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Sample records for 2008-648 reevaluation dosimetrique

  1. Dosimetric reevaluation of exposure at working stations of the Mafelec Society. Presence on the production site of elevators push-buttons containing cobalt 60 between the 21. august and the 7. october 2008. Amendment to the report DRPH/SDE 2008-648

    On the 7. october 2008, the public authorities were alerted by the Mafelec society of the detection by their customs services of unusual levels of radioactivity during controls on packages containing elevators push-buttons sent by this society. The first measures made on that very day on the site of the Mafelec society at Chimilin (38) by the mobile cell of radiological intervention of Isere department firemen enlightened the presence of radioactivity in elevators the push-buttons in stainless steel and in complete push-buttons delivered to Mafelec by one or several Indian suppliers. After having made an inspection on the site on the 8. october, the nuclear safety authority requested the help of I.R.S.N. to evaluate the doses received by the facility personnel exposed to these radioactive pieces. The Asn also asked I.R.S.N. to evaluate the public exposure if someone used an elevator equipped with such buttons. The first evaluations showed that 22 persons had received a maximal dose between 1.4 and 2.7 mSv. A second report (on the 27 october 2008) gave a revaluation of the dosimetry. The conclusions were: with the information known at the date of 22 october 2008, it can estimated that only one person received between the 21. august and the 7. october a maximal efficient dose superior to 1 mSv that is the annual limit regulatory value for the public. The details of the revaluation are given and the results are as follow: 1 person received at the most an efficient dose of 1.4 mSv, 8 persons received at the most an efficient dose of 0.9 mSv, 11 persons received at the most an efficient dose between 0.2 and 0.7 mSv, 15 persons received at the most an efficient dose between 0.1 and 0.2 mSv included. (N.C.)

  2. Status report on seismic re-evaluation

    In May 1997, a meeting of the PWG 3 Sub Group on the Seismic Behaviour of Structures agreed several priority objectives, of which one was the production of a status report on seismic re-evaluation. Seismic re-evaluation is identified as the process of carrying out a re-assessment of the safety of existing nuclear power plants for a specified seismic hazard. This may be necessary when no seismic hazard was considered in the original design of the plant, the relevant codes and regulations have been revised, the seismic hazard for the site has been re-assessed or there is a need to assess the capacity of the plant for severe accident conditions and behaviour beyond the design basis. Re-evaluation may also be necessary to resolve an issue, or to assess the impact of new findings or knowledge. A questionnaire on the subject was issued to all members of the Seismic Sub Group in the summer of 1997, and responses to the questionnaire had been received from most members by the end of 1997. This report is based on the responses to the questionnaire, together with comment and discussion within the group. The questionnaire covered the following main topics of interest in relation to seismic re-evaluation: General and Legislative Framework, Overall Approach, Input Definition and Analysis Methods, Scope of Plant and Assessment of As-built Situation, Assessment criteria, Outcome of Re-evaluations, Research. The responses to the questionnaire have been collated and reviewed with the objective of comparing current practice in the field of seismic re-evaluation in member countries, and a number of important points have been identified in relation to the position of seismic re-evaluation in the nuclear power industry throughout the world. It is evident that seismic re-evaluation is a relatively mature process that has been developing for some time, with most countries adopting similar practices, often based on principles which have been developed in the US nuclear industry. Seismic

  3. Computed tomography of Crohn's disease - reevaluation

    The indications and CT features of Crohn's disease were reevaluated, based on 48 examinations in 28 patients. Although CT is indicated mostly in the complications of Crohn's disease, it played a major role in the primary diagnosis of Crohn's disease in 8 patients. 5 unsuspected patients had CT for other abdominal indications and 3 had the examinations as part of an elective diagnostic work-up. The following CT features of Crohn's disease are worthy of note: Bowel wall thickening is usually obvious and needs no measurement. Abscesses are often of inhomogenous density and should be differentiated from inflammatory bowel conglomerates. Late CT scans can be helpful in this respect. Fistulae are not well demonstrated directly by CT. The fistulogram remains the examination of choise, when possible. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy is small and discrete. Mesenteric lipomatosis can be massive and is often a cause of bowel separations and mass effect. (orig.)

  4. US experience in seismic re-evaluation and verification programs

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summary of the development of the seismic re-evaluation program for older nuclear power plants in the US. The principal focus of this re-evaluation is the use of actual strong motion earthquake response data for structures, mechanical and electrical systems and components. These data are supplemented by shake table test results. This type of seismic re-evaluation has lead to major cost reduction as compared to more conventional analytical and component specific testing procedures. (orig.)

  5. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988) attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish potential repository performance. These criteria or SCP thermal goals were developed from knowledge existing at the time and, as a reference case, emphasized performance for waste emplacement in a vertical borehole. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Additionally, other emplacement modes such as in-drift emplacement are being considered to accommodate larger waste packages. New concepts such as ''extended hot'' are also being considered as possible methods to achieve improved waste isolation. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. A Working Group was formed to reassess the SCP thermal goals to determine whether each goal was still valid, if there were goals that needed to be added, and what if any effort was needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with a particular goal. The objectives of the effort were to: (1) provide thermal goals that would support the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Systems Study; (2) help focus the planned testing and analysis efforts; and (3) acquire data that potentially could be used to initiate a change to the project technical baseline. Sixteen thermal goals were evaluated; fifteen were from various sections of the SCP; one goal was added, and another was split into two to include in-drift emplacement. The group's findings and recommendations are presented

  6. Landscape, Process and Power: Re-evaluating Traditional Environmental Knowledge

    Colleen Marie O'Brien

    2010-01-01

    Review of Landscape, Process and Power: Re-evaluating Traditional Environmental Knowledge. Serena Heckler, ed. 2009. Berghahn Books, New York. Pp. 304, 21 illustrations, bibliography, index. $95.00 (hardback). ISBN 978-1-84545-549-1

  7. 77 FR 59675 - Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation

    2012-09-28

    ... inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The earthquake and tsunami produced widespread... normal. Following the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the NRC established a senior... licensees reevaluate flooding hazards at nuclear power plant sites using updated flooding hazard...

  8. 77 FR 65417 - Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation

    2012-10-26

    ... inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The earthquake and tsunami produced widespread... loss of cooling capabilities. Following the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the... licensees reevaluate flooding hazards at nuclear power plant sites using updated flooding hazard...

  9. Men in nursing: re-evaluating masculinities, re-evaluating gender.

    Brown, Brian

    2009-10-01

    This paper critically interrogates and re-evaluates the notion that it is somehow difficult being a man in nursing and suggests some ways forward which will allow us to gain a more politically astute purchase on gender, nursing and the socio-political context in which the profession operates. Men appear to be well served by a career in nursing. Despite their lesser numbers they are likely to earn more and be promoted into leadership roles more readily. Yet there is a pervasive sense in the literature on men in nursing that they feel unhappy as a minority in a predominantly female occupation and feel a disjuncture between masculine identity and the nursing role. The genealogy of this idea can be traced to a more extensive literature in the 'men's movement', in sex role theory and masculinity studies which has tended to focus on the putative hurts that men suffer as they are socialized into the male role. This is itself informed by experiences and discourses from therapy, and privileges these kinds of experiences over and above more sober consideration of the respective powers of men and women and the sociopolitical context of the profession. This 'poor me' discourse deflects attention away from the business of tackling material inequalities and enables men to encroach further into the agenda of nursing discussions. Instead, a view of men and women in nursing is proposed which is attentive to the historical and political operations of power and which sees subjective experiences as the effects of power rather than as a starting point for analysis. We must place individual experience coherently and exhaustively in the material environment of social space and time. It is in this way that we can genuinely advance the interest of men and women and build an effective profile for the profession as a whole. PMID:19929157

  10. Re-evaluation of azo dyes as food additives

    Pratt, Iona; Larsen, John Christian; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2013-01-01

    Aryl azo compounds are widely used as colorants (azo dyes) in a wide range of products including textiles, leather, paper, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food.As part of its systematic re-evaluation of food additives, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has carried out new risk assessments of...... additives to be assessed by the Scientific Committee on Food, many years ago, (ii) because of concern regarding possible health effects of artificial colours arising since the original evaluations.Concerns includedbehavioural effects in children, allergic reactions, genotoxicity and possible carcinogenicity...... allazo dyes permitted in food. EFSA has also evaluated a number of azo dyes found illegally in food in recent years, including Sudan dyes, Para Red and Orange II. The re-evaluation of all food colours, including the azo dyes,was considered high priority (i) because colorants were among the first...

  11. Seismic re-evaluation of Heavy Water Plant, Kota

    This report deals with seismic re-evaluation of Heavy Water Plant, Kota. Heavy Water Plant, Kota handles considerable amount of H2S gas, which is very toxic. During the original design stage as per IS 1893-1966 seismic coefficient for zone-I was zero. Therefore earthquake and its effects were not considered while designing the heavy water plant structures. However as per IS 1893 (1984) the seismic coefficient for zone-I is 0.01 g. Hence seismic re-evaluation of various structures of the heavy water plant is carried out. Analysis of the heavy water plant structures was carried out for self weight, equipment load and earthquake load. Pressure loading was also considered in case of H2S storage tanks. Soil structure interaction effect was considered in the analysis. The combined stresses in the structures due to earthquake and dead load were checked with the allowable stresses. (author)

  12. TRIGA mark-II,III reactor safety re-evaluation

    For two years of 1990 and 1991, the safety of TRIGA Mk-II and III reactor has been re-evaluated. For this, domestic rules on research reactors has been reviewed, and as it was judged that standards on research reactors in USA is applicable to our ones it was evaluated whether TRIGA Mk-II and III reactors satisfy these standards. The site parameters and the environmental impacts during normal operation and hypothetical accident conditions have been analysed, and those parts for reactor facility and structure have been rewritten to fit SAR standard format based on the review of old SAR and maintenance manuals reflecting changes after the construction. Based on this re-evaluation, SAR, Technical Specifications, Radiation Emergency Plan, Environment Report, various procedures,etc. will be amended by the reactor management project. (Author)

  13. Re-evaluation of azo dyes as food additives

    Pratt, Iona; Larsen, John Christian; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2013-01-01

    Aryl azo compounds are widely used as colorants (azo dyes) in a wide range of products including textiles, leather, paper, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food.As part of its systematic re-evaluation of food additives, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has carried out new risk assessments of...... allazo dyes permitted in food. EFSA has also evaluated a number of azo dyes found illegally in food in recent years, including Sudan dyes, Para Red and Orange II. The re-evaluation of all food colours, including the azo dyes,was considered high priority (i) because colorants were among the first...... authorisation for Red 2G, new labelling provisions and reductions in the Maximum Permitted Levels for some azo dyes in food. Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd....

  14. Wynoochee Lake and dam flood storage reevaluation study

    With the desire to increase the revenue generating potential of the Wynoochee Lake and Dam Project the cities of Tacoma and Aberdeen, Washington, have pursued the potential for retrofitting a hydropower plant at the dam. The feasibility of the hydropower plant is dependent on higher average head for power generation. This paper discusses the Corps of Engineers reevaluation of the winter flood control requirements with the aim of raising the elevation of the winter operating pool

  15. Seismic re-evaluation of French nuclear power plants

    After a presentation of the seismic inputs which have been taken into account in the design of the French Nuclear Power Plants, the re-assessed values of these inputs are shown. Some considerations about the specificity of the French PWR program with regard to the standardisation of plants are given together with the present objectives of seismic re-evaluations. Finally the main results of the seismic re-analysis being performed for the Phenix Fast Reactor are considered. (author)

  16. Reevaluation of honeybee (Apis mellifera) microtaxonomy: a geometric morphometric approach

    Kandemir, Irfan; Özkan, Ayça; FUCHS, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    International audience In the present study, the microtaxonomy of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) subspecies was reevaluated based on a geometric morphometric method. Wing images of honeybee subspecies, obtained from the Morphometric Bee Data Bank in Oberursel, Germany, were assigned to four honeybee lineages from the indivudial images, and 40 Cartesian coordinates were obtained. Honeybee lineages were significantly different based on individual and colony consensus average wing shapes of hon...

