WorldWideScience

Sample records for 21st century challenges

  1. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FACING CHALLENGES IN 21ST CENTURY

    2001-01-01

    The 21st Century is the time for human seeking harmonizing with environment and carrying out sustainable development strategy. But sustainable development is facing many challenges. They may mainly include the follows: challenge comes from the contradiction between human and the earth, challenge of local benefit conflict to human common goal, challenge of competition to fairness, challenge of unbalanced development in regions and countries, challenge of diversity and challenge of calamity. Challenges are not only pressure, but also the motive force. Challenge exists, the motive force would never stop. Sustainable development was born in challenges, is developing in contradiction and will sustain in conflict.

  3. Liberating services customers: The 21st century challenge

    Fisk, Raymond p.

    2011-01-01

    Liberating services customers is the business challenge of the 21st century. Many service organizations have organizational structures and processes that are better designed to control customers than to serve customers. Such structures and processes often result in poor services and sometimes they become disservices. Customers deserve to be liberated from such service structures and processes. Customers deserve better service! In this article, I examine four topics regarding liberating ser...

  4. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  5. Higher Education Leadership: Challenge of the 21st Century

    Sutjipto Sutjipto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 21 st century, higher education (HE will play a very crucial role; in spite of its limited resources, HE should be able to respond to the challenges caused by the very fast advancement of technology. For this purpose managers of HE should be professional, those who are prepared to become the managers, so that they reflect wide perspectives, good attitudes, and quality skills in managing the HE in such a competitive era. Higher education leadership is expected to make use of the system and opportunity to improve its performance

  6. Challenges for Educational Technologists in the 21st Century

    Robin Mayes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, Edsger Dijkstra claimed that computers had only introduced the new problem of learning to use them effectively. This is especially true in 2015 with regard to powerful new educational technologies. This article describes the challenges that 21st century educational technologists are, and will be, addressing as they undertake the effective integration of new technologies into K-12 educational systems and learning environments. The expanding Internet, ever more powerful mobile devices, and other innovations make the task of designing effective formal and informal learning challenging, especially in light of the high rate of change in these new technologies. While these technologies introduce many benefits, they are also causing serious threats to system security and personal privacy. Furthermore, as these technologies continue to evolve, ethical issues such as equal access to resources become imperative. Educational technologists must expand their forward-thinking leadership and planning competencies so as to ensure effective use of new technologies.

  7. Parasitic diseases: opportunities and challenges in the 21st century

    Daniel G Colley

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities and challenges for the study and control of parasitic diseases in the 21st century are both exciting and daunting. Based on the contributions from this field over the last part of the 20th century, we should expect new biologic concepts will continue to come from this discipline to enrich the general area of biomedical research. The general nature of such a broad category of infections is difficult to distill, but they often depend on well-orchestrated, complex life cycles and they often involve chronic, relatively well-balanced host/parasite relationships. Such characteristics force biological systems to their limits, and this may be why studies of these diseases have made fundamental contributions to molecular biology, cell biology and immunology. However, if these findings are to continue apace, parasitologists must capitalize on the new findings being generated though genomics, bioinformatics, proteomics, and genetic manipulations of both host and parasite. Furthermore, they must do so based on sound biological insights and the use of hypothesis-driven studies of these complex systems. A major challenge over the next century will be to capitalize on these new findings and translate them into successful, sustainable strategies for control, elimination and eradication of the parasitic diseases that pose major public health threats to the physical and cognitive development and health of so many people worldwide.

  8. Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities

    Bellotti, Francesco; Bottino, Rosa Maria; Nadolski, Rob; Fernández Manjón, Baltasar

    2012-01-01

    Bellotti, F., Bottino, R. M., Nadolski, R. J., & Fernández Manjón, B. (2012, 4-6 July). Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities. Presentation at the Workshop Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities, 12th IE

  9. Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities

    Bellotti, Francesco; Bottino, Rosa Maria; Nadolski, Rob; Fernández Manjón, Baltasar

    2012-01-01

    Bellotti, F., Bottino, R. M., Nadolski, R. J., & Fernández Manjón, B. (2012, 4-6 July). Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities. Presentation at the Workshop Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities, 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2012), Rome, Italy: IEEE Computer Society CPS.

  10. UKRAINE AND POLAND: FACING THE 21ST CENTURY CHALLENGES

    Igor Tsependa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a common strategic framework is a decisive factor in the Ukrainian-Polish relations in the current social and political context. The complexity of the partnership between the two states arise from their geographical location on the borderline between civilizations, the site of historical cataclysms. At the same time, national sovereignty of was always a high priority for both peoples. The recognition of Ukraine’s independence by Poland marked a new stage of rapprochement between Warsaw and Kyiv, the act being evidence of maturity of the Polish political elite. Poland made its best to promote the interest of Ukraine in the international political arena. The article suggests periodization in the history of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Ukrainian policy can be modelled on Poland’s experience of the transformation of society. Being a member of the European Union, Poland advocates the idea of European and Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine. Increased economic cooperation is one of the aspects of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Cooperation at regional level, between local government bodies is also important for the relations between the two states. Step by step, visa regulations are being liberalized, interpersonal contacts broadened. The beginning of the 21st century witnesses a change in political consciousness of Ukrainian and Polish people, who reconsider painful events from their past.

  11. Challenges for chemical sciences in the 21st century

    Čeković Živorad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry and chemical engineering have changed very significantly in the last half century. From classical sciences they have broadened their scope into biology, medicine, physics, material science, nanotechnology, computation and advanced methods of process engineering and control. The applications of chemical compounds, materials and knowledge have also dramatically increased. The development of chemical sciences in the scientifically most advanced countries, at the end of the last century was extrapolated to the next several decades in this review and challenges for chemists and chemical engineers are described. Research, discovery and invention across the entire spectrum of activities in the chemical sciences, from fundamental molecular-level chemistry to large-scale chemical processing technology are summarized. The strong integration of chemical science and engineering into all other natural sciences, agriculture, environmental science, medicine, as well as into physics, material science and information technology is discussed. Some challenges for chemists and chemical engineers are reviewed in the following fields: i synthesis and manufacturing of chemical products, ii chemistry for medicine and biology, iii new materials, iv chemical and physical transformations of materials, v chemistry in the solving of energy problems (generation and savings, vi environmental chemistry: fundamental and practical challenges.

  12. Advances and Challenges for Nutrient Management in China in the 21st Century

    Sims, J.T.; Ma, L.; Oenema, O.; Dou, Z.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via pr

  13. Challenges for chemical sciences in the 21st century

    Čeković Živorad

    2004-01-01

    Chemistry and chemical engineering have changed very significantly in the last half century. From classical sciences they have broadened their scope into biology, medicine, physics, material science, nanotechnology, computation and advanced methods of process engineering and control. The applications of chemical compounds, materials and knowledge have also dramatically increased. The development of chemical sciences in the scientifically most advanced countries, at the end of the last century...

  14. TPACK : challenges for teacher education in the 21st century

    Rocha, Aurora Maria Moreira da; Mota, Pedro Alexandre da Silva; Coutinho, Clara Pereira

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we reflect on the impact of ICT in educational systems, and the importance of preparing Portuguese teachers to the challenges of the learning society. In order to contribute for the definition of a national program for the professional development of teachers in ICT, we present some international programs for the professional development of teachers in ICT discussing results on current implementation. We then present the recently launched Portuguese Plan of ICT Competences for t...

  15. Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century.

    Sofos, John N

    2008-01-01

    The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as "new," "emerging," or "evolving" pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses, or of resistance to antibiotics or food related stresses. Other microbial pathogen related concerns include cross-contamination of other foods and water with enteric pathogens of animal origin, meat animal manure treatment and disposal issues, foodborne illness surveillance and food attribution activities, and potential use of food safety programs at the farm. Other issues and challenges include food additives and chemical residues, animal identification and traceability issues, the safety and quality of organic and natural products, the need for and development of improved and rapid testing and pathogen detection methodologies for laboratory and field use, regulatory and inspection harmonization issues at the national and international level, determination of responsibilities for zoonotic diseases between animal health and regulatory public health agencies, establishment of risk assessment based food safety objectives, and complete and routine implementation of HACCP at the production and processing level on the basis of food handler training and consumer education. Viral pathogens will continue to be of concern at food service, bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Campylobacter will continue affecting the safety of raw meat and poultry, while Listeria monocytogenes will be of concern in ready-to-eat processed products. These challenges become more important due to changes in animal production, product processing and distribution; increased international trade; changing consumer needs and increased preference for minimally processed products; increased

  16. McClintock's challenge in the 21st century

    Fedoroff, Nina V.

    2012-11-13

    In 1950, Barbara McClintock published a Classic PNAS article, "The origin and behavior of mutable loci in maize," which summarized the evidence leading to her discovery of transposition. The article described a number of genome alterations revealed through her studies of the Dissociation locus, the first mobile genetic element she identified. McClintock described the suite of nuclear events, including transposon activation and various chromosome aberrations and rearrangements, that unfolded in the wake of genetic crosses that brought together two broken chromosomes 9. McClintock left future generations with the challenge of understanding how genomes respond to genetic and environmental stresses by mounting adaptive responses that frequently include genome restructuring.

  17. Preparing Stabilisation for 21st Century Security Challenges

    Steven A. Zyck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stabilisation, as a concept and set of practices, has proliferated over the past two decades and is now implicitly integrated into a range of global frameworks. However, this enthusiasm has at times risked turning this increasingly common, albeit contested, idea into a piece of jargon that discounts its unique facets: a focus on all sorts of violence, not just conflict, that create political instability and human harm and a problem-solving approach that draws selectively on various forms of intervention (e.g., statebuilding, counterinsurgency, peacekeeping, etc. without being beholden to any one toolkit. The pragmatism inherent within the concept of stabilisation will grow increasingly important as new security challenges emerge or proliferate. These include the fragmentation and regionalisation of conflict systems, transnational organised crime, large-scale migration and new, disruptive technologies. Novel approaches rooted in big data and technology will increasingly need to be applied. Most importantly, in foreign policy, military and development communities often driven by perceptions about what causes, ends or prevents violence, stabilisation must maintain its agnostic, problem-solving roots and allegiance to evidence over ideology.

  18. Ecotoxicology: The Challenges for the 21st Century

    Marco Vighi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The usual procedures for ecological risk assessment (ERA have been based for decades on simplified approaches in order to provide basic information on the huge amount of chemicals introduced into the environment. These approaches allowed the development of international regulatory tools capable of substantially reducing the adverse effects on ecosystems in developed countries. Nevertheless, these approaches suffer from a lack of ecological realism and are poorly suitable for understanding the actual consequences for ecosystem health. The need for more ecologically-based approaches is now recognized by the scientific community and has been highlighted by a recent document of the European Commission. In this paper, a synthesis is presented of the most important issues and the need for research to improve the ecological realism of exposure and effect assessment and the tools that should be developed to reach this objective. In particular, the major challenges are the following: the effects of variable exposure patterns; the vulnerability of ecosystems; the indirect ecological effects; the responses to multiple stress factors; the improvement of ecological modeling. The possibilities for using new scientific achievements in regulatory ERA are also discussed.

  19. Commercializing research: the leadership challenges for the 21st century

    R and D today is a large industry that consumes vast amounts of public and private funds in most countries. It is becoming increasingly evident that technology transfer and the commercialization of research done at universities and government funded research laboratories must be a key element of their comprehensive strategic plan. It involves using a verified and organized knowledge and research to develop commercially viable products. It requires a visionary leader with effective project management skills to manage and motivate a team of scientists and engineers, otherwise even a top rated researcher will enervate and wither within the walls of research laboratories. This paper will highlight the importance, challenges and techniques of commercializing technology from accelerator research laboratories. It will provide an overview of the requirements of scientific leadership for both commercialization of research and technology, together with some case studies based on the experience at TRIUMF - Canada's national sub-atomic research facility in Vancouver. TRIUMF's experience with both research and commercial developments involving innovative technologies, along with some of the important leadership and management factors that lead to successful projects will be described. (author)

  20. The Challenge of Ethical Liberalism to Jewish Education in the 21st Century

    Alexander, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century" by Jonathan Woocher. The author agrees with Jonathan Woocher that American Jewish education in the 21st century requires change no less comprehensive than that initiated by Samson Benderly and his students around a century ago, and that this should…

  1. CHALLENGES AND CORRESPONDING STRATEGIES FOR CHINAS PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY IN 21st CENTURY

    2001-01-01

    Challenges and corresponding strategies for Chinas petroleum refining industry in 21st century were described in this paper. Entering 21st century, many countries put more concerns on environmental protection and the possibility of continual development. Production of clean fuel with low sulfur, low olefin and low aromatics to reduce toxic material emission, clean production and free-toxic emission and development of environmental friendly products and technologies will be the main themes of worlds refining industry. The challenges faced by Chinas petroleum refining industry are those from inadequate crude sources, from plant scale and its economic benefit, from processing configuration and product structure, from inferior crude and high quality products and from environmental protection and sustaining development, etc. As long as china recognizes the development trend of overall refining technology and carry out long term strategy for technological innovation and progress, its petroleum refining industry will definitely undergo a greater development and become more capable in market competition in the 21st century.

  2. Challenges to learning and schooling in the digital networked world of the 21st century

    Voogt, J.M.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, gi

  3. Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century

    Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

  4. 21st Century Skills Map

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  5. Challenges of Epidemiologists of Developing Countries in the 21st Century

    Mohsen Rezaeian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many published articles which cover current and future challenges of epidemiology. However, up until now, most of them are written by developed world epidemiologists. Therefore, despite a common use of assumptions, they did not have the opportunity to discuss the different range of practical tasks and priorities away from developed countries. The topics covered are; facing poverty, non-democratic government that has links to developed countries, man-made and natural disasters, handling low-quality data and accessing it, and finally improving contribution to the world epidemiological knowledge for the 21st century.

  6. Challenges of Epidemiologists of Developing Countries in the 21st Century.

    Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    There are many published articles which cover current and future challenges of epidemiology. However, up until now, most of them are written by developed world epidemiologists. Therefore, despite a common use of assumptions, they did not have the opportunity to discuss the different range of practical tasks and priorities away from developed countries. The topics covered are; facing poverty, non-democratic government that has links to developed countries, man-made and natural disasters, handling low-quality data and accessing it, and finally improving contribution to the world epidemiological knowledge for the 21st century. PMID:26853284

  7. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: Therapeutic Challenges in the 21st Century.

