallel this trend with no shortage of available personnel foreseen. These trends characterize a maturing industry. Shifts in outlook toward the economic use of resources, rather than minimum risk at any cost, and toward missions aligned with societal needs and broad national goals will accompany these trends. These shifts in outlook will arise in part in academia, and will, in turn, influence engineering education. By 2000, space technology will have achieved major advances in the management of information, in space transportation, in space structures, and in energy. The economics of space systems must be the primary consideration if the space program foreseen for the 21st century is to become an actuality.

  19. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity. PMID:26710571

  20. Snake oil for the 21st century.

    Bigby, M

    1998-12-01

    Dermatology has been associated with quackery for at least a century. The dictionary defines a quack as "a pretender to medical knowledge or skill; ignorantly or falsely pretending to cure." The term quack is derived from quacksalver, or one who quacks like a duck in promoting his salves. Quacksalvers hacked many potions, including snake oil, with claims that it cured everything from dermatitis to rheumatism. With the current promulgation of skin "products" and their promotion and even sale by dermatologists, and the use of treatments of no proven efficacy, this association between dermatology and quackery is set to continue well into the 21st century. The list of offending treatments includes silicone gel sheets and onion extract cream (Mederma) for keloids, alpha-hydroxy acid creams and peels, topical ascorbic acid and phytonadione, "laser resurfacing," and cimetidine for warts, to name only a few. PMID:9875187

  1. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths. PMID:26203983

  2. Constitution-making in the 21st century

    Cheryl Saunders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Constitutions have been made or changed in major ways in more than half the countries of the world in recent decades. This article deals with contemporary approaches to constitution-making, organising the analysis around three key phases: setting the agenda, in terms of both substance and process; design, drafting and approval; and implementation. It argues that, while all constitution-making processes are different, there are some distinctive features of constitution-making in the 21st century that include popular participation, the need to build trust, internationalisation in its various forms and the importance of process. The article canvasses examples of constitution-making practices that have been or are likely to be influential. It identifies and briefly explores some of the key tensions in constitution-making between, for example, international involvement and domestic ownership of a Constitution and public participation and leadership.

  3. Rebuilding the LMS for the 21st Century

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Finally--12 years into the 21st century--higher ed classrooms are turning into incubators for the kind of learning environment that curriculum and instructional technology experts have advocated for years. Yet a key question remains: Can legacy learning management systems (LMSs) be dragged into the 21st century as part of this new educational…

  4. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  5. A Hierarchy of 21st Birthday Drinking Norms

    Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper offers preliminary evidence for a hierarchical organization of normative social influences on 21st birthday drinking. In recent years, 21st birthday celebratory drinking has received increasing attention, due largely to the propagation of dangerous and sometimes fatal drinking traditions, such as attempting to drink one shot for…

  6. Nuclear Reactor Empowerment in The 21st Century

    Scenarios of global energy need in the 21st century are discussed. Nuclear reactors will have important roles in supplying energy need in the 21st century if its evolutionary and innovative developments are continued to achieve economical competitiveness, high safety, positive environmental impacts, and ensuring sustain ability of innovation in the future energy supply

  7. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  8. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  9. Science for the 21st Century

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  10. Ionizing radiation in 21st century

    The paper begins with the author's personal experience in Poland on the occasion of Chernobyl nuclear accident followed by main lessons that the author could deduce from the accident. After the discovery of ionizing radiation at the end of 19th century, social perception has altered between acceptance and rejection stemming from recognition of the basic aspects: usefulness for medical applications and for technical and scientific aims, beneficial effects of their low levels, and harmful effects of high levels. The author explains how linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption according to which even the lowest, near zero doses of radiation may cause cancer genetic harm has become established. Comparing the natural radioactivity of the earth's crust with the activity of much shorter-lived radioactive wastes from the nuclear power cycle, it is concluded that none of the man-made component of the radioactive wastes has higher-toxicity than the natural Th 232. The paper concludes by stating that one century has not been long enough to adapt mentally to ionizing radiation and radioactivity and perhaps 21st century will suffice for this adaptation. (S. Ohno)

  11. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  12. 21st century's energy: hydrogen energy system

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st Century

  13. 21st Colloquium on African Geology——CAG21

    Lopo Vasconcelos

    2006-01-01

    @@ Under the auspices of the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf), the Geological Mining Association of Mozambique (AGMM) organized the 21st Colloquium on African Geology under the theme "Geoscience for Poverty Relief.

  14. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Helen Emasealu; Susan Nnadozie Umeozor

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, car...

  15. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  16. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the ICRP's current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards - environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others - will be increasingly important in the future. What level of risk is it reasonable to accept? What is meant by 'reasonable'? How much risk can be engineered away, for how long, and at what

  17. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  18. New learning scenarios for the 21st century related to Education, Culture and Technology

    Yáñez, Cristina; Okada, Alexandra; Palau, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of proposals and new learning scenarios for the 21st century related to the theme of “Education, Culture and Technology”. These proposals and scenarios are based on the work conducted in 2014 by a group of experts from Andorra, Catalonia, the United States and the United Kingdom during the International Forum on Education and Technology (FIET) held in Tarragona, Spain. The main aim of this work is to analyze the interconnection between education and culture throu...

  19. UKRAINE AND POLAND: FACING THE 21ST CENTURY CHALLENGES

    Igor Tsependa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a common strategic framework is a decisive factor in the Ukrainian-Polish relations in the current social and political context. The complexity of the partnership between the two states arise from their geographical location on the borderline between civilizations, the site of historical cataclysms. At the same time, national sovereignty of was always a high priority for both peoples. The recognition of Ukraine’s independence by Poland marked a new stage of rapprochement between Warsaw and Kyiv, the act being evidence of maturity of the Polish political elite. Poland made its best to promote the interest of Ukraine in the international political arena. The article suggests periodization in the history of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Ukrainian policy can be modelled on Poland’s experience of the transformation of society. Being a member of the European Union, Poland advocates the idea of European and Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine. Increased economic cooperation is one of the aspects of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Cooperation at regional level, between local government bodies is also important for the relations between the two states. Step by step, visa regulations are being liberalized, interpersonal contacts broadened. The beginning of the 21st century witnesses a change in political consciousness of Ukrainian and Polish people, who reconsider painful events from their past.

  20. TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: UKRAINE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Tetyana V. Danylova

    2013-12-01

    address gender issues in program development. In the 21st century issues of gender equity should be a priority at all levels.

  1. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burke, Thomas A.; Jones, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the “Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments” workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered. PMID:27035154

  2. Educational Collaboration across Borders: The Preparation of the "Transforming Teacher Education. Redefined Professionals for 21st Century Schools" Report

    Tan, Steven K. S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Fang, Y.; Devi, L.; Gopinathan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an account of the processes leading to the report "Transforming teacher education. Redefined professionals for 21st century schools" undertaken by the International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes. The report is a unique document, neither a series of country studies nor one based on an extensive review of the…

  3. Responsible Management Education for 21st Century Leadership

    Markus Prandini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 2008/09 financial crisis, business schools had to face increasing criticism to have failed equipping their students with a broad and critical understanding of management and business practices which go beyond pure self-interest. Business schools are supposed to contribute to a holistic understanding of management which creates value along a triple bottom line: profit, people and planet. The triple bottom line finds its realization in the concept of sustainable corporate responsibility. This paper discusses possible approaches for business schools how to educate students to be future generators of sustainable value for business and society at large and to work for an inclusive and sustainable global economy. On the basis of the recently published Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME as well as contemporary learning theories, the paper provides concrete recommendations how to foster students’ development towards long-term thinking, responsible business leaders. The paper argues that student learning needs to occur within powerful learning environments to provide an active, problem-based and self-directed acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Two approaches to create best-practice learning environments are real-life case studies and real-life student projects which both lead to a strong buy in of students, faculty and company partners. Both approaches are exemplified with the bachelor degree program International Management at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (Switzerland. As a conclusion, a responsible management education fosters the students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards responsible business leadership to shape the future direction of the 21st century.

  4. Vietnam 2010 : Entering the 21st Century

    World Bank; Asian Development Bank; United Nations Development Program

    2000-01-01

    The study outlines the socioeconomic development strategy for Vietnam, during the first decade of the twenty first century, envisaging sustainable economic development, to rapidly adjust to social stability, while maintaining cultural, and traditional ties. The aim is to become a socialist market economy, fully integrated into the global economy, internationally competitive, with character...

  5. Women, Literacy, and Development: Challenges for the 21st Century. A Report on the World Assembly of the International Council for Adult Education (5th, Cairo, Egypt, September 15-23, 1994).

    Cassara, Beverly B.

    The World Assembly addressed the theme of women, literacy, and development from the perspectives of international leaders, countries, and the host country. Critical issues related to education, social and political status, and the environment, poverty, and population were treated in plenary sessions; afternoon workshops were held on such topics as…

  6. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  7. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  8. Assessing 21st Century Skills: Summary of a Workshop

    Koenig, Judith Anderson

    2011-01-01

    The routine jobs of yesterday are being replaced by technology and/or shipped off-shore. In their place, job categories that require knowledge management, abstract reasoning, and personal services seem to be growing. The modern workplace requires workers to have broad cognitive and affective skills. Often referred to as "21st century…

  9. Software Engineering Technology for the 21st Century

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the software engineering technologyfor the 21 st century. First we review development over the last half-century, overview application re quirement and environment, accept a challenge. Then we outline following software engineering techniques: 1) Process;2) Analysis;3) Design;4) UML;5) Component;6) Java +XML;7) Integrated;8) Quality(ISO9000&CMM).

  10. Grandma Moses in the 21st Century. Learning from Exhibitions.

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the life and career of Grandma Moses who was born as Anna Mary Robertson and painted in the style of folk or naive art. Addresses the art exhibition entitled "Grandma Moses in the 21st Century" that explores the recurring themes in her artwork. (CMK)

  11. 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation

    Greenhill, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create the foundation for ongoing dialogue around how 21st century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in educator preparation, and to guide the development of resources and services to support educator programs. This paper aims to: (1) Develop a blueprint for building the models, tools, resource…

  12. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  13. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  14. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  15. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  16. 21st Century Skills: Prepare Students for the Future

    Larson, Lotta C.; Miller, Teresa Northern

    2011-01-01

    Skills students will need for the society in which they will work and live shouldn't be thought of as "one more thing to teach," but rather training integrated across all curricula. This article takes a look at 21st century skills and how these skills directly impact teaching and learning. Classroom teachers need to be familiar with these skills…

  17. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    2000-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  18. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their close…

  19. 21st Century Skills and the Physics Classroom

    Rigeman, Sally; Bruecken, Peter

    2009-11-01

    What content knowledge and skills will today's physics students need to acquire to be successful employees in the 21st century? How can today's physics classrooms prepare students for collaboration in a global work environment? What kind of instruction can engage physics students in learning that supports these demands? Attend this session to find out what motivates today's Net Generation.

  20. 21st European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

    Hornnes, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The 21st European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology took place in Antwerp 5-8 May 2010. The congress provided the participants with an overview of recent scientific and clinical developments throughout the field of obstetrics and gynaecology, and these are summarized in this article....

  1. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  2. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  3. Resource scarcity in the 21st century: conflict or cooperation?

    Qasem, I.

    2010-01-01

    Oil and natural gas, water, food, and minerals are critical to ensuring our wellbeing and prosperity. The mismatch between future demand and supply is crystallizing into one of the most complex and urgent issues policymakers will face in the 21st Century. Unless the challenges arising from these sca

  4. Vision for a 21st Century Information Infrastructure.

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    In order to ensure that the United States maintains an advanced information infrastructure, the Council on Competitiveness has started a project on the 21st century infrastructure. Participating in this project are the many different parties who are providing and using the infrastructure, including cable companies, regional Bell companies, long…

  5. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  6. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  7. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  8. Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary

    Shafer, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    "Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary" is an ethnographic investigation involving a diverse group of students as they experience their first year of graduate-level theological education at a Protestant seminary in the United States. The study analyzes the observations and student interviews that form the core of the…

  9. Allen Terhaar: Future Development of Cotton for the 21 st Century

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 China International Cotton Conference, organized by China Cotton Association (CCA), Research Centre for Rural Economy (RCRE) of the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) as well as the China National Cotton Exchange (CNCE), took place June 15-16 in the beautiful coastal city of Dalian this year. Allen Terhaar, Executive President of Cotton Council International (CCI), delivered a speech with the name of Cotton in the 21st Century: Sustaining Our Industry's Future. In the following part, let's share his opinions and suggestions.

  10. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  11. Leprosy in the 21st century.

    White, Cassandra; Franco-Paredes, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in leprosy (Hansen's disease) treatment and outlook for patients since the introduction of multidrug therapy (MDT) 3 decades ago, the global incidence remains high, and patients often have long-term complications associated with the disease. In this article, we discuss recent findings related to genetics, susceptibility, and disease reservoirs and the implications of these findings for Hansen's disease control and health outcomes for patients. We describe the continued difficulties associated with treatment of inflammatory episodes known as "leprosy reactions," which cause much of the disability associated with the disease and can affect people for many years after MDT is complete. We also discuss some of the contemporary challenges for physicians and patients, including international and internal migration of people affected by the disease. We suggest some important areas of focus for future Hansen's disease research. PMID:25567223

  12. MCNP applications for the 21st century

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code, MCNP, has become an international standard for a wide spectrum of neutron, photon, and electron radiation transport applications. The latest version of the code, MCNP 4C, was released to the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) in February 2000. This paper describes the code development philosophy, new features and capabilities, applicability to various problems, and future directions. (author)

  13. They will save us, or shouldn t they? An analysis of the role of the international community in the Albanian print media after the January 21st 2011 demonstrations

    Danaj, Sonila

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the political controversies related to the role the international community plays and should play in contemporary Albanian politics through an analysis of the media accounts of the January 21, 2011 demonstration. We analyse opinion articles in the mainstream media and find that there are two representations of the political reality that compete for legitimacy: one in favour of the government and the other against it. The picture that emerges from...

  14. Nuclear energy for the 21st century

    It composed of 15 parts, which are energy resource, knowledge on nuclear energy, nuclear fuel cycle, present condition of nuclear power generation, the necessity of nuclear power generation, safety of nuclear power generation, current situation of major foreign countries, generation and disposal of waste of radiation, management of waste of radiation, commentary on insistence related waste of radiation, management of waste of radiation in major foreign countries, radiation and daily life, international organization on nuclear energy, diplomacy cooperation of nuclear energy and extra major interesting of nuclear energy and waste of radiation.

  15. Literacy Is "Not" Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    Crockett, Lee; Jukes, Ian; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Educating students to traditional literacy standards is no longer enough. If students are to thrive in their academic and 21st century careers, then independent and creative thinking hold the highest currency. The authors explain in detail how to add these new components of literacy: (1) Solution Fluency; (2) Information Fluency; (3) Creativity…

  16. Magnets for the 21st century

    Based on a review of the development of laboratory electromagnets, perspectives for the next generation of pulsed magnets are discussed. Record fields are now approaching the 75T mark, and large efforts are made on an international scale in order to move into the region between 75 and 100T. Simple scaling laws indicate that these magnets will have a small bore and a short pulse duration of order 10ms. Fields above 100T are obtained by destructive methods, using high explosives (up to 2000T) and capacitor banks (up to 300T with the single turn coil and up to 600T with flux compression by implosion). The pulse duration is governed by shock waves, and therefore, restricted to the microsecond range. Efficient use of all these magnets calls for miniaturisation of both magnets and experiments, and the development of experimental techniques that are adapted to these conditions

  17. Engineering education in 21st century

    Alam, Firoz; Sarkar, Rashid; La Brooy, Roger; Chowdhury, Harun

    2016-07-01

    The internationalization of engineering curricula and engineering practices has begun in Europe, Anglosphere (English speaking) nations and Asian emerging economies through the Bologna Process and International Engineering Alliance (Washington Accord). Both the Bologna Process and the Washington Accord have introduced standardized outcome based engineering competencies and frameworks for the attainment of these competencies by restructuring existing and undertaking some new measures for an intelligent adaptation of the engineering curriculum and pedagogy. Thus graduates with such standardized outcome based curriculum can move freely as professional engineers with mutual recognition within member nations. Despite having similar or near similar curriculum, Bangladeshi engineering graduates currently cannot get mutual recognition in nations of Washington Accord and the Bologna Process due to the non-compliance of outcome based curriculum and pedagogy. This paper emphasizes the steps that are required to undertake by the engineering educational institutions and the professional body in Bangladesh to make the engineering competencies, curriculum and pedagogy compliant to the global engineering alliance. Achieving such compliance will usher in a new era for the global mobility and global engagement by Bangladesh trained engineering graduates.

  18. Departure into the 21st century

    At its 51st annual meeting, the Association of Industrial Power Companies (VIK) commented upon the items relating to energy and to the environment contained in the coalition agreement of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and Alliance 90/The Greens, expressing the point of view of industry and trade. In the opinion of the VIK the plans to opt out of nuclear power have not been fully thought out as far as repercussions on the labor market and on energy policy are concerned. Nuclear power must not be given up at the expense of industry engaged in international competition and the jobs provided by industry. Opting out of nuclear power quickly and without indemnification is unacceptable. The VIK regards the labor market effects of any measure planned as the yardstick to be applied to the coalition agreement. Any decision about energy policy must be seen in connection with the deregulation of the electricity and gas markets. The VIK also holds a critical view of the coalition's intention to amend the Power Economy Act adopted only recently. (orig.)

  19. Make a 21st century phone call

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Want to avoid roaming charges? Click to call anyone at CERN? How about merging your CERN landline with your existing smartphone? That's all easily done with Lync, CERN's new opt-in service that can take your calls to the next level.   The Lync application on Windows (left) and iPhone (right). Lync unites CERN's traditional telephone service with the digital sphere. "Lync gives you the gift of mobility, by letting you access your CERN landline on the go," explains Pawel Grzywaczewski, service manager of the Lync system. "Once you've registered your CERN telephone with the service, you can run the Lync application and make calls from a range of supported devices. No matter where you are in the world - be it simply out to lunch or off at an international conference - you can make a CERN call as though you were in the office. All you need is an Internet connection!" Following a recent upgrade, CERN's Lync service now has...

  20. Hydrogen the fuel for 21st century

    clean metal hydride batteries are already commercial for lap top computers. Larger capacity batteries are being developed for electrical cars. Hydrogen is already being used as the fuel of choice for space programmes around the world. It will be used to power aerospace transports to build the international space station, as well as to provide electricity and portable water for its inhabitants. Present article deals with the storage and applications of hydrogen in the present energy scenario. (author)

  1. Renewable energy education for 21st century

    international solar and renewable energy professional societies, in identifying the range and level of teaching materials required for use at schools and universities. This has resulted in many new books and teaching packages involving multi media presentation materials becoming available on the open market. Availability of computer software packages, originally developed for research purposes, has led to the introduction of solar system simulation into many engineering and architectural courses. Finally, as we move into the arena of the virtual school or university of the twenty first century, there is no doubt that more and more teaching and learning material will be made available free of charge on the world wide web, and that students worldwide will eventually have ease of access to academic and commercial information on a scale unimaginable only a few years ago. (Author)

  2. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  3. Hitachi product data management system toward the 21st century by CALS approach

    HIPDM21 (Hitachi Product Data Management System for the 21st century) is a comprehensive computer information management system which has been developed for the purpose of plant life cycle business support in terms of the electronics information exchange and sharing between the disciplines using the product data management technology. The system consists of core systems (Engineering Data Control System, Integrated Commodity Database system, and Document Management System) and business application systems. In the present development phase, the system is being enhanced to support CALS standards including EDT, SGML, and STEP, and to support information exchange and sharing with outside the company including clients, construction companies, and domestic/international vendors. (author)

  4. 21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop

    2013-01-01

    21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...

  5. Soldier communication net for the 21st century digitized battlespace

    Mu, Libo; Zhang, Yutian

    1999-07-01

    This paper present soldier communication net scheme, which survives and operates in the 21st century battlefield environment. First, it analyzes the features, the need, function of the soldier communication net on the 21st century battlefield environment. Secondly it presents a layered model of the soldier communication net, derived from the OSI theory, and discusses the design of the 3 layers, link layer, link controller and input/output applications layer. Thirdly, it present some key technical discussion concerning with the direct-sequence-spread-spectrum communication, code/decode and low power consumption. Finally, it gives the conclusion that spread spectrum time division system is the best scheme of soldier communication net.

  6. Technology Born Fictions for the Cities of 21st Century

    Mehmet Rıfat Akbulut

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies will undoubtely be leading determinants of urban landscape in the 21st century. Until the present day, it was assumed that urban landscapes were being shaped by conventional factors such as demography, social and economical structure, transportion, infrastructure, building technologies etc. In spite of many speculative approaches, recent developments in information and communication technologies can offer us some clues which may go beyond mere speculation. The“intelligent city” which is based on “autonomous” and “intelligent” objects and agents promising novel solutions to urban problems. Mobile communication is also another promising domain to offer creative solutions to some cronical urban problems. All these novelties provide sufficient reasons to think about new urban structures based upon information technologies.This paper is an attempt to discuss probable effects of information technologies, as new dynamics to shape the urban environment and urban life of the 21st century.

  7. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  8. The Role of the School District toward Preparing Students for the 21st Century

    Aguilar-Torres, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reflects the outcomes of a small school district that is successfully incorporating 21st century skills with the demands set forth by our current educational policy, No Child Left Behind. Considerations regarding globalization, future work force and work skills, definition of 21st century skills, supporting 21st century skills in…

  9. 76 FR 72003 - Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation

    2011-11-21

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program... proposed study of the impacts of the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program. A copy of the... develop plans to conduct a program evaluation of the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program...

  10. Geotectonic hypotheses at the beginning of the 21st century

    Strutinski, C.; Stan, R.; Puste, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution to the volume honouring Ott Ch. Hilgenberg the main directions of thought in the field of geotectonics at the beginning of the 21st century are reviewed. However, because of its seminal importance for the geological thinking during most of the last century, the Wegener (continental drift) hypothesis is also included and opens the review. It is followed by the critical presentation of Plate tectonics and the hypotheses of Earth expansion, Surge tectonics and Wrench tectoni...

  11. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000

  12. Antinomies of Capital in the 21st Century

    Estrada, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the 21st century" has been the most important book economy in recent times. Its aim integrates the debate theories of growth, income distribution, inequality and differences between the extremes income and income of the majority. The work predicts a slow increase in the share of capital income and inequality. His proposal for a global tax on capital is a way to evaluate such tendencies.

  13. Trans-thinking: Artistic Research in the 21st Century

    Neidich, Warren

    2013-01-01

    The idea of artistic research is a hot topic today, especially in our moment of the information economy and intellectual speculation. The problem is that the word research is bound to specific scientific and reductionist connotations that are connected to its specific methodologies which are at odds with the way art is made. In the lecture entitled “Trans-thinking: Artistic Research in the 21st Century” Neidich will use five examples of his own performative art production created in the four ...

  14. ICT Supported Cooperative Learning - Towards Attaining 21st Century Skills

    Ramli Rohaini; Ramli Rohaiza

    2013-01-01

    Today?s job market demands not only sound technical skills from their potential employees. When employers talk about graduates being job ready, they really mean that the graduates possess the skills of the 21st century, which include ability to seek information and critically analyze situations, ability to challenge ideas, being innovative and being able to communicate ideas. In realizing these needs, education systems have long since started to look into incorporating activities that could h...

  15. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research

    Sciences, Committee on Planning a Global Library of the Mathematical

    2014-01-01

    Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research discusses how information about what the mathematical literature contains can be formalized and made easier to express, encode, and explore. Many of the tools necessary to make this information system a reality will require much more than indexing and will instead depend on community input paired with machine learning, where mathematicians' expertise can fill the gaps of automatization. This report proposes the establishment of...

  16. Preparing for the 21st century. Planning with focus groups.

    Morris, R I

    1996-01-01

    The job market for nursing graduates is changing, and nursing schools must respond to the changes. The author describes the process of using focus groups to facilitate a constructive dialogue between nurse administrators, clinicians, educators, and students. The groups focused on adapting the curriculum to changing market conditions. Recommendations and outcomes are highlighted. Nursing educators are encouraged to critically examine their own programs in preparation for the 21st century. PMID:9069929

  17. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  18. Identifying 21st century STEM competencies using workplace data

    Jang, Hyewon

    2015-01-01

    Gaps between Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identif...

  19. Zimbabwe-Russia Relations in the 21st Century

    Chigora, Percyslage; Goredema, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    The 21st century has witnessed the intensification of relations between Zimbabwe and the East and other favorable states, Russia among them. Historically under the socialist rhetoric the two countries shared a common political ideology. Zimbabwe- Russia relations dates back to the era of the liberation struggle. The Soviet Union aided Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe People's Union and later the Patriotic Front which included Mugabe's Zimbabwe National African Union. The Soviet Union aided...

  20. Liberating services customers: The 21st century challenge

    Fisk, Raymond p.

    2011-01-01

    Liberating services customers is the business challenge of the 21st century. Many service organizations have organizational structures and processes that are better designed to control customers than to serve customers. Such structures and processes often result in poor services and sometimes they become disservices. Customers deserve to be liberated from such service structures and processes. Customers deserve better service! In this article, I examine four topics regarding liberating ser...

  1. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  2. THE COUNTRY IMAGE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: 21ST CENTURY ENVIRONMENT

    LIANNA AYVAZYAN

    2010-01-01

    This article is primarily based on the analysis of the image projected by other actors,using the image of Armenia in the so-called “quality” American press as an example,since the influence of these media on making important political decisions is wellknown. These are The Washington Post, The New York Times and The Wall StreetJournal (all materials published in 1991-2009) [1]. Unfortunately, so far it is difficultto discuss the opposite process (i.e. the image that we make). On the other hand...

  3. International conference: nuclear power for the 21 st century

    It is widely recognised that global energy demand will rise substantially during this century. The increased industrialization and urbanization of developing countries will produce large increases in energy demand in regions that currently have very low per capita energy use. This increasing demand for energy will need to be met in order to improve living standards for at least half of the world population and to reduce the economic imbalances between countries and regions. At the same time the use of fossil fuel based energy is identified as a major cause of environmental damage. The release of greenhouse gases from burning of fossil fuel in power stations and for transport is seen as a contributor to global warming. It is widely recognised that continued exploitation of fossil fuels and release of carbon dioxide will need to be controlled. After a prolonged period of slow development of nuclear power, confined to some countries in the world, it is now being recognised that nuclear energy has a potentially significant role to play in meeting the energy needs of the planet without damaging the environment. Developments in technology make the economics of nuclear power more attractive, and they may become even more so as fossil fuel prices continue to rise.or a widespread use of nuclear power, however, there remain concerns on the safety, security, waste and proliferation aspects. The global application of safety standards and appropriate security measures are required to ensure acceptable levels of protection. Effective control measures are required to ensure that non-proliferation commitments are honored. Handling nuclear waste safely and securely is achievable, but continues to remain as a public concern. The broad strategic objectives of the Conference are the following: to review the role of nuclear power and to define the potential benefits (energy security, sustainability and improved environmental protection) that expanding nuclear power offers to meet the increasing energy needs of the world; to facilitate a discussion on the issue of nuclear energy and society involving experts and decision makers. (author)

  4. Research of nuclear energy on the 21st Century Center of Excellence (COE) Program

    COE is an abbreviation of 'Center of Excellence' and the '21st Century COE Program' is project begun by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MECSST) to make a trigger to grow some research strongholds with international competitive power by activating mutual competition of collages and universities. This program aims to form research and educational strongholds with the highest level in the world at every scholarship fields to a collage or a university in Japan, to intend to grow creative specialists capable of upgrading research level and leading research world, and to progress strong assistance to promote collages- and universities-making with international competitive power and individuality. In 2003 fiscal year, two research programs related to nuclear energy were selected by the Committee of 21st Century COE Program such as 'an innovative reactor supporting suitable development of the world' in the mechanical, engineering and other technology field and 'future to be cultivated by isotopes' in the interdisciplinary, composite and new region field. The first program aims to construct the concept of system of innovative reactor and separation nuclear transformation for zero release of radioactive waste and to research the necessary technologies. The second program is covered isotope science and it consists of two main researches such as 1) the fundamental researches: a) separation and creation of isotopes, b) measurement technologies with nano size and c) isotope materials, and 2) the harmonized development researches: a) environment and bioscience and b) culture information and creation of quantum computer. (S.Y.)

