WorldWideScience

Sample records for 20th century warfare

  1. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2 (20CRV2)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the...

  2. Constraining climate model parameters from observed 20th century changes

    Forest, Chris E.; Stone, Peter H; Sokolov, Andrei P.

    2008-01-01

    We present revised probability density functions for climate model parameters (effective climate sensitivity, the rate of deep-ocean heat uptake, and the strength of the net aerosol forcing) that are based on climate change observations from the 20th century. First, we compare observed changes in surface, upper-air, and deep-ocean temperature changes against simulations of 20th century climate in which the climate model parameters were systematically varied. The estimated 90% range of effecti...

  3. External forcing of the early 20th century Arctic warming

    Lingling Suo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The observed Arctic warming during the early 20th century was comparable to present-day warming in terms of magnitude. The causes and mechanisms for the early 20th century Arctic warming are less clear and need to be better understood when considering projections of future climate change in the Arctic. The simulations using the Bergen Climate Model (BCM can reproduce the surface air temperature (SAT fluctuations in the Arctic during the 20th century reasonably well. The results presented here, based on the model simulations and observations, indicate that intensified solar radiation and a lull in volcanic activity during the 1920s–1950s can explain much of the early 20th century Arctic warming. The anthropogenic forcing could play a role in getting the timing of the peak warming correct. According to the model the local solar irradiation changes play a crucial role in driving the Arctic early 20th century warming. The SAT co-varied closely with local solar irradiation changes when natural external forcings are included in the model either alone or in combination with anthropogenic external forcings. The increased Barents Sea warm inflow and the anomalous atmosphere circulation patterns in the northern Europe and north Atlantic can also contribute to the warming. In summary, the early 20th century warming was largely externally forced.

  4. Armenians and 20th century genocide - Debates

    Maria Immacolata Macioti

    2011-01-01

    During the 1800’s – before the well-known genocide, planned in the twentieth century – there were massacres and persecution on Armenian villages. It is important to underline that many Christian Armenians lived in Ottoman Empire. At the beginning of 1800’s they paid many taxes and felt themselves an important part of the Empire. Thus they would have liked to achieve more significant public roles, without losing their religion and cultural background. Howewer, the Turkish leaders and populatio...

  5. Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century

    Narkiewicz, Wladyslaw

    2012-01-01

    The last one hundred years have seen many important achievements in the classical part of number theory. After the proof of the Prime Number Theorem in 1896, a quick development of analytical tools led to the invention of various new methods, like Brun's sieve method and the circle method of Hardy, Littlewood and Ramanujan; developments in topics such as prime and additive number theory, and the solution of Fermat's problem. "Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century: From PNT to FLT" offers a short survey of 20th century developments in classical number theory, documenting between

  6. US Environmental Legislation and Biodiversity over the 20th Century

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    back throughout the development of the United States over the 20th century and continues into the present. We trace this evolution of federal political action to ask how the evolution of U.S. wildlife legislation reflects the tradeoffs between environment and development in spatial and temporal...

  7. The Risorgimento in 20th century Italian political discourse

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    what has remained constant in the memorization and actualization of the Risorgimento in the 20th century political discourse. We single out historical events, public rituals and public discourses unfolding in the context of symbolic years and anniversaries of the nation like 1911, 1932, and 1961 where...

  8. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2c)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2c (20CRV2c)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the...

  9. Educational Expansion and Social Mobility in the 20th Century

    Breen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Sociologists consider inequality in educational attainment to be a major cause of inequality between people in their chances of occupying a more advantageous class position. However, there is dispute as to whether educational inequality according to social class background declined during the 20th century. What is not in doubt is the expansion of…

  10. The Presidential Timeline of the 20th Century

    Resta, Paul; Flowers, Betty S.; Tothero, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the "The Presidential Timeline of the 20th Century," a newly unveiled website jointly created by the Learning Technology Center of The University of Texas at Austin and The National Archives' 12 presidential libraries. This web-based resource provides access to the continually growing store of digitized assets from the…

  11. Weyl geometry in late 20th century physics

    Scholz, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Weyl's original scale geometry of 1918 ("purely infinitesimal geometry") was withdrawn from physical theory in the early 1920s. It had a comeback in the last third of the 20th century in different contexts: scalar tensor theories of gravity, foundations of physics (gravity, quantum mechanics), elementary particle physics, and cosmology. Here we survey the last two segments. It seems that Weyl geometry continues to have an open research potential for the foundations of physics after the turn of the century.

  12. Weyl geometry in late 20th century physics

    Scholz, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Weyl's original scale geometry of 1918 ("purely infinitesimal geometry") was withdrawn from physical theory in the early 1920s. It had a comeback in the last third of the 20th century in different contexts: scalar tensor theories of gravity, foundations of physics (gravity, quantum mechanics), elementary particle physics, and cosmology. Here we survey the last two segments. It seems that Weyl geometry continues to have an open research potential for the foundations of physics after the turn o...

  13. A Special Forum on "20th Century British Women Writers"

    2010-01-01

    <正>This group of essays is written as part of a research project entitled "A Feminist Study of the 20th century British and American Women Writers"(GDUFS211- 1-005),supported by "211 Project" of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies. Feminist literary criticism gained irreversible momentum in 1960s with the rising of the second-wave feminist movement worldwide.The "gynocritics" advocated by Elaine Showalter draws researchers’ attention to the women’s experiences

  14. The top ten California floods of the 20th century

    Roos, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the biggest northern California floods of the 20th century. Flooding in California can occur from different causes. At least three types of floods occur: 1. Winter general floods, which cover a large area. 2. Spring and early summer snowmelt floods unique to the higher-elevation central and southern Sierra Nevada, which occur about once in 10 years on the average. 3. Local floods from strong thunderstorms, with intense rain over a ...

  15. Immigration and Crime in Early 20th Century America

    MOEHLING, CAROLYN; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    Research on crime in the late 20th century has consistently shown that immigrants have lower rates of involvement in criminal activity than natives. We find that a century ago immigrants may have been slightly more likely than natives to be involved in crime. In 1904 prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19 when the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely t...

  16. Constraining climate model parameters from observed 20th century changes

    Forest, Chris E.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P.

    2008-10-01

    We present revised probability density functions for climate model parameters (effective climate sensitivity, the rate of deep-ocean heat uptake, and the strength of the net aerosol forcing) that are based on climate change observations from the 20th century. First, we compare observed changes in surface, upper-air, and deep-ocean temperature changes against simulations of 20th century climate in which the climate model parameters were systematically varied. The estimated 90% range of effective climate sensitivity is 2-5 K but no corresponding upper bound can be placed on the equilibrium climate sensitivity. The net aerosol forcing strength for the 1980s has 90% bounds of -0.70 to -0.27 Wm-2. The rate of deep-ocean heat uptake corresponds to an effective diffusivity, Kv, with a 90% range of 0.04-4.1 cm2s-1. Second, we estimate the effective climate sensitivity and rate of deep-ocean heat uptake for 11 of the IPCC AR4 AOGCMs. By comparing against the acceptable combinations inferred from the observations, we conclude that the rates of deep-ocean heat uptake for the majority of AOGCMs lie above the observationally based median value. This implies a bias in the predictions inferred from the IPCC models alone.

  17. Constraining climate model parameters from observed 20th century changes

    Forest, Chris E.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)). e-mail: ceforest@mit.edu

    2008-07-01

    We present revised probability density functions for climate model parameters (effective climate sensitivity, the rate of deep-ocean heat uptake, and the strength of the net aerosol forcing) that are based on climate change observations from the 20th century. First, we compare observed changes in surface, upper-air, and deep-ocean temperature changes against simulations of 20th century climate in which the climate model parameters were systematically varied. The estimated 90% range of effective climate sensitivity is 2-5 K but no corresponding upper bound can be placed on the equilibrium climate sensitivity. The net aerosol forcing strength for the 1980s has 90% bounds of -0.70 to -0.27 W/m2. The rate of deep-ocean heat uptake corresponds to an effective diffusivity, Kv , with a 90% range of 0.04-4.1 cm2/s. Second, we estimate the effective climate sensitivity and rate of deep-ocean heat uptake for 11 of the IPCC AR4 AOGCMs. By comparing against the acceptable combinations inferred from the observations, we conclude that the rates of deep-ocean heat uptake for the majority of AOGCMs lie above the observationally based median value. This implies a bias in the predictions inferred from the IPCC models alone

  18. Constraining climate model parameters from observed 20th century changes

    Forest, Chris E.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (US)). e-mail: ceforest@mit.edu

    2008-07-01

    We present revised probability density functions for climate model parameters (effective climate sensitivity, the rate of deep-ocean heat uptake, and the strength of the net aerosol forcing) that are based on climate change observations from the 20th century. First, we compare observed changes in surface, upper-air, and deep-ocean temperature changes against simulations of 20th century climate in which the climate model parameters were systematically varied. The estimated 90% range of effective climate sensitivity is 2-5 K but no corresponding upper bound can be placed on the equilibrium climate sensitivity. The net aerosol forcing strength for the 1980s has 90% bounds of -0.70 to -0.27 W/m2. The rate of deep-ocean heat uptake corresponds to an effective diffusivity, K_v , with a 90% range of 0.04-4.1 cm2/s. Second, we estimate the effective climate sensitivity and rate of deep-ocean heat uptake for 11 of the IPCC AR4 AOGCMs. By comparing against the acceptable combinations inferred from the observations, we conclude that the rates of deep-ocean heat uptake for the majority of AOGCMs lie above the observationally based median value. This implies a bias in the predictions inferred from the IPCC models alone

  19. Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2001-05-01

    In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.

  20. Essential shift: Scientific revolution in the 20th century

    Ismay, David K.

    1993-05-01

    With the publishing of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica in 1687, a scientific paradigm was established that clearly dominated society for two and half centuries. Many historians of science have identified the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory, formulated c.1927, as having completed a scientific revolution that ended the reign of classical Newtonian science. A rival claim to contemporary scientific revolution, however, has been put forward by Ilya Prigogine and the Brussels school of thermodynamics based on Prigogine's work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Using the historical consensus model of scientific revolution first articulated by Thomas S. Kuhn in 1962, this analysis examines the extent to which the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory and the work of IIya Prigogine complete the conceptual, scientific paradigm-shift necessary for a scientific revolution. The resulting historical evidence shows that the Copenhagen interpretation did not complete a paradigm-shift; instead, it was a self-revelation by the scientific community which revealed the essence and fundamental limitations of Newtonian science. Evidence further indicates that the valid claim to scientific revolution in the 20th century lies with the contemporary work of Prigogine and the Brussels school. By abandoning the deterministic, mechanical world-view of the Newtonian paradigm and accepting a new reality of process and irreversible time, Prigogine and his associates have established the foundations for a revolutionary new scientific paradigm.

  1. Everglades Plant Community Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Changes

    Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.

    2002-05-01

    Pollen records in sediment cores from sites in the historic Everglades allowed us to document the natural variability of the ecosystem over the past 2,000 years and contrast it to 20th century changes in wetland plant communities. The natural system included extensive water-lily sloughs, sawgrass ridges, and scattered tree islands extending from Lake Okeechobee southward through Shark River Slough. Between ~1000 AD and 1200 AD, weedy species such as Amaranthus (water hemp) became more abundant, indicating decreased annual rainfall, shorter hydroperiods, and shallower water depths during this time. After ~1200 AD, vegetation returned to its pre-1000 AD composition. During the 20th century, two phases of hydrologic alteration occurred. Completed by 1930, the first phase included construction of the Hoover Dike, canals linking Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Tamiami Trail. Reconstructions of plant communities indicate that these changes shortened hydroperiods and lowered water depths throughout the Everglades. The extent of water-lily slough communities decreased, and tree islands became larger in Shark River Slough. The second phase resulted from construction of canals and levees in the 1950s, creating three Water Conservation Areas. The response of plant communities to these changes varied widely depending on location in the Everglades. In Loxahatchee NWR, weedy and short-hydroperiod plant species became more abundant in marshes, and species composition of tree islands changed. In Water Conservation Area 2A, cattail replaced sawgrass in marshes with high nutrient influx; the ridge and slough structure of the marshes was replaced by more homogeneous sawgrass marshes; sustained high water levels for more than a decade resulted in loss of tree islands that had existed for more than 1,000 years. In Everglades National Park, the extent of slough vegetation decreased further. Near Florida Bay, the rate of mangrove intrusion into fresh-water marshes

  2. EDUCATIONAL POTENTIAL OF THE 20TH CENTURY PHILOSOPHICAL ADVENTURE FICTION

    Y. Y. Kozmina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the potential impact of studying the 20th century philosophical adventure fiction on educational process. In spite of the well-recognized idea of M. M. Bakhtin about the equality of classical and grotesque-fantastic aesthetic traditions, the former still predominates in the secondary and higher school curricula. The research aims to demonstrate the educational opportunities of the philosophical adventure fantasy; the content of the given concept being defined along with its specific features: unconditional world description, experimental plot type, discrepancy between the fantastic world created by the author and the real laws of nature, the hero’s experience in the alien world, related moral and philosophical problems.The author substantiates the idea of incorporating  the number of philosophical adventure novels into the Literature course in secondary schools, and the Theory and History of Literature course in  the higher schools of the humanities profile to facilitate the detailed and in-depth comprehension of theoretical topics concerning literary genres, types of literary heroes, grotesque adventure traditions, fantasy types, etc. 

  3. Global physical water scarcity trajectories for the 20th century

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Eisner, Stefanie; Flörke, Martina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Food security and the overall wellbeing of human kind are threatened by overexploitation of our freshwater resources. Water scarcity is not only a threat to people, but also to many of the planet's key ecosystems. Due to increasing population pressure, changing water consumption behaviour, and climate change, the threat is projected to become even worse in the future. Water can be physically scarce in two ways: population-driven water shortage occurs in areas where a large population has to depend on a limited resources (indicated by m3/capita/yr), while demand-driven water stress is related to the excessive use of otherwise sufficient water resources (indicated by demand/supply ratio). Although many studies have increased our understanding of current water scarcity and how this may increase in the future, the understanding of trajectories with the past development of the water scarcity is less well understood. To date, studies of past water resources have focused on either water shortage or water stress. We aim to calculate global water scarcity, both water stress and water shortage, for the period 1900-2005. We can thus provide, for the first time, continuous regional trends and local analyses of trajectories of water scarcity for the entire 20th century. By including both dimensions of water scarcity, we can increase the understanding of reasons behind the scarcity. We found that in year 1900 13% of the population (i.e. 0.22 billion people) was living in areas that suffer some kind of water scarcity (0.2), while in year 2005 this percentage has increased to 57% (3.80 billion). Especially the population suffering from both high water stress (ratio >0.4) and high water shortage (<1000 m3/capita/yr) has risen considerably, from 2% (29 million people) in 1900, up to 19% (1.2 billion people) in 2005. Geographically these concern mainly northern African regions, the Middle East, Pakistan and parts of India and Northern China. The region of sub-Saharan Africa mainly

  4. Writing by 20th-Century Women Reflects Era's Female-Male Conflict, Critics Argue.

    Paul, Angus

    1986-01-01

    Two women's study of writing by women in the 20th century found unexpectedly bitter and persistent anxiety and female-male conflict and a common theme of confinement and suppression of emotions and thoughts. (MSE)

  5. Population Migration in the Territory of Former Yugoslavia in the 20th Century

    Škerlová, Jana

    Praha: Historický ústav, 2015, s. 169-195 ISBN 978-80-7286-260-3 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : population migration * forced migration s * resettlement * Yugoslavia * 20th century Subject RIV: AB - History

  6. Shanghai-based industrialization in the early 20th century: a quantitative and institutional analysis

    Ma, Debin

    2006-01-01

    A significant but uneven spurt of industrialization started in China during the first three decades of the 20th century at a time of political instability and national disintegration. This article argues that economic growth during this period was closely associated with the rise and expansion of major treaty ports designated under the Western imperialist framework. I focus on the political institutions of a city-state adopted in early 20th century Shanghai – the rule of law, secure property ...

  7. Towards a 20th Century History of Relationships between Theatre and Neuroscience

    Gabriele Sofia

    2014-01-01

    This article considers some preliminary reflections in view of a 20th century theatre-and-neuroscience history. Up to now, the history of the 20th century theatre has been too fragmentary and irregular, missing out on the subterranean links which, either directly or indirectly, bound different experiences. The article aims to put in evidence the recurrent problems of these encounters. The hypothesis of the essay concerns the possibility of gathering and grouping a great part of the relationsh...

  8. The Metaphysical Structure of Education in the 20th Century.

    Winchester, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Lists presuppositions or assumptions that have been fundamental to educational thought in this century. Explores the "metaphysics of education" through a historical comparison and contrast of Eastern and Western educational thought and development. Discusses universal schooling as necessary for economic success and industrialization in the…

  9. New Testament Studies in the 20th Century

    Hurtado, Larry W

    2009-01-01

    Considered diachronically, NT studies in the twentieth century is a story of vigorous scholarship. Especially after World War II, there is increasing diversification in approach and in the makeup of scholars, with a noticeable shift of centre to English-speaking settings (especially North America), and greater involvement of Roman Catholic, Evangelical, and Jewish scholars, a growing prominence of women, and a proliferation of approaches.

  10. Radiation legacy of the 20th century: Environmental restoration

    As a result of events in the twentieth century, mainly related to the development of nuclear energy, mankind has been forced to deal with the restoration of the environments which contain radioactive residues. The International Conference RADLEG-200 was particularly focused on the radioactive legacy of the countries of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. By means of reviews and case studies the conference assessed the overall situation with respect to the contaminated sites and sources of potential environmental contamination and evaluated the achievements of rehabilitation and remediation programmes as well as identifying future needs in this field. The Conference was attended by 266 participants from 16 countries and 6 international organizations with 49 papers presented orally and 64 presented as posters. This publication contains the 49 orally presented papers, each of them was indexed separately

  11. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  12. KEY ASPECTS OF SYSTEMIC LINGUISTICS IN GREAT BRITAIN AT THE END OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Gavrilova, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with some peculiarities of the development of British linguistics at the end of the 20th century. We show its links with earlier developments in the science, providing a general comparison of British and American linguistic traditions. Since the key theory of linguistics in Great Britain in the 20th century was the London School, all the subsequent concepts were, to an extent, based on it. Systemic-functional linguistics looks at the use of language in the context of speech,...

  13. Ministers on the Lecture Circuit: Education, Entertainment and Religion in Early 20th Century America

    Lisa Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the early 20th century, some American ministers were eager participants in the Chautauqua and Lyceum lecture circuits that flourished across the Midwest and beyond. Ministers expressed their vocation in the public arena, and the Redpath Chautauqua collection shows how part of this public life was conducted. In their role as lecturers in multiple educational and civic venues, ministers functioned as experts on the Bible, as well as supporting American ideals that were loosely connected to Protestant Christianity. The essay explores how a substantial archival collection reveals a particular public role ministers played in a popular culture venue in early 20th century America.

  14. Towards a 20th Century History of Relationships between Theatre and Neuroscience

    Gabriele Sofia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers some preliminary reflections in view of a 20th century theatre-and-neuroscience history. Up to now, the history of the 20th century theatre has been too fragmentary and irregular, missing out on the subterranean links which, either directly or indirectly, bound different experiences. The article aims to put in evidence the recurrent problems of these encounters. The hypothesis of the essay concerns the possibility of gathering and grouping a great part of the relationships between theatre and neuroscience around four trajectories: the physiology of action, the physiology of emotions, ethology, and studies on the spectator’s perception.

  15. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  16. Serbian schools and teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century

    Blagojević Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this work is Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century. During the first half of the 20th century the existence of Serbian people in Turkey (later in Greece was acknowledged through school and church. Thanks to the Serbian schools, Serbs as an invisible minority became a visible one. In the second half of the 20th century there is primarily a teaching of Serbian language as a foreign language. During this period, Serbian was accepted primarily by Greeks at courses and private classes. At the beginning of the nineties in the 20th century because of the war in the territory of Yugoslavia, a large number of refugees went to Greece. Teaching of Serbian as a native language was organized only ten years later (at the beginning of 21st century. In some places, the schools are located in consular sections and have the assistance of the country of origin (Thessalonica, Katerini while in Hani (Crete immigrants organized them-selves without the assistance from the country of origin. By studying Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language, this work considers relation towards language as a symbol of ethnic identity - at the individual level, at the level of receiving country and at the level of country of origin.

  17. Sexism in Advertising Industry Through the Study of Auto Magazine Advertisements in Late 20th Century

    冯冉

    2015-01-01

    Gender discrimination against female in advertising industry appears to be ubiquitous especially in late 20th century. I intend to demonstrate that auto ads are under the influence of common gender stereotype which discriminates women as an inferior role in the society.

  18. The 20th century retreat of ice caps in Iceland derived from airborne SAR

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnsson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen; Pálsson, Finnur

    the surges in W-Vatnajokull in the 20th century are observed in the SAR data including the most recent surges in the 1990s. Interestingly no push moraines were observed in front of the surge advance, but the moraines appear when the glaciers start retreating. We estimate that the collective decrease...

  19. Climate Change: Sources of Warming in the Late 20th Century

    Marsh, Gerald E

    2009-01-01

    The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, volcanic and other aerosols, as well as the extraordinary solar activity of the late 20th century are discussed in the context of the warming since the mid-1970s. Much of that warming is found to be due to natural causes.

  20. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  1. Retrospective on Educational Testing and Assessment in the 20th Century.

    Clarke, Marguerite M.; Madaus, George F.; Horn, Catherine L.; Ramos, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the growth of the U.S. testing industry since the 1900s. Discusses the technical developments that have encouraged the use of standardized testing and contributed to the growth of the testing industry. Attempts to quantify the expansion of the testing marketplace through the 20th century. Includes references. (CMK)

  2. Observed and model simulated 20th century Arctic temperature variability: Canadian Earth System Model CanESM2

    Chylek, P.; Li, J.; Dubey, M. K.; Wang, M.; Lesins, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present simulations of the 20th century Arctic temperature anomaly from the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2). The new model couples together an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, a land-vegetation model and terrestrial and oceanic interactive carbon cycle. It simulates well the observed 20th century Arctic temperature variability that includes the early and late 20th century warming periods and the intervening 1940–1970 period of substantial cooling. The add...

  3. Observed and model simulated 20th century Arctic temperature variability: Canadian Earth System Model CanESM2

    Chylek, P.; Li, J.; Dubey, M. K.; Wang, M.; Lesins, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present simulations of the 20th century Arctic temperature anomaly from the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2). The new model couples together an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, a land-vegetation model and terrestrial and oceanic interactive carbon cycle. It simulates well the observed 20th century Arctic temperature variability that includes the early and late 20th century warming periods and the intervening 1940–1970 period of substantia...

  4. Temperature variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century

    Radovanović Milan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available According to data of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climatic Change, the global surface air temperature increased to 0,6 ± 0,2 °C in the 20th century. Weber G. R., (1995 quotes that there is a trend of cold in the last 60 years in the middle latitudes including Europe, too. Starting from already mentioned perplexities we have tried to perceive the problem of climate variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century, when it came to very important increasing of concentration of CO2. With that aim we observed the decade values of average annual temperatures in the network of 20 climatic stations. In the period 1951 - 1990 a decrease of temperature was registered in 13 stations while in other stations an increase was less than 0,1 °C. Explorers from Bulgaria (Alexandrov V., 2000 and Hungary (Domonkos P., Zoboki J., 2000 came to similar results, too. However, if we take in account the last decade 20th century the number of stations with positive changes is enlarged on 15. Stations that have small changes and those with decrease of temperature were localized in the south and south eastern part of the country, and they are mainly coincided with before separated climatic regions with maritime pluviometric regime (Radovanović M., 2001. Using Dzerdzevskis B. L., (1975 division on three main types of circulation in the north hemisphere, we found that the increase of temperatures in the last decade 20th century is above all caused by change of dominant type of circulation from the south meridian to zonal. An analysis of seasonal changes showed that in the last five decades 20th century it came to decrease of winter temperatures in almost half of the stations in contrast with results of paleoclimatics models of possible greenhouse effect.

  5. A balance between radiative forcing and climate feedback in the modeled 20th century temperature response

    Crook, Julia A.; Forster, Piers M.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we breakdown the temperature response of coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models into components due to radiative forcing, climate feedback, and heat storage and transport to understand how well climate models reproduce the observed 20th century temperature record. Despite large differences between models' feedback strength, they generally reproduce the temperature response well but for different reasons in each model. We show that the differences in forcing and heat storage and transport give rise to a considerable part of the intermodel variability in global, Arctic, and tropical mean temperature responses over the 20th century. Projected future warming trends are much more dependent on a model's feedback strength, suggesting that constraining future climate change by weighting these models on the basis of their 20th century reproductive skill is not possible. We find that tropical 20th century warming is too large and Arctic amplification is unrealistically low in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory CM2.1, Meteorological Research Institute CGCM232a, and MIROC3.2(hires) models because of unrealistic forcing distributions. The Arctic amplification in both National Center for Atmospheric Research models is unrealistically high because of high feedback contributions in the Arctic compared to the tropics. Few models reproduce the strong observed warming trend from 1918 to 1940. The simulated trend is too low, particularly in the tropics, even allowing for internal variability, suggesting there is too little positive forcing or too much negative forcing in the models at this time. Over the whole of the 20th century, the feedback strength is likely to be underestimated by the multimodel mean.