    Miller, William R; Murray, Barbara E; Rice, Louis B; Arias, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are serious health threats due in part to their ability to persist in rugged environments and their propensity to acquire antibiotic resistance determinants. Enterococci have now established a home in our hospitals and possess mechanisms to defeat most currently available antimicrobials. This article reviews the history of the struggle with this pathogen, what is known about the traits associated with its rise in the modern medical environment, and the current understanding of therapeutic approaches in severe infections caused by these microorganisms. As the 21st century progresses, vancomycin-resistant enterococci continue to pose a daunting clinical challenge. PMID:27208766

  8. Human Resource Management in 21st Century: Issues & Challenges & Possible Solutions to Attain Competitiveness

    Muhammad Hashim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper report on the human resource management in 21st century: issues and challenges and its solutions to attain competitiveness. Technology has changed everything with great extent, the methods of production, the process of recruitment, the training techniques, and new equipment etc. Now it’s up to HR personnel’s to work with their functions as shown below to best manage the workforce. In these pieces of paper we have discussed those foremost issues and challenges which are confronting today Organization. To overcome these issues and challenges the HR mangers will have to build a standard structure that allows managing all different workforce alternatives. This way the organization maintains their competitive advantages. Recommendation and conclusions are given at the last of this paper.

  9. Microtechnology: The key to the technical challenges of the 21st century

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-08-01

    Through the ages each culture and civilization has expressed its values and world view in the form of monuments derived from its most advanced and valued technologies. From pyramids to cathedrals, skyscrapers and moon rockets, our technology has enabled us to leave our mark on the landscape and in the minds of our people. In the 21st century, the compelling technology will be that of the micro-world, enabling the fabrication of structures with features smaller than the wavelengths of light. Such structures will allow use to monitor and control electrical, chemical, and optical phenomena in ways never before imagined. As in the past we will continue to create monuments, but the technological monuments of the 21st century will likely be viewed through a microscope. This report provides a discussion of microtechnology in the 21st century.

  10. Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges

    Giménez, Àlvaro; Niarchos, Panagiotis; Rucinski, Slavek

    2006-01-01

    An International Conference entitled "Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges", was held in Syros island, Greece, from 27 to 30 June, 2005. There are many binary star systems whose components are so close together, that they interact in various ways. Stars in such systems do not pass through all stages of their evolution independently of each other; in fact their evolutionary path is significantly affected by their companions. Processes of interaction include gravitational effects, mutual irradiation, mass exchange, mass loss from the system, phenomena of extended atmospheres, semi-transparent atmospheric clouds, variable thickness disks and gas streams. The zoo of Close Binary Systems includes: Close Eclipsing Binaries (Detached, Semi-detached, Contact), High and Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, RS CVn systems, Pulsar Binaries and Symbiotic Stars. The study of these binaries triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and ev...

  11. Countering 21st Century Threats

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U.S. and......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas of...... shared interests pre-crisis. • Establish political agreements and/or intentions with partners to address potential threats. • Establishing mutual trust through Building Partnership Capacity with capable SOF and intelligence organizations....

  12. Inflammatory bowel disease in the 21(st) century in China: turning challenges into opportunities.

    Ouyang, Qin; Xue, Lin Yun

    2012-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been an international hot spot for research for a long period of time. In China, the prevalence of IBD is rapidly increasing in recent years, mimicking the same fast growing footsteps of the developed world. Chinese literature of the 20(th) century shows that the total number of IBD cases increased by approximately 2.5-fold over the previous decade, in particular a 15.7-fold in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Articles on basic research have increased 4.3-fold, with a particular 9.9-fold increase on immunological mechanisms. The predominantly Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) related clinical trials implied tendency to use a combination of Western Medicine and TCM in the management of Chinese IBD patients. IBD research and collaborations overseas have been markedly promoted since the Chinese Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (COIBD) was founded at the beginning of the 21(st) century. From the second decade of the century onwards, we need to focus on the research hot spots to catch up with the rapid advances worldwide. Big challenges and present achievements provide us with great opportunities for further developments of the study on IBD. The development of some novel target pathogenic factors of the disease will provide us with more effective roll for modern management and optimistic treatment of IBD during this century. PMID:22435503

  13. The global energy context: Chances and challenges for the 21st century

    Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2 billion people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency also in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

  14. The global energy context -- chances and challenges for the 21st century

    Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2000 million people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

  15. School Psychology Training for the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Swerdlik, Mark E.; French, Joseph L.

    2000-01-01

    Training programs will continue to change to meet the needs of consumers of school psychological services in the 21st century. Provides information about the factors influencing the preparation of school psychologists whose roles and functions must change to meet these needs. Emphasis is on the overall context of training and the anticipated…

  16. Sustainable energy development: a challenge for Asia and the Pacific region in the 21st century

    The main challenge to energy policy makers in the 21st century is how to develop and manage adequate, affordable and reliable energy services on a sustainable manner to fuel social and economic development. About 60 per cent of the world's two billion population, who do not have access to modern energy services, live in Asia and the Pacific region. The demand for energy is expected to continue growing at a high rate well into the century, often at a greater rate than economic growth. Latest assessment of conventional energy resources shows that their availability is not going to be an immediate threat to the security of supply but the question is can the region afford to allow current patterns of production and consumption of energy to continue in a rapidly deteriorating health of the environment? Changing these unsustainable patterns is the main challenge for the developed and developing countries alike. The paper dwells upon what are the major issues facing the region in promoting sustainable energy development and what are some of the policy options and possible strategies that the countries could consider to attain the objective of sustainable energy development. In this respect, the paper also dwells upon the need for strategic planning and management of energy resources

  17. Emerging technologies for the detection of rabies virus: challenges and hopes in the 21st century.

    Anthony R Fooks

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of rabies is routinely based on clinical and epidemiological information, especially when exposures are reported in rabies-endemic countries. Diagnostic tests using conventional assays that appear to be negative, even when undertaken late in the disease and despite the clinical diagnosis, have a tendency, at times, to be unreliable. These tests are rarely optimal and entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. In the course of the past three decades, the application of molecular biology has aided in the development of tests that result in a more rapid detection of rabies virus. These tests enable viral strain identification from clinical specimens. Currently, there are a number of molecular tests that can be used to complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis. Indeed the challenges in the 21st century for the development of rabies diagnostics are not of a technical nature; these tests are available now. The challenges in the 21st century for diagnostic test developers are two-fold: firstly, to achieve internationally accepted validation of a test that will then lead to its acceptance by organisations globally. Secondly, the areas of the world where such tests are needed are mainly in developing regions where financial and logistical barriers prevent their implementation. Although developing countries with a poor healthcare infrastructure recognise that molecular-based diagnostic assays will be unaffordable for routine use, the cost/benefit ratio should still be measured. Adoption of rapid and affordable rabies diagnostic tests for use in developing countries highlights the importance of sharing and transferring technology through laboratory twinning between the developed and the developing countries. Importantly for developing countries, the benefit of molecular methods as tools is the capability for a differential diagnosis of human diseases that present with similar clinical symptoms. Antemortem

  18. Problem-based Science Inquiry : : Challenges and Possibilities for Addressing 21st Century Skills

    Nariman, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is a mixed methods exploratory case study on the implementation of problem-based inquiry. The trend of technological changes have created a wave of global change, brought new understanding of learning, and requires a shift in education to develop and accommodate proficiency in 21st century skills and competencies. As a result, in many countries, including the United States, the push to benchmark educational standards is in place to prepare students for success in college and...

  19. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  20. Addressing new challenges for inclusive education in the 21st century

    David Subero; Luis Fernando Brito; Moises Esteban Guitart

    2015-01-01

    Статья «Addressing new challenges for inclusive education in the 21st century» была опубликована в сборнике материалов III Всероссийской научно-практической конференции с международным участием «Проблемы формирования профессионализма специалистов социальной работы»

  1. 21st Century Global Freshwater Security: Can it Exist and Can Scientists Communicate the Challenges?

    Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models and decades of satellite data are converging on the unfortunate reality that Earth's water cycle is changing. Paleoclimate indicators remind us that this has always been the case. Freshwater is constantly being exchanged among the atmosphere, ocean, land and ice reservoirs, while on land, patterns of precipitation, evapotranspiration, flooding and drought are shifting. The evolving water cycle of the 21st century will likely be stronger, more variable, and will result in broad swaths of mid-latitude drying, accelerated by the depletion of the world's major groundwater aquifers. A well-defined geography of freshwater 'haves' and 'have-nots' is clearly emerging. What does water sustainability mean under such dynamic climate and hydrologic conditions, in particular when coupled with future projections of population growth? How will water managers cope with these new normals, and how will food and energy production be impacted? The responsibility of communicating this changing global water landscape falls squarely on the shoulders of the academic-research community, yet the challenge of doing so is daunting. In this Special Lecture I will review what our latest research tells us, and I will share my personal experiences with science communication and water diplomacy.

  2. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  3. How can mental health nurses effectively challenge stigma in the 21st century?

    Bates, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The following dissertation is a critical review of the issues and questions surrounding the ways in which mental health nurses can best address stigma in the 21st century. The work of several key theorists of stigma including Goffman and Link and Phelan are examined and critiqued to provide a clear definition of stigma upon which to base the discussion. The understanding of stigma is used to specifically address the question of how stigma is manifest in wider society and the effect that this ...

  4. Feminist Perceptions and the Challenges for Women’s Education in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in the 21st Century

    Khadijah Bawazeer

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion about women’s education. Conflicting discourses, regarding the positions of women as student learners, create an educational challenge that faces the GCC countries in the 21st century. This study explores the prevalent feminist positions in Jeddah in Saudi Arabia and presents the findings to the public and to decision makers in KSA. The data is generated in two ways: focus group and a questionnaire.  Aside from the information they yie...

  5. EUROPEAN PENSION SYSTEMS - THE REAL CHALLENGE OF THE 21ST CENTURY

    Maria Augusztinovics

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available It will be argued that the present focus of the pension reform debate - public, pay-as-you-go versus private, funded - is misplaced and somewhat outdated. Pay-as-you-go versus funding or pre-funding is a more-or-less technical issue. The public versus private choice should be seen as a cost-benefit, efficiency problem. These two dichotomies represent important, but secondary problems. (They cannot even be expected to help solving the certainly serious - although not that catastrophic as often painted - problems caused by the foreseeable demographic changes, the so-called ageing of the population. The major distinctive attribute of existing European pension schemes is not the mode of financing or management. It is the Bismarckian heritage, the close link to employment, based on the typically 20th century-type, continuous working career. A presently emerging trend, however, is the transformation of the labour market. The so-called "atypical" forms of employment (part-time work, outsourcing, work at home, fixed-length contracts, etc. are spreading and the traditional employer-employee link is weakening, if not - at least partially - disappearing. Activity ratios (poorly represented by the unemployment rate are declining. This trend will probably be accentuated by the deepening of globalization and European integration, the growing importance of migration, including temporary migration (i.e. working in one country for a few years, then in another one, then maybe returning home for retirement. The questions thus arise: how, when, where will people, who are economically "inactive" or wandering around during a large faction of their earning span, acquire pension eligibility, sufficient for income security in old age? Will the present forms of pension insurance (including social security as well as country-based private funds be able to live up to this 21st century-type of challenge? If not, what are the adequate models for the future and what are the

  6. Cooperative learning in 21st century

    Johnson, David W.; JOHNSON, Roger T.

    2014-01-01

    The 21st century brings four important challenges in which cooperation plays a central role: (1) a rapidly increasing global interdependence that will result in increasing local diversity as well as more frequent and intense conflicts, (2) the increasing number of democracies throughout the world, (3) the need for creative entrepreneurs, and (4) the growing importance of interpersonal relationships that affect the development of personal identity. The tools for meeting these challenges includ...

  7. Metropolitan Taxation in the 21st Century

    Brunori, David

    1998-01-01

    As we enter the 21st Century, local governments will face challenges to how they raise revenue. Existing local tax systems are ill equipped to meet future basic revenue needs. Moreover, economic and technological changes will inevitably and profoundly alter tax systems of all governments. The problems with existing tax systems and future economic challenges will likely lead to an environment in which local taxation will be limited to an extent unseen in American history. The limitations will ...

  8. Challenges and Development Opportunities for Catalytic Technologies in Petrochemical Industry in the 21st Century

    CHEN Qing-ling

    2004-01-01

    The propellent drive and development opportunities for future catalytic technologies in petrochemical industry in the 21st century are reviewed in this paper. It focuses on the following five aspects:(1) The environmentally-friendly catalytic technologies, such as new technologies for the production of organic chemicals changing the raw material and synthetic process, the chemicals production replacing phosgene and hydrogen cyanide toxicant, and the conversion and utilization of organic wastes etc.(2) Utilization and development of cheaper light alkanes, for example, the chemical use of natural gas and the development technologies of methane chain, the production of acetic acid, ethylene and vinyl chloride from selective oxidation of ethane, as well as the manufacture of acrolein and acrylonitrile from the oxidation and ammoxidation of propane.(3) The new propylene-plus technologies of the low value higher olefins, such as catalytic cracking of C4,C5 olefins and metathesis of C4 olefin.(4) The technologies of high selective oxidation, e.g. production of propylene oxide with TS-1 molecular sieve, oxidation process by lattice oxygen and direct oxidation of benzene to phenol etc.(5) Development and application of novel catalytic materials, especially, mesopore molecular sieve materials for a larger molecule reaction, zeolite catalyst with MWW structure for alkylation of benzene and propylene, ionic liquid, and membrane reactor catalyst etc.Meanwhile,the challenging research subjects for future industrial catalysis and the several viewpoints for development strategy of new catalytic technologies are proposed. These viewpoints are as follows:(1) Catalysis discipline must be integrated with many other disciplines and should be multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary.(2) New preparation methods of catalytic materials must be originally developed.(3) The instrumentation having better time resolution and spatial resolution and applying under reaction conditions must be

  9. Infectious diseases in the 21st century: old challenges and new opportunities.

    Waldvogel, Francis A

    2004-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the confrontation of two worlds, the microbial world and the world of human physiology. Although these two worlds are as a whole governed by the same laws of nature, they show substantial differences: the microbiological world is 1000 times older, and was initiated by the development of the archaea, the 'living organisms of the extreme': its biomass and its diversity are immense - two to three billion species or 60% of the total biomass of the planet. The number of pathogens that adapted to man, however, is extremely limited - barely 1000. Thus, over billions of years, an evolution of the microbial world took place from 'early life', characterized by chemosynthesis, to the 'modern pathogens', and entailed a dramatic 'concentration' of life conditions and an adaptation towards a narrow range of requirements - those allowing survival in the human body. Within the last two centuries, these two slowly evolving systems, microbial life and human life, were profoundly modified in an unprecedented manner by a third player, human civilization, with its global impact on the environment through physical, chemical, societal, and climatic determinants. An appreciation of the evolution of infectious diseases in the 21st century and of the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies therefore requires a full understanding of these three domains: human physiology, microbiology, and the environment. This review will put major emphasis on the environmental role of civilization on infectious diseases before considering new opportunities to combat them through novel and creative solutions. PMID:14690775

  10. 21st Century Skills Map: Science

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Science.