  5. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership: Paving the Way to a Greener, Smarter, More Flexible Grid

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise.The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system.

  6. The BPM4ED project: Designing 21st century schools

    Domenico Lembo; Massimo Mecella; Mario Vacca

    2013-01-01

    The ways of schooling and teaching is quickly changing for the continuous evolution of the surrounding world: new forms of education are required; in fact, on the one side the birth of the smart cities and the smart community ask for active citizens interacting with institutions and on the other side the enormous potentiality of ICT is modifying both the learning environments and the training models. The so called “21st century schools”, differ from the current ones in almost all the aspects:...

  7. Designing Complex Systems for the 21st Century

    2011-01-01

    The design of complex “engineered” systems in the 21st century poses a set of common challenges, to name a few, the complexity and computational cost of system analysis, the heterogeneity of information at different levels of abstraction, the various sources of uncertainties, the multidisciplinary...... preference into enterprise-driven product design. Research in multiscale design presents the significant benefits of using computational design techniques for designing novel materials, new products, and new processes with exceptional system performance across diverse application domains such as material...

  8. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FACING CHALLENGES IN 21ST CENTURY

    2001-01-01

    The 21st Century is the time for human seeking harmonizing with environment and carrying out sustainable development strategy. But sustainable development is facing many challenges. They may mainly include the follows: challenge comes from the contradiction between human and the earth, challenge of local benefit conflict to human common goal, challenge of competition to fairness, challenge of unbalanced development in regions and countries, challenge of diversity and challenge of calamity. Challenges are not only pressure, but also the motive force. Challenge exists, the motive force would never stop. Sustainable development was born in challenges, is developing in contradiction and will sustain in conflict.

  9. Estimating Total Solar Irradiance during the 21st century

    Herrera, Victor Manuel Velasco; Mendoza, Blanca; Herrera, Graciela Velasco

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction and prediction of solar activity is one of the current problems in dynamo theory and global climate modeling. We estimate the Total Solar Irradiance for the next hundred years based on the Least Square Support Vector Machine. We found that the next secular solar minimum will occur between the years 2003 and 2063 with an average of 1365.4W/m2 close to the Dalton or Modern minima. We calculate the radiative forcing between the modern maximum and the 21st century minimum to be...

  10. Estimating Total Solar Irradiance during the 21st century

    Herrera, Victor Manuel Velasco; Herrera, Graciela Velasco

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction and prediction of solar activity is one of the current problems in dynamo theory and global climate modeling. We estimate the Total Solar Irradiance for the next hundred years based on the Least Square Support Vector Machine. We found that the next secular solar minimum will occur between the years 2003 and 2063 with an average of 1365.4W/m2 close to the Dalton or Modern minima. We calculate the radiative forcing between the modern maximum and the 21st century minimum to be -0.1W/m2.

  11. After the book information services for the 21st century

    Stachokas, George

    2014-01-01

    Libraries and librarians have been defined by the book throughout modern history. What happens when society increasingly lets print go in favour of storing, retrieving and manipulating electronic information? What happens after the book? After the Book explores how the academic library of the 21st Century is first and foremost a provider of electronic information services. Contemporary users expect today's library to provide information as quickly and efficiently as other online information resources. The book argues that librarians need to change what they know, how they work, and how they ar

  12. Higher Education Leadership: Challenge of the 21st Century

    Sutjipto Sutjipto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 21 st century, higher education (HE will play a very crucial role; in spite of its limited resources, HE should be able to respond to the challenges caused by the very fast advancement of technology. For this purpose managers of HE should be professional, those who are prepared to become the managers, so that they reflect wide perspectives, good attitudes, and quality skills in managing the HE in such a competitive era. Higher education leadership is expected to make use of the system and opportunity to improve its performance

  13. Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario

    Hansen, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Evidence on a broad range of time scales, from Proterozoic to the most recent periods, shows that the Earth's climate responds sensitively to global forcings. In the past few decades the Earth's surface has warmed rapidly, apparently in response to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The conventional view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate in the 21st century. I will describe an alternate scenario that would slow the rate of global warming and reduce the danger of dramatic climate change. But reliable prediction of future climate change requires improved knowledge of the carbon cycle and global observations that allow interpretation of ongoing climate change.

  14. The molecularization of identity: science and subjectivity in the 21st century.

    McGONIGLE, Ian Vincent; Benjamin, Ruha

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biological and computational technologies are changing the way different social groups imagine race, gender, kinship, citizenship and disease risk. Existing taxonomies are being displaced or reconfigured, impacting the ways in which people are governed, how lives are lived, how groups are known and how power is exercised. Herein we report on a two-day international symposium that we co-organized, titled 'The molecularization of identity: science and subjectivity in the 21st century,' that was held on 29-30 April 2016 at the Program on Science, Technology and Society, at Harvard University. The symposium drew upon the tools and expertise from multiple disciplines and diverse geographical regions and consisted of 24 original research presentations and an interdisciplinary roundtable. Specific attention was paid to the bioethical, material and lived dimensions of recent developments in molecular technologies, and discussions interrogated the complex ways in which the 'molecular realm' is an emerging site for constituting human identities in the 21st century. Herein we summarize some of the key findings of the conference and raise three further issues for practitioners and researchers to consider in relation to the broader impact of genetics research. Namely: transnational governance of emerging biotechnologies; representation of different interest groups in policy decisions; and rights of access to emerging technologies. PMID:27376979

  15. INTEGRATION OF EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MARKETS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY

    Madalina Antoaneta RADOI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest four decades have marked by their width, speed and radicality a true “revolution” on the financial market, a transformation and restructuring of financial services, of financial instruments which were used, of transaction systems, but also of competitive processes. The importance that should be given to such transformations of financial systems is given, as well, by their impact, both at the micro- and at the macro- levels, on the economy as a whole.The evolution of the European financial market at the beginning of the 21st century has followed the general trend of global markets. As a main tendency of financial market restructuring at the European level we should keep in mind the fact that there was an opening towards private financing according to the American model, due to the necessity to attract international capital resources, a process which is still ongoing.The integration of the European financial markets at the beginning of the 21st century follows the general process of financial globalization which develops rapidly on several structures of financial systems.

  16. Creating a 21st Century Community through the Teacher Research Experience (Invited)

    Wilkening, E.; Beine, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the spring of 2009, I participated in PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) funded by the National Science Foundation and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States. I assisted in hands-on research being performed by scientists with OASIS (Ocean, Atmosphere, Sea Ice and Snowpack) during their field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. Although I was in the field for only 3 weeks, it was merely a beginning to a transformation that took place not only in me, but also among all of those involved. The PolarTREC program embodies the principles fundamental to the 21st Century skill-set that we want our students to possess. The job market is changing for graduates, and education is striving to provide students with the skills necessary to thrive in the future. To ensure the success of students the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) has defined 21st Century Skills. They are incorporated into many educational standards (such as the Arizona Educational Technology Standards) and they are practiced by the teachers, researchers, students and the PolarTREC community. They are: Creativity and Innovation Communication and Collaboration Research and Information Literacy Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making Digital Citizenship Technology Operations and Concepts

  17. Tuberculosis: a new vision for the 21st century.

    Small, Peter M

    2009-11-01

    accelerate the development of new tools for the future. Simple improvements in tuberculosis control, such as expanding the use of under-utilized technologies, can have enormous impact. Fixed-dose combinations have existed for over 25 years, and could help ensure that more patients complete treatment; yet globally, only 15 percent of patients are using them. We also need new drugs, vaccines and diagnostics, as well as innovations in tuberculosis control and case management. Better diagnostics are already available, and new drugs and vaccines are coming. But more commitment and resources are needed. Better prevention and control of tuberculosis is the surest way to stop drug resistance. To ensure that drug resistance does not pose a wider threat, we need to employ a number of equally important approaches. These include improved basic tuberculosis control, increased use of underutilized technologies such as fixed-dose combinations, and new technologies and health systems innovations. At the same time, we should expand access to M/XDR-TB treatment and diagnostics for those who already have drug resistant tuberculosis. Some of the most innovative solutions can come from the private sector and through partnerships. An untapped market of two billion people carries the tuberculosis bacterium. Since tuberculosis requires a comprehensive approach, companies should also explore opportunities to work together and pool complementary technologies to ensure new tools are used most effectively. Japan is poised to play a leading role in the discovery, development and delivery of tuberculosis solutions in the 21st century. PMID:19999594

  18. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  19. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Helen Emasealu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, career path and recruitment of librarians, and community support necessary for effective and efficient implementation and management of repository initiatives. This entails the ability to comprehend trends and change patterns which are essential for providing research focused and user-friendly models in open repository services that are based on thorough analytical understanding of the challenges of emerging trends. To achieve this requires the training and retraining of librarians to reposition them as information specialists in their career path. The role of the library as an integral part of its social environment is to educate the community about the existence of an open repository by building partnership with community-oriented research centres through seminars, workshops, symposium, training, and awareness programmes. The study recommends that librarians should strategize and collaborate with researchers to make open repository an essential research tool.

  20. The Ways to Strengthen Democracy in 21st Century

    shazia kiyani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the weaknesses of different democracies of the world in 21st century and suggests some solutions to them. Among the living democracies of the world all of them are not exemplary and among the mediocre ones too all of them are not too bad. Some of the countries are justifying with the splendid principle of democracy and leaving the examples of good governance, self reliance, supremacy of Law and Rule of Equality for the rest of the world. On the other hand some of the countries are still striving hard to establish or retrieve the democracy. We need an ideal of democracy which renders it possible to access to what degree a world government serving a sovereign world parliament could be democratic and independent in order to be prosperous and capable of standing on its own feet in the 21st century. A strong democratic system of government is the only way out for the self reliance and stability of the country. This paper is aimed to identify the problems faced by today’s democratic countries and their solution.

  1. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    Khoury, Muin J [National Institutes of Health; Lam, Tram Kim [National Institutes of Health; Ioannidis, John [Stanford University; Hartge, Patricia [National Institutes of Health; Spitz, Margaret R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Huston; Buring, Julie E. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital; Chanock, Stephen J. [National Institutes of Health; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Zauber, Ann [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Schully, Sheri D [National Institutes of Health

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  2. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  3. Digital pathology: a tool for 21st century neuropathology.

    Guzman, Miguel; Judkins, Alexander R

    2009-04-01

    Digital pathology represents an electronic environment for performing pathologic analysis and managing the information associated with this activity. The technology to create and support digital pathology has largely developed over the last decade. The use of digital pathology tools is essential to adapt and lead in the rapidly changing environment of 21st century neuropathology. The utility of digital pathology has already been demonstrated by pathologists in several areas including consensus reviews, quality assurance (Q/A), tissue microarrays (TMAs), education and proficiency testing. These utilities notwithstanding, interface issues, storage and image formatting all present challenges to the integration of digital pathology into the neuropathology work environment. With continued technologic improvements, as well as the introduction of fluorescent side scanning and multispectral detection, future developments in digital pathology offer the promise of adding powerful analytic tools to the pathology work environment. The integration of digital pathology with biorepositories offers particular promise for neuropathologists engaged in tissue banking. The utilization of these tools will be essential for neuropathologists to continue as leaders in diagnostics, translational research and basic science in the 21st century. PMID:19290997

  4. India and the 21st Century Power Partnership; 21st Century Power Partnership

    None

    2015-05-13

    Indian leadership has been crucial in both the establishment of the foundational capabilities of the Power Partnership as well as the realization of opportunities for applied policy implementation. Understanding policy regimes that support and accelerate the transition to clean, smart, efficient, affordable, and reliable electricity will help inform decisions that enable innovative solutions, or even disruptive innovations. India has already demonstrated a wide variety of business model innovation in a wide range of industries. Its potential to do the same in the power sector is an enormous opportunity. Indian contributions to international knowledge about the legal, regulatory and business environment will be an integral component of the Power Partnership program.

  5. Projections of Climate Change over China for the 21st Century

    LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; XU Ying; GAO Xuejie; DING Yihui

    2005-01-01

    The projections of climate changes in China for the 21st century by about 40 climate scenarios and multi-model ensembles have been investigated in this research. All the models with the different scenarios project a warming of 1.2℃ to 9.2℃ in China by the end of 21st century. Most of the projections point show the increasing of precipitation in China for the 21st century.

  6. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperation policy towards the Era of Northeast Asian countries in the 21st century

    In this study, current status and future perspectives of nuclear policy of China, Russia and Japan were investigated in order to establish directions for future cooperation policy and strategies in the nuclear cooperation with Northeast Asian countries in the 21st centuries. And current status of these countries for international nuclear cooperation including Korea were investigated and major directions for national policy and strategies for the nuclear cooperation with these countries in the 21st centuries were also studied. It is expected that Northeast Asian countries, China, Russia, Japan and Korea become one of leading major economical active areas in the world and these nuclear big countries play leading roles in the 21st international nuclear communities through the large scale expansion of nuclear power, strengthening of nuclear R and D activities, extension and diversification of international cooperation. And cooperation with these countries in the use and development of nuclear under the international circumstances of tightening nuclear non-proliferation regime and nuclear safety regime in the northeast region become important and should be placed with high priority in the future nuclear cooperation. At the same time, multi-lateral nuclear cooperation in the Northeast Asian region becomes important in the 21st century considering various multi-lateral cooperation in field of energy and resources in the region and newly emerging issues such as energy security, nuclear security and other common nuclear issues

  7. Death in Design in the 21st Century

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    each constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices dealing with death, grief and memorialization. Design pioneering company IDEO'S recent failed attempt to 'redesign death' is an example of how delicate and difficult it is to work with material and symbolic 'death......The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline, and combined, cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites...... design'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites and services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by the discourses of economics, power, technology and culture. Furthermore many end-users do not recognize the need or potential of a certain death service...

  8. Radiation processing technology in the 21st century

    The address discusses the following issue - towards the 21st century, we are required more and more to create innovative technologies to solve problems about environment, energy, natural resources, materials, health care, food and others which are the great concern to human beings. For the radiation processing technology to survive, it will be required to provide answers to those problems. The use of radiation of polymer modification will remain as an important field of the radiation application. Some other promising polymer processing can be cited as those which will grow in near future; for environment technology - polymeric fibers grafted with ion exchange residues to remove toxic metals for cleaning industrial waste water; For health care technology - crosslinked polyvinylalcohol hydrogel for wound dressing (irradiation of hydrogel); For high performance materials technology - less toxic crosslinked natural rubber latex (irradiation of emulsion), abrasion resistant crosslinked PTFE (irradiation at high temperature)

  9. YANJI CITY ORIENTATION AND INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY

    2001-01-01

    Yanji is the biggest China Korean inhabited city. Based on a newly finished research project, this paper discusses strategic problems about Yanji towards 21st century. The general point of the authors is that at the beginning of new century,Yanji will play a more important role in Tumen River Delta development, regional economy cooperation in Korea Peninsula as well as Northeast Asia, and it will develop to be an important central city in this area. This paper puts forwards Yanji City′s developing goal, urban nature, and urban size, probes its regional orientation, and further probes how to establish The Yanji Urban Economy Cooperation Zone. The authors think that Yanji should depend on its intellect resources and other characteristic resources. Industry development need to pay much attention to modern agriculture, tertiary industry (especially commerce, trade and tourism) and dominant industries, and high-tech industry must give a special care, in order to establish a light industrial structure.

  10. Coal research strategies for the 21st century

    This paper provides a personal view of the research strategies which will be necessary to develop the new generations of equipment and new concepts and processes which will be required by the coal industry into the 21st century. It is claimed that the economics of coal supply and availability will continue to ensure that coal retains a very significant role as long as it is not targeted by taxes, regulation or penalties which are specifically intended to take it out of contention. In the author opinion, the coal industry needs to show that coal can be produced safely and with acceptable environmental impacts for future land use. These issues of community concern impact on all coal mining companies, and the need is a common one to maintain industry wide collaborative support for research to provide the technological innovation which will be an essential part of their solutions

  11. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear Medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99 m Tc ciprofloxacin). In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals nd the future direction it might take. (author)

  12. Identifying 21st century STEM competencies using workplace data

    Jang, Hyewon

    2015-01-01

    Gaps between Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the United States Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work...

  13. Challenges for Educational Technologists in the 21st Century

    Robin Mayes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, Edsger Dijkstra claimed that computers had only introduced the new problem of learning to use them effectively. This is especially true in 2015 with regard to powerful new educational technologies. This article describes the challenges that 21st century educational technologists are, and will be, addressing as they undertake the effective integration of new technologies into K-12 educational systems and learning environments. The expanding Internet, ever more powerful mobile devices, and other innovations make the task of designing effective formal and informal learning challenging, especially in light of the high rate of change in these new technologies. While these technologies introduce many benefits, they are also causing serious threats to system security and personal privacy. Furthermore, as these technologies continue to evolve, ethical issues such as equal access to resources become imperative. Educational technologists must expand their forward-thinking leadership and planning competencies so as to ensure effective use of new technologies.

  14. Prospects for competitive nuclear power into the 21st century

    Nuclear power stations committed today will be commissioned in the mid- to late-1990s and will operate for most of their lives in the 21st century. Utilities considering the nuclear option for new increments of capacity are, therefore, required to make judgements now on the competitiveness of nuclear plants well beyond the turn of the century. Reactors committed for mid-1990 startup could have a lifetime competitive cost advantage of 20% to 80% over coal-fired plants in most NEA areas studied except for some parts of North America where low cost coal is available. Nuclear plants would retain an economic advantage in most countries even if they were to be used for load-following with resultant lifetime capacity (load) factors as low as about 60% (or even lower in many countries). Uranium resources are sufficiently large that fuel supply should not constrain nuclear power development well into the 21st century, as long as uranium prices provide a market incentive for continued exploration and mine development. Uranium prices seem unlikely to rise to a level which would remove nuclear's advantage within the next several decades. There is apparently no technological reason why the ''back-end'' of the fuel cycle (spent fuel transportation, storage, reprocessing and disposal of high level waste) and decommissioning of reactors should constrain further deployment of nuclear power. While the costs of these activities appear high in absolute terms, they will be relatively low per unit of electricity generated. Thus, even though there remain uncertainties regarding these future costs, they should have little impact on electricity consumers. (author)

  15. Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges

    Giménez, Àlvaro; Niarchos, Panagiotis; Rucinski, Slavek

    2006-01-01

    An International Conference entitled "Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges", was held in Syros island, Greece, from 27 to 30 June, 2005. There are many binary star systems whose components are so close together, that they interact in various ways. Stars in such systems do not pass through all stages of their evolution independently of each other; in fact their evolutionary path is significantly affected by their companions. Processes of interaction include gravitational effects, mutual irradiation, mass exchange, mass loss from the system, phenomena of extended atmospheres, semi-transparent atmospheric clouds, variable thickness disks and gas streams. The zoo of Close Binary Systems includes: Close Eclipsing Binaries (Detached, Semi-detached, Contact), High and Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, RS CVn systems, Pulsar Binaries and Symbiotic Stars. The study of these binaries triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and ev...

  16. Report on the workshop "Organising, Managing and Regulating Martial Arts" during the 21st EASM conference

    Jikkemien Vertonghen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present report provides a brief account of a workshop entitled “Organising, Managing and Regulating Martial Arts” organised during the 21st EASM conference held in Istanbul (Turkey on September 12th, 2013. It was the first scientific workshop with regard to the organisational and policy related aspects of (full contact martial arts. During this international meeting four scientists described in-depth the recent history and current situation regarding the organisation and regulation of martial arts in their country (i.e., France, Flanders (Belgium, Italy and the Netherlands. The workshop was a unique meeting which provided a good opportunity to obtain a better understanding of the specific situation with regard to the regulation of martial arts in some European countries and to exchange results of current research concerning this topic. Further research could be helpful to gain more insight in dealing with problems related to governance, regulation and management of martial arts within a European context.

  17. The 21st LH Gray Conference (June 4-6, 2008)

    West, C. M. L. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, C. J. [Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sutton, D. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Wright, E. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-12

    The 21st LH Gray Conference, organised by the LH Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics which included: non-targeted effects of radiation, exposure to high natural background radiation, non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, lessons learnt from Chernobyl, radiation in the workplace, biokinetic modelling, uncertainties in risk estimation, issues in diagnostic medical exposures, lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and how the radiobiology-radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today.

  18. Very Large Array Retooling for 21st-Century Science

    2008-02-01

    An international project to make the world's most productive ground-based telescope 10 times more capable has reached its halfway mark and is on schedule to provide astronomers with an extremely powerful new tool for exploring the Universe. The National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope now has half of its giant, 230-ton dish antennas converted to use new, state-of-the-art digital electronics to replace analog equipment that has served since the facility's construction during the 1970s. VLA and Radio Galaxy VLA Antennas Getting Modern Electronics To Meet New Scientific Challenges CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more information, higher-resolution files "We're taking a facility that has made landmark discoveries in astronomy for three decades and making it 10 times more powerful, at a cost that's a fraction of its total value, by replacing outdated technology with modern equipment," said Mark McKinnon, project manager for the Expanded VLA (EVLA). Rick Perley, EVLA project scientist, added: "When completed in 2012, the EVLA will be 10 times more sensitive, cover more frequencies, and provide far greater analysis capabilities than the current VLA. In addition, it will be much simpler to use, making its power available to a wider range of scientists." The EVLA will give scientists new power and flexibility to meet the numerous challenges of 21st-Century astrophysics. The increased sensitivity will reveal the earliest epochs of galaxy formation, back to within a billion years of the Big Bang, or 93 percent of the look-back time to the beginning of the Universe. It will have the resolution to peer deep into the dustiest star-forming clouds, imaging protoplanetary disks around young stars on scales approaching that of the formation of terrestrial planets. The EVLA will provide unique capabilities to study magnetic fields in the Universe, to image regions near massive black holes, and to systematically track changes in transient objects

  19. Leading the 21st-century academic library successful strategies for envisioning and realizing preferred futures

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2015-01-01

    Leading the 21st Century Academic Library: Successful Strategies for Envisioning and Realizing Preferred Futures will explore the new roles and directions academic libraries are taking in the 21st century as a consequence of visionary leadership in exploring diverse futures.

  20. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  1. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    Greenstein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  2. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    2012-08-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry,...

  3. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    2012-05-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are May 29-30, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  4. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    2012-02-24

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are March 5-6, 2012..., 2012. The AC21 consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food...

  5. The Challenge of Ethical Liberalism to Jewish Education in the 21st Century

    Alexander, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century" by Jonathan Woocher. The author agrees with Jonathan Woocher that American Jewish education in the 21st century requires change no less comprehensive than that initiated by Samson Benderly and his students around a century ago, and that this should…

  6. Navigating Massively Multiplayer Online Games: Evaluating 21st Century Skills for Learning within Virtual Environments

    McCreery, Michael P.; Schrader, P. G.; Krach, S. Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    There is a substantial and growing interest in immersive virtual spaces as contexts for 21st century skills like problem solving, communication, and collaboration. However, little consideration has been given to the ways in which users become proficient in these environments or what types of target behaviors are associated with 21st century…

  7. Intelligent manufacture adapts to agile manufacture production mode in the 21st century

    Li Xurong

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the characteristics of the intelligent manufacturing system and production mode in the21st century in the information age, therefore draws a conclusion that the intelligent manufacturing system adapts to agilemanufacture (AM for short) production mode in the 21 st century.

  8. Aiming Talent Development toward Creative Eminence in the 21st Century

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the social and scientific problems that face the world in the 21st century, including climate change and economic inequality. In this context, the development of talented individuals who can tackle these problems is most important. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of 21st-century challenges for the…

  9. 77 FR 27253 - Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation

    2012-05-09

    ... (FR vol. 76, no. 224, pgs. 72003-72004). No comments were received. Agency: Institute of Museum and... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program... improvements to the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian (LB21) Grant Program. The information gathered...

  10. Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities

    Bellotti, Francesco; Bottino, Rosa Maria; Nadolski, Rob; Fernández Manjón, Baltasar

    2012-01-01

    Bellotti, F., Bottino, R. M., Nadolski, R. J., & Fernández Manjón, B. (2012, 4-6 July). Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities. Presentation at the Workshop Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities, 12th IE

  11. Kinesiology Faculty for the 21st Century: Steping into the Future

    DePauw, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Kinesiology faculty for the 21st century was one of the featured strands of the 2014 NAKHE Collaborative Congress: "STEPS into the future: Exploring opportunities and facing the challenges for the 21st century." Following a brief introduction delegates were assigned to discussion groups with conversations focused around six…

  12. Girltalk: Energy, Climate and Water in the 21ST Century

    Olson, H. C.; Osborne, V.; Bush, R.; Bauer, S.; Bourgeois, E.; Brownlee, D.; Clark, C.; Ellins, K. K.; Hempel-Medina, D.; Hernandez, A.; Hovorka, S. D.; Olson, J. E.; Romanak, K.; Smyth, R. C.; Tinker, S.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Williams, I. P.

    2011-12-01

    In preparation for Earth Science Week, The University of Texas at Austin, Striker Communications and Ursuline Academy of Dallas partnered on a GirlTalk event ("Energy, Climate and Water in the 21st Century") to create a two-day (Fri-Sat), community science symposium and open house on critical issues surrounding energy, water and climate. On Friday, over 800 high school girls and 100 teachers from Ursuline participated in hands-on activities (led by faculty, researchers and graduate students from UT Austin and professionals from the surrounding Dallas community), films and discussions, plenary sessions and an expert panel discussion. An opening talk by Dr. Hilary Olson on "Energy, Water and Climate in the 21st Century: Critical Issues for the Global Community" began the day. A series of hands-on activities, and science and technology films with discussion followed. Each girl had an individualized, modular schedule for the day, completing four of the over twenty modules offered. During lunch, Dr. Scott Tinker, Director of the Bureau of Economic Geology, presented a compelling talk on "Time, Technology and Transition", and afterwards girls attended another round of hands-on activities in the afternoon. The day ended with a panel discussion where girls could submit questions to the various participants from the day's activities. The exciting experience of a full day of GirlTalk led many high school girls to volunteer for the middle school event on the following morning (Sat.), when 150 middle school girls and their mentors (parents, teachers) attended a community-wide public event to learn about the energy, water and climate nexus. "Breakfast with a Pro" was hosted by the various professionals. Girls and their mentors enjoyed breakfast and discussion about topics and careers in the earth sciences and engineering with presenters, followed by an informal discussion with a panel of professionals. Next, girls and their mentors were each given a pre-assigned individual

  13. World energy strategies into the 21st century

    In mid-1990s, tighter oil supply and firmer and higher price will be projected due to the declining production in non-OPEC countries. The OPEC members have the oil production capacity of 30 million barrels a day, but last year, OPEC produced 17 million barrels a day. World oil demand was down about 600,000 barrels a day due primarily to the continued substitution with natural gas, coal and nuclear power. The conclusion of the UK coal strike also contributed to the drop of the demand for residual fuel oil. Economic growth was too sluggish to offset the substitution effect. The crude oil production from non-OPEC sources has increased, but low price will reverse the trend of non-OPEC production. Energy supply will be ample to meet the projected demand through the next decade. The annual growth rate of less than 2 % was forecast for the primary energy demand in non-communist world, assuming the economic growth of 3 % a year worldwide. The trend of the use of natural gas, coal and nuclear power is discussed. At the beginning of the 21st century, world energy will be supplied 42 % by oil, 18 % by natural gas, 24 % by coal and 8 % by nuclear power. (Kako, I.)