  6. Drought assessment and trends analysis from 20th century to 21st century over China

    Yang, X. L.; Ren, L. L.; Tong, R.; Liu, Y.; Cheng, X. R.; Jiang, S. H.; Yuan, F.

    2015-06-01

    Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in China and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provides a unique opportunity to assess scientific understanding of climate variability and change over a range of historical and future period. In this study, fine-resolution multimodel climate projections over China are developed based on 7 CMIP5 climate models under RCP8.5 emissions scenarios by means of Bilinear Interpolation and Bias Correction. The results of downscaled CMIP5 models are evaluated over China by comparing the model outputs with the England Reanalysis CRU3.1 from 1951 to 2000. Accordingly, the results from the output of downscaled models are used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Time series of SPI has been used to identify drought from 20th century to 21st century over China. The results show that, most areas of China are projected to become wetter as a consequence of increasing precipitation under RCP8.5 scenarios. Detailed examination shows that the SPI show a slightly increasing trend in the future period for the most parts of China, but drought in Southwest region of China will become the norm in the future RCP8.5 scenarios.

  7. The process of Danish nurses’ professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address how the professionalization process is reflected in the way Danish nursing textbooks present 'nursing' to new members of the profession during the 20th century. The discussion is based on a discourse analysis of seven Danish textbooks on basic nursing published between...... 1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed to...... changes in tasks and responsibilities for nurses or to the implementation of increasing amounts of knowledge and theories from other disciplines than medicine into the nurses' knowledge base. However, inspired by Foucault, we consider these historical changes to be the conditions of possibilities and not...

  8. Brief Communication: Global reconstructions of glacier mass change during the 20th century are consistent

    B. Marzeion; Leclercq, P.W.; Cogley, J. G.; A. H. Jarosch

    2015-01-01

    Recent estimates of the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise during the 20th century are strongly divergent. Advances in data availability have allowed revisions of some of these published estimates. Here we show that outside of Antarctica, the global estimates of glacier mass change obtained from glacier-length-based reconstructions and from a glacier model driven by gridded climate observations are now consistent with each other, and also with an estimate for the yea...

  9. Durability problems of 20th century reinforced concrete heritage structures and their restorations

    Teshome Gebregziabhier, Tekeste

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the 20th century reinforced concrete heritage structures, thier durability problems, thier repair and restorations according to the conservation principles of heritage structures and the repair principles of reinforced concrete structures.The common problems on reinforced concrete heritage structures such as reinforcement corrosion, alkali aggregate reaction, freeze thaw and overloading of the structure are identified and thier respective repair m...

  10. The Philosophy of education in Catalonia in the 20th century : dialectics, synthetics and vitalists

    Xavier LAUDO CASTILLO; Conrad VILANOU TORRANO

    2013-01-01

    This text is a contribution to the history of philosophy of contemporary education, which presents three major currents in educational philosophy in Catalonia in the 20th century. In the beginning it deals with the line of thinkers represented by Eugenid’Ors and OctaviFullat, who understood education as a dialectic between two poles or opposites in constant conflict.Then it will analyze the synthetic view following Jaume Balmes and the constantly modernizing pedagogy from Cardenal Mercier in ...

  11. Peace-Making Ideas by M.M. Kovalevsky at the Beginning of 20th Century

    NIKOLAEV N.Yu.

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals the peace-making ideas of famous historian, sociologist and lawyer M.M. Kovalevsky at the beginning of 20th century and analyzes the sociological conception of solidarity which served as the basis for his views on war and peace. He considered social progress as broadening of solidarity sphere which was unavoidably promoted to the consciousness of political integration society. The scientist approximately compared the progress with concentric circles which embodied of unint...

  12. Protection through Proof of Age. Birth Registration and Child Labor in Early 20th Century USA.

    Sonja Fagernäs

    2011-01-01

    A birth certificate establishes a child's legal identity and is the sole official proof of a child's age. However, quantitative estimates on the economic significance of birth registration are lacking. Birth registration laws were enacted by the majority of U.S. states in late 19th and early 20th centuries. Controlling for state of birth and cohort effects, the differential timing of birth registration laws across US states is used to identify whether birth registration changed the effectiven...

  13. An Emotive Mechanism: Phonographic Wonders and Possibilities at the Turn of the 20th Century

    Garza, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the intellectual and cultural reception of the phonograph at the turn of the 20th century in Western Europe and the United States. My main goal in this project is to investigate the varied reception of the phonograph by different constituencies, such as scientists, cultural critics, ethnomusicologists, and musicians. From apprehension to enthusiasm, the phonograph generated a diverse set of reactions amongst its users and listeners. In order to better understand ...

  14. Modeling the temperature evolution of Svalbard permafrost during the 20th and 21st century

    B. Etzelmüller; T. V. Schuler; K. Isaksen; H. H. Christiansen; H. Farbrot; R. Benestad

    2011-01-01

    Variations in ground thermal conditions in Svalbard were studied based on measurements and modelling. Ground temperature data from boreholes were used to calibrate a transient heat flow model describing depth and time variations in temperatures. The model was subsequently forced with historical surface air temperature records and possible future temperatures downscaled from multiple global climate models. We discuss ground temperature development since the early 20th century, and the thermal ...

  15. A Science of Interests: The Project of 20th Century Positivist International Law

    Garcia-Salmones Rovira, Monica

    2012-01-01

    A Science of Interests: The Project of 20th Century Positivist International Law This research aims to contribute to a project of reconceptualisation of the concept of law within which discussions over publicness are possible. It is a study of the substance and of the form of positive international law. In particular, it constitutes an investigation of how each determines the other. The research addresses geologically the change in the substance and form of international law in the 20t...

  16. [Anti-positivist inspiration in European medical historiography in the 20th century].

    Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2002-01-01

    The article presents the most important anti-positivist (the neo-romantic, socio-cultural and relativistic) currents in 20th century European medical historiography. The author discusses the genesis of the anti-positivist opposition in the medical historiography, starting with a presentation of the main points of the positivist programme, and shows the reasons behind the earlier broad reception of this programme by medical historians from the medical profession. The author attributes the emergence of an anti-positivist opposition in this milieu mainly to the medical progress which occurred in the first half of the 20th century and which induced some doctors, engaged in research into medical history, to reject the positivist model of teaching and replace it wit another. This factor played a leading role in the formation of the socio-cultural and relativist currents. According to the author, the second important factor in the birth of this opposition is the 20th century progress in the methodology of historical research, which freed itself from the constraints of positivist scientism as the only acceptable method of interpreting facts. The author also discusses the socio-cultural and political conditions which led to the formation and spread of the neo-romantic movement solely in Germany. The article presents the programme principles and the most important representatives of anti-positivist currents in European (mainly German) and the circumstances behind the reception of each current by the community of medical historians, and presents the development prospects of Polish medical historiography on the treshold of the 20th and 21st centuries, in connection with the research into this field of science undertaken by a large and continuously growing number of university-educated researchers. PMID:12934578

  17. From posters to displaying: poster communication in Osijek in the early 20th century

    Zoran Velagić; Merien Gracek

    2008-01-01

    There are many monographs, articles, chapters and exhibitions and their catalogues dedicated to Croatian posters from the early 20th century. Posters are evaluated as works of art, but received very little attention as an advertising medium. Their communication and advertising role in the specified time and place has not been investigated thoroughly. This paper does not investigate the relationship between the artistic and marketoriented aspects of posters, neither does it evaluate which and ...

  18. Changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century

    Beusen, Arthur; van Beek, Rens; Bouwman, Lex; Mogollón, José; Middelburg, Jack

    2016-04-01

    Dramatic world-wide changes occurred during the 20th century in both nutrient delivery and in-stream retention. In this paper, we use a combined nutrient-input, hydrology, in-stream nutrient retention model to quantitatively track the changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century. Global nutrient delivery almost doubled due to expanding agriculture and increasing wastewater discharge. Nutrient retention also increased by a factor of two as a result of the rapidly growing number of dams and reservoirs. This increase in nutrient retention could not balance the increase in nutrient delivery to rivers. River export to coastal seas increased during the 20th century from 19 to 37 Tg yr-1 of N and 2 to 4 Tg yr-1 of P. There are important differences in riverine N:P export ratios in various parts of the world resulting from the interplay of multiple processes and economic activities in different river basins. Increasing nutrient loading of freshwater systems is a threat to water quality. Furthermore, the global river export increase in the molar N:P ratio during recent decades may affect the ecology within both the river basins and the coastal system. This ratio change may be driven by the recent stagnation of P fertilizer use in most industrialized countries, in comparison to the ever increasing N fertilizer use.

  19. Inconsistencies and Fallacies: IPCC 20th Century Simulations, Multi-Model Ensembles and Climate Sensitivity

    Rogers, N. L.

    2009-12-01

    The IPCC used an experiment that had approximately 20 different climate models fit the temperature history of the 20th century. A remarkably good and convincing fit was obtained by combining selected models into a multi-model ensemble. This may be seen in figure 9.5 of the AR4 Scientific Basis report. The fallacy is that each modeling group used different forcings, effectively simulating a different imaginary planet. Since the IPCC models differ by more than 2-1 in climate sensitivity it would be quite amazing if they could all agree on temperature in the late 20th century when CO2 was rapidly increasing. Allowing each model to be excited by different forcings effectively makes the model be a rather complicated curve fitting program. If one accepts that the models are being used to do curve fitting then the supposedly better results obtained by averaging multiple models is easily explainable as the reduction of error that results from averaging approximations to a function with uncorrelated errors. Finally the late 20th century temperature rise is too small for a 3 degree climate sensitivity for doubling of CO2 and the explanations for the warming shortfall that rely on aerosol cooling or ocean warming are easily refuted.There may be alternative explanations for the shortfall or it may be that climate sensitivity is much lower than projected by the IPCC.

  20. The process of Danish nurses' professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century.

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we address how the professionalization process is reflected in the way Danish nursing textbooks present 'nursing' to new members of the profession during the 20th century. The discussion is based on a discourse analysis of seven Danish textbooks on basic nursing published between 1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed to changes in tasks and responsibilities for nurses or to the implementation of increasing amounts of knowledge and theories from other disciplines than medicine into the nurses' knowledge base. However, inspired by Foucault, we consider these historical changes to be the conditions of possibilities and not causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with 'the disappearance of the body', a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought to emerge was driven by a professional interest in describing nursing as an independent profession. PMID:25238323

  1. Alfred Werner's role in the mid-20th century flourishing of American inorganic chemistry.

    Labinger, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    The development of organic and physical chemistry as specialist fields, during the middle and end of the 19th century respectively, left inorganic behind as a decidedly less highly regarded subfield of chemistry. Despite Alfred Werner's groundbreaking studies of coordination chemistry in the early 20th century, that inferior status remained in place - particularly in the US - until the 1950s, when the beginnings of a resurgence that eventually restored its parity with the other subfields can be clearly observed. This paper explores the extent to which Werner's heritage - both direct, in the form of academic descendants, and indirect - contributed to those advances. PMID:24983802

  2. The face and life of Lisbon movie theaters in the 20th century

    Talitha Ferraz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the book Os cinemas de Lisboa: um fenômeno do século XX [Movie theaters in Lisbon: a 20th century phenomenon], Margarida Acciaiuoli makes a discuss about the relationship between collective equipment of cinema leisure and urban settings of the Portuguese capital, signaling as the exhibition was engendered in the processes of production of social space and sociabilities of the city, over the past century. Our review highlights the issues raised by the author, about the history of cinema-building as a symbol of modern time.  

  3. Sea Level did not Accelerate in the Last Quarter of the 20th Century

    Galvin, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL)collects quality-controlled sea levels from tide gages on all seas, and tabulates them at www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/psmsl(underline)individual(underline)stations.html. I examined annual average sea levels (Ra in column 6) for generally open-coast tide gages having data at the years defining quarter points in the 20th century: 1900, 1925, 1950, 1975, 2000. Gages lacking data for a given date, say 1975, were assumed to qualify if they had data for one year, plus or minus, of the missing data, i. e., for 1974 or 1976 in this example. This examination of data from gages on all seas identified 54 gages with data for the last three of the five dates, which included 26 gages with data for the last four of the five dates, which included 7 gages with data for all five dates. This means that sea-level change during the last quarter (Q4) of the 20th century could be compared at 54 sites with sea-level change in Q3, at 26 sites with sea- level change in Q2, and at 7 sites with sea-level change in Q1, providing 87 tests of the widely reported acceleration in rate of sea-level rise at the end of the 20th century. If sea level is rising at an accelerating rate, then sea-level rise during Q4 should almost always exceed sea-level rises in Q1, Q2, and Q3 of the 20th century. Of the 87 tests, 44 showed more sea-level rise in Q4, and 43 showed less sea-level rise in Q4, compared to the earlier quarters. Thus there is no evidence for an accelerating rise in sea level at the end of the 20th century from these quality-controlled data. The data do indicate that sea-level changes are synchronized over long reaches of shoreline (Sturges, 1990), and sites where gages are imbedded in deposits of clastic sediment have higher apparent sea-level rise attributable to sediment compaction. Beach erosion on the East Coast of the U.S. is widely attributed to the acceleration of sea-level rise, yet all 8 long-term gages at this coast show significantly LESS

  4. Sexism in Advertising Industry Through the Study of Auto Magazine Advertisements in Late 20th Century Century

    冯冉

    2015-01-01

    Gender discrimination against female in advertising industry appears to be ubiquitous especially in late 20th century.I intend to demonstrate that auto ads are under the influence of common gender stereotype which discriminates women as an inferior role in the society.

  5. Impacts of external forcing on the 20th century global warming

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of external forcing, including natural and anthropogenic, on the 20th century global warming were assessed with the use of the Grid Atmospheric Model of IAP/LASG Version 1.1.0, following the standard coordinated experiment design of the Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) International Climate of the Twentieth Century Project (C20C), Phase II. The results indicate that external forcing plays an important role in the evolution of the land surface air temperature on interannual, decadal, and interdecadal time scales, and contributes greatly to the global warming in the following two periods: the early twentieth century between the 1910s and the 1940s and the late twentieth century after the 1970s. External forcing also has strong impact on the regional temperature change during the two warming periods except for parts of the Eurasia and the North America continents. In the cooling period, however, the impact of internal variability is dominant.

  6. Assortative mating and differential fertility by phenotype and genotype across the 20th century.

    Conley, Dalton; Laidley, Thomas; Belsky, Daniel W; Fletcher, Jason M; Boardman, Jason D; Domingue, Benjamin W

    2016-06-14

    This study asks two related questions about the shifting landscape of marriage and reproduction in US society over the course of the last century with respect to a range of health and behavioral phenotypes and their associated genetic architecture: (i) Has assortment on measured genetic factors influencing reproductive and social fitness traits changed over the course of the 20th century? (ii) Has the genetic covariance between fitness (as measured by total fertility) and other traits changed over time? The answers to these questions inform our understanding of how the genetic landscape of American society has changed over the past century and have implications for population trends. We show that husbands and wives carry similar loadings for genetic factors related to education and height. However, the magnitude of this similarity is modest and has been fairly consistent over the course of the 20th century. This consistency is particularly notable in the case of education, for which phenotypic similarity among spouses has increased in recent years. Likewise, changing patterns of the number of children ever born by phenotype are not matched by shifts in genotype-fertility relationships over time. Taken together, these trends provide no evidence that social sorting is becoming increasingly genetic in nature or that dysgenic dynamics have accelerated. PMID:27247411

  7. Coupled Model Simulations of Climate Changes in the 20th Century and Beyond

    YU Jiaqiang; ZHI Hai; WANG Bin; WAN Hui; LI Chai; LIU Hailong; LI Wei; ZHENG Weipeng; ZHOU Tianjun

    2008-01-01

    Several scenario experiments of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report (AR4) are performed by version g1.0 of a Flexible coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model (FGOALS) developed at the Institute of At- mospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP/CAS), including the "Climate of the 20th century experiment", "CO2 1% increase per year to doubling experiment" and two separate IPCC greenhouse gases emission scenarios AIB and B1 experiments. To distinguish between the different impacts of natural vari- ations and human activities on the climate change, three-member ensemble runs are performed for each scenario experiment. The coupled model simulations show: (1) from 1900 to 2000, the global mean temper- ature increases about 0.5℃ and the major increase occurs during the later half of the 20th century, which is in consistent with the observations that highlights the coupled model's ability to reproduce the climate changes since the industrial revolution; (2) the global mean surface air temperature increases about 1.6℃ in the CO2 doubling experiment and 1.5℃ and 2.4℃ in the AlB and Bl scenarios, respectively. The global warming is indicated by not only the changes of the surface temperature and precipitation but also the temperature increase in the deep ocean. The thermal expansion of the sea water would induce the rise of the global mean sea level. Both the control run and the 20th century climate change run are carried out again with version g1.1 of FGOALS, in which the cold biases in the high latitudes were removed. They are then compared with those from version g1.0 of FGOALS in order to distinguish the effect of the model biases on the simulation of global warming.

  8. Coupled model simulations of climate changes in the 20th century and beyond

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhi, Hai; Wang, Bin; Wan, Hui; Li, Chao; Liu, Hailong; Li, Wei; Zheng, Weipeng; Zhou, Tianjun

    2008-07-01

    Several scenario experiments of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report (AR4) are performed by version g1.0 of a Flexible coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model (FGOALS) developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP/CAS), including the “Climate of the 20th century experiment”, “CO2 1% increase per year to doubling experiment” and two separate IPCC greenhouse gases emission scenarios A1B and B1 experiments. To distinguish between the different impacts of natural variations and human activities on the climate change, three-member ensemble runs are performed for each scenario experiment. The coupled model simulations show: (1) from 1900 to 2000, the global mean temperature increases about 0.5°C and the major increase occurs during the later half of the 20th century, which is in consistent with the observations that highlights the coupled model’s ability to reproduce the climate changes since the industrial revolution; (2) the global mean surface air temperature increases about 1.6°C in the CO2 doubling experiment and 1.5°C and 2.4°C in the A1B and B1 scenarios, respectively. The global warming is indicated by not only the changes of the surface temperature and precipitation but also the temperature increase in the deep ocean. The thermal expansion of the sea water would induce the rise of the global mean sea level. Both the control run and the 20th century climate change run are carried out again with version g1.1 of FGOALS, in which the cold biases in the high latitudes were removed. They are then compared with those from version g1.0 of FGOALS in order to distinguish the effect of the model biases on the simulation of global warming.

  9. PLOT REELED INTO AN EKPHRASIS IN BELLES LETTRES OF THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Elena Vasil’evna Astaschenko

    2015-01-01

    Plots reeled into the ekphrasis have always existed. In belles lettres of the beginning of the 20th century, the fight between the pagan and the Christian manifests in the opposition of scenic space and it creates a powerful «magnetic» field. This is a special type of mythologism in which the Christian imagery is on the positive side of the binary opposition with its respective system of ethical coordinates. In «polytheistic systems, the presentations of evil is static as of the essential and...

  10. Nelson Lichtenstein vs. Nelson Lichtenstein and the 20th Century Labor Question

    Donna Kesselman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available As Nelson Lichtenstein writes, State of the Union explores the relationship between 20th century U.S. unions and the “labor question,” i.e., the condition of workers, notably marked by social injustice, industrial strife and dislocation. Why, he asks, did labor stand far closer to the center of the nation’s political and moral consciousness than it does today and what role has institutional unionism played here? In other words, why have labor’s “larger ambitions” failed?In this paper, I hope ...

  11. Survival advantage of siblings and spouses of centenarians in 20th-century Quebec

    Robert Bourbeau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longevity runs in families, either through genetic or environmental influences. Using Quebec civil registration and historical Canadiancensuses, we compared the longevity of siblings and spouses of 806 centenarians to a group of controls, all born in Quebec at the turnof the 20th century. Our results show that siblings of centenarians, who share half of their genes and a common childhood environment,lived 3–4 years longer than their birth cohort. However, husbands and wives of centenarians lived 4 and 2.5 years longer than theircounterparts of the same sex, respectively, suggesting that longevity is also modulated by shared environment in adulthood.

  12. Advances in stability theory at the end of the 20th century

    Martynyuk, AA

    2003-01-01

    This volume presents surveys and research papers on various aspects of modern stability theory, including discussions on modern applications of the theory, all contributed by experts in the field. The volume consists of four sections that explore the following directions in the development of stability theory: progress in stability theory by first approximation; contemporary developments in Lyapunov''s idea of the direct method; the stability of solutions to periodic differential systems; and selected applications. Advances in Stability Theory at the End of the 20th Century will interest postgraduates and researchers in engineering fields as well as those in mathematics.

  13. Shades of modernism. Lvov literary criticism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

    Tomasz Sobieraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of Lwowska krytyka literacka 1894-1914. Tendencje i problemy by Katarzyna Sadkowska, an attempted monograph of the most outstanding and most representative literary criticism phenomena observed in modernist Lvov at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The book offers a dominant interpretation strategy typical of the cultural history of literature, presenting the analysed texts in the context of diverse relations. The monograph focuses on the achievements of Ostap Ortwin, Karol Irzykowski, Stanisław Womela and Tadeusz Sobolewski. The author has reconstructed many formerly unknown segments of modernist literary criticism in Lvov.

  14. [German-Japanese scientific exchange in urology in the early 20th century].

    Halling, T; Umehara, H; Moll, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the importance of the German language and German culture and institutional development of urology in Japan in the early 20th century, starting from the development of the medical school for Japanese in Germany and their function in the process of modernization of the Meiji period (1868-1912). Examples of bi-directional German-Japanese relations in medicine, which also included an integrated knowledge transfer, are shown. The study is based mainly on Japanese and German sources about Japanese physicians in Germany as well as contemporary publications in German and international medical journals. Methodologically, the article combines quantitative analysis with individual biographical aspects. PMID:24452403

  15. René leriche and the development of 20th century surgery

    IONCIOAIA, BOGDAN; BUD, IOAN TEODOR; MURESAN, MIRCEA

    2016-01-01

    René Leriche (1879–1955) was a 20th century French surgeon generally known in medicine for the syndrome that carries his name, namely the Leriche syndrome in the aorto-iliac occlusive disease. This paper is published to mark the commemoration of 60 year since Leriche’s death. Although Dr. Leriche’s legacy resides in the domain of vascular medicine, his research enclosed bone pathology and surgical management of pain. Having his surgical training done under professors Mathieu Jaboulay and Anto...

  16. Banknote Typography with a Particular Reference to Croatia through the 20th Century

    Vilko Žiljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the research of transformation of formatting information on banknotes during the 20th century, which is the period of some of the greatest graphical innovations after Gutenberg’s invention of movable type printing. Computer graphics had taken over in the field of typography in the exact moment of hand engraving’s highest level of art in the creation of the font cut. About forty years ago, the era of etching used in copper etching and steel engraving in hand - made drawings had begun, along with the use of phototypesetting as the representative of digital technology. Quality of the written lines has introduced microtypography as a special method of rasterization in the background of banknotes. In Croatia, the above mentioned modifications are present through the works of our typographers, even though the multiplication of banknotes was done in foreign printing houses that had appropriately protected printing technology. The paper contributes to the scientific analysis of the technical aspect of banknote making on Croatia’s soil during the course of the 20th century, and this, with the methods of analysis and synthesis incorporated, gives a clear picture and transparency into the method of banknote making, both from a technological and development cycle - making aspect. Given the fact that not only the Croatian banknotes are examined, analysis contributes to comparative procedures of local scopes in the field of technological manufacture of other banknotes that belong to the same time period.

  17. Model-based constraints on interpreting 20th century trends in ice core 10Be

    Field, Christy V.; Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2009-06-01

    Beryllium-10 ice-core records are useful for understanding solar magnetic field changes over time, and in particular over the 20th century, during which there are a variety of relevant observations. However, differences between 10Be snow concentration records from different locations complicate the process of developing a coherent understanding of changes in cosmogenic isotope production. We use the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE general circulation model to simulate the production and transport of beryllium isotopes for this time period. We compare our results with surface air observations, and with ice-core records from Dye 3, Taylor Dome, and South Pole. We find that unforced weather-related (internal) variability causes modeled trends in 10Be snow concentration to vary from the ensemble mean by 50% and greater at all three ice-core locations. Lower levels of internal variability at Taylor Dome and South Pole relative to Dye 3 make the simulated 10Be values at these locations better estimates of the ensemble-mean trend in 10Be snow concentration. In addition, the ensemble mean concentration trend at Dye 3 was significantly different from the expected modeled trend based on applied production changes alone. Overall, the results imply that during the 20th century, 10Be data from multiple cores are likely to be required to make meaningful inferences about 10Be production changes. The model simulations imply that data from Antarctica are likely to be more robust.