  11. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  12. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  13. 21st Century Skills Map: Social Studies

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Social Studies.

  14. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  15. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  16. 21st Century Skills Map: English

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of English.

  17. Theoretical Challenges for Distance Education in the 21st Century: A shift from structural to transactional issues

    Randy Garrison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The premise of this article is that theoretical frameworks and models are essential to the long-term credibility and viability of a field of practice. In order to assess the theoretical challenges facing the field of distance education, the significant theoretical contributions to distance education in the last century are briefly reviewed. This review of distance education as a field of study reveals an early preoccupation with organizational and structural constraints. However, the review also reveals that the theoretical development of the field is progressing from organizational to transactional issues and assumptions. The question is whether distance education has the theoretical foundation to take it into the 21st century and whether distance education theory development will keep pace with innovations in technology and practice.

  18. Maintaining competence in radiological protection in emergency situations - a challenge for the 21st century

    Full text: State of the art radiological protection in emergency situations requires specific resources and competence in a variety of scientific and technical areas. These include e.g. nuclear and reactor physics, metrology, health sciences, radiobiology, food production, waste management, and information technology. In many of these areas a high technical standard is currently available. This standard is based on great efforts of governments, universities/research institutions and the nuclear industry during the second half of the 20th century. Although the number of scientists and technicians in these areas may appear to be sufficient today at least in some countries, there are strong indicators that future expertise is at risk. The indicators are declining university enrolment, dilution of university course content, high retirement expectations of staff members with little or no replacement planned. During the last decade many international organizations have analyzed the current situation and identified risk areas. Many proposals of general nature are available to take appropriate steps to maintain competence in the 21st century. These proposals include the following recommendations for governments, for the industry, and for international and supra-national organisations. Governments are encouraged to engage in long term strategic planning and funding to maintain competence; organize networks of collaboration between specialised organisations to maintain critical groups size; take responsibility for ensuring that human resources are available to meet obligations; support 'educational networks' among universities, research institutions, and the industry; provide scholarships, fellowships, and traineeships as part of their funding policy. The industry is encouraged to maintain high level training and in house education to meet their specific needs; develop research programmes which are attractive for students and employees; improve co-operation with universities

  19. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  20. Communication and Artificial Intelligence: Opportunities and Challenges for the 21st Century

    David J. Gunkel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay advocates for a significant reorientation and reconceptualization of communication studies in order to accommodate the opportunities and challenges introduced by increasingly intelligent machines, autonomous decision making systems, and smart devices. Historically the discipline of communication has accommodated new technology by transforming these innovations into a medium of human interaction and message exchange. With the computer, this transaction is particularly evident with the development of computer-mediated communication (CMC in the later half of the 20th century. In CMC, the computer is understood and investigated as a more-or-less neutral channel of message transfer and instrument of human interaction. This formalization, although not necessarily incorrect, neglects the fact that the computer, unlike previous technological advancements, also occupies the position of participant in communicative exchanges. Evidence of this is already available in the science of AI and has been explicitly described by some of the earliest writings on communication and the computer. The essay therefore 1 demonstrates that the CMC paradigm, although undeniably influential and successful, is insufficient and no longer tenable and 2 argues that communication studies needs to rework its basic framework in order to address and respond to the unique technological challenges and opportunities of the 20th century.

  1. Water Resources and Sustainable Agriculture in 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities

    Asrar, G.

    2008-05-01

    Global agriculture faces some unique challenges and opportunities for the rest of this century. The need for food, feed and fiber will continues to grow as the world population continue to increase in the future. Agricultural ecosystems are also expected to be the source of a significant portion of renewable energy and fuels around the world, without further compromising the integrity of the natural resources base. How can agriculture continue to provide these services to meet the growing needs of world population while sustaining the integrity of agricultural ecosystems and natural resources, the very foundation it depends on? In the last century, scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture resulted in significant increase in food, feed and fiber production globally, while the total amount of water, energy, fertilizers and other input used to achieve this growth remained the same or even decreased significantly in some parts of the world. Scientific and technical advances in understanding global and regional water and energy cycles, water resources management, soil and water conservation practices, weather prediction, plant breeding and biotechnology, and information and communication technologies contributed to this tremendous achievement. The projected increase in global population, urbanization, and changing lifestyles will continue the pressure on both agriculture and other managed and natural ecosystems to provide necessary goods and services for the rest of this century. To meet these challenges, we must obtain the requisite scientific and technical advances in the functioning of Earth's water, energy, carbon and biogeochemical cycles. We also need to apply the knowledge we gain and technologies we develop in assessing Earth's ecosystems' conditions, and their management and stewardship. In agricultural ecosystems, management of soil and water quality and quantity together with development of new varieties of plants based on advances

  2. Science Education and the Challenges Facing Its Integration into the 21st Century School System in a Globalized World: A Case of Igbo Nation

    Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Ezeudu, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a study of historical foundations of science education in Igboland, its nature and scope as well as the challenges facing its integration into the 21st century school system in a globalized world. The authors found that there were many scientific activities in Igbo culture, but many problems hinder their integration into the basic…

  3. Social Justice, Competition and Quality: 21st Century Leadership Challenges. The 2012 Yearbook of the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration

    Perreault, George, Ed.; Zellner, Luana, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This is the 2012 Yearbook of the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA). This Yearbook contains the following papers: (1) Editors' Sidebar (George Perreault and Luana Zellner); (2) The Hour Glass Economy: The Social Justice Challenge for the 21st Century (Fenwick W. English); (3) Maintaining the Human Touch in…

  4. Energy in the 21st century

    Fanchi, John R

    2010-01-01

    Energy may be the most important factor that will influence the shape of society in the 21st century. The cost and availability of energy significantly impacts our quality of life, the health of national economies, the relationships between nations, and the stability of our environment. What kind of energy do we want to use in our future? Will there be enough? What will be the consequences of our decisions? Everyone has a stake in the answers to these questions and the decisions that are being made to provide energy. ""Energy in the 21st Century"", in its second edition, examines the energy so

  5. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience. PMID:1454278

  6. Energy in the 21st century

    Fanchi, John R

    2013-01-01

    Many events that affect global energy production and consumption have occurred since the second edition of Energy in the 21st Century appeared in 2011. For example, an earthquake and tsunami in Japan led to the disruption of the Fukushima nuclear facility and a global re-examination of the safety of the nuclear industry. Oil and natural gas prices continue to be volatile, and the demand for energy has been affected by the global economy. The third edition updates data and the discussion of recent events.Energy in the 21st Century has been used as the text for an introductory energy course for

  7. The Main Directions to Overcome the Challenges of the 21st Century in Agriculture

    Fanus Nagimovich Garipov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, on the basis of the world and national approaches to the solution of the food problem, the main vectors of the agricultural development aimed at overcoming the challenges of the XXI century and eventually attain the food independence of Russia are proved. The reasons for the decline per capita food production in the world are revealed; the increasing influence, in addition to the population growth, of the equalization of level and quality of food on its dynamics is noted. The dominant current public incentives form the growth rate of demand in advance the production. It is proposed to correct the strategy of agrarian development, while maintaining the principles of multiculturalism in the economy, focusing on the leading role of the large, vertically integrated business entities, and on the import substitution of the basic foodstuffs through the involvement of regional internal resources, including the development of cooperation principles, historically attended the emergence of commodity-money relations in the village. The growth of productivity of production factors is grounded as the main vector that may rectify the situation. It is recommended to diversify a set of cultivated plants and breeds of animals, as well as to develop a new commodity structure of production. The need for food imports is stressed in view of the fact that for the imported products, which are manufactured using primarily the renewable resources, Russia has to pay the price of the potential non-renewable natural resources, making it strategically disadvantageous. In order to achieve the sustainability of the basic parameters and enhance the results of the agricultural activity, it is recommended to use the tools of economic and mathematical modeling of the distribution of economic resources. The findings will be reflected in the justification of the strategy for the regional agricultural development

  8. International Nuclear Conference: a new era in Nuclear Science and Technology - the challenge of the 21st century

    The part of address discusses the following issue: new era in science and technology: the challenge of the 21st century. Indeed it is in this part of the world that nuclear technology is making the most rapid and effective progress and will dramatically contribute to a new era of social progress and increased standards of living. Nuclear technology can offer the world limitless amounts of clean, economical, environmentally-benign electricity. It can also offer methods for medical diagnoses and treatments to save lives; provide a way to preserve our food supply and prevent foodborne diseases; provide accurate industrial measurements, leak detectors , and corrosion measurements; and literally hundreds of other applications. The challenge is to use this technology wisely and make sure the public understands that, while there are problems and difficulties commensurate with this technology (as there would be with any other technology), these problems can be solved and enormous benefits to humanity accrue when they are solved. It is worth the effort and one must have the courage and wisdom to proceed

  9. 21st Century Retention Challenges for the Navy, Generational Changes, Attitudinal Effects, and their Impact on Operations

    Simons, Anna; Salem, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Design Thinking The Secretary of the Navy’s stated vision for 21st century Sailors (and Marines) is to improve readiness and maintain the resiliency of the force, as well as to maintain combat effectiveness by improving the health and well-being of Sailors (and Marines). On paper, the USN acknowledges that to do this it needs a strong organizational culture that instills loyalty, ...

  10. Predicting the Future: Opportunities and Challenges for the Chemical Industry to Apply 21st-Century Toxicity Testing

    Settivari, Raja S; Ball, Nicholas; Murphy, Lynea; Rasoulpour, Reza; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances...

  11. Psychological Science in the 21st Century

    Cacioppo, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Science is constantly changing. If one hopes to keep pace with advances in science, one cannot simply repeat what one has done in the past, whether deciding how to invest limited research funds, searching to replace a retiring colleague, or teaching introductory psychology. Psychological science in the 21st century is more central and integrated…

  12. Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    Goodnight, Ron

    The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

  13. Lexicography in the 21st Century

    This is a state-of-the-art volume on lexicography at the beginning of the 21st century. It also offers proposals for future theoretical and practical work. The contributions, inspired by the ground-breaking work of Henning Bergenholtz, address topics such as dictionary functions; dictionary users...

  14. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  15. Software Engineering Technology for the 21st Century

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the software engineering technologyfor the 21 st century. First we review development over the last half-century, overview application re quirement and environment, accept a challenge. Then we outline following software engineering techniques: 1) Process;2) Analysis;3) Design;4) UML;5) Component;6) Java +XML;7) Integrated;8) Quality(ISO9000&CMM).

  16. Science for the 21st Century

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  17. Blood lead in the 21st Century: The sub-microgram challenge

    Amaya, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Maria A Amaya1, Kevin W Jolly2, Nicholas E Pingitore Jr1,31School of Nursing, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA; 2Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA; 3Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USAAbstract: In the US the dominant sources of lead through much of the 20th Century (eg, vehicular emissions, plumbing, household paint) have been significantly diminished. The reductions in adul...

  18. Global economic governance and the challenge facing traditional international law in the 21st century

    Maniruzzaman, Munir

    2004-01-01

    The present movement toward globalisation has posed a tremendous challenge to traditional international law and, in fact, its various branches including international economic law. The challenge is both horizontal and vertical. It is horizontal in the sense that various new actors such as multinationals, civil society and other non-state actors are increasingly playing an important role in international life and society which is not recognized in traditional international law. (Jessica T Matt...

  19. Climate: Into the 21st Century

    Burroughs, William

    2003-08-01

    Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  20. Will fusion be ready to meet the energy challenge for the 21st century?

    Bréchet, Yves; Massard, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Finite amount of fossil fuel, global warming, increasing demand of energies in emerging countries tend to promote new sources of energies to meet the needs of the coming centuries. Despite their attractiveness, renewable energies will not be sufficient both because of intermittency but also because of the pressure they would put on conventional materials. Thus nuclear energy with both fission and fusion reactors remain the main potential source of clean energy for the coming centuries. France has made a strong commitment to fusion reactor through ITER program. But following and sharing Euratom vision on fusion, France supports the academic program on Inertial Fusion Confinement with direct drive and especially the shock ignition scheme which is heavily studied among the French academic community. LMJ a defense facility for nuclear deterrence is also open to academic community along with a unique PW class laser PETAL. Research on fusion at LMJ-PETAL is one of the designated topics for experiments on the facility. Pairing with other smaller European facilities such as Orion, PALS or LULI2000, LMJ-PETAL will bring new and exciting results and contribution in fusion science in the coming years.

  1. International pharmacovigilance: developing cooperation to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

    Lumpkin, M M

    2000-01-01

    Much has been accomplished internationally in the past decade to harmonise the much of the process of post-marketing drug risk detection. However, formidable challenges exist in harmonising analytical approaches to such data and in leveraging international database resources to improve the quality of such data. In addition, international challenges continue in the arena of drug risk management once a specific risk has been detected. Especially problematic are the questions of appropriate methodology and metrics to assess the public health impact of our risk management techniques. Finally, international challenges remain in the world of drug risk communication to practitioners, dispensers, and patients. The primary challenge confronting us is that of providing easily accessible, understandable, unbiased information on drug risk to these communities so that truly informed decisions about medicines can be made at the individual patient level. Only by meeting internationally these challenges in drug risk detection, management, and communication can our citizens know how to best use these wonderful pharmacological gifts to which we now have access. PMID:10905749

  2. The Challenges for New Principals in the 21st Century. International Research on School Leadership Series

    Shoho, Alan R., Ed.; Barnett, Bruce, Ed.; Tooms, Autumn K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book series, "International Research on School Leadership," focuses on how present-day issues affect the theory and practice of school leadership. For this inaugural book, the editors focused on the challenges facing new principals and headteachers. Because the professional lives of school leaders have increasingly impinged on their personal…

  3. Aging and Cognitive Performance: Challenges and Implications for Physicians Practicing in the 21st Century

    Durning, Steven J.; Artino, Anthony R.; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J.; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2010-01-01

    The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance…

  4. Social Justice and the Global Economy: New Challenges for Social Work in the 21st Century

    Polack, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    The globalization of the economy creates new challenges for social work in the arenas of social and economic justice. This article outlines social justice issues related to the debt crisis of the Global South and sweatshops. A presentation of colonial precursors is followed by a detailed examination of these global institutions with an emphasis on…

  5. Trajnostni izzivi Evrope v 21. stoletju = Sustainability challenges for Europe in the 21st century

    Katja Vintar Mally

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of sustainable development strategies poses great challenges to EuropeanUnion member states and their neighbouring countries. Empirical analysis of economic,social and environmental development characteristics in European countries reveals thatcurrent development trends are unsustainable and lead away from the strategic goals. In thisregard, some future tasks are highlighted, especially from the viewpoint of interregional andintergenerational equity and responsibility.

  6. The old care paradigm is dead, long live the new sustainable care paradigm: how can GP commissioning consortia meet the demand challenges of 21st century healthcare?