  14. Mega-History and the 21st century singularity puzzle

    Akop P. Nazaretyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of calculations carried out independently by the Australian, Russian and American re- searchers have demonstrated that a crucial global polyfurcation is expected near the middle of the 21st century. This result is drawn by extrapolating into the future the logarithmic acceleration law, which involves the phase transitions in the evolution of biosphere and anthroposphere. The paper investigates the palliatives of the planetary civilization beyond the big evolutionary Singularity in the context of Mega-history and complexity theory worldviews. It gives the mathematical deduction a universal ground and besides, helps involve some recent discoveries in psychology and cultural anthropology to tracing the forecasting attractors and scenarios. The destiny of the Earth (as well as any other planetary civilization may conclusively depend on whether or not the intellectual ac- tor succeeds in developing his inner regulation to balance the potentially unlimited developments in technological power. Particularly, this includes overcoming the macro-group identities, religious and quasi-religious ideologies, which always suggest a friend-or-foe discrimination matrix.

  15. [Cardiovascular diseases, medical apocalypse of the 21st century?].

    Mielnik, Małgorzata; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to bring forward and realise the size of cardiovascular diseases and the burden of its numbers that concern practising doctors in Lower Silesia, in Poland, Europe and the world. Every fourth patient knocking at the GP's door comes with a problem with the circulatory system. These diseases are the reason for every second in hospitalization or referral to a specialist. The most common diagnosis is not the common cold but arterial hypertension. Three of the most common diseases in patients over 65 years old are: hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and atherosclerosis of the brain arteries. Poland belongs to the group of developed countries with an emerging economy, where degenerative diseases dominate, and cardiovascular diseases account for the biggest problems within the Health System. Nearly half of male deaths (46%) and over half of female deaths (56%) are the consequence of cardiovascular diseases. 80% of people around the world live in developing economies, where cardiovascular diseases cause 23% of all deaths. Every fifth person lives in a developed country and has a 50% chance of dying because of cardiovascular diseases. Will these diseases become "the number one killer" of the 21st century? 27% lost healthy life years are due to arterial hypertension, ischeamic heart disease, and congestive heart failure so their epidemiology is being regarded in this article. PMID:15518325

  16. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  17. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  18. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Danyelle Khadydja F. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  19. Langley Ground Facilities and Testing in the 21st Century

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Kilgore, William A.

    2010-01-01

    A strategic approach for retaining and more efficiently operating the essential Langley Ground Testing Facilities in the 21st Century is presented. This effort takes advantage of the previously completed and ongoing studies at the Agency and National levels. This integrated approach takes into consideration the overall decline in test business base within the nation and reduced utilization in each of the Langley facilities with capabilities to test in the subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic speed regimes. The strategy accounts for capability needs to meet the Agency programmatic requirements and strategic goals and to execute test activities in the most efficient and flexible facility operating structure. The structure currently being implemented at Langley offers agility to right-size our capability and capacity from a national perspective, to accommodate the dynamic nature of the testing needs, and will address the influence of existing and emerging analytical tools for design. The paradigm for testing in the retained facilities is to efficiently and reliably provide more accurate and high-quality test results at an affordable cost to support design information needs for flight regimes where the computational capability is not adequate and to verify and validate the existing and emerging computational tools. Each of the above goals are planned to be achieved, keeping in mind the increasing small industry customer base engaged in developing unpiloted aerial vehicles and commercial space transportation systems.

  20. Tracking South Asian Monsoon in the 21st Century

    Rastogi, D.; Mei, R.; Hodges, K. I.; Ashfaq, M.

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we analyze the simulations of the Global Climate Models that are part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) over the South Asian summer monsoon region for the historic (1960-2005) and the 21st century projection (2006-2100) periods. We apply two evaluation matrices namely precipitation recycling ratio analysis and monsoon depressions tracking algorithm to investigate the accuracy of the simulated processes in the GCMs that control the observed spatial and temporal distribution of South Asian summer monsoon rainfall. We sub-select the GCMs for the future period evaluations based on their ability in the simulation of different moisture sources and the accuracy of the low pressure systems tracks that transport moisture over the South Asian land during summer monsoon season in the baseline period. Further, we use selected GCMs to understand the effect of increase in greenhouse forcing on the frequency and tracks of the low-pressure systems during summer monsoon season, and on the moisture sources. These analyses will improve our understanding of the ability of CMIP5 GCMs in the simulation of South Asian summer monsoon dynamics and provide important implications for the reliability of future climate projections over this region.

  1. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents. PMID:26201169

  2. Student Motivation in the 21st Century – Slovak Experience

    Rozvadský Gugová Gabriela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the five primary objectives of the European Union within the framework of Europe 2020 is to increase the proportion of the tertiary educated population. The research task titled “The motivation of the student in the 21st century” is intended to address the factors that have both an impact on the decision of students to pursue higher studies and affect the choice of a specific field of study and a preferred form of study. The stimulus to the exploration was sparked by the mentioned EU initiative, interesting statistical data, the growing number of students studying in the external form compared to the daily option, and an increase of students from abroad. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the causes of these trends. Motivation of students is not researched in a systematic way in Slovakia, even though it is an important factor in a student’s decisionmaking process to study. Information was obtained by a questionnaire distributed to 105 students, evaluated using SPSS software and application of descriptive statistics.

  3. State, nation and democracy on the 21st century

    Nidia Catherine González Piñeros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between State and Nation in the recent events in Japan and Bolivia, cases in which the universally shared ideas about development and democracy are met with the common criteria for the majority of the countries in the world. This relationship is analyzed comparing the particularities of each context regarding the concepts mentioned. Japan, despite being considered as an economically developed country, is criticized for its lack of exercise of democratic, popular politics. That country, despite being in the 21st century, remains a constitutional monarchy. Thus, given the catastrophic episode from March, 2011, the destiny of the citizens was defined by the imperial family. Bolivia, for its part, since the beginning of this century has managed a national reconstruction that has re-founded the Constitution and, therefore, the nation and the State. However, this democratic reorganization now faces a number of dilemmas where the State is debating between democracy and authoritarianism, as well as between liberal development and development from a communal perspective.

  4. The Potential Of Women And The 21st Century

    Zuzana  Dbankova; Pavel  Sirucek

    2013-01-01

    The 21st century is also called the century of womenandprognoses rank women.higher profile (for example,in leading positions) among new development megatrends.The number of women is on the rise. Their influence gets stronger not only in economy and politics but also in culture, media,  justice,  charity,  sport,  education  or  science.  The importance  and  the  role  of  women  may  be  examined  also through the prism of conflicts of the current globalisation and multidimensional  crises  ...

  5. Manganism in the 21st Century: The Hanninen Lecture

    Racette, Brad A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the original description of the health effects of inhaled occupational manganese (Mn) by Couper in 1837, an extensive literature details the clinical syndrome and pathophysiology of what was thought to be a rare condition. In the last decade, conventional wisdom regarding the clinicopathological effects of Mn has been challenged. Past exposures to Mn were an order of magnitude higher than modern exposures in developed countries; therefore, the clinical syndrome seen in the time of Couper is no longer typical of modern Mn exposed workers. Parkinsonism (rigidity, bradykinesia, rest tremor, and postural instability) is present in 15% of Mn-exposed workers in welding industries, and these parkinsonian signs are associated with reduced health status and quality of life. These parkinsonian signs also overlap considerably with the clinical findings seen in early stages of Parkinson disease (PD); although, molecular imaging suggests that Mn-exposed workers have dopaminergic dysfunction in a pattern unique from PD. Furthermore, geographic information system studies demonstrate that regions of the US with high industrial Mn emissions have an increased incidence of PD and increased PD associated mortality. This review will contrast historical, descriptive human studies in Mn-exposed subjects with more recent data and will suggest a research agenda for the 21st century. PMID:24148923

  6. Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios.

    Van Vuuren, D P; Meinshausen, M; Plattner, G-K; Joos, F; Strassmann, K M; Smith, S J; Wigley, T M L; Raper, S C B; Riahi, K; de la Chesnaye, F; den Elzen, M G J; Fujino, J; Jiang, K; Nakicenovic, N; Paltsev, S; Reilly, J M

    2008-10-01

    Estimates of 21st Century global-mean surface temperature increase have generally been based on scenarios that do not include climate policies. Newly developed multigas mitigation scenarios, based on a wide range of modeling approaches and socioeconomic assumptions, now allow the assessment of possible impacts of climate policies on projected warming ranges. This article assesses the atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, radiative forcing, and temperature increase for these new scenarios using two reduced-complexity climate models. These scenarios result in temperature increase of 0.5-4.4 degrees C over 1990 levels or 0.3-3.4 degrees C less than the no-policy cases. The range results from differences in the assumed stringency of climate policy and uncertainty in our understanding of the climate system. Notably, an average minimum warming of approximately 1.4 degrees C (with a full range of 0.5-2.8 degrees C) remains for even the most stringent stabilization scenarios analyzed here. This value is substantially above previously estimated committed warming based on climate system inertia alone. The results show that, although ambitious mitigation efforts can significantly reduce global warming, adaptation measures will be needed in addition to mitigation to reduce the impact of the residual warming. PMID:18838680

  7. Fluid mechanics films in the 21st century

    Settles, Gary; Tremblay, Gabrielle; Cimbala, John; Dodson, Lori; Miller, J. D.

    2006-11-01

    The 1960's-era National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films produced 39 famous 16mm films - dated but still in use - with 3 million dollars of NSF funding. Here we examine the nature of new fluid mechanics films, goals, media changes, and practicality. Examples are given of new narrated videos produced to illustrate chapters of a basic fluids text and provide a ``glimpse through the laboratory window.'' Both experiments and CFD are featured, though the facilities needed for the former are declining. The fundamentally-visual nature of the topic is emphasized with no repetition of text or equations. We believe this visual nature of fluid mechanics is the key to its role in renewed efforts to bolster US science education. This is one - not the only - paradigm for new fluid mechanics films. While inflation makes such film production perhaps 6 times more expensive than in the 1960's, there are offsetting economies based on consumer video technology and digital desktop production. Nonetheless, funding new educational fluid mechanics videos in the 21st century remains a daunting prospect.

  8. Parasitic diseases: opportunities and challenges in the 21st century

    Daniel G Colley

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities and challenges for the study and control of parasitic diseases in the 21st century are both exciting and daunting. Based on the contributions from this field over the last part of the 20th century, we should expect new biologic concepts will continue to come from this discipline to enrich the general area of biomedical research. The general nature of such a broad category of infections is difficult to distill, but they often depend on well-orchestrated, complex life cycles and they often involve chronic, relatively well-balanced host/parasite relationships. Such characteristics force biological systems to their limits, and this may be why studies of these diseases have made fundamental contributions to molecular biology, cell biology and immunology. However, if these findings are to continue apace, parasitologists must capitalize on the new findings being generated though genomics, bioinformatics, proteomics, and genetic manipulations of both host and parasite. Furthermore, they must do so based on sound biological insights and the use of hypothesis-driven studies of these complex systems. A major challenge over the next century will be to capitalize on these new findings and translate them into successful, sustainable strategies for control, elimination and eradication of the parasitic diseases that pose major public health threats to the physical and cognitive development and health of so many people worldwide.

  9. Flue gas cleaning by electron beam technology in 21st

    China is paying great attention to the pollution caused by flue gases including sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, fine particles, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the environmental protection and sustainable development of China economy for 21st century. Among several promising processes, applicable to industrial scale, the electron beam (EB) scrubbing process can simultaneously remove SO2, NOx, PM-10 (particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter), VOC and CO2 from the flue gas is a new high technology combined with radiation chemistry and electron accelerator technique. The EB flue gas purification process consists of the producing ionization in the EB irradiated gases followed by the formation of free radicals and active species which ultimately forming foggy sulfur acid and nitrate acid. These acids react further with added ammonia to form ammonium sulfate and nitrates as by-products, which can be fertilizer usable in agriculture. The next stage for this technology is its optimization for the reduction of electricity energy consumption and an effective collection of by-products. Lastly the investment cost for EB method is shown to be the most economic compared with other competing methods. (S. Ohno)

  10. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  11. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.

  12. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  13. The PATT 26 conference Stockholm, Sweden 26–30 June 2012 : Technology Education in the 21st Century

    2012-01-01

    PATT 26 will be held at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, the beautiful capital of Sweden. The PATT 26 conference is part of a two-conference arrangement organized by the Royal Institute of Technology and the Centre for School Technology Education, CETIS, Linköping University, under the common heading Technology Education in the 21st Century. We hereby welcome international colleagues to this golden opportunity to share and learn more about the latest on-going and complete...

  14. FY 2006 annual report. 21st century COE program isotope science and engineering from basics to applications

    The 06' activity on 21st century COE program, Nagoya University, Isotopes open the future' is reported. The contents are: Research and educational execution planning; Operational reports (research activities, educational activities, international conferences, etc.); Research activities (1. the basic research field...isotope separation, isotope production, isotope measurement, and isotope materials, 2. the composite and development field...isotopes in biology, cultural science, and environment, 3. the young researchers unit for composite research, 4. research contributions); Educational activities (1. programs for assist of young researchers, 2. lectures on English, 3. lectures for postgraduate students). (J.P.N.)

  15. The INTERGROWTH-21st Project Neurodevelopment Package: a novel method for the multi-dimensional assessment of neurodevelopment in pre-school age children.

    Michelle Fernandes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st Project is a population-based, longitudinal study describing early growth and development in an optimally healthy cohort of 4607 mothers and newborns. At 24 months, children are assessed for neurodevelopmental outcomes with the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package. This paper describes neurodevelopment tools for preschoolers and the systematic approach leading to the development of the Package. METHODS: An advisory panel shortlisted project-specific criteria (such as multi-dimensional assessments and suitability for international populations to be fulfilled by a neurodevelopment instrument. A literature review of well-established tools for preschoolers revealed 47 candidates, none of which fulfilled all the project's criteria. A multi-dimensional assessment was, therefore, compiled using a package-based approach by: (i categorizing desired outcomes into domains, (ii devising domain-specific criteria for tool selection, and (iii selecting the most appropriate measure for each domain. RESULTS: The Package measures vision (Cardiff tests; cortical auditory processing (auditory evoked potentials to a novelty oddball paradigm; and cognition, language skills, behavior, motor skills and attention (the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment in 35-45 minutes. Sleep-wake patterns (actigraphy are also assessed. Tablet-based applications with integrated quality checks and automated, wireless electroencephalography make the Package easy to administer in the field by non-specialist staff. The Package is in use in Brazil, India, Italy, Kenya and the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS: The INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package is a multi-dimensional instrument measuring early child development (ECD. Its developmental approach may be useful to those involved in large-scale ECD research and surveillance efforts.

  16. 76 FR 14895 - Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    2011-03-18

    ... Agricultural Research Service Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st...: Notice of request for nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES:...

  17. 76 FR 38348 - Notice of Appointment of Committee Members to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st...

    2011-06-30

    ... Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary... Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture. SUMMARY: The Office of the Under... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (``AC21''). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  18. Reclaiming the Right to live from the Land: Developing local food sovereignty alliances to normalise peasant agriculture in the 21st century

    Anderson, Fergal

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, peasant farming has proved remarkably resilient to the forces of free-market capitalism both in Europe and Internationally. However, in many countries there are declining numbers of small scale famers, and an increase in larger conventional farms (due to international and national policies). There is an urgent need to renormalise and celebrate the resilience and adaptability of the peasant farming model, and look at how it can be adapted into our 21st century societies.

  19. Myyntikanavat ja tuotantoprosessit Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulun koulutusviennissä : Case: 21st Century Educators

    Lehto, Sami

    2012-01-01

    Tein opinnäytetyöni Tampereen ammattikorkeakoululle tukemaan koulutusviennin kehitystä tulevien vuosien aikana 21st Century Educators – koulutusohjelman näkökulmasta. 21st Century Educators on Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulussa kehitetty virtuaalisessa oppimisympäristössä toimiva pedagoginen opettajakoulutusohjelma. Koulutus on suhteellisen uusi, sillä sille on ehditty tekemään vasta yksi toteutus Yhdistyneissä Arabiemiirikunnissa. Opinnäytetyössäni selvitin 21st Century Educators – koulutus...

  20. Progress in rheumatology in the early 21st century

    E. L. Nasonov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile arthritis, spondyloarthritis, including psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and other systemic connective tissue diseases, are the most severe chronic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (IIRDs that affect as high as 10% of the population. Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of IIRDs in the 21st century. The current Treat to Target (T2T strategy for RA is to achieve remission as soon as possible. The main treatment goal is to improve quality of life, by controlling the symptoms of the disease, by preventing joint destruction and dysfunction, and by maintaining social possibilities. The most important way to achieve this goal is to inhibit inflammation and to evaluate the efficiency of treatment, by using the standardized activity indices and by choosing the appropriate treatment option. The widespread use of biological agents in combination with standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs could substantially enhance therapeutic effectiveness. A new class of medicaments (chemically synthesized small molecular weight agents to treat RA has appeared. The point of their application is tyrosine kinases, primarily Janus kinase (JAK. The new era in the treatment of SLE and other IIRDs is associated with the design of the new class of drugs Р BLyS inhibitors. In the coming years, the main lines of researches by Russian rheumatologists will be to elaborate a strategy to prevent IIRDs; to introduce innovative methods for their early diagnosis and treatment (biological agents, JAK inhibitors, and other cell signaling molecules and for the prediction of the outcomes of the most severe forms of IIRD; to realize the concept of personified medicine (to investigate the prognostic biomarkers of the efficiency and safety of targeted therapy, to reduce the risk of infectious complications, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporotic fractures, and other comorbidities.

  1. Health sector reforms for 21 st century healthcare

    Darshan Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India′s health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India′s Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21 st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India′s public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.

  2. Progress in rheumatology in the early 21st century

    E. L. Nasonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile arthritis, spondyloarthritis, including psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and other systemic connective tissue diseases, are the most severe chronic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (IIRDs that affect as high as 10% of the population. Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of IIRDs in the 21st century. The current Treat to Target (T2T strategy for RA is to achieve remission as soon as possible. The main treatment goal is to improve quality of life, by controlling the symptoms of the disease, by preventing joint destruction and dysfunction, and by maintaining social possibilities. The most important way to achieve this goal is to inhibit inflammation and to evaluate the efficiency of treatment, by using the standardized activity indices and by choosing the appropriate treatment option. The widespread use of biological agents in combination with standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs could substantially enhance therapeutic effectiveness. A new class of medicaments (chemically synthesized small molecular weight agents to treat RA has appeared. The point of their application is tyrosine kinases, primarily Janus kinase (JAK. The new era in the treatment of SLE and other IIRDs is associated with the design of the new class of drugs Р BLyS inhibitors. In the coming years, the main lines of researches by Russian rheumatologists will be to elaborate a strategy to prevent IIRDs; to introduce innovative methods for their early diagnosis and treatment (biological agents, JAK inhibitors, and other cell signaling molecules and for the prediction of the outcomes of the most severe forms of IIRD; to realize the concept of personified medicine (to investigate the prognostic biomarkers of the efficiency and safety of targeted therapy, to reduce the risk of infectious complications, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporotic fractures, and other comorbidities.

  3. Public support for nuclear energy in the 21st century

    Public support for nuclear energy in the next millennium will depend on the extent to which two essential qualities are exercised now by industry and governments. These qualities are leadership and vision. However, a fear of leadership in supporting nuclear energy afflicts government officials and legislators and many industry stakeholders as well. The paper examines a root cause of this fear of leadership, namely the use of an incomplete and outdated model of public opinion on nuclear energy. The old model leads to the conclusion that expressing support for nuclear energy is politically risky. Yet a new, more complete, model of public opinion on nuclear energy is readily available from the social science research. By underestimating various types of support that exist, the old model causes stakeholders in the industry to believe that their position is unpopular. This may make them reluctant to lead the way in speaking out. Thus, politicians and government officials hear most from a small opposition. Leadership in speaking out and advocating solutions is not sufficient for assuring public support for nuclear energy in the 21st century. Under the umbrella of sustainable development, opinion leaders worldwide are assessing energy sources on the basis of ethical and environmental considerations, not just economics. Leaders in the nuclear industry for years have made a strong case for nuclear energy as a moral imperative, based on the absence of emissions and the preservation of natural resources. This case can and must be developed through active participation in world movements, by listening to all views, and by helping to define what is sustainable and just for future generations. (author)

  4. Health sector reforms for 21(st) century healthcare.

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21(st) century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own. PMID:25878456

  5. Five Forces of 21st Century Innovation Strategy: Insights for Leaders

    Arent, Douglas J.; Pless, Jacquelyn; Statwick, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Understanding these dynamics informs 21st century innovation strategies that government and business leaders rely upon to address modern technological, social, environmental, and demographic realities. This Research Highlight previews JISEA's continuing work on innovation strategy.

  6. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  7. Education for Life and Work Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century

    Skills, CODDLA2C; Education, CF; Assessment, BOTA; Education, DOBASSA; Council, NR

    2013-01-01

    " Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century describes this important set of key skills that increase deeper learning, college and career readiness, student-centered learning, and higher ...

  8. FY 1998 Blue Book: Computing, Information, and Communications: Technologies for the 21st Century

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — As the 21st century approaches, the rapid convergence of computing, communications, and information technology promises unprecedented opportunities for scientific...

  9. Representations of gender and subjectivity in 21st century American science fiction television

    Halliday, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This thesis interrogates representations of gender and subjectivity within 21st century American science fiction television. It recognises a recent convergence of generic concerns, the shifting contexts of television, and the cultural context of 21st century America. Identifying a recent shift in how American science fiction television of this era has engaged with issues of gender and subjectivity, I offer an exploration of this trend via four key texts: Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicle...

  10. Energy supply concepts in the 21st century - the role of nuclear energy. Proceedings

    Contents: Supply structures in the 21st century; security of energy supply in Europe - The European Commission's Green Paper; the U.S. nuclear future; DOE initiatives to advance nuclear energy in the United States; supply reliability - contribution of renewable energy sources; role of brown coal in the futural energy mixing; gas supply for the 21st century; the contribution of nuclear power on supply reliability in Europe and a new power plant for Finland. (GL)

  11. Editorial: Digital systems supporting cognition and exploratory learning in 21st century

    Demetrios G. Sampson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital systems and digital technologies are globally investigated for their potential to transform learning and teaching towards offering unique learning experiences to the 21st century learners. This Special Issue on Digital Systems supporting Cognition and Exploratory Learning in 21st Century aims to contribute to the dialogue between the educational technology and educational psychology research community and the educational practitioners on current issues towards large scale take-up of educational technology.

  12. A Conceptual Framework for the Integration of 21st Century Skills in Biology Education

    Lee Chuo Hiong; Kamisah Osman

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to propose the conceptual framework for the integration of 21st century skills in biology education in Malaysia. An interdisciplinary approach for Biology, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (BTEM) is suggested to imbibe 21st century skills into the existing Biology curriculum. Solving complex and interdisciplinary worldwide biology problems will require students to understand what connections exist across disciplines and how to make those connections....

  13. Industrialization and Development Strategies in the 21st Century: Towards Sustainable Innovation Systems

    Khan, Haider

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to explore the possibilities of industrialization and development in the 21st century. With an ongoing global financial and economic crisis with only a tepid recovery at the time of this writing(August 2013) as well as the still unfolding ecological crisis, the 21st century presents an even greater challenge for industrialization in the developing world than the post-WWII period. The changed global economic and ecological environment will shape the emergence ...

  14. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    Peter Brimblecombe; Grossi, Carlota M.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environm...

  15. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century.

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-02-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions. PMID:26456397

  16. Afghanistan’s significance for Russia in the 21st Century: Interests, Perceptions and Perspectives

    Sangar Kaneshko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since President Barack Obama set the end of 2014 as the deadline to complete the planned troop withdrawal from Afghanistan, numerous commentators have sought to assess Russia’s Afghan policy since September 11, 2001 and anticipate Moscow’s strategy in ‘post-2014’ Afghanistan. This paper maintains that an assessment/evaluation of Afghanistan’s significance for Russia in the current system of international relations is needed to understand Moscow’s current and future Afghan strategy. Hence, the aim of this study is to identify and analyse the major factors, which lead to a conceptualization of Russia’s interests in Afghanistan. When assessing Russia’s interests in Afghanistan, one must take into account a plethora of significant issues, including Putin’s ‘great-power’ rhetoric; geopolitical, geostrategic, and geo-economic rivalries in the wider region; security threats such as the illegal narcotics emanating from Afghanistan and global terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism; the rivalry and competition for energy resources; and control over pipeline routes and energy corridors. The analysis of these substantiating factors demonstrate why in the 21st century the Afghan problem remains a significant challenge to Russia’s ‘great power’ identity, to its international strategy abroad, to its strategically important ‘near abroad,’ and to the country’s domestic socio-economic policy

  17. Exploring the cosmic frontier. Astrophysical instruments for the 21st century

    Lobanov, A.P.; Zensus, J.A.; Cesarsky, C.; Diamond, P. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    In the coming decades, astrophysical science will benefit enormously from the construction and operation of several major international ground- and space based facilities, such as ALMA, Herschel/Planck, and SKA in the far infrared to radio band, Extremely Large Telescopes, JWST and GAIA in the optical to near infrared regime, XEUS and Constellation-X in the X-ray, and GLAST in the Gamma-ray regime. These and other new instruments will have a major impact in a wide range of scientific topics including the cosmological epoch of reionization, galactic dynamics and nuclear activity, stellar astronomy, extra-solar planets, gamma-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and many others. On May 18-21, 2004, the Max-Planck-Society's Harnack-Haus in Dahlem, Berlin hosted the international symposium ''Exploring the Cosmic Frontier: Astrophysical Instruments for the 21st Century''. The symposium in Berlin was dedicated to exploring the complementarity and synergies between different branches of astrophysical research, by presenting and discussing the fundamental scientific problems that will be addressed by major future astrophysical facilities in the next few decades. This book contains 70 papers from the meeting and is intended to give a lasting account of a snapshot of an evolving scientific discourse and interaction throughout our field of research. (orig.)