  18. Atom pictures. Iconography of the atom in science and public of the 20th century

    The 20th century can be described as century of the atom. From the development of molecular models until nanotechnology, from Becquerel's discovery of the radioactivity until the reactor accident in Chernobyl was and remains the atom subject of the research as well as of the discussion in culture and politics. Thereby the concept and the imagination of the ''atom'' have been subjected to manifold changes, which were essentially generated by pictures. The volume summarizes famous as well as less famous pictures from laboratories, exhibitions, publications, and films. It gives both a contribution to the history of science and culture and a summarizing of different disciplinary approaches to the circulation of pictures between science and public

  19. The municipal continuum: Research on maritime water pollution in Helsinki in the 20th century

    Laurila, S. K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social History; Laakkonen, S. J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Policy

    2004-07-01

    In general, the history of environmental research is not known very well. Our study contributes to filling this gap by focusing on the history of the methods that were used during the 20th century to study the state of the urban sea area in Helsinki, Finland. From the beginning of the past century, the methodological basis of municipal water pollution studies in Helsinki was broad, involving the use of physical, chemical, hygienic and biological methods. Since 1904, municipal laboratories have overseen and conducted most physico-chemical and bacteriological studies of pollution of urban watercourses, and they have done regular annual sampling since 1947. In the 1920s and 1930s, the municipal laboratories cooperated with the University of Helsinki and, secondarily, with the Helsinki University of Technology in order to develop the skills and manpower that were required in order to conduct pollution studies. Statutory monitoring was initiated in the mid-1960s, and it continues today. (orig.)

  20. „One-way ticket” Romanian Migration at the beginning of the 20th century

    Silvia Bocancea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the new age of migration that we are experiencing now, the social mobility specific to the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century may be defined by the expression “one way ticket”; the immigrant, usually a man, used to leave his country of origin and settle for good in his host-country (he did not look for his happiness from state to state, as it happens now. The Romanian migration of that time was directed mainly towards the New World (particularly to the USA, and less to Canada. This paper is an attempt to sketch the image of Romanian emigration by taking into account the peculiarities determined by: emigration causes, geographical predominance, social composition, occupational options in the host-country, and the structure of Romanian immigrant communities.

  1. A brief history of 20th century dam construction and a look into the future

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation, an overview is given of global dam building activities in the 20th century. Political, economical and hydrological factors shaped the building of large dams. The development of the relations between these three factors and dam building over time is examined. One can argue whether or not history is simply "one damn thing after another" but the second half of the 20th century suggests that history is at least reflected by the construction of one dam after another. The financial crisis of the 1930's started the first construction wave of large hydropower dams in the United States. This wave continued into the Second World War. During the Cold War, the weapon race between the USA and USSR was accompanied by a parallel neck-and-neck race in dam construction. By the 1970's, dam construction in the USA tapered off, while that in the USSR continued until its political disintegration. In China, we see two spurts in dam development, the first one coinciding with the disastrous Great Leap Forward and the second with the liberalization of the Chinese economy after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Economic and political events thus shaped to an important extent decisions surrounding the construction of large dams. Clearly, there are some hydrological prerequisites for the construction of dams. The six largest dam building nations are USSR, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and India, all large countries with ample water resources and mountain ranges. Australia has relatively little reservoir storage for the simple fact that most of this country is flat and dry. A few countries have relatively large amounts of reservoir storage. Especially Uganda (Owens Falls), Ghana (Akosombo), and Zimbabwe (Kariba) are examples of small countries where gorges in major rivers were "natural" places for large dams and reservoirs to be built early on. It seems that, deserts aside, the average potential storage capacity lies for most continents around 10 cm or about 50% of the total

  2. Determination and characterization of 20th century global sea level rise

    Kuo, Chung-Yen

    In this study, we provide a determination of the 20th Century (1900--2002) global sea level rise, the associated error budgets, and the quantifications of the various geophysical sources of the observed sea level rise, using data and geophysical models. We analyzed significant geographical variations of the global sea level including those caused by the steric component (heat and salinity) in the ocean, and the self-gravitational signal as a result of ice sheets melting, including the effects of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) since the Pleistocene. In particular, relative sea level data from long-term (longest is 150 year records) and over 600 tide gauge sites globally from PSMSL and other sources, and geocentric sea level data from multiple satellite altimetry (1985--2005) have been used to determine and characterize 20th century global sea level rise. Altimeter and selected tide gauge sea level data have been used for the 20th century sea level determination, accounting for relative biases between the altimeters, effects of sea level corresponding to oceanic thermal expansion, vertical motions affecting tide gauge measurements, self gravitations, and barotropic ocean response. This study is also characterized by the roles of the polar ocean in the global sea level study and addressing the question whether there is a detectable sea level rise acceleration during the last decade. Vertical motions have been estimated by combining geocentric sea level measurements from satellite altimetry (TOPEX/POSEIDON) and long-term relative (crust-fixed) sea level records from global tide gauges using the Gauss-Markov (GM) model with stochastic constraints. The study provided a demonstration of improved vertical motion solutions in semi-enclosed seas and lakes, including Fennoscandia and the Great Lakes region, showing excellent agreement with independent GPS observed radial velocities, or with predictions from GIA models. In general, the estimated uncertainty of the observed

  3. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  4. Causes of mortality and development: Evidence from large health shocks in 20th century America

    Worm Hansen, Casper

    Exploiting pre-intervention variation in flu/pneumonia, tuberculosis and maternal mortality, together with time variation arising from medical breakthroughs starting in the late 1930s, this paper studies the aggregate impact of large health shocks across US states. The analysis demonstrates that...... the shocks influenced income per capita in different ways. While the shock to flu/pneumonia mortality has been conductive for development, the large reduction in the incidence of tuberculosis deaths has been a negative force in the development of US states over the second-half of 20th century. In...... addition, the decline in maternal mortality has a fragile, but positive relationship with income per capita. Because these specific health shocks affected mortality across the life cycle differently, the evidence here underscores the general tenet of regarding health as multifaceted....

  5. [Sexual stereotypes of institutional confinement in Quebec, at the turn of the 20th century].

    Thifault, Marie-Claude

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerning the men and women patients of the Hôpital Saint-Jean-de-Dieu investigates gender stereotyping in mental disorders during the late-19th and early-20th centuries through an analysis of quantitative sources from over 8357 admissions. The asylum records (Registre des idiots de la Providence and the medical record, Form C) reveal that there were few differences between the medical diagnoses given and the behaviours of the patients who had been judged insane by their families. Nevertheless, a number of interesting contrasts emerge. The evidence also indicates gender distinctions; in general, the applicants tended to deny feeble-mindedness in men but recognized it as natural in women. PMID:20533782

  6. Spatial Database of Geological Survey Extent in 20th Century in China

    Wang Quanming; Ye Tianzhu; Fang Yiping; Chen Jianguo; Li Shuyu; Zhang Daquan

    2003-01-01

    During the whole 20th century in China, especially the latest 50 years, we have gotten much geological information about geological mapping, geophysics, geochemistry, mineral exploration,remote sensing, environmental geology, hydrogeoiogy, engineering geology and oceanic geology etc. by our geologists and explorers. All the information has been accumulated and can be used as a decisionmaking foundation for the future plan of geological survey. The spatial database of geological survey extents has been established by using computer technology. The database contained all kinds of exploration sections and collected about 160 000 records in this database. This paper introduces the data construction, contents and applying system of this database, and trys to let people know what kinds of geological survey were finished, when the exploration were carried out, and how and where you can get this information.

  7. Extragalactic research in Europe and the United States in the early 20th century

    Duerbeck, H. W.

    2002-07-01

    While the theoretical foundations of modern relativistic cosmology were laid, to a large extent, by European researchers like Einstein, de Sitter, Friedmann, Lemaître, and others, observational cosmology was (and to a large extent, still is) dominated by US astronomers, working at Lick and Mt. Wilson observatories. From today's viewpoint, Hubble appears to dwarf all his - national and international - peers. However, Keeler and Curtis, Fath and Slipher carried out pioneering work in the US, as did Wolf, Wirtz, Lundmark, de Sitter in Europe, both by observation and by statistical analysis of data. European extragalactic research during the early 20th century is outlined and compared with studies in the United States. Reasons for the small impact of European research are a mixture of deliberate and accidental neglect and suppression, as well as the lack of technical and organizational infrastructure, which was especially noticeable after World War I.

  8. Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century

    Simon Krek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

  9. Anthropogenic aerosols may have increased upper tropospheric humidity in the 20th century

    M. Bister

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent simulations of deep convection with a spectral microphysics cloud model show that an increase in aerosol concentration can have a significant effect on the nature of convection with more ice precipitation and less warm rain in polluted air. The cloud lifetime and the area covered by cloud anvils of deep convection are also larger for polluted air. Therefore, it is possible that the increase of anthropogenic aerosols in most of the 20th century has increased humidity and perhaps also cloudiness in the mid- to upper troposphere. Satellite data of upper tropospheric relative humidity in 1979–1997 and observed changes in cloudiness support this hypothesis. As changes in upper tropospheric humidity strongly affect longwave radiation, it is possible that anthropogenic aerosols have had a significant warming effect in addition to their other known effects on radiation.

  10. Brief Communication: Global glacier mass loss reconstructions during the 20th century are consistent

    B. Marzeion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise during the 20th century that were published in recent years are strongly divergent. Advances in data availability have allowed revisions of some of these published estimates. Here we show that outside of Antarctica, the global estimates of glacier mass loss obtained from glacier-length-based reconstructions and from a glacier model driven by gridded climate observations are now consistent with each other, and also with an estimate for the years 2003–2009 that is mostly based on remotely sensed data. This consistency is found throughout the entire common periods of the respective data sets. Inconsistencies of reconstructions and observations persist in estimates on regional scales.

  11. Brief Communication: Global glacier mass loss reconstructions during the 20th century are consistent

    Marzeion, B.; Leclercq, P. W.; Cogley, J. G.; Jarosch, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise during the 20th century that were published in recent years are strongly divergent. Advances in data availability have allowed revisions of some of these published estimates. Here we show that outside of Antarctica, the global estimates of glacier mass loss obtained from glacier-length-based reconstructions and from a glacier model driven by gridded climate observations are now consistent with each other, and also with an estimate for the years 2003-2009 that is mostly based on remotely sensed data. This consistency is found throughout the entire common periods of the respective data sets. Inconsistencies of reconstructions and observations persist in estimates on regional scales.

  12. Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (Ice Age (???1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm Period (???800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ???450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ???70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3??C, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Brief Communication: Global reconstructions of glacier mass change during the 20th century are consistent

    Marzeion, B.; Leclercq, P. W.; Cogley, J. G.; Jarosch, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent estimates of the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise during the 20th century are strongly divergent. Advances in data availability have allowed revisions of some of these published estimates. Here we show that outside of Antarctica, the global estimates of glacier mass change obtained from glacier-length-based reconstructions and from a glacier model driven by gridded climate observations are now consistent with each other, and also with an estimate for the years 2003-2009 that is mostly based on remotely sensed data. This consistency is found throughout the entire common periods of the respective data sets. Inconsistencies of reconstructions and observations persist in estimates on regional scales.

  14. Long-term non-linear predictability of ENSO events over the 20th century

    Astudillo, H F; Borotto, F A

    2015-01-01

    We show that the monthly recorded history (1878-2013) of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), a descriptor of the El Ni\\~no Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, can be well described as a dynamic system that supports an average nonlinear predictability well beyond the spring barrier. The predictability is strongly linked to a detailed knowledge of the topology of the attractor obtained by embedding the SOI index in a wavelets base state space. Using the state orbits on the attractor we show that the information contained in the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is sufficient to provide average nonlinear predictions for time periods of 2, 3 and 4 years in advance throughout the 20th century with an acceptable error. The simplicity of implementation and ease of use makes it suitable for studying non linear predictability in any area where observations are similar to those that describe the ENSO phenomenon.

  15. WILLIAM GURNEE SINNIGEN - 20TH CENTURY CLASSICIST AND ROMAN HISTORIAN: BIOGRAPHY & BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Matthew Gray Marsh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available William Gurnee Sinnigen was a Classicist and Roman historian, active in the mid-to-late 20th century. Trained at the University of Michigan by noted Roman administrative historian Arthur E. R. Boak, Sinnigen continued his mentor’s work in administrative history, producing several articles on different aspects of Roman and Byzantine administrative topics.  Sinnigen was also responsible for the revision and update of Boak’s acclaimed textbook on Roman history, as well as Charles Alexander Robinson’s textbook on Ancient history.  This article will provide a brief biography of Professor Sinnigen, along with a bibliography of his published works and reviews by other scholars of his work.

  16. Cloud tuning in a coupled climate model: Impact on 20th century warming

    Golaz, J.-C.; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Levy, Hiram

    2013-05-01

    Climate models incorporate a number of adjustable parameters in their cloud formulations. They arise from uncertainties in cloud processes. These parameters are tuned to achieve a desired radiation balance and to best reproduce the observed climate. A given radiation balance can be achieved by multiple combinations of parameters. We investigate the impact of cloud tuning in the CMIP5 GFDL CM3 coupled climate model by constructing two alternate configurations. They achieve the desired radiation balance using different, but plausible, combinations of parameters. The present-day climate is nearly indistinguishable among all configurations. However, the magnitude of the aerosol indirect effects differs by as much as 1.2 Wm - 2, resulting in significantly different temperature evolution over the 20th century.

  17. Modeling the temperature evolution of Svalbard permafrost during the 20th and 21st century

    Etzelmüller, B.; Schuler, T. V.; Isaksen, K.; Christiansen, H. H.; Farbrot, H.; Benestad, R.

    2011-02-01

    Variations in ground thermal conditions in Svalbard were studied based on measurements and modelling. Ground temperature data from boreholes were used to calibrate a transient heat flow model describing depth and time variations in temperatures. The model was subsequently forced with historical surface air temperature records and possible future temperatures downscaled from multiple global climate models. We discuss ground temperature development since the early 20th century, and the thermal responses in relation to ground characteristics and snow cover. The modelled ground temperatures show a gradual increase between 1912 and 2010, by about 1.5 °C to 2 °C at 20 m depth. The active layer thickness (ALT) is modelled to have increased slightly, with the rate of increase depending on water content of the near-surface layers. The used scenario runs predict a significant increase in ground temperatures and an increase of ALT depending on soil characteristics.

  18. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1973-01-01

    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  19. Changes in skin tanning attitudes. Fashion articles and advertisements in the early 20th century.

    Martin, Jo M; Ghaferi, Jessica M; Cummins, Deborah L; Mamelak, Adam J; Schmults, Chrys D; Parikh, Mona; Speyer, Lark-Aeryn; Chuang, Alice; Richardson, Hazel V; Stein, David; Liégeois, Nanette J

    2009-12-01

    Historical reviews suggest that tanning first became fashionable in the 1920s or 1930s. To quantitatively and qualitatively examine changes in tanning attitudes portrayed in the popular women's press during the early 20th century, we reviewed summer issues of Vogue and Harper's Bazaar for the years 1920, 1927, 1928, and 1929. We examined these issues for articles and advertisements promoting skin tanning or skin bleaching and protection. We found that articles and advertisements promoting the fashionable aspects of tanned skin were more numerous in 1928 and 1929 than in 1927 and 1920, whereas those promoting pale skin (by bleaching or protection) were less numerous. These findings demonstrate a clear shift in attitudes toward tanned skin during this period. PMID:19846688

  20. Simulation of Sea Ice in FGOALS-g2: Climatology and Late 20th Century Changes

    XU Shiming; SONG Mirong; LIU Jiping; WANG Bin; LI Lijuan; HUANG Wenyu; LIU Li

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice is an important component in the Earth's climate system.Coupled climate system models are indispensable tools for the study of sea ice,its internal processes,interaction with other components,and projection of future changes.This paper evaluates the simulation of sea ice by the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model Grid-point Version 2 (FGOALS-g2),in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5),with a focus on historical experiments and late 20th century simulation.Through analysis,we find that FGOALS-g2 produces reasonable Arctic and Antarctic sea ice climatology and variability.Sea ice spatial distribution and seasonal change characteristics are well captured.The decrease of Arctic sea ice extent in the late 20th century is reproduced in simulations,although the decrease trend is lower compared with observations.Simulated Antarctic sea ice shows a reasonable distribution and seasonal cycle with high accordance to the amplitude of winter summer changes.Large improvement is achieved as compared with FGOALS-g1.0 in CMIP3.Diagnosis of atmospheric and oceanic forcing on sea ice reveals several shortcomings and major aspects to improve upon in the future:(1) ocean model improvements to remove the artificial island at the North Pole;(2) higher resolution of the atmosphere model for better simulation of important features such as,among others,the Icelandic Low and westerly wind over the Southern Ocean; and (3) ocean model improvements to accurately receive freshwater input from land,and higher resolution for resolving major water channels in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

  1. On the transformation of antique stories and images in German literature of the 20th century

    Sharypina T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of Russian and foreign scholars, the work is aimed at studying the specificity of the transformation of antique stories and images, which is the desired model in the art of the 20th century thanks to its fluidity and unlimited variability. Actualization of antique stories and images in the works of German-language writers account for life-changing moments of social life, the periods of losing of constant moral landmarks and the periods of looking for new moral and aesthetic ideals. The analysis of the reception and transformation of mythological stories and images in the contemporary literature proves the conception of its polysemy. The built-in contradiction of myths is realized through the transformation of mythological stories and images in the literary works of contemporary writers and is explained by the individuality of writers and theirs aesthetic aims. On the one side, the absence de facto in German drama of the 20th century of interpretations of the story about Achilles and of the image of Achilles, and numerous variations on the topic of moral strivings of fearless and peccant Ulysses, on the other side, are proving the statements of classic aesthetic that the tragedy is based on the conflict, which is close to lofty and linked with the idea of dignity of the man, which is ready and capable of promoting the views of his own by the real acts that are often lead to suffer and death. According to Aristotle, the sympathy for the character leads to catharsis - the basis of education of real civic-mindedness and humanness.

  2. Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model

    Kloster, Silvia [Cornell University; Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Randerson, Jim [University of California, Irvine; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Levis, Sam [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Lawrence, Peter J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Feddema, Johan J. [University of Kansas; Oleson, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Lawrence, David M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

    2011-01-01

    Fire is an integral Earth System process that interacts with climate in multiple ways. Here we assessed the parametrization of fires in the Community Land Model (CLM-CN) and improved the ability of the model to reproduce contemporary global patterns of burned areas and fire emissions. In addition to wildfires we extended CLM-CN to account for fires related to deforestation. We compared contemporary fire carbon emissions predicted by the model to satellite-based estimates in terms of magnitude and spatial extent as well as interannual and seasonal variability. Long-term trends during the 20th century were compared with historical estimates. Overall we found the best agreement between simulation and observations for the fire parametrization based on the work by Arora and Boer (2005). We obtained substantial improvement when we explicitly considered human caused ignition and fire suppression as a function of population density. Simulated fire carbon emissions ranged between 2.0 and 2.4 Pg C/year for the period 1997 2004. Regionally the simulations had a low bias over Africa and a high bias over South America when compared to satellite-based products. The net terrestrial carbon source due to land use change for the 1990s was 1.2 Pg C/year with 11% stemming from deforestation fires. During 2000 2004 this flux decreased to 0.85 Pg C/year with a similar relative contribution from deforestation fires. Between 1900 and 1960 we predicted a slight downward trend in global fire emissions caused by reduced fuels as a consequence of wood harvesting and also by increases in fire suppression. The model predicted an upward trend during the last three decades of the 20th century as a result of climate variations and large burning events associated with ENSO-induced drought conditions.

  3. Simulating the 20th Century Arctic Climate Using A Global Coupled Atmosphere-Ice-Ocean Model

    Wang, J.; Watanabe, E.; Jin, M.; Hasumi, H.

    2006-12-01

    The simulations of the Arctic ice-ocean circulation using the high resolution global coupled atmosphere-ice- ocean model with 1/6x1/4 degrees and 48 vertical layers on the `Earth Simulator' supercomputer was evaluated to determine the model performance, physics soundness, and its sensitivity to different process parameterizations. The model was parameterized by GM (Gent and McWilliams 1990) parameterization to the north of 45N. The statistical time series of the total oceanic and ice kinetic energy and ice areas suggest that there is an equilibrium without any T/S restoring or flux adjustment, and no model drifting is found. The model climatology (mean over all the model years) and variability were examined and compared with the available observations, such as ice area, temperature and salinity at certain key depths and transects. Several important physical features in the Northern Hemisphere, such as the thermohaline in the Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Water, meridional thermohaline overturning, transports from Bering Strait, Fram Strait etc., were examined to determine physical soundness of the model. An important achievement is that the Atlantic Layer in the Arctic can be reasonably reproduced with no restoring temperature and salinity to observations. An important criterion of reproducing the Atlantic Layer variability is measured by the core (max) temperature of the layer of 500-1500m. The model produces reasonably the 20th century Atlantic Water core temperature that compares well with observation by Polyakov et al. (2004). The model catches the 1930s-40s warming and the 1990s warming, similar to the observation. These results indicate that this coupled global model captures most important dynamic and thermodynamic processes in the Arctic Ocean. Furthermore, the winter Dipole Anomaly (DA) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) in the Arctic atmosphere and their contribution to sea ice export are investigated using the 20th century simulation.

  4. Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model

    Kloster, S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Thornton, P. E.; Hoffman, F. M.; Levis, S.; Lawrence, P. J.; Feddema, J. J.; Oleson, K. W.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2010-06-01

    Fire is an integral Earth System process that interacts with climate in multiple ways. Here we assessed the parametrization of fires in the Community Land Model (CLM-CN) and improved the ability of the model to reproduce contemporary global patterns of burned areas and fire emissions. In addition to wildfires we extended CLM-CN to account for fires related to deforestation. We compared contemporary fire carbon emissions predicted by the model to satellite-based estimates in terms of magnitude and spatial extent as well as interannual and seasonal variability. Long-term trends during the 20th century were compared with historical estimates. Overall we found the best agreement between simulation and observations for the fire parametrization based on the work by Arora and Boer (2005). We obtained substantial improvement when we explicitly considered human caused ignition and fire suppression as a function of population density. Simulated fire carbon emissions ranged between 2.0 and 2.4 Pg C/year for the period 1997-2004. Regionally the simulations had a low bias over Africa and a high bias over South America when compared to satellite-based products. The net terrestrial carbon source due to land use change for the 1990s was 1.2 Pg C/year with 11% stemming from deforestation fires. During 2000-2004 this flux decreased to 0.85 Pg C/year with a similar relative contribution from deforestation fires. Between 1900 and 1960 we predicted a slight downward trend in global fire emissions caused by reduced fuels as a consequence of wood harvesting and also by increases in fire suppression. The model predicted an upward trend during the last three decades of the 20th century as a result of climate variations and large burning events associated with ENSO-induced drought conditions.

  5. Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model

    S. Kloster

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an integral Earth System process that interacts with climate in multiple ways. Here we assessed the parametrization of fires in the Community Land Model (CLM-CN and improved the ability of the model to reproduce contemporary global patterns of burned areas and fire emissions. In addition to wildfires we extended CLM-CN to account for fires related to deforestation. We compared contemporary fire carbon emissions predicted by the model to satellite-based estimates in terms of magnitude and spatial extent as well as interannual and seasonal variability. Long-term trends during the 20th century were compared with historical estimates. Overall we found the best agreement between simulation and observations for the fire parametrization based on the work by Arora and Boer (2005. We obtained substantial improvement when we explicitly considered human caused ignition and fire suppression as a function of population density. Simulated fire carbon emissions ranged between 2.0 and 2.4 Pg C/year for the period 1997–2004. Regionally the simulations had a low bias over Africa and a high bias over South America when compared to satellite-based products. The net terrestrial carbon source due to land use change for the 1990s was 1.2 Pg C/year with 11% stemming from deforestation fires. During 2000–2004 this flux decreased to 0.85 Pg C/year with a similar relative contribution from deforestation fires. Between 1900 and 1960 we predicted a slight downward trend in global fire emissions caused by reduced fuels as a consequence of wood harvesting and also by increases in fire suppression. The model predicted an upward trend during the last three decades of the 20th century as a result of climate variations and large burning events associated with ENSO-induced drought conditions.

  6. Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model

    S. Kloster

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an integral Earth System process that interacts with climate in multiple ways. Here we assessed the parametrization of fires in the Community Land Model (CLM-CN and improved the ability of the model to reproduce contemporary global patterns of burned areas and fire emissions. In addition to wildfires we extended CLM-CN to account for fires related to deforestation. We compared contemporary fire carbon emissions predicted by the model to satellite based estimates in terms of magnitude, spatial extent as well as interannual and seasonal variability. Longterm trends during the 20th century were compared with historical estimates. Overall we found the best agreement between simulation and observations for the fire parametrization based on the work by Arora and Boer (2005. We obtain substantial improvement when we explicitly considered human caused ignition and fire suppression as a function of population density. Simulated fire carbon emissions ranged between 2.0 and 2.4 Pg C/year for the period 1997–2004. Regionally the simulations had a low bias over Africa and a high bias over South America when compared to satellite based products. The net terrestrial carbon source due to land use change for the 1990s was 1.2 Pg C/year with 11% stemming from deforestation fires. During 2000–2004 this flux decreased to 0.85 Pg C/year with a similar relative contribution from deforestation fires. Between 1900 and 1960 we simulated a slight downward trend in global fire emissions, which is explained by reduced fuels as a consequence of wood harvesting and partly by increasing fire suppression. The model predicted an upward trend in the last three decades of the 20th century caused by climate variations and large burning events associated with ENSO induced drought conditions.