    Mackenzie, James

    2011-01-01

    There are many challenges facing the health system in the 21st century – the majority of which are related to managing demand for health services. To meet these challenges emerging GP commissioning consortia will need to take a new approach to commissioning health services – an approach that moves beyond the current acute-centred curative paradigm of care to a new sustainable paradigm of care that focuses on primary care, integrated services and upstream prevention to manage demand. A key par...

  7. Concurrent engineering in the 21st century foundations, developments and challenges

    Wognum, Nel; Verhagen, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Presenting the gradual evolution of the concept of Concurrent Engineering (CE),  and the technical, social methods and tools that have been developed, including the many theoretical and practical challenges that still exist, this book serves to summarize the achievements and current challenges of CE and will give readers a comprehensive picture of CE as researched and practiced in different regions of the world. Featuring in-depth analysis of complex real-life applications and experiences, this book demonstrates that Concurrent Engineering is used widely in many industries and that the same basic engineering principles can also be applied to new, emerging fields like sustainable mobility. Designed to serve as a valuable reference to industry experts, managers, students, researchers, and software developers, this book is intended to serve as both an introduction to development and as an analysis of the novel approaches and techniques of CE, as well as being a compact reference for more experienced readers.

  8. Toward a Predictive Understanding of Earth’s Microbiomes to Address 21st Century Challenges

    Blaser, Martin J.; Cardon, Zoe G.; Cho, Mildred K.; Dangl, Jeffrey L.; Green, Jessica L.; Knight, Rob; Maxon, Mary E.; Northen, Trent R.; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microorganisms have shaped our planet and its inhabitants for over 3.5 billion years. Humankind has had a profound influence on the biosphere, manifested as global climate and land use changes, and extensive urbanization in response to a growing population. The challenges we face to supply food, energy, and clean water while maintaining and improving the health of our population and ecosystems are significant. Given the extensive influence of microorganisms across our biosphere, we propose that a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort is required to understand, predict, and harness microbiome function. From the parallelization of gene function testing to precision manipulation of genes, communities, and model ecosystems and development of novel analytical and simulation approaches, we outline strategies to move microbiome research into an era of causality. These efforts will improve prediction of ecosystem response and enable the development of new, responsible, microbiome-based solutions to significant challenges of our time. PMID:27178263

  9. Toward a Predictive Understanding of Earth's Microbiomes to Address 21st Century Challenges.

    Blaser, Martin J; Cardon, Zoe G; Cho, Mildred K; Dangl, Jeffrey L; Donohue, Timothy J; Green, Jessica L; Knight, Rob; Maxon, Mary E; Northen, Trent R; Pollard, Katherine S; Brodie, Eoin L

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms have shaped our planet and its inhabitants for over 3.5 billion years. Humankind has had a profound influence on the biosphere, manifested as global climate and land use changes, and extensive urbanization in response to a growing population. The challenges we face to supply food, energy, and clean water while maintaining and improving the health of our population and ecosystems are significant. Given the extensive influence of microorganisms across our biosphere, we propose that a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort is required to understand, predict, and harness microbiome function. From the parallelization of gene function testing to precision manipulation of genes, communities, and model ecosystems and development of novel analytical and simulation approaches, we outline strategies to move microbiome research into an era of causality. These efforts will improve prediction of ecosystem response and enable the development of new, responsible, microbiome-based solutions to significant challenges of our time. PMID:27178263

  10. The Challenges and Countermeasures of Human Resources on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century

    The paper addresses the situations of nuclear power development and nuclear industry human resources and points out that the development and supply of human resources are becoming the big challenges in the effective and sustainable development of nuclear power. At the same time, the paper analyzes the root causes of human resources shortage and recommends several countermeasures to confront human resources problems. At last, the paper introduces what SNPTC and SNERDI do to overcome the human resources problem and give conclusions. (author)

  11. Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion: Materials Challenges for the 21st Century

    Houts, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The current focus of NASA s space fission effort is Fission Surface Power (FSP). FSP systems could be used to provide power anytime, anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars. FSP systems could be used at locations away from the lunar poles or in permanently shaded regions, with no performance penalty. A potential reference 40 kWe option has been devised that is cost-competitive with alternatives while providing more power for less mass. The potential reference system is readily extensible for use on Mars. At Mars the system could be capable of operating through global dust storms and providing year-round power at any Martian latitude. To ensure affordability, the potential near-term, 40 kWe reference concept is designed to use only well established materials and fuels. However, if various materials challenges could be overcome, extremely high performance fission systems could be devised. These include high power, low mass fission surface power systems; in-space systems with high specific power; and high performance nuclear thermal propulsion systems. This tutorial will provide a brief overview of space fission systems and will focus on materials challenges that, if overcome, could help enable advanced exploration and utilization of the solar system.

  12. Life Sciences in the 21 st Century

    Zou Chenglu (C. L. Tsou)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective of the achievements of life sciences in the 20th century and a prospective in the 21 st century.primarily,because of the emergence of molecular biology in the 20th cetury,life sciences have grown up from a descriptive discipline to an exact science.Biology in the 21st century features a unification between analysis and integration,i.e.the unification of analysis and func-tional research.More and more interdisciplinary integration will be based on works of penetrating analyses.Secondly.the deeper understanding of all living phenomena will lead to a unified connition of the essence of life so that general biology in the genuine sese of the term will come into being.finally,basic research on the life sciences will produce an unprecedented influence on all aspects of human life.

  13. Japanese Higher Education Institutions in the 21st Century: The Challenge of Globalization and Internationalization

    AOKI, Kumiko

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions in Japan are facing unprecedented challenges today due to the following three factors:the decrease in the size of college age cohorts in the coming years; heightened expectations in the modes of instructional delivery through the advances of information and communication technologies (ICT; global competition for college students worldwide especially from English-speaking countries. This paper examines internationalization of higher education in Japan in terms of:foreign faculty members in Japan, foreign tertiary students in Japan, Japanese students studying abroad, branch campuses of foreign colleges and universities in Japan, off-shore campuses of Japanese colleges and universities, and cross-border higher education through e-learning.

  14. Early 21st century processors

    Vajapeyam, Sriram; Valero, Mateo

    2001-01-01

    The excitement and challenges of computer design lie in meeting multiple design goals and constraints while riding the dual horses of fast-improving technology and changing application domains. The target market, available technology, and target applications impose the design goals and constraints.

  15. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative: Facing the Challenges of Global Change in the 21st century

    Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil; Qi, Jiaguo

    2016-04-01

    foci emerged in discussions within the NEESPI community during the past 20 months. Presentation will provide justification of these foci and approach examples addressing them. The societal challenges, particularly the socio-economic challenges are the top priority in most of them. Throughout the NEESP Initiative duration, support for it studies has been provided by different national and international Agencies of the United States (in particular, the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program), the Russian Federation (in particular, the Ministry of Education and Science, e.g., mega-grant 14.B25.31.0026), European Union, Japan, and China. After the NEFI White Paper release, we anticipate a similar kind of support for this new Initiative.

  16. Dentistry in the 21st century: challenges of a globalising world.

    Hayashi, Mikako; Haapasalo, Markus; Imazato, Satoshi; Lee, Jae Il; Momoi, Yasuko; Murakami, Shinya; Whelton, Helen; Wilson, Nairn

    2014-12-01

    Oral health is - literally - vital to good general health, not least because the mouth is the sentinel of the body. Dentistry, the Cinderella of health care, faces immense challenges of globalisation. Governments, having spent freely on everything from defence to social security, face mountains of debts which make budget cutbacks essential. Simultaneously, most developed countries have to pay increasing costs of caring for rapidly ageing populations. Dentistry is being pulled two ways: wealthy members of society demand high-end expensive treatment, much of it cosmetic rather than necessary to deal with disease, whereas many millions of poor people in developing countries cannot afford basic dental treatment and may never see a dentist. Too many governments and dentists persist with the expensive and destructive regime of 'drill and fill (and bill)'. International advances in care may not reach the clinician's chair because treatment guidelines and payments are set locally. An international symposium to celebrate Mikako Hayashi becoming Professor of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology at Osaka University concluded that dentistry should move from an increasingly un-affordable curative model to a cost-effective evidence-based preventive model. The goal is to help people retain healthy natural teeth throughout their lives, as an essential part of enhancing their general health. PMID:25201627

  17. Lightning protection: challenges, solutions and questionable steps in the 21st century

    Besides the special primary lightning protection of extremely high towers, huge office and governmental buildings, large industrial plants and resident parks most of the challenges were connected to the secondary lightning protection of sensitive devices in Information and Communication Technology. The 70 year history of Budapest School of Lightning Protection plays an important role in the research and education of lightning and development of lightning protection. Among results and solutions the Rolling Sphere designing method (RS) and the Probability Modulated Attraction Space (PMAS) theory are detailed. As a new field Preventive Lightning Protection (PLP) has been introduced. The PLP method means the use of special preventive actions only for the duration of the thunderstorm. Recently several non-conventional lightning protection techniques have appeared as competitors of the air termination systems formed of conventional Franklin rods. The questionable steps, non-conventional lightning protection systems reported in the literature are the radioactive lightning rods, Early Streamer Emission (ESE) rods and Dissipation Arrays (sometimes called Charge Transfer Systems).

  18. Medicine in 21st Century

    YangBinghui

    2001-01-01

    An ancient Chinese theme of "Shen Nong tasted hundred herbs and confronted seventy toxicities a day" means generally that medicine was created by the ancient labor people, although there's no trace of the real Shen Nong. Accordingly some animals would take certain herbs for stopping traumatic bleeding just as our ancestors done. Medicine iniated a long time ago but the development of modern medicine is really a little bit more than hundred years, Pasteur discovered bacteria and reported in 1857, not yet 150 years from now. Virchow discovered cell cleavage and thus founded modern basic cellular pathology somewhat a year later than the former. Mendels bean test opened a new era for genetic research and concluded in 1863. Roentgen discovered X-ray in 1895 and We've celebrated the 100th anniversary of the X-ray discovery several years ago. The earliest application of penicillin was in 1940, not yet 60 years ago. The medicine possesses a jumping development during the recent half century in association with the advancement of synthetic chemistry, electronic and bioscientific technolgy.

  19. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    Environmental issues in the 21st century D.B. Chambers SENES Consultants Limited, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada Abstract. This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards -- environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others -- will be

  20. Neutron scattering in the 21st century

    Full text: The watchwords for neutron scattering in the 21st Century will be complementarity and computing. Despite the enormous impact that is coming in condensed matter science, chemistry and biology from synchrotron light sources, the essential complementarity between x-ray and neutron scattering is likely to be not only preserved but enhanced. This will be achieved by current and foreseen investments in new neutron sources of high intensity and by technique developments involving neutron polarisation, neutron optics and neutron detection. The complementary relationship between neutrons and x-rays - especially using isotopic and spin polarisation contrast will be illustrated along with some challenges which might well be met in the next ten to 15 years. In meeting these challenges it is inevitable that the enormous growth in power of computing systems will play a key part. Computing must be combined very intimately in the design and interpretation of scattering experiments as well as the retention and the retrieval of experimental data. International organisations such as the International Union of Crystallography will play a part in this

  1. Detergents of the 21st century

    Ho Tan Tai Louis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  2. Martinez Arranz, Alfonso / Doyle, Natalie J. / Winand, Pascaline (eds.), New Europe, New World? The European Union, Europe and the Challenges of the 21 st Century,

    Adrian IVAN

    2010-01-01

    New Europe, New World? The European Union, Europe, and the Challenges of the 21 st Century is a collective work that emerged from such an academic engagement generated by the Monash European and EU Center (at Monash University, Australia) in collaboration with the Austral-Asian Center for Italian Studies. The editors, Alfonso Martinez Arranz, Natalie J. Doyle and Pascaline Winand, succeeded in turning the conference debates into a coherent volume that will certainly contribute to the academic...

  3. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008) and Zoo City (2010) are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published i...

  4. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  5. Resource scarcity in the 21st century: conflict or cooperation?

    Qasem, I.

    2010-01-01

    Oil and natural gas, water, food, and minerals are critical to ensuring our wellbeing and prosperity. The mismatch between future demand and supply is crystallizing into one of the most complex and urgent issues policymakers will face in the 21st Century. Unless the challenges arising from these sca

  6. Managing Reliability in the 21st Century

    Dellin, T.A.

    1998-11-23

    The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

  7. Human Genome : A Gift of 20th Century and Challenge for 21st Century(Review paper

    M.W. Pandit

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Completion of the human genome sequencing has stirred the whole scientific community in many ways. Apart from deciphering the biological meaning of sequence-language written in three billion letters, which may take a century, scientists are essentially confronted with many challenges. It will not only revolutionise the field of genetics in terms of knowing ourselves better but also help us tremendously in identifying genetic diseases and preventing them by predicting and finding cure for them. Integration of medicine and molecular biology is expected to lead to better health care systems by preventing people from becoming sick by following a suggested way of life based on individual genetic makeup. Recently developed technologies are helping scientists to analyse the genome at an unprecedented scale and understand the function of various genes, influence of environmental factors on them and their correlation with human behaviour. Availability of human genome sequence has raised several ethical and moral questions regarding the confidentiality of the sharing of genomic information as well as whether society is ready for this. Real challenge, after knowing functions of all the genes, would be to make use of this knowledge for the welfare of human beings with the aim to enhance the quality of human life.

  8. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  9. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  10. Nuclear power in the 21st century

    Full text: All plausible long term energy scenarios project significant growth of global energy, especially if the Millennium Declaration on poverty eradication and the Plan of Implementation agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) are to be met. Projected growth is the fastest in developing countries. While growth for affordable energy services is not subject to debate really - the question is rather by how much - this is not the case for energy supply. 21st century energy supply systems face several challenges and uncertainties including energy resource availability, technology change, environmental compliance, reliability and security, political and social acceptance. One of the uncertainties concerns the role of nuclear power in 21st century energy supplies. Paradoxically, its near term role appears less certain that its longer term role. In the short-run, i.e., until 2020, most studies project either a slight increase, a slight decrease or no change at all. Though regional differences exist in terms of growth and decline, the effectively balance each other. Longer-term energy demand and supply studies, however, paint a different future. Analyses developed by international working groups generally project a potentially significant increase in the use of nuclear power. There are several reasons for this. Foremost, longer-term studies are not subjected to short-term policy constraints. Next, they do factor anticipated technology change and innovation into the analysis. Then resource depletion effects become more visible and environmental constraints become more stringent. The starting point of this paper is the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Based on four of the SRES scenarios, one from each of the four SRES scenario families, this paper discusses the compatibility requirements of each for nuclear energy in terms of economics, environment, supply security, resources, waste

  11. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    (Great Salt Lake, Searles Lake), geothermal systems (Salton Sea) and oil fields contain lithium, but in low concentrations that add relatively little to estimated global resources. Igneous deposits, which constitute 26% of estimated global resources, consist largely of pegmatites, including past and present producers at Kings Mountain-Bessemer City (USA), Greenbushes (Australia) and Bikita (Zimbabwe), as well as numerous active prospects, especially in Canada and China. Amenability of these deposits to economic extraction is controlled by mineralogy and zoning of lithium, which vary considerably from deposit to deposit. An additional 8% of global lithium resources is estimated to be present in unusual deposits including largely hectorite clays in volcaniclastic rocks at Kings Valley (USA) and jadarite in lacustrine evaporite deposits (Serbia), which present new challenges to both mining and processing. If this highly varied population of deposits can be converted to reserves, lithium supplies for the 21st century EV market are relatively secure.

  12. Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2012-01-01

    For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

  13. Snake oil for the 21st century.

    Bigby, M

    1998-12-01

    Dermatology has been associated with quackery for at least a century. The dictionary defines a quack as "a pretender to medical knowledge or skill; ignorantly or falsely pretending to cure." The term quack is derived from quacksalver, or one who quacks like a duck in promoting his salves. Quacksalvers hacked many potions, including snake oil, with claims that it cured everything from dermatitis to rheumatism. With the current promulgation of skin "products" and their promotion and even sale by dermatologists, and the use of treatments of no proven efficacy, this association between dermatology and quackery is set to continue well into the 21st century. The list of offending treatments includes silicone gel sheets and onion extract cream (Mederma) for keloids, alpha-hydroxy acid creams and peels, topical ascorbic acid and phytonadione, "laser resurfacing," and cimetidine for warts, to name only a few. PMID:9875187

  14. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the ICRP's current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards - environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others - will be increasingly important in the future. What level of risk is it reasonable to accept? What is meant by 'reasonable'? How much risk can be engineered away, for how long, and at what

  15. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  16. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  17. Proceeding of the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21-st Century

    The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21st Century, held on 1-2 December in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 36 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  18. ICT Supported Cooperative Learning - Towards Attaining 21st Century Skills

    Ramli Rohaini; Ramli Rohaiza

    2013-01-01

    Today?s job market demands not only sound technical skills from their potential employees. When employers talk about graduates being job ready, they really mean that the graduates possess the skills of the 21st century, which include ability to seek information and critically analyze situations, ability to challenge ideas, being innovative and being able to communicate ideas. In realizing these needs, education systems have long since started to look into incorporating activities that could h...

  19. Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges. Proceedings of an International Ministerial Conference

    The International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century was organized by the IAEA and co-sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the China Nuclear Energy Association. The conference was hosted by the Government of China through the China Atomic Energy Authority and held in Beijing. A total of 16 ministers participated in the conference, and a further 13 ministers provided statements to be presented on their behalf. The aim of this conference was to provide an opportunity to review the status and prospects of nuclear power, including progress in the evolution of technology, and to discuss the actions necessary to carry forward the positive momentum that nuclear power has experienced in recent years. The conference also offered a forum for many countries considering the potential benefits of introducing nuclear power into their national energy mix to further assess the viability of the nuclear power option. These proceedings contain the conference summary and the presentations made during the opening ceremony, as well as the concluding statement by the President of the conference. This material, as well as all the ministerial and technical presentations from the conference, is included on the attached DVD

  20. Radiology in the 21st century

    On the leading edge in ''high-tech'' medicine, radiology is experiencing several revolutions simultaneously that promise an exciting future. New imaging methods and digital technologies not only offer novel ways to view tissues but also provide opportunities for quantitative evaluation of function and even permit determination of metabolic status. New approaches to technology assessment are being explored that alter the ways in which equipment and procedures are introduced into clinical medicine. With the plethora of radiology services available, the radiologist must serve as a consultant in the triage of patients in radiology and the dissemination of information from radiology. For similar reasons, training in diagnostic radiology may eventually accommodate to the concept of specialization along organ-system lines. Without question, radiology is destined for an exciting period as it moves into the 21st century

  1. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material are not...... digital in the same way, which a distinction between digitized, born-digital, and reborn-digital may help us acknowledge, thereby helping us to understand how each of these types of digital material affects different phases of scholarly work in its own way. This is illustrated by a detailed comparison of...... the nature of digitized collections and web archives....

  2. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity. PMID:26710571

  3. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths. PMID:26203983

  4. IAEA safeguards for the 21st century

    The publication includes the lectures held during the seminar on IAEA safeguards for the 21st century. The topics covered are as follows: the nuclear non-proliferation regime; Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards; multilateral nuclear export controls; physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation; the evolution of safeguards; basis for the strengthening of safeguards; information required from states, including 'small quantities protocol'; processing and evaluation of new information for strengthened safeguards; additional physical access and new technologies for strengthened safeguards; equipping the IAEA Inspectorate with new skills; achievements to date the strengthened safeguards; complement of regional non-proliferation arrangements in international nuclear verification; promotion of transparency through Korean experience; and the future prospects of safeguards

  5. Engineering in the 21st century

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reasonable evolutionary trends in federal outlays for aerospace research and development predict a continuing decline in real resources (1970 dollars) until the mid eighties, and a growth thereafter to the 1970 level by 2000, still well below the 1966 peak. Employment levels will parallel this trend with no shortage of available personnel foreseen. These trends characterize a maturing industry. Shifts in outlook toward the economic use of resources, rather than minimum risk at any cost, and toward missions aligned with societal needs and broad national goals will accompany these trends. These shifts in outlook will arise in part in academia, and will, in turn, influence engineering education. By 2000, space technology will have achieved major advances in the management of information, in space transportation, in space structures, and in energy. The economics of space systems must be the primary consideration if the space program foreseen for the 21st century is to become an actuality.

  6. Aiming Talent Development toward Creative Eminence in the 21st Century

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the social and scientific problems that face the world in the 21st century, including climate change and economic inequality. In this context, the development of talented individuals who can tackle these problems is most important. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of 21st-century challenges for the…

  7. Kinesiology Faculty for the 21st Century: Steping into the Future

    DePauw, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Kinesiology faculty for the 21st century was one of the featured strands of the 2014 NAKHE Collaborative Congress: "STEPS into the future: Exploring opportunities and facing the challenges for the 21st century." Following a brief introduction delegates were assigned to discussion groups with conversations focused around six…

  8. Ionizing radiation in 21st century

    The paper begins with the author's personal experience in Poland on the occasion of Chernobyl nuclear accident followed by main lessons that the author could deduce from the accident. After the discovery of ionizing radiation at the end of 19th century, social perception has altered between acceptance and rejection stemming from recognition of the basic aspects: usefulness for medical applications and for technical and scientific aims, beneficial effects of their low levels, and harmful effects of high levels. The author explains how linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption according to which even the lowest, near zero doses of radiation may cause cancer genetic harm has become established. Comparing the natural radioactivity of the earth's crust with the activity of much shorter-lived radioactive wastes from the nuclear power cycle, it is concluded that none of the man-made component of the radioactive wastes has higher-toxicity than the natural Th 232. The paper concludes by stating that one century has not been long enough to adapt mentally to ionizing radiation and radioactivity and perhaps 21st century will suffice for this adaptation. (S. Ohno)

  9. Rebuilding the LMS for the 21st Century

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Finally--12 years into the 21st century--higher ed classrooms are turning into incubators for the kind of learning environment that curriculum and instructional technology experts have advocated for years. Yet a key question remains: Can legacy learning management systems (LMSs) be dragged into the 21st century as part of this new educational…

  10. Nuclear Reactor Empowerment in The 21st Century

    Scenarios of global energy need in the 21st century are discussed. Nuclear reactors will have important roles in supplying energy need in the 21st century if its evolutionary and innovative developments are continued to achieve economical competitiveness, high safety, positive environmental impacts, and ensuring sustain ability of innovation in the future energy supply

  11. German model. Challenge on the way to the 21st century. Das Deutschland-Modell. Herausforderungen auf dem Weg ins 21. Jahrhundert

    Pestel, E.; Bauerschmidt, R.; Gottwaldt, M.; Huebl, L.; Moeller, K.P.; Oest, W.; Stroebele, W.

    1980-06-01

    The German model is a consequent continuation of the work which has already lead to the Mesarovic-Pestel world-model and the 2nd report to the Club of Rome: The authors, members of the Institut fuer angewandte Systemforschung und Prognose (ISP) at Hanover, founded in 1975 by Professor Pestel, show the problems and challenges on the way to the 21st century on the basis of numerous model calculations. The German model consists of a number of coupled sub-models investigating the developments in the fields of population, education, economics, energy and labour market. Germany's role in the international network and its contribution to the North-South dialogue is taken into consideration. In the much-discussed energy sector, the calculations show that future requirements will probably be much lower than expected. Until the turn of the century, there will be no serious problems in energy and raw materials supply and consequently no structural changes.

  12. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  13. 21st century's energy: hydrogen energy system

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st Century

  14. Designing Complex Systems for the 21st Century

    2011-01-01

    The design of complex “engineered” systems in the 21st century poses a set of common challenges, to name a few, the complexity and computational cost of system analysis, the heterogeneity of information at different levels of abstraction, the various sources of uncertainties, the multidisciplinary...... preference into enterprise-driven product design. Research in multiscale design presents the significant benefits of using computational design techniques for designing novel materials, new products, and new processes with exceptional system performance across diverse application domains such as material...

  15. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  16. Rethinking Global Water Governance for the 21st Century

    Ajami, N. K.; Cooley, H.

    2012-12-01

    Growing pressure on the world's water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. According to the United Nations, today, at least 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Pressures on water resources are likely to continue to worsen in response to decaying and crumbling infrastructure, continued population growth, climate change, degradation of water quality, and other challenges. If these challenges are not addressed, they pose future risks for many countries around the world, making it urgent that efforts are made to understand both the nature of the problems and the possible solutions that can effectively reduce the associated risks. There is growing understanding of the need to rethink governance to meet the 21st century water challenges. More and more water problems extend over traditional national boundaries and to the global community and the types and numbers of organizations addressing water issues are large and growing. Economic globalization and transnational organizations and activities point to the need for improving coordination and integration on addressing water issues, which are increasingly tied to food and energy security, trade, global climate change, and other international policies. We will present some of the key limitations of global water governance institutions and provide recommendations for improving these institutions to address 21st century global water challenges more effectively.

  17. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Helen Emasealu; Susan Nnadozie Umeozor

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, car...

  18. Nuclear Power in the 21st Century

    The International Atomic Energy Agency helps its Member States to use nuclear technology for a broad range of peaceful purposes, one of the most important of which is generating electricity. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011 caused anxiety about nuclear safety throughout the world and raised questions about the future of nuclear power. Two years on, it is clear that the use of nuclear power will continue to grow in the coming decades, although growth will be slower than was anticipated before the accident. Many countries with existing nuclear power programmes plan to expand them. Many new countries, both developed and developing, plan to introduce nuclear power. The factors contributing to this growing interest include increasing global demand for energy, as well as concerns about climate change, volatile fossil fuel prices, and security of energy supply. It will be difficult for the world to achieve the twin goals of ensuring sustainable energy supplies and curbing greenhouse gases without nuclear power. The IAEA helps countries that opt for nuclear power to use it safely and securely. Countries that have decided to phase out nuclear power will have to deal with issues such as plant decommissioning, remediation, and waste management for decades to come. The IAEA also assists in these areas. I am grateful to the Russian Federation for hosting the 2013 International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century in St Petersburg in June. This timely conference provides a valuable opportunity to take stock of nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. A high level of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power is essential for the future of the sector. Much valuable work has been done in the past two years to improve safety. But much remains to be done. It is vitally important that the momentum is maintained and that everything is done to ensure that nuclear power is as safe as humanly

  19. International Nuclear Conference: a new era in Nuclear Science and Technology - the challenge of the 21st century: welcoming speech

    The address discusses the following issues: Globalisation and the advent of new technologies and knowledge necessitate countries to depend on one another for progress and development; the need for international co-operation ; roles of nuclear science and technology in facing the challenges of the 2l st Century; food and energy supply as the greatest challenges facing many countries in the future, along with the provision of cheap and good health care, safe industrial development, and clean environment; the contribution of nuclear science and technology i.e In food production, techniques using radiation and isotopes are used to improve crop and animal production through soil fertilisation, plant and animal breeding, insect and pest control, and food preservation; In health and medical care, the use of radiation and isotopes for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes; In industry, activities in radiography, nondestructive testing, control systems and radioactive tracers, analytical techniques and quality control, radiation processing to enhance the properties of materials; In the environmental sector, the use of isotopes and the development of analytical tools, including radioactive tracer methods, neutron activation analysis, x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption in the investigation and detection of environmental pollutants such as pesticides and toxic materials. Other issues also discussed were safety ; public awareness and acceptance of the technology

  20. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  1. Industrialization and Development Strategies in the 21st Century: Towards Sustainable Innovation Systems

    Khan, Haider

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to explore the possibilities of industrialization and development in the 21st century. With an ongoing global financial and economic crisis with only a tepid recovery at the time of this writing(August 2013) as well as the still unfolding ecological crisis, the 21st century presents an even greater challenge for industrialization in the developing world than the post-WWII period. The changed global economic and ecological environment will shape the emergence ...

  2. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  3. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Helen Emasealu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, career path and recruitment of librarians, and community support necessary for effective and efficient implementation and management of repository initiatives. This entails the ability to comprehend trends and change patterns which are essential for providing research focused and user-friendly models in open repository services that are based on thorough analytical understanding of the challenges of emerging trends. To achieve this requires the training and retraining of librarians to reposition them as information specialists in their career path. The role of the library as an integral part of its social environment is to educate the community about the existence of an open repository by building partnership with community-oriented research centres through seminars, workshops, symposium, training, and awareness programmes. The study recommends that librarians should strategize and collaborate with researchers to make open repository an essential research tool.

  4. Digital pathology: a tool for 21st century neuropathology.

    Guzman, Miguel; Judkins, Alexander R

    2009-04-01

    Digital pathology represents an electronic environment for performing pathologic analysis and managing the information associated with this activity. The technology to create and support digital pathology has largely developed over the last decade. The use of digital pathology tools is essential to adapt and lead in the rapidly changing environment of 21st century neuropathology. The utility of digital pathology has already been demonstrated by pathologists in several areas including consensus reviews, quality assurance (Q/A), tissue microarrays (TMAs), education and proficiency testing. These utilities notwithstanding, interface issues, storage and image formatting all present challenges to the integration of digital pathology into the neuropathology work environment. With continued technologic improvements, as well as the introduction of fluorescent side scanning and multispectral detection, future developments in digital pathology offer the promise of adding powerful analytic tools to the pathology work environment. The integration of digital pathology with biorepositories offers particular promise for neuropathologists engaged in tissue banking. The utilization of these tools will be essential for neuropathologists to continue as leaders in diagnostics, translational research and basic science in the 21st century. PMID:19290997

  5. The Promise and the Challenge of Space Solar Power in the 21st Century: Picking up the Gauntlet

    Mankins, John C.

    2002-01-01

    programmatic hurdles faced by SSP often seem even greater than the technical difficulties to be faced. The great engineering and technologies projects of the past century provide important lessons--both good and bad-- that bear directly on this challenge. The Peter Glaser Lecture for 2002 will examine from a strategic perspective the challenge and the promise of space solar power, and--in the context of historical examples--suggest directions to advance this vision of almost limitless, clean energy in space and from space for the Earth.

  6. Evidence based herbal drug standardization approach in coping with challenges of holistic management of diabetes: a dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century

    Chawla, Raman; Thakur, Pallavi; Chowdhry, Ayush; Jaiswal, Sarita; Sharma, Anamika; Goel, Rajeev; Sharma, Jyoti; Priyadarshi, Smruti Sagar; Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Arora, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Plants by virtue of its composition of containing multiple constituents developed during its growth under various environmental stresses providing a plethora of chemical families with medicinal utility. Researchers are exploring this wealth and trying to decode its utility for enhancing health standards of human beings. Diabetes is dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century caused due to lack of insulin production or insulin physiological unresponsiveness. The chronic impact of untreated dia...

  7. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    2000-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  8. Nigerian university libraries and the challenges of users’ service demands in the 21st Century: what university administrators should know

    Amanze O. Unagha

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on the challenges facing Nigerian university libraries in meeting users’ service demands in the 21stcentury and the role of university administrators in assisting them in this regard. It identifies these challenges as non-application of technology to service delivery, increase in student intake with its attendant effect on the available limited resources, inefficient reference service, and competition from other service providers. The article recommends amongst others that...

  9. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear Medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99 m Tc ciprofloxacin). In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals nd the future direction it might take. (author)

  10. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burke, Thomas A.; Jones, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the “Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments” workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered. PMID:27035154

  11. The Challenge and Countermeasure of Human Resources on Nuclear Power for China in the 21st Century

    The paper addresses the situations of nuclear power development and nuclear industry human resources and points out that the development and supply of human resources are becoming the big challenges in the effective and sustainable development of nuclear power. At the same time, the paper analyzes the root causes of human resources shortage and recommends several countermeasures to confront human resources problems. At last, the paper introduces what SNPTC and SNERDI do to overcome the human resources problem and give conclusions. (author)

  12. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  13. Biological Sciences for the 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Era of Global Change

    Joel Cracraft; Richard O' Grady

    2007-05-12

    The symposium was held 10-12 May, 2007 at the Capitol Hilton Hotel in Washington, D. C. The 30 talks explored how some of today's key biological research developments (such as biocomplexity and complex systems analysis, bioinformatics and computational biology, the expansion of molecular and genomics research, and the emergence of other comprehensive or system wide analyses, such as proteomics) contribute to sustainability science. The symposium therefore emphasized the challenges facing agriculture, human health, sustainable energy, and the maintenance of ecosystems and their services, so as to provide a focus and a suite of examples of the enormous potential contributions arising from these new developments in the biological sciences. This symposium was the first to provide a venue for exploring how the ongoing advances in the biological sciences together with new approaches for improving knowledge integration and institutional science capacity address key global challenges to sustainability. The speakers presented new research findings, and identified new approaches and needs in biological research that can be expected to have substantial impacts on sustainability science.

  14. Measuring up to the challenges of the 21st century. An international evaluation of the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation

    Clapman, P.; Kaarls, R.; Temmes, M.

    1997-04-01

    The international evaluation of the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES) is part of the process in which all relevant industrial and technology policy measures and organizations under the auspices of the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) are being evaluated with the aim of improving their effectiveness. The overall conclusion of the evaluation is that MIKES is serving the country well. An effective national measurement system (FINMET) is being maintained which provides a wide range of calibration services covering most of the nation`s needs. The accreditation service (FINAS) is now well established, is operating effectively, and has good prospects for growth. The evaluators present, however, a number of proposals (including 33 specific recommendations) where they feel that the metrology and accreditation arrangements could be better-suited to meet future national and international challenges. According to the recommendations the Finnish quality policy framework should be developed in a consistent way. There is a need of a comprehensive governmental quality policy statement upon which the inter-ministry coordination and harmonization of various conformity assessment activities can be based. MIKES should retain its current status as an agency within MTI. The national measurement system should be more centralised and a new purpose-built national standards laboratory should be procured. The responsibility for legal metrology should be transferred to MIKES. The terms of reference and membership of Advisory Committee for Metrology, as well as the Advisory Committee for Accreditation should be revised to ensure wider representation of all relevant, and especially industrial interests

  15. The old care paradigm is dead, long live the new sustainable care paradigm: how can GP commissioning consortia meet the demand challenges of 21st century healthcare?

    Mackenzie, James

    2011-07-01

    There are many challenges facing the health system in the 21st century - the majority of which are related to managing demand for health services. To meet these challenges emerging GP commissioning consortia will need to take a new approach to commissioning health services - an approach that moves beyond the current acute-centred curative paradigm of care to a new sustainable paradigm of care that focuses on primary care, integrated services and upstream prevention to manage demand. A key part of this shift is the recognition that the health system does not operate in a vacuum and that strategic commissioning decisions must take account of wider determinants of health and well-being, and operate within the finite limits of the planet's natural resources. The sustainable development principle of balancing financial, social and environmental considerations is crucial in managing demand for health services and ensuring that the health system is resilient to risks of resource uncertainty and a changing climate. Building sustainability into the governance and contracting processes of GP commissioning consortia will help deliver efficiency savings, impact on system productivity, manage system risk and help manage demand through the health co-benefits of taking a whole systems approach to commissioning decisions. Commissioning services from providers committed to corporate social responsibility and sustainable business practices allows us to move beyond a health system that cures people reactively to one in which the health of individuals and populations is managed proactively through prevention and education. The opportunity to build sustainability principles into the culture of GP commissioning consortia upfront should be seized now to ensure the new model of commissioning endures and is fit for the future. PMID:25949650

  16. Fracture Toughness and Reliability in High-Temperature Structural Ceramics and Composites: Prospects and Challenges for the 21st Century

    Dutta, Sunil

    1999-01-01

    The importance of high fracture toughness and reliability in Si3N4, and SiC-based structural ceramics and ceramic matrix composites is reviewed. The potential of these ceramics and ceramic matrix composites for high temperature applications in defense and aerospace applications such as gas turbine engines, radomes, and other energy conversion hardware have been well recognized. Numerous investigations were pursued to improve fracture toughness and reliability by incorporating various reinforcements such as particulate-, whisker-, and continuous fiber into Si3N4 and SiC matrices. All toughening mechanisms, e.g. crack deflection, crack branching, crack bridging, etc., essentially redistribute stresses at the crack tip and increase the energy needed to propagate a crack through the composite material, thereby resulting in improved fracture toughness and reliability. Because of flaw insensitivity, continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) was found to have the highest potential for higher operating temperature and longer service conditions. However, the ceramic fibers should display sufficient high temperature strength and creep resistance at service temperatures above 1000 'C. The greatest challenge to date is the development of high quality ceramic fibers with associate coatings able to maintain their high strength in oxidizing environment at high temperature. In the area of processing, critical issues are, preparation of optimum matrix precursors, precursor infiltration into fiber array, and matrix densification at a temperature, where grain crystallization and fiber degradation do not occur. A broad scope of effort is required for improved processing and properties with a better understanding of all candidate composite systems.

  17. Fracture toughness and reliability in high-temperature structural ceramics and composites: Prospects and challenges for the 21st Century

    Sunil Dutta

    2001-04-01

    The importance of high fracture toughness and reliability in Si3N4, and SiC-based structural ceramics and ceramic matrix composites is reviewed. The potential of these ceramics and ceramic matrix composites for high temperature applications in defence and aerospace applications such as gas turbine engines, radomes, and other energy conversion hardware have been well recognized. Numerous investigations were pursued to improve fracture toughness and reliability by incorporating various reinforcements such as particulate-, whisker-, and continuous fibre into Si3N4 and SiC matrices. All toughening mechanisms, e.g. crack deflection, crack branching, crack bridging, etc essentially redistribute stresses at the crack tip and increase the energy needed to propagate a crack through the composite material, thereby resulting in improved fracture toughness and reliability. Because of flaw insensitivity, continuous fibre reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) was found to have the highest potential for higher operating temperature and longer service conditions. However, the ceramic fibres should display sufficient high temperature strength and creep resistance at service temperatures above 1000°C. The greatest challenge to date is the development of high quality ceramic fibres with associate coatings able to maintain their high strength in oxidizing environment at high temperature. In the area of processing, critical issues are preparation of optimum matrix precursors, precursor infiltration into fibre array, and matrix densification at a temperature, where grain crystallization and fibre degradation do not occur. A broad scope of effort is required for improved processing and properties with a better understanding of all candidate composite systems.

  18. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  19. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  20. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  1. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  2. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  3. Grandma Moses in the 21st Century. Learning from Exhibitions.

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the life and career of Grandma Moses who was born as Anna Mary Robertson and painted in the style of folk or naive art. Addresses the art exhibition entitled "Grandma Moses in the 21st Century" that explores the recurring themes in her artwork. (CMK)

  4. 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation

    Greenhill, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create the foundation for ongoing dialogue around how 21st century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in educator preparation, and to guide the development of resources and services to support educator programs. This paper aims to: (1) Develop a blueprint for building the models, tools, resource…

  5. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  6. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  7. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  8. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  9. 21st Century Skills: Prepare Students for the Future

    Larson, Lotta C.; Miller, Teresa Northern

    2011-01-01

    Skills students will need for the society in which they will work and live shouldn't be thought of as "one more thing to teach," but rather training integrated across all curricula. This article takes a look at 21st century skills and how these skills directly impact teaching and learning. Classroom teachers need to be familiar with these skills…

  10. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their close…

  11. 21st Century Skills and the Physics Classroom

    Rigeman, Sally; Bruecken, Peter

    2009-11-01

    What content knowledge and skills will today's physics students need to acquire to be successful employees in the 21st century? How can today's physics classrooms prepare students for collaboration in a global work environment? What kind of instruction can engage physics students in learning that supports these demands? Attend this session to find out what motivates today's Net Generation.

  12. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  13. Vision for a 21st Century Information Infrastructure.

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    In order to ensure that the United States maintains an advanced information infrastructure, the Council on Competitiveness has started a project on the 21st century infrastructure. Participating in this project are the many different parties who are providing and using the infrastructure, including cable companies, regional Bell companies, long…

  14. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  15. Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary

    Shafer, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    "Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary" is an ethnographic investigation involving a diverse group of students as they experience their first year of graduate-level theological education at a Protestant seminary in the United States. The study analyzes the observations and student interviews that form the core of the…

  16. Successes, Challenges and Lessons Learned for Recruiting, Engaging and Preparing a Diverse Student Population for 21st Century Careers in Ocean Sciences.

    Clarkston, B. E.; Garza, C.

    2015-12-01

    Diversity within the Ocean Sciences workforce is still underperforming relative to other scientific disciplines, a problem that will be only be solved by recruiting, engaging and retaining a more diverse student population. The Monterey Bay Regional Ocean Science Research Experiences for Undergraduates program is housed at California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), an HSI with strong connections to multiple regional community colleges and other Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) in the CSU system. From this unique position, 11 sophomore and junior-level undergraduate students are recruited per year from academic institutions where research opportunities in STEM are limited and from groups historically underrepresented in the Ocean Sciences, including women, underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, and veterans. During the program, students engage in a 10-week original research project guided by a faculty research mentor in one of four themes: Oceanography, Marine Biology and Ecology, Ocean Engineering, and Marine Geology. In addition to research, students engage in rigorous weekly professional development workshops in which they practice critical thinking, ethical decision-making, peer review, writing and oral communication skills. These workshops include tangible products such as an NSF-style proposal paper, Statement of Purpose and CV modelled for the SACNAS Travel Award Application, research abstract, scientific report and oral presentation. To help retain students in Ocean Sciences, students build community during the REU by living together in the CSUMB dormitories; post-REU, students stay connected through an online facebook group, LinkedIn page and group webinars. To date, the REU has supported 22 students in two cohorts (2014, 2015) and here we present successes, challenges and lessons learned for a program designed to prepare students for 21st century Ocean Science careers.

  17. Vietnam 2010 : Entering the 21st Century

    World Bank; Asian Development Bank; United Nations Development Program

    2000-01-01

    The study outlines the socioeconomic development strategy for Vietnam, during the first decade of the twenty first century, envisaging sustainable economic development, to rapidly adjust to social stability, while maintaining cultural, and traditional ties. The aim is to become a socialist market economy, fully integrated into the global economy, internationally competitive, with character...

  18. Geotectonic hypotheses at the beginning of the 21st century

    Strutinski, C.; Stan, R.; Puste, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution to the volume honouring Ott Ch. Hilgenberg the main directions of thought in the field of geotectonics at the beginning of the 21st century are reviewed. However, because of its seminal importance for the geological thinking during most of the last century, the Wegener (continental drift) hypothesis is also included and opens the review. It is followed by the critical presentation of Plate tectonics and the hypotheses of Earth expansion, Surge tectonics and Wrench tectoni...

  19. Literacy Is "Not" Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    Crockett, Lee; Jukes, Ian; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Educating students to traditional literacy standards is no longer enough. If students are to thrive in their academic and 21st century careers, then independent and creative thinking hold the highest currency. The authors explain in detail how to add these new components of literacy: (1) Solution Fluency; (2) Information Fluency; (3) Creativity…

  20. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century

    Greenberg, J M; Shen, Chuanjian

    2000-01-01

    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the properties of dust in very young galaxies will be an important probe of the rates of star formation in terms of the production and destruction of dust grains. Future observations of dust at high spectral and spatial resolution will provide detailed information on processes in collapsing clouds up to star formation. Space missions to comets in the next century will first study them in situ but ultimately will bring back pristine nucleus material which will contain the end product of the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud at ...

  1. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  2. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century

    Greenberg, J. Mayo; Shen, Chuanjian

    2000-01-01

    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the prope...

  3. The 21st century chemistry journal

    Steven M. Bachrach

    1999-01-01

    Internet publication will radically alter how chemists will publish their research in the next century. In this article, we describe two fundamental changes: enhanced chemical publication which allows chemists to publish materials that cannot be published on paper and end-user customization which allows readers to read articles prepared to meet their specifications. These concepts have been implemented within the Internet Journal of Chemistry, a new journal designed to employ the latest techn...