  18. Exploring the cosmic frontier. Astrophysical instruments for the 21st century

    In the coming decades, astrophysical science will benefit enormously from the construction and operation of several major international ground- and space based facilities, such as ALMA, Herschel/Planck, and SKA in the far infrared to radio band, Extremely Large Telescopes, JWST and GAIA in the optical to near infrared regime, XEUS and Constellation-X in the X-ray, and GLAST in the Gamma-ray regime. These and other new instruments will have a major impact in a wide range of scientific topics including the cosmological epoch of reionization, galactic dynamics and nuclear activity, stellar astronomy, extra-solar planets, gamma-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and many others. On May 18-21, 2004, the Max-Planck-Society's Harnack-Haus in Dahlem, Berlin hosted the international symposium ''Exploring the Cosmic Frontier: Astrophysical Instruments for the 21st Century''. The symposium in Berlin was dedicated to exploring the complementarity and synergies between different branches of astrophysical research, by presenting and discussing the fundamental scientific problems that will be addressed by major future astrophysical facilities in the next few decades. This book contains 70 papers from the meeting and is intended to give a lasting account of a snapshot of an evolving scientific discourse and interaction throughout our field of research. (orig.)

  19. Exploring the Cosmic Frontier Astrophysical Instruments for the 21st Century

    Lobanov, Andrei P; Cesarsky, Catherine; Diamond, Phillip J

    2007-01-01

    In the coming decades, astrophysical science will benefit enormously from the construction and operation of several major international ground- and space based facilities, such as ALMA, Herschel/Planck, and SKA in the far infrared to radio band, Extremely Large Telescopes, JWST and GAIA in the optical to near infrared regime, XEUS and Constellation-X in the X-ray, and GLAST in the Gamma-ray regime. These and other new instruments will have a major impact in a wide range of scientific topics including the cosmological epoch of reionization, galactic dynamics and nuclear activity, stellar astronomy, extra-solar planets, gamma-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and many others. On May 18-21, 2004, the Max-Planck-Society’s Harnack-Haus in Dahlem, Berlin hosted the international symposium "Exploring the Cosmic Frontier: Astrophysical Instruments for the 21st Century". The symposium in Berlin was dedicated to exploring the complementarity and synergies between different branches of astrophysical research, by presenting ...

  20. New energy strategies for the 21st century: A Russian perspective

    Margulov, G.D. [International Fuel and Energy Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-12-01

    The new energy strategy developed by Russian scientists and specialists working in the International Fuel and Energy Association is a doctrine for the further liberalization of the energy sector; pooling of new know-how and efforts of the world community for economic progress; rejecting established stereotypes of lifestyles based on inefficient energy use thereby improving the quality of life; increasing the role and responsibilities of the individual in the process of arresting environment degradation; ensuring gradual decreases in energy consumption at existing costs; and reducing social divides. The article outlines the two stages of the strategy for the development of the energy sector, the first until the year 2030, the second extending to the middle of the 21st century. The first stage will give priority to natural gas usage and intensification of energy conservation measures, the second will tackle the problems of balancing the shares of petroleum, coal and natural gas, develop new and renewable energy and strengthen the resource-technological base of the coal industry and of nuclear energy. The importance of interaction with the government, the international community, social organisations and with the energy sector companies and commercial banks is discussed. 1 ref.

  1. Hilbert problems for the geosciences in the 21st century

    M. Ghil

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific problems posed by the Earth's fluid envelope, and its atmosphere, oceans, and the land surface that interacts with them are central to major socio-economic and political concerns as we move into the 21st century. It is natural, therefore, that a certain impatience should prevail in attempting to solve these problems. The point of this review paper is that one should proceed with all diligence, but not excessive haste: "festina lente," as the Romans said two thousand years ago, i.e. "hurry in a measured way." The paper traces the necessary progress through the solutions to the ten problems: 1. What is the coarse-grained structure of low-frequency atmospheric variability, and what is the connection between its episodic and oscillatory description? 2. What can we predict beyond one week, for how long, and by what methods? 3. What are the respective roles of intrinsic ocean variability, coupled ocean-atmosphere modes, and atmospheric forcing in seasonal-to-interannual variability? 4. What are the implications of the answer to the previous problem for climate prediction on this time scale? 5. How does the oceans' thermohaline circulation change on interdecadal and longer time scales, and what is the role of the atmosphere and sea ice in such changes? 6. What is the role of chemical cycles and biological changes in affecting climate on slow time scales, and how are they affected, in turn, by climate variations? 7. Does the answer to the question above give us some trigger points for climate control? 8. What can we learn about these problems from the atmospheres and oceans of other planets and their satellites? 9. Given the answer to the questions so far, what is the role of humans in modifying the climate? 10. Can we achieve enlightened climate control of our planet by the end of the century? A unified framework is proposed to deal with these problems in succession, from the shortest to the longest timescale, i.e. from weeks to

  2. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  3. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    J. Martinez-Rey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2 conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5, our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr−1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs, i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around −0.009 W m−2 K−1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  4. Stratospheric Ozone Predictions For The Late 21st Century

    Douglass, A. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Oman, L.

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of ozone evolution from 1960 until ~2100 from chemistry climate models (CCMs) that participated in CCMVal-2 are broadly consistent in that stratospheric ozone increases as chlorofluorcarbons decrease and the stratosphere cools (which affects the rate of temperature dependent loss processes), however, details of the projections vary significantly. Differences in the ozone response to specified changes in chlorine containing source gases dominate during the first half of the integrations. For example, from 1980 to 2000, chlorine change is by far the most important cause of ozone change, and the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average column ozone that range between -3 DU and -17 DU. In the second half of the 21st century climate change is primarily responsible for ozone change. By 2080 the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average upper stratospheric ozone column that range from 4 DU to 10 DU. The CCM range of differences is due to differences in both composition and upper stratospheric temperature. Ozone loss processes each have their own temperature sensitivity, and the net sensitivity of ozone to temperature change in each CCM depends on the relative importance of each loss process; this depends on the composition and temperature for the baseline atmosphere. In the lower stratosphere, climate change affects ozone evolution through changes in photochemical reaction rates due to stratospheric cooling and through circulation differences affecting transport of ozone and other trace gases. These are not separable using an approach such as multiple linear regression because changes in circulation and temperature have the same time dependence after accounting for contributions due to chlorine change. Recent attention has focused on similarity of the CCMs in that all predict a speed-up of the Brewer Dobson circulation. However, differences in the magnitude of the speed-up, differences in horizontal mixing and differences in the photochemical response to

  5. PHWR advanced fuel R and D for the 21st Century in Korea

    cycles, SEU, LWR/PHWR synergism (RU, MOX, TANDEM) and Th could be also considered for CANDU fuel cycles in the 21st century, because CANDU fuel cycle flexibility arises naturally from excellent neutron economy, on-power fuelling, and simple fuel design. The advanced fuel cycles can be utilized in the CANFLEX 43-element fuel bundle. However, the CANDU-PHWR advanced fuel R and D for the 21st century in Korea shall take into account 'nuclear safety', 'nuclear waste', 'non-proliferation' and 'economics' in the favor of the arguments from the public, international environment, and utilities. (author)

  6. Emerging technologies for the detection of rabies virus: challenges and hopes in the 21st century.

    Anthony R Fooks

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of rabies is routinely based on clinical and epidemiological information, especially when exposures are reported in rabies-endemic countries. Diagnostic tests using conventional assays that appear to be negative, even when undertaken late in the disease and despite the clinical diagnosis, have a tendency, at times, to be unreliable. These tests are rarely optimal and entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. In the course of the past three decades, the application of molecular biology has aided in the development of tests that result in a more rapid detection of rabies virus. These tests enable viral strain identification from clinical specimens. Currently, there are a number of molecular tests that can be used to complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis. Indeed the challenges in the 21st century for the development of rabies diagnostics are not of a technical nature; these tests are available now. The challenges in the 21st century for diagnostic test developers are two-fold: firstly, to achieve internationally accepted validation of a test that will then lead to its acceptance by organisations globally. Secondly, the areas of the world where such tests are needed are mainly in developing regions where financial and logistical barriers prevent their implementation. Although developing countries with a poor healthcare infrastructure recognise that molecular-based diagnostic assays will be unaffordable for routine use, the cost/benefit ratio should still be measured. Adoption of rapid and affordable rabies diagnostic tests for use in developing countries highlights the importance of sharing and transferring technology through laboratory twinning between the developed and the developing countries. Importantly for developing countries, the benefit of molecular methods as tools is the capability for a differential diagnosis of human diseases that present with similar clinical symptoms. Antemortem

  7. Scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping for climate studies

    Stephenson, S. R.; Davis, S. J.; Zender, C. S.; Smith, L. C.

    2013-12-01

    Receding Arctic sea ice coupled with increased resource demand in east Asia have recast the Arctic as an international trade space facilitating export of petroleum and minerals and offering potential alternative pathways for global maritime trade. Several studies have examined the future impact of increased vessel traffic in the Arctic on emissions of greenhouse gases and black carbon (BC); however, the net impact of these emissions on climate forcing in the region is not well understood. Here we present several scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping for climate studies. Vessel transits between 5 east Asian ports (Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Tokyo/Yokohama, Busan) and 2 European ports (Rotterdam, Hamburg) are estimated from 2010-2050 according to projected sea ice concentration and thickness, trends in cargo export volumes, and vessel ice class and cargo capacity. Sea ice data are represented by a 7-model ensemble mean from CMIP5 under two forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5/8.5). Emissions presented (CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, SOx, BC) are obtained by convolving projected transits with trends in emissions factors. Results illustrate a range of emissions inventories for the Arctic owing to differences in vessel accessibility, trade volume, routes, and fuel mixtures.

  8. Inflammatory bowel disease in the 21(st) century in China: turning challenges into opportunities.

    Ouyang, Qin; Xue, Lin Yun

    2012-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been an international hot spot for research for a long period of time. In China, the prevalence of IBD is rapidly increasing in recent years, mimicking the same fast growing footsteps of the developed world. Chinese literature of the 20(th) century shows that the total number of IBD cases increased by approximately 2.5-fold over the previous decade, in particular a 15.7-fold in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Articles on basic research have increased 4.3-fold, with a particular 9.9-fold increase on immunological mechanisms. The predominantly Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) related clinical trials implied tendency to use a combination of Western Medicine and TCM in the management of Chinese IBD patients. IBD research and collaborations overseas have been markedly promoted since the Chinese Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (COIBD) was founded at the beginning of the 21(st) century. From the second decade of the century onwards, we need to focus on the research hot spots to catch up with the rapid advances worldwide. Big challenges and present achievements provide us with great opportunities for further developments of the study on IBD. The development of some novel target pathogenic factors of the disease will provide us with more effective roll for modern management and optimistic treatment of IBD during this century. PMID:22435503

  9. The Twins Study: NASA's First Foray into 21st Century Omics Research

    Kundrot, C. E.; Shelhamer, M.; Scott, G. B. I.

    2015-01-01

    The full array of 21st century omics-based research methods should be intelligently employed to reduce the health and performance risks that astronauts will be exposed to during exploration missions beyond low Earth Orbit. In March of 2015, US Astronaut Scott Kelly will launch to the International Space Station for a one year mission while his twin brother, Mark Kelly, a retired US Astronaut, remains on the ground. This situation presents an extremely rare flight opportunity to perform an integrated omics-based demonstration pilot study involving identical twin astronauts. A group of 10 principal investigators has been competitively selected, funded, and teamed together to form the Twins Study. A very broad range of biological function are being examined including the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, gut microbiome, immunological response to vaccinations, indicators of atherosclerosis, physiological fluid shifts, and cognition. The plans for the Twins Study and an overview of initial results will be described as well as the technological and ethical issues raised for such spaceflight studies. An anticipated outcome of the Twins Study is that it will place NASA on a trajectory of using omics-based information to develop precision countermeasures for individual astronauts.

  10. The Thrill of Discovery: Nuclear Physics Research in the 21st Century

    To many people outside our field, both scientists and the general public, nuclear physics is no longer regarded as being at the forefront of scientific endeavour. Indeed it is often met with outright hostility. Other physicists will point out that the last time a Nobel Prize was awarded in the field was in 1975. This paper, based on a lecture delivered during an Open Plenary Session of the recent International Nuclear Physics Conference INPC2004, which was aimed at a non-specialist audience, will seek to dispel this myth. Nuclear physics is currently enjoying a period of rapid advances. Many new discoveries have been made in the past few years, from neutron halos and nuclear molecules to a new form of radioactive decay via two protons; from hints of a new particle consisting of five quarks to new 'superheavy' elements. This talk will give a personal perspective on why, far from looking with envy at our neighbours in areas of physics that currently enjoy a higher media profile, we have more than enough to keep us busy and excited in the 21st century

  11. The role of HFCs in mitigating 21st century climate change

    Y. Xu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is growing international interest in mitigating climate change during the early part of this century by reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs, in addition to reducing emissions of CO2. The SLCPs include methane (CH4, black carbon aerosols (BC, tropospheric ozone (O3 and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs. Recent studies have estimated that by mitigating emissions of CH4, BC, and O3 using available technologies, about 0.5 to 0.6 °C warming can be avoided by mid-21st century. Here we show that avoiding production and use of high-GWP (global warming potential HFCs by using technologically feasible low-GWP substitutes to meet the increasing global demand can avoid as much as another 0.5 °C warming by the end of the century. This combined mitigation of SLCPs would cut the cumulative warming since 2005 by 50% at 2050 and by 60% at 2100 from the CO2-only mitigation scenarios, significantly reducing the rate of warming and lowering the probability of exceeding the 2 °C warming threshold during this century.

  12. Projected Changes in Kppen Climate Types in the 21st Century over China

    SHI Ying; GAO Xue-Jie; WU Jia

    2012-01-01

    Future changes in the climate regimes over China as measured by the Kppen climate classification are reported in this paper. The analysis is based on a high-resolution climate change simulation conducted by a regional climate model (the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) RegCM3) driven by the global model of Center for Climate System Research (CCSR)/National Institute for Environment Studies (NIES)/Frontier Research Center for Global Change (FRCGC) MIROC3.2_hires (the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate) under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. Validation of the model performances is presented first. The results show that RegCM3 reproduces the present-day distribution of the Kppen climate types well. Significant changes of the types are found in the future over China, following the simulated warming and precipitation changes. In southern China, the change is characterized by the replacement of subtropical humid (Cr) by subtropical winter-dry (Cw). A pronounced decrease of the cold climate types is found over China, e.g., tundra (Ft) over the Tibetan Plateau and sub-arctic continental (Ec) over northeast China. The changes are usually greater in the end compared with the middle of the 21st century.

  13. 21st October 2008 - LHC Inauguration Ceremony family photograph in SM18.

    CERN Photo Service

    2008-01-01

    21st October 2008 - LHC Inauguration Ceremony family photograph in SM18. Front row, from left to right : British Minister of State for Science and Innovation, Lord Drayson of Kensington; Hungarian Minister for Research, Science and Innovation K. Molnar; German Federal Minister of Education and Research A. Schavan; Slovak Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Education J. Mikolaj; Président de la Confédération suisse P. Couchepin; Directeur général du CERN R. Aymar; Premier Ministre de la République française F. Fillon; Portuguese Minister for Science, Technology and Higher Education J. M. Gago; Ministre belge des PME, des Indépendants, de l'Agriculture et de la Politique scientifique S. Laruelle; Ambassador of Italy to the Office of the United Nations and other international organisations in Geneva G. Caracciolo di Vetri. Second row, from left to right: Czech Deputy Minister of Education, Youth and Sports, responsible for Science and Universities V. Ruzicka; Extraordinatory and Plenipotentiary Ambas...

  14. Impact of a potential 21st century "grand solar minimum" on surface temperatures and stratospheric ozone

    Anet, J. G.; Rozanov, E. V.; Muthers, S.; Peter, T.; BröNnimann, S.; Arfeuille, F.; Beer, J.; Shapiro, A. I.; Raible, C. C.; Steinhilber, F.; Schmutz, W. K.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the effects of a recently proposed 21st century Dalton minimum like decline of solar activity on the evolution of Earth's climate and ozone layer. Three sets of two member ensemble simulations, radiatively forced by a midlevel emission scenario (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change RCP4.5), are performed with the atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model AOCCM SOCOL3-MPIOM, one with constant solar activity, the other two with reduced solar activity and different strength of the solar irradiance forcing. A future grand solar minimum will reduce the global mean surface warming of 2 K between 1986-2005 and 2081-2100 by 0.2 to 0.3 K. Furthermore, the decrease in solar UV radiation leads to a significant delay of stratospheric ozone recovery by 10 years and longer. Therefore, the effects of a solar activity minimum, should it occur, may interfere with international efforts for the protection of global climate and the ozone layer.

  15. WATTec '92. Innovation in the 21st century: Excellence through continuous improvement

    WATTec '92 will concentrate on five areas of major importance in today's world: Training and Education - What can be done to meet future needs and ensure that new technology is applied in the workplace? What innovative approaches can be taken to interest young people in careers in science and engineering? Productivity - What is the role of the scientist and engineer in the factory of the future? What must be done by large industries and small manufacturers to compete in the global economy? What innovative steps can be taken to make the most of our nation's resources and advantages while reducing disadvantages relative to others in the global economy? Technology - What are the technologies of the future and how will we use, share, understand and adopt these technologies? And how do we transfer them, not only within an individual business or institution, but to laboratories, educators, and others? How do we extend America's record for inventiveness while improving commercialization and work leadership in the technologies we create? Resources - What are the materials that will shape the world and how will they shape the technical profession in the 21st Century? How do we make the most of our natural resources, conserving them for best uses while protecting the environment and meeting the demands of international competition? The Nineteenth Annual WATTec Conference and Exhibition will focus on these and related questions in wide-ranging sessions sponsored by more than 40 technical professional societies. Papers within the scope of the Energy Data Base have been processed separately

  16. SPATIAL AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF INTERPROVINCIAL MIGRATION IN TURKEY IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 21st CENTURY

    Mustafa Yakar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes have taken place in the demographics of Turkey in the remaining timeframe of the 21st century in addition to the changes incurring in other areas. The aim of this study was to analyze the statistical and spatial distribution of migrations inter provincial in Turkey between the years 2007-2012. The results of the analyses were compared with the results for previous periods and the similarities and differences in terms of interprovincial migrations were determined. During the last five years of the 21st century 2.3 million people have migrated from one province to another per year to total over 11.6 million people (15,3% of the total population. These figures show that more than twice the number of people compared to previous years migrated to another province. Although the percentage of the migrating population has increased, only 1/3 of the provinces in Turkey have been at the receiving end of this migration. The spatial analyses have determined that the difference between the eastern and western parts of Turkey in terms of internal migration continues. In other words, it has been determined that no significant changes in the net migration map of Turkey have incurred.

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance Expressed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Major Global Public Health Problem in the 21st Century.

    Unemo, Magnus; Del Rio, Carlos; Shafer, William M

    2016-06-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strictly human pathogen that is typically transmitted by sexual contact. The associated disease gonorrhea has plagued humankind for thousands of years, with a current estimated incidence of 78 million cases per year. Advances in antimicrobial discovery in the 1920s and 1930s leading to the discovery of sulfonamides and penicillin begun the era of effective antimicrobial treatment of gonorrhea. Unfortunately, the gonococcus developed decreased susceptibility or even resistance to these initially employed antibiotics, a trend that continued over subsequent decades with each new antibiotic that was brought into clinical practice. As this pattern of resistance has continued into the 21st century, there is now reason for great concern, especially in an era when few new antibiotics have prospects for use as treatment of gonorrhea. Here, we review the history of gonorrhea treatment regimens and gonococcal resistance to antibiotics, the mechanisms of resistance, resistance monitoring schemes that exist in different international settings, global responses to the challenge of resistance, and prospects for future treatment regimens in the 21st century. PMID:27337478

  18. South Africa and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet). 21st Century Power Partnership; 21st Century Power Partnership

    None

    2015-04-16

    Established in 2012, the 21CPP South Africa Programme is a global initiative that connects South African stakeholders with an international community of expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support South Africa’s power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon power system. 21CPP activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing system planners, regulators, and operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP taps into deep networks of expertise among leading industry practitioners.

  19. Fiscal 1998 'Plant Biotechnology in the 21st Century' workshop report; '21 seiki no shokubutsu biotechnology' workshop 1998 nendo seika hokokusho

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The workshop was opened with the opening remarks by Yamada (President of Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NIST)), the overview of plant biotechnology in the 21st century from academia by Shinmyo (Professor of NIST), and the overview of such technology from Ministry of International Trade and Industry by Katao (Chief of Chemical Industry Division). Lectures and discussions of various topics were conducted for 2 days as follows. The effectiveness of a genomic DNA array method for obtaining the genes for switching genes according to daytime, nighttime, drying, salt, high temperature and low temperature for every plant. Current transfer technology of large DNA fragments into plant cell nuclei and chloroplast. Biological evaluation of the physiological functions and complex stress tolerance capacity transformed by transferring complex stress tolerance genes and useful genes for productivity improvement and value addition. Discussion was also held on the importance of a basic research for biotechnology in the 21st century. (NEDO)

  20. Multimodel Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution over the 21st Century

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J. F.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura, T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from 14 chemistry-climate models, driven by prescribed levels of halogens and greenhouse gases. There is general agreement among the models that total column ozone reached a minimum around year 2000 at all latitudes, projected to be followed by an increase over the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the 21st century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off, or even decrease depending on the latitude. Separation into partial columns above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely caused by differences in the model projections of ozone in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and is projected to return to 1960 levels well before the end of the century, although there is a spread among models in the dates that ozone returns to specific historical values. We find decreasing halogens and declining upper atmospheric temperatures, driven by increasing greenhouse gases, contribute almost equally to increases in upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere, an increase in upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in most of the models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century, returning to 1960 levels well before the end of the century in most models.

  1. 21st Century-based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-laden Dentistry Program

    Marjorie C. Quieng; Pearly P. Lim; Maria Rita D. Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aim to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social participation, and workplace success. This study has two goals: to determine the perceived extent of integration of 21st century-based soft skills in the cogniti...

  2. Potential damage to modern building materials from 21st century air pollution.

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota Maria

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950-2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation. PMID:20098955

  3. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  4. Microtechnology: The key to the technical challenges of the 21st century

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-08-01

    Through the ages each culture and civilization has expressed its values and world view in the form of monuments derived from its most advanced and valued technologies. From pyramids to cathedrals, skyscrapers and moon rockets, our technology has enabled us to leave our mark on the landscape and in the minds of our people. In the 21st century, the compelling technology will be that of the micro-world, enabling the fabrication of structures with features smaller than the wavelengths of light. Such structures will allow use to monitor and control electrical, chemical, and optical phenomena in ways never before imagined. As in the past we will continue to create monuments, but the technological monuments of the 21st century will likely be viewed through a microscope. This report provides a discussion of microtechnology in the 21st century.

  5. Ares V: A National Launch Asset for the 21st Century

    Sumrall, Phil; Creech, Steve

    2009-01-01

    NASA is designing the Ares V as the cargo launch vehicle to carry NASA's exploration plans into the 21st century. The Ares V is the heavy-lift component of NASA's dual-launch architecture that will replace the current space shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and establish a permanent human presence on the Moon as a stepping stone to destinations beyond. During extensive independent and internal architecture and vehicle trade studies as part of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V to support future exploration. The smaller Ares I will launch the Orion crew exploration vehicle with four to six astronauts into orbit. The Ares V is designed to carry the Altair lunar lander into orbit, rendezvous with Orion, and send the mated spacecraft toward lunar orbit. The Ares V will be the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in history, providing unprecedented payload mass and volume to establish a permanent lunar outpost and explore significantly more of the lunar surface than was done during the Apollo missions. The Ares V also represents a national asset offering opportunities for new science, national security, and commercial missions of unmatched size and scope. Using the dual-launch Earth Orbit Rendezvous approach, the Ares I and Ares V together will be able to inject roughly 57percent more mass to the Moon than the Apollo-era Saturn V. Ares V alone will be able to send nearly 414,000 pounds into low Earth orbit (LEO) or more than 138,000 pounds directly to the Moon, compared with 262,000 pounds and 99,000 pounds, respectively for the Saturn V. Significant progress has been made on the Ares V to support a planned fiscal 2011 authority-to-proceed (ATP) milestone. This paper discusses recent progress on the Ares V and planned future activities.

  6. Avoiding HFC growth is critical for keeping global warming below 2 °C during the 21st century

    V. Ramanathan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing international interest in mitigating climate change during the early part of this century by reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs, in addition to reducing emissions of CO2. The SLCPs include methane (CH4, black carbon aerosols (BC, tropospheric ozone (O3 and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs. Recent studies have estimated that by mitigating emissions of CH4, BC, and O3 using available technologies, about 0.5 to 0.6 °C warming can be avoided by mid-21st century. Here we show that avoiding production and use of high-GWP (global warming potential HFCs by using technologically feasible low-GWP substitutes to meet the increasing global demand can avoid as much as another 0.5 °C warming by end of the century, therefore significantly reducing the rate of warming and lowering the probability of exceeding the 2 °C warming threshold during this century.

  7. Cold-fusion as safe and hazardless energy-source of the 21st century

    Out of the two processes for nuclear-energy; nuclear-fission is plagued with problem of nuclear-radiation hazard, whereas though nuclear-fusion is safe but almost impossible to be done on earth specially at room- temperature. In 1989, two scientists Fleischmann and Pons in USA proposed a table-top, room temperature electrolysis-experiment of heavy-water with palladium-electrode; this is commonly called cold-fusion wherein nuclear-fusion is said to be taking place. This created a big storm and controversy in the scientific community. Initially the cold-fusion was heavily criticized and several objections (such as: non-reproducibility, non-observation of telltale signature of nuclear-reaction) were raised. The research-work of McKubre and others have clarified the objections and have established that for cold-fusion to take place certain threshold conditions (such as purity of electrode, current-density, deuterium to palladium loading ratio) needs to be satisfied. In due course of time, the Truth prevailed and the cold-fusion got more and more support by many scientists in several countries including India (BARC historic role has been appreciated worldwide). Biggest objection, however, was lack of a proper theory for how Coulomb-repulsion is overcome in cold-fusion. A possible explanation for how the Coulomb-repulsion is overcome, is given in this paper; which is based on a new-found Gupta-Dinu effect, which is a natural outcome of special-relativity via modification in Lorentz force formula. The recent nuclear-accidents have raised international-opinion against nuclear-fission, whereas sin-like hot-fusion on earth is not possible. Now it seems that ultimately it is the cold-fusion which will provide hazardless neat and cheap energy for the 21st century and India could play a leading role in this direction. (author)

  8. Projections of Wind Changes for 21st Century in China by Three Regional Climate Models

    JIANG Ying; LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; SHI Ying; XU Yinlong; ZHU Jinhong

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the capability of three regional climate models(RCMs),i.e.,RegCM3(the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model),PRECIS(Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies)and CMM5(the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-the National Center for Atmospheric Research of USA,NCAR Mesoscale Model)to simulate the near-surface-layer winds(10 m above surface)all over China in the late 20th century.Results suggest that like global climate models(GCMs),these RCMs have the certain capability of imitating the distribution of mean wind speed and fail to simulate the greatly weakening wind trends for the past 50 years in the country.However,RCMs especially RegCM3 have the better capability than that of GCMs to simulate the distribution and change feature of mean wind speed.In view of their merits,these RCMs were used to project the variability of near-surface-layer winds over China for the 21st century.The results show that 1)summer mean wind speed for 2020-2029 will be lower compared to those in 1990-1999 in most area of China; 2)annual and winter mean wind speed for 2081-2100 will be lower than those of 1971-1990 in the whole China; and 3)the changes of summer mean wind speed for 2081-2100 are uncertain.As a result,although climate models are absolutely necessary for projecting climate change to come,there are great uncertainties in projections,especially for wind speed,and these issues need to be further explored.