  7. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC and cloudy types; most of these studies focus on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain since the second half of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. These estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866–2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the majority of the trends observed in many areas of the world in previous

  8. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC and cloudy types; most of these studies are focused on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review the previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain since the second third of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. This estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866–2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the major part of the previous trends observed at many areas of the

  9. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Calbó, J.; Wild, M.

    2012-07-01

    Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC) and cloudy types; most of these studies focus on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain) since the second half of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. These estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866-2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant) increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the majority of the trends observed in many areas of the world in previous studies, especially

  10. Rise and fall of hypofractionation in clinical radiotherapy in the 20th century

    The purpose of this article is to review of the use of hypofractionated radiotherapy during the last two centuries. We define hypofractionation as any treatment where the individual fraction exceeds 2.0 Gray (Gy). The number of fractions is disregarded. The struggle of the early radiotherapists, the slow acceptance of fractionation, and the battle between the German and the French schools are reviewed. The early mathematical formulae of biological effects radiation are described and commented on. The paramount contribution in radiotherapy by British scientists gave rise to a new science: radiobiology. This branch had now matured into an exact discipline, separate from, and yet utterly depending on, its 100 years old sibling: Diagnostic Radiology. The come-back and fall of hypofractionation during two centuries is described, and set in relation to the treatment philosophy of the corresponding period. Injuries are described, and the long latency period for late reactions pointed out. Some of the legal aspects of the injuries are discussed. The come-back of hypofractionation - twice declared dead and buried the 20th century - in the late 1990's is explained. The brilliant incorporation variability (α andβ) into mathematical exactness (the LQ-formula) has had, and will have a profound impact on clinical radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Numerical Simulation of Global Temperature Change during the 20th Century with the IAP/LASG GOALS Model

    马晓燕; 郭裕福; 石广玉; 俞永强

    2004-01-01

    The IAP/LASG GOALS coupled model is used to simulate the climate change during the 20th century using historical greenhouse gases concentrations, the mass mixing ratio of sulfate aerosols simulated by a CTM model, and reconstruction of solar variability spanning the period 1900 to 1997. Four simulations,including a control simulation and three forcing simulations, are conducted. Comparison with the observational record for the period indicates that the three forcing experiments simulate reasonable temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature change. The global warming during the 20th century is caused mainly by increasing greenhouse gas concentration especially since the late 1980s; sulfate aerosols offset a portion of the global warming and the reduction of global temperature is up to about 0.11°C over the century; additionally, the effect of solar variability is not negligible in the simulation of climate change over the 20th century.

  12. Observed and model simulated 20th century Arctic temperature variability: Canadian Earth System Model CanESM2

    Chylek, P.; Li, J.; Dubey, M. K.; Wang, M.; Lesins, G.

    2011-08-01

    We present simulations of the 20th century Arctic temperature anomaly from the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2). The new model couples together an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, a land-vegetation model and terrestrial and oceanic interactive carbon cycle. It simulates well the observed 20th century Arctic temperature variability that includes the early and late 20th century warming periods and the intervening 1940-1970 period of substantial cooling. The addition of the land-vegetation model and the terrestrial and oceanic interactive carbon cycle to the coupled atmosphere-ocean model improves the agreement with observations from 1900-1970, however, it increases the overestimate of the post 1970 warming. In contrast the older generation coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models Canadian CanCM3 and NCAR/LANL CCSM3, used in the IPCC 2007 climate change assessment report, overestimate the rate of the 20th century Arctic warming by factor of two to three and they are unable to reproduce the observed 20th century Arctic climate variability.

  13. Observed and model simulated 20th century Arctic temperature variability: Canadian Earth System Model CanESM2

    P. Chylek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present simulations of the 20th century Arctic temperature anomaly from the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2. The new model couples together an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, a land-vegetation model and terrestrial and oceanic interactive carbon cycle. It simulates well the observed 20th century Arctic temperature variability that includes the early and late 20th century warming periods and the intervening 1940–1970 period of substantial cooling. The addition of the land-vegetation model and the terrestrial and oceanic interactive carbon cycle to the coupled atmosphere-ocean model improves the agreement with observations from 1900–1970, however, it increases the overestimate of the post 1970 warming. In contrast the older generation coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models Canadian CanCM3 and NCAR/LANL CCSM3, used in the IPCC 2007 climate change assessment report, overestimate the rate of the 20th century Arctic warming by factor of two to three and they are unable to reproduce the observed 20th century Arctic climate variability.

  14. Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. III. From the Establishment of the Republic of Croatia on June 25th, 1991 to the End of the Century

    Trinajstić, N.; Kaštelan-Macan (ur.), M.; Paušek-Baždar, S.; Vančik, H.

    2012-01-01

    In this last part of our attempt to present briefly the history of Croatian chemistry in the 20th century, the development of chemistry in the Republic of Croatia, established as an independent state on June 25th, 1991 is outlined. The last 10 years of the 20th century are characterized first by defense of the country by arms until 1995, and then until the end of century, and after the constructive building of the foundations of Croatia....

  15. Reconstructing 20th Century Summer Precipitation on the South-Central Tibetan Plateau

    Conroy, J. L.; Hudson, A. M.; Overpeck, J. T.; Cole, J. E.; Liu, K.; Wang, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has experienced significant increases in temperature over the 20th century, but trends in precipitation are less clear, as station precipitation records are sparse and satellite observations only extend back to 1979. Here we use the sediment record from Ngamring Co, a closed-basin, freshwater lake in south-central Tibet, to assess summer precipitation over the last century. Ngamring Co is located in a watershed without glaciers, so recent changes in runoff and lake level are independent of the influence of glacial ice volume. The first principal component of the Ngamring Co grain size dataset is highly correlated with median grain size and covaries significantly with local July-August precipitation from the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). From 1979 to 2007, median grain size decreases with increasing July-August precipitation and increases with decreasing July-August precipitation. There is prominent multidecadal variability in the 20th century grain size record, including a gradual decline in median grain size from 1900 to 1930, a gradual increase in median grain size from 1930 to 1990, and a rapid decline in median grain size since 1990. Median grain size values from 2000-2007 are the lowest in the 107-year record, suggesting the most abundant monsoon precipitation in the last 107 years has occurred in the last decade. Satellite images of the lake also confirm an increase in lake area since the early 1990s, but also show the greatest lake area occurred in the 1970s. Thus, although summer precipitation and lake area do covary, precipitation does not seem to control grain size by influencing lake area. We presently hypothesize that increased July-August precipitation causes enhanced erosion of the fine-grained sediment (likely paleolake sediments and loess) that blankets the slopes surrounding the lake. The ensuing runoff and deposition of this sediment into the lake then results in a decline in median grain size within the lake

  16. [Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat, Haring 20th century American painters from a psychological perspective].

    Petôvári, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat and Haring made an international reputation for themselves with their art foremost of the American artists of the 20th century, and became pop cultural icons for the man in the street and for the media as well. Accordingly to the habits of the consumer society their art and even themselves become product and consumer's goods. Their not mistaken, individual style - which also became their trademark - makes that possible. The connection between the four artists is that each of them had a dependent personality, their fine art activity was arguable in their period, and after all themselves and his artworks get into the increased attention of the media. These four artists embody the brand-new artist type, who steps into a star status. Besides the artworks the artist also get into the focus of interest. Through psychological aspect their artworks tell a lot about their way of life, their personality, and the social estate around them. Four of them were catalysts, they set new art trends. The influence of Basquiat and Haring stretched over to the 21st century, and keeps going in the graffiti street-art which gets into the "high art" at last, and captivates the art galleries and critics as well. PMID:20938058

  17. From posters to displaying: poster communication in Osijek in the early 20th century

    Zoran Velagić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many monographs, articles, chapters and exhibitions and their catalogues dedicated to Croatian posters from the early 20th century. Posters are evaluated as works of art, but received very little attention as an advertising medium. Their communication and advertising role in the specified time and place has not been investigated thoroughly. This paper does not investigate the relationship between the artistic and marketoriented aspects of posters, neither does it evaluate which and what type of posters deserve to be considered works of art. It focuses on how and where did people in the early 20th century used posters to inform themselves about new events and products. Posters are viewed only as a communicative and promotion medium, and the place where they were displayed as a sort of an information hub.The authors investigate the possibility of using two types of historical resources: city administration documents that regulated the displaying of posters and different pictures - like postcards, newspaper photos showing current events, posters and notice-boards or columns. The city of Osijek is selected as a case study for this approach. As the appropriation of posters is determined by their content, graphic design and place where they are displayed, the aim of the paper is to investigate the possible resources that can help us reconstruct the procedures and locations for poster displays. Following the methodology proposed by Robert Darnton, who listed five possible approaches to investigating different texts, and by Roger Chartier’s papers in which he stresses the importance of content appropriation, i.e. the subjectivity of readers, and not the de-contextualized content itself, the authors propose a step from posters to displaying them - or advertising - in public places in the city.Analyzing the above stated sources it can be established that there was a demand for the public advertising space in Osijek in the early 20th century

  18. Reconciling past changes in Earth's rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk's enigma.

    Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth's rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth's rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth's rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth's rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them. PMID:26824058

  19. Development of Foreign Relations of Mongolia in the 1st half of the 20th century : Mongolia's struggle for independence

    Buyanlham Tumurjav; ブヤンルハム トムルジャブ

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is a historical analysis of the development of Foreign Relations of the Mongolian People’s Republic (Mongolia) in the 1st half of the 20th century. The main focus of the research is the struggle of this small nation, sandwiched between two giant neighbors, for its independence, which had been at stake several times in early 20th century. Prior to discussing independence movements in Mongolia, the research analyzed how Mongolia became a subject of another state, the Qing dynasty an...

  20. Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic

  1. Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean

    P. M. Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Average monthly precipitation, the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI and a recent adaptation to Europe, the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI have been used here to analyse the spatial and temporal evolution of drought conditions in the Mediterranean during the 20th century. Monthly, seasonal and annual trends were computed for the period 1901–2000 and also for the first and second halves of this period. The statistical significance of trends was obtained with a modified version of the Mann-Kendall test that accounts for serial auto-correlation. The results show a clear trend towards drier conditions during the 20th century in most western and central Mediterranean regions, with the exceptions of northwestern Iberia and most of Turkey that reveal an increase of moisture availability. A Generalized Extreme Values (GEV analysis was applied to the maximum and minimum regional values of scPDSI, with results pointing towards a significant decline of absolute extreme values in central areas (Italy and Balkans and a less clear picture emerging in western (Iberia and eastern (Turkey realms.

    The inter-annual variability of the scPDSI index series is shown to be more realistic than the corresponding PDSI version, fitting better the drought episodes sequence and magnitude described in the literature for each sub-region. We assess the decadal and inter-annual variability of the scPDSI for each sub-domain and evaluate the role played by the major teleconnection patterns, and by several sea surface temperature (SST anomalies. The main driver of scPDSI in western and central Mediterranean areas is the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO pattern that is also relevant during the following spring and summer seasons with anti-correlation values below −0.60. The second most important mode corresponds to the Scandinavian Pattern that is significantly associated to the scPDSI between winter and summer over central Mediterranean (correlation

  2. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  3. Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20(th century.

    Oumar Faye

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/ reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

  4. The Development of Agriculture and Trade Relations in the Caucasus in the Early 20th Century

    Tatiana E. Gvarliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Water Cycle Change Over the 20th Century

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2003-01-01

    We have used numerical models to test the impact of the change in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the global circulation, particularly focusing on the hydrologic cycle, namely the global cycling of water and continental recycling of water. We have run four numerical simulations using mean annual SST from the early part of the 20th century (1900-1920) and the later part (1980-2000). In addition, we vary the CO2 concentrations for these periods as well. The duration of the simulations is 15 years, and the spatial resolution is 2 degrees. We use passive tracers to study the geographical sources of water. Surface evaporation from predetermined continental and oceanic regions provides the source of water for each passive tracer. In this way, we compute the percent of precipitation of each region over the globe. This can also be used to estimate precipitation recycling. In addition, we are using the passive tracers to independently compute the global cycling of water (compared to the traditional, Q/P calculation).

  6. Einstein and early 20th Century avant-garde art: points of contact?

    Martini, José X

    2007-01-01

    Art history linked some early 20th Century avant-garde visual art movements to contemporary systems of ideas in mathematics and theoretical physics. One of the proposed connections is the one that might have existed between Cubism and Relativity, or more precisely, between Picasso and Einstein. The suggested links are similarity (in a weak version) or identity (in a strong version) in matters of space, time and simultaneity. It is possible, however, that these supposed links of Einstein and avant-garde art movements were more the product of the imagination of historians and critics, than the result of connections between painters and scientists. On the one hand, the visual arts (in contrast to music, as far as we now) were of no interest to Einstein, who, moreover, did not seem inclined or knowledgeable enough to appreciate advanced forms. On the other hand, Einstein's theories fell outside the artists' ken, let alone their understanding, although there are firm clues pointing to the fact that repercussions o...

  7. Dental health of the late 19th and early 20th century Khoesan.

    Botha, D; Steyn, M

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the dental analysis performed on a Khoesan skeletal sample representing the late 19th and early 20th century Cape Colony in southern Africa. Skeletal material from two European collections (Vienna and Paris) was selected to compile a total sample of 116 specimens. Dental pathology frequencies were calculated for caries (28.4%), antemortem tooth loss (37.9%), periapical abscesses (29.3%), periodontal disease (26.7%), calculus (44.0%) and impacted canines (4.3%). Attrition scores indicated that the group under study had an average rate of attrition compared to other southern African populations. Frequency and intensity data were compared to several other samples from both the pre-contact and contact phases by means of chi-squared analysis. The outcome of the study suggested that the group under study was most likely in a state of transition between a diet and lifestyle of hunting-and-gathering and agriculture. Results were also consistent with those of groups from a low socio-economic status. PMID:25882044

  8. Peace-Making Ideas by M.M. Kovalevsky at the Beginning of 20th Century

    NIKOLAEV N.Yu.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the peace-making ideas of famous historian, sociologist and lawyer M.M. Kovalevsky at the beginning of 20th century and analyzes the sociological conception of solidarity which served as the basis for his views on war and peace. He considered social progress as broadening of solidarity sphere which was unavoidably promoted to the consciousness of political integration society. The scientist approximately compared the progress with concentric circles which embodied of uninterruptedly widing human solidarity. The final stage of social and political development should be the creation of national and federal unions, which in their turn would unify in international union. The union built on the principles of democracy and observance of international right standards was destined not only to keep and to ensure the common peace, but also to promote the development of international trade and industry. Kovalevsky played important role in building the peace-making movement in Russia by supporting it with his high scientific and moral authority. In particular, he headed the St. Petersburg’s peace society, established in 1909. Besides, there were a lot of contradictions in his peaceful views. Being the patriot and supporter of the state, the scientist was very far from peace when Russian national interests were taken ino account. This contradiction was clearly revealed during Balkan’s conflict (1912-1913 and the First World War.

  9. High-resolution record of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition during the 20th century.

    Lima, Ana Lúcia C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Reddy, Christopher M

    2003-01-01

    A high-resolution record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) deposition in Rhode Island over the past approximately 180 years was constructed using a sediment core from the anoxic Pettaquamscutt River basin. The record showed significantly more structure than has hitherto been reported and revealed four distinct maxima in PAH flux. The characteristic increase in PAH flux at the turn of the 20th century was captured in detail, leading to an initial maximum prior to the Great Depression. The overall peak in PAH flux in the 1950s was followed by a maximum that immediately preceded the 1973 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargo. During the most recent portion of the record, an abrupt increase in PAH flux between 1996 and 1999 has been found to follow a period of near constant fluxes. Because source-diagnostic ratios indicate that petrogenic inputs are minor throughout the record, these trends are interpreted in terms of past variations in the magnitude and type of combustion processes. For the most recent PAH maximum, energy consumption data suggest that diesel fuel combustion, and hence traffic of heavier vehicles, is the most probable cause for the increase in PAH flux. Systematic variations in the relative abundance of individual PAHs in conjunction with the above changes in flux are interpreted in relation to the evolution of combustion processes. Coronene, retene, and perylene are notable exceptions, exhibiting unique down-core profiles. PMID:12542290

  10. The great exodus of 1939 and other exiles of the 20th Century

    Enric Pujol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of being a historic constant and a characteristic phenomenon of the 20th century, the subject ‘exile’ is still little valued by contemporary historiography´. The civil war from 1936 to 1939 and the Francoist triumph provoked an exile without precedent in recent Catalonian history. This exile was decisive in the preservation of Catalan culture (persecuted by the Franco regime in Catalonia itself, as well as for the continuity of Catalan self-government, the ‘Generalitat of Catalonia’. It was also an extremely important platform for the democratic opposition to Francoism, although it lost its political weight around the nineteen sixties. At that time, though, new waves of exiles took place caused by the fight against the dictatorship, but they were in no way related to the scale of those from the civil war in the thirties. At the dictator’s death many people returned home, but the fragility of the democracy born from the political transition process brought new exiles. In order to know more in detail on such an important subject it is necessary to promote a culturally institutionalised process that makes possible its systematic study, and it is also necessary that the analysis of this phenomenon become a top priority aim of study for historiography and for all human sciences.

  11. Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia

    Delaney Michael Skerrett

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

  12. Randomised multichannel singular spectrum analysis of the 20th century climate data

    Teija Seitola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a new algorithm called randomised multichannel singular spectrum analysis (RMSSA, which is a generalisation of the traditional multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA into problems of arbitrarily large dimension. RMSSA consists of (1 a dimension reduction of the original data via random projections, (2 the standard MSSA step and (3 a recovery of the MSSA eigenmodes from the reduced space back to the original space. The RMSSA algorithm is presented in detail and additionally we show how to integrate it with a significance test based on a red noise null-hypothesis by Monte-Carlo simulation. Finally, RMSSA is applied to decompose the 20th century global monthly mean near-surface temperature variability into its low-frequency components. The decomposition of a reanalysis data set and two climate model simulations reveals, for instance, that the 2–6 yr variability centred in the Pacific Ocean is captured by all the data sets with some differences in statistical significance and spatial patterns.

  13. The 20th-century development and expansion of Louisiana shelf hypoxia, Gulf of Mexico

    Osterman, L.E.; Poore, R.Z.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Senn, D.B.; DiMarco, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Since systematic measurements of Louisiana continental-shelf waters were initiated in 1985, hypoxia (oxygen content hypoxia zone. We constructed a network of 13 PEB records with excess 210Pb-derived chronologies to establish the development of low-oxygen and hypoxic conditions over a large portion of the modern dead zone for the last 100 years. The PEB index record indicates that areas of low-oxygen bottom water began to appear in the early 1910s in isolated hotspots near the Mississippi Delta and rapidly expanded across the entire Louisiana shelf beginning in the 1950s. Since ???1950, the percentage of PEB species has steadily increased over a large portion of the modern dead zone. By 1960, subsurface low-oxygen conditions were occurring seasonally over a large part of the geographic area now known as the dead zone. The long-term trends in the PEB index are consistent with the 20th-century observational and proxy data for low oxygen and hypoxia. ?? 2009 US Government.

  14. Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century

    N. Narayan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001 employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru respectively. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the SST index calculated for the same time period. The steady cooling observed in the instrumental records of SST off California substantiated this observation further. Correlation analysis showed that basin-scale oscillations like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO could not be directly linked to the observed increase of upwelling intensity off NW Africa and California respectively. The relationship of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with coastal upwelling off NW Africa turned out to be ambiguous due to a negative correlation between the NAO index and the meridional wind stress and a lack of correlation with the SST index. Our results give additional support to the hypothesis that the coastal upwelling intensity increases globally because of raising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and an associated increase of the land-sea pressure gradient and meridional wind stress.

  15. Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century

    N. Narayan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001 employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the SST index calculated for the same time period. The steady cooling observed in the instrumental records of SST off California substantiated this observation further. It was also noted that the trends in meridional wind stress obtained from different datasets differ substantially from each other. Correlation analysis showed that basin-scale oscillations like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO could not be directly linked to the observed increase of upwelling intensity off NW Africa and California respectively. The relationship of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with coastal upwelling off NW Africa turned out to be ambiguous due to a negative correlation between the NAO index and the meridional wind stress and a lack of correlation with the SST index. Our results give additional support to the hypothesis that the coastal upwelling intensity increases globally because of raising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and an associated increase of the land-sea pressure gradient and meridional wind stress.

  16. Brief resume of exploration history in Azerbaijan sector of Caspian sea in 20th century

    Full text : This article contains information about seismic exploration activities in the shallow water part of Azeri sector of Caspian see in the 20th century. During this time 145 perspective structures had been discovered in Azeri sector of Caspian as a result of the exploration. On some of those perspectives that were prepared for geological prospecting deep-hole exploration drilling was carried out and according to the data acquired, there were 27 oil and gas gas fields discovered at that time. The distinctive feature of these deposits is that the production was conducted by means of special dums, piers, built from the shore and also by deviated wells having there wellhead on the land. After World War 2, due to depletion of the main oil producing region, i.e. Apsheron peninsular, Azerbaijan geologists appealed to exploring new oil bearing deposits in other regions of Azerbaijan. Analyses of the geological and geophysical data reveal that along with the high probability of new deposit detection within already discovered structures, positive results may also be acquired by exploration of non-anticlinal traps and pliocene deposits of the western slope of Caspian sea.

  17. Modeling the 20th century Arctic Ocean/Sea ice system: Reconstruction of surface forcing

    Kauker, Frank; KöBerle, Cornelia; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Karcher, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The ability to simulate the past variability of the sea ice-ocean system is of fundamental interest for the identification of key processes and the evaluation of scenarios of future developments. To achieve this goal atmospheric surface fields are reconstructed by statistical means for the period 1900 to 1997 and applied to a coupled sea ice-ocean model of the North Atlantic/Arctic Ocean. We devised a statistical model using a redundancy analysis to reconstruct the atmospheric fields. Several sets of predictor and predictand fields are used for reconstructions on different time scales. The predictor fields are instrumental records available as gridded or station data sets of sea level pressure and surface air temperature. The predictands are surface fields from the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis. Spatial patterns are selected by maximizing predictand variance during a "learning" period. The reliability of these patterns is tested in a validation period. The ensemble of reconstructions is checked for robustness by mutual comparison and an "optimal" reconstruction is selected. Results of the simulations with the sea ice-ocean model are compared with historical sea ice extent observations for the Arctic and Nordic Seas. The results obtained with the "optimal" reconstruction are shown to be highly consistent with these historical data. An analysis of simulated trends of the "early 20th century warming" and the recent warming in the Arctic complete the manuscript.

  18. Late 20th Century Temperature Trends in the NARCCAP Regional Model Simulations

    Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.

    2010-12-01

    In this study we will analyze simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) in terms of their ability to reproduce the 2-m temperature trends of the late 20th century over North America. Trends will be compared to the driving reanalysis (the NCEP-DOE global reanalysis II: R2) as well as multiple observation-based datasets for 1980-2004. Available global climate model (GCM) driven NARCCAP simulations will also be examined relative to their drivers and observations from roughly 1970-1999 and compared to their reanalysis driven counterparts. We will also try to explain large discrepancies in the regional climate model (RCMs) trends. Current work indicates that some biases in trend are due to model drift. Differences in trends will be discussed in the context of bias correction and uncertainty in future climate projections. NARCCAP is producing high-resolution climate simulations over North America for the generation of regional climate change scenarios for impacts and uncertainty research. Simulations are produced by six different RCMs given conditions from 4 different global climate models for present and future conditions using the 20c3m and A2 SRES scenarios and the R2 reanalysis.