  17. Seismic reevaluation of nuclear facilities worldwide: Overview and status

    Existing nuclear facilities throughout the world are being subjected to severe scrutiny of their safety in tile event of an earthquake. In the United States, there have been several licensing and safety review issues for which industry and regulatory agencies have cooperated to develop rational and economically feasible criteria for resolving the issues. Currently, all operating nuclear power plants in the United States are conducting an Individual Plant Examination of External Events, including earthquakes beyond tile design basis. About two-thirds of tile operating plants are conducting parallel programs for verifying, tile seismic adequacy of equipment for the design basis earthquake. The U.S. Department of Energy is also beginning to perform detailed evaluations of their facilities, many of which had little or no seismic design. Western European countries also have been reevaluating their older nuclear power plants for seismic events often adapting the criteria developed in the United States. With the change in tile political systems in Eastern Europe, there is a strong emphasis from their Western European neighbors to evaluate and Upgrade tile safely of their operating nuclear power plants. Finally, nuclear facilities in Asia are, also, being evaluated for seismic vulnerabilities. This paper focuses oil tile methodologies that have been developed for reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants and presents examples of the application of these methodologies to nuclear facilities worldwide. (author)

  18. Triga mark-II,III reactor safety re-evaluation

    In order to revise safety analysis report of old TRIGA reactors, safety re-evaluation of these reactor was started for necessary parts. This report contains the first year results of the project scheduled for two years. The guide lines of safety re-evaluation was made by translating that of nuclear power plant from the view point of TRIGA reactor confirming the basic safety philosophy as much as possible. First of all, sections of reactor history and comparison with similar reactors are made, since the actual operation records, changes, any modification of similar reactors constructed after then, etc., are realistic and valuable data from the safety aspect of old reactor. For the effectiveness of nuclear analysis, a PC based analysis system using WIMS-D/4 and VENTURE was established, and a program for the natural convection cooling analysis of TRIGA reactor was developed. As a result of thermal-hydraulic analysis it was confirmed that the operation limit of fuel temperature set at 650 deg C without any logical reason is very close to the DNB limit. (Author)

  19. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    2010-04-01

    ... circumstances and environmental conditions which may affect the project or have a bearing on its impact, such as... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Re-evaluation of environmental....47 Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings. (a) A...

  20. 34 CFR 300.305 - Additional requirements for evaluations and reevaluations.

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in § 300.8, and the educational needs of the child; or (B) In case of a reevaluation of a child, whether the child continues to have such a disability, and the educational needs of the child; (ii) The... child needs special education and related services; or (B) In the case of a reevaluation of a...

  1. 77 FR 73114 - Draft Written Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: T.F. Green Airport, Warwick, RI

    2012-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Draft Written Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: T.F. Green... Draft Written Re-Evaluation for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) has been prepared for Theodore... to T.F. Green Draft Written Re-Evaluation'' in the subject line Mail: Richard Doucette,...

  2. Chernobyl-Related Cancer: Re-Evaluation Needed

    Sergei JARGIN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from Chernobyl accident, except for the thyroid carcinoma in the individuals exposed in childhood and adolescence. The drastic increase of thyroid cancer started 4 years after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Histopathological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is visible, is based mainly on the nuclear criteria of papillary carcinoma. Outdated equipment of histopathological laboratories in early 1990s and insufficient quality of histological sections hindered reliable assessment of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has been limited in the former Soviet Union. Appearance of advanced tumors shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect with detection of neglected cancers and by the fact that patients were brought from other regions of the former Soviet Union and registered as Chernobyl-related cases. Further evidence in favor of the overestimation of thyroid cancer incidence after Chernobyl accident is discussed. The concluding point is that immunohistochemical and molecular-genetic tests performed within the scope of international studies were partly based on an inadequately selected material, and that supposedly specific features of radiogenic post-Chernobyl cancers characterize, on average, a later stadium of tumor progression. Therefore, some published data on molecular-genetic and other characteristics of post-Chernobyl malignancies require re-evaluation.

  3. Arsenic hydrogeochemistry in an irrigated river valley - A reevaluation

    Nimick, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations in ground water of the lower Madison River valley, Montana, are high (16 to 176 ??g/L). Previous studies hypothesized that arsenic-rich river water, applied as irrigation, was evapoconcentrated during recharge and contaminated the thin alluvial aquifer. Based on additional data collection and a reevaluation of the hydrology and geochemistry of the valley, the high arsenic concentrations in ground water are caused by a unique combination of natural hydrologic and geochemical factors, and irrigation appears to play a secondary role. The high arsenic concentrations in ground water have several causes: direct aquifer recharge by Madison River water having arsenic concentrations as high as 100 ??g/L, leaching of arsenic from Tertiary volcano-clastic sediment, and release of sorbed arsenic where redox conditions in ground water are reduced. The findings are consistent with related studies that demonstrate that arsenic is sorbed by irrigated soils in the valley. Although evaporation of applied irrigation water does not significantly increase arsenic concentrations in ground water, irrigation with arsenic-rich water raises other environmental concerns.

  4. Re-evaluation of monitored retrievable storage concepts

    In 1983, as a prelude to the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility conceptual design, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an evaluation for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that examined alternative concepts for storing spent LWR fuel and high- level wastes from fuel reprocessing. The evaluation was made considering nine concepts for dry away-from-reactor storage. The nine concepts evaluated were: concrete storage cask, tunnel drywell, concrete cask-in-trench, open-cycle vault, metal casks (transportable and stationary), closed-cycle vault, field drywell, and tunnel-rack vault. The purpose and scope of the re-evaluation did not require a repetition of the expert-based examinations used earlier. Instead, it was based on more detailed technical review by a small group, focusing on changes that had occurred since the initial evaluation was made. Two additional storage concepts--the water pool and the horizontal modular storage vault (NUHOMS system)--were ranked along with the original nine. The original nine concepts and the added two conceptual designs were modified as appropriate for a scenario with storage capacity for 15,000 MTU of spent fuel. Costs, area requirements, and technical and historical data pertaining to MRS storage were updated for each concept

  5. Status of seismic re-evaluation and upgrading of KANUPP

    The seismic upgrading activities at Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) began in 1992 after a preliminary plan was chalked out with IAEA to conduct the seismic walkdown of the plant and initiate site studies to reconfirm geotechnical parameters and determine new seismic input. Consequently, the seismic walkdown was arranged in May 1993. The site geotechnical parameters were re-evaluated by performing the geotechnical investigations and cross hole seismic survey. This was followed by collection of data for seismic studies, geological surveys, surface fault studies and development of a seismotectonic model for determining the new seismic parameters as per IAEA safety guide no. 50-SG-SI. In parallel with the seismic studies, the short term fixes work was also initiated with iRLE value but gained momentum during the last six months. Dynamic analyses of some structures/equipments identified by the IAEA mission with a fabricated spectra and cross checked with simplified techniques have been completed and retrofitting/anchoring details provided to the implementation division while analyses/fixes design of other structures are in progress. (author)

  6. Reevaluation of the Seismicity and seismic hazards of Northeastern Libya

    Ben Suleman, abdunnur; Aousetta, Fawzi

    2014-05-01

    Libya, located at the northern margin of the African continent, underwent many episodes of orogenic activities. These episodes of orogenic activities affected and shaped the geological setting of the country. This study represents a detailed investigation that aims to focus on the seismicity and its implications on earthquake hazards of Northeastern Libya. At the end of year 2005 the Libyan National Seismological Network starts functioning with 15 stations. The Seismicity of the area under investigation was reevaluated using data recorded by the recently established network. The Al-Maraj earthquake occurred in May 22nd 2005was analyzed. This earthquake was located in a known seismically active area. This area was the sight of the well known 1963 earthquake that kills over 200 people. Earthquakes were plotted and resulting maps were interpreted and discussed. The level of seismic activity is higher in some areas, such as the city of Al-Maraj. The offshore areas north of Al-Maraj seem to have higher seismic activity. It is highly recommended that the recent earthquake activity is considered in the seismic hazard assessments for the northeastern part of Libya.

  7. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  8. Reevaluation of a walleye (Sander vitreus) bioenergetics model

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Wang, Chunfang

    2013-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) is an important sport fish throughout much of North America, and walleye populations support valuable commercial fisheries in certain lakes as well. Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye in the laboratory. Walleyes were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks each day during a 126-day experiment. Feeding rates ranged from 1.4 to 1.7 % of walleye body weight per day. Based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of monthly consumption with observed monthly consumption, we concluded that the bioenergetics model estimated food consumption by walleye without any significant bias. Similarly, based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of weight at the end of the monthly test period with observed weight, we concluded that the bioenergetics model predicted walleye growth without any detectable bias. In addition, the bioenergetics model predictions of cumulative consumption over the 126-day experiment differed fromobserved cumulative consumption by less than 10 %. Although additional laboratory and field testing will be needed to fully evaluate model performance, based on our laboratory results, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye appears to be providing unbiased predictions of food consumption.

  9. Five-Year NRHP Re-Evaluation of Historic Buildings Assessment

    Ullrich, R A; Heidecker, K R

    2011-09-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) 'Draft Programmatic Agreement among the Department of Energy and the California State Historic Preservation Officer Regarding Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory' requires a review and re-evaluation of the eligibility of laboratory properties for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) every five years. The original evaluation was published in 2005; this report serves as the first five-year re-evaluation. This re-evaluation includes consideration of changes within LLNL to management, to mission, and to the built environment. it also determines the status of those buildings, objects, and districts that were recommended as NRHP-eligible in the 2005 report. Buildings that were omitted from the earlier building list, those that have reached 50 years of age since the original assessment, and new buildings are also addressed in the re-evaluation.

  10. 75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical...) analytical methods. At these meetings, stakeholders will be given an opportunity to discuss...

  11. Periodic safety re-evaluations in NPPs in EC member states, Finland and Sweden

    The work on periodic safety re-evaluations summarized in this report was performed by a Task Force of the CEC Working Group on the Safety of Thermal Reactors. The periodic safety re-evaluations under review in this study were those that are carried out in addition to other reviews which represent the primary means of safety assurance. The periodic safety re-evaluation is broader and more comprehensive in nature. The cumulative effects of experience (national and international), advances in knowledge and analysis techniques, improvements in safety standards and operating practices, overall effects of plant ageing, and the totality of all modifications over the period in question need to be taken into account. All countries have recognized the value of such periodic reviews, and licensees, either as a regulatory requirement or as a voluntary action, are carrying them out. The scope and contents of each country's review showed many similarities of approach, any differences being explained by the age and type of reactor in operation. Many similarities emerged in the topics selected for re-evaluation and in the approach to re-evaluation itself. The overall conclusion was that while approaches may differ in some respects, for practical purposes comparable levels of safety are achieved in the periodic safety re-evaluation of nuclear power plants

  12. Re-evaluation of the EURACOS integral shielding experiment series

    Highlights: • The EURACOS shielding has been re-analyzed in the framework of SINBAD. • Reaction rates and neutron spectra in void, Na and Fe have been observed. • The experiment is not benchmark quality mainly due to lack of information on source. • Some measured reactions could still be used for modern nuclear data benchmarking. - Abstract: The EURACOS experiment series (sodium, iron, and no shielding) has been re-evaluated in the scope of the OECD/NEA SINBAD project to determine how useful these benchmarks can be for the validation of the modern nuclear data evaluations. The measured activation rates of different foils as well as unfolded proton recoil spectra at different depths in sodium and iron have been compared to the Monte Carlo calculated parameters. The results suggest good agreement with the experiment only for the high-threshold 32S(n,p) reaction detectors. The comparison of the lower threshold 103Rh(n,n′) and 115In(n,n′) reactions, and the (n,γ) reaction on 197Au under cadmium cover, reveals large discrepancy between the experimental and calculated spatial distributions for these reaction rates which is expected to be due to the uncertainties in the source and background description rather than due to the cross section uncertainties. On the other hand, the unfolded neutron spectra shapes are in relatively good agreement with the calculated ones. The overall results show that the EURACOS Na and Fe experiments cannot be considered of benchmark quality mainly due to unsatisfactory information on the neutron source. Nevertheless, some activation measurements from the EURACOS sodium and iron experiments such as the high threshold reactions and the spectra measurements are potentially useful for modern nuclear data and computer code benchmarking

  13. Reevaluating the functional implications of Australopithecus afarensis navicular morphology.

    Prang, Thomas C

    2016-08-01

    The longitudinal arch is a unique characteristic of the human foot, yet the timing and pattern of its evolution remain controversial, in part due to the disagreement among researchers over which skeletal traits are the best indicators of its presence or absence. The small size of the human navicular tuberosity has previously been linked to the presence of a longitudinal arch, implying that the large tuberosity of early hominins such as Australopithecus afarensis reflects a flat foot. However, this hypothesis is at odds with other evidence of pedal form and function, such as metatarsal, tarsal, and footprint morphology, which show that a longitudinal arch was probably present in A. afarensis. This study reevaluates the morphometric affinities of the A. afarensis naviculars among other Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins and anthropoid primates (N = 170). Multivariate cluster analyses show that all fossil hominin naviculars, including those attributed to A. afarensis, are most similar to modern humans. A measure of navicular tuberosity size quantified as the ratio of the tuberosity volume to the surface area of the talar facet shows that Ateles has the largest navicular tuberosity among the anthropoid sample and that there is no difference between highly arboreal and terrestrial taxa in this metric (e.g., Hylobates and Gorilla beringei). Instead, a relatively large navicular tuberosity may reflect the development of leg musculature associated with ankle plantarflexion. The functional inferences derived from the morphology of the A. afarensis naviculars are consistent with the morphology of the Laetoli footprints. PMID:27457546