  9. Reading for Learning: Literacy Supports for 21st-Century Work

    Gomez, Louis M.; Gomez, Kimberley

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. work force is changing. Professional and related occupations and service occupations will be the fastest-growing sectors for the foreseeable future. Both demand strong communication skills for sharing complex ideas across diverse communities. In addition, the 21st-century economy will require its members to think creatively and critically…

  10. Mobile Devices: Toys or Learning Tools for the 21st Century Teenagers?

    Kee, Ch'ng Lay; Samsudin, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Learning is interwoven in daily life and so it can be take place at anytime and anywhere by using mobile device. In the 21st century, mobile devices have become ubiquitous, affordable and accessible for the teenagers. The teenagers have the opportunity to perform the learning activities by using the mobile devices. However, what are they used…

  11. Curricular Adaptations in Inpatient Child Psychiatry for the 21st Century: The Flexner Model Revisited

    Bell, Cathy K.; Guerrero, Anthony; Matsu, Courtenay; Takeshita, Junji; Haning, William; Schultz, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe curricular modifications created in response to the changing culture of medical education, health care systems, academic medicine, and generational differences. The authors propose a model child psychiatry inpatient curriculum that is sustainable within a community teaching hospital in the 21st century. Methods: The…

  12. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    Berg, N.; Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing str

  13. Race to the Future: Integrating 21st Century Skills into Science Instruction

    Duran, Emilio; Yaussy, Daniel; Yaussy, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Race to the Future is an exciting and dynamic activity modeled after the reality television show "The Amazing Race." It exemplifies how 21st century skills can be incorporated into core subject instruction and at the same time positively enhance student engagement. In this activity, students work quickly and cooperatively with their teammates and…

  14. School Censorship in the 21st Century: A Guide for Teachers and School Library Media Specialists.

    Simmons, John S.; Dresang, Eliza T.

    As the world enters the 21st century, the access to information and freedom of speech provided by the Internet and other digital technologies have revolutionized the nature of censorship challenges and opened an entirely new realm of legal and social ramifications for censorship in United States schools. In the midst of this digital revolution,…

  15. Workplace, Organizational, and Societal: Three Domains of Learning for 21st-Century Cities

    Yorks, Lyle; Barto, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Interconnections between workplace and organizational learning can highlight the ongoing changes taking place that prestage the need for learning cities and regions. The diverse institutions that comprise cities and regions can function as organizational learning mechanisms in the 21st century. Learning cities themselves can also be conceptualized…

  16. 21st Century Change Drivers: Considerations for Constructing Transformative Models of Special Education Teacher Development

    Rock, Marcia L.; Spooner, Fred; Nagro, Sarah; Vasquez, Eleazar; Dunn, Cari; Leko, Melinda; Luckner, John; Bausch, Margaret; Donehower, Claire; Jones, Jennie L.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary challenges confronting special education teachers include, in part, workload, role ambiguity, evaluation, and shortages. Based on these and other challenges, the piece-meal fragmented approach to pre- and in-service training, which exists currently, needs to be replaced with 21st century models of special education teacher development…

  17. School Psychology Training for the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Swerdlik, Mark E.; French, Joseph L.

    2000-01-01

    Training programs will continue to change to meet the needs of consumers of school psychological services in the 21st century. Provides information about the factors influencing the preparation of school psychologists whose roles and functions must change to meet these needs. Emphasis is on the overall context of training and the anticipated…

  18. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  19. Re-Imagining the 21st Century School Library: From Storage Space to Active Learning Space

    Grigsby, Susan K. S.

    2015-01-01

    As libraries adjust to the needs of the 21st century, there needs to be a different way of thinking in regards to its design. School libraries have traditionally been designed as large rooms for the storage of materials for research and pleasure reading. As more and more districts focus their attention on digital acquisitions, the need for storage…

  20. Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st Century

    Lafferty, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to public-sector pensions, writes lead author Michael B. Lafferty in this report, "A major public-policy (and public-finance) problem has been defined and measured, debated and deliberated, but not yet solved. Except where it has been." As recounted in "Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st Century", these…

  1. The Mass Media in Distance Education in Nigeria in the 21st Century

    Osuji, Sydney N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of mass media in distance education in Nigeria in order to provide suggestions for its effective use during the 21st century. Distance education programmes, especially those of the Universities of Ibadan and Lagos are examined. These two institutions made bold and commendable efforts. However, while print media…

  2. FY 2001 Blue Book: Information Technology: The 21st Century Revolution

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — At the dawn of the 21st century, the U.S. is enjoying an era of unprecedented possibilities and prosperity built on dramatic advances in science and technology....

  3. Social Diversity and Democracy in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Towards a Feminist Critique

    David, Miriam E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and "academic capitalism". Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK higher…

  4. Love, Peace, and Wisdom in Education: A Vision for Education in the 21st Century

    Lin, Jing

    2006-01-01

    Author Jing Lin contends that there is a great need for educators to reconceptualize education in the 21st century. Here, she discusses the danger of global wars, environmental breakdown, moral vacuum and nihilism in society, and the problems in current debates on school reform. This book calls for a school that facilitates the formation of a…

  5. The Development of Critical and Creative Thinking Skills for 21st Century Learning

    Missett, Tracy C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted studies, linked by investigation into the development of thinking skills deemed necessary for the 21st Century. While educators and policy makers advocate teaching students creative and critical thinking skills to address an increasingly global and complex world, they simultaneously…

  6. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    2011-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21) for a 2- year period. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Committee Purpose: USDA supports the responsible development and application of biotechnology within...

  7. Dewey Redux: Virtual Dewey Resources Deliver Trusted, Familiar 21st-Century Information

    Adamich, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Where do school librarians go to find out the latest on how the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is being used (and will be used) in the 21st-century virtual-knowledge world? The answer is two great websites containing: (1) the most current information on both Dewey and linked data at ; (2) Dewey here-and-now…

  8. Teachers' Level of Awareness of 21st Century Occupational Roles in Rivers State Secondary Schools

    Uche, Chineze M.; Kaegon, Leesi E. S. P.; Okata, Fanny Chiemezie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the teachers' level of awareness of 21st century occupational roles in Rivers state secondary schools. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The population of study comprised of 247 public secondary schools and 57 private secondary schools in Port Harcourt metropolis of Rivers state which gave a…

  9. Mark Rein•Hagen’s Foundational Influence on 21st Century Vampiric Media

    Konzack, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Mark Rein•Hagen’s role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, set in the World of Darkness shared universe, is foundational to the 21st Century vampire. We aim to, through the cultural analysis of how ideas have been transferred from this role-playing game to other media, clearly demonstrate Mark...

  10. Above and Beyond: Working Together to Transform Our Colleges for the 21st Century

    Woods, Bob

    2014-01-01

    "Reclaiming the American Dream" is the cornerstone of American Association of Community Colleges's (AACC) 21st-Century Initiative, launched in 2011 with the goal of outfitting an additional 5 million students with degrees, certificates, or other credentials by 2020. In Phase 1 of the initiative, featured was a nationwide "listening…

  11. Transforming Pedagogies: Integrating 21st Century Skills and Web 2.0 Technology

    Tucker, Shelia Y.

    2014-01-01

    According to (P21), Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d.), unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today's education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these…

  12. Teaching 21st-Century Art Education in a "Virtual" Age: Art Cafe at Second Life

    Lu, Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of…

  13. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture....C. App., the United States Department of Agriculture announces a meeting of the Advisory...

  14. What Does Vygotsky Provide for the 21st-Century Language Arts Teacher?

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    L. S. Vygotsky, the psychologist and teacher from Byelorussia who became a central figure in Soviet psychological and educational circles in the 1920s and 1930s, has become a frequent citation in 21st-century scholarship. He is most-often invoked to support some form of instructional scaffolding, based on his idea of the zone of proximal…

  15. Distance Education within the 21st Century and Its Application to Rehabilitation Education

    Dziekan, Kathryn; Main, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Historically, distance education applications served a select group of students through self-paced technical short courses that required scant to little interaction with their instructors. Today's 21st century distance education focuses on a) reaching underserved prospective students within a social justice framework, b) global recruitment, and c)…

  16. Scenarios of biodiversity loss in southern Africa in the 21st century

    Biggs, R.H.; Simons, H.; Bakkenes, M.; Scholes, R.J.; Eickhout, B.; Vuuren, van D.; Alkemade, R.

    2008-01-01

    The rich biodiversity of southern Africa has to date been relatively unimpacted by the activities of modern society, but to what degree will this situation persist into the 21st century? We use a leading global environmental assessment model (IMAGE) to explore future land use and climate change in s

  17. Theater for the 21st Century and beyond: The New Digital Stagecraft

    Popovich, George

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Theatricality Lab uses media innovations such as digital video, stereoscopic 3D projection, motion capture, and real time virtual reality navigation. These resources nurture the daring creative visions of theater artists who will embrace the multidimensional technological performance arena of the 21st century and beyond. (Contains 2…

  18. Teaching 21st Century Process Skills to Strengthen and Enhance Family and Consumer Sciences Education

    Mosenson, Andrea B.; Fox, Wanda S.

    2011-01-01

    Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals need to be equipped with a set of strategies and tools to prepare their students for the challenges they will face in the 21st century. Nationwide, educators are integrating a set of skills deemed essential for student success in college and a career. Building upon these skills and the process areas…

  19. The Million Dollar Difference and 21st Century Teaching Skills Project

    Moon, Debi; Moolenaar-Wirsiy, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    With a limited budget, but a critical need to develop 21st century marketplace skills, Georgia Perimeter College (GPC) developed the Million Dollar Difference Campaign. Focusing on how quality instruction affects retention and student outcomes, GPC re-energized a 1000-faculty workforce in one year through a series of innovative teaching…

  20. Life Design: A Paradigm for Career Intervention in the 21st Century

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    A new paradigm is implicit within the constructivist and narrative methods for career intervention that have emerged in the 21st century. This article makes that general pattern explicit by abstracting its key elements from the specific instances that substantiate the new conceptual model. The paradigm for life design interventions constructs…

  1. Identity Formation in Educational Settings: A Critical Focus for Education in the 21st Century

    Kaplan, Avi; Flum, Hanoch

    2012-01-01

    There is growing recognition that identity formation must become an important focus in education. Particularly in the 21st century, when modes of knowledge construction and accessibility to different types of knowledge are rapidly increasing and diversifying, academic learning cannot be divorced from students' development of values, goals, social…

  2. The Political Economy of Work in the 21st Century: Implications for an Aging American Workforce.

    Sicker, Martin

    The prospective place of the aging worker in the employment environment of the 21st century is examined. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) the real world of work and retirement; (2) the changing employment environment; (3) the restructuring of business in the United States; (4) globalization and the economy; (5) downsizing…

  3. Looking toward the Future: Competences for 21st-Century Teacher-Librarians

    de Groot, Joanne; Branch, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    What are the core competences required by teacher-librarians for developing exemplary school library programs in 21st-century schools? This article reports on a study that explored the experiences and attitudes of graduates from the Teacher Librarianship by Distance Learning program at the University of Alberta in Edmonton. Key findings from this…

  4. Making an Impact Statewide to Benefit 21st-Century School Leadership

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Mullen, Carol A.; Davis, Ann W.; Lashley, Carl

    2012-01-01

    How can institutions of higher education, local education agencies, and departments of education partner to build capacity for 21st-Century school leadership? The model (IMPACT V) we describe utilizes a systems-wide partnership approach to cultivate shared leadership within influenced middle and high schools statewide to leverage technology as a…

  5. Developing the 21st-Century Social Studies Skills through Technology Integration

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS) should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration…

  6. Digital Andragogy: A Richer Blend of Initial Teacher Education in the 21st Century

    Blackley, Susan; Sheffield, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the term "andragogy" (adult education) and develops a new concept based upon an analysis of the skills and dispositions of 21st century learners in initial teacher education through the lens of adult education: "digital andragogy." In order to engage and retain students and revitalise education courses by…

  7. Teacher Candidate Responses to Digital Games: 21st-Century Skills Development

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Researchers conducted a mixed-methods study with 21 undergraduate university students majoring in education to determine their ability to recognize the motivational factors and 21st-century learning skills associated with digital games. Results suggest that students in the study were able to detect the learning skills embedded in games. The…

  8. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    2008-01-01

    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  9. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies: Donald Bren Hall, Santa Barbara, California

    Nancy Carlisle: NREL

    2004-03-23

    This publication is one of a series of case studies of energy-efficient modern laboratories; it was prepared for "Laboratories for the 21st Century," a joint program of the Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. DOE Federal Energy Management Program

  10. Multiple Intelligences: The Most Effective Platform for Global 21st Century Educational and Instructional Methodologies

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) as the most viable and effective platform for 21st century educational and instructional methodologies based on the understanding of the value of diversity in today's classrooms and educational institutions, the unique qualities and characteristics of individual learners, the…

  11. The Mass Media in Distance Education in Nigeria in the 21st Century

    Osuji, Sydney N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the use of mass media in distance education in Nigeria with a view to making suggestions for their effective use during the 21st century. Distance education programmes, especially those of the Universities of Ibadan and Lagos are examined. These two institutions made bold and commendable efforts. However, while the…

  12. Developing the Vision: An L4L Job Description for the 21st Century

    Ballard, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The release of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs" has provided school library media specialists with the opportunity to "develop new visions for learning" (AASL 2009), and to rethink what their roles are, and what skills and characteristics are required of them to…

  13. 21st-Century Mentor Texts: Developing Critical Literacies in the Information Age

    Gainer, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    This column explores the idea of using 21st-century mentor texts to guide students in the development of critical literacy. The column focuses on one example from the U.S. presidential election of 2012 to illustrate how teachers might engage students to unpack the socially constructed nature of literacy. The author argues that the changing reading…

  14. A New 21st Century Approach for Battling Bullying: How We Can Empower Our Kids

    Willard, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Clearly, U.S. schools must prepare students with the academic insights and skills necessary for success in work and life in the 21st century. But they also must ensure that students gain responsible social relationship skills. These social competencies are equally important for success in work and life. By focusing on such social competencies,…

  15. The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of History in the 21st Century

    Adesote, S. A; Fatoki, O. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at…

  16. Galileo Educational Network: Creating, Researching, and Supporting 21st Century Learning

    Friesen, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    School and classroom structures designed to meet the needs of the industrial past cannot "maintain the temperature required for sustaining life." Recent learning sciences research findings compel educators to invent new learning environments better suited to meet the demands of the 21st century. These new learning environments require different…

  17. Strategy on China's Security-oriented Disaster Reduction in the 21st Century

    JIN Lei

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study of strategies on the construction of China's scientific and caltural capacities for security-oriented disaster reduction from a cross-disciplinary perspective and based on an analysis of the causes of disasters and accidents in China in the 20th century and a prediction of the disaster situation in the 21st century.

  18. Gamification: Questing to Integrate Content Knowledge, Literacy, and 21st-Century Learning

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    This article showcases the use of gamification as a means to turn an existing curriculum into a game-based learning environment. The purpose of this article is to examine how gamification, coupled with effective pedagogy, can support the acquisition of 21st-century skills. Gamifying content allows students to earn experience points, badges, and…

  19. Nurturing professionalism and humanism in the 21st century medical professional

    Vijay Rajput, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to redefine physician excellence through promoting professionalism with humanism to meet the needs of a diverse generational and cultural society. My goal is to bring together and advance concepts that cultivate emotional and social intelligence to complement the clinical skills required for the effective practice of medicine in the complex milieu of the 21st century

  20. Tradition and the Pace of Change in 21st Century Education

    Barnett, Chad

    2011-01-01

    "Character," "creativity," "real-world problem solving," "communication skills," "teaming," and "leadership" are some of the skills and values that will be expected of graduates. In the conversation about what constitutes a high-quality 21st century school, however, the more complex question is about the varied paths schools might take to achieve…

  1. 21st-Century Literacies, Critical Media Pedagogies, and Language Arts

    Morrell, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    In the second decade of the 21st century, information has been globalized, digitized, and sped up to move at the speed of thought. Being literate in this new world means programming personal websites, sending e-mails from mobile devices and spending hours communicating via virtual social networks. Our students are products of this world. However,…

  2. Questioning the Role of "21st-Century Skills" in Arts Education Advocacy Discourse

    Logsdon, Leann F.

    2013-01-01

    The revised Core Arts Standards offer music educators the chance to examine the contradictions that currently permeate the arts advocacy discourse. This article examines the emphasis on 21st-century workplace skills in claims made by arts advocacy proponents. An alternative approach focuses instead on lifelong learning in the arts and the array of…

  3. Preparing Youth for the 21st Century Knowledge Economy: Youth Programs and Workforce Preparation

    Cochran, Graham R.; Ferrari, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the idea of preparing youth for the workforce has taken on new meaning. The shift to a knowledge economy has brought widespread concern that young people are entering the workforce without the skills employers value most, such as communication, critical thinking, leadership, and teamwork skills. As youth programs evaluate how…

  4. Principles for Learning and Competences in the 21st-Century Curriculum

    Acedo, Clementina; Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the core competences, attitudes and knowledge that the authors believe will promote transformative learning in the 21st century and should, therefore, feature in curriculum design. It first defines the purpose of curriculum, stressing the need for a coherent worldwide understanding of what is meant and intended by…

  5. Whole System Integration and Modeling Essential to Agricultural Science and Technology for the 21st Century

    In the 21st century, agricultural research has more difficult and complex problems to solve. The continued increase in population in the developing countries requires continued increases in agricultural production. However, the increased use of fertilizers, pesticides, and water required for the new...

  6. A US perspective on nuclear prospects for the 21st century

    The purpose of this paper is to comment upon nuclear prospects in the 21st century, from a US perspective. This will be done in broad, general terms, rather than in the technical terms that nuclear specialists use most of the time

  7. 21st-Century Priorities for Leadership Education and Prospective School Leaders

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    What are the major priorities for preparing educational leaders for their work in school communities? Clues to this question are nestled within higher education curricula. Prevalent 21st-century priorities that governing standards specify, such as innovation, assessment, distributed leadership, and technology, must be vigorously shaped into social…

  8. Using the Digital Transmedia Magazine Project to Support Students with 21st-Century Literacies

    Conner-Zachocki, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies have had a significant impact on how educators have come to understand and define literacy, and on the types of literacies and literacy practices that are required in the 21st century. In response, organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) have designed frameworks that attempt to articulate…

  9. Critical Thinking for 21st-Century Education: A Cyber-Tooth Curriculum?

    Higgins, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the advent of digital technologies requires fundamental change to the curriculum and to the teaching and learning approaches used in schools around the world to educate this generation of "digital natives" or the "net generation". This article analyses the concepts of 21st-century skills and critical…

  10. Radiological protection philosophy for the 21st century

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has stated that its recommendations will be reviewed at least every 10-15 years. It is now some 13 years since the main commission released, for comment, a draft of what was to become the 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP. These have become the basis for international basic safety standards and have been adopted in almost all countries that have radiological protection legislation. Therefore, the ICRP has been stimulating discussion, during the last three years, on the best was of expressing protection philosophy for the next publication of its recommendations, which it hopes will be by 2005. It is now beginning to prepare a draft of these recommendations, with a view to distributing an early version for comment, even though the background work is incomplete. (author)

  11. War and peace in the 21st century

    Hector Ricardo Leis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, an unrealistic common sense on the understanding of the phenomenon of the war prevails in the Occident. That may be explained by the transformation of the analytical perspective of the State into one of the civil society, as well as of the historical loss of the meaning of human action. The text argues that the criticism to the unilateralism of the USA hides serious problems of reality perception that hinders the development of the debate in the area of the international relations. The conclusion is that the current international order is in transition, having been brokered by the emergency of the global terrorism, that ended up leading the USA to take over a strong warlike decisionism against any kind of threat to the global safety.

  12. HYDROGEN COMMERCIALIZATION: TRANSPORTATION FUEL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    APOLONIO DEL TORO

    2008-05-27

    Since 1999, SunLine Transit Agency has worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to develop and test hydrogen infrastructure, fuel cell buses, a heavy-duty fuel cell truck, a fuel cell neighborhood electric vehicle, fuel cell golf carts and internal combustion engine buses operating on a mixture of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG). SunLine has cultivated a rich history of testing and demonstrating equipment for leading industry manufacturers in a pre-commercial environment. Visitors to SunLine's "Clean Fuels Mall" from around the world have included government delegations and agencies, international journalists and media, industry leaders and experts and environmental and educational groups.

  13. Issues of Inclusive Education in the 21st Century

    Forlin, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There are many issues associated with the implementation of inclusive education in the international arena. Of key importance is the impact on the role of teachers and their capacity to enact the philosophy in an effective way. Considering the current effectiveness of teacher preparation for inclusion, preliminary data were collected from a university in Japan to identify the perceptions of pre-service teachers regarding inclusion and their perceived self-efficacy in being able to implement i...

  14. Outlook for the Chinese Oil Industry--21st Century

    Zhou Yongkang; Pei Ying; Guo Yi

    1997-01-01

    @@ China is one of the world major oil producers and also one of the major oil consumers. The future of Chinese oil industry will not only severely constrain the growth of the national economy, but also yield dramatic impact on the economy of Asian-Pacific region and the other parts of the world. Therefore, it has aroused greater concerns of Chinese government and the international community.

  15. Towards a 21st Century Definition of Gothic Art

    Williams, Gilda

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis of the paper I gave at the Ninth Biennial International Gothic Association conference held at Lancaster University in July 2009, on the meanings associated with the term 'Gothic' in art and its possible broader and more informed usage in contemporary art. My paper has been accepted for the publication 'Monstrous Media/Spectral Subjects' (scheduled publication date: 2011) in conjunction with the 2009 conference. Both set out to gather the response and practice of 'Gothic' in both the ...

  16. TPACK : challenges for teacher education in the 21st century

    Rocha, Aurora Maria Moreira da; Mota, Pedro Alexandre da Silva; Coutinho, Clara Pereira

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we reflect on the impact of ICT in educational systems, and the importance of preparing Portuguese teachers to the challenges of the learning society. In order to contribute for the definition of a national program for the professional development of teachers in ICT, we present some international programs for the professional development of teachers in ICT discussing results on current implementation. We then present the recently launched Portuguese Plan of ICT Competences for t...

  17. 21st Century-Based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-Cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-Laden Dentistry Program

    Quieng, Marjorie C.; Lim, Pearly P.; Lucas, Maria Rita D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aims to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social…

  18. Effects of global change during the 21st century onthe nitrogen cycle

    Fowler, D.; Steadman, C. E.; Stevenson, D.; Coyle, M.; Rees, R. M.; Skiba, U. M.; Sutton, M. A.; Cape, J. N.; Dore, A. J.; Vieno, M.; Simpson, D.; Zaehle, S.; Stocker, B. D.; Rinaldi, M.; Facchini, M. C.; Flechard, C. R.; Nemitz, E.; Twigg, M.; Erisman, J. W.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Galloway, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The global nitrogen (N) cycle at the beginning of the 21st century has been shown to be strongly influenced by the inputs of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from human activities, including combustion-related NOx, industrial and agricultural N fixation, estimated to be 220 Tg N yr-1 in 2010, which is approximately equal to the sum of biological N fixation in unmanaged terrestrial and marine ecosystems. According to current projections, changes in climate and land use during the 21st century will increase both biological and anthropogenic fixation, bringing the total to approximately 600 Tg N yr-1 by around 2100. The fraction contributed directly by human activities is unlikely to increase substantially if increases in nitrogen use efficiency in agriculture are achieved and control measures on combustion-related emissions implemented. Some N-cycling processes emerge as particularly sensitive to climate change. One of the largest responses to climate in the processing of Nr is the emission to the atmosphere of NH3, which is estimated to increase from 65 Tg N yr-1 in 2008 to 93 Tg N yr-1 in 2100 assuming a change in global surface temperature of 5 °C in the absence of increased anthropogenic activity. With changes in emissions in response to increased demand for animal products the combined effect would be to increase NH3 emissions to 135 Tg N yr-1. Another major change is the effect of climate changes on aerosol composition and specifically the increased sublimation of NH4NO3 close to the ground to form HNO3 and NH3 in a warmer climate, which deposit more rapidly to terrestrial surfaces than aerosols. Inorganic aerosols over the polluted regions especially in Europe and North America were dominated by (NH4)2SO4 in the 1970s to 1980s, and large reductions in emissions of SO2 have removed most of the SO42- from the atmosphere in these regions. Inorganic aerosols from anthropogenic emissions are now dominated by NH4NO3, a volatile aerosol which contributes substantially to PM10

  19. Nuclear energy and materials in the 21st century

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is examining a range of long-term nuclear energy futures as well as exploring and assessing optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies. An established global energy, economics, environmental (E3) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed, where future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term (∼2100) demographic, economic, policy, and technological drivers. A spectrum of futures is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. The result reported examine departures from a basis scenario and are presented in the following order of increasing specificity: (a) definition and parametric variations of the basis scenario; (b) comparison of the basis scenario with other recent studies; (c) parametric studies that vary upper-level hierarchical scenario attributes (external drivers); and (d) variations of the lower-level scenario attributes (internal drivers). Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel-cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes that characterize particular nuclear energy scenarios. Special attention is given to the role of nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy, the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors, and proliferation risk

  20. Nuclear science and technology in the 21st century

    The issues discussed were: Looking on the positive side, despite adverse public reaction, ns and t in general continues to gain followers and users. Nuclear power reactors are still generating electricity and its other peaceful applications are contributing to the development of the socioeconomic sectors of many countries. The network of international as wen as regional cooperation for nuclear safety and agreement for nuclear weapons free zones, among others, should provide the international administrative infrastructure for ns and t to continue serving humanity in the next century. In respect of nuclear power, the Asia and Pacific region is experiencing rapid growth. Its energy needs will increase in the future. At some point, nuclear power may become favorable again as the ability of conventional energy resources to fifflu energy needs decreases and the pressure to reduce environmental burden increases. Within the next century, other regions of the world is expected to be on the same path. The early starters of the West would experience capacity degradation due to aging of their nuclear reactors; this needs to be replaced. If the two coincides, then there would be enough motivation for further development and utilization of ns and t for power production. In the non-power applications, industrialization of countries in the developing regions will create new avenues for nuclear technology to grow. Efforts to demilitarized the technology would create new civilian applications. Again assuming they achieve a synergy, growth of ns and t in the future can be expected

  1. Nuclear energy and materials in the 21st century

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is examining a range of long- term nuclear energy futures as well as exploring and assessing optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies. An established global energy, economics, environmental (E3) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed, where future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term (∼2100) demographic, economic, policy, and technological drivers. A spectrum of futures is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. The results reported examine departures from a ''basis scenario'' and are presented in the following order of increasing specificity: a) definition and parametric variations the basis scenario; b) comparison of the basis scenario with other recent studies; c) parametric studies that vary upper-level hierarchical scenario attributes (external drivers); and d) variations of the lower-level scenario attributes (internal drivers). Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes that characterize particular nuclear energy scenarios. Special attention is given to the role of nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy, the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors, and proliferation risk. (author)

  2. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  3. Nuclear energy and materials in the 21st century

    Krakowski, R.A.; Davidson, J.W.; Bathke, C.G. [and others

    1997-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is examining a range of long-term nuclear energy futures as well as exploring and assessing optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies. An established global energy, economics, environmental (E{sup 3}) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed, where future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term ({approx}2100) demographic, economic, policy, and technological drivers. A spectrum of futures is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. The result reported examine departures from a basis scenario and are presented in the following order of increasing specificity: (a) definition and parametric variations of the basis scenario; (b) comparison of the basis scenario with other recent studies; (c) parametric studies that vary upper-level hierarchical scenario attributes (external drivers); and (d) variations of the lower-level scenario attributes (internal drivers). Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel-cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes that characterize particular nuclear energy scenarios. Special attention is given to the role of nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy, the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors, and proliferation risk.