  19. René leriche and the development of 20(th) century surgery.

    Ioncioaia, Bogdan; Bud, Ioan Teodor; Muresan, Mircea

    2016-01-01

    René Leriche (1879-1955) was a 20(th) century French surgeon generally known in medicine for the syndrome that carries his name, namely the Leriche syndrome in the aorto-iliac occlusive disease. This paper is published to mark the commemoration of 60 year since Leriche's death. Although Dr. Leriche's legacy resides in the domain of vascular medicine, his research enclosed bone pathology and surgical management of pain. Having his surgical training done under professors Mathieu Jaboulay and Antonin Poncet, his friendship and association with Alexis Carrel and William Halsted have contributed to René Leriche's development as a surgeon, researcher and thinker. Following the footsteps of his mentors, he produced outstanding clinical and academic work which had earned him a good reputation among his students and colleagues. Surgeons such as Jean Kunlin, Jao Cid dos Santos, Michael DeBakey, René Fontaine and others came to study and learn from him. These future generations of surgeons would themselves bring much contribution to the understanding and treatment of vascular diseases and medicine in general. René Leriche pioneered medicine with his research and ideas. His assiduous work of teaching, research and clinical practice made his influence last to our present. PMID:27004042

  20. Lens and cataract research of the 20th century: a review of results, errors and misunderstandings.

    Hockwin, Otto; Kojima, Masami; Müller-Breitenkamp, Ursula; Wegener, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Lens and cataract research from a clinical, biophysical, biological and mainly biochemical point of view has a long tradition. Already since the beginning of the 20th century research relating to the chemical composition and metabolism of the lens was conducted. With these analyses an attempt was made to understand the existence and maintenance of lens transparency and the mechanisms leading to lens opacities. Around the middle of the century the stationary analyses measuring the content of certain substances in the lens were more and more replaced by the search for dynamic metabolic processes responsible for lens growth, maintenance of transparency and possibly active participation in lens function (such as accommodation). Also the disturbances as a result of ageing or the formation of lens opacities have been investigated and resulted partially in the elucidation of reaction chains, leading from a trigger to the formation of a cataract. Lens biochemistry is no longer a closed book to us, but there are still many question marks. Why were we not able to solve more problems around lens and cataract? The research effort with a remarkable financial input and a great number of scientists worldwide during the second half of the century does not correspond to the results obtained. There must be something wrong with our strategy, our interpretation of the results or even both. We would like to stress some points which might be regarded as errors or misunderstandings in the lens research community, thus preventing a better outcome of the enormous investment of work and money. A great disadvantage is the missing cooperation between clinicians and epidemiologists on one hand and basic lens researchers on the other. Especially the ignorance of basic researchers regarding the clinical problems of the lens and of cataracts might be to blame for several 'errors and misunderstandings'. It is not even so long ago since the slitlamp microscope examination of animals belonged to the

  1. Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th Century Astrophysics and Technology

    Hesser, James E.; Bohlender, David; Crabtree, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Construction of Canada’s Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) commenced in 1914 with first light on 6 May 1918. Its varied, rich contributions to the astronomical heritage of the 20th century continue into the 21st century. The first major research observatory built with public funding on the West Coast of North America, it was Canada’s first ‘big science’ project. DAO welcomed scientists from around the world to use its 1.8m telescope designed by John Stanley Plaskett working in close collaboration with the Warner and Swasey Company of Cleveland, OH. Their original design was copied seven times around the globe, the last occasion being in the 1960s. From Day 1 the DAO welcomed the public for viewing and interaction with the small scientific staff whose early efforts would today be characterized as ‘Key Projects’. Those efforts included measuring the radial velocities of O and B stars that, interpreted through Oort’s ideas of differential rotation, determined the most reliable estimate of the size and mass of the Milky Way available until radio astronomical techniques emerged in the 1950s. The first organic molecule in interstellar space, CH, was discovered by a DAO astronomer. The first, very puzzling estimate of ~3K for the temperature of interstellar space was deduced from interstellar CN observations a year after interstellar CH and CN were discovered. DAO’s heritage of innovative instrumentation continues to the present day where expertise in optically efficient, mechanically stable spectrographs and adaptive optics are much in evidence at Mauna Kea’s CFHT, Gemini and Subaru observatories. In 2009 the DAO was designated a National Historic Site. This presentation will draw links between DAO, developments of Canadian astronomy and the emergence of Mauna Kea as an exceptional global astronomical reserve.

  2. Ochres and earths: Matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-01

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  3. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century (1910s-1930s). In the main,…

  4. Analysis of snow in the 20th and 21st century Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled climate model simulations

    DéRy, Stephen J.; Wood, Eric F.

    2006-10-01

    We evaluate the representation of the 20th century Northern Hemisphere, North American, and Eurasian snow cover extent, frequency, and mass by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled climate model, version 2 (CM2) and then explore the 21st century trends and changes in these quantities. The CM2 simulations of 20th century climate capture the seasonal cycle in Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent and produce a mean annual snow area of 25 × 106 km2 that equals the satellite-based observations for the period 1973-2000. The simulated snow cover frequency and snow mass generally decline from north to south, but longitudinal gradients in these variables are also found. Snow mass over North America, especially during spring, is underestimated by CM2. Simulations of 21st century climate using three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios reveal strong trends in Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent, frequency, and mass. These simulations suggest that the annual Northern Hemisphere mean snow cover extent (total snow mass) will decrease by 12 to 26% (20 to 40%) by 2100 from their 21st century mean values. Large declines in 21st century snow cover frequency (up to 50%) and snow mass (up to 100 kg m-2) arise during fall, winter, and spring over southern Canada and the northern United States, the Western Cordillera of North America, and western Eurasia compared to the 20th century CM2 simulations.

  5. Investigation on the use of iron and steel for restoration purposes during 19th and 20th century

    Hui-Yin Lee

    2008-01-01

    Since the earliest times, wrought iron cramps and dowels were used in the traditional masonry structures to secure stones which might be prone to movement or displacement. In the period between the late 19th century and the early 20th century, masonry-clad buildings are exploded to use. However, due to the porous nature of the mortar and the inconsistent fill around the steel members, the protective oxide film is lost over time, resulting in corrosion of the steel framing...

  6. Hard Rock Miners` Phthisis in 19th and Early 20th Century Britain: From Diagnosis to Compensation

    Mintz, Fredric

    2009-01-01

    AbstractIntroduction: Hard Rock Miners Phthisis in 19th and Early 20th Century Britain: From Diagnosis to CompensationByFredric MintzDoctor of Philosophy in HistoryProfessor Thomas Laqueur, ChairThe development of new technologies and new patterns of working were indispensable to the accelerated economic growth, which characterized most of nineteenth century Britain. For much of that period the demand for raw siliceous containing materials increased sharply. In this process, equipment, which ...

  7. Modeling the evolution of the world ocean ice cover in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Kattsov, V. M.; Alekseev, G. V.; Pavlova, T. V.; Sporyshev, P. V.; Bekryaev, R. V.; Govorkova, V. A.

    2007-04-01

    The current state of the simulation of sea ice cover as a component of new-generation global climate models is considered. Results from the model ensemble simulation of the observed world ocean ice cover, including its evolution in the 20th century, are analyzed, and projection of possible changes in the 21st century for three scenarios of anthropogenic forcing of the climate system are described. Unresolved problems and priorities for sea ice modeling are discussed.

  8. Meteorological Effects of Land Cover Changes in Hungary during the 20th Century

    Drüszler, Á.; Vig, P.; Csirmaz, K.

    2012-04-01

    Geological, paleontological and geomorphologic studies show that the Earth's climate has always been changing since it came into existence. The climate change itself is self-evident. Therefore the far more serious question is how much does mankind strengthen or weaken these changes beyond the natural fluctuation and changes of climate. The aim of the present study was to restore the historical land cover changes and to simulate the meteorological consequences of these changes. Two different land cover maps for Hungary were created in vector data format using GIS technology. The land cover map for 1900 was reconstructed based on statistical data and two different historical maps: the derived map of the 3rd Military Mapping Survey of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Synoptic Forestry Map of the Kingdom of Hungary. The land cover map for 2000 was derived from the CORINE land cover database. Significant land cover changes were found in Hungary during the 20th century according to the examinations of these maps and statistical databases. The MM5 non-hydrostatic dynamic model was used to further evaluate the meteorological effects of these changes. The lower boundary conditions for this mesoscale model were generated for two selected time periods (for 1900 and 2000) based on the reconstructed maps. The dynamic model has been run with the same detailed meteorological conditions of selected days from 2006 and 2007, but with modified lower boundary conditions. The set of the 26 selected initial conditions represents the whole set of the macrosynoptic situations for Hungary. In this way, 2×26 "forecasts" were made with 48 hours of integration. The effects of land cover changes under different weather situations were further weighted by the long-term (1961-1990) mean frequency of the corresponding macrosynoptic types, to assume the climatic effects from these stratified averages. The detailed evaluation of the model results were made for three different meteorological

  9. Conceptual Revolution of the 20th Century Leading to One Grand Unified Concept -- The Quantum Vacuum

    Sreekantan, B. V.

    2014-07-01

    Concepts and the relations between concepts are the basis for all our scientific understanding and explanation of the wide variety of constituents and phenomena in nature. Some of the fundamental concepts like space, time, matter, radiation, causality, etc. had remained unchanged for almost four hundred years from the time of the dawn of science. However all these underwent a drastic transformation in the 20th century because of two reasons. One, in the light of certain experimental findings two radical theories namely theory of relativity and theory of quantum mechanics replaced the classical theory that had dominated since Newton's time. Secondly, the science-technology spiral resulted in the discovery of very many new features of the universe both on the micro scale and on the mega scale. There was an exponential increase in our knowledge. These new facts could not be fitted into the old concepts. Apart from drastic revision, many new concepts had to be brought in. Despite all this, one very encouraging trend has been to discern a holistic synthesis and unification of the different concepts -- an endeavor that has been helped by experiments over a wide scale of energy and distances and most importantly from theoretical insights triggered by mathematical underpinnings. These developments in physics and astrophysics are pointing to one grand concept, namely, the "quantum vacuum" endowed with certain special properties, as the substratum from which all the constituents of the universe as well as the processes of the universe emerge, including the creation of the universe itself. This is the view, at least of some of the scientists. In this brief article the essence of these approaches toward unification is highlighted. Maybe life sciences can take a clue from these developments in physical sciences.

  10. Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century

    Antonio Viñao, España.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a imagem e idéias de e sobre Rousseau transmitidas na Espanha ao magistério primário durante o século 20, através dos manuais de História da Educação e outras fontes similares. Após analisar as fontes utilizadas e seus destinatários, se expõe a imagem e a idéia de Rousseau como pai da pedagogia moderna, predominante nos escritos pedagógicos da época para, em seguida, e a modo de contraste, examinar o lugar e o tratamento dado à Rousseau nos mencionados manuais. Esse exame se divide em duas épocas: a anterior à guerra civil e a posterior, com o fim de mostrar o predomínio, sobre tudo durante o franquismo, de uma visão católica, conservadora, moralizante e crítica do genebriano. Palavras-chave: Rousseau, manuais escolares, educação primária, formação do magistério primário, Espanha (século 20.   Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century Abstract This article deals with Rousseau’s images and ideas present in the school books of History of Education, and other similar sources, used in the training of primary school teachers in Spain during the 20th century. After analyzing the sources used and their addresses, the predominance of Rousseau’s ideas and image as the father of modern pedagogy in the pedagogical literature of this period is explained. Immediately after, by way of contrast, Rousseau’s place and the way of considering him in the above mentioned school books are examined. The above analysis is divided into two periods, before and after the civil war, in order to show the predominance of the catholic-conservative moralizing and critical approach, particularly during francoism. Key-words: Rousseau, school books, primary education, teacher’s training, Spain (20th century.   La recepción de Rousseau en la formación inicial del magisterio primario (España, siglo 20 Resumen Este artículo versa sobre la imagen e ideas de y sobre Rousseau

  11. PLOT REELED INTO AN EKPHRASIS IN BELLES LETTRES OF THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Elena Vasil’evna Astaschenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plots reeled into the ekphrasis have always existed. In belles lettres of the beginning of the 20th century, the fight between the pagan and the Christian manifests in the opposition of scenic space and it creates a powerful «magnetic» field. This is a special type of mythologism in which the Christian imagery is on the positive side of the binary opposition with its respective system of ethical coordinates. In «polytheistic systems, the presentations of evil is static as of the essential and eternal beginning of the world», but in the orthodox Christianity, the devil is a ghost, lure, disembodied temptation and «with every day it approaches nonexistence» (from the «Moralia» of the 6th century by Gregory the Great. However, Gregory the Great also notes that the power of Satan is from God as all other powers, he just distorted his power with his God-given free will. Even at the level of worldly wisdom aphorisms there is a conventional belief that our shortcomings are the continuation of our merits, and therefore it is necessary to adhere to the golden mean. Accroding to A. Gracheva in the book «Dialogues of Janus: Belles lettres and classics in the Russian literature of the early twentieth century», at the beginning of the 19th century, the mythologism of the spontaneous and not experimental type (often encyclopaedic and «algebraic» like in the works of Joyce and Bely, is especially pronounced in the works of writers, who are close to mass literature with their democracy or «boudoir» and especially in the works of female writers. This is due both to existing archetypes of the collective unconscious (some of which are even atavistic and «migratory plots» which are characteristic of both folklore and popular culture. Despite the compelling erotic subject matter, belles lettres is not always frivolous and, on the contrary, it is edifying and full of moral questions, which are sometimes rhetorical: «What is a sin and what does the

  12. Variation in surface air temperature of China during the 20th century

    Soon, Willie; Dutta, Koushik; Legates, David R.; Velasco, Victor; Zhang, Weijia

    2011-10-01

    The 20th century surface air temperature (SAT) records of China from various sources are analyzed using data which include the recently released Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project dataset. Two key features of the Chinese records are confirmed: (1) significant 1920s and 1940s warming in the temperature records, and (2) evidence for a persistent multidecadal modulation of the Chinese surface temperature records in co-variations with both incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere as well as the modulated solar radiation reaching ground surface. New evidence is presented for this Sun-climate link for the instrumental record from 1880 to 2002. Additionally, two non-local physical aspects of solar radiation-induced modulation of the Chinese SAT record are documented and discussed.Teleconnections that provide a persistent and systematic modulation of the temperature response of the Tibetan Plateau and/or the tropospheric air column above the Eurasian continent (e.g., 30°N-70°N; 0°-120°E) are described. These teleconnections may originate from the solar irradiance-Arctic-North Atlantic overturning circulation mechanism proposed by Soon (2009). Also considered is the modulation of large-scale land-sea thermal contrasts both in terms of meridional and zonal gradients between the subtropical western Pacific and mid-latitude North Pacific and the continental landmass of China. The Circum-global teleconnection (CGT) pattern of summer circulation of Ding and Wang (2005) provides a physical framework for study of the Sun-climate connection over East Asia. Our results highlight the importance of solar radiation reaching the ground and the concomitant importance of changes in atmospheric transparency or cloudiness or both in motivating a true physical explanation of any Sun-climate connection. We conclude that ground surface solar radiation is an important modulating factor for Chinese SAT changes on multidecadal to centennial timescales. Therefore, a

  13. Disastrous floods and landslides in Portugal in the 20th century

    Quaresma, Ivânia; Zêzere, José Luis

    2010-05-01

    The record and analysis of statistical information on disaster occurrence, impacts and losses have been made worldwide in recent years. The development of natural disasters databases is crucial for risk management purposes, because it allows improving systems of indicators on disaster risk and vulnerability at national and sub-national scales. During the last century, Portugal was affected by several destructive natural disasters, namely of hydrologic (floods) and geomorphologic (landslides) origin. However, only recently risk prevention and management was assumed to be a national priority by the Portuguese Government. The basic information on past floods and landslides that occurred in Portugal is disperse and incomplete, and this is a shortcoming for the implementation of effective disaster mitigation measures, particularly when it is expectable an increase of frequency, magnitude, dimension and complexity of the hydro-geomorphologic phenomena resulting from climate change. In this work we present a preliminary assessment of hydro-geomorphologic disasters occurred in Portugal during the 20th century, based on the systematic survey of daily national newspapers. We included into a database those floods and landslides that produced, alternatively, dead people, injured people, missing people, evacuated and homeless. A total of 937 hydro-geomorphologic events were registered. In addition to physical and material damages, these events produced economic losses amounting to millions Euros. Our attention will focus on the geographic distribution and the temporal dimension of disastrous floods and landslides occurred in Portugal, and the temporal trends of hydro-geomorphologic disasters will be presented. The preliminary results shown that disastrous floods and landslides have been more frequent on the most populated regions of Portugal: the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Oporto. In addition, data shows that disastrous hydrologic and geomorphologic phenomena were more

  14. Ecosystem evolution of seal colony and the influencing factors in the 20th century on Fildes Peninsula, West Antarctica

    Jing Huang; Liguang Sun; Xinming Wang; Yuhong Wang; Tao Huang

    2011-01-01

    As the topmost predator in Antarctica,the seal is a unique indicator of Antarctic environment and climate changes.In this study,we collected a sediment core from the Fildes Peninsula of West Antarctica,and used cholesterol,cholestanol,epicoprostanol,coprostanol,and seal hair numbers as the proxy indicators of seal population size and phytol as of general vegetation,and we reconstructed the 20th century history of variation of the seal population and vegetation abundance on this island.The sealing industry in the early 20th century caused the dramatic decline of seal population,and the ban of seal hunting since the 1960s led to its recovery of seal population.The seal population during the past century was primarily controlled by human activities and krill density.The reconstructed relation between seal population and vegetation abundance may offer new insights into Antarctic environment and ecology.

  15. Final Scientific Report for "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall"

    Chiang, John C. H. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehner, Michael F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-29

    This is the final scientific report for grant DOE-FG02-08ER64588, "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall."The project investigates the role of the interhemispheric pattern in surface temperature – i.e. the contrast between the northern and southern temperature changes – in driving rapid changes to tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future climates. Previous observational and modeling studies have shown that the tropical rainband – the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over marine regions, and the summer monsoonal rainfall over land – are sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal contrast; but that the link between the two has not been applied to interpreting long-term tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future.The specific goals of the project were to i) develop dynamical mechanisms to explain the link between the interhemispheric pattern to abrupt changes of West African and Asian monsoonal rainfall; ii) Undertake a formal detection and attribution study on the interhemispheric pattern in 20th century climate; and iii) assess the likelihood of changes to this pattern in the future. In line with these goals, our project has produced the following significant results: 1.We have developed a case that suggests that the well-known abrupt weakening of the West African monsoon in the late 1960s was part of a wider co-ordinated weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons, and driven from an abrupt cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature at the same time. Our modeling work suggests that the high-latitude North Atlantic cooling is effective in driving monsoonal weakening, through driving a cooling of the Northern hemisphere that is amplified by positive radiative feedbacks. 2.We have shown that anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may have partially contributed to driving a progressively southward displacement of the Atlantic Intertropical

  16. Two hegemonies – two technological regimes : American and Norwegian whaling in the 19th and 20th Century

    Basberg, Bjørn L.

    2006-01-01

    The 19th century whaling industry was dominated by the United States while the 20th century industry had its origins in Norway and was dominated for years by that nation. The focus of the paper, is to explore the relationship between the two so-called hegemonic whaling nations. Specifically, we are looking for encounters between the two industries that in one way or another may explain why the Norwegians did not enter into traditional pelagic whaling in the mid 19th century, an...

  17. Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium

    J. H. Jungclaus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean–atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millennium that reproduce and explain reconstructed integrated quantities such as pan-Arctic temperature evolution during the pre-industrial millennium as well as the exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the sub-polar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening sub-polar gyre as a consequence of 20th century global warming is identified as driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

  18. Evaluation for sustainable agriculture water use from River, Reservoirs and Groundwater in the 20th century

    Yoshikawa, S.; Yamada, H.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    High water stress due to economic growth and climate change (ex. global warming) will be falling into 2 billion people to 4 billion people in the future. Agricultural water use accounting for about 70% of global water consumption might continue to increase due to production of foods and biofuels occurred by population growth in the future. In particular, water demand, food and biofuel production have an inextricable link. It is very important to evaluate these relationship for sustainable water use from past to the future. In this study, we focused on the objective to assess the impact of water withdrawal from various sources (stream flow, medium-sized reservoirs and nonrenewable nonlocal blue water) in the 20th century by considering irrigation area and climate change. Irrigation water withdrawal is the most important water use sector accounting for about 90% of total water withdrawal. First, we make the global spatial database of equipped irrigation area change and medium-sized reservoirs capacity. Then, water withdrawal from each sources for 50 years from 1950 to 2000 were simulated in global-scale at a resolution of 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree using an integrated global water resources model (hereafter, the H08 model). The H08 model can simulate both natural or anthropogenic water flow and anthropogenic water withdrawals. For comparison with our results, distribution of agricultural, industrial and domestic water withdrawals from 1950 to 2000 were estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data from AQUASTAT with irrigation area, urban population and total population, respectively. Groundwater withdrawal was then estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data based on statistical data from WRI, IGRAC and AQUASTAT with the total water withdrawal. As a result, agricultural water withdrawal change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years agreed well with the observed groundwater abstraction based on statistical data. In

  19. MINING ENTREPRENEURS IN CROATIA FROM THE MID-19TH TO THE MID-20TH CENTURY

    Berislav Šebečić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The masters, or owners, of mining rights for the exploration of ores were prospectors and free or independent prospectors. Concession books and registers were kept about the proprietors of ore fields or mines. In them was entered, among other things, which ore was planned to be exploited. The possessor of a licence, permits for exploration and exploitation of ores, paid a certain fee every year. He could also sell his mining righis. in the shape of permits, partially or, more frequently, totally, as was recorded in the books. If he did not pay taxes, he could lose all his rights, which were then deleted, or crossed out of the mining books. Those who possessed mining permits had to solve the questions of compensation to the owners of the lands where they intended to do detailed explorations, and to exploit the ore, even to the extent of leasing or buying the land. The mining activity in Croatia between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries is richly documented in the (Imperial and Royal mining captaincies in Zagreb, Zadar and Split. The basic mining law was the General Austrian Mining Law of 1854, with its amendments of 1911 (Legal Article VI about mineral oil substances and natural gases. In Croatia, mining enterpreneurs were individuals or companies (including the slate with the proviso that at the beginning there were more foreigners. However, Croatian traders, industrialists, magnates, officials, bankers, various companies, engineers, artists, retired persons, peasants, officers and others soon became involved in mining. Among the entrepreneurs there were various noblemen. It has been ascertained in this research that in individual periods between 1855 and 1945 there was a dominance of individuals (mainly 81%-85% while today (1990-1995 it is quite the opposite (86% are companies, because this is the end of the long term control of the socially owned companies. Thes same situation obtains today with respect to exploitation licenses, where

  20. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    M. A. Ershova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two decades of the 20th century; problem statement peculiarities; aspect and priority choice in the fundamental researches conducted by the teachers of these schools. The applied methods include the comparative method, analysis, synthesis, method of abstraction, other philosophical and scientific methods. Results. The author comes to the conclusion that the changes of methodological installations in scientific research representatives of spiritual and academic theism beginning of the 20th century can be compared with similar studies of the nineteenth century. It is mentioned that reorientation of a number of prominent representatives of spiritual and academic theism from scholastic methods, speculative psychology and metaphysics towards Patristics, asceticism and personal experiences allows us to propose this movement as West-European Philosophy searches of the same period. Thus, V. I. Nesmelov sees the basis of any religious teachings in the experience of human cognition. M. M. Tareev draws up his own moral theology reading course based on the personal experience living the Gospel Book. Archimandrite Sergious (Stragorodsky interprets the topic of finding salvation not against the background of the changes in God, but from the standpoint of the changes that occur in humanity. Bishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky, Archbishop Hilarion (Troitsky and Bishop Barnabas (Belyaev make known scholasticism as epistemological malice characterizing the specifics of theological

  1. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World…

  2. [Occult medicine in the 20th century: pharmacotherapy by Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer, known as Surya (1873 - 1949)].

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer (1873-1949), called "Surya", Sanskrit for "sun", was an important representative of medical occultism in the first half of the 20th century. He worked as a journal editor and published a 13-volume book series about occult medicine, mainly written by himself. His hypotheses were closely related to the "Lebensreform" movement around 1900. Regarding diagnostics, he relied on astrology, cheiromancy, and clairvoyance, while therapeutics were dominated by diet and spagyric remedies according to Cesare Mattei (1809-1896) and Carl-Friedrich Zimpel (1801-1879). In his later years, he developed his own healing system, initially comprising eight, later only two preparations. Surya remedies were commercially available until the end of the 20th century, PMID:22822609

  3. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  4. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Ershova, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two ...

  5. Theoretical and Epistemological Foundations of Integrating Digital Technologies in Education in the Second Half of the 20th Century

    Dakich, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theoretical and pedagogical perspectives related to the integration of digital technologies in the second half of the 20th century. It evaluates dominant discourses, epistemological frameworks and theories of learning that have been influencing the deployment of new technologies into schools and their integration in learning and teaching. The four epistemological models examined in this chapter are behaviourism, cognitivism, constructivism and sociological...

  6. Socio-spatial segregation and housing in Brazil between late 19th and the early 20th century

    Edmilson Soares; Leandro Bruno Santos

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to analysis the Brazilian city between late 19th and the early 20th century, when there are structural changes in the economic, social and political framework that will lead to new forms of production and consumption of the city and housing. It overlaps the archaic matrix of colonial trait a new guise that disguised as modern has only exacerbated their dramatic njustices, leading to production of a segregated urban space, both socially and space terms. The access to land...

  7. Developing and Transition Economies in the Late 20th Century: Diverging Growth Rates, Economic Structures, and Sources of Demand

    Codrina Rada; Lance Taylor

    2006-01-01

    This study reviews the growth and development performance of developing countries in the latter part of the 20th century. Sustained growth among “successful” countries was accompanied by structural change in terms of output and labour share shifts, trade diversification, sustained productivity growth with some strong reallocation effects due to movements of labour from low to high productivity sectors. Neither the widely accepted “twin deficits” nor the “consumption-smoothing” behaviour views...

  8. Trade and the flag:integration and conflict in 19th and early 20th century deglobalization

    Chase-Dunn, Chris; Anders Carlson; Chris Schmitt; Shoon Lio; Richard Niemeyer; Hanneman, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The density and contours of networks of transnational and international economic integration are hypothesized by many theorists to be causally related to the patterns of cooperation and conflict. [1] The usual notion is that trade creates ties of symmetrical interdependence, which are likely to inhibit conflict. We seek to test this hypothesis in the 19th and early 20th century run-up to World War I. We examine the relationship between the structure of conflict and the contours of trade ties ...