  14. Overview of UNSCEAR re-evaluation of public exposure

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Instalacoes Nucleares], e-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has re-evaluated the levels of public radiation exposure for four broad categories of sources: natural sources of radiation, enhanced exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), man-made sources used for peaceful purposes and man-made sources used for military purposes. Regarding natural radiation sources, recent data confirmed former results from 2000 Report, but with a more wide range. Very few information is available for public exposure from NORM. Most works describes concentration levels but dose assessments are usually restricted to occupational exposures. The use of source and by-product materials may however lead to doses up to a few milisieverts to members of the public. The nuclear fuel cycle and electric energy generation have very small contributions to public exposure. Uranium mining contributes with the largest individual doses, mainly due to radon from tailings. Most relevant military use of nuclear energy were the atmospheric nuclear tests, interrupted in the 60's. Residual radioactivity deposited worldwide is now responsible for a very small contribution to worldwide exposures. However, they left a legacy of several contaminated sites. The use of depleted uranium in munitions in Kuwait, Kosovo, Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina, has led to great public concern, although not usually associated to any major consequence regarding public exposure. Some accidents resulted in environmental contamination and exposures of members of the public. Except for the Chernobyl accident, the areas affected were usually small and the exposure restricted to small number of persons, up to a few hundred, without any significant contribution to worldwide exposures. The exposure to natural sources of radiation is still the major component of worldwide exposure to ionizing radiation although for some highly developed countries, medical exposure has surpassed

  15. Overview of UNSCEAR re-evaluation of occupational exposure

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has re-evaluated the levels of occupational radiation exposure for two broad categories of sources: natural sources of radiation and man-made source of radiation. The latter one includes the practices from the nuclear fuel cycle, medical uses of radiation, industrial uses, military activities, and miscellaneous sources. The evaluation has been performed based on the data provided in response to the UNSCEAR Survey of Occupational Radiation Exposures and also data from the literature. In general, the reporting of exposures arising in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle is more complete than that of exposures arising from other uses of radiation. The figure for occupational exposure, for the periods 1995-1999 and 2000-2002, has changed compared to the estimates in the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. The collective effective dose resulting from exposures to natural sources (in excess of average levels of natural background) is estimated to be about 37 260 man Sv, about 3 times higher than the value estimated in the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. The worldwide average annual collective effective dose for the workers involved in the use of man-made sources of radiation is around 4 730 man Sv, about 2 times higher than the value estimated in the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. The medical uses of radiation contributes with about 75% of the collective effective dose; nuclear fuel cycles contributes with about 17% and industrial uses, military activities and all other categories of worker contribute with about 8% of the collective dose for man-made sources of radiation. In general the levels of occupational exposure have decreased: the average effective doses are decreasing over time for all practices, the collective effective doses have fallen for most of the practices; except for medical uses which is now estimated based on more realistic data of number of monitored workers. (author)

  16. Safety re-evaluation of the HOR reactor

    State. Requirement C16 in the new licence asks for a periodical integral safety re-evaluation of the HOR reactor every 10 years and starting after 2 years

  17. Classification and Reevaluation on Radionuclide and Activity of Contaminated Soil(I)

    Kang, Il Sik; Shon, J. S.; Kim, K. J.; Kim, T. K.; Hong, D. S.; Lee, B. C.; Cho, H. S.; Je, W. G

    2006-03-15

    Radioactive wastes generated during the decommissioning process and contaminated soils were transported and have been stored at the waste storage facility. The radioactivity in the wastes has been decayed a lot. The radionuclide and the activity concentration of stored soil wastes were reevaluated. And using the reevaluation results, the soil wastes were classified as either a regulatory clearance wastes or a radioactive waste. The storage space can be secured by storing regulatory clearance wastes in the extra storage facility and self disposing them. Also, the objective is to protect the environment from contamination by observing the related nuclear regulation and managing the radioactive wastes. Through the reevaluation of radioactivity and classification of contaminated soils, the unnecessary decontamination of uncontaminated soil was prevented. It allowed us to save the cost for decontamination and disposal, also we could secure the pretreatment process techniques such as how to sample and analyze the nuclide.

  18. Reevaluation of the indications for permanent pacemaker implantation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    Bjerre Thygesen, Julie; Loh, Poay Huan; Cholteesupachai, Jiranut; Franzen, Olaf; Søndergård, Lars

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Conduction abnormalities (CA) requiring permanent pacemaker (PPM) are a well-known complication after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). This study aimed to determine the incidence of TAVI-related PPM and reevaluate the indications for PPM after the periprocedural period. METHO...

  19. 24 CFR 35.1355 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation activities.

    2010-04-01

    ... assessor. (4) Each reevaluation shall be conducted in accordance with the following schedule if a risk... assessor shall review any available past evaluation, hazard reduction and clearance reports, and any other... building operations. (ii) Visual assessment. The risk assessor shall: (A) Visually evaluate all...

  20. 12 CFR 560.172 - Re-evaluation of real estate owned.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Re-evaluation of real estate owned. 560.172... of real estate owned. A savings association shall appraise each parcel of real estate owned at the... under the particular circumstances. The foregoing requirement shall not apply to any parcel of...

  1. Reevaluation of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap Using Item Response Theory

    Hospers, J. Mirjam Boeschen; Smits, Niels; Smits, Cas; Stam, Mariska; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We reevaluated the psychometric properties of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1995) using item response theory. Item response theory describes item functioning along an ability continuum. Method: Cross-sectional data from 2,352 adults with and without hearing…

  2. 76 FR 42762 - Final Written Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky Memorial Airport...

    2011-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Final Written Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky... Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) has been completed for Sikorsky Memorial Airport in... analysis contained in a Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) that the FAA issued in May 1999....

  3. 75 FR 55846 - Draft Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky Memorial Airport, Stratford, CT

    2010-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Draft Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky Memorial... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) has been prepared for Sikorsky Memorial Airport in Stratford, Connecticut... INFORMATION: The FAA is making available a Draft Re- Evaluation document, which evaluates the impacts...

  4. Reevaluating the Aims of Modern Dance Training in Korea: Toward a Whole Dancer

    Kim, Na-ye

    2013-01-01

    This study reevaluates modern dance training in Korea and attempts to identify possible improvements. This study is based on the rationale that Korean modern dance training must recover its nature of a holistic connection between body and mind. A qualitative methodology was used to interpret data from in-depth interviews and open-ended…

  5. Staged re-evaluation of non-culprit lesions in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: a retrospective study

    Thim, Troels; Egholm, Gro; Olesen, Kevin Kris Warnakula; Kaltoft, Anne; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Krusell, Lars Romer; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Christiansen, Evald Høj; Maeng, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective It remains unknown whether complete revascularisation is optimally performed in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the index or at staged procedures. The aims of this study were to quantify the number of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures in which non-culprit lesions needed further evaluation, to determine the consequence of the re-evaluation and to quantify adverse cardiac events during the waiting time for re-evaluation and intervention. Methods The study was observational and retrospective and included all patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI during 1 year at our centre. Results Among the 507 patients with STEMI, 374 were considered sufficiently treated with culprit lesion PCI only. Complete primary multivessel revascularisation was performed in 11 patients. Non-culprit lesion re-evaluation was planned for 122 patients (24%). Of these 122 patients, 3 patients died during their index admission. Follow-up data were not available for 3 patients. Among the 116 patients, 187 non-culprit lesions were re-evaluated and 77 patients (66.4%) underwent revascularisation with treatment of 119 lesions (63.3%). Re-evaluation was performed after a median of 30 days (25th centile: 9 days, 75th centile: 35 days). During the waiting time for re-evaluation, two patients underwent a new primary PCI due to stent thrombosis of the index culprit lesion. Conclusions Staged re-evaluation of non-culprit lesions observed in patients with STEMI was required in 24% of a primary PCI cohort. Intervention was performed in 66.4% of patients scheduled for re-evaluation. We observed no adverse events related to the non-culprit lesions during the waiting time for a staged re-evaluation or intervention. PMID:27403331

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on the seismic re-evaluation of all nuclear facilities

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of the OECD-NEA co-ordinates the NEA activities concerning the technical aspects of design, construction and operation of nuclear installations insofar as they affect the safety of such installations. The Integrity and Ageing Working Group (IAGE WG) of the CSNI deals with the integrity of structures and components, and has three sub-groups, dealing with the integrity of metal components and structures, ageing of concrete structures, and the seismic behaviour of structures. This workshop was proposed by the sub-group dealing with the seismic behaviour of structures. Seismic re-evaluation is identified as the process of carrying out a re-assessment of the safety of existing nuclear facilities for a specified seismic hazard. This may be necessary when no seismic hazard was considered in the original design of the plant, the relevant codes and regulations have been revised, the seismic hazard for the site has been re-assessed or there is a need to assess the capacity of the plant for severe accident conditions and behaviour beyond the design basis. Re-evaluation may also be necessary to resolve an issue, or to assess the impact of new findings or knowledge. In 1997, CSNI recognised the increasing importance of seismic re-evaluation for nuclear facilities throughout the world. It prepared a status report on seismic Re-evaluation NEA/CSNI/R(98)5 which summarized the current situation for Member countries of the OECD. The report suggested a number of areas of the seismic reevaluation process, which could be considered in the future. In May 2000, the seismic sub-group reviewed these suggestions and determined that it was timely to address progress on this topic through this workshop. The workshop focused on methods and acceptance criteria and, on countermeasures and strengthening of plant. The workshop had 2 technical sessions listed below devoted to presentations, and a 3. session devoted to a discussion of the

  7. Re-evaluation of natural food colours—State of the art

    Dusemund, B.; Parent-Massin, D.; Mortensen, Alicja; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    Having started the re-evaluation of food additives in accordance with the Commission Regulation (EU) No 257/2010 of 25 March 2010 the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS Panel) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) identified several complicating issues...... regarding the re-evaluation of natural food colours, including: (1) the extracts are often made from different natural sources, (2) the extracts can be made using a range of extraction solvents/methods, (3) chemical characterisation of different extracts is usually missing, (4) detailed specifications of...... extract. When the shortcomings in the toxicological database do not allow to define a health based guidance value in form of an acceptable daily intake (ADI) it has to be decided on a case-by-case basis whether a margin of safety approach or a comparison of the intake resulting from the proposed uses and...

  8. Reevaluation of the Parton Distribution of Strange Quarks in the Nucleon

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, Z; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avetissian, A; Avetisyan, E; Belostotski, S; Blok, H P; Borissov, A; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Etzelmüller, E; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Gabbert, D; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; García, J Garay; Garibaldi, F; Gavrilov, G; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Gliske, S; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Jackson, H E; Joosten, S; Kaiser, R; Karyan, G; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhijine, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikás, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Lorenzon, W; Ma, B -Q; Mahon, D; Manaenkov, S I; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H; Miyachi, Y; Movsisyan, A; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W -D; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Petrosyan, A; Reimer, P E; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Seitz, B; Shibata, T -A; Stahl, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stinzing, F; Taroian, S; Terkulov, A; Truty, R; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vilardi, I; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Yaschenko, S; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2013-01-01

    An earlier extraction from the HERMES experiment of the polarization-averaged parton distribution of strange quarks in the nucleon has been reevaluated using final data on the multiplicities of charged kaons in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering obtained with a kinematically more comprehensive method of correcting for experimental effects. General features of the distribution are confirmed, but the rise at low $x$ is less pronounced than previously reported.

  9. Reevaluation of the parton distribution of strange quarks in the nucleon

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). II. Physikalisches Institut; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Argentina); Akopov, Z. [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: HERMES Collaboration; and others

    2013-12-15

    An earlier extraction from the HERMES experiment of the polarization-averaged parton distribution of strange quarks in the nucleon has been reevaluated using final data on the multiplicities of charged kaons in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering obtained with a kinematically more comprehensive method of correcting for experimental effects. General features of the distribution are confirmed, but the rise at low x is less pronounced than previously reported.

  10. Reevaluation of ethanol as organic modifier for use in HPLS-RP mobile phases

    Ribeiro Ricardo L. V.; Bottoli Carla B. G.; Collins Kenneth E.; Collins Carol H.

    2004-01-01

    Ethanol:water mixtures have been reevaluated for use as reversed phase mobile phases. Optimization of the chromatographic conditions for both C8 and C18 columns was carried out through a factorial design which evaluates temperature, ethanol concentration and mobile phase flow rate. With the C8 stationary phase, peak asymmetries were not significantly altered at the different points in the factorial design while the retention factors and resolutions were somewhat lower at higher temperatures, ...

  11. Reevaluating nuclear safety and security in a post 9/11 era.

    Booker, Paul M.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2005-07-01

    This report has the following topics: (1) Changing perspectives on nuclear safety and security; (2) Evolving needs in a post-9/11 era; (3) Nuclear Weapons--An attractive terrorist target; (4) The case for increased safety; (5) Evolution of current nuclear weapons safety and security; (6) Integrated surety; (7) The role of safety and security in enabling responsiveness; (8) Advances in surety technologies; and (9) Reevaluating safety.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Indigo Carmine (E 132) as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2014-01-01

    The ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of Indigo Carmine (E132). The Panel observed that Indigo Carmine was poorly absorbed and does not raise concern for genotoxicity. No adverse effects in subacute, chronic, reproduction and developmental toxicity studies, and no modifications of haematological and biological parameters in chronic toxicity studies have been identified at doses less than or equal to 500 mg/kg bw/day. The only report of an adverse effect was in t...

  13. Orphan caribou, Rangifer tarandus, calves: A re-evaluation of overwinter survival data

    Joly, Kyle

    2000-01-01

    Low sample size and high variation within populations reduce power of statistical tests. These aspects of statistical power appear to have affected an analysis comparing overwinter survival rates of non-orphan and orphan Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) calves by an earlier study for the Porcupine Caribou Herd. A re-evaluation of the data revealed that conclusions about a lack of significant difference in the overwinter survival rates between orphan and non-orphan calves were premature.

  14. A reevaluation of the higher taxonomy of viruses based on RNA polymerases.

    Zanotto, P M; Gibbs, M. J.; Gould, E. A.; Holmes, E.C.

    1996-01-01

    In order to assess the validity of classifications of RNA viruses, published alignments and phylogenies of RNA-dependent RNA and DNA polymerase sequences were reevaluated by a Monte Carlo randomization procedure, bootstrap resampling, and phylogenetic signal analysis. Although clear relationships between some viral taxa were identified, overall the sequence similarities and phylogenetic signals were insufficient to support many of the proposed evolutionary groupings of RNA viruses. Likewise, ...

  15. [Research about re-evaluation of screening of traditonal Chinese medicine symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang].

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of post-marketing Chinese medicine re-evaluation is to identify Chinese medicine clinical indications, while designing scientific and rational of Chinese medicine symptoms items are important to the result of symptoms re-evaluation. This study give screening of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang re-evaluation as example that reference to principle dyslipidemia clinical research, academic dissertations, Xuezhikang directions, clinical expert practice experience etc. while standardization those symptom names and screening 41 dyslipidemia common symptoms. Furthermore, this paper discuss about the accoerdance and announcements when screening symptoms item, so as to providing a research thread to manufacture PRO chart for post-marketing medicine re-evaluation. PMID:22292395

  16. Re-evaluation of potential impacts of runoff from a Dare County Landfill On Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment samples were collected from 9 sites on Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (Dare County, NC) in September 2005 to re-evaluate the potential impacts of...

  17. ACCOUNTING AND TAX TREATMENT OF THE RE-EVALUATION OF THE TANGIBLE ASSETS

    Daniela CRETU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods of patrimonial evaluation are recognised on a large scale by the specialists in the Continental Europe, while the specialists in the North America almost ignore them, they consider as a realistic economic value the one that results from the update of the forecast cash-flows. The Romanian financial school does not mention at present a basic orientation related to the continental or American opinion. In general, it can be found out that the attitude of the Romanian authors, specialised in the accounting domain, is for the patrimonial methods, and those in financial professional domain, is for the financial and stock methods. According to the International Standards for business evaluation, the “asset based approach is the way to estimate the value of a business and /or the participations to it, using methods based on the market value of the individual assets of the business, decreasing its debts”. The entities can proceed to the re-evaluation of the tangible assets that exist at the end of the financial exercise, so that they are presented to their true value in accounting, reflecting the results of this re-evaluation in the financial reports made for that exercise. In this context, the present paper proposes the analysis of the accounting and tax treatmentforeseen by the accounting regulations, according to the European directives, and to the procedures of evaluation and re-evaluation of the tangible assets.

  18. Seismic safety of nuclear facilities in Bangladesh in the light of recent global re-evaluation

    The concern for safety level of existing nuclear facilities in the Eastern Europe and the United States came into sharp focus about a decade ago. One of the major reasons for this concern was the recognition that some site-related external events were not properly considered in the original facility design. Inadequacy of geological, geo-technical and seismological data affected the reliability of seismic hazard evaluation in many cases. In this backdrop, the research projects sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in some East European countries and by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Council (USNRC) in the United States have led to the development of significantly more reliable and cost-effective seismic hazard assessment methods which can be fruitfully applied in many other countries as well. The main focus of this re-evaluation is the use of actual strong motion earthquake response data for structures, mechanical and electrical systems and components of a nuclear facility concerned. These data are supplemented by the shaking table test results. This paper presents the seismic hazard re-evaluation of the two existing nuclear facilities and the site for a proposed nuclear power plant based on the US and East-European experience. The re-evaluation results show higher values of both the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) and the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) levels than those determined by the previous conventional methods. (author)

  19. Staged re-evaluation of non-culprit lesions in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: a retrospective study

    Thim, Troels; Egholm, Gro; Olesen, Kevin Kris Warnakula; Kaltoft, Anne; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Krusell, Lars Romer; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Christiansen, Evald Høj; Maeng, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective It remains unknown whether complete revascularisation is optimally performed in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the index or at staged procedures. The aims of this study were to quantify the number of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures in which non-culprit lesions needed further evaluation, to determine the consequence of the re-evaluation and to quantify adverse cardiac events during the waiting time for re-evaluation...

  20. Source-term reevaluation for US commercial nuclear power reactors: a status report

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Ball, J.R.; Ramaswami, D.

    1984-12-01

    Only results that had been discussed publicly, had been published in the open literature, or were available in preliminary reports as of September 30, 1984, are included here. More than 20 organizations are participating in source-term programs, which have been undertaken to examine severe accident phenomena in light-water power reactors (including the chemical and physical behavior of fission products under accident conditions), update and reevaluate source terms, and resolve differences between predictions and observations of radiation releases and related phenomena. Results from these source-term activities have been documented in over 100 publications to date.

  1. Source-term reevaluation for US commercial nuclear power reactors: a status report

    Only results that had been discussed publicly, had been published in the open literature, or were available in preliminary reports as of September 30, 1984, are included here. More than 20 organizations are participating in source-term programs, which have been undertaken to examine severe accident phenomena in light-water power reactors (including the chemical and physical behavior of fission products under accident conditions), update and reevaluate source terms, and resolve differences between predictions and observations of radiation releases and related phenomena. Results from these source-term activities have been documented in over 100 publications to date

  2. Re-evaluation of natural food colours—State of the art

    Dusemund, B.; Parent-Massin, D.; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2011-01-01

    regarding the re-evaluation of natural food colours, including: (1) the extracts are often made from different natural sources, (2) the extracts can be made using a range of extraction solvents/methods, (3) chemical characterisation of different extracts is usually missing, (4) detailed specifications of...... the materials tested in the toxicity assays is generally unknown. Given this situation the ANS Panel considered that adequate chemical specifications for each extract are needed. Extracts derived from different sources or obtained by the use of different extraction solvents/methods can only be...

  3. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of candelilla wax (E 902) as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2012-01-01

    The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of candelilla wax (E 902). Candelilla wax (E 902) is authorised in the EU as a food additive as a glazing agent. It has been evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The JECFA and the SCF did not establish an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) but considered the use of candelilla wax as a glazing ...

  4. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of carnauba wax (E 903) as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2012-01-01

    The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of carnauba wax (E 903). Carnauba wax (E 903) is authorised in the EU as food additive as glazing agent. It has been evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) who allocated an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 7 mg/kg bw/day. The SCF did not establish an ADI but considered the use of ca...

  5. Re-evaluation of classical prognostic factors in resectable ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

    Åkerberg, Daniel; Ansari, Daniel; Andersson, Roland

    2016-07-28

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma carries a poor prognosis with annual deaths almost matching the reported incidence rates. Surgical resection offers the only potential cure. Yet, even among patients that undergo tumor resection, recurrence rates are high and long-term survival is scarce. Various tumor-related factors have been identified as predictors of survival after potentially curative resection. These factors include tumor size, lymph node disease, tumor grade, vascular invasion, perineural invasion and surgical resection margin. This article will re-evaluate the importance of these factors based on recent publications on the topic, with potential implications for treatment and outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:27605878

  6. A re-evaluation of Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in the Azores

    León-Cisneros, K.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, R.; Neto, A. I.

    2011-06-01

    The genus Scinaia in the Azores is re-evaluated based on historical and recent collections. A combination of morphological and anatomical diagnostic characters was used for species segregation, and a key for Azorean species determination is presented. Anatomical information associated to the hair development is described for the first time for the genus. The occurrence of S. furcellata and S. interrupta is confirmed for the archipelago. The presence of S. acuta is reported for the first time in the Azores, representing a spread from Australia to the N-Atlantic and specifically into the Macaronesian region. Its occurrence in the archipelago and the Canaries is discussed as a possible introduction.

  7. Association between obesity and focal nodular hyperplasia telangiectasia. 24 cases re-evaluation

    Pérez Rojas, J.¹; Guarín Corredor, M. J.; Artes Martínez, M. J.¹; Vera Sempere, F. J.¹, ²; Brisa Estelles, C.¹; Huart Peris, M. C.¹; Hernández Girón, S.¹

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Focal nodular hyperplasia is not a true neoplasm. Itis a regenerative response of hepatocytes to a vascular abnormality.24 cases were re-evaluated and diagnosed at pathologic examination confirmed as focal nodular hyperplasia.Three of the 24 cases were reclassified as inflammatory telangiectatic adenomas with imnumorreactividadagainst amyloid A.The presence of vascular and sinusoidal dilatation,congestion, peliotic areas with signs of inflammationassociated with focal or diffuse immunoreactivity compared to Amyloid are histological signs that indicatethe presence of inflammatory telangiectatic hepatocellular adenomas, formerly classified as focal nodularhyperplasia, atypical.An increased reactivity to Amyloid and associationmetabolic syndrome characterizes inflammatory telangiectatic adenomas.

  8. Reevaluation of the Thyroid Scan for the Assessment of Pathophysiologic Status of Thyroid Disease

    Woo, In Sook; Nah, Jung Il; Kim, Deog Yoon [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    To diagnosis and understand the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease, not only hormonal measurements but also thyroid scan is believed to have a unique role. Especially in the cases of the change of the thyroid function by thyroiditis, it is emphasized that thyroid scan can be helpful in differential diagnosis, Discordant results of thyroid hormone levels and thyroid scan are found in transient hyperthyroidism, or in transient hypothyroidism. We analysed and reevaluated thyroid scan to look at the importance of thyroid scan. The results are summarised as follows: 1) 80%. of hyperthyroid patients had hyperthyroidism increased RAIU with even density, they are compatible with Graves' disease. 2) 2.1% of hyperthyroid patients had normal or decreased RAIU, which are classified as high iodine turn over genuine hyperthyroidism. 3) 8.5% of hyperthyroid patients had markedly decreased RAIU at both 2 hour and 24 hour, whose pathologic processes are suggested to be heterogenous namely subacute thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and pamless thyroiditis. 4) 45% of hypothyroid patients had increased 24 hr RAIU, 30% of hypothyroid patients were normal, 25%, decreased. In conclusion, thyroid scan should be reevaluated its useful role to asses the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease. Especially in cases of transient thyrotoxicosis, thyroid scan is essential to diagnose and follow up the disease process.

  9. Seismic re-evaluation of nuclear facilities worldwide: overview and status

    Existing nuclear facilities throughout the world are being subjected to severe scrutiny of their safety in the event of an earthquake. In the United States, there have been several licensing and safety review issues for which industry and regulatory agencies have cooperated to develop rational and economically feasible criteria for resolving the issues. Currently, all operating nuclear power plants in the United States are conducting an Individual Plant Examination of External Events, including earthquakes beyond the design basis. About two-thirds of the operating plants are conducting parallel programs for verifying the seismic adequacy of equipment for the design basis earthquake. The U.S. Department of Energy is also beginning to perform detailed evaluations of their facilities, many of which had little or no seismic design. Western European countries also have been re-evaluating their older nuclear power plants for seismic events often adapting the criteria developed in the United States. With the change in the political systems in Eastern Europe, there is a strong emphasis from their Western European neighbors to evaluate and upgrade the safety of their operating nuclear power plants. Finally, nuclear facilities in Asia are also being evaluated for seismic vulnerabilities. This paper focuses on the methodologies that have been developed for re-evaluation of existing nuclear power plants and presents examples of the application of these methodologies to nuclear facilities worldwide. (orig.)

  10. Seismic re-evaluation of Madras Atomic Power Stations 1 and 2

    Nuclear power plants designed in India since 1975 have been designed for earthquake loading. In India, 14 Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) viz., NAPS- 1 and 2, KAPS-1 and 2, KAIGA-1,2,3 and 4, RAPS-3,4,5 and 6 and TAPS-3 and 4 have been seismically qualified using state of the art techniques involving both seismic analysis and testing. The older generation plants viz., TAPS-1 and 2, RAPS-1 and 2 and MAPS-1 and 2 were seismically designed according to the standards prevailing at the time of their construction but not designed to the rigour of the current design practice. These plants are being re-evaluated for seismic loading as per IAEA Safety Standard, which has been followed for re-evaluation of older generation plants in Eastern European countries. The construction of two units of 220 MWe PHWRs, Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS-1,2) at Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu commenced in the year 1975 and were made critical in the year 1983 and 1985 respectively. These units were designed for seismic loading by using equivalent static analysis method with a seismic coefficient of 0.1 g for reactor building and stack and 0.05 g for other buildings. As these units were not designed as per the state of the art technology, which is being used in the seismic design of the new Nuclear Power Plants, the seismic re-evaluation of the MAPS units 1 and 2 has been undertaken. The Safety Systems (SS) and Safety Support Systems (SSS) are qualified by adopting a detailed analysis and testing methods. The equipment in the SS and SSS have been qualified by conducting a walk down as per the procedure given in Generic Implementation Procedure, Dept. of Energy (GIP -DOE), USA. The safety systems include the systems required for safe shutdown of the plant, the systems required for one chain of decay heat removal and the systems required for the containment of activity. The safety support systems viz. Electrical, Instrumentation and Control (I and C) and systems other than SS and SSS have been qualified by

  11. Seismic re-evaluation of piping systems of heavy water plant, Kota

    Heavy Water Plant, Kota is the first indigenous heavy water plant built in India. The plant started operation in the year 1985 and it is approaching the completion of its originally stipulated design life. In view of the excellent record of plant operation for the past so many years, it has been planned to carry out various exercises for the life extension of the plant. In the first stage, evaluation of operation stresses was carried out for the process critical piping layouts and equipment, which are connected with 25 process critical nozzle locations, identified based on past history of the plant performance. Fatigue life evaluation has been carried out to fmd out the Cumulative Usage Factor, which helps in arriving at a decision regarding the life extension of the plant. The results of these exercises have been already reported separately vide BARC/200I /E/O04. In the second stage, seismic reevaluation of the plant has been carried out to assess its ability to maintain its integ:rity in case of a seismic event. The aim of this exercise is to assess the effects of the maximum probable earthquake at the plant site on the various systems and components of the plant. This exercise is further aimed at ensuring the adequacy of seismic supports to maintain the integrity of the system in case of a seismic event and to suggest some retrofitting measures, if required. Seismic re-evaluation of the piping of Heavy Water Plant, Kota has been performed taking into account the interaction effects from the connected equipment. Each layout has been qualified using the latest provisions of ASME Code Section III, Subsection ND wherein the earthquake loading has been considered as a reversing dynamic load. The maximum combined stresses for all the layouts due to pressure, weight and seismic loadings have been found to be well within the code allowable limit. Therefore, it has been concluded that during a maximum probable seismic event, the possibility of pipe rupture can be safely

  12. Validation of the KARATE code system by using the reevaluated ZR-6 measurements

    In the frame of upgrading the KARATE-440 code system the application of ENDF/B-VI nuclear data had been decided in all stages of the calculation. Recently the multi group libraries used by the MULTICELL lattice calculation code and the few group libraries used by the COREMICRO 2D fine-mesh diffusion code have been prepared. The validation of these libraries has been performed using measurements on zero power critical facilities. The standard data base used in that work was extended by some temperature dependent parameters of the slightly enriched uranium piles of ZR-6. In the whole work the experimental data of ZR-6 reevaluated by the RFIT code was used (Authors)

  13. Generic results and conclusions of re-evaluating the flooding protection in French Nuclear Power Plants

    The partial flooding of the Blayais site, occurred on December 1999 has led to a large scale re-examination of the measures to prevent and limit the consequences associated with all contingencies or combinations of them, which could lead to external flooding of any of the 19 French sites, equipped with pressurized water reactors. An Action Program has been launched by Electricite de France and a methodology has been approved, consisting of: defining of principles for re-evaluating external flooding risks together with the relevant arrangements; applying the principles to each site and showing that the margins adopted are sufficient for achieving an acceptable safety level. The implementation of the program throughout all sites with PWR in France will extend to 2005

  14. Gastric pseudolipomatosis, usual or unusual? Re-evaluation of 909 endoscopic gastric biopsies

    Murat Alper; Yusuf Akcan; Olcay K Belenli; Selma Cukur; Kamuran A Aksoy; Mazlume Suna

    2003-01-01

    Microvesicular pneumatosis intestinalis, also called "pseudolipomatosis" for resembling fatty infiltration, is characterized by the presence of small gas voids in the gastrointestinal wall, especially in mucosa. These voids are not lined with epithelia. There are few reported cases about colon, duodenum and skin. Because there is only one case report about pseudolipomatosis in the stomach, we reevaluated 909 endoscopic biopsies taken from gastric corpus to check the presence of pseudolipomatosis. We determined pseudolipomatosis foci in 3 percent (n=27) of biopsies. In two cases there were pseudolipomatosis foci in endoscopic biopsies having otherwise normal histologic findings, while there were pseudolipomatosis foci in endoscopic biopsies of 25 patients with gastritis. H pylori was found in 85 % of biopsies having pseudolipomatosis foci. In this study, we presented some histopathologic characteristics of pseudolipomatosis seen in gastric mucosa.

  15. Plan for reevaluation of NRC policy on decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Recognizing that the current generation of large commercial reactors and supporting nuclear facilities would substantially increase future decommissioning needs, the NRC staff began an in-depth review and re-evaluation of NRC's regulatory approach to decommissioning in 1975. Major technical studies on decommissioning have been initiated at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory in order to provide a firm information base on the engineering methodology, radiation risks, and estimated costs of decommissioning light water reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is now considering development of a more explicit overall policy for nuclear facility decommissioning and amending its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 50, and 70 to include more specific guidance on decommissioning criteria for production and utilization facility licensees and byproduct, source, and special nuclear material licensees. The report sets forth in detail the NRC staff plan for the development of an overall NRC policy on decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  16. Reevaluation of decay energies of fission product nuclides in JNDC FP Decay Data File

    The decay data of all experimentally identified fission product nuclides included in the JNDC FP Decay Data File are reviewed in detail, since the missing of beta-transition to unobserved highly excited states in the daughter nucleus is considered to be probable in some cases even for nuclides with small Qβ. Thus the decay energies of 127 nuclides or metastable states except for 88Rb and 143La revised previously are reevaluated. The results of summation calculations based on the revised JNDC FP Decay Data File modified by the present evaluation are in much better agreement with experimentally measured decay power curves than previous ones. Especially, the discrepancy remained for cooling times from a few hundreds to about 1500 seconds is removed. And the agreement is kept within about 5 % for wide range of cooling times. (author)

  17. Re-Evaluating Sexual Violence Prevention Through Bystander Education: A Latent Growth Curve Approach.

    Shaw, Jessica; Janulis, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there has been a call for more advanced analytic techniques in violence against women research, particularly in community interventions that use longitudinal designs. The current study re-evaluates experimental evaluation data from a sexual violence bystander intervention program. Using an exploratory latent growth curve approach, we were able to model the longitudinal growth trajectories of individual participants over the course of the entire study. Although the results largely confirm the original evaluation findings, the latent growth curve approach better fits the demands of "messy" data (e.g., missing data, varying number of time points per participant, and unequal time spacing within and between participants) that are frequently obtained during a community-based intervention. The benefits of modern statistical techniques to practitioners and researchers in the field of sexual violence prevention, and violence against women more generally, are further discussed. PMID:25888503

  18. Reevaluating the tectonic uplift of western Mount Carmel, Israel, since the middle Pleistocene

    Zviely, Dov; Galili, Ehud; Ronen, Avraham; Salamon, Amos; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    2009-03-01

    Reevaluation of geological and archaeological evidence from western Mount Carmel constrains its maximal tectonic uplift since the Middle Pleistocene. Tabun Cave, presently 45 m above sea level (asl), revealed human occupation from about 600 ka to 90 ka before present. The 25 m thick archaeological strata at Tabun are composed of laminated fine sand, silt and clays. Moreover, no marine deposits were found in Tabun or nearby caves. Since sea level in the last 600 ka reached a maximal of 5 to 10 m asl, Tabun Cave could not have been uplifted since then by more than 35 to 40 m, that is a maximal average rate of 58 to 67 mm/ka.

  19. 76 FR 29021 - Written Re-Evaluation and Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    2011-05-19

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Relocation of the Panama City-Bay County International Airport (2006... Federal Aviation Administration Written Re-Evaluation and Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Relocation of the Panama City- Bay County International Airport AGENCY: FAA,...

  20. 77 FR 43143 - Limitation on Claims for Judicial Review; Re-Evaluation With Respect to the Willits Bypass...

    2012-07-23

    ...) should be undertaken. Based upon the analyses contained in the Re-evaluations, Caltrans has made the... determine whether a SEIS should be prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 1502.9(c). Based upon the Re... (Caltrans) pursuant to its assigned responsibilities under 23 U.S.C. 327 are final within the meaning of...

  1. Re-evaluation of Non-regulatory Asbestos Group Minerals for Regulatory Agencies

    Dogan, M.; Dogan, A.

    2013-05-01

    There are established rules and regulations for some asbestos group minerals - amphibole group minerals of actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, crocidolite, tremolite; and serpentine group minerals of chrysotile- called "regulatory". There are also "non-regulatory" naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) group minerals as constituent of rocks and soil, including richterite, winchite, fluoro-edenite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, gageite, arfvedsonite, and magnesio-arfvedsonite. Strong evidences for carcinogenicity of these NOA minerals in later cohorts of cancer patients demonstrated the risks associated with these minerals. In addition, although the chrysotile asbestos regulated by some organizations such as WHO, World Trade Organization, United Nations, US EPA, International Labour Organization, and EU Countries; however, controversies still continue surrounding the use of chrysotile. Determinations of polymineralic fibrous veins, mixed particles, amphibole cleavage fragments, and genetic predisposition are also important issues (i.e. Dogan et al., 2006).Therefore, accurate characterizations of chemical composition, morphology, structure, and defects are necessary in order to find out mechanism(s) of carcinogenicity of all asbestos group minerals. Calculation methods of chemical composition are still under debate because of assumption of no vacancies at any sites and intergrowth of minerals. Substitution(s) may cause deviations from the ideal chemical formula and wide variations in chemical compositions. Detail morphological and chemical quantification of individual asbestos group minerals in micro- and nano-scale may help to evaluate its true carcinogenetic mechanism(s), and consequently prevention and possibly treatment of related diseases. we propose that nonregulatory asbestos minerals and the chrysotile should be re-evaluated. The amount of fibers inhaled, in terms of weight percent and number, need also be re-evaluated by mineralogists. Finally, Regulatory

  2. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of anthocyanins (E 163 as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA, the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS was asked to provide a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of anthocyanins (E 163. The Panel concluded that the currently available toxicological database was inadequate to establish a numerical ADI for anthocyanins. For anthocyanins extracted from edible fruits and vegetables by aqueous processes, changes in composition would not be expected. The Panel concluded that provided exposure from use as a food additive was comparable to that from the diet the underlying conclusion in the 1975 SCF opinion that such food additives derived from natural sources would still apply. The majority of data are on aqueous grape skin extract (GSKE and blackcurrant extracts and the Panel considers that exposures estimated from current uses and use levels these extracts are unlikely to be of safety concern. The Panel recommends that the specifications for E 163 should be modified to reflect this conclusion. For anthocyanins extracted from other sources and/or using non-aqueous extraction methods the absence of characterisation does not allow verification that this conclusion in the 1975 SCF opinion could be applied. The Panel noted that for some extracts it had proven possible to assess a group based on toxicological and compositional data on representative samples across the range of extracts. The Panel concluded that refined exposure estimates of anthocyanins used as a food additive were higher than dietary intakes and that these did not include intakes from colouring foods. Therefore the Panel would recommend that appropriate characterisation and toxicological data should be required to permit a further re-evaluation of anthocyanins including comparative data on anthocyanins (E 163 produced by aqueous extraction.

  3. Status of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Pressurized Thermal Shock Rule Re-Evaluation Project

    The current federal regulations to ensure that nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) maintain their structural integrity when subjected to transients such as pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events were derived from computational models that were developed in the early to mid 1980's. Since that time, there have been advancements in relevant technologies associated with the physics of PTS events that impact RPV integrity assessment. Preliminary studies performed in 1999 suggested that application of the improved technology could reduce the conservatism in the current regulations while continuing to provide reasonable assurance of adequate protection to public health and safety. A relaxation of PTS regulations could have profound implications for plant license extension considerations. Based on the above, in 1999, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated a comprehensive project, with the nuclear power industry as a participant, to re-evaluate the current PTS regulations within the framework established by modern probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques. During the last three years, improved computational models have evolved through interactions between experts in the relevant disciplines of thermal hydraulics, PRA, human reliability analysis (HRA), materials embrittlement effects on fracture toughness (crack initiation and arrest), fracture mechanics methodology, and fabrication-induced flaw characterization. These experts were from the NRC staff, their contractors, and representatives from the nuclear industry. These improved models have now been implemented into the FAVOR (Fracture Analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) computer code, which is an applications tool for performing risk-informed structural integrity evaluations of embrittled RPVs subjected to transient thermal-hydraulic loading conditions. The baseline version of FAVOR (version 1.0) was released in October 2001. The updated risk-informed computational methodology in the FAVOR

  4. Reevaluating the feasibility of ground-based Earth-mass microlensing planet detections

    An important strength of the microlensing method to detect extrasolar planets is its high sensitivity to low-mass planets. However, many believe that microlensing detections of Earth-mass planets from ground-based observation would be difficult because of limits set by finite-source effects. This view comes from the previous estimation of planet detection probability based on the fractional deviation of planetary signals; however, a proper probability estimation is required when considering the source brightness, which is directly related to the photometric precision. In this paper, we reevaluate the feasibility of low-mass planet detections by considering photometric precision for different populations of source stars. From this, we find that the contribution of improved photometric precision to the planetary signal of a giant-source event is large enough to compensate for the decrease in magnification excess caused by finite-source effects. As a result, we conclude that giant-source events are suitable targets for Earth-mass planet detections with significantly higher detection probability than events involved with source stars of smaller radii, and we predict that Earth-mass planets could be detected by prospective high-cadence surveys.

  5. Reevaluation of patients with bipolar disorder on manic episode: improving the diagnosing of mixed episode.

    Kim, Kyung Ran; Cho, Hyun-Sang; Kim, Se Joo; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Eun; Jon, Duk-In

    2013-08-01

    Mixed manic/depressive episodes in patients with bipolar disorder are underdiagnosed because of restrictive diagnostic criteria. Using the broader definition of a mixed episode represented by the Cincinnati criteria, we reevaluated the medical records of patients with bipolar disorder hospitalized for a manic episode. We also examined the predictive power of previously unrecognized depressive symptoms. Of 520 inpatients with mania, we retrospectively diagnosed 59 (11.3%) as having a probable mixed episode. Compared with the patients with pure mania, the patients with mixed episodes were more likely to have a family history of psychiatric illness, comorbid personality disorder, and a history of suicide attempts. Binary logistic regression revealed that loss of interest, loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness, and feelings of helplessness had good positive predictive value (>0.7) for mixed episodes. Accurate diagnosis of mixed episodes may require a broadening of diagnostic criteria and emphasis on symptoms such as loss of interest, loss of energy, and feelings of worthlessness and helplessness. PMID:23896850

  6. Re-evaluation of the culture condition of polymorphonuclear cells for the study of apoptosis induction.

    Hiroi, M; Tajima, M; Shimojima, T; Kashimata, M; Miyata, T; Sakagami, H

    1998-01-01

    The culture conditions of human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the study of apoptosis induction were re-evaluated. The changes in the relative viable cell number of PMNs after tumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment were colorimetrically investigated using a cell counting kit. The relative potency of PMNs to produce the superoxide anion (O2-) was measured as the reduction of color intensity by addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD). When the PMNs were cultured in conventional RPMI1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), the stimulation effect of TNF on O2- generation by PMNs was observed only for the first 6 hours. When FBS was replaced with human serum, the effect of TNF was maintained for longer incubation periods. Prolonged incubation of PMNs spontaneously produced large DNA fragments, and the extent of DNA fragmentation was relatively smaller in human serum-containing medium. TNF, LPS, hyperthermia or potassium thiocyanate slightly accelerated the production of large DNA fragments, as well as the induction of trace amounts of internucleosomal DNA cleavage in PMNs, which became detectable only after concentration by fractional isopropanol precipitation. The present study suggests the importance of the use of human serum rather than conventional FBS for the study of apoptosis induction in PMNs. PMID:9673409

  7. Seismic re-evaluation of piping systems of heavy water plant, Kota

    Mishra, R; Soni, R S; Venkat-Raj, V

    2002-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant, Kota is the first indigenous heavy water plant built in India. The plant started operation in the year 1985 and it is approaching the completion of its originally stipulated design life. In view of the excellent record of plant operation for the past so many years, it has been planned to carry out various exercises for the life extension of the plant. In the first stage, evaluation of operation stresses was carried out for the process critical piping layouts and equipment, which are connected with 25 process critical nozzle locations, identified based on past history of the plant performance. Fatigue life evaluation has been carried out to fmd out the Cumulative Usage Factor, which helps in arriving at a decision regarding the life extension of the plant. The results of these exercises have been already reported separately vide BARC/200I /E/O04. In the second stage, seismic reevaluation of the plant has been carried out to assess its ability to maintain its integ:rity in case of a seismic e...

  8. Lessons learned from the seismic reevaluation of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

    A seismic reevaluation program was conducted for the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit No. 1 (SONGS 1). SEP was created by the NRC to provide (1) an assessment of the significance of differences between current technical positions on safety issues and those that existed when a particular plant was licensed, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. The Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) seismic review for SONGS 1 was exacerbated by the results of an evaluation of an existing capable fault near the site during the design review for Units 2 and 3, which resulted in a design ground acceleration of 0.67g. Southern California Edison Company (SCE), the licensee for SONGS 1, realized that a uniform application of existing seismic criteria and methods would not be feasible for the upgrading of SONGS 1 to such a high seismic requirement. Instead, SCE elected to supplement existing seismic criteria and analysis methods by developing criteria and methods closer to the state of the art in seismic evaluation techniques

  9. Adaptively Reevaluated Bayesian Localization (ARBL): A novel technique for radiological source localization

    Miller, Erin A.; Robinson, Sean M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; McCall, Jonathon D.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Webster, Jennifer B.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2015-06-01

    We present a novel technique for the localization of radiological sources in urban or rural environments from an aerial platform. The technique is based on a Bayesian approach to localization, in which measured count rates in a time series are compared with predicted count rates from a series of pre-calculated test sources to define likelihood. This technique is expanded by using a localized treatment with a limited field of view (FOV), coupled with a likelihood ratio reevaluation, allowing for real-time computation on commodity hardware for arbitrarily complex detector models and terrain. In particular, detectors with inherent asymmetry of response (such as those employing internal collimation or self-shielding for enhanced directional awareness) are leveraged by this approach to provide improved localization. Results from the localization technique are shown for simulated flight data using monolithic as well as directionally-aware detector models, and the capability of the methodology to locate radioisotopes is estimated for several test cases. This localization technique is shown to facilitate urban search by allowing quick and adaptive estimates of source location, in many cases from a single flyover near a source. In particular, this method represents a significant advancement from earlier methods like full-field Bayesian likelihood, which is not generally fast enough to allow for broad-field search in real time, and highest-net-counts estimation, which has a localization error that depends strongly on flight path and cannot generally operate without exhaustive search.

  10. Adaptively Reevaluated Bayesian Localization (ARBL). A Novel Technique for Radiological Source Localization

    Miller, Erin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, Sean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Seattle, WA (United States); Anderson, Kevin K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCall, Jonathon D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Prinke, Amanda M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Webster, Jennifer B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seifert, Carolyn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-19

    Here we present a novel technique for the localization of radiological sources in urban or rural environments from an aerial platform. The technique is based on a Bayesian approach to localization, in which measured count rates in a time series are compared with predicted count rates from a series of pre-calculated test sources to define likelihood. Furthermore, this technique is expanded by using a localized treatment with a limited field of view (FOV), coupled with a likelihood ratio reevaluation, allowing for real-time computation on commodity hardware for arbitrarily complex detector models and terrain. In particular, detectors with inherent asymmetry of response (such as those employing internal collimation or self-shielding for enhanced directional awareness) are leveraged by this approach to provide improved localization. Our results from the localization technique are shown for simulated flight data using monolithic as well as directionally-aware detector models, and the capability of the methodology to locate radioisotopes is estimated for several test cases. This localization technique is shown to facilitate urban search by allowing quick and adaptive estimates of source location, in many cases from a single flyover near a source. In particular, this method represents a significant advancement from earlier methods like full-field Bayesian likelihood, which is not generally fast enough to allow for broad-field search in real time, and highest-net-counts estimation, which has a localization error that depends strongly on flight path and cannot generally operate without exhaustive search

  11. Reevaluation of ethanol as organic modifier for use in HPLS-RP mobile phases

    Ribeiro Ricardo L. V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol:water mixtures have been reevaluated for use as reversed phase mobile phases. Optimization of the chromatographic conditions for both C8 and C18 columns was carried out through a factorial design which evaluates temperature, ethanol concentration and mobile phase flow rate. With the C8 stationary phase, peak asymmetries were not significantly altered at the different points in the factorial design while the retention factors and resolutions were somewhat lower at higher temperatures, where the viscosity of EtOH is lower. Similar observations were obtained with the C18 phase. The efficiency of the ethanol:water mobile phase for the separation of mixtures containing neutral and basic compounds was compared with those obtained using methanol:water and acetonitrile:water mobile phases. Ethanol was shown to be a good organic modifier for RP-HPLC, with good chromatographic properties. This, considering the much lower toxicity of ethanol, the facility of its disposal, and its favorable cost, should make ethanol:H2O the mobile phase of choice for many RP-HPLC applications.

  12. Adaptively Reevaluated Bayesian Localization (ARBL): A novel technique for radiological source localization

    We present a novel technique for the localization of radiological sources in urban or rural environments from an aerial platform. The technique is based on a Bayesian approach to localization, in which measured count rates in a time series are compared with predicted count rates from a series of pre-calculated test sources to define likelihood. This technique is expanded by using a localized treatment with a limited field of view (FOV), coupled with a likelihood ratio reevaluation, allowing for real-time computation on commodity hardware for arbitrarily complex detector models and terrain. In particular, detectors with inherent asymmetry of response (such as those employing internal collimation or self-shielding for enhanced directional awareness) are leveraged by this approach to provide improved localization. Results from the localization technique are shown for simulated flight data using monolithic as well as directionally-aware detector models, and the capability of the methodology to locate radioisotopes is estimated for several test cases. This localization technique is shown to facilitate urban search by allowing quick and adaptive estimates of source location, in many cases from a single flyover near a source. In particular, this method represents a significant advancement from earlier methods like full-field Bayesian likelihood, which is not generally fast enough to allow for broad-field search in real time, and highest-net-counts estimation, which has a localization error that depends strongly on flight path and cannot generally operate without exhaustive search

  13. Statistical re-evaluation of the ASME KIC and KIR fracture toughness reference curves

    Historically the ASME reference curves have been treated as representing absolute deterministic lower bound curves of fracture toughness. In reality, this is not the case. They represent only deterministic lower bound curves to a specific set of data, which represent a certain probability range. A recently developed statistical lower bound estimation method called the 'Master curve', has been proposed as a candidate for a new lower bound reference curve concept. From a regulatory point of view, the Master curve is somewhat problematic in that it does not claim to be an absolute deterministic lower bound, but corresponds to a specific theoretical failure probability that can be chosen freely based on application. In order to be able to substitute the old ASME reference curves with lower bound curves based on the master curve concept, the inherent statistical nature (and confidence level) of the ASME reference curves must be revealed. In order to estimate the true inherent level of safety, represented by the reference curves, the original data base was re-evaluated with statistical methods and compared to an analysis based on the master curve concept. The analysis reveals that the 5% lower bound Master curve has the same inherent degree of safety as originally intended for the KIC-reference curve. Similarly, the 1% lower bound Master curve corresponds to the KIR-reference curve. (orig.)

  14. Re-evaluation of atomic bomb dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    A new dosimetry system, DS86, for atomic bomb radiation was developed in March 1986 by the collaborative efforts of the US and Japanese atomic bomb dosimetry reassessment committees. This new system was used by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation to recalculate individual exposure doses for the survivors which had thus far been estimated on the basis of the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) system. Reanalyses of the health data for the survivors are under way using the new doses. The major results obtained to date are as follows: (1) the re-evaluation of the exposures does not change the list of radiation-related cancers; (2) some city differences in dose-response previously thought to be real when the T65D doses were used, such as for leukemia, are no longer significant with the DS86 doses; and (3) assuming a linear dose-response, and using estimated organ-absorbed doses, the risk coefficients derived from the two dosimetry systems are very similar, whereas those based on shielded kerma are about 40% higher with the new dosimetry. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Reevaluation of 99mTc-HSA Erection Penography in the Impotence Patients

    To reevaluate the clinical usefulness of erection penography for differential diagnosis of impotence, we reviewed retrospectively the data of penography in 56 patients who were diagnosed as impotence by various diagnostic workup. Twelve normal males were studied as control group. Papaverine HCI 30 mg was injected into the corpus cavernosum and simultaneously 99mTc-HAS 20 mCi was injected via an antecubital vein. After injection radioactivities in the penile area were detected for 30 minutes by gamma camera and time activity curve was displayed. We defined that transit time(TT) is the time to reach peak activity and erection persistent time (EPT) is the duration of time to maintain peak activity and venous index (VI) is the ratio of radioactivity (R3Q/Rmax ,). The results were as follows: The TT of arteriogenic group (10.7 ± 2.8 min) was significantly increased compared with those of control and venogenic groups (P<0.05, respectively). The EPT of venogenic group (6.2 ± 6.8 min) is significantly decreased compared with those of control and arteriogenic groups (P<0.05, respectively). The TT of psychogenic(15.2 ± 5.5 min) is significantly increased compared with those of control and arteriogenic groups (P<0.05, respectively). In conclusion erection penography was very useful for the diagnosis of vascular and psychogenic impotence and for differentiation between arteriogenic and venogenic but it could not differentiate mixed type or neurogenic from vascular or psychogenic.

  16. A re-evaluation of the Moyuta geothermal system, Southern Guatemala

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Janik, C.; Fahlquist, L. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Roldan, A.; Revolorio, M. (Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

    1991-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data from four fumarole sites combined with prefeasibility assessments obtained in the 1970s have resulted in a re-evaluation of the Moyuta geothermal system. Moyuta consists of an east-west trending complex of Quaternary andesite/dacite domes and flows cut by north-trending faults. Areas of fumaroles, acid springs, and bicarbonate-rich thermal springs flank the north and south sides of the volcanic complex. Chloride-rich thermal springs discharge along rivers at lower elevations around the Moyuta highland. The distribution of thermal features indicates that deep reservoir fluid rises convectively near the axis of volcanism. Geochemical data suggest that there are two subsystems having temperatures of about 210{degrees}C (north flank) and 170{degrees}C (south flank). Exploration wells sited near the most northerly fumarole (Azulco) achieved temperatures of {le}113{degrees}C at 1004 m depth. We suggest the fumaroles occur above hydrothermal outflow plumes confined to vertical, fault-controlled conduits. Better drilling sites occur closer to the intersections of the north trending faults and the Quaternary volcanic axis. 21 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Re-Evaluation of Clinical Dementia Diagnoses with Pittsburgh Compound B Positron Emission Tomography

    M. Degerman Gunnarsson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is an overlap regarding Pittsburgh compound B (PIB retention in patients clinically diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (AD and non-AD dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are any differences between PIB-positive and PIB-negative patients in a mixed cohort of patients with neurodegenerative dementia of mild severity regarding neuropsychological test performance and regional cerebral glucose metabolism measured with [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET. Methods: Eighteen patients clinically diagnosed as probable AD or frontotemporal dementia were examined with PIB PET, FDG PET and neuropsychological tests and followed for 5-9 years in a clinical setting. Results: The PIB-positive patients (7 out of 18 had slower psychomotor speed and more impaired visual episodic memory than the PIB-negative patients; otherwise performance did not differ between the groups. The initial clinical diagnoses were changed in one third of the patients (6 out of 18 during follow-up. Conclusions: The subtle differences in neuropsychological performance, the overlap of hypometabolic patterns and clinical features between AD and non-AD dementia highlight the need for amyloid biomarkers and a readiness to re-evaluate the initial diagnosis.

  18. Re-evaluation and updating of the seismic hazard of Lebanon

    Huijer, Carla; Harajli, Mohamed; Sadek, Salah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the implications of the newly mapped offshore Mount Lebanon Thrust (MLT) fault system on the seismic hazard of Lebanon and the current seismic zoning and design parameters used by the local engineering community. This re-evaluation is critical, given that the MLT is located at close proximity to the major cities and economic centers of the country. The updated seismic hazard was assessed using probabilistic methods of analysis. The potential sources of seismic activities that affect Lebanon were integrated along with any/all newly established characteristics within an updated database which includes the newly mapped fault system. The earthquake recurrence relationships of these sources were developed from instrumental seismology data, historical records, and earlier studies undertaken to evaluate the seismic hazard of neighboring countries. Maps of peak ground acceleration contours, based on 10 % probability of exceedance in 50 years (as per Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1997), as well as 0.2 and 1 s peak spectral acceleration contours, based on 2 % probability of exceedance in 50 years (as per International Building Code (IBC) 2012), were also developed. Finally, spectral charts for the main coastal cities of Beirut, Tripoli, Jounieh, Byblos, Saida, and Tyre are provided for use by designers.

  19. Reevaluation of Fatty Acid Receptor 1 as a Drug Target for the Stimulation of Insulin Secretion in Humans

    Wagner, Robert; Kaiser, Gabriele; Gerst, Felicia; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E.; Grundmann, Manuel; Machicao, Fausto; Peter, Andreas; Kostenis, Evi; Ulven, Trond; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Ullrich, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The role of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) in glucose homeostasis is still incompletely understood. Small receptor agonists stimulating insulin secretion are undergoing investigation for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Surprisingly, genome-wide association studies did not discover diabetes risk variants in FFAR1. We reevaluated the role of FFAR1 in insulin secretion using a specific agonist, FFAR1-knockout mice and human islets. Nondiabetic individuals were metabolically phenotype...

  20. Re-evaluation of the kidney tumors and renal histopathology occurring in a 2-year rat carcinogenicity bioassay of quercetin.

    Hard, Gordon C; Seely, John Curtis; Betz, Laura J; Hayashi, Shim-Mo

    2007-04-01

    Renal histopathology in the most recent 2-year carcinogenicity bioassay of quercetin, in Fischer 344 rats, was re-evaluated in an attempt to determine a mode of action underlying a small increase in renal tubule tumors reported in the males (). The re-evaluation confirmed the reported increase in renal tumors in mid- and high-dose males, including a single carcinoma in a high-dose male, as well as an exacerbation of spontaneous, chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) in male rats only. The re-evaluation also showed that there were no cellular alterations in the kidney indicative of chemical toxicity at 6 months, 15 months, or 2 years. The evidence linked the occurrence of the predominant basophilic adenomas and foci of atypical tubule hyperplasia (ATH) with the exacerbation of CPN to advanced grades of severity, supporting a mode of action involving quercetin interaction with CPN. This mode of action represents a secondary mechanism for renal tumor development, with no relevance for extrapolation to humans. In addition, the single carcinoma present in the high-dose males, along with 4 other lesions ranging from ATH to adenoma in male and female groups, were considered to have a unique phenotype associated previously with neoplasms of spontaneous and familial origin. PMID:17156907

  1. Re-evaluation of gamma-ray exposure rates during TRACY power burst experiments based on the latest JENDL files

    Gamma-ray exposure rates during reactivity-initiated power burst experiments performed in the Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY) were re-evaluated for the purpose of validation of the latest JENDL series nuclear structure data and nuclear data files. For the exposure rates contributed by fission products (FPs), aggregate FP photon yields for 18s after the termination of the initial power burst were calculated by using the ORIGEN2 code together with the updated photon and decay databases based on the latest nuclear structure data file, JENDL FP Decay Data File 2000. As results of Monte Carlo photon transport calculations using the photon yield as a fixed source, the calculated exposure rates were in good agreement with the measurements. It was, therefore, confirmed that the updated data-bases were valid for evaluating photon yields from short-lived FP nuclides. The gamma-ray exposure for the duration of the initial power burst contributed by neutron-induced reactions, such as fission and neutron capture, was also re-evaluated using the latest nuclear data library, JENDL-3.3. The re-evaluation indicated that there is little difference in the exposure by Monte Carlo neutron-photon combined transport calculations between the JENDL-3.3 library and the former version library, JENDL-3.2. (author)

  2. Adrenal lesion frequency: A prospective, cross-sectional CT study in a defined region, including systematic re-evaluation

    Background: Incidentally detected adrenal lesions have become a growing clinical problem. Purpose: To prospectively estimate and validate the prevalence of incidentally detected adrenal lesions (adrenal incidentaloma) in patients with or without malignant disease undergoing CT. Material and Methods: During 18 months all adult patients with incidentally discovered adrenal lesions detected at CT were prospectively reported from the radiology departments of all hospitals in Western Sweden (1.66 million inhabitants). Frequencies of adrenal lesions initially reported at CT and at a systematic re-evaluation were compared. The interobserver variation in blindly assessing adrenal lesions was also analyzed. Results: Adrenal lesions were reported and verified in 339 patients (193 females; mean age 69 years, range 30-94 years). Mean lesion size was 25.8 mm (range 8-94 mm). The mean frequency of originally reported adrenal lesions was 0.9% (range 0-2.4% between hospitals). The systematic re-evaluation of 3801 randomly selected cases showed a mean frequency of 4.5% (range 1.8-7.1% between hospitals). The re-evaluation revealed 177 cases with adrenal lesions, 30% of these were submitted by the local radiologist in accordance with the study design, 23% were described in the local radiology report but not submitted to the study center, while 47% were neither locally reported nor submitted. Conclusion: Adrenal lesions are under-reported in clinical practice. Prevalence figures for adrenal incidentalomas should therefore be interpreted with caution, especially in multi-center settings.

  3. Re-evaluation of the macroseismic effects produced by the March 4, 1977, strong Vrancea earthquake in Romanian territory

    Aurelian Pantea

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the macroseismic effects of the subcrustal earthquake in Vrancea (Romania that occurred on March 4, 1977, have been re-evaluated. This was the second strongest seismic event that occurred in this area during the twentieth century, following the event that happened on November 10, 1940. It is thus of importance for our understanding of the seismicity of the Vrancea zone. The earthquake was felt over a large area, which included the territories of the neighboring states, and it produced major damage. Due to its effects, macroseismic studies were developed by Romanian researchers soon after its occurrence, with foreign scientists also involved, such as Medvedev, the founder of the Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik (MSK seismic intensity scale. The original macroseismic questionnaires were re-examined, to take into account the recommendations for intensity assessments according to the MSK-64 macroseismic scale used in Romania. After the re-evaluation of the macroseismic field of this earthquake, the intensity dataset was obtained for 1,620 sites in Romanian territory. The re-evaluation was necessary as it has confirmed that the previous macroseismic map was underestimated. On this new map, only the intensity data points are plotted, without tracing the isoseismals.

  4. Reference materials characterized for impurities in uranium matrices. An overview and re-evaluation of the NBL CRM 124 series

    The characterized concentrations of 24 impurity elements in New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) Certified Reference Material (CRM) 124 were reevaluated. A provisional certificate of analysis was issued in September 1983 based upon the 'as prepared' values (gravimetric mixing). The provisional certificate does not state uncertainties for the characterized values, or estimate the degree of homogeneity. Since release of the provisional certificate of analysis various laboratories have reported analytical results for CRM 124. Based upon the reported data a re-evaluation of the characterized values with an estimate of their uncertainties was performed in this work. An assessment of the degree of homogeneity was included. The overall difference between the re-evaluated values for the 24 impurity elements and the 'as prepared' values from the provisional certificate of analysis is negligible compared to the uncertainties. Therefore, NBL will establish the 'as prepared' values as the certified values and use the derived uncertainties from this work for the uncertainties of the certified values. The traceability of the 'as prepared' values was established by the gravimetric mixing procedure employed during the preparation of the CRM. NBL further recommends a minimum sample size of 1 g of the CRM material to ensure homogeneity. Samples should be dried by heating up to 110 deg C for one hour before use. (author)

  5. 40 CFR 33.209 - Can EPA re-evaluate the MBE or WBE status of an entity after EPA certifies it to be an MBE or WBE?

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can EPA re-evaluate the MBE or WBE status of an entity after EPA certifies it to be an MBE or WBE? 33.209 Section 33.209 Protection of... EPA re-evaluate the MBE or WBE status of an entity after EPA certifies it to be an MBE or WBE? (a)...

  6. Cardioprotective effects of diltiazem reevaluated by a novel myocardial ischemic model in Chinese miniature swine

    Jian-xun LIU; Zhen YU; Xin-zhi LI; Jian-hua FU; Xiao-hong SHANG; Ai-guo YAN; Yue SHI; Yan-lei MA

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To develop a new model of myocardial ischemia in Chinese miniature swine and reevaluate the cardioprotective effects of diltiazem. Methods: Myocardial ischemia was induced by injecting self-embolus into the left anterior descending(LAD) coronary artery in qualified miniature swine. Diltiazem (5 mg.kg-1.d-1) was orally administered to the swine by mixing into normal pig diet from 1 to 6 d after self-embolus injection. The coronary angiography, 30 point body surface electro-cardiogram (BS-ECG), hemodynamics, biochemistry, quantitative histology and pathohistology were determined 6 d after self-embolus injection. Results: Embo-lization occurred in the LAD coronary artery of the Chinese miniature swine in-jected by self-embolus. There were significant myocardial ischemia and large cardiac muscle infarction in the Chinese miniature swine, which were accompa-nied with increased BS-ECG, decreased hemodynamic indexes of the cardiac output,cardiac index, left cardiac work and left cardiac work index, and increased systemic vascular resistance index. Pathohistological analysis revealed myocardial degen-eration, necrosis, fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and granulation tissue hyperblastosis (n=6). Diltiazem diminished the extent of the LAD embolism, ame-liorated myocardial ischemia, improved the hemodynamic indexes, increased the plasma superoxide dismutase activity, decreased the plasma malondialdehyde content, narrowed the myocardial ischemic area and weakened the pathohistological damage in the cardiac muscle (n=6). Conclusion: Myocardial ischemia induced by injecting self-embolus into the LAD coronary artery in Chinese miniature swine is quite close to clinical pathophysiological conditions. Diltiazem is effective to inhibit the myocardial ischemia and restore the heart function in this novel model.

  7. Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population

    Malatova, I.; Skrkal, J. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Srobarova (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more eimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

  8. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Indigo Carmine (E 132 as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of Indigo Carmine (E132. The Panel observed that Indigo Carmine was poorly absorbed and does not raise concern for genotoxicity. No adverse effects in subacute, chronic, reproduction and developmental toxicity studies, and no modifications of haematological and biological parameters in chronic toxicity studies have been identified at doses less than or equal to 500 mg/kg bw/day. The only report of an adverse effect was in testis with a LOAEL of 17 mg/kg bw/day which would give rise to a safety concern if confirmed. The Panel considered that this study has shortcomings since it is not clear to the Panel whether the adverse effects observed were due to the food additive itself or to impurities and/or contaminants present in the material tested and/or to the conduct of the study. The Panel considered that the current ADI of 5 mg/kg bw/day for Indigo Carmine was applicable to a material with the same purity and manufacturing process as material used in studies without adverse effects on testis (93% pure colouring and 7% volatile matter and concluded that any extension of this ADI to Indigo Carmine of lower purity and/or manufactured using a different process would require new data which would need to address the adverse effects on testis. The Panel noted that at the MPL, exposure estimates of Indigo Carmine would exceed the ADI for toddlers and children at the high level. Exposure estimates using the available usage and analytical data did not show an exceedance of the ADI for any population groups.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of carnauba wax (E 903 as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of carnauba wax (E 903. Carnauba wax (E 903 is authorised in the EU as food additive as glazing agent. It has been evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA who allocated an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI of 7 mg/kg bw/day. The SCF did not establish an ADI but considered the use of carnauba wax as a glazing agent acceptable. Carnauba wax is a complex mixture of compounds consisting mainly of aliphatic esters (wax esters, α-hydroxyl esters and cinnamic aliphatic diesters obtained from the Brazilian Mart wax palm, Copernicia cerifera. The Panel considered that carnauba wax would be predicted to not be significantly absorbed from the diet and that if hydrolysed its main constituents could be absorbed and incorporated into normal cellular metabolic pathways. Based on the available data and the lack of structural alerts on carnauba wax it was concluded that there is no concern for genotoxicity for carnauba wax. Subchronic and reproductive and developmental toxicity studies did not showed adverse effects related to carnauba wax intake. No chronic toxicity or carcinogenicity studies were available on carnauba wax. Overall, the Panel considered that long-term toxicity data on carnauba wax were lacking and therefore did not establish an ADI.. However, the Panel considered that the exposure estimates to carnauba wax from the proposed uses resulted in sufficient margins of safety compared to the identified No Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAELs for carnauba wax, allowing the Panel to conclude that the use of carnauba wax as a food additive with the currently authorised uses would not be of safety concern.

  10. A Re-Evaluation of the Relativistic Redshift on Frequency Standards at NIST, Boulder, Colorado, USA

    Pavlis, N. K.; Weiss, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Primary frequency standards that realize the definition of the second based on the Caesium (Cs) atom are used to steer International Atomic Time. According to the theory of relativity, their frequency should be adjusted to that at which these would operate, if located on the geoid. Current best standards for the current definition of the second are approaching uncertainties of one part in 1016. Optical frequency standards however are now reaching uncertainties of few parts in 1018 and are expected to lead to a new definition of the second. Their performance requires centimetre-level geoid accuracy, in order to calculate accurately the redshift frequency offset necessary for their inter-comparison. We re-evaluated the relativistic redshift of the frequency standards at NIST in Boulder, Colorado, USA, based on a recent precise GPS survey of several benchmarks on the roof of the building where these are housed, and on global and local geoid models supported by data from the GRACE and GOCE missions, including EGM2008, USGG2009, and USGG2012. We also evaluated the redshift offset based on the published NAVD88 geopotential number of the levelling benchmark Q407, after estimating the bias of the NAVD88 datum at our specific location. We present and discuss the results that we obtained using different methods, and provide our current estimate of the redshift offset and of its accuracy, considering the main error sources contributing to the total error budget. We compare our current estimates to those published by Pavlis and Weiss in 2003, using the data and models that were available at that time. We also discuss the prospects of using inter-connected ultra-precise frequency standards for the direct determination of geoid height differences, which may provide in the not-too-distant future an alternative approach for the establishment of vertical datums and the independent verification of the accuracy of global and local geoid models.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of candelilla wax (E 902 as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of candelilla wax (E 902. Candelilla wax (E 902 is authorised in the EU as a food additive as a glazing agent. It has been evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA. The JECFA and the SCF did not establish an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI but considered the use of candelilla wax as a glazing agent acceptable. Candelilla wax is obtained from leaves of candelilla plants Euphorbia antisyphilitica found in semi-desert regions. It is a complex mixture composed of wax hydrocarbons, wax, resin esters, lactones, free wax resin alcohols, and free wax resin acids. The Panel considered that absorption of candelilla wax is expected to be low, and that upon absorption the components would be incorporated into normal metabolic pathways. The Panel noted that there were limited data comparing the composition of the candelilla wax tested with the specification of the food additive. However the Panel considered that the materials tested were likely to be broadly similar in composition to the food additive. Overall, the Panel considered that the available data suggest that candelilla wax is not genotoxic. The Panel considered that long-term toxicity data on candelilla wax were lacking and therefore did not establish an ADI. However, the Panel noted that available toxicity studies consistently reported no findings associated with intake of the main components constituting candelilla wax. Furthermore, consideration of the exposure estimates to candelilla wax, using the Maximum Permitted Level (MPL of carnauba wax, indicated sufficient margins of safety. This allowed the Panel to conclude that the use of candelilla wax as a food additive with the currently authorised uses would not be of safety concern.

  12. Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population

    Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more experimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

  13. Re-Evaluation of the First Phenytoin Paste Healing Effects on Oral Biopsy Ulcers

    Baharvand, M; Mortazavi, A; Mortazavi, H; Yaseri, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until now, several formulations of topical phenytoin have been used to promote wound healing. Aim: This study was aimed at re-evaluating the effects of a newly formulated phenytoin mucoadhesive paste on wound healing after oral biopsy. Subjects and Methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 35 consecutive patients with oral lichenoid or lichen planus lesions were randomized into two groups. After incisional biopsy, patients applied simple, or 1% phenytoin paste at least three times a day (after each meal), for 4 days. They were evaluated every other day for size of wound closure, severity of pain, and diameter of the inflammatory halo. This study was approved by Medical Ethics committee of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann–Whitney U test and Ordinal Logistic Regression. Results: Of 35 patients, 17 (10 [10/17, 59%]) men, 7 (7/17, 41%) women, mean age: 40 (4.11) were in phenytoin group, and 18 (9 [9/9, 50%]) men, 9 (9/9, 50%) women, mean age: 43.1 (5.15) were in placebo group. There were no significant differences between both study groups in terms of age and sex (male/female ratio) (P = 0.76, P = 0.88). As all biopsies were done by means of punch number 8, the incisions were of 10 mm length. After second and third appointments, it was observed that patients in the treatment group showed quicker wound closure and less pain compared to control group significantly (P < 0.05). Although not significant, patients treated with phenytoin paste had smaller inflammatory halo than controls. Conclusion: Applying 1% phenytoin mucoadhesive paste on oral biopsy incisions resulted in accelerated wound healing and decrease in pain. PMID:25506476

  14. Fear but not fright: re-evaluating traumatic experience attenuates anxiety-like behaviors after fear conditioning

    Marco eCostanzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fear allows organisms to cope with dangerous situations and remembering these situations has an adaptive role preserving individuals from injury and death. However, recalling traumatic memories can induce re-experiencing the trauma, thus resulting in a maladaptive fear. A failure to properly regulate fear responses has been associated with anxiety disorders, like Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Thus, re-establishing the capability to regulate fear has an important role for its adaptive and clinical relevance. Strategies aimed at erasing fear memories have been proposed, although there are limits about their efficiency in treating anxiety disorders. To re-establish fear regulation, here we propose a new approach, based on the re-evaluation of the aversive value of traumatic experience. Mice were submitted to a contextual-fear-conditioning paradigm in which a neutral context was paired with an intense electric footshock. Three weeks after acquisition, conditioned mice were treated with a less intense footshock (pain threshold. The effectiveness of this procedure in reducing fear expression was assessed in terms of behavioral outcomes related to PTSD (e.g. hyper-reactivity to a neutral tone, anxiety levels in a plus maze task, social avoidance, and learning deficits in a spatial water maze and of amygdala activity by evaluating c-fos expression. Furthermore, a possible role of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC in mediating the behavioral effects induced by the re-evaluation procedure was investigated. We observed that this treatment (i significantly mitigates the abnormal behavioral outcomes induced by trauma, (ii persistently attenuates fear expression without erasing contextual memory, (iii prevents fear reinstatement, (iv reduces amygdala activity and (v requires an intact lOFC to be effective.The results suggest that an effective strategy to treat pathological anxiety should address cognitive re-evaluation of traumatic experiences

  15. Recruitment processes in Baltic sprat - A re-evaluation of GLOBEC Germany hypotheses

    Voss, Rüdiger; Peck, Myron A.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Clemmesen, Catriona; Baumann, Hannes; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bernreuther, Matthias; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Temming, Axel; Köster, Fritz W.

    2012-12-01

    The GLOBEC Germany program (2002-2007) had the ambitious goal to resolve the processes impacting the recruitment dynamics of Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by examining various factors affecting early life history stages. At the start of the research program, a number of general recruitment hypotheses were formulated, i.e. focusing on (1) predation, (2) food availability, (3) physical parameters, (4) the impact of current systems, and finally (5) the importance of top-down vs bottom-up effects. The present study synthesizes the results of field sampling (2002 and 2003), laboratory experiments, and modeling studies to re-evaluate these hypotheses for the Baltic sprat stock. Recruitment success was quite different in the 2 years investigated. Despite a lower spawning stock biomass in 2003, the total number of recruits was almost 2-fold higher that year compared to 2002. The higher recruitment success in 2003 could be attributed to enhanced survival success during the post-larval/juvenile stage, a life phase that appears to be critical for recruitment dynamics. In the state of the Baltic ecosystem during the period of investigation, we consider bottom-up control (e.g. temperature, prey abundance) to be more important than top-down control (predation mortality). This ranking in importance does not vary seasonally. Prevailing water circulation patterns and the transport dynamics of larval cohorts have a strong influence on sprat recruitment success. Pronounced transport to coastal areas is detrimental for year-class strength particularly at high sprat stock sizes. A suggested mechanism is density-dependant regulation of survival via intra- and inter-specific competition for prey in coastal areas. A documented change in larval vertical migration behavior between