  4. Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century.

    Sofos, John N

    2008-01-01

    The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as "new," "emerging," or "evolving" pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses, or of resistance to antibiotics or food related stresses. Other microbial pathogen related concerns include cross-contamination of other foods and water with enteric pathogens of animal origin, meat animal manure treatment and disposal issues, foodborne illness surveillance and food attribution activities, and potential use of food safety programs at the farm. Other issues and challenges include food additives and chemical residues, animal identification and traceability issues, the safety and quality of organic and natural products, the need for and development of improved and rapid testing and pathogen detection methodologies for laboratory and field use, regulatory and inspection harmonization issues at the national and international level, determination of responsibilities for zoonotic diseases between animal health and regulatory public health agencies, establishment of risk assessment based food safety objectives, and complete and routine implementation of HACCP at the production and processing level on the basis of food handler training and consumer education. Viral pathogens will continue to be of concern at food service, bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Campylobacter will continue affecting the safety of raw meat and poultry, while Listeria monocytogenes will be of concern in ready-to-eat processed products. These challenges become more important due to changes in animal production, product processing and distribution; increased international trade; changing consumer needs and increased preference for minimally processed products; increased

  5. Transnational Militancy in the 21st Century (roundtable discussion

    Faisal Devji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following roundtable discussion took place via email between September 2009 and January 2010. The participants were invited on the basis of each having a unique disciplinary background – history, sociology and political theory – but at the same time enough in common to debate both the analytic and normative dimensions of transnational militancy. Faisal Devji is currently Reader in Modern South Asian History at St. Antony’s College, University of Oxford. His most recent book is The Terrorist in Search of Humanity: Militant Islam and GlobalPolitics. Prof. Kevin McDonald is Marie Curie International Fellow in the Department of Sociology at Goldsmiths College, University of London. His most recent book, Our Violent World: Terrorism in Society, is being published April, 2010. Saul Newman is Reader in Political Theory, also at Goldsmiths College. Saul is known for his work on ‘postanarchist’ theory, but also recently co-authored a book with the title Politics Most Unusual: Violence, Sovereignty and Democracy in the War on Terror. The roundtable was initiated and chaired by Journal of Critical Globalisation Studies co-editor Nathan Coombs.

  6. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in the 21st century

    Major nuclear research institutes in Japan are the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), National Research Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS), and the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). In the 50s and 60s JAERI concentrated on the introduction of nuclear technology from overseas. Energy security issues led to the development of a strong nuclear power programme in the next two decades resulting in Japan having 50 light water cooled nuclear power plants in operation. Japan also worked on other reactor concepts. The current emphasis of JAERI is on advanced reactors and nuclear fusion. Its budget of 270 million US$ supports five research establishments. JAERI has strong collaboration with industry and university system on nuclear and other advanced research topics (neutron science, photon science). In many areas Japan has strong international links. JAERI has also been transferring know-how on radioisotope and radiation applications to the developing countries particularly through IAEA-RCA mechanisms. (author)

  7. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  8. Ecotoxicology: The Challenges for the 21st Century

    Marco Vighi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The usual procedures for ecological risk assessment (ERA have been based for decades on simplified approaches in order to provide basic information on the huge amount of chemicals introduced into the environment. These approaches allowed the development of international regulatory tools capable of substantially reducing the adverse effects on ecosystems in developed countries. Nevertheless, these approaches suffer from a lack of ecological realism and are poorly suitable for understanding the actual consequences for ecosystem health. The need for more ecologically-based approaches is now recognized by the scientific community and has been highlighted by a recent document of the European Commission. In this paper, a synthesis is presented of the most important issues and the need for research to improve the ecological realism of exposure and effect assessment and the tools that should be developed to reach this objective. In particular, the major challenges are the following: the effects of variable exposure patterns; the vulnerability of ecosystems; the indirect ecological effects; the responses to multiple stress factors; the improvement of ecological modeling. The possibilities for using new scientific achievements in regulatory ERA are also discussed.

  9. Tracking the Internet into the 21st Century

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: The Internet was designed in 1973, began operation in 1983, became widely known to the general public in 1993 and now has become a global infrastructure for all forms of communication. The network is relatively unaware of the applications that use it and also relatively insensitive to the technologies that transport its Internet "packets" around the world. Where did the Internet come from? What is its condition today? How will it be used tomorrow? What might we expect it to look like in the next decade? What technical and international policy challenges does the Internet pose? Could it be made to operate across our solar system to support manned and robotic exploration? Answers to these questions and more will be provided in this presentation. Short Biography: Vinton G. Cerf is vice president and chief Internet evangelist for Google. Cerf served as a senior vice president of MCI from 1994-2005, as VP of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives from 1986-1994, as VP MCI from 1982-1986, and ...

  10. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Kelly, K. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  11. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Kelly, K. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  12. Nuclear power in the 21st century: Challenges and possibilities.

    Horvath, Akos; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current situation and possible future developments for nuclear power--including fission and fusion processes--is presented. The fission nuclear power continues to be an essential part of the low-carbon electricity generation in the world for decades to come. There are breakthrough possibilities in the development of new generation nuclear reactors where the life-time of the nuclear waste can be reduced to some hundreds of years instead of the present time-scales of hundred thousand of years. Research on the fourth generation reactors is needed for the realisation of this development. For the fast nuclear reactors, a substantial research and development effort is required in many fields--from material sciences to safety demonstration--to attain the envisaged goals. Fusion provides a long-term vision for an efficient energy production. The fusion option for a nuclear reactor for efficient production of electricity has been set out in a focussed European programme including the international project of ITER after which a fusion electricity DEMO reactor is envisaged. PMID:26667059

  13. Keeping the human: neuroethics and the conciliation of dissonant values in the 21st century

    Gini A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Gini,1,2,* Denis Larrivee,2,3,* Michele Farisco,4,5 Vittorio Alessandro Sironi6 1Neuroradiology Division, Neuroscience Department, San Camillo-Forlanini Medical Center, Rome, Italy; 2International Neuroethics Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Educational Outreach Office, Catholic Dioceses of Charleston, SC, USA; 4Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 5Biogem Genetic Research Center, Ariano Irpino, Italy; 6Research Center on the History of Biomedical Thought, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Studied since antiquity, the human brain has recently been the inspiration for an international neuroscientific entrepreneurship, the Human Brain Project in Europe and the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative in the USA. Different in their approach, both regard the human brain as one of the greatest challenges of 21st century science and the organ that makes us “human”. However, it is mainly the necessity of developing new therapies that affect up to a billion people worldwide, which has propelled the search for extensive expertise and investment in neuroscience research. The debate on ethical and social policy issues as well as the research and medical strategies of such gigantic efforts has involved participants as diverse as neuroscientists, philosophers, scholars in ethics and law, politicians, and the general public, rendering modern neuroscience an interdisciplinary and conflictual endeavor. In fact, the brain is described as the biological underpinning of our thoughts, emotions, perceptions, free willed actions, and memories, features unique to our humanity. In this review, three neuroscientists and a philosopher from the neuroethics community provide their perspectives for an up-to-date survey of salient neuroethical issues, ie, modulation of free will and

  14. Survey report; health needs of the 21st century.

    Raymond, S U

    1989-01-01

    Sustainability of development assistance programs depends greatly on the perceptions of priorities by recipient countries. A written survey was sent by the Catholic University of America's Institute for International Health and Development to 66 ministers of health in low-income and middle-income countries to assess their views of priority problems in health sector development. Response rate was 33%, coming from countries with highly diverse gross national products (GNPs), growth rates, mortality rates and life expectancies. Nevertheless, there was widespread agreement about priorities: 1) meeting costs of health care; 2) improving health care management and administration; and 3) extending communicable disease control. Communicable disease control and child health programs were more important to low-income countries than to middle-income countries. Costs, management and administration and the control of noncommunicable diseases were predicted to increase in importance. In demographics, urbanization, overall population growth and shift of workers from agriculture to industry and services were seen as the major problems of the past, and urbanization and the aging of populations accompanied by increasing life expectancies the major challenges of the future. Highest predicted training needs were for system managers and paramedical personnel. Government budgets, user fees and donor agencies were seen as the most important sources of past funding, with social security systems and fee-based payments increasing in importance in the future. The role of donor agencies would increase as would the need for more responsiveness. Future uncertainties include national economic growth, environmental problems, issues in ethics and changes in disease and technology. PMID:12342422

  15. Active Thermochemical Tables: thermochemistry for the 21st century

    Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) are a good example of a significant breakthrough in chemical science that is directly enabled by the US DOE SciDAC initiative. ATcT is a new paradigm of how to obtain accurate, reliable, and internally consistent thermochemistry and overcome the limitations that are intrinsic to the traditional sequential approach to thermochemistry. The availability of high-quality consistent thermochemical values is critical in many areas of chemistry, including the development of realistic predictive models of complex chemical environments such as combustion or the atmosphere, or development and improvement of sophisticated high-fidelity electronic structure computational treatments. As opposed to the traditional sequential evolution of thermochemical values for the chemical species of interest, ATcT utilizes the Thermochemical Network (TN) approach. This approach explicitly exposes the maze of inherent interdependencies normally ignored by the conventional treatment, and allows, inter alia, a statistical analysis of the individual measurements that define the TN. The end result is the extraction of the best possible thermochemistry, based on optimal use of all the currently available knowledge, hence making conventional tabulations of thermochemical values obsolete. Moreover, ATcT offer a number of additional features that are neither present nor possible in the traditional approach. With ATcT, new knowledge can be painlessly propagated through all affected thermochemical values. ATcT also allows hypothesis testing and evaluation, as well as discovery of weak links in the TN. The latter provides pointers to new experimental or theoretical determinations that can most efficiently improve the underlying thermochemical body of knowledge

  16. Energy End-Use Technologies for the 21st Century

    Gehl, S; Haegermark, H; Larsen, H; Morishita, M; Nakicenovic, N; Schock, R N; Suntola, T

    2005-04-13

    The World Energy Council's recent study examined the potential of energy end-use technologies and of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) into these technologies on a global scale. Surprises are likely, but nevertheless, current research and development offer a picture of what might happen in the future as new technologies face the competition of the marketplace. Given the breadth of energy end-use technologies and the differences between regions and economic conditions, the study focused on technologies that appear most important from today's vantage point. Globally, robust research and development followed by demonstrations of new end-use technologies can potentially save at least 110 EJ/year by 2020 and over 300 EJ/year by 2050. If achieved, this translates to worldwide energy savings of as much as 25% by 2020 and over 40% by 2050, over what may be required without these technologies. It is almost certain that no single technology, or even a small set of technologies, will dominate in meeting the needs of the globe in any foreseeable timeframe. Absent a significant joint government-industry effort on end-use technology RD&D, the technologies needed will not be ready for the marketplace in the timeframes required with even the most pessimistic scenarios. Based on previous detailed analyses for the United States, an international expenditure of $4 billion per year seems more than justified. The success of new energy end-use technologies depends on new RD&D investments and policy decisions made today. Governments, in close cooperation with industry, must carefully consider RD&D incentives that can help get technologies from the laboratory or test-bed to market. Any short-term impact areas are likely to benefit from focused RD&D. These include electricity transmission and distribution, distributed electricity production, transportation, the production of paper and pulp, iron and steel, aluminum, cement and chemicals, and information and

  17. The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Performance Plan. The report details key priorities for the Agency: 1. GHG emissions inventories and reduction through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and transportation management. 2. High-performance sustainable buildings. 3. Regional and local planning. 4. Water conservation. 5. Recycling and pollution prevention. 6. Sustainable acquisition. 7. Electronics stewardship. Many researchers are of the opinion that applying the principles of free market enterprise to water conservation ideas would result in a more efficient utilization of water supply and distribution everywhere. References: EPA's June 2011 Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) (PDF) (74 pp, 1MB) June 2010 EPA Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (PDF) (67 pp, 3.8MB) U.S. EPA Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation (PDF) (3pp, 55KB) Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics. 68th AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 89, No. 53, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2009. H11E - 0801. Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997.

  18. Designing a 21st Century Corporate Tax — An Advance U.S. Minimum Tax on Foreign Income and Other Measures to Protect the Base

    Shay, Stephen E.; Fleming, J. Clifton, Jr.; Peroni, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The 21st Century has seen unprecedented levels of corporate tax aggressiveness and avoidance. This Article continues our exploration of second-best international tax reforms that would protect the U.S. corporate tax base and have some likelihood of adoption. In this case, we consider how a U.S. minimum tax on foreign income earned by a controlled foreign corporation should be designed to protect the United States against erosion of its corporate income tax base and to combat tax competition ...

  19. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    None

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  20. The advent of battery-based societies and the global environment in the 21st century

    Yoda, Susumu; Ishihara, Kaoru

    In paving the way for a new electricity-based civilization in the 21st century, we hope to find the key to solving the trilemma of securing energy and resources, maintaining economic growth, and preserving the environment. In these circumstances, secondary batteries are expected to be used on a large scale in a new field—for energy purposes and to positively affect preservation of the global environment, resulting in the advent of a new battery-based society in the 21st century. It is important to develop secondary batteries not only with high specific energy for convenience, but also with large capacity, high energy efficiency and long life cycle for effective use of primary energy resources including natural energy. Lithium secondary batteries are a promising option.

  1. Female leaders in the 21st century in a masculine world

    Martina Kessler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century shows an increase in the number of women occupying leadership positions. The challenge is: How do they lead in a context which is still male dominated? Often female leaders simply try to copy the male leadership style they are familiar with. But sometimes, in doing so, they lose their femininity and the organisation misses out on the specific opportunities of female leadership. One aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities and strengths of a female leadership style such as pro-social behaviour and a panorama view. We will also deal with the issue of how women approach power and the power bases women would typically use. One conclusion is that we need the benefits of both male and female leadership for the 21st century

  2. Hugo Chavez: a neo-populist phenomenon of the 21st century’s Latin America

    Sebastián Acosta Zapata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neo-populism is a socio-political phenomenon, which is characteristic of Latin America in the 21st century, but it has a clear legacy of populism found throughout the entire region in the twentieth century. Hugo Chavez was a political and military figure recognized for his social policies and practices, marked by personalism and the appeal to a direct relationship with people while planting a leftist political discourse called “Socialism of the 21st century”. This paper aims to conceptualize, from the sociological and political theories, the present situation in Latin America, with a special focus on Venezuela, and argue that Chávez must be regarded as the most outstanding figure of the neo-populism of the early twenty-first century.

  3. Teaching Students to Learn and to Work Well with 21st Century Skills: Unpacking the Career and Life Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm

    Kivunja, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In "Do You Want Your Students to Be Job-Ready With 21st Century Skills?" Kivunja (2014a) draws on the work by the Partnership For Teaching 21st Century Skills (P21) reported by Trilling and Fadel (2009), to articulate that the skills that young people need to succeed as individuals, citizens and workers in the 21st century fall into four…

  4. Three focal points for education systems in the 21st century

    Desjardins, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Strong and shared growth increasingly depend on the capacity of nations to develop, deploy and upgrade the skills of their citizens. Within this context, the following places an emphasis on three focal points for education systems in the 21st century. The first focus is on essential skills. The...... second focus is on the effectiveness of impact of education on economic and social outcomes. The third focus is on the dynamic elements of skill formation and skill use....

  5. Pro-capitalism vs. Anti-americanism in 21st century Europe product in Romania

    Sorin Burnete

    2008-01-01

    The topic of this article was inspired by a recent survey, carried out in several Western European countries, with the purpose of ascertaining the public’s expectations regarding the respective countries’ (and Europe’s) economic prospects for the first half of the 21st century. The questions were focused upon two chief issues: (1) Europe’s economic future within the context of contemporary global transformations; (2) the viability of the European economic systems. Concerning the former issue,...

  6. Efficacy of geoengineering to limit 21st century sea-level rise

    Moore, J. C.; Jevrejeva, S.; Grinstead, A.

    2010-01-01

    Geoengineering has been proposed as a feasible way of mitigating anthropogenic climate change, especially increasing global temperatures in the 21st century. The two main geoengineering options are limiting incoming solar radiation, or modifying the carbon cycle. Here we examine the impact of five geoengineering approaches on sea level; SO2 aerosol injection into the stratosphere, mirrors in space, afforestation, biochar, and bioenergy with carbon sequestration. Sea evel responds mainly at ce...

  7. Projected 21st century decrease in marine productivity: a multi-model analysis

    M. Steinacher; F. Joos; T. L. Frölicher; Bopp, L.; Cadule, P.; Doney, S. C.; Gehlen, M.; Schneider, B.; Segschneider, J.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in marine net primary productivity and export of particulate organic carbon are projected over the 21st century with three global coupled carbon cycle-climate models. These include representations of marine ecosystems and the carbon cycle of different structure and complexity. All three models show a decrease in global mean marine productivity and export production between 7 and 20% by 2100 relative to preindustrial conditions, for the SRES A2 emission scenario. Two different regimes ...

  8. Age model of fertility in Vojvodina at the beginning of the 21st century

    Veljović Radmila; Paunović Dragana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook on fertility trends of the population of Vojvodina in the first decade of the 21st century, a period that includes the results of the previous two Censuses held in 2002 and 2011. The main concern is identifying determinants of this development process and the dynamics regarding the age model of fertility as well as the way it is manifested in Vojvodina. Methodology of this research relies on evaluating age specific rates, dete...

  9. CHRISTIAN TRADITIONS IN 20TH—21ST CENTURY RUSSIAN FANTASY WRITING (ARTICLE 2)

    Evgeniy Mikhaylovich Neyolov

    2012-01-01

    The article looks at the various aspects of appropriating the Christian traditions by Russian fantasy writing. We show that the Christian tradition has most significantly revealed itself in the genre of fantasy writing which is in high demand among early 21st century readers. Both the content and the formal poetics of this tradition have been taken into account here. One of the typical fantasy protagonists is a hero yearning for God, which is a familiar staple of Russian literature. By defaul...

  10. Problem-based Science Inquiry : : Challenges and Possibilities for Addressing 21st Century Skills

    Nariman, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is a mixed methods exploratory case study on the implementation of problem-based inquiry. The trend of technological changes have created a wave of global change, brought new understanding of learning, and requires a shift in education to develop and accommodate proficiency in 21st century skills and competencies. As a result, in many countries, including the United States, the push to benchmark educational standards is in place to prepare students for success in college and...

  11. Portable bedside ultrasound: the visual stethoscope of the 21st century

    Gillman Lawrence M; Kirkpatrick Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decade technological advances in the realm of ultrasound have allowed what was once a cumbersome and large machine to become essentially hand-held. This coupled with a greater understanding of lung sonography has revolutionized our bedside assessment of patients. Using ultrasound not as a diagnostic test, but instead as a component of the physical exam, may allow it to become the stethoscope of the 21st century.

  12. Strategic Management of Financial Institutions-Survival in the 21st Century

    Arshad Khan, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    In this paper in attempt has been made to propose some strategic measures which are important for the survival of financial institutions in the 21st century. The study points out that liberalization and globalization offered many opportunities to financial institutions to provide wider range of financial and adviser services for their management. The study stressed that banks and NBFIs in Pakistan must used the modern communication, human resource management should be strengthen, SMEs, rural ...

  13. Assessing ICT Competencies among Postgraduate Students Based on the 21st Century ICT Competency Model

    Mazalah Ahmad; Aidah Abdul Karim; Rosseni Din; Intan Safinas Mohd Ariff Albakri

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the ICT competency among Postgraduate students in the Higher Learning Institutions (HLI) is crucial. Therefore this paper presents in detail the process of developing an instrument to assess the competency in ICT which is called ICTC-Test (Information Communication Technology Competency Test). The details are on the utilization of the seven domains in the 21st Century ICT Competency Model to determine the competency level among students. The development of the items in ICTC-Test is ...

  14. Faculty-Librarian Partnerships to Teach Information Skills for the 21st Century.

    Rader, Hannelore B.

    2001-01-01

    It is most important that students in higher education receive adequate education for productive work and scholarship in the technological information environment of the 21st century. Changes in the workforce, a knowledge-based economy, virtual environments, life-long learning and related factors are changing the climate within higher education around the world. Students must be prepared throughout their tenure in higher education to become productive employees and life long learners. One ver...

  15. Some Hot Spots in the Study of Chinese Drugs in the 21st Century

    肖培根

    2004-01-01

    @@ Mankind has entered the 21st century of high speed development in science and economics. Owing to the alteration of disease modes in the new century, the greatly elevated quality of human life and the arrival of aged society, the modes of medicine have obviously changed from the treatment mode to the prevention mode, the medical thought emphasizes more the holistic approach of human body.

  16. Radiative forcing and climate response to projected 21st century aerosol decreases

    Westervelt, D. M.; Horowitz, L.W.; V. Naik; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely expected that global emissions of atmospheric aerosols and their precursors will decrease strongly throughout the remainder of the 21st century, due to emission reduction policies enacted to protect human health. For instance, global emissions of aerosols and their precursors are projected to decrease by as much as 80% by the year 2100, according to the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) sce...

  17. Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report sums up the conference ''Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies'' that was held in Oslo in 1999. The purpose of the conference was to stimulate the development of climate- and energy strategies and actions that support a sustainable use of energy locally and regionally. The report discusses important points from the various contributions and from the workshops of the conference.

  18. Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century

    Hu, Y; Xia, Y.; Fu, Q

    2010-01-01

    Observations show a stabilization or a weak increase of the stratospheric ozone layer since the late 1990s. Recent coupled chemistry-climate model simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a results of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the 1987 Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recove...

  19. Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century

    Hu, Y; Xia, Y.; Fu, Q

    2011-01-01

    Recent simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a result of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recovery of stratospheric ozone may have significant impact on tropospheric-surface climate. Here, using multi-model results from both the Intergovernme...

  20. Building interdisciplinary leadership skills among health practitioners in the 21st century: an innovative training model

    Preeti eNegandhi; Himanshu eNegandhi; Ritika eTiwari; Kavya eSharma; Sanjay P Zodpey; Zahiruddin eQuazi; Abhay eGaidhane; Jayalakshmi eN.; Meenakshi eGijare; Rajiv eYeravdekar

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of 21st century global educational reforms. In India there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners, and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nur...

  1. Place-Based Education: Does it Improve 21st Century Skills?

    Khalil Motallebzadeh; Zahra Kafi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the possible significant effects of project-based instruction on the improvement of Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ awareness of 21st century skills. To this end, the sample population was selected from Iranian intermediate learners studying at Zabansara Language School, Mashhad, Iran. Therefore, 50 male and female students were assigned randomly to experimental and control groups, 25 in each. For collecting the quantitative data for the study, a 21...

  2. Multi-Model Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution Over the 21st Century

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from fourteen chemistry-climate models. There is general agreement among the models at the broadest levels, showing column ozone decreasing at all latitudes from 1960 to around 2000, then increasing at all latitudes over the first half of the 21st century, and latitudinal variations in the rate of increase and date of return to historical values. In the second half of the century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off or even decrease depending on the latitude, resulting in variable dates of return to historical values at latitudes where column ozone has declined below those levels. Separation into partial column above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely due to differences in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and returns to 1960 levels before the end of the century, although there is a spread among the models in dates that ozone returns to historical values. Using multiple linear regression, we find decreasing halogens and increasing greenhouse gases contribute almost equally to increases in the upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere an increase in tropical upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in all models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century and returns to 1960 levels.

  3. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    J. Martinez-Rey; L. Bopp; M. Gehlen; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-01-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with outp...

  4. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers

  5. Portable bedside ultrasound: the visual stethoscope of the 21st century

    Gillman Lawrence M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past decade technological advances in the realm of ultrasound have allowed what was once a cumbersome and large machine to become essentially hand-held. This coupled with a greater understanding of lung sonography has revolutionized our bedside assessment of patients. Using ultrasound not as a diagnostic test, but instead as a component of the physical exam, may allow it to become the stethoscope of the 21st century.

  6. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    2015-01-01

    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  7. Female leaders in the 21st century in a masculine world

    Martina Kessler

    2014-01-01

    The 21st century shows an increase in the number of women occupying leadership positions. The challenge is: How do they lead in a context which is still male dominated? Often female leaders simply try to copy the male leadership style they are familiar with. But sometimes, in doing so, they lose their femininity and the organisation misses out on the specific opportunities of female leadership. One aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities and strengths of a female leadership style ...

  8. Transforming students into 21st century thinkers through an ASL curriculum

    Brooks, John Charles

    2012-01-01

    This writing explores some of the challenges educators of deaf children are facing in classrooms across America. The 21st century has brought unprecedented levels of diversity to classrooms and deaf students are not immune to this phenomenon. Social learning is at a premium as students face challenges in their overall development. The identification of these challenges is followed by a discussion of innovative instructional methods such as : scaffolding, cooperative learning, and inquiry-base...

  9. FOR A SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL TRANSITION: 21ST CENTURY ORGANISATIONS REALIGN THEMSELVES AROUND VALUES

    Associate lecturer François Silva

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discus the changes that confronting our society. The modernity is perceived like an expression of man's control over himself and over nature through reason in a desire for unlimited expansion, therefore implying that growth could be infinite. Consequently, the new logics of the 21st century concern the globalisation of trade and the issues of sustainable development and social responsibility.

  10. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century

    Kerry A. Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(104)] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950–2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases...

  11. Restructuring leadership for 21st century schools : how transformational leadership and trust cultivate teacher leadership

    Longwell-McKean, Paula Cheree

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature on effective leadership styles has emerged as 21st century leaders face higher student expectations, more demands on teachers and lack of support from the public. An examination of the effects of transactional and transformational leadership provides educators with indications as to the best practices with regard to transforming the direction of schools. Proponents of transformational leadership recommend this approach as the best fit for today's changing times. T...

  12. Mid-21st Century Changes to Surface Hydrology Over the Los Angeles Region

    Schwartz, Marla Ann

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores projected mid-21st century changes to surface hydrological fluxes and states in the Los Angeles region at 2km resolution. This work quantifies and describes potential impacts of climate change to precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil column moisture content in the Los Angeles region. Little previous research has focused on the impacts of climate change to water resources and surface hydrology in this region. We simulate detailed climatologies of surface hydro...