  9. Ukrainian-Polish-Russian relations as covered by Volyn periodicals of the 19th-20th centuries

    Bila, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews historical and regional studies publications of Volyn periodicals in the 19th-20th centuries, which covered the Ukrainian-Polish-Russian relations. Their key theme lines are indicated, specifically a socio-economic line which addressed social inequality problems,  enslavement of Ukrainian peasants by Polish gentry at the time when some Ukrainian regions were a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; a religious line which covered consequences of Polonization, threats to ...

  10. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

  11. A general overview of the literature for children in the first part of the 20th century

    Rudina Alimerko

    2011-01-01

    Although in the first decades of the 20th century the Albanian literature for children did not recognize any distinguished literary work, a series of liberation insurrections in north and south as well as the Declaration of Independence in 1912 show the great efforts of our Renaissance figures who were teachers, ideologists and active participants in the armed movement. All this big issues in the life of Albanian people as well as their freedom-loving spirit become the inspiration of many the...

  12. Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H)

    D. Wisser; Fekete, B.M.; C. J. Vörösmarty; A. H. Schumann

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities) and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation...

  13. Changes in synoptic weather patterns and Greenland precipitation in the 20th and 21st centuries: 1. Evaluation of late 20th century simulations from IPCC models

    Schuenemann, Keah C.; Cassano, John J.

    2009-10-01

    Using the self-organizing map (SOM) technique, the sea level pressure synoptic climatology and precipitation of 15 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) models are compared to that of the ERA-40 reanalysis for the North Atlantic region for the period 1961 to 1999. Three of the models, the CCCMA-CGCM3.1(T63), the MIROC3.2(hires), and the MPI-ECHAM5, best reproduce the ERA-40 synoptic climatology and are chosen for further analysis of precipitation over Greenland. The MIROC3.2(hires) is the best single performing model, in that it best matches ERA-40. Although the three-model ensemble simulates the same mean annual precipitation over Greenland as ERA-40, the ensemble simulates the mean annual precipitation differently than ERA-40. A dry bias in the CCCMA-CGCM3.1(T63) and a wet bias from the MPI-ECHAM5 cancel in the ensemble average. The mean annual precipitation difference between the model ensemble, as well as each individual model, and ERA-40 is then attributed to differences in intrapattern variability and pattern frequency components in the models that make up the ensemble. Pattern frequency differences between the model and ERA-40 indicate a difference in the occurrence of synoptic weather patterns, while intrapattern variability differences denote differences in the amount of precipitation produced when a given synoptic weather pattern occurs. Intrapattern variability differences between the models and ERA-40 are predominantly responsible for Greenland precipitation differences, but pattern frequency (circulation) differences in the models also play a small role. Part 2 of this paper uses this three-model ensemble to analyze and attribute predicted increases in precipitation over the Greenland ice sheet for the 21st century.

  14. Regional Variability of the 20th century sea level rise from Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Climate Models

    Chevrier, Robin; Meyssignac, Benoit; Bourgeois, Elsa; Marzeion, Ben; Cazenave, Anny

    2014-05-01

    Regional Variability of the 20th century sea level rise from Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Climate Models. R.Chevrier, B. Meyssignac, E. Bourgeois, B. Marzeion and A.Cazenave Over the 20th century, tide gauge records indicate a rise in global mean sea level of 1.7 mm.y-1 (Church and White 2011). This rise is essentially due to the warming of the ocean (which made the ocean water expand and sea level rise by ˜0.6 mm.yr-1) and the melt of mountain glaciers (which added more water to the ocean and made sea level rise by ˜,0.6 mm.yr-1 Gregory et al. 2013). Land water changes and Greenland surface mass balance changes also played a role but of lesser importance ( ˜0.1 mm.yr-1 for the land water storage and ˜0.2 mm.yr-1 for the Greenland mass balance since 1900, Gregory et al. 2013). Each of these different contributors to the 20th century global mean sea level rise had also an impact on the regional sea level changes. This regional signal, which must be added to the global sea level rise to compute the total sea level signal, is essential when we want to assess the impacts of the 20th century sea level rise on coastal areas and low lying islands. In this study we aim to estimate this 20th century regional sea level changes. We use historical runs of the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) coupled climate models, which cover the period 1850-2006, to estimate the different contributors to the regional sea level changes since 1900. The ocean warming contribution is directly computed from the Temperature and Salinity outputs of the CMIP5 models while the mountain glaciers and the Greenland contributions are computed from offline models using the surface temperature output of CMIP5 models. Concerning the landwater storage contribution, it is actually mainly of anthropogenic origin over the 20th century (Ngoduc et al. 2005, Meyssignac et Cazenave 2012) so it is not modeled in CMIP5 models. Consequently, we use here estimates of the landwater storage

  15. How soon will climate records of the 20th century be broken according to climate model simulations?

    Ruokolainen, Leena; Räisänen, Jouni

    2009-01-01

    What will happen to local record values of temperature and precipitation in a world with ongoing global warming? Here we first examine how many of the observed local temperature maxima of 1901–2006 occurred in the years 2001–2006 and compare the observations with model simulations. Then we study whether, and how soon, the models simulate the climate records of the 20th century to be broken in the ongoing 21st century. In 27% of our analysis area, the highest annual mean temperatures of the wh...

  16. Enforced linguistic conversion: translation of the Macedonian toponyms in the 20th century

    Katica Kulavkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Enforced linguistic conversion: translation of the Macedonian toponyms in the 20th centuryThe article deals with the issue of forced conversion of Macedonian toponyms, considered as a form of linguistic and cultural dislocation or luxation (the Latin luxatio originating from luxus – dislocated. The toponyms are not just eminently linguistic but also a part of civilization’s memory of nations and of humankind, and that is why they are protected by international regulations. The act of translating toponyms from one language to another, within the frames of culturally and ethnically marked space, is undeniable violence against the cultural heritage. A change of a toponym, its forced translation into another language is, according to these legal acts, a crime against culture. For a toponym is a true reflection of historical facts and historical memories. Toponyms can be transcribed onto a different alphabet, letter‑by‑letter (transliteration, but should not be translated, especially not on the territory which is their civilization’s cradle, where they are practiced and inherited. Violent conversion of toponyms is an introduction to conversion of historical narratives and modern ethno‑cultural identities. History shows that there are violent forms of linguistic, cultural, religious and ethnic dislocations. The example of radical dislocation of Macedonian toponyms is probably one of the few in modern history. It has been taking place over an almost entire century – from the 1920s to the 21st century’s first decade. Macedonian toponyms, for centuries present on the territory of ethnic Macedonia (for which there is indisputable evidence, are being dislocated from their original linguistic/cultural context within several national entities: the Greek, Albanian and – paradoxically – Macedonian states. Such violent translation of toponyms is not devoid of geopolitical consequences.The conversions of Macedonian toponyms are just a step

  17. Adriatic and Black Sea level in the 20th century and projection to the end of the 21st century.

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Adriatic and Black Sea are semi-enclosed basins characterized by densely populated coasts, industrial compounds and a rich cultural and historical heritage. It appears to be crucial, for the management and the protection of their coastlines, to understand how much they will be impacted by the global sea level (SL) rise, projected by the end of this century. The aim of this work is to develop a method that allows to estimate to which extent the SL of the two basins will depart from the mean global level. The future evolution of global sea level is not a meaningful indicator at this regional scale and past deviations, due to local factors of the Adriatic and Black Sea levels from the global one, have been observed. The Adriatic Sea is the basin of the Mediterranean Sea best covered by past SL observations. In fact, for the Adriatic Sea is possible to obtain, by statistical method based on PCA and Least square Method, a seamless and long time series (from 1900 to 2009) using records of 7 mareographic stations located along the Italian and Croatian coasts (from PSMSL database). Satellite data of SL are available for the whole Mediterranean from 1993 to 2012 and they show a very high correlation (rho > 0.9) with Adriatic time series based on mareographic records. The SL time series of the 20th century in the Black Sea is computed using data of 4 stations, which are available in the PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) archive, located on the north-east coast. This time series shows a lower correlation (rho about 0.5) with satellite data than in the case of Adriatic Sea. Further it shows a higher interannual variability. All the time series are considered after the subtraction of the Inverse Barometer (IB) effect. A statistical approach, based on a multivariate linear regression model, is used to investigate the link between SL anomaly, computed as the difference between the regional SL and global SL, and three large scale climate variables (sea level pressure

  18. Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. III. From the Establishment of the Republic of Croatia on June 25th, 1991 to the End of the Century

    Trinajstić, N:

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this last part of our attempt to present briefly the history of Croatian chemistry in the 20th century, the development of chemistry in the Republic of Croatia, established as an independent state on June 25th, 1991 is outlined. The last 10 years of the 20th century are characterized first by defense of the country by arms until 1995, and then until the end of century, and after the constructive building of the foundations of Croatia. In these turbulent times, scientists could not be just bystanders. Thus, some went to defend the country by arms and others (perhaps older kept informing colleagues all around the globe about our defense of the homeland. This was the reason why scientific research in Croatia showed very limited results. This article briefly describes research in chemistry at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, the Rugjer Bošković Institute, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agronomy and Faculty of Forestry. This article logically follows our previous two articles on the history of Croatian chemistry in 20th century: N. Trinajstić, S. Paušek-Baždar, Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. I. From the turn of the Century to May 8th , 1945 (Kem. Ind. 56 (2007 403–416 and N. Trinajstić, M. Kaštelan-Macan, S. Paušek-Baždar, H. Vančik, Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. II. From the Colapse of the Independent State of Croatia to the Establishmernt of the Republic of Croatia, (Kem. Ind. 58 (2009 315–336. It is also related to our article on the history of Croatian chemistry in 19th century: S. Paušek-Baždar, N. Trinajstić, Croatian Chemistry in the 19th Century (Kem. Ind. 55 (2006 333–339 and our survey of the Croatian chemical journals: N. Trinajstić, N. Raos, S. Paušek-Baždar, D. Škare, Croatian Chemistry in 20th Century. IV. Croatian Chemical Journals (Kem. Ind. 57 (2008 447

  19. Development of the metallurgical industry in the Dnieper region of Ukraine at the beginning of the 20th century (1900–1917)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.; Yevseeva, H. P.; Peretokin, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Peculiarities of the metallurgical industry development in the Dnieper region of Ukraine at the beginning of the 20 th century are regarded in the article. The beginning of the 20th century was characterized by the difficult social-economic and political situation. Different aspects of the industrial development of the Dnieper region in the beginning of the 20th century were regarded in the works of the well-known researchers D. I. Shpoliansky, P. O. Khromov, A. L. Tsukernik, O. O. Nesterenko...

  20. Demographic situation in Vojvodina in the last decade of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century

    Đurđev Branislav S.; Martinov-Cvejin Mirjana; Penev Goran; Jovanović Sonja; Stevanović Radoslav

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the analyzed demographic data for the last decade of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, one could conclude that the most significant characteristics of the population of Vojvodina are: slow demographic increase; negative population growth; more and more unfavourable age structure; increase in the decision to remain single; relatively low level of urbanization, a very heterogeneous national composition of the population; acceptance of low reproductive norms...

  1. How soon will climate records of the 20th century be broken according to climate model simulations?

    Ruokolainen, Leena; Räisänen, Jouni

    2009-08-01

    What will happen to local record values of temperature and precipitation in a world with ongoing global warming? Here we first examine how many of the observed local temperature maxima of 1901-2006 occurred in the years 2001-2006 and compare the observations with model simulations. Then we study whether, and how soon, the models simulate the climate records of the 20th century to be broken in the ongoing 21st century. In 27% of our analysis area, the highest annual mean temperatures of the whole period 1901-2006 were observed in 2001-2006. For the 22 climate models in our study, this fraction varies from 17% to 70%, with a multimodel mean of 40%. In simulations based on the SRES A1B emissions scenario, the highest annual mean temperature of the 20th century is exceeded on average in 99% of the global area by the year 2080. The same number for the highest (lowest) annual precipitation total is 60% (43%). Monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation records are also analysed, and the geographical distributions of record value occurrence are related to the distributions of time mean climate change and magnitude of interannual variability.

  2. Jeewanu, or the `particles of life’ The approach of Krishna Bahadur in 20th century origin of life research

    Mathias Grote

    2011-09-01

    Starting in the 1960s, the Indian chemist Krishna Bahadur, from the University of Allahabad, published on organic and inorganic particles that he had synthesized and baptized `Jeewanu’, or `particle of life’. Bahadur conceived of the Jeewanu as a simple form of the living. These studies are presented in a historical perspective and positioned within mid-20th century research on the origin of life, notably the so-called `coacervate theory’ of the Soviet biochemist Aleksandr I Oparin. The concepts of life proposed by Bahadur, Oparin and others are discussed from a historical standpoint.

  3. The Role of the United States Public Health Service in the Control of Syphilis during the Early 20th Century

    Sarka, George

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONThe Role of United States Public Health Service in the Control of Syphilis during the Early 20th Century byGeorge SarkaDoctor of Public HealthUniversity of California, Los Angeles, 2013Professor Paul Torrens, ChairStatement of the Problem: To historians, the word syphilis usually evokes images of a bygone era where lapses in moral turpitude led to venereal disease and its eventual sequelae of medical and moral stigmata. It is considered by many, a disease of the p...

  4. Geological exploration of South Atlantic islands and its contributions to the continental drift debate of the early 20th century

    Stone, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The geological character of the South Atlantic islands was only slowly established during the first half of the 20th century. That same period was marked by a generally dismissive view of continental drift but, as the continental nature of the islands became apparent, their ‘oceanic’ setting was utilised by both sides of the ‘drift’ debate to support their respective positions. So islands such as the Falklands archipelago and South Georgia were cited either as fragments detached from larger c...

  5. Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations

    Wagner, S.; Fast, I.; F. Kaspar

    2011-01-01

    Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution). The differences in the external fo...

  6. Intercomparison of 20th century tropical climate model hindcasts and coral δ18O data using a forward proxy model

    Thompson, D. M.; Evans, M. N.; Ault, T. R.; Cole, J. E.; Emile-Geay, J.

    2009-12-01

    Forward modeling of climate proxies enables identification of uncertainties in the interpretation of high resolution proxy archives in a manner that is complementary to classical inverse methods. By coupling proxy models to climate model output driven with realistic external forcings, a framework for assessment of their consistency with proxy observations over long timescales is created. Here we model reef coral oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) as a function of sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-surface salinity (SSS), the latter a linear proxy for the isotopic composition of seawater in the tropics. We first validate this model against a comprehensive network of 20th century coral δ18O measurements. When driven with historical SST and SSS data for the last ~50 years, the forward model is able to capture the spatial and temporal pattern of ENSO variability observed in the corals better than a univariate SST-based model, hence establishing the skill of this bivariate model. We then drive the forward model with SST and SSS from 20th-century simulations of state-of-the-art climate models, such as GFDL CM2.0 (run 1 c3m; Delworth et al, 2006, Wittenberg et al, 2006), to assess the ability of climate models to reproduce tropical climate variability. GFDL CM2.0 forward modeled coral δ18O accurately reproduces the spatio-temporal pattern of the observed coral δ18O trend over the 20th century, and furthermore suggests the trend was primarily driven by increased SSTs. However, the magnitude of the modeled trend is smaller than observed in the corals, suggesting that coral physiology has reacted in a non-linear fashion to the observed climatic forcing, or that GFDL CM2.0's tropical response to external climate forcing is too small. Instead, variance in GFDL modeled corals is dominated by strong interannual variability that is much greater than that observed in corals. The temporal evolution of modeled ENSO variance and frequency over the 20th century is also markedly

  7. The influence of inequality on the standard of living: worldwide anthropometric evidence from the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Blum, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    We provide empirical evidence on the existence of the Pigou-Dalton principle. The latter indicates that aggregate welfare is - ceteris paribus - maximized when incomes of all individuals are equalized (and therefore marginal utility from income is as well). Using anthropometric panel data on 101 countries during the 19th and 20th centuries, we determine that there is a systematic negative and concave relationship between height inequality and average height. The robustness of this relationship is tested by means of several robustness checks, including two instrument variable regressions. These findings help to elucidate the impact of economic inequality on welfare. PMID:23352274

  8. Dialogue of cultures and cultural primitivism in anti-utopian novel of the first half of the 20th century

    Dolzhenko, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the dialogue of cultures as it is represented in the antiutopian novels of the first half of the 20th century. The author points out the typological features of the novels “We” by Evgeny Zamyatin, “Brave New World” by Aldous Huxley and “1984” by George Orwell and investigates the place and the role of the dialogue of cultures in the light of Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept and tendency toward cultural primitivism as the result of totalitarian influence in ...

  9. Intrinsic Versus Forced Variation in Coupled Climate Model Simulations of the Arctic Temperature during the 20th Century

    Wang, M.; Overland, J. E.; Kattsov, V.; Walsh, J. E.; Zhang, X.

    2010-12-01

    The two multi-year periods of winter time Arctic-wide (60-90°N) warm temperature anomalies (> 0.7°C) in the 20th century have recently received considerable attention in the scientific community. Reproducing these multi-year anomalies in coupled climate models, which constitutes CMIP3 archive, is a critical test to understand processes responsible for and increasing the confidence in the IPCC model projections of Arctic climate system changes. Our study evaluated all available realizations generated by CMIP3 models made available for the IPCC 4th Assessment (AR4), including 20th century simulations (20C3M) and corresponding control runs (PIcntr). Warm anomalies in the Arctic during the last two decades are reproduced by all ensemble members, with considerable variability in amplitude among models. In contrast only eight models, among which there are at least one realization in each model, generated warm anomalies with comparable amplitude (but not the timing) of the observed early-century warm event. The early-century warm events in all the models have decadal timescales, while that of the observed was multidecadal. The variance of the control runs in nine models was comparable with the variance in the observations. The random timing of early-century warm anomalies in 20C3M simulations and the similar variance of the control runs in about half of the models suggest that the observed mid-century warm period is consistent with intrinsic climate variability. Our results support selecting a subset of GCMs when making projections for future climate by using performance criteria based on comparison with retrospective data, characteristics of variability as well as means.

  10. Women's Position in Lithuanian Labour Market in the 20th century

    Virginija Jureniene

    2008-09-01

    los compromisos familiares.The paper draws attention to women's position in the changing labour market of the 1920s-1930s and after the reestablishment of independence in 1990 in the Republic of Lithuania. The author carries out a historical analysis of the impact of the laws issued at that period to solve the issue of unemployment and explores their implications to women's position in the labour market. Among the most significant laws dealing with rising unemployment in Lithuania at the beginning of the 20th century was the one demanding from an employer to dismiss an employee whose spouse had a job. Since the society of that time was predominantly patriarchal, married women were the first to be dismissed. The law raised a stormy reaction from women who sought support from international organizations such as the Federation of International Diplomaed Women and the Union of the Nations. However, the issue was not solved till 1940 and burst out after the reestablishment of the state in 1990 and persisted till 1998 when the law of Equal Opportunities was issued.

  11. Climate and carbon cycle variations in the 20th and 21st centuries in a model of intermediate complexity

    Eliseev, A. V.; Mokhov, I. I.; Karpenko, A. A.

    2007-02-01

    The climate model of intermediate complexity developed at the Oboukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS CM), has been supplemented by a zero-dimensional carbon cycle model. With the carbon dioxide emissions prescribed for the second half of the 19th century and for the 20th century, the model satisfactorily reproduces characteristics of the carbon cycle over this period. However, with continued anthropogenic CO2 emissions (SRES scenarios A1B, A2, B1, and B2), the climate-carbon cycle feedback in the model leads to an additional atmospheric CO2 increase (in comparison with the case where the influence of climate changes on the carbon exchange between the atmosphere and the underlying surface is disregarded). This additional increase is varied in the range 67 90 ppmv depending on the scenario and is mainly due to the dynamics of soil carbon storage. The climate-carbon cycle feedback parameter varies nonmonotonically with time. Positions of its extremes separate characteristic periods of the change in the intensity of anthropogenic emissions and of climate variations. By the end of the 21st century, depending on the emission scenario, the carbon dioxide concentration is expected to increase to 615 875 ppmv and the global temperature will rise by 2.4 3.4 K relative to the preindustrial value. In the 20th 21st centuries, a general growth of the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and ocean and its reduction in terrestrial ecosystems can be expected. In general, by the end of the 21st century, the more aggressive emission scenarios are characterized by a smaller climate-carbon cycle feedback parameter, a lower sensitivity of climate to a single increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, a larger fraction of anthropogenic emissions stored in the atmosphere and the ocean, and a smaller fraction of emissions in terrestrial ecosystems.

  12. A comparison of changes model produced temperature and precipitation extremes with observed changes for the 20th Century and Simulated Changes for the 21st Century.

    Easterling, D. R.; Gleason, B.; Vose, R. S.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    Observed changes in temperature and precipitation extremes for the latter half of the 20th century generally show increases in warm temperature extremes, decreases in cold extremes, and increases in heavy precipitation events (Alexander et al. 2006). Here we use daily values from a general circulation model simulation for the 20th century using observed greenhouse gas and other forcings produced for the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report and the definition of extremes found in Alexander et al. (2006) as well as other extremes to compare how changes in the model-produced extremes compare to the changes in observed extremes. The model used is the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Climate Model 2.1. We also examine how these temperature and precipitation extremes change in simulations produced using two 21st century forcing scenarios. Alexander, L., et al., 2006: Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J. Geophys. Res., D05109,doi:10.1029/2005JD006290.

  13. Catalan farmhouses and farming families in Catalonia between the 16th and early 20th centuries

    Assumpta Serra

    2016-01-01

    The masia (translated here as the Catalan farmhouse), or the building where people reside on a farming estate, is the outcome of the landscape where it is located. It underwent major changes from its origins in the 11th century until the 16th century, when its evolution peaked and a prototype was reached for Catalonia as a whole. For this reason, in the subsequent centuries the model did not change, but building elements were added to it in order to adapt the home to the times. Catalan far...

  14. The controversial early brightening in the first half of 20th century: a contribution from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain)

    Antón, M; Aparicio, A J P

    2014-01-01

    A long-term decrease in downward surface solar radiation from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming") followed by a multi-decadal increase up to the present ("brightening") have been detected in many regions worldwide. In addition, some researchers have suggested the existence of an "early brightening" period in the first half of 20th century. However, this latter phenomenon is an open issue due to the opposite results found in literature and the scarcity of solar radiation data during this period. This paper contributes to this relevant discussion analyzing, for the first time in Southern Europe, the atmospheric column transparency derived from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain) for the period 1911-1928. This time series is one of the three longest dataset during the first quarter of the 20th century in Europe. The results showed the great effects of the Katmai eruption (June 1912, Alaska) on transparency values during 1912-1913 with maximum relative anomalies around 8%. Outside the period affect...

  15. Socio-spatial segregation and housing in Brazil between late 19th and the early 20th century

    Edmilson Soares

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analysis the Brazilian city between late 19th and the early 20th century, when there are structural changes in the economic, social and political framework that will lead to new forms of production and consumption of the city and housing. It overlaps the archaic matrix of colonial trait a new guise that disguised as modern has only exacerbated their dramatic njustices, leading to production of a segregated urban space, both socially and space terms. The access to land and the State participation are central to the explanation of theses inequalities. The methodological procedures include bibliographic survey, selection and reading, data compilation, data and information systematization, data analysis. We conclude that, between late 19th and early 20th century, the Brazilian cities are the product of urbanization whose logic state intervention produced clear inequalities between sectors of the city, because it favored those spaces fitted with infrastructure at the expense of the shortage of rest of the city.

  16. Collective Memory and Collective Identity of Hlučín Region Inhabitants in the 20th Century

    Helena Kubátová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hlučín Region is a small border area in the Moravia-Silesia Region. Its history is specific. Over 25 years in the 20th century, its border shifted three times and its inhabitants’ nationality also changed three times. The region was annexed by the German Reich in 1938 and its inhabitants gained the rights of citizens of the Reich, with the obligation to enlist in the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Germany. These historical turning points and their consequences after the Second World War are part of the cultural and communicative memory of most of the local people. The purpose of the article is to show the communicative memory of Hlučín Region inhabitants and the common knowledge of 20th century historical events to be one of the important integral parts of regional identity, which is a source of regional consciousness. Hlučín Region inhabitants identify themselves strongly with their region and society. This identification results from specific culture finding its expression in shared values, faith and traditions, and from the awareness of their own specificity. As a consequence of the predominant regional endogamy, this culture is handed down from one generation to another. Strong regional consciousness based on this identification, has a positive influence on the rich communal life and possibilities of stabilization and further development of the region.

  17. [The creation of hospitals by charities in Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 18th to 20th century].

    Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-01-01

    This article is the fruit of research into the cultural heritage of healthcare in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and explores the construction of hospitals supported by Catholic charities from the 18th to 20th century. Catholicism has always been strong in Minas Gerais, partly because the Portuguese Crown prohibited the free travel of priests, who were suspected of illegally trading in gold from the mines. A brotherhood was responsible for creating the first Santa Casa, in Vila Rica. Another very important religious group in Brazil, the Vincentians, was also devoted to charitable works and propagated the ideas on charity of Frederico Ozanan, based on the work of St. Vincent de Paul. This group comprised both a lay movement, supported by conferences organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and a religious order, the Vincentian priests and nuns. Catholic physicians make up the third group studied here, organized in a professional association promoted by the Catholic Church. The brotherhoods, Vincentians, and associations, with their Santa Casas, represent a movement that is recognized worldwide. The enormous Catholic participation in these charitable works brought in the physicians, who would often make no charge and exerted efforts to create hospitals that served the population. Although the capital of Minas Gerais was the creation of republicans and positivists in the 20th century, with their ideas of modernity, it remained dependent on Christian charity for the treatment of the poor. PMID:21936227

  18. Causes of a fresher, colder northern North Atlantic in late 20th century in a coupled model

    Hu, Aixue; Meehl, Gerald A.; Han, Weiqing

    2007-05-01

    Observational evidence indicates that in the northern North Atlantic, especially in the Labrador Sea, almost the whole column of the ocean water is fresher, and colder in late 20th century than in 1950-1960s. Here we analyze a four-member ensemble of the 20th century simulations from a coupled climate model to examine the possible causes for these observed changes. The model simulations resemble the observed changes in the northern North Atlantic. The simulated results show that a decreased meridional freshwater divergence and an increased meridional heat divergence associated with a weaker thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic are the primary causes for the freshening and cooling in the northern North Atlantic. The increased precipitation less evaporation tends to enforce the freshening, but the reduced sea ice flux into this region tends to weaken it. On the other hand, the surface warming induced by a higher atmospheric CO 2 concentration tends to heat up the northern North Atlantic, but is overcome by the cooling from increased meridional heat divergence.

  19. Response of the everglades ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management

    Bernhardt, C.E.; Willard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The ridge and slough landscape of the Florida Everglades consists of a mosaic of linear sawgrass ridges separated by deeper-water sloughs with tree islands interspersed throughout the landscape. We used pollen assemblages from transects of sediment cores spanning sawgrass ridges, sloughs, and ridge-slough transition zones to determine the timing of ridge and slough formation and to evaluate the response of components of the ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management. These pollen data indicate that sawgrass ridges and sloughs have been vegetationally distinct from one another since initiation of the Everglades wetland in mid-Holocene time. Although the position and community composition of sloughs have remained relatively stable throughout their history, modern sawgrass ridges formed on sites that originally were occupied by marshes. Ridge formation and maturation were initiated during intervals of drier climate (the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age) when the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone shifted southward. During these drier intervals, marsh taxa were more common in sloughs, but they quickly receded when precipitation increased. Comparison with regional climate records suggests that slough vegetation is strongly influenced by North Atlantic Oscillation variability, even under 20th-century water management practices. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. A multidisciplinary approach of the status of women in Europe in the 20th-21st century

    Irina IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was marked by the feminine revolution and the change of status of women throughout the world. The following article wishes to approach from a multidisciplinary perspective the contrasting differences of the woman’s condition in two different “worlds” (Occidental and the Balkans given the access of women towards education, social attitude and the afferent politics for women. These indexes influence the rate of participation of women in the working field, thus, they play a crucial role in the personal development of them. The comparative analysis of the specialized literature points out the main characteristics of women from France and Germany (as defining parts of the Occidental Europe and Turkey and Bosnia (representative countries for the Balkans and the Islamic part of the continent throughout the 20th and the 21st century. Although there is a common set of features, it is the differences that draw attention regarding the unequal participation of women in the social, economical and political life.

  1. Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century

    Luigi Cattivelli; Natale Di Fonzo; Anna Maria Mastrangelo; Loredana Matteu; Pasquale De Vita

    2007-01-01

    Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last century. The analysis of data allows to appreciate the selective pressure imposed by the breeders on plant height and phenology to select cultivars well adapted to the Italian semi-arid conditions, wh...

  2. Ideology and Social Improvement in Bolivia during the 20th Century

    Brian Norris

    2011-01-01

    This essay relates improvements in social indicators in Bolivia during the Twentieth Century to ideological changes during the same period. During the Twentieth Century, most social indicators improved dramatically in Bolivia. Separately, scholars have vigorously debated ideologies, such as neoliberalism and its macroeconomic competitors, and the potential social impact of these ideologies. Despite the separate emphases on ideas and social outcomes, no systematic attempt has been made by scho...

  3. The Rise in Life Expectancy and Economic Growth in the 20th Century

    Hansen, Casper Worm; lønstrup, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This research exploits conditional exogenous variation in mortality from the diffusion of modern medicine to study the effect of growth in life expectancy on the growth in GDP per capita. The empirical analysis establishes that countries that obtained higher growth rates of life expectancy due to...... this shock to mortality in the mid-twentieth century experienced lower growth rates of GDP per capita in the second half of the twentieth century. In addition, a negative relationship between initial level of life expectancy and the subsequent growth rate of GDP per capita is found....

  4. Careers of men and women in the 19th and 20th centuries

    Schulz, W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the process of status attainment during the careers of men and women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the influence of modernization processes on that process of status attainment. During the decades following World War II, the Western world saw an increasing c

  5. Syphilis in the Russian army (in the 18 th and 20 th centuries)

    Zavyalov A.I.; Utz S.R.; Morrison A.M.; Gajdarov А.Е.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the domestic medical literature, reflecting the incidence of syphilis in the Russian army and the Russian military civilians in times of conflict in the XVII — beginning of XX century. The methods of struggle with sexually transmitted diseases and their prevention in the military in wartime and peacetime are present.

  6. Modeling Arctic Ocean heat transport and warming episodes in the 20th century caused by the intruding Atlantic Water

    WANG Jia; JIN Mei-bing; Jun Takahashi; Tatsuo Suzuki; Igor V Polyakov; Kohei Mizobata; Moto Ikeda; Fancois J.Saucier; Markus Meier

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the Arctic Ocean warming episodes in the 20th century using both a high-resolution coupled global climate model and historical observations. The model, with no flux adjustment, reproduces well the Atlantic Water core temperature (AWCT) in the Arctic Ocean and shows that four largest decadalscale warming episodes occurred in the 1930's, 70s, 80s, and 90s, in agreement with the hydrographic observational data. The difference is that there was no pre-warming prior to the 1930s episode, while there were two pre-warming episodes in the 1970s and 80s prior to the 1990s, leading the 1990s into the largest and prolonged warming in the 20th century. Over the last century, the simulated heat transport via Fram Strait and the Barents Sea was estimated to be, on average, 31.32 TW and 14.82TW, respectively, while the Bering Strait also provides 15.94 TW heat into the western Arctic Ocean. Heat transport into the Arctic Ocean by the Atlantic Water via Fram Strait and the Barents Sea correlates significantly with AWCT ( C =0.75 ) at Olag. The modeled North Atlantic Oscillation ( NAO ) index has a significant correlation with the heat transport ( C = 0.37 ). The observed AWCT has a significant correlation with both the modeled AWCT (C =0.49) and the heat transport (C =0.41 ).However, the modeled NAO index does not significantly correlate with either the observed AWCT (C =0.03 ) or modeled AWCT (C = 0. 16) at a zero-lag, indicating that the Arctic climate system is far more complex than expected.

  7. Trends in fire emissions over the 20th century as simulated by a fire model within CLM-CN

    Kloster, S.; Randerson, J. T.; Mahowald, N. M.; Thornton, P. E.

    2009-12-01

    Fire is an important Earth System process, which impacts climate via multiply processes, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosols, land surface properties and the carbon cycle. For recent fires, we have the capacity to observe global fire activity from space. However, historical information on fires is still very incomplete and little is known about the single driving forces of global fire activity. Here we present results from a fire model included in CLM-CN based on the work by Arora and Boer (2005) extended by an explicit parametrization of human ignition and fire suppression as a function of population density. In addition to natural fires we also take into account deforestation fires. We evaluated the model against contemporary satellite fire records and applied it in transient simulations running from 1798 to 2004. Several sensitivity experiments were performed to disentangle the importance of single driving forces impacting fire emissions, such as land use change and wood harvest, changes in population density and changes in climate. Globally we find decreasing fire emissions caused by land use change and wood harvest over the 20th century. The increase in population density over the last century leads to an increase in fire emissions. However, when we also take into account fire suppression, only little change in fire emissions on the global scale is found. Climate change over the last three decades leads to slightly increasing fire emissions. However, larger differences are found on the regional scale. Combining all single driving forces we find decreasing carbon emissions between 1900 and 1970 followed by a pronounced increase in the last three decades on the global scale. Thereby, the importance of the single driving forces for the simulated trend over the 20th century varies considerably for different regions.

  8. Pacific subtropical cell variability in coupled climate model simulations of the late 19th 20th century

    Solomon, Amy; Zhang, Dongxiao

    Observational studies of the Pacific basin since the 1950s have demonstrated that a decrease (increase) in tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is significantly correlated with a spin-up (slow-down) of the Pacific Subtropical Cells (STCs). STCs are shallow wind-driven overturning circulations that provide a pathway by which extratropical atmospheric variability can impact the equatorial Pacific thermocline and, through upwelling in the eastern equatorial Pacific, tropical Pacific SSTs. Recent studies have shown that this observed relationship between SSTs and STCs is absent in coupled climate model simulations of the late 19th-20th centuries. In this paper we investigate what causes this relationship to breakdown and to what extent this limits the models' ability to simulate observed climate change in the equatorial Pacific since the late 19th century. To provide insight into these questions we first show that the NCAR Community Climate System Model's simulation of observed climate change since the 1970s has a robust signal in the equatorial Pacific that bears a close resemblance to observations. Strikingly, absent is a robust signal in the equatorial thermocline. Our results suggest that the coupled model may be reproducing the observed local ocean response to changes in forcing but inadequately reproducing the remote STC-forcing of the tropical Pacific due to the underestimate of extratropical winds that force these ocean circulations. These conclusions are found to be valid in five different coupled climate model simulations of the late 19th-20th centuries (CCSM3, GISS EH, GFDL CM2.1, CSIRO-Mk3, and HadCM3).

  9. Presence and possible cause of periodicities in 20th-century extreme coastal surge: Belfast Harbour, Northern Ireland

    Orford, Julian; Murdy, Joanne

    2015-10-01

    Identifying 20th-century periodic coastal surge variation is strategic for the 21st-century coastal surge estimates, as surge periodicities may amplify/reduce future MSL enhanced surge forecasts. Extreme coastal surge data from Belfast Harbour (UK) tide gauges are available for 1901-2010 and provide the potential for decadal-plus periodic coastal surge analysis. Annual extreme surge-elevation distributions (sampled every 10-min) are analysed using PCA and cluster analysis to decompose variation within- and between-years to assess similarity of years in terms of Surge Climate Types, and to establish significance of any transitions in Type occurrence over time using non-parametric Markov analysis. Annual extreme surge variation is shown to be periodically organised across the 20th century. Extreme surge magnitude and distribution show a number of significant cyclonic induced multi-annual (2, 3, 5 & 6 years) cycles, as well as dominant multi-decadal (15-25 years) cycles of variation superimposed on an 80 year fluctuation in atmospheric-oceanic variation across the North Atlantic (relative to NAO/AMO interaction). The top 30 extreme surge events show some relationship with NAO per se, given that 80% are associated with westerly dominant atmospheric flows (+ NAO), but there are 20% of the events associated with blocking air massess (- NAO). Although 20% of the top 30 ranked positive surges occurred within the last twenty years, there is no unequivocal evidence of recent acceleration in extreme surge magnitude related to other than the scale of natural periodic variation.

  10. Late 19th- and early 20th-century discussions of animal magnetism.

    Alvarado, Carlos S

    2009-10-01

    The mesmerists explained the phenomena of what was later called hypnosis as the effects of a force called animal magnetism. Both psychologists' and physicians' writings generally create the impression that the magnetic movement disappeared after the mid-19th century. While the concept of animal magnetism declined significantly by the end of the 19th century, it did not disappear completely. Some examples include the work of Hector Durville, Henri Durville, Emile Magnin, and Edmund Shaftesbury. Detailed accounts of the work of Edmund Gurney and Albert de Rochas are presented. Similar to its earlier counterpart, the late mesmeric movement was associated with what today is known as parapsychological phenomena. This association, and the belief that the demise of magnetic theory represents scientific progress, has led many to emphasize a history that is incomplete. PMID:20182996

  11. Evapotranspiration trends over the eastern United States during the 20th century

    Kramer, Ryan J.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Zhang, Ping; Wolfe, Robert E.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thome, Kurtis; Noyce, Genevieve L.

    2015-01-01

    Most models evaluated by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate change estimate projected increases in temperature and precipitation with rising atmospheric CO2 levels. Researchers have suggested that increases in CO2 and associated increases in temperature and precipitation may stimulate vegetation growth and increase evapotranspiration (ET), which acts as a cooling mechanism, and on a global scale, may slow the climate-warming trend. This hypothesis has been modeled under increased CO2 conditions with models of different vegetation-climate dynamics. The significance of this vegetation negative feedback, however, has varied between models. Here we conduct a century-scale observational analysis of the Eastern US water balance to determine historical evapotranspiration trends and whether vegetation greening has affected these trends. We show that precipitation has increased significantly over the twentieth century while runoff has not. We also show that ET has increased and vegetation growth is partially responsible.

  12. Hans Bethe and Physics in/of the 20th Century

    Schweber, Silvan [Brandeis University

    2012-12-12

    I will present some facets of Hans Bethe’s life to illustrate how I have used biography to narrate certain aspects of the history of twentieth century physics. I will focus on post World War II quantum field theory, on the relation between solid state/condensed matter physics and high energy physics, and make some observations regarding certain “top down” views in solid state physics in postmodernity.

  13. OMANI-INDIAN ECONOMIC TIES DURING 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY

    Said bin Muhammad al-Hashimy

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at highlighting the Omani-Indian economic relations during nineteenth and twentieth century, showing the depth of civilizational intercommunication between the two peoples. Omani communication with the Indian Sub-continent dates back to the times when Omanis started navigation activities which made them acquire high reputation in all Indian sea ports as well as the high seas of China and East Africa. The importance of this paper derives from its documentation and (of the) deve...

  14. Kratovo-traditional architecture from 19th and the beginning of 20th century

    Namicev, Petar; Namiceva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    The material in this publication is intended for a general interested public, students, professionals which dealing with the study of architectural form and all lovers of traditional architecture. The urban house placed in crowded urban core, on a steep area, by a river, created a recognizable form of the old urban house of the XIX century, reflection of the wealth of the city bourgeoisie of merchants and craftsmen. Spatial conception of the house is predicted according to the tradition of...

  15. Children’s Drawing and Primitivism at the Dawn of the 20th Century

    Pencenat, Corine

    2012-01-01

    In the European continent at the end of the 19th century, the Nordic countries developed their interest in practical art instruction in schools, based on a messianic and educational vision of art, which certainly factored in increased economic gains for the nation. The introduction of the praxis of free, not to say spontaneous, artistic expression, where the child became the instructor’s guide, and the subsequent development of artistic style and taste at a very early age were actually part a...

  16. Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th Century

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of cumulative national shares of Nobel Prizes since 1901, properly taking into account that most prizes were divided among several laureates. We rank by citizenship at the moment of the award, and by country of birth. Surprisingly, graphs of this type have not been published before, even though they powerfully illustrate the century's migration patterns (brain drains and gains) in the sciences and other fields.

  17. Evolution of forest cover in Portugal:A review of the 12th-20th centu-ries

    Fernando Reboredo; João Pais

    2014-01-01

    Portugal’s forests in the 12th century were dominated by the Fagaceae represented by Quercus and Castanea, and several pine species. From the 12th century onwards, forests underwent changes in their man-agement starting with protection and ultimately leading to intense ex-ploitation. The massive naval construction during the maritime expansion (mainly in the 15th-16th centuries) involved felling of approximately 5 million trees mainly Quercus suber, Pinus pinea and other Quercus species. Cumulative fuel-wood consumption of 959 Mm3 during 1300-1854 was attributed to demographic expansion while the deforesta-tion rate during 1636-1854 accounted for a minimum of 72.6% and a maximum of 96% of total forest cover. The volume of timber used in railway sleepers from 1856 onwards might have reached 0.5 Mm3. The last quarter of the 20th century increased the forest cover of Portugal through the World Bank program of Eucalyptus globulus reforestation.

  18. Rolling-element bearings in China: From ancient times to the 20th century

    Sun, Lie; Li, Ang

    2016-03-01

    The development of rolling-element bearings in China has spanned a long period. Based on several typical and important cases, the present article reconstructs the history of rolling-element bearings in China by dividing it into four stages according to the various characteristics of the bearings. The first stage represents the origin of rolling bearings in China, which remains controversial because of several suspected races and cages that were likely the components of bearings more than a millennium ago. At the second stage, a type of simple roller bearing was used for astronomical instruments not later than the 13th century based on clear philological and physical evidence. A similar bearing was also applied to an abridged armillary in the 17th century. Another type of spherical thrust bearings with rolling elements, which is a key component of a traditional Chinese windmill, could support a rotating shaft that moves rotationally and at an angle. At the third stage, the Chinese began studying and using the so-called Europeanstyle bearing since the 17th century. Moreover, over the last 100 years, the modern rolling bearing industry was gradually established in China, particularly because of the technology transfer from the Soviet Union in the 1950s. At the fourth stage, the Chinese government initiated the relatively rapid development of bearing technology. The government launched the "bearing movement" from the 1950s to the 1960s to establish the modern bearing industry and to promote rolling bearings as replacement for traditional sliding bearings. Furthermore, a number of large professional factories and institutions in China have continually introduced advanced technology and equipment. At present, these companies and institutions play a significant role in the international bearing industry.

  19. Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century

    Pasquale De Vita

    Full Text Available Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last century. The analysis of data allows to appreciate the selective pressure imposed by the breeders on plant height and phenology to select cultivars well adapted to the Italian semi-arid conditions, where early maturity allows to escape the drought season. The annual genetic gain in terms of yield ranged from 17 to 24.6 kg ha-1 year-1 and it was most clearly associated with a higher kernels number m-2 indicating a larger grain-sink size and a higher number of spikes m-2. Regarding the quality traits, the grain protein concentration showed a decreasing trend over time of release of about 0.02% per year, confirming the negative relationship with grain yield.The progressive incorporation into recent cultivars of favourable alleles (7+8 glutenin subunit composition coding for superior quality subunits reflects the improvement in pasta making quality of the recent genotypes.

  20. Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming

    O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  1. Using atmospheric CO2 data to assess a simplified carbon-climate simulation for the 20th century

    The CSIRO biosphere model has been coupled to an atmosphere model and a simulation has been performed for the 20th century. Both biosphere and atmosphere are forced with global CO2 concentration and the atmosphere is also forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures. The simulation follows the C4MIP Phase 1 protocol. We assess the model simulation using atmospheric CO2 data. Mauna Loa growth rate is well simulated from 1980 but overestimated before that time. The interannual variations in growth rate are reasonably reproduced. Seasonal cycles are underestimated in northern mid-latitudes and are out of phase in the southern hemisphere. The north-south gradient of annual mean CO2 is substantially overestimated due to a northern hemisphere net biosphere source and a southern tropical sink. Diurnal cycles at three northern hemisphere locations are larger than observed in many months, most likely due to larger respiration than observed

  2. Evaluation of Continental Precipitation in 20th-Century Climate Simulations: The Utility of Multi-Model Statistics

    Phillips, T J; Gleckler, P J

    2005-11-01

    At the request of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), simulations of 20th-century climate have been performed recently with some 20 global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. In view of its central importance for biological and socio-economic systems, model-simulated continental precipitation is evaluated relative to three observational estimates at both global and regional scales. Many models are found to display systematic biases, deviating markedly from the observed spatial variability and amplitude/phase of the seasonal cycle. However, the point-wise ensemble mean of all the models usually shows better statistical agreement with the observations than does any single model. Deficiencies of current models that may be responsible for the simulated precipitation biases as well as possible reasons for the improved estimate afforded by the multi-model ensemble mean are discussed. Implications of these results for water-resource managers also are briefly addressed.

  3. Methodological disputes about interpretation of neum notation in the 20th century

    Peno Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the end of the twentieth century in Byzantine musicological science there were two diametrically opposite approaches to the interpretation of the Byzantine neum notation systems and post-Byzantine music heritage after the Fall of Constantinople. Western European scholars, ignoring the post-Byzantine Chant tradition and the last semeography reform from the early nineteenth century, looked at the problems of the musical past only from the perspective of the Middle Ages. Greek researchers have shared the belief that the condition of an adequate understanding of the mid-Byzantine notation, or the so-called old method, is the knowledge of analytical neum system and theory, the basics of which were set up by musicians from the end of the seventeenth and during the eighteenth century, and were finally shaped by Chrisantos, Gregory and Chourmouzios and officially accepted in the Greek church in 1814. The path to overcoming the issues relating to the development of neum notation, and finding an adequate manner of decoding it, led through the understanding of the phenomenon of "interpretation" and other tendencies that marked the post-Byzantine music practice. Two scientists -the Danish Jørgen Raasted, a follower of the Western European musicological methods established by founders of Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, and Greek theologist and musicologist Gregory Stathes - are specifically responsible for the reconciliation of the different methodological approaches. After numerous and often heated debates, the Danish scientist eventually largely accepted the views of his Greek counterpart. Moreover, he himself insisted, at the musicological conferences organized during the 1980s, on reviewing the controversial issues: the existence of chromatic intervals in the psalmody of the Middle-Ages, the problem of syllabic and melismatic interpretations of stenographic neum records, and so on. Concerning the above mentioned issues, the contemporary trends in

  4. Curonian Ethnic Community at the End of 19th Century – 1st Half of 20th Century: Number, Location, Historical Processes

    Krišs Kapenieks

    2013-01-01

    The doctoral thesis „Curonian Ethnic Community at the End of 19th Century – 1st Half of 20th Century: Number, Location, Historical Processes“ has been written at the Chair of Modern and Contemporary History of Latvia and Eastern Europe of the Faculty of History and Philosophy, University of Latvia in 2006–2011. Author: Krišs Kapenieks. Supervisor: Ēriks Jēkabsons, Doctor of History, associate professor at the Chair of Modern and Contemporary History of Latvia and Eastern Europe of the Faculty...

  5. [On some demographic characteristics of the members of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the 20th century].

    Berezkin, V G; Bulianitsa, A L

    2007-01-01

    The demographic life characteristics of the Russian science elite (full and corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences in 20th century) and the relationship between their birth and death dates are given in the paper. The following demographic characteristics of the RAS members have been estimated: a) the mean life span of full RAS members is 75 years, and of corresponding members--72.1 years; b) the mean life span of full RAS members after their election is 16.6 years, and that of corresponding members is 17 years; c) the mean age of the election to the Academy is 58.4 years for full members and 55 years for the corresponding members. These characteristics were used to analyze the social status of the group representing potential academic elite and to evaluate changes in that status caused by the fact of their election to the Academy. It has been found that the mean, maximum and minimum ages of their election to the Academy actually coincide with respective characteristics of Nobel Prize winners. However the life span of the latter after awarding is significantly, over 3 years, greater than that of full RAS members after their election. There is a small proportion of women among the members of the Academy (2%). This is also true for Nobel Prize winners (3.2%). It is shown that a week period of +/-3 days of the birth date for the members of the Academy is characterized by a much higher mortality rate exceeding the average one by about 60%. A similar tendency was shown earlier for the eminent persons of the world community in literature, science, business, and politics in 18th-20th centuries. PMID:17969583

  6. Precipitation changes in wet and dry seasons over the 20th century simulated by two versions of the FGOALS model

    Ma, Shuangmei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal precipitation changes over the globe during the 20th century simulated by two versions of the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (FGOALS) model are assessed. The two model versions differ in terms of their AGCM component, but the remaining parts of the system are almost identical. Both models reasonably reproduce the mean-state features of the timings of the wet and dry seasons and related precipitation amounts, with pattern correlation coefficients of 0.65-0.84 with observations. Globally averaged seasonal precipitation changes are analyzed. The results show that wet seasons get wetter and the annual range (precipitation difference between wet and dry seasons) increases during the 20th century in the two models, with positive trends covering most parts of the globe, which is consistent with observations. However, both models show a moistening dry season, which is opposite to observations. Analysis of the globally averaged moisture budget in the historical climate simulations of the two models shows little change in the horizontal moisture advection in both the wet and dry seasons. The globally averaged seasonal precipitation changes are mainly dominated by the changes in evaporation and vertical moisture advection. Evaporation and vertical moisture advection combine to make wet seasons wetter and enhance the annual range. In the dry season, the opposite change of evaporation and vertical moisture advection leads to an insignificant change in precipitation. Vertical moisture advection is the most important term that determines the changes in precipitation, wherein the thermodynamic component is dominant and the dynamic component tends to offset the effect of the thermodynamic component.