  4. Concurrent Engineering in the 21st Century

    Stjepandic, Josip; Wognum, P.M.; Verhagen, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Presenting the gradual evolution of the concept of Concurrent Engineering (CE), and the technical, social methods and tools that have been developed, including the many theoretical and practical challenges that still exist, this book serves to summarize the achievements and current challenges of CE

  5. Renewable energy education for 21st century

    The major technological developments in equipment, designed to harness new and renewable sources of energy, have only taken place in the last four decades of the twentieth century, although the principles involved have been previously known for many centuries and were clearly formulated in many of the ancient civilizations. The term renewable energy (RE) itself is of relatively recent origin and only came into widespread use worldwide in the eighties, after the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1981, Ref 1. Currently, the term renewable s is extensively used to describe the full range of direct and indirect uses of solar radiation incident on the earth's surface, and is often extended to include energy resources, such as tidal power or geothermal energy, neither of which is strictly renewable in the true sense of the word. Energy extracted from biomass is also generally included under this heading, although biomass is truly renewable only if continuous plantation development and replanting is carried out as the biomass is harvested. On a global scale, relatively extensive teaching about renewable energy started in the late seventies and early eighties, after the first impact of the OPEC oil price shock. Up till this time, there were only a few centres around the world where individual dedicated researchers and university teachers were involved in such activity. The next impetus to course and teaching material development came with national movements for energy independence and finally, in the latter years of this century, considerable stimulation has been given due to the increasing realisation of global environmental factors such as global warming, ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere, acid rain formation, and many other environmental degradation effects due to the increasing use of fossil fuel reserves. Considerable attention has been focused in the last twenty years through the many national and

  6. 21st Century Change Drivers: Considerations for Constructing Transformative Models of Special Education Teacher Development

    Rock, Marcia L.; Spooner, Fred; Nagro, Sarah; Vasquez, Eleazar; Dunn, Cari; Leko, Melinda; Luckner, John; Bausch, Margaret; Donehower, Claire; Jones, Jennie L.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary challenges confronting special education teachers include, in part, workload, role ambiguity, evaluation, and shortages. Based on these and other challenges, the piece-meal fragmented approach to pre- and in-service training, which exists currently, needs to be replaced with 21st century models of special education teacher development…

  7. Evolution of the framework for 21st century competencies

    Sdenka Z. Salas-Pilco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the successive changes and evolution of the frameworks for 21st century competencies, since the appearance of the first conceptual models during the final years of the last century, and also it is a review of the competencies that are needed in the 21st century with a special focus on the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT competencies. The included frameworks have been elaborated by diverse institutions such as international organizations, private consortia and also governments as a guideline for educational policies in elementary and secondary schools. Later, the frameworks are compared and analyzed according to a classification of the competencies into general categories, in order to visualize some trends and obtain some insights about the direction they are heading. Finally, it provides some suggestions for the conception of future frameworks.

  8. 21st Century Theories of Education Administration

    Makolandra, Joseph; Bezy, Kevin G.; Delp, Cindy; Bizzell, Brad E.; Wray, Caroline; Jones, Forest; Womack, Janet; Hutton, Dawn; Jones, Asia; Wood-Setzer, Guylene; Williams, Seydric; Leonard, Nancy; Nicely, Ken; Wright, Linda; Pennington, Robert; Richardson, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Educational administrative practitioners evaluate theories, implement practices, and refine leadership strategies daily. The exploration of the leadership gap between theory and praxis is a quantum undertaking. Leadership from the educational perspective takes many forms and presents many challenges. This document examines leadership from several…

  9. Sherlock Holmes Meets the 21st Century.

    Flack, Jerry

    1991-01-01

    Mystery literature is proposed as a component of futures studies curriculum for gifted students. The article describes similarities between the behaviors of a detective and a critical thinker, the tools of futurists such as the futures wheel, and the use of such topics as computer crime and extraterrestrial life to challenge students' thinking…

  10. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  11. Space Technology in The 21st Century

    Vipan Kakkar

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses different issues related to the development of the space technology. The purpose is to analyse different parameters such as cost of the advanced and key technologies, development approach for long-term development and criterion for long-term development. Implications of the modern technology on the social and economic life have also been discussed. Apart from this, the challenges involved inthe future developments and applications have been discussed.

  12. Space Technology in The 21st Century

    Vipan Kakkar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses different issues related to the development of the space technology. The purpose is to analyse different parameters such as cost of the advanced and key technologies, development approach for long-term development and criterion for long-term development. Implications of the modern technology on the social and economic life have also been discussed. Apart from this, the challenges involved inthe future developments and applications have been discussed.

  13. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  14. 21st-Century talent spotting.

    Fernández-Aráoz, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    How can a person who seems so qualified for a position fail miserably in it? How can someone who clearly lacks relevant skills and experience succeed? The answer is potential, the ability to adapt and grow into increasingly complex roles and environments. For the past several decades, organizations have based their hiring decisions on competencies. But we have entered a new era of talent spotting. Geopolitics, business, industries, and jobs are changing so rapidly that it's impossible to predict the capabilities employees and leaders will need even a few years out. The question now is not whether people have the right skills; it's whether they have the potential to learn new ones. Research points to five markers of potential: a strong motivation to excel in the pursuit of challenging goals combined with the humility to put the group ahead of individual needs; an insatiable curiosity to explore new ideas and avenues; keen insight into connections that others don't see; a strong engagement with work and people; and the determination to overcome obstacles. Once organizations have hired true high potentials--a challenge, given the increasing scarcity of senior talent-and identified the ones they already have, it's crucial to focus on retaining them and on helping them live up to their potential by offering development opportunities that push them out of their comfort zones. PMID:25051855

  15. Neuroscience Training for the 21st Century.

    Akil, Huda; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Cardozo, David Lopes; Koroshetz, Walter; Posey Norris, Sheena M; Sherer, Todd; Sherman, S Murray; Thiels, Edda

    2016-06-01

    The field of neuroscience is enjoying a rapid expansion in scope, coupled with a remarkable broadening of conceptual approaches, scientific tools, and clinical applications. This growth poses new challenges for academic training programs as they prepare young neuroscientists for a more complex, competitive, and diverse career landscape. Multiple stakeholders, including academia, federal funding agencies, industry, scientific societies, private foundations, and other public and private sector contributors, need to be actively engaged in supporting this broad training effort. A renewed commitment to a more forward-looking, flexible yet integrative training vision offers opportunities for a bright future for young neuroscientists as they assume the role of vanguard of the enterprise that enriches our understanding of the brain. PMID:27253446

  16. Leprosy in the 21st century.

    White, Cassandra; Franco-Paredes, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in leprosy (Hansen's disease) treatment and outlook for patients since the introduction of multidrug therapy (MDT) 3 decades ago, the global incidence remains high, and patients often have long-term complications associated with the disease. In this article, we discuss recent findings related to genetics, susceptibility, and disease reservoirs and the implications of these findings for Hansen's disease control and health outcomes for patients. We describe the continued difficulties associated with treatment of inflammatory episodes known as "leprosy reactions," which cause much of the disability associated with the disease and can affect people for many years after MDT is complete. We also discuss some of the contemporary challenges for physicians and patients, including international and internal migration of people affected by the disease. We suggest some important areas of focus for future Hansen's disease research. PMID:25567223

  17. Technology Born Fictions for the Cities of 21st Century

    Mehmet Rıfat Akbulut

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies will undoubtely be leading determinants of urban landscape in the 21st century. Until the present day, it was assumed that urban landscapes were being shaped by conventional factors such as demography, social and economical structure, transportion, infrastructure, building technologies etc. In spite of many speculative approaches, recent developments in information and communication technologies can offer us some clues which may go beyond mere speculation. The“intelligent city” which is based on “autonomous” and “intelligent” objects and agents promising novel solutions to urban problems. Mobile communication is also another promising domain to offer creative solutions to some cronical urban problems. All these novelties provide sufficient reasons to think about new urban structures based upon information technologies.This paper is an attempt to discuss probable effects of information technologies, as new dynamics to shape the urban environment and urban life of the 21st century.

  18. 21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop

    2013-01-01

    21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...

  19. Soldier communication net for the 21st century digitized battlespace

    Mu, Libo; Zhang, Yutian

    1999-07-01

    This paper present soldier communication net scheme, which survives and operates in the 21st century battlefield environment. First, it analyzes the features, the need, function of the soldier communication net on the 21st century battlefield environment. Secondly it presents a layered model of the soldier communication net, derived from the OSI theory, and discusses the design of the 3 layers, link layer, link controller and input/output applications layer. Thirdly, it present some key technical discussion concerning with the direct-sequence-spread-spectrum communication, code/decode and low power consumption. Finally, it gives the conclusion that spread spectrum time division system is the best scheme of soldier communication net.

  20. Epidemiology - Prospects in the 21st century

    Epidemiology has evolved as a practical discipline, initially concerned with control of the infectious diseases As many of the latter were conquered in the developed world, and animal enterprises were intensified, complex, frequently non-infectious, diseases increased in significance. A shift towards quantitative analytical procedures became necessary to identify the factors associated with these diseases and to assess the latter's technical and economic impact. Recently, computer technology has facilitated data collection and analysis. In developed countries, there is a need for improved monitoring of disease and productivity, and for identification of indicators of health and productivity. Additionally, the results of such activities need to be transmitted to the producers. Qualitative aspects of food production are also increasing in importance, notably 'clean' food production and animal welfare. In companion animal practice, disease morbidity needs to be estimated more comprehensively, and risk factors identified through wider application of observational studies. Objective assessment of established and new therapeutic and prophylactic procedures, using well designed clinical trials, is also required. In developing countries - the focus of the paper - estimation of the impact of disease on health and production is a priority. This demands good survey design and rigorous evaluation of the diagnostic tests that are being used. Participatory Rural Appraisal is also a valuable data gathering technique. Epidemiological activity must be supported by adequate training. The subject has been taught as an identifiable discipline for over 30 years (usually with emphasis on qualitative components) and is expanding in undergraduate and post-graduate courses. Moreover, many governmental and non-governmental agencies are supporting epidemiological training. If this trend continues, the veterinary profession worldwide should be excellently placed to face the future challenges

  1. 76 FR 72003 - Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation

    2011-11-21

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program... proposed study of the impacts of the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program. A copy of the... develop plans to conduct a program evaluation of the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program...

  2. A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: implications for national curriculum policies

    Voogt, Joke; Pareja Roblin, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites

  3. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  4. The Role of the School District toward Preparing Students for the 21st Century

    Aguilar-Torres, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reflects the outcomes of a small school district that is successfully incorporating 21st century skills with the demands set forth by our current educational policy, No Child Left Behind. Considerations regarding globalization, future work force and work skills, definition of 21st century skills, supporting 21st century skills in…

  5. Zimbabwe-Russia Relations in the 21st Century

    Chigora, Percyslage; Goredema, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    The 21st century has witnessed the intensification of relations between Zimbabwe and the East and other favorable states, Russia among them. Historically under the socialist rhetoric the two countries shared a common political ideology. Zimbabwe- Russia relations dates back to the era of the liberation struggle. The Soviet Union aided Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe People's Union and later the Patriotic Front which included Mugabe's Zimbabwe National African Union. The Soviet Union aided...

  6. Identifying 21st century STEM competencies using workplace data

    Jang, Hyewon

    2015-01-01

    Gaps between Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identif...

  7. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions

  8. Antinomies of Capital in the 21st Century

    Estrada, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the 21st century" has been the most important book economy in recent times. Its aim integrates the debate theories of growth, income distribution, inequality and differences between the extremes income and income of the majority. The work predicts a slow increase in the share of capital income and inequality. His proposal for a global tax on capital is a way to evaluate such tendencies.

  9. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000

  10. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  11. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research

    Sciences, Committee on Planning a Global Library of the Mathematical

    2014-01-01

    Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research discusses how information about what the mathematical literature contains can be formalized and made easier to express, encode, and explore. Many of the tools necessary to make this information system a reality will require much more than indexing and will instead depend on community input paired with machine learning, where mathematicians' expertise can fill the gaps of automatization. This report proposes the establishment of...

  12. Preparing for the 21st century. Planning with focus groups.

    Morris, R I

    1996-01-01

    The job market for nursing graduates is changing, and nursing schools must respond to the changes. The author describes the process of using focus groups to facilitate a constructive dialogue between nurse administrators, clinicians, educators, and students. The groups focused on adapting the curriculum to changing market conditions. Recommendations and outcomes are highlighted. Nursing educators are encouraged to critically examine their own programs in preparation for the 21st century. PMID:9069929

  13. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  14. Women's health: marketing challenges for the 21st century. The future of women's health care reflects demographic, social, and economic trends. MHS staff.

    2000-01-01

    The notion of a separate "women's health" component within the U.S. health care system emerged in the 1980s as many health care organizations recognized the opportunities offered by this market. While originally addressed traditional women's needs such as OB services, the 1990s witnessed as expansion of the scope of women's services as baby-boom women became a driving force for consumerism. For health care marketers, the female market is in many THE market for health care for the future and health care organizations have responded to this opportunity in a variety of ways. Demographic, social, and economic trends will only serve to increase the importance of women as health care consumers. For both providers of care and marketers, the women's market is clearly a force to be reckoned with as health care enters the 21st century. PMID:11185874

  15. Manganism in the 21st Century: The Hanninen Lecture

    Racette, Brad A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the original description of the health effects of inhaled occupational manganese (Mn) by Couper in 1837, an extensive literature details the clinical syndrome and pathophysiology of what was thought to be a rare condition. In the last decade, conventional wisdom regarding the clinicopathological effects of Mn has been challenged. Past exposures to Mn were an order of magnitude higher than modern exposures in developed countries; therefore, the clinical syndrome seen in the time of Couper is no longer typical of modern Mn exposed workers. Parkinsonism (rigidity, bradykinesia, rest tremor, and postural instability) is present in 15% of Mn-exposed workers in welding industries, and these parkinsonian signs are associated with reduced health status and quality of life. These parkinsonian signs also overlap considerably with the clinical findings seen in early stages of Parkinson disease (PD); although, molecular imaging suggests that Mn-exposed workers have dopaminergic dysfunction in a pattern unique from PD. Furthermore, geographic information system studies demonstrate that regions of the US with high industrial Mn emissions have an increased incidence of PD and increased PD associated mortality. This review will contrast historical, descriptive human studies in Mn-exposed subjects with more recent data and will suggest a research agenda for the 21st century. PMID:24148923

  16. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  17. Teaching 21st Century Process Skills to Strengthen and Enhance Family and Consumer Sciences Education

    Mosenson, Andrea B.; Fox, Wanda S.

    2011-01-01

    Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals need to be equipped with a set of strategies and tools to prepare their students for the challenges they will face in the 21st century. Nationwide, educators are integrating a set of skills deemed essential for student success in college and a career. Building upon these skills and the process areas…

  18. School Censorship in the 21st Century: A Guide for Teachers and School Library Media Specialists.

    Simmons, John S.; Dresang, Eliza T.

    As the world enters the 21st century, the access to information and freedom of speech provided by the Internet and other digital technologies have revolutionized the nature of censorship challenges and opened an entirely new realm of legal and social ramifications for censorship in United States schools. In the midst of this digital revolution,…

  19. TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: UKRAINE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Tetyana V. Danylova

    2013-12-01

    address gender issues in program development. In the 21st century issues of gender equity should be a priority at all levels.

  20. Transforming students into 21st century thinkers through an ASL curriculum

    Brooks, John Charles

    2012-01-01

    This writing explores some of the challenges educators of deaf children are facing in classrooms across America. The 21st century has brought unprecedented levels of diversity to classrooms and deaf students are not immune to this phenomenon. Social learning is at a premium as students face challenges in their overall development. The identification of these challenges is followed by a discussion of innovative instructional methods such as : scaffolding, cooperative learning, and inquiry-base...

  1. Eliciting and shaping tacit knowing for meta-innovation: A challenge for management education in the 21st century transitional university

    S. Kruger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes the implementation of and lessons learnt with an action research project on management teaching and learning in a 21st century transitional university. The project focuses on the problem of how to elicit and shape students' tacit knowing for meta-innovation and is part of a drive to find a new identity for the newly merged comprehensive University of Johannesburg (UJ. Design/methodology/approach: The project under discussion focuses on an undergraduate module, Developing and Managing Innovation, presented by UJ since 2003 as part of the B.Com Intrapreneurial Management degree. This degree has been developed in the light of the recent requirements placed upon managers by the innovation era. Creating new knowledge is not simply a matter of processing objective information but rather of tapping tacit and often highly subjective insights, intuitions and hunches. To find ways to elicit and shape tacit knowing for meta-innovation, an extensive literature study was conducted and a model identified for this purpose. An action research spiral was constructed to validate the teaching and learning interventions. Findings: The paper presents a teaching and learning framework to build theory that is in accord with the African Ubuntu spirit. The framework supports students within powerful learning environments to develop meta-cognition skills by focusing not only on the acquisition of explicit knowledge, but also on ways to elicit and shape tacit knowing. Implications: A community of practice is the bedrock of powerful learning environments in which action and learning, improvisation and experimentation, tacit and explicit knowledge feed on each other to stretch the students' capacity for meta-innovation. This enables them to continually deploy their talents, knowledge, resourcefulness and creativity to best effect as managers and to transform their life and that of their business and of others. Originality/value: The innovative

  2. Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario

    Hansen, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Evidence on a broad range of time scales, from Proterozoic to the most recent periods, shows that the Earth's climate responds sensitively to global forcings. In the past few decades the Earth's surface has warmed rapidly, apparently in response to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The conventional view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate in the 21st century. I will describe an alternate scenario that would slow the rate of global warming and reduce the danger of dramatic climate change. But reliable prediction of future climate change requires improved knowledge of the carbon cycle and global observations that allow interpretation of ongoing climate change.

  3. Estimating Total Solar Irradiance during the 21st century

    Herrera, Victor Manuel Velasco; Mendoza, Blanca; Herrera, Graciela Velasco

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction and prediction of solar activity is one of the current problems in dynamo theory and global climate modeling. We estimate the Total Solar Irradiance for the next hundred years based on the Least Square Support Vector Machine. We found that the next secular solar minimum will occur between the years 2003 and 2063 with an average of 1365.4W/m2 close to the Dalton or Modern minima. We calculate the radiative forcing between the modern maximum and the 21st century minimum to be...

  4. Estimating Total Solar Irradiance during the 21st century

    Herrera, Victor Manuel Velasco; Herrera, Graciela Velasco

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction and prediction of solar activity is one of the current problems in dynamo theory and global climate modeling. We estimate the Total Solar Irradiance for the next hundred years based on the Least Square Support Vector Machine. We found that the next secular solar minimum will occur between the years 2003 and 2063 with an average of 1365.4W/m2 close to the Dalton or Modern minima. We calculate the radiative forcing between the modern maximum and the 21st century minimum to be -0.1W/m2.

  5. The BPM4ED project: Designing 21st century schools

    Domenico Lembo; Massimo Mecella; Mario Vacca

    2013-01-01

    The ways of schooling and teaching is quickly changing for the continuous evolution of the surrounding world: new forms of education are required; in fact, on the one side the birth of the smart cities and the smart community ask for active citizens interacting with institutions and on the other side the enormous potentiality of ICT is modifying both the learning environments and the training models. The so called “21st century schools”, differ from the current ones in almost all the aspects:...

  6. After the book information services for the 21st century

    Stachokas, George

    2014-01-01

    Libraries and librarians have been defined by the book throughout modern history. What happens when society increasingly lets print go in favour of storing, retrieving and manipulating electronic information? What happens after the book? After the Book explores how the academic library of the 21st Century is first and foremost a provider of electronic information services. Contemporary users expect today's library to provide information as quickly and efficiently as other online information resources. The book argues that librarians need to change what they know, how they work, and how they ar

  7. The Ways to Strengthen Democracy in 21st Century

    shazia kiyani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the weaknesses of different democracies of the world in 21st century and suggests some solutions to them. Among the living democracies of the world all of them are not exemplary and among the mediocre ones too all of them are not too bad. Some of the countries are justifying with the splendid principle of democracy and leaving the examples of good governance, self reliance, supremacy of Law and Rule of Equality for the rest of the world. On the other hand some of the countries are still striving hard to establish or retrieve the democracy. We need an ideal of democracy which renders it possible to access to what degree a world government serving a sovereign world parliament could be democratic and independent in order to be prosperous and capable of standing on its own feet in the 21st century. A strong democratic system of government is the only way out for the self reliance and stability of the country. This paper is aimed to identify the problems faced by today’s democratic countries and their solution.

  8. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    Khoury, Muin J [National Institutes of Health; Lam, Tram Kim [National Institutes of Health; Ioannidis, John [Stanford University; Hartge, Patricia [National Institutes of Health; Spitz, Margaret R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Huston; Buring, Julie E. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital; Chanock, Stephen J. [National Institutes of Health; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Zauber, Ann [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Schully, Sheri D [National Institutes of Health

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  9. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  10. YANJI CITY ORIENTATION AND INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY

    2001-01-01

    Yanji is the biggest China Korean inhabited city. Based on a newly finished research project, this paper discusses strategic problems about Yanji towards 21st century. The general point of the authors is that at the beginning of new century,Yanji will play a more important role in Tumen River Delta development, regional economy cooperation in Korea Peninsula as well as Northeast Asia, and it will develop to be an important central city in this area. This paper puts forwards Yanji City′s developing goal, urban nature, and urban size, probes its regional orientation, and further probes how to establish The Yanji Urban Economy Cooperation Zone. The authors think that Yanji should depend on its intellect resources and other characteristic resources. Industry development need to pay much attention to modern agriculture, tertiary industry (especially commerce, trade and tourism) and dominant industries, and high-tech industry must give a special care, in order to establish a light industrial structure.

  11. Projections of Climate Change over China for the 21st Century

    LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; XU Ying; GAO Xuejie; DING Yihui

    2005-01-01

    The projections of climate changes in China for the 21st century by about 40 climate scenarios and multi-model ensembles have been investigated in this research. All the models with the different scenarios project a warming of 1.2℃ to 9.2℃ in China by the end of 21st century. Most of the projections point show the increasing of precipitation in China for the 21st century.

  12. Prospects for competitive nuclear power into the 21st century

    Nuclear power stations committed today will be commissioned in the mid- to late-1990s and will operate for most of their lives in the 21st century. Utilities considering the nuclear option for new increments of capacity are, therefore, required to make judgements now on the competitiveness of nuclear plants well beyond the turn of the century. Reactors committed for mid-1990 startup could have a lifetime competitive cost advantage of 20% to 80% over coal-fired plants in most NEA areas studied except for some parts of North America where low cost coal is available. Nuclear plants would retain an economic advantage in most countries even if they were to be used for load-following with resultant lifetime capacity (load) factors as low as about 60% (or even lower in many countries). Uranium resources are sufficiently large that fuel supply should not constrain nuclear power development well into the 21st century, as long as uranium prices provide a market incentive for continued exploration and mine development. Uranium prices seem unlikely to rise to a level which would remove nuclear's advantage within the next several decades. There is apparently no technological reason why the ''back-end'' of the fuel cycle (spent fuel transportation, storage, reprocessing and disposal of high level waste) and decommissioning of reactors should constrain further deployment of nuclear power. While the costs of these activities appear high in absolute terms, they will be relatively low per unit of electricity generated. Thus, even though there remain uncertainties regarding these future costs, they should have little impact on electricity consumers. (author)

  13. Female leaders in the 21st century in a masculine world

    Martina Kessler

    2014-01-01

    The 21st century shows an increase in the number of women occupying leadership positions. The challenge is: How do they lead in a context which is still male dominated? Often female leaders simply try to copy the male leadership style they are familiar with. But sometimes, in doing so, they lose their femininity and the organisation misses out on the specific opportunities of female leadership. One aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities and strengths of a female leadership style ...

  14. Constitution-making in the 21st century

    Cheryl Saunders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Constitutions have been made or changed in major ways in more than half the countries of the world in recent decades. This article deals with contemporary approaches to constitution-making, organising the analysis around three key phases: setting the agenda, in terms of both substance and process; design, drafting and approval; and implementation. It argues that, while all constitution-making processes are different, there are some distinctive features of constitution-making in the 21st century that include popular participation, the need to build trust, internationalisation in its various forms and the importance of process. The article canvasses examples of constitution-making practices that have been or are likely to be influential. It identifies and briefly explores some of the key tensions in constitution-making between, for example, international involvement and domestic ownership of a Constitution and public participation and leadership.

  15. Death in Design in the 21st Century

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    each constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices dealing with death, grief and memorialization. Design pioneering company IDEO'S recent failed attempt to 'redesign death' is an example of how delicate and difficult it is to work with material and symbolic 'death......The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline, and combined, cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites...... design'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites and services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by the discourses of economics, power, technology and culture. Furthermore many end-users do not recognize the need or potential of a certain death service...

  16. Radiation processing technology in the 21st century

    The address discusses the following issue - towards the 21st century, we are required more and more to create innovative technologies to solve problems about environment, energy, natural resources, materials, health care, food and others which are the great concern to human beings. For the radiation processing technology to survive, it will be required to provide answers to those problems. The use of radiation of polymer modification will remain as an important field of the radiation application. Some other promising polymer processing can be cited as those which will grow in near future; for environment technology - polymeric fibers grafted with ion exchange residues to remove toxic metals for cleaning industrial waste water; For health care technology - crosslinked polyvinylalcohol hydrogel for wound dressing (irradiation of hydrogel); For high performance materials technology - less toxic crosslinked natural rubber latex (irradiation of emulsion), abrasion resistant crosslinked PTFE (irradiation at high temperature)

  17. Coal research strategies for the 21st century

    This paper provides a personal view of the research strategies which will be necessary to develop the new generations of equipment and new concepts and processes which will be required by the coal industry into the 21st century. It is claimed that the economics of coal supply and availability will continue to ensure that coal retains a very significant role as long as it is not targeted by taxes, regulation or penalties which are specifically intended to take it out of contention. In the author opinion, the coal industry needs to show that coal can be produced safely and with acceptable environmental impacts for future land use. These issues of community concern impact on all coal mining companies, and the need is a common one to maintain industry wide collaborative support for research to provide the technological innovation which will be an essential part of their solutions

  18. Identifying 21st century STEM competencies using workplace data

    Jang, Hyewon

    2015-01-01

    Gaps between Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the United States Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work...

  19. Female leaders in the 21st century in a masculine world

    Martina Kessler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century shows an increase in the number of women occupying leadership positions. The challenge is: How do they lead in a context which is still male dominated? Often female leaders simply try to copy the male leadership style they are familiar with. But sometimes, in doing so, they lose their femininity and the organisation misses out on the specific opportunities of female leadership. One aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities and strengths of a female leadership style such as pro-social behaviour and a panorama view. We will also deal with the issue of how women approach power and the power bases women would typically use. One conclusion is that we need the benefits of both male and female leadership for the 21st century

  20. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  1. Intelligent manufacture adapts to agile manufacture production mode in the 21st century

    Li Xurong

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the characteristics of the intelligent manufacturing system and production mode in the21st century in the information age, therefore draws a conclusion that the intelligent manufacturing system adapts to agilemanufacture (AM for short) production mode in the 21 st century.

  2. 77 FR 27253 - Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation

    2012-05-09

    ... (FR vol. 76, no. 224, pgs. 72003-72004). No comments were received. Agency: Institute of Museum and... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program... improvements to the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian (LB21) Grant Program. The information gathered...

  3. Leading the 21st-century academic library successful strategies for envisioning and realizing preferred futures

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2015-01-01

    Leading the 21st Century Academic Library: Successful Strategies for Envisioning and Realizing Preferred Futures will explore the new roles and directions academic libraries are taking in the 21st century as a consequence of visionary leadership in exploring diverse futures.

  4. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  5. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    Greenstein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  6. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    2012-08-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry,...

  7. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    2012-05-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are May 29-30, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  8. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    2012-02-24

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are March 5-6, 2012..., 2012. The AC21 consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food...

  9. DEVELOPING THE 21ST-CENTURY SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    Mohammad Imam FARISI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration into SS learning is one of the learning innovations in the global-digital era, and powerfully supports the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS as stated in their visions: meaningful, powerful, value-based, challenging, and active. It also strongly supports the development of three core skills of the 21st-century, including learning and innovation skills; information, media and technology skills; life and career skills that developed in partnership with the Partnership Forum for 21st-Century Skills (P21. This paper examines and describes academics evolution toward a commitment and further developments in research; 21stcentury skills map for the SS; and the implications for developing teachers’ competences and teachers’ education curriculum.

  10. State, nation and democracy on the 21st century

    Nidia Catherine González Piñeros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between State and Nation in the recent events in Japan and Bolivia, cases in which the universally shared ideas about development and democracy are met with the common criteria for the majority of the countries in the world. This relationship is analyzed comparing the particularities of each context regarding the concepts mentioned. Japan, despite being considered as an economically developed country, is criticized for its lack of exercise of democratic, popular politics. That country, despite being in the 21st century, remains a constitutional monarchy. Thus, given the catastrophic episode from March, 2011, the destiny of the citizens was defined by the imperial family. Bolivia, for its part, since the beginning of this century has managed a national reconstruction that has re-founded the Constitution and, therefore, the nation and the State. However, this democratic reorganization now faces a number of dilemmas where the State is debating between democracy and authoritarianism, as well as between liberal development and development from a communal perspective.