  13. Modelling soil erosion risk and its impacts in the mediterranean area for the 21st century

    Le Bissonnais, Yves; Cerdan, Olivier; Cheviron, Bruno; Darboux, Frédéric; Desprats, Jean-François; Fouché, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Soil degradation and erosion will be influenced during the 21st century both by climate and related or anthropogenic land use changes. Many current negative impacts of soil erosion may thus be amplified, and as certain soil thresholds are exceeded, potentially new and different problems could arise. Soils in the Mediterranean environment may be particularly vulnerable to such global changes because of contrasted climate, low vegetation cover and specific poor soil characteristics. It is there...

  14. The Teacher Candidates’ Views Concerning the 21st Century Literacy Education Project (LEP)

    ARSLAN, Rumiye; NALİNCİ, Gülbin Zeren

    2015-01-01

    AbstractToday, the concept of “Literacy” represents reading and writing in various forms of texts which embody knowledge and a range of skills.  Different literacies are essential for human to live, work and produce in the society. In order to use communication technologies in educational and teaching processes appropriately, individuals are not only required to become scientifically and technologically literate but also multimedia literate. Within this respect, a Project called “The 21st Cen...

  15. Perspectives on scientific and technological literacy in Tonga: Moving forward in the 21st century

    Palefau, Tevita Hala

    Tonga has undergone complex changes in the last three decades. Disturbing numbers of young Tongans have inadequate knowledge in traditional science and technology, ill equipped to work in, contribute to and profit from our society. In short, they lack sufficient background knowledge to acquire the training, skills and understanding that are needed in the 21st Century. The purpose of this research is to assist the formulation of national science and technology curriculum. Hence, views of life in Tonga and opinions about Tonga's needs held by three stakeholder groups (traditional, workplaces, public) were paramount in this study. How these stakeholders see Tonga in terms of science and technology needs will contribute substantially to the Ministry of Education's decisions for this century. Based on critical evaluation of international literature and how scientific and technological literacy (STL) is crucial to Tongan society, a model 'TAP-STL' is established as study framework: 'TAP' for ṯraditional, a&barbelow;cademic and p&barbelow;ublic STL, to promote national development. This qualitative case study employs an interview method to collect data from twelve knowledgeable participants selected by reputational sampling from across the kingdom. By exploring their understanding of STL requirements, the study sought to identify any shortfall between the science and technology provided in school and that needed for maintenance of traditional culture, effective participation in Tonga's workplaces and public understanding. The study produced findings under these categories: understanding of traditional knowledge and skills needed to preserve Tongan cultural identity; understanding needed for fishing, handicrafts and everyday maintenance, together with essential health knowledge and skills; and required understanding of public information campaigns related to health, domestic goods, drugs and environment that contribute to responsible citizenship. The study identified

  16. Nuclear energy development in the 21st century: Global scenarios and regional trends

    available nuclear power development modelling tools. The results of the study will constitute one of the inputs for formulating an INPRO vision on global nuclear energy sustainability in the twenty-first century, together with the results of several other studies currently being carried out in the framework of INPRO's Programme Area B, including the INPRO Collaborative Projects on Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Systems based on Thermal and Fast Reactors including a Closed Fuel Cycle (GAINS) and Fuel Cycles for Innovative Nuclear Systems through Integration of Technologies (FINITE), Investigations of the 233U/Th Fuel Cycle (ThFC) and Meeting Energy Needs in the Period of Raw Material Insufficiency during the 21st Century (RMI)

  17. Nuclear energy: 21st century promise. 10 October 2005, Budapest, Hungary

    What role will nuclear energy play can not be can not be answered definitively, but IAEA projections for the coming decades are markedly higher than they were even five years ago. Nuclear reactors currently generate electricity for nearly 1 billion people, producing about 16% of the world's electricity. This percentage has held relatively steady for more than a decade, keeping pace with the steady expansion in the global electricity market. But in just the past few years, we have witnessed a significant change in attitudes towards nuclear power. Fast growing global energy demands, an increased emphasis on the security of energy supply, and the risk of climate change are driving a renewed consideration, in many quarters, towards investment in nuclear power. This past March, at an international ministerial conference in Paris, participants from 65 countries were upbeat regarding the role of nuclear power in meeting 21st century electricity and energy needs. Near term nuclear growth remains centred in Asia and Eastern Europe, which together account for 22 of the 24 units now under construction. The Russian Federation intends to double its nuclear generating capacity by 2020; China plans nearly a six-fold expansion in capacity by the same date; and India anticipates a ten-fold increase by 2022. Elsewhere, plans remain more modest, but it is clear that nuclear energy is regaining stature as a serious option. When Finland began pouring concrete for Olkiluoto-3 earlier this year, it was the first new nuclear construction in Western Europe since 1991. France will likely be next, with construction of a European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) at Flamanville scheduled to start in 2007. Some 'newcomer' developing countries, such as Indonesia and Vietnam, are also moving steadily forward with plans for nuclear power investment. And at last month's IAEA General Conference in Vienna, a host of countries were discussing plans and possibilities for initiating or expanding nuclear

  18. DEVELOPING THE 21ST-CENTURY SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    Mohammad Imam FARISI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration into SS learning is one of the learning innovations in the global-digital era, and powerfully supports the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS as stated in their visions: meaningful, powerful, value-based, challenging, and active. It also strongly supports the development of three core skills of the 21st-century, including learning and innovation skills; information, media and technology skills; life and career skills that developed in partnership with the Partnership Forum for 21st-Century Skills (P21. This paper examines and describes academics evolution toward a commitment and further developments in research; 21stcentury skills map for the SS; and the implications for developing teachers’ competences and teachers’ education curriculum.

  19. CHALLENGES AND CORRESPONDING STRATEGIES FOR CHINAS PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY IN 21st CENTURY

    2001-01-01

    Challenges and corresponding strategies for Chinas petroleum refining industry in 21st century were described in this paper. Entering 21st century, many countries put more concerns on environmental protection and the possibility of continual development. Production of clean fuel with low sulfur, low olefin and low aromatics to reduce toxic material emission, clean production and free-toxic emission and development of environmental friendly products and technologies will be the main themes of worlds refining industry. The challenges faced by Chinas petroleum refining industry are those from inadequate crude sources, from plant scale and its economic benefit, from processing configuration and product structure, from inferior crude and high quality products and from environmental protection and sustaining development, etc. As long as china recognizes the development trend of overall refining technology and carry out long term strategy for technological innovation and progress, its petroleum refining industry will definitely undergo a greater development and become more capable in market competition in the 21st century.

  20. A Conceptual Framework for the Integration of 21st Century Skills in Biology Education

    Lee Chuo Hiong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to propose the conceptual framework for the integration of 21st century skills in biology education in Malaysia. An interdisciplinary approach for Biology, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (BTEM is suggested to imbibe 21st century skills into the existing Biology curriculum. Solving complex and interdisciplinary worldwide biology problems will require students to understand what connections exist across disciplines and how to make those connections. BTEM allows students to master biological knowledge and at the same time to be adroit in other sub disciplinary skills. The main teaching and learning strategies that apply in the BTEM subjects are problem-based learning and inquiry-based learning which require the coordination of both knowledge and skills simultaneously. This is intended to enhance the students’ abilities to construct their own knowledge through the relevant hands-on and minds-on activities. The essence of engineering is production of design for the inventive problem solving. Integrating advanced information communication technologies such as e-tools and World Wide Web resources are believed to be able to fulfil the learning style needs of the current ‘Net Generation’. Mathematics plays an important role providing computational tools for biology and engineering, especially in analysing data. The expected outcomes of BTEM implementation are the inculcation of 21st century skills digital literacy, inventive thinking, effective communication, high productivity, spiritual and noble values in Malaysian students.

  1. Maintaining competence in radiological protection in emergency situations - a challenge for the 21st century

    Full text: State of the art radiological protection in emergency situations requires specific resources and competence in a variety of scientific and technical areas. These include e.g. nuclear and reactor physics, metrology, health sciences, radiobiology, food production, waste management, and information technology. In many of these areas a high technical standard is currently available. This standard is based on great efforts of governments, universities/research institutions and the nuclear industry during the second half of the 20th century. Although the number of scientists and technicians in these areas may appear to be sufficient today at least in some countries, there are strong indicators that future expertise is at risk. The indicators are declining university enrolment, dilution of university course content, high retirement expectations of staff members with little or no replacement planned. During the last decade many international organizations have analyzed the current situation and identified risk areas. Many proposals of general nature are available to take appropriate steps to maintain competence in the 21st century. These proposals include the following recommendations for governments, for the industry, and for international and supra-national organisations. Governments are encouraged to engage in long term strategic planning and funding to maintain competence; organize networks of collaboration between specialised organisations to maintain critical groups size; take responsibility for ensuring that human resources are available to meet obligations; support 'educational networks' among universities, research institutions, and the industry; provide scholarships, fellowships, and traineeships as part of their funding policy. The industry is encouraged to maintain high level training and in house education to meet their specific needs; develop research programmes which are attractive for students and employees; improve co-operation with universities

  2. Drought over China in the 21st Century: Results of RegCM3%Drought over China in the 21st Century: Results of RegCM3

    LIU Ke; JIANG Da-Bang; MA Jian-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Based on 150-year simulations of a regional climate model, RegCM3, under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario, the effective drought index (EDI) is used to project the future drought change in China. During the baseline period 1986–2005, RegCM3 was found to reliably simulate the spatial pattern of drought over the country. Over the 21st century, the regionally averaged EDI should increase, corresponding to a decrease of drought, while the probability of extreme drought events should increase. Geographically, drought should clearly increase in Northeast China, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, Southwest China, and southern Tibet but decrease in most parts of the rest of the country.

  3. 21st Century-based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-laden Dentistry Program

    Marjorie C. Quieng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning in the 21st century aim to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social participation, and workplace success. This study has two goals: to determine the perceived extent of integration of 21st century-based soft skills in the cognitive-laden dentistry curriculum, and to examine the perceived 21st century-based soft skills of the student participants to serve as baseline data for future research. Communication, and relationship and collaboration skills will be critical components to motivate students; in turn, when students are motivated, it will encourage them to think critically and initiate actions toward the achievement of their goals.

  4. An Interdisciplinary Approach for Biology, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (BTEM) to Enhance 21st Century Skills in Malaysia.

    Lee Chuo Hiong; Kamisah Osman

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach for Biology, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (BTEM) is suggested to develop 21st century skills in the Malaysian context. BTEM allows students to master biological knowledge and at the same time to be adroit in other sub discipline skills. Students master factual knowledge of biology and skills of the 21st century simultaneously. The two main teaching and learning strategies applied in BTEM are problem-based learning and inquiry-based learning. Students a...

  5. GHEP-ISFG collaborative simulated exercise for DVI/MPI: Lessons learned about large-scale profile database comparisons.

    Vullo, Carlos M; Romero, Magdalena; Catelli, Laura; Šakić, Mustafa; Saragoni, Victor G; Jimenez Pleguezuelos, María Jose; Romanini, Carola; Anjos Porto, Maria João; Puente Prieto, Jorge; Bofarull Castro, Alicia; Hernandez, Alexis; Farfán, María José; Prieto, Victoria; Alvarez, David; Penacino, Gustavo; Zabalza, Santiago; Hernández Bolaños, Alejandro; Miguel Manterola, Irati; Prieto, Lourdes; Parsons, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The GHEP-ISFG Working Group has recognized the importance of assisting DNA laboratories to gain expertise in handling DVI or missing persons identification (MPI) projects which involve the need for large-scale genetic profile comparisons. Eleven laboratories participated in a DNA matching exercise to identify victims from a hypothetical conflict with 193 missing persons. The post mortem database was comprised of 87 skeletal remain profiles from a secondary mass grave displaying a minimal number of 58 individuals with evidence of commingling. The reference database was represented by 286 family reference profiles with diverse pedigrees. The goal of the exercise was to correctly discover re-associations and family matches. The results of direct matching for commingled remains re-associations were correct and fully concordant among all laboratories. However, the kinship analysis for missing persons identifications showed variable results among the participants. There was a group of laboratories with correct, concordant results but nearly half of the others showed discrepant results exhibiting likelihood ratio differences of several degrees of magnitude in some cases. Three main errors were detected: (a) some laboratories did not use the complete reference family genetic data to report the match with the remains, (b) the identity and/or non-identity hypotheses were sometimes wrongly expressed in the likelihood ratio calculations, and (c) many laboratories did not properly evaluate the prior odds for the event. The results suggest that large-scale profile comparisons for DVI or MPI is a challenge for forensic genetics laboratories and the statistical treatment of DNA matching and the Bayesian framework should be better standardized among laboratories. PMID:26716885

  6. Russia's energy resources in the 21st century with account for their role in the world energy

    , including two regions of Russia (European and Asian parts). The scenarios that differ in energy consumption and constraints on nuclear energy use were studied. The results obtained allow the following conclusions: 1. World traditional resources of oil (200-280 billion t) and natural gas (280-430 trillion cub. m) will be largely depleted by 2050-2075. In the second half of the century the use of more expensive non-traditional resources of oil (oil-bearing shale, heavy oil, crude bitumen) and natural gas (methane from coal seams and thick sandstone, and, probably, dissolved gas from the zones of abnormally high pressures and gas hydrates) is inevitable. 2. Russia is a world leader in natural gas and coal resources. Besides, Russia is well provided with heavy oil and natural bitumen resources. However most of them are located in the eastern areas of the country with severe climate, which will call for essential investments to convert these resources to explored reserves and to develop an infrastructure in the new production areas. 3. In the 21st century Russia will be a major oil and natural gas exporter. Oil export volume will be kept at the current level to the middle of the century with its drop by the end of the century. Natural gas export will be kept at the current level or will increase somewhat in the future. 4. The calculations show that despite a great extent of Russia's provision with fossil fuel resources the nuclear energy development is economically efficient (to the level of 70 GW in 2050 and 100-140 GW in 2100). The nuclear energy development in the 21st century will decrease the internal natural gas consumption for electricity production and will maintain optimal volumes of its export. In the second half of the century after depletion of cheap natural gas resources the nuclear energy will become competitive with natural gas in Russia's electricity market. (author)

  7. Migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century

    Đorđević-Crnobrnja Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will analyze economic and political migration in the Gora region at the end of the 20th and in the first decade of the 21st century. It is my intent to consider and explain their cause and their intensity and scope. In short, I view the socioeconomic and political dimension of these migrations from an ethnological and anthropological point of view. The economic and political migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century represent the continuation of earlier migrations, albeit more intensive and larger in scope (whole families are migrating. There migrations can be viewed as the effects of political changes in Kosovo, as well as the socioeconomic crisis of the 1990’s. There are no fixed boundaries between these types of migrations, and the only truly stand out examples are the cases in which people migrated for safety reasons. A certain type of migration can be identified based on the terminology used by the interlocutors. I have encountered the terms “banishment” and “displacement” in the narrative discourse of my interlocutors. These terms are used to describe the migrations from Gora during the 1999 war, as well as immediately after. The differences between economic and political migrants can be gouged from other factors such as going to Gora during vacations and holidays as well as investing money into real-estate in the region. Individuals who emigrated from Gora because they feared for their and the loves of their families go to Gora rarely (to attend funerals for example and are not currently thinking of investing unlike those who had left Gora as economic migrants. There are no differences when it comes to where people migrate to for different reasons. Places of migration can, however, be indicative of the form of migration in the sense of whether people migrated to a foreign country or not. One can turn into the other due to the changing of state borders. Thus

  8. Developing 21st century skills through the use of student personal learning networks

    Miller, Robert D.

    This research was conducted to study the development of 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills of students at the high school level through the use of online social network tools. The importance of this study was based on evidence high school and college students are not graduating with the requisite skills of communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills yet employers see these skills important to the success of their employees. The challenge addressed through this study was how high schools can integrate social network tools into traditional learning environments to foster the development of these 21st century skills. A qualitative research study was completed through the use of case study. One high school class in a suburban high performing town in Connecticut was selected as the research site and the sample population of eleven student participants engaged in two sets of interviews and learned through the use social network tools for one semester of the school year. The primary social network tools used were Facebook, Diigo, Google Sites, Google Docs, and Twitter. The data collected and analyzed partially supported the transfer of the theory of connectivism at the high school level. The students actively engaged in collaborative learning and research. Key results indicated a heightened engagement in learning, the development of collaborative learning and research skills, and a greater understanding of how to use social network tools for effective public communication. The use of social network tools with high school students was a positive experience that led to an increased awareness of the students as to the benefits social network tools have as a learning tool. The data supported the continued use of social network tools to develop 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills. Future research in this area may explore emerging social network tools as well as the long term impact these tools

  9. Transforming Pedagogies:
Integrating 21st Century Skills And Web 2.0 Technology

    Shelia Y. TUCKER

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to (P21, Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d., unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today’s education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these changing conditions in order to thrive. Students must be equipped to live in a multifaceted, multitasking, technology-driven world. And, regardless of their economic background, we must also ensure that all students have equal access to this new technological world. Collaborative learning theory which is connected to constructivism pedagogy requires students to work together to solve problems. Students need lifelong learning skills i.e., communication and information skills, problem-solving and thinking skills, and interpersonal and self-directional skills. The challenge becomes to deliberately incorporate learning skills into classrooms strategically and broadly. In this digital age, students must learn to use tools essential to everyday life and workplace productivity. They live in a world of almost unlimited streams of profound information, difficult choices and enormous opportunity. Teachers can create a 21st century context for learning by taking students out into the world, by bringing the world into the classroom, and by creating opportunities for students to collaboratively interact with each other (Learning for the, n.d.. One way of accomplishing this task is by employing the use of the Internet to connect Web 2.0 technology and 21st century skills. These skills are essential due to increased global competition, rising workforce capabilities, and accelerated technological change (Learning for the, n.d..

  10. An Analysis of Accounting Brazilian Studies Published in the 21st Century

    Ewerton Alex Avelar; Terence Machado Boina; Lívia Maria de Pádua Ribeiro; Thiago de Sousa Santos

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a research that analyzed features of studies published on the main Brazilian journals of Accounting in the 21st Century. The data were collected from 2,334 papers published in the 17 main Brazilian journals in according to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). Primarily, those papers had examined using the content analysis and organized in predefined categories. After that, the data were analyzed using the following techniques: c...

  11. The Competitiveness of China in the 21st Century: Analysing China's Human Capital

    Dvořáková, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis aims to discourse how China´s competitiveness has developed in the 21st century, with a special focus on human capital as one of the key factors of production that greatly fosters competitive advantage. The first chapter builds up a theoretical framework for the research part of the thesis. It reviews the concepts of competitiveness, Michael Porter´s diamond, and the theory of human capital. The second chapter examines trends and challenges of China´s competitive advantage ...

  12. Strategic Importance of Energy Sources of Middle East Region for the 21st Century World Economy

    Altay, Hüseyin; Nugay, Ulaş

    2013-01-01

    The importance of energy sources which started to become the most strategic input for the countries in the 20th century gradually increases. De-spite of the increase of demand and dependence to the energy at this ratio, energy resources speedily decrease. This situation caused that all the atten-tions focused on energy regions. Middle East is one of the most important of these regions. Within this framework, this study aims to explain the impor-tance of Middle East energy sources of 21st cent...

  13. 21st century climate change in the European Alps—A review

    Gobiet, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.gobiet@uni-graz.at [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Kotlarski, Sven, E-mail: sven.kotlarski@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Beniston, Martin, E-mail: martin.beniston@unige.ch [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland); Heinrich, Georg, E-mail: g.heinrich@uni-graz.at [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Rajczak, Jan, E-mail: jan.rajczak@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Stoffel, Markus, E-mail: markus.stoffel@unige.ch [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Reliable estimates of future climate change in the Alps are relevant for large parts of the European society. At the same time, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in the climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. In particular, it explicitly considers the reliability and uncertainty of climate projections. Results show that besides Alpine temperatures, also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be affected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity, and more intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500–2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic parameters and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. - Highlights: • Warming is expected to accelerate throughout the 21st century in the Alpine region. • Seasonal shifts in precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity are expected. • Precipitation and temperature extremes are expected to intensify. • Snow cover

  14. 21st century climate change in the European Alps—A review

    Reliable estimates of future climate change in the Alps are relevant for large parts of the European society. At the same time, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in the climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. In particular, it explicitly considers the reliability and uncertainty of climate projections. Results show that besides Alpine temperatures, also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be affected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity, and more intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500–2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic parameters and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. - Highlights: • Warming is expected to accelerate throughout the 21st century in the Alpine region. • Seasonal shifts in precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity are expected. • Precipitation and temperature extremes are expected to intensify. • Snow cover

  15. Energy strategy of the 21st century taking advantage of fusion

    There is some general concern that economic development in developing countries will hasten global warning. In terms of reducing CO2 emissions, fusion will have great potential as a primary energy in the late 21st century according to the results of WING model simulations based on scenario analysis, if the cost of fusion with hydrogen generation would become competitive compared with those of other substitutive energies. However, securing social acceptance is very important to maintain the fossil research funded by the government suffering from cumulative debt. (author)

  16. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: Therapeutic Challenges in the 21st Century.

    Miller, William R; Murray, Barbara E; Rice, Louis B; Arias, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are serious health threats due in part to their ability to persist in rugged environments and their propensity to acquire antibiotic resistance determinants. Enterococci have now established a home in our hospitals and possess mechanisms to defeat most currently available antimicrobials. This article reviews the history of the struggle with this pathogen, what is known about the traits associated with its rise in the modern medical environment, and the current understanding of therapeutic approaches in severe infections caused by these microorganisms. As the 21st century progresses, vancomycin-resistant enterococci continue to pose a daunting clinical challenge. PMID:27208766

  17. Ultra-slow muon generation by laser resonant ionization towards the 21st century

    At KEK-MSL we have been pursuing the Ultra-Slow Muon Project, in which thermal muonium atoms (designated as Mu; consisting of a μ+ and an e-) are generated from the surface of a hot tungsten foil, placed at the primary 500 MeV proton beam line, and ionized by intense lasers synchronized with the emission of Mu. In the 21st century, it will be extended to the intense slow-muon facility of M-arena at the JOINT PROJECT of KEK and JAERI, where 3 GeV, 333 μA of proton beam is available, for the surface science, atomic physics, etc. (author)

  18. A Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st Century

    To date, lunar laser ranging to the Apollo retroreflector arrays, which are still operational after four decades, has produced some of the best tests of General Relativity. Since the ground Observatories have improved their accuracy by a factor of 200, the lunar hardware, due to the lunar librations, now limits the ranging accuracy. The Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st Century program plans to deploy new packages that will improve the ranging accuracy by a factor of ten to one hundred in the next few years

  19. Urban Mobility in the 21st Century : Defining the Problems of Car-usage

    Knutsson, Thomas Brindefalk

    2010-01-01

    This master thesis ”Urban Mobility in the 21st Century” gives an insight into the challenges that come with car usage in today’s society. Even though decision makers are trying to encourage people to use other means of transport, the car is still the predominant choice of transport for many people. With this thesis I have tried to answer the question of why people generally prefer to commute and travel by car instead of using public commuting systems. The answers to this question are many. Di...

  20. Indoor air quality in the 21st century: search for excellence

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    elements behind a new philosophy of excellence: 1) better indoor air quality increases productivity and decreases SBS symptoms; 2) unnecessary indoor pollution sources should be avoided; 3) the air should be served cool and dry to the occupants; 4) "personalized air", i.e. a small amount of clean air...... rather low, allowing a substantial group of people to become dissatisfied and to be adversely affected. A paradigm shift from rather mediocre to excellent indoor environments is foreseen in the 21st century. Based on existing information and on new research results, five principles are suggested as...

  1. The globalization and environmental sustainability of LNG: Is LNG a fuel for the 21st century?

    Sakmar, Susan

    2010-09-15

    As the world enters the 21st Century, policy makers around the world are grappling with issues related to energy security, energy poverty, global climate change, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while meeting an expected increase in demand for all energy sources. As a clean burning fuel, many policy leaders have suggested that LNG can play an important role as the world struggles to develop a more environmental sustainable energy future. Others claim that the safety and environmental impact of LNG, including life-cycle emissions, may nullify any clean burning benefit LNG might otherwise provide.

  2. What is the role of Europe in the 21st century?

    Busek, Erhard

    2013-01-01

    Unquestionably, the 20th century was a “European century”, but there are doubts whether the 21st century is a European one or not! This depends on Europe itself and the capacity to formulate its role. Obviously, we are in a new stage of Europe. History knows Europe in different stages. It makes no sense to define all periods, but for the influence of the past you may mention some of these on contemporary Europe: - We had the Europe of aristocracy partly until World War I, wh...

  3. [Madagascar: public health situation on the "Big Island" at the beginning of the 21st century].

    Andrianarisoa, A C E; Rakotoson, J; Randretsa, M; Rakotondravelo, S; Rakotoarimanana, R D; Rakotomizao, J; Aubry, P

    2007-02-01

    The main public health issue in Madagascar at the beginning of the 21st century still involves transmissible infectious diseases including re-emerging diseases such as bubonic plague and emerging diseases such as HIV/AIDS, dengue fever and Chikungunya virus infection. Health and hygiene especially access to clean water is still poor especially in rural areas. No improvement in the public health situation with regard to malaria, schistomosomiais or cysticercosis as well as non-infectious diseases such as protein-energy malnutrition is expected within the next decade. PMID:17506269

  4. Is the Partner the Don Quixote of the 21st Century Corporate World?

    Bévort, Frans; Poulfelt, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    for change. This raises the question of whether the Partner ownership and management model is a relic of the past - and the partner a Don Quixote-figure of the 21st century corporate world? Based on an ethnographic study of a PSF in Denmark, and data from other sources, the paper analyzes the changing...... the future of the partner role in complex organizations. Finally, the paper proposes that professional partnership needs to find a ' new balance' between the traditional professional logic of the partners and the still more influential logic of bureaucracy of the modern complex organization to...

  5. Individuals, knowledge and governance in the 21st-century society

    Andrea Cerroni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge society is a new social species that, despite many uncertainties and some (old and new ambiguities, is emerging on the horizon of the 21st century. Placed at the convergence of two long-term processes (society of individuals and knowledge society, it is characterised by the social-economic process of knowledge circulation, which can be divided into four fundamental phases (generation, institutionalisation, spreading and socialisation. The current situation also sees the traditional (modern structure of knowledge being outdated by the convergence of nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, information technologies and neuro-cognitive technologies (NBIC. In the background, the need arises to cross the cultural frontier of modernity.

  6. 21st century climate change threatens mountain flora unequally across Europe

    Engler, R.; Randin, C. F.; Thuiller, W.;

    2011-01-01

    microclimatic variation could allow species to persist locally, and are ill-suited for assessment of species-specific threat in particular regions. Here, we assess the impacts of climate change on 2632 plant species across all major European mountain ranges, using high-resolution (ca. 100 m) species samples......Continental-scale assessments of 21st century global impacts of climate change on biodiversity have forecasted range contractions for many species. These coarse resolution studies are, however, of limited relevance for projecting risks to biodiversity in mountain systems, where pronounced...... that change in precipitation, not only warming, plays an important role in determining the potential impacts of climate change on vegetation....

  7. How can mental health nurses effectively challenge stigma in the 21st century?

    Bates, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The following dissertation is a critical review of the issues and questions surrounding the ways in which mental health nurses can best address stigma in the 21st century. The work of several key theorists of stigma including Goffman and Link and Phelan are examined and critiqued to provide a clear definition of stigma upon which to base the discussion. The understanding of stigma is used to specifically address the question of how stigma is manifest in wider society and the effect that this ...