  7. Assessing IPCC AR4 Coupled Model Simulations of Late-20th Century Winter Precipitation Over North America

    McAfee, S. A.; Russell, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Consistent with a southward bias in zonal winds in eighteen of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment (IPCC AR4) simulations of the 20th century, model estimates of stormtrack location tend to cluster south of the observed stormtrack, particularly during March and April. There are two mechanisms by which a southward-displaced stormtrack could increase downstream precipitation. The first is by changing the latitudinal distribution of storms. Second, a southward-displaced stormtrack allows storms to develop over warmer sea surfaces, increasing the amount of water they hold. Although they capture the general structure and seasonality of precipitation over North America quite well, IPCC AR4 coupled model simulations of the late-20th century (1979-1999) typically overestimate winter (November to April) precipitation in western North America in comparison to values from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project version 2 (GPCPv2). While there are multiple controls on precipitation amount and distribution, we suspect that a southward bias in zonal wind speeds contributes to the precipitation bias observed in many of the models included in this study. Many of the models in this study show greater overestimates of precipitation to the south than to the north, consistent with a southward bias in stormtrack position. The generally positive bias in precipitation across western North America seen in many of the models suggests that sea-surface temperature may also play a role. As the modeling community moves toward coupled earth system models with dynamic vegetation, the precipitation bias may become a more significant problem. Vegetation types are typically determined by seasonal patterns in temperature and precipitation. Errors of even 25% in precipitation totals may contribute to significant changes in the simulated vegetation and carbon fluxes, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions like the western United States.

  8. Forced annular variations in the 20th century Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report models

    Miller, R. L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Shindell, D. T.

    2006-09-01

    We examine the annular mode within each hemisphere (defined here as the leading empirical orthogonal function and principal component of hemispheric sea level pressure) as simulated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report ensembles of coupled ocean-atmosphere models. The simulated annular patterns exhibit a high spatial correlation with the observed patterns during the late 20th century, though the mode represents too large a percentage of total temporal variability within each hemisphere. In response to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases and tropospheric sulfate aerosols, the multimodel average exhibits a positive annular trend in both hemispheres, with decreasing sea level pressure (SLP) over the pole and a compensating increase in midlatitudes. In the Northern Hemisphere, the trend agrees in sign but is of smaller amplitude than that observed during recent decades. In the Southern Hemisphere, decreasing stratospheric ozone causes an additional reduction in Antarctic surface pressure during the latter half of the 20th century. While annular trends in the multimodel average are positive, individual model trends vary widely. Not all models predict a decrease in high-latitude SLP, although no model exhibits an increase. As a test of the models' annular sensitivity, the response to volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere is calculated during the winter following five major tropical eruptions. The observed response exhibits coupling between stratospheric anomalies and annular variations at the surface, similar to the coupling between these levels simulated elsewhere by models in response to increasing GHG concentration. The multimodel average is of the correct sign but significantly smaller in magnitude than the observed annular anomaly. This suggests that the models underestimate the coupling of stratospheric changes to annular variations at the surface and may not simulate the full response to increasing GHGs.

  9. Emotions and Social Sciences in 20th century: The Prequel of Affective Turn

    Giazú Enciso Domínguez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Affective Turn is an innovative movement that is transforming the production of knowledge based on the study of affect and emotion. To understand the current role of emotions, we proposed a 'prequel. Telling what happened with emotions within the social sciences before the Affective Turn, and before the twentieth century. In this work we explain the present from the past, we tell the story before The History, we pay a debt to a previous work: The Affective Turn. We articulate the prequel through seven approaches: Socialconstructionism, Discursive Social Psychology, Cultural Studies of Emotions, Emocionologies, Interpretative Sociology, Sociolinguistic of Emotions and Feminist Studies of emotions. We review the interests of each approach, their schools, their past, and give hints about not only the present but the future(s of the Affective Turn, in social science and academy as well.

  10. Advances in Structural Geology and Tectonics in the Late 20th Century: A Review

    2006-01-01

    Based on analyses of the share of documents of structural geology and tectonics in the GeoRef system over 100 years in the last century, and the historical change of international (31 years) and domestic (16 years) document counts of various topics in structural geology and tectonics, the position of structural geology and tectonics in the geosciences is evaluated and the major advaces in fields of plate tectonics, continental dynamics and global dynamics are reviewed. Our attention mainly focuses on the advances in studies of structural analysis, deformation mechanisms and rheology of rocks,contractional tectonics and late- and post-orogenic extensional collapse in orogens, large-scale strikeslip faults and indentation-extrusion tectonics, active tectonics and natural hazards. The relationships of structural geology and tectonics with petrology and geochronology are also discussed in terms of intersection of scientific disciplines. Finally, some suggestions are proposed for the further development of structural geology and tectonics in China.

  11. Customs of Galati Port at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Constantin Tănase

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Common practices, whether recognized or not as a source of law, represented an area of great importance in economic practice and judicial bodies, especially in maritime and river transport, but also rail and air transport. The Civil Code of 1864 made some references to local custom, while the new Civil Code provisions establish that practices are sources of law. In this way was settled a particularly sensitive area, namely, the existence and applicability of common practices in special matters such as those on business, commercial transactions, financial and otherwise, being directly related to maritime and river transport. This study attempts to identify specific features of the common practices application in Galaţi port in the early twentieth century.

  12. [Naturalism, novel and society in 19th-20th century transition in Spain.].

    Ortiz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The second half of the nineteenth century in Spain was a period characterized by a strong presence of social science, which even came to permeate the masses. Evolutionary theories and some figures such as Charles Darwin himself were present in areas far from the scientific activity proper. The use of concepts and laws of biological origin for the diagnosis and political practice against certain problematic social realities, such as crime or poverty, gave rise to theories and intellectual schools that asserted the value of evolutionary principles for the analysis of complex realities of socio-cultural inequality. The attraction for difference and the scientific method, with the possibility of observation of poverty and social inequality that industrial development and modernity put forward to the writers, added to the naturalist and biological interest a literary curiosity for the degeneration, both physical and cultural, of that unfortunate part of humanity. PMID:21305794

  13. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  14. At What Temporal and Spatial Scales Are the Coupled Climate Model Hindcasts in the 20th Century Reliable?

    Sakaguchi, K.; Zeng, X.

    2010-12-01

    The general circulation models (GCMs) that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) have been intensively studied and shown to reproduce the surface air temperature trend over the 20th century realistically at global and century-long scales. On the other hand, increasing interests in regional and decadal climate projections require better understanding on the scales at which GCMs can or cannot reliably project the future state of the surface air temperature. We address this question by comparing the simulated and observed historical temperature trend from 1880 to 1999 in a spectrum of temporal (decadal to century-long running periods) and spatial (5° grid to global average) scales, based on the simulations by three GCMs: GFDL CM2.0, GISS-EH, and NCAR CCSM3.0. It is found that the agreement between the model-simulated and observed temperature trend time series are improved with increasing spatial and temporal time scales, and the ensemble- and multi-model average hindcasts show better performance than those from individual model simulations. Furthermore, we will provide the temporal and spatial scales at which the hindcasts can be considered “skillful” based on Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Ideology and Social Improvement in Bolivia during the 20th Century

    Brian Norris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay relates improvements in social indicators in Bolivia during the Twentieth Century to ideological changes during the same period. During the Twentieth Century, most social indicators improved dramatically in Bolivia. Separately, scholars have vigorously debated ideologies, such as neoliberalism and its macroeconomic competitors, and the potential social impact of these ideologies. Despite the separate emphases on ideas and social outcomes, no systematic attempt has been made by scholars of Bolivia to link long–term ideological change to long–term social improvement in the country. This essay argues that it is probable that such a relationship exists, but it is important to consider mass ideology, which affects the whole of Bolivian society, in addition to elite ideology, which affects a much more limited portion of society.Este ensayo relaciona las mejoras en indicadores sociales en Bolivia durante el siglo XX con cambios ideológicos registrados durante el mismo periodo. Durante el siglo XX la mayoría de los indicadores sociales mejoraron dramáticamente en Bolivia. Los especialistas han debatido vigorosamente  la relación de estas mejoras con ideologías tales como el neoliberalismo y sus competidores macroeconómicos, discutiendo su potencial impacto social. Sin embargo, pese al énfasis otorgado a la relación de las ideas con los resultados sociales, no ha habido ninguna tentativa sistemática por parte de los especialistas de  relacionar el cambio ideológico de largo plazo con las mejoras sociales de largo plazo en el país. Este ensayo sostiene que es probable que tal relación exista, pero para visibilizarla es importante considerar la ideología de masas, que afecta al conjunto de la sociedad boliviana, además de la ideología de la élite, que afecta a una porción mucho más limitada de la sociedad. 

  16. Happiness is Not Fun: Godard, the 20th Century, and Badiou

    Michael Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "Godard is the most contemporary of directors, one who has never set a film in the past. Yet since the 1990s he has produced a whole cycle of works whose tones are retrospective, memorial, elegaic. These include JLG/JLG:Auto-portrait du Décembre (1995, the much-discussed Histoire(s du Cinèma (begun in 1988, completed in 1998 2 x 50 Years of French Cinema (commissioned by the BFI for the centennial of cinema in 1995, The Old Place (commissioned by the Museum of Modern Art in 1999, On the Origin of the Twenty-First Century (commissioned by the Cannes Film Festival for the year 2000, Dans Le Noir du Temps (a contribution to the 2002 compilation film Ten Minutes Older, and the 2006 Centre Pompidou exhibition “Travels in Utopia.” This last was a retrospective in the conventional sense (screenings of four decades worth of film and video by Godard, Godard/Gorin, Godard/Mièville, etc, but was also retrospective as an installation, divided into three spaces identified as hier, l’avant-hier, and aujourd’hui (yesterday, the day before yesterday, and today, with tomorrow notable for its absence..."

  17. Exploring glacial change - flying in the tailwind of the early 20th century Greenland explorers

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjaer, K.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Larsen, N. K.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Khan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1930s Greenlandic explorers and scientists began using airplanes as an effective mean of surveying and mapping the hitherto unknown and inaccessible lands. By replacing the dogsled and the drawing board with the seaplane and camera, huge areas could now be covered. Here in the 21st Century the photographs now serve as a snapshot of the state of the glaciers, and possess unique scientific value as they stand as the first testimony of hundreds of Greenlandic glaciers. In the summer of 2013, we flew in the paths of the early flights and captured the changes that occurred during the last 80 years. To revisit all the historic glaciers would be a near impossible, not to mention extremely expensive task, so we targeted the most important glaciers in terms of present mass loss as well as the most aesthetically appealing historical images. The result is a then-and-now comparison that vividly captures both the raw beauty of the land and the ongoing often dramatic glacial changes. As the historic flights covered nearly half the Greenlandic coast line, we capture both areas of massive retreat and areas of still stand and even advance. The Heinkel Seaplane is being prepared for a photo flight in southeast Greenland in 1933. Flying an open plane in 14.000 ft and -40 °C called for a special breed of pilots.

  18. THE SYSTEM OF NAVAL EDUCATION IN KAISER GERMANY IN LATE 19th - EARLY 20th CENTURIES

    Stanislav Nikolaevich Sinegubov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief description of the system of naval education in Imperial Germany, which was formed in the late 19th century, highlights its advantages enhancing the high level of training specialists for the new fleet which was constructed in the country. The emphasis is on the process of staffing the non-commissioned officers’ corps on the basis of the sea cadets’ school. There was a great need for this educational institution to develop the Navy of the II Reich. The authorities encouraged a big annual enrollment of sea cadets introducing a wide range of social benefits, such as: free-of-charge education, full governmental support during the period of studies, good professional training that would guarantee not only job on a warship, but also career growth in future. Another important attractive aspect was that students were constantly under the control of officers who raised their wards in traditional moral values. All this attracted to naval schools young people, particularly from socially vulnerable strata of German society. The article considers special features of training and educating future officers at the Naval College and the Naval Academy in Kiel, which already had the elite character.

  19. Real Style: Riegl and Early 20th Century Central European Art

    Kimberly A. Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in Centropa: Journal of Central European Art and Architecture 5, n. 1 (January 2005: 16-25. Kimberly A. Smith discusses the ways in which the understanding of style was articulated by intellectuals working in the late nineteenth century, primarily in Germany and Austria, and the epistemological repercussions of this shift in thinking for both the theory and practice of central European art in the years before World War I. Smith focuses in particular on the writings of Alois Riegl, in which this approach to thinking about style came to its most influential fruition, and proposes that Riegl’s conception of form had implications for artistic practice. Riegl’s methodological understanding of artistic form drew connections between morphological types and perceptions of reality, thereby altering the ways in which artists could conceive of aesthetic authenticity. Style itself could be seen as the harbinger of truth, opening up the possibility that any style might offer a genuine revelation of the real. Yet as Smith shows, the Rieglian theory of meaningful form may have encouraged an artistic pluralism that subverted the very Kunstwollen theory of historically unified style from which it sprung.

  20. From Subsistence to Commercial Hunting: Technical Shift in Cynegetic Practices Among Southern Cameroon Forest Dwellers During the 20th Century

    Edmond Dounias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforest dwellers, who are currently engaged in bushmeat trade, used to track game for their own subsistence. We investigate the technical evolution over the past century of bushmeat procurement by the Fang, a group of southern Cameroon forest dwellers who are renowned for their extensive cynegetic expertise. This investigation consists of a diachronic approach to assess Fang hunting and trapping technology by comparing firsthand data on bushmeat procurement collected in the early 1990s with detailed descriptions recorded in the early 1900s among the same populations by the German anthropologist Günter Tessmann. Other archive sources bequeathed by explorers in the twilight of the 19th century are also exploited. The comparison conveys a more dynamic view of hunting practices following the greater involvement of the Fang hunters in the bushmeat trade. Historical sources remind us that projectile weapons were initially destined for warfare and that trapping, mobilizing a vast panel of modalities, was the prominent means to catch game for domestic consumption. Net hunting and crossbow hunting, which used to be typical Fang activities, are now exclusively conducted by Pygmies; spear hunting with hounds has become anecdotal. If a large range of trap mechanisms is still functional, effort is now focused on snares, elicited by the banalization of twisted wire cable. The legacy of other remaining models is left to children who carry out a didactic form of garden trapping. The major detrimental change is the use of firearms, which were initially adopted as a warfare prestige attribute before becoming the backbone instrument of bushmeat depletion. Revisiting the past provides useful lessons for improving current hunting management, through the promotion of garden hunting and wildlife farming, and the revitalization of a collective and cultural art of hunting as an alternative to indiscriminate overhunting by neophyte and increasingly

  1. Development of the Structure of Lithuanian Gardens and Parks from the 16th to the 20th Centuries

    Albinas Mocevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of Lithuanian parks cannot be separated from the historical evolution of our cities and towns and formation of their urbanistic structure. The beginnings of creating garden art in Lithuania, the same as in West Europe, are mentioned in medieval castles and monasteries. A strong influence on the developement of the history of Renaissance gardens was exerted by new models of garden theory, which were formed and formulated by famous European architects, artists, scientists, philosophers. The traditions of antique art were revived, new scientific inventions had an influence on garden art. During the 17th–18th centuries a lot of residences and manors were built, and they played an important role in the urbanisation of the country. In the 17th–18th centuries the tendencies in the Italian art of garden parks in West Europe were taken over by French baroque. In the junction of the 18th and 19th centuries the planning of cities and towns and urbanistic development in the territories of Lithuania and East Europe took place due to bizarre and geometralised influence of the baroque epoch. In the 19th century scenery parks were created next to mansions in Lithuanian towns by famous scenery specialists of that time from West Europe. In the junction of 19th and 20th centuries important geopolitical processes in Lithuania and Europe took place not only in the urbanisation of cities, but also in the planning of parks and their art tendencies. Due to the growth of cities, their urbanised territories and strengthening of social attitude towards a surrounding environment, the boundaries of park art spread into the public areas of cities. At the end of the paper there is a scheme which summarises the development and influence of park structure on city development and formation .Article in Lithuanian

  2. TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING SUPPORT IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY DURING THE 20TH CENTURY

    Hennie Smit

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Maps provide a base for all intelligence operations and strategic and tactical decisions, supporting the planning and execution of all battlefield functions. The development of military mapping support in South Africa, related closely to the development of aerial photography, may be divided into five, sometimes overlapping, phases. The first of these phases spans the years from 1840 to 1930 and is characterised by the gradual recognition that aerial photographs could be used for mapping. Two major conflicts – the Anglo Boer War and the First World War – marked this development. The Second World War is the key event of the second phase (1930–1950, which witnessed a rapid expansion of aerial photo coverage. The third phase (1945–1960 saw the overemphasising of interpretation techniques rather than the analytical use of results, which was rectified during the fourth phase (1955–1962 when the focus shifted to the applied uses of air-photo interpretation. During the third and fourth phases the topographic mapping support ability of the South African military was expanded. The fifth phase (since 1960 commenced with the expansion of data gathering and analysis into portions of the electromagnetic spectrum beyond the small visible sector. During this period the protracted nature of the conflict on the northern border of Namibia (formerly South West Africa and the war in Angola focused attention on the South African military mapping system. The National Service system allowed for the expansion of mapping units and the thorough mapping of large areas adjoining our borders. Through all five phases, mapping in the South African military has advanced from hand-produced maps to the utilisation of complex equipment that satisfies the sophisticated mapping needs of a modern defence force.This paper presents a brief history of both mapping support and the mapping units that have served within the South African theatre during the twentieth century. In

  3. Representations of epilepsy on the stage: From the Greeks to the 20th century.

    Trimble, Michael; Hesdorffer, Dale C

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy is a disorder that has been used by dramatists in various ways over the ages and therefore highlights the views of the disorder as people saw it at the time the plays were written and performed. In the 6th century BC, links between tragedy and epilepsy were developed by Greek playwrights, especially Euripides, in Iphigenia among the Taureans and Heracles where epilepsy and madness associated with extreme violence occur together. Both Heracles and Orestes have episodes after a long period of physical exhaustion and nutritional deprivation. During the Renaissance, Shakespeare wrote plays featuring different neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Epilepsy plays a crucial part in the stories of Julius Caesar and Othello. Julius Caesar is a play about politics, and Caesar's epilepsy is used to illustrate his weakness and vulnerability which stigmatizes him and leads to his assassination. Othello is a play about jealousy, and Othello, an outsider, is stigmatized by his color, his weakness, and his 'seizures' as a form of demonic possession. In modern times, Night Mother portrays the hard life of Jessie, who lives with her mother. Jessie has no friends, her father has abandoned the family, and she has no privacy and is ashamed. Stigma and social pressures lead her to commit suicide. Henry James' novella, The Turn of the Screw, portrays a governess with dream-like states, déjà vu, and loss of temporal awareness who has been sent to the country to look after two small children and ends up killing one. This novella was turned into an opera by Benjamin Britten. Most recently, performance art has been portraying epilepsy as the reality of a personally provoked seizure. Both Allan Sutherland and Rita Marcalo have purposely provoked themselves to have a seizure in front of an audience. They do this to show that seizures are just one disability. Whether this provokes stigma in audiences is unknown. Whether the performance artists understand the potential for

  4. Surgical pathology in the 20th century at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.

    Geller, Stephen A

    2008-08-01

    , immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, molecular pathology) gain place, the increasing tendency to select investigators, including basic scientists, as teaching department chairs and the financial constraints requiring increasing use of nonphysician workers all speak to the relegation of the Otani-Kaneko era to history. Is this a loss to Pathology? It is certainly a style of practice that has been lost. However, there is no reason to bemoan the state of Pathology in the beginning years of the 21st century. Pathology practice is outstanding at many medical centers throughout the world, including at Mount Sinai under the very able and creative leadership of Alan Schiller, who has presided over great enhancements of the department in both anatomic and clinical pathology, including significant advances in the study of diseases by molecular methods. Surgical Pathology at Mount Sinai has been led by James Strauchen, a renowned hematopathologist recruited by Schiller's predecessor, Jerome Kleinerman, and is currently directed by Ira Bleiweiss, a student of Kaneko. Other techniques and technologies have, to a degree, compensated for some of the changes since the Otani-Kaneko years and it is almost certain that advances in molecular pathology will allow for increasing sophistication in establishing diagnoses, and likely even grading and staging, probably even on blood, rather than tissue, samples. The science of Pathology will advance, as the art declines. Those who learned at Mount Sinai during the Otani-Kaneko years will, however, very likely tell you that they were privileged to have learned Pathology there and, especially, to have learned a distinct philosophy of Pathology under the guidance of caring, thoughtful, and especially gifted pathologists. PMID:19007103

  5. The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics

    Schwartz, Brian

    2000-12-26

    The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is

  6. Changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo wetland, through archival documents - Mendoza, Argentina, 16th-20th centuries

    Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

    2011-11-01

    The wrong management of watering in the highest zones of the Mendoza northern oasis, the topography of the terrain and the deficient drainage, together with neotectonics phenomena, but mostly a dramatic and progressive increase of the Rio Mendoza flow volume originated the expansion of the wetlands area at the NE of the city of Mendoza at the turn of the 18th century, while in previous centuries it had retracted to a minimum. The area grew until reaching the dimension of large wetlands in the lowest oasis zones, resulting from a larger runoff and soil saturation by the rise of the phreatic layers. This situation remained throughout the 19th century, affecting the extension and use of the available land for human activity. The purpose of this study was to research this process that culminated in 1930 with the partial desiccation of the area. We have given particular importance to the influence of the climatic fluctuations in the Cordillera de los Andes and to the consequent variations of the Rio Mendoza flow volume in this process. For the analysis we used snowfall series at the cordillera and flow volume of the Rio Mendoza, built by Prieto (2009) with documental data. We analyzed which were the mediate and immediate consequences of the growth and later desiccation of the wetlands over the environment and its present repercussion on the ecosystem (salinization, poor soil drainage, soil alkalinization, sedimentation). In addition, we have also worked over georeferenced historic charts that partially reflect the behavior of the Cienaga del Bermejo during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. This behavior characterized by "growth pulses" and retraction moments is reflected in the analyzed charts, where those moments of major growth coincide with cycles of bigger snowstorms and larger flow volume in the Rio Mendoza.

  7. Changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo wetland, through archival documents – Mendoza, Argentina, 16th–20th centuries

    M. R. Prieto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The wrong management of watering in the highest zones of the Mendoza northern oasis, the topography of the terrain and the deficient drainage, together with neotectonics phenomena, but mostly a dramatic and progressive increase of the Rio Mendoza flow volume originated the expansion of the wetlands area at the NE of the city of Mendoza at the turn of the 18th century, while in previous centuries it had retracted to a minimum. The area grew until reaching the dimension of large wetlands in the lowest oasis zones, resulting from a larger runoff and soil saturation by the rise of the phreatic layers. This situation remained throughout the 19th century, affecting the extension and use of the available land for human activity. The purpose of this study was to research this process that culminated in 1930 with the partial desiccation of the area. We have given particular importance to the influence of the climatic fluctuations in the Cordillera de los Andes and to the consequent variations of the Rio Mendoza flow volume in this process. For the analysis we used snowfall series at the cordillera and flow volume of the Rio Mendoza, built by Prieto (2009 with documental data. We analyzed which were the mediate and immediate consequences of the growth and later desiccation of the wetlands over the environment and its present repercussion on the ecosystem (salinization, poor soil drainage, soil alkalinization, sedimentation. In addition, we have also worked over georeferenced historic charts that partially reflect the behavior of the Cienaga del Bermejo during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. This behavior characterized by "growth pulses" and retraction moments is reflected in the analyzed charts, where those moments of major growth coincide with cycles of bigger snowstorms and larger flow volume in the Rio Mendoza.

  8. Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century

    Jakšić Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

  9. Defense Industry of the Russian Federation at the End of 20th-Beginning of the 21st Century

    Leonovich Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developed countries claiming for global leadership permanent military and industrial complexes were formed. These complexes produce high-tech products and play the key system-forming role in the economies of their states. Country’s position in world economy as well as its position at the weapons and military equipment market depends on the military and industrial complexes development. At the end of the 20th century, there had been great changes in the military and industrial complex of the Russian Federation. Drastic remission and demerger accompanied these changes unlike those in the Unites States and Western Europe. These processes were determined by inconsiderate defense conversion, reduction of expenses and the loss of weapons and military equipment production. At the beginning of the 21st century, Russian Federation government has changed its attitude towards the military and industrial complex. Main directions of surmounting the crisis were found through creation of military and industrial corporations, increase of state defense order in the favor of national Armed Forces. Development of state-owned corporations and significant increase in financial allocations for state defense order promoted the growth of military and industrial companies’ activity and rise in weapons and military equipment export. All above-listed processes of Russian military and industrial complexes predetermined the scientific and pragmatic interest for this research.

  10. The problems of national history in the school literature of the 18th - beginning of the 20th centuries

    Abramkin O. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of historical literature allows to consider profoundly the development of national culture and science of the 18th-first half of the 20th centuries and the formation and change of different historical concepts. With the analysis of historical periods that are highlighted in the research, general trends in the changing of paradigms about Russian historical development were concluded, which were translated to mass historical consciousness from the beginning of the 18th century up to 1917. The periods were closely connected with the specific political, historical and economic changes in Russian Empire and with the dominance of certain textbooks during this time. The books were selected because of a number of factors: their inclusion to the school curriculum, the number of publications (10 and more, the equal number of textbooks devoted to different historical periods. For the analysis were used 19 textbooks, schoolbooks for different courses of secondary schools and primary schools. All the sources of educational literature were grouped into two concepts - officially-state (patriotic and the liberal. Each publication was highlighted the dominant concept as a base for the whole textbook. There is also a characteristic of the concepts that are presented chronologically. The analysis represents school history books as an important source for the formation of state policy in the representing of Russian history, and, that is more important, for creation of the concept of the state of Russian history.