  8. Acute pancreatitis at the beginning of the 21st century: The state of the art

    Alfredo F Tonsi; Matilde Bacchion; Stefano Crippa; Giuseppe Malleo; Claudio Bassi

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas which can lead to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality in 20% of patients. Gallstones and alcohol consumption are the most frequent causes of pancreatitis in adults. The treatment of mild acute pancreatitis is conservative and supportive; however severe episodes characterized by necrosis of the pancreatic tissue may require surgical intervention. Advanced understanding of the pathology, and increased interest in assessment of disease severity are the cornerstones of future management strategies of this complex and heterogeneous disease in the 21st century.

  9. The nursing organization and the transformation of health care delivery for the 21st century.

    Gilmartin, M J

    1998-01-01

    Market transformations occurring within the health care industry require new patterns of organization and management to meet the increasing complexity of service delivery. A greater understanding of the innovation and entrepreneurial dynamic allows administrators, managers, and leaders to create a new vision of service delivery. Central management and leadership objectives include the development of service technologies that capitalize upon the inherent knowledge of workers to meet consumer needs. A strong sense of innovation and entrepreneurship leading to the introduction of new or improved nursing technologies is a primary component in the evolution of professional nursing practice for the 21st century. PMID:9505707

  10. Challenges of Epidemiologists of Developing Countries in the 21st Century

    Mohsen Rezaeian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many published articles which cover current and future challenges of epidemiology. However, up until now, most of them are written by developed world epidemiologists. Therefore, despite a common use of assumptions, they did not have the opportunity to discuss the different range of practical tasks and priorities away from developed countries. The topics covered are; facing poverty, non-democratic government that has links to developed countries, man-made and natural disasters, handling low-quality data and accessing it, and finally improving contribution to the world epidemiological knowledge for the 21st century.

  11. Challenges of Epidemiologists of Developing Countries in the 21st Century.

    Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    There are many published articles which cover current and future challenges of epidemiology. However, up until now, most of them are written by developed world epidemiologists. Therefore, despite a common use of assumptions, they did not have the opportunity to discuss the different range of practical tasks and priorities away from developed countries. The topics covered are; facing poverty, non-democratic government that has links to developed countries, man-made and natural disasters, handling low-quality data and accessing it, and finally improving contribution to the world epidemiological knowledge for the 21st century. PMID:26853284

  12. Data of the 21st nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China

    The news of Kyodo-Reuter said that on 17 November 1976 the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), U.S.A., announced for the 21st nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China. The radioactivity surveillance was carried out for the period from 18 November 1976 to 25 November 1976. From the results of the surveillance, a few effects of this nuclear explosion test were detected in the radioactivity measurement of rain, dry fallout, and air-borne dust. (author)

  13. Scientific Workflow Systems for 21st Century e-Science, New Bottle or New Wine?

    Zhao, Yong; Foster, Ian

    2008-01-01

    With the advances in e-Sciences and the growing complexity of scientific analyses, more and more scientists and researchers are relying on workflow systems for process coordination, derivation automation, provenance tracking, and bookkeeping. While workflow systems have been in use for decades, it is unclear whether scientific workflows can or even should build on existing workflow technologies, or they require fundamentally new approaches. In this paper, we analyze the status and challenges of scientific workflows, investigate both existing technologies and emerging languages, platforms and systems, and identify the key challenges that must be addressed by workflow systems for e-science in the 21st century.

  14. The influence of environment and energy macro surroundings on the development of tourism in the 21st century.

    Jovicić, Dobrica

    2012-06-01

    Trying to anticipate the future of tourism may be a particularly fraught task. However, this does not mean that trying to predict the future of tourism is not without value. From a business perspective, examining the future enables firms to anticipate new business conditions and develop new strategies. From a destination perspective, reflections on the future enable consideration of how to maintain or improve the qualities of a destination. The paper is focused on an analysis of the impacts of the energy and ecological macro environments on tourism trends in 21st century. Mass international tourism has thrived on the abundant and cheap supply of energy, and this may be about to change as the world moves towards 'Peak Oil'. The resultant scarcity and high price of all energy fuels will produce changes in human activities, specifically in tourism. The basis of the health of the economy is the health of the environment. Therefore issues of global environmental changes are increasingly influencing consideration of trends in tourism. In this looming transitional era tourism needs to make some dramatic changes to harmonize with the new realities of a post-energy world affected additionaly by global warming and other environmental changes. PMID:22856267

  15. Excellence in Radiation Research for the 21st Century (EIRR21): Description of an Innovative Research Training Program

    Purpose: To describe and assess an interdisciplinary research training program for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and clinical fellows focused on radiation medicine; funded by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research since 2003, the program entitled “Excellence in Radiation Research for the 21st Century” (EIRR21) aims to train the next generation of interdisciplinary radiation medicine researchers. Methods and Materials: Online surveys evaluating EIRR21 were sent to trainees (n=56), mentors (n=36), and seminar speakers (n=72). Face-to-face interviews were also conducted for trainee liaisons (n=4) and participants in the international exchange program (n=2). Results: Overall response rates ranged from 53% (mentors) to 91% (trainees). EIRR21 was well received by trainees, with the acquisition of several important skills related to their research endeavors. An innovative seminar series, entitled Brainstorm sessions, imparting “extracurricular” knowledge in intellectual property protection, commercialization strategies, and effective communication, was considered to be the most valuable component of the program. Networking with researchers in other disciplines was also facilitated owing to program participation. Conclusions: EIRR21 is an innovative training program that positively impacts the biomedical community and imparts valuable skill sets to foster success for the future generation of radiation medicine researchers.

  16. Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century

    Jakšić Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

  17. Developing Global Leaders for Research, Regulation, and Stewardship of Crop Protection Chemistry in the 21st Century.

    Unsworth, John B; Corsi, Camilla; Van Emon, Jeanette M; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Hamilton, Denis J; Howard, Cody J; Hunter, Robert; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Kleter, Gijs A; Kookana, Rai S; Lalah, Joseph O; Leggett, Michael; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Peranginangin, Natalia; Rubin, Baruch; Saha, Bipul; Shakil, Najam A

    2016-01-13

    To provide sufficient food and fiber to the increasing global population, the technologies associated with crop protection are growing ever more sophisticated but, at the same time, societal expectations for the safe use of crop protection chemistry tools are also increasing. The goal of this perspective is to highlight the key issues that face future leaders in crop protection, based on presentations made during a symposium titled "Developing Global Leaders for Research, Regulation and Stewardship of Crop Protection Chemistry in the 21st Century", held in conjunction with the IUPAC 13th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry in San Francisco, CA, USA, during August 2014. The presentations highlighted the fact that leaders in crop protection must have a good basic scientific training and understand new and evolving technologies, are aware of the needs of both developed and developing countries, and have good communication skills. Concern is expressed over the apparent lack of resources to meet these needs, and ideas are put forward to remedy these deficiencies. PMID:25855233

  18. Stratospheric Temperature Changes and Ozone Recovery in the 21st Century

    HU Yongyun; XIA Yan; GAO Mei; LU Daren

    2009-01-01

    Increasing greenhouse gases and likely ozone recovery will be the two most important factors influencing changes in stratospheric temperatures in the 21st century. The radiative effect of increasing greenhouse gases will cause cooling in the stratosphere, while ozone recovery will lead to stratospheric warming. To investigate how stratospheric temperatures change under the two opposite forcings in the 21st century, we use observed ozone and reanalysis data as well as simulation results from four coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulation models (GISS-ER, GFDL-CM20, NCAR-CCSM3, and UKMO-HadCM3) used in the IPCC (Intergovernment Panel for Climate Change) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Observational analysis shows that total column ozone and lower stratospheric temperatures all show increasing in the past 10 years, while middle stratospheric temperatures demonstrate cooling. IPCC AR4 simulations show that greenhouse forcing alone will lead to stratospheric cooling. However, with forcing of both increasing greenhouse gases and ozone recovery, the middle stratosphere will be cooled, while the lower stratosphere will be warmed. Warming magnitudes vary from one model to another. UKMO-HadCM3 generates relatively strong warming for all three greenhouse scenarios, and warming extends to 40 hPa. GFDL-CM20 and NCAR-CCSM3 produce weak warming, and warming mainly exists at lower levels, below about 60 hPa. In addition, we also discuss the effect of temperature changes on ozone recovery.

  19. Robust assessment of the expansion and retreat of Mediterranean climate in the 21st century

    Alessandri, Andrea; de Felice, Matteo; Zeng, Ning; Mariotti, Annarita; Pan, Yutong; Cherchi, Annalisa; Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Ruti, Paolo; Artale, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    The warm-temperate regions of the globe characterized by dry summers and wet winters (Mediterranean climate; MED) are especially vulnerable to climate change. The potential impact on water resources, ecosystems and human livelihood requires a detailed picture of the future changes in this unique climate zone. Here we apply a probabilistic approach to quantitatively address how and why the geographic distribution of MED will change based on the latest-available climate projections for the 21st century. Our analysis provides, for the first time, a robust assessment of significant northward and eastward future expansions of MED over both the Euro-Mediterranean and western North America. Concurrently, we show a significant 21st century replacement of the equatorward MED margins by the arid climate type. Moreover, future winters will become wetter and summers drier in both the old and newly established MED zones. Should these projections be realized, living conditions in some of the most densely populated regions in the world will be seriously jeopardized.

  20. Can renewable and unconventional energy sources bridge the global energy gap in the 21st century?

    Energy experts project that global oil supplies will only meet demand until global oil production has peaked sometime between 2013 and 2020. Declining oil production after peak production will cause a global energy gap to develop, which will have to be bridged by unconventional and renewable energy sources. Nuclear, solar and hydrogen are destined to become major energy sources during the 21st century, but only if their enabling technologies improve significantly to ensure affordability and convenience of use. This paper will argue that global oil production will probably peak between 2004 and 2005, causing a serious energy gap to develop sometime between 2008 and 2010 rather than 2013-2020 as the energy experts projected. It will also argue that a transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is inevitable. The paper will conclude, however, that fossil fuels with a growing contribution from nuclear energy, will still be supplying the major part of the global energy needs for most, perhaps all, of the 21st century. (author)

  1. Prospects of Nuclear Energy in Korea in the 21st Century

    This paper tries to project the prospects of the role of nuclear energy in Korea in the 21st century. The current status of energy situations and the future prospect of nuclear energy is reviewed, and the potential of its better production and more extensive utilization is investigated. The current government policy as well as the role of nuclear industries is reviewed and a systematic approach is suggested to materialize this anticipation. Through an evaluation of the current status of domestic and foreign technologies, the general outlook of advanced nuclear energy concepts is the future is presented by identifying underdeveloped areas and suggesting a scheme of technology development. However, the present study, by nature is limited to present a general vision of the role of nuclear energy in 2000's, which should be followed by a series of detailed studies in each respective field for implementation. As Korea opens new era of mature nuclear technology, the anticipation of effective, economic, and wide production and utilization of nuclear energy in the 21st century is expected

  2. Why Does the Stratosphere Get Moister During the 21st Century?

    Dessler, A.E.; Schoberl, M. R.; Ye, H.; Wang, T.; Oman, L.; Douglass, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    All chemistry-climate models predict that 1) the TTL warms during the 21st century and 2) that the humidity of air entering the stratosphere increases over this same period. It seems reasonable to conclude that the former causes the latter, but to our knowledge no one has actually tested that. We do so here by analyzing one chemistry-climate model in detail (the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model, GEOSCCM) and find that the warming of the TTL explains only a fraction of the increase in humidity of air entering the stratosphere. We do this by using meteorological fields from the model to drive a trajectory model, which estimates the water vapor variations in response to the large-scale temperature field. Water vapor simulated by the trajectory model increases by about one quarter of the amount it increases in the GEOSCCM. We conclude that, over the 21st century, an increase in the flux of ice through the TTL is responsible for most of the increase in the humidity of air entering the stratosphere in this model.

  3. A Future State for NASA Laboratories - Working in the 21st Century

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Harris, Charles E.; Antcliff, Richard R.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Dwoyer, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The name "21 st Century Laboratory" is an emerging concept of how NASA (and the world) will conduct research in the very near future. Our approach is to carefully plan for significant technological changes in products, organization, and society. The NASA mission can be the beneficiary of these changes, provided the Agency prepares for the role of 21st Century laboratories in research and technology development and its deployment in this new age. It has been clear for some time now that the technology revolutions, technology "mega-trends" that we are in the midst of now, all have a common element centered around advanced computational modeling of small scale physics. Whether it is nano technology, bio technology or advanced computational technology, all of these megatrends are converging on science at the very small scale where it is profoundly important to consider the quantum effects at play with physics at that scale. Whether it is the bio-technology creation of "nanites" designed to mimic our immune system or the creation of nanoscale infotechnology devices, allowing an order of magnitude increase in computational capability, all involve quantum physics that serves as the heart of these revolutionary changes.

  4. Water availability change in central Belgium for the late 21st century

    Tabari, Hossein; Taye, Meron Teferi; Willems, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the potential impact of climate change on water availability in central Belgium. Two water balance components being precipitation and potential evapotranspiration are initially projected for the late 21st century (2071-2100) based on 30 Coupled Models Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models relative to a baseline period of 1961-1990, assuming forcing by four representative concentration pathway emission scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5). The future available water is then estimated as the difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration projections. The number of wet days and mean monthly precipitation for summer season is projected to decrease in most of the scenarios, while the projections show an increase in those variables for the winter months. Potential evapotranspiration is expected to increase during both winter and summer seasons. The results show a decrease in water availability for summer and an increase for winter, suggesting drier summers and wetter winters for the late 21st century in central Belgium.

  5. Projected Risk of Flooding Disaster over China in 21st Century Based on CMIP5 Models

    Li, Rouke; Xu, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Based on the simulations from CMIP5 models, using climate indices which have high correlation with historical disaster data, and in combination with terrain elevation data and the socio-economic data, to project the flooding disaster risk, the vulnerability of flooding hazard affected body and the risk of flooding hazard respectively during the near term(2015-2039), medium term(2045-2069) and long term(2075-2099) under RCP8.5. According to the IPCC AR5 WGII, we used risk evaluation model of disaster: R=E*H*V. R on behalf of disaster risk index. H, E and V express risk, exposure and vulnerability respectively. The results show that the extreme flooding disaster risk will gradually increase during different terms in the future, and regions with high risk level of flooding hazard are might mainly located in southeastern and eastern China. Under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emissions scenario, the high risk of flooding disaster in future might mainly appear in eastern part of Sichuan, most of North China, and major of East China. Compared with the baseline period,21st century forward, although the occurrence of floods area changes little, the regional strong risk will increase during the end of the 21st century. Due to the coarse resolution of climate models and the methodology for determining weight coefficients, large uncertainty still exists in the projection of the flooding disaster risk.

  6. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century.

    Emanuel, Kerry A

    2013-07-23

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(10(4))] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950-2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones. PMID:23836646

  7. Towards livestock disease diagnosis and control in the 21st century. Proceedings of an international symposium

    Livestock diseases remain a key constraint to livestock production in developing countries. Diseases like rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, brucellosis, trypanosomosis, tick borne diseases such as anaplasmosis, heartwater and East Coast fever, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and Newcastle disease have caused great economic losses in various parts of the world. The control, and ultimate eradication where possible, of these and other diseases is important for the economies of many nations. It is for this reason that both the IAEA and the FAO have put great emphasis on the control and eradication of livestock diseases. The success of any disease control or eradication programme relies heavily on the robustness and efficacy of tile diagnosis, surveillance or seromonitoring method or methods being used. Nuclear based and related techniques such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have played and continue to play a vital role in this regard. The aim of this symposium is to review existing and emerging techniques used in disease diagnosis and control and to carefully put them in context for use in developing countries in the future

  8. Proceedings of the 21st International Towing Tank Conference, ITTC'96

    Kijima, K.; Renilson, M.; Aage, Christian;

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation of state-of-the-art within ship manoeuvrability research, prediction of forces, simulation of dynamics, non-conventional craft, validation, scale effects, full-scale trials, ship operation and safety, model testing methods....

  9. The delicate balance: Gazprom and Russia's competing and complementary roles in 21st century international relations

    Francis, David

    Since the fall of the Soviet Union, many have accused Russia of using its energy monopoly Gazprom as a foreign policy tool in Europe. Those who believe this point to three gas disputes between Russia and Ukraine, which they see as punishment for Ukraine's democratic reforms. However, this argument fails to consider Gazprom's actions in terms of its goals of a corporation. This paper shows, through qualitative research and interviews, that Gazprom has goals independent of Russian foreign policy objectives, and that the company has embraced corporate values at a time when Russia is moving away from western liberal ideals.

  10. Predicting the future distribution of Polar Bear Habitat in the polar basin from resource selection functions applied to 21st century general circulation model projections of sea ice

    Durner, George M.; Douglas, David C.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2007-01-01

    Predictions of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) habitat distribution in the Arctic polar basin during the 21st century were developed to help understand the likely consequences of anticipated sea ice reductions on polar bear populations. We used location data from satellite-collared polar bears and environmental data (e.g., bathymetry, coastlines, and sea ice) collected between 1985–1995 to build habitat use models called Resource Selection Functions (RSF). The RSFs described habitats polar bears preferred in each of four seasons: summer (ice minimum), autumn (growth), winter (ice maximum) and spring (melt). When applied to the model source data and to independent data (1996–2006), the RSFs consistently identified habitats most frequently used by polar bears. We applied the RSFs to monthly maps of 21st century sea ice concentration predicted by 10 general circulation models (GCM) described in the International Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. The 10 GCMs we used had high concordance between their simulations of 20th century summer sea ice extent and the actual ice extent derived from passive microwave satellite observations. Predictions of the amount and rate of change in polar bear habitat varied among GCMs, but all GCMs predicted net habitat losses in the polar basin during the 21st century. Projected losses in the highest-valued RSF habitat (optimal habitat) were greatest in the peripheral seas of the polar basin, especially the Chukchi Sea and Barents Sea. Losses were least in high-latitude regions where RSFs predicted an initial increase in optimal habitat followed by a modest decline. The largest seasonal reductions in habitat were predicted for spring and summer. Average area of optimal polar bear habitat during summer in the polar basin declined from an observed 1.0 million km2 in 1985–1995 (baseline) to a projected multi-model average of 0.58 million km2 in 2045–2054 (-42% change), 0.36 million km2 in 2070–2079 (-64% change), and 0

  11. Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, T.L.; Stirling, I.; Mauritzen, M.; Born, E.W.; Wiig, O.; Deweaver, E.; Serreze, M.C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Holland, M.M.; Maslanik, J.; Aars, J.; Bailey, D.A.; Derocher, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Projections of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sea ice habitat distribution in the polar basin during the 21st century were developed to understand the consequences of anticipated sea ice reductions on polar bear populations. We used location data from satellitecollared polar bears and environmental data (e.g., bathymetry, distance to coastlines, and sea ice) collected from 1985 to 1995 to build resource selection functions (RSFs). RSFs described habitats that polar bears preferred in summer, autumn, winter, and spring. When applied to independent data from 1996 to 2006, the RSFs consistently identified habitats most frequently used by polar bears. We applied the RSFs to monthly maps of 21st-century sea ice concentration projected by 10 general circulation models (GCMs) used in the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, under the A1B greenhouse gas forcing scenario. Despite variation in their projections, all GCMs indicated habitat losses in the polar basin during the 21st century. Losses in the highest-valued RSF habitat (optimal habitat) were greatest in the southern seas of the polar basin, especially the Chukchi and Barents seas, and least along the Arctic Ocean shores of Banks Island to northern Greenland. Mean loss of optimal polar bear habitat was greatest during summer; from an observed 1.0 million km2 in 1985-1995 (baseline) to a projected multi-model mean of 0.32 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-68% change). Projected winter losses of polar bear habitat were less: from 1.7 million km2 in 1985-1995 to 1.4 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-17% change). Habitat losses based on GCM multi-model means may be conservative; simulated rates of habitat loss during 1985-2006 from many GCMs were less than the actual observed rates of loss. Although a reduction in the total amount of optimal habitat will likely reduce polar bear populations, exact relationships between habitat losses and population demographics remain unknown. Density and energetic

  12. 21-st century precipitation estimation in the Danube middle and lower basin by EVT modelling

    Mares, C.; Mares, I.; Mihailescu, M.; Stanciu, A.

    2010-09-01

    The simulated precipitation for the 20-th and 21-st centuries at 10 stations from the Danube middle and lower basin are analysed together with the daily pressure values at sea level from March, April, May for 42 years obtained from the four GCMs (CNRM, ECHAM5-MPI, EGMAM and IPSL). For the 20-th century the period 1958-1999 was considered and for the 21-st century 2 periods of 42 years were selected: 2009-2050 and 2051-2092 from the A1B scenario. In the pressure field, the predictors from three key zones were selected as being significant for the precipitation behavior from the Danube middle and lower basin. A nonhomogeneus hidden Markov model (NHMM) with 7 states was applied for the precipitation from 10 stations, for observations and also for each of the considered scenarios, with 3 predictors defined in the key points. The precipitation values were corrected by bias and the predictors were the same for all models, calculated from pressure values corrected by bias. After the modelling of the daily precipitation through a NHMM, a simulation was done on 100 achievements each one with 42 years and 90 days each year. In this way, the daily maximum precipitation amounts during spring from 4200 years were selected. This simulation was necessary in order to increase the statistical selection volume necessary within the modelling through distribution of the extreme values. From these precipitation simulated with NHMM for 4200 years, the maximum daily amounts during spring were selected and then modelled with a generalized distribution of the extreme values (GEV). For the modelling by generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) the daily precipitation values which exceed a certain threshold were selected. After testing several thresholds values, it was concluded that the most adequate is the 50 mm threshold for each of the 10 considered stations. Also it was made an average of the precipitation on the 10 considered stations and from the analysis of the different thresholds it

  13. Exploring consensus in 21st century projections of climatically suitable areas for African vertebrates

    Garcia, Raquel A.; Burgess, Neil David; Cabeza, Mar;

    2012-01-01

    Africa is predicted to be highly vulnerable to 21st century climatic changes. Assessing the impacts of these changes on Africa's biodiversity is, however, plagued by uncertainties, and markedly different results can be obtained from alternative bioclimatic envelope models or future climate...... projections. Using an ensemble forecasting framework, we examine projections of future shifts in climatic suitability, and their methodological uncertainties, for over 2500 species of mammals, birds, amphibians and snakes in sub-Saharan Africa. To summarize a priori the variability in the ensemble of 17...... exposure of sub-Saharan African vertebrates to climatic changes. The future use and further development of bioclimatic envelope modelling will hinge on the interpretation of results in the light of methodological as well as biological uncertainties. Here, we provide a framework to address methodological...

  14. Bilateral adrenalectomy in the 21st century: when to use it for hypercortisolism?

    Guerin, Carole; Taieb, David; Treglia, Giorgio; Brue, Thierry; Lacroix, André; Sebag, Frederic; Castinetti, Frederic

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic options available for the treatment of Cushing's syndrome (CS) have expanded over the last 5 years. For instance, the efficient management of severe hypercortisolism using a combination of fast-acting steroidogenesis inhibitors has been reported. Recent publications on the long-term efficacy of drugs or radiation techniques have also demonstrated low toxicity. These data should encourage endocrinologists to reconsider the place of bilateral adrenalectomy in patients with ACTH-dependent aetiologies of CS; similarly, the indication of bilateral adrenalectomy is reassessed in primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. The objective of this review is to compare the efficacy and side effects of the various therapeutic options of hypercortisolism with those of bilateral adrenalectomy, in order to better define its indications in the 21st century. PMID:26739832

  15. Sustainable development of Serbia at the beginning of the 21st century

    Filipović Milorad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the development process in Serbia in the first decade of the 21st century. At the beginning we clearly defined the difference between simple growth of national economy and its development. It is obvious that the growth of revenue in the period 2001-2008 could not be marked as development compared by all of the major macroeconomic indicators. Also there is no doubt that similar (or same growth pattern as in the analyzed period could not be a development model in the future. Because of that, we proposed at the end of the paper new elements of Serbian development - based on KBE (knowledge based economy in the industry sector energy and all other types of efficiency measures and enhancing of personnel capabilities and training of employees as comparative advantages of Serbian Economy.

  16. Social development of 21st century and reform of China's elementary education

    Ye Lan

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese society of the 21st century is at a critical period of transformation.The emergence of globalization and informationalization are the most striking changes of the current Chinese society.The profound change in the social transformation and its penetrating influence on people's lives has revealed the disadvantages of the present education.For 10 years,the"New Elementary Education",based on the background of Chinese society,and the demand for school education reform clearly puts forward the necessity of education reform in the period of social transformation,in other words,education should achieve its transformational development.This paper presents a deep research of globalization and informationalization,which are the background of Chinese social transformation.On this basis,the paper examines the implication of"school transformational reform"of the present-day Chinese elementary education,and finally proposes some steps for achieving"school transformational reform".

  17. Advanced Capabilities for Wind Tunnel Testing in the 21st Century

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind tunnel testing methods and test technologies for the 21st century using advanced capabilities are presented. These capabilities are necessary to capture more accurate and high quality test results by eliminating the uncertainties in testing and to facilitate verification of computational tools for design. This paper discusses near term developments underway in ground testing capabilities, which will enhance the quality of information of both the test article and airstream flow details. Also discussed is a selection of new capability investments that have been made to accommodate such developments. Examples include advanced experimental methods for measuring the test gas itself; using efficient experiment methodologies, including quality assurance strategies within the test; and increasing test result information density by using extensive optical visualization together with computed flow field results. These points could be made for both major investments in existing tunnel capabilities or for entirely new capabilities.

  18. TOXICITY TESTING IN THE 21ST CENTURY: A VISION AND A STRATEGY

    Krewski, D.; Acosta, D.; Andersen, M.;

    2010-01-01

    With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal...... usage by transitioning from current expensive and lengthy in vivo testing with qualitative endpoints to in vitro toxicity pathway assays on human cells or cell lines using robotic high-throughput screening with mechanistic quantitative parameters. Risk assessment in the exposed human population would...... focus on avoiding significant perturbations in these toxicity pathways. Computational systems biology models would be implemented to determine the dose-response models of perturbations of pathway function. Extrapolation of in vitro results to in vivo human blood and tissue concentrations would be based...

  19. XBT effects on the global ocean observation system in the early 21st century

    Chang, You-Soon; Zhang, Shaoqing

    2016-04-01

    During the early 21st century, we have experienced a transition period of global ocean observing system from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) to Argo. There has been decreasing of XBT observations, but significant increasing of Argo profiles in the global ocean. However, evaluation of the XBT observation system during this period has little been presented. Here, this study investigates the XBT effects on the global ocean observing system by using GFDL data assimilation model. After Argo period, the amount of heat content correction by XBT assimilation is significantly weaken especially in the upper ocean, but it remains in the deeper oceans below 700 m depth within a dynamic model system. This study also confirms that although XBT only provides temperature observations mostly in the upper 700 m of the northern hemisphere, it can affects both temperature and salinity fields of data assimilation system especially in the deep and southern oceans.

  20. The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century

    Rašević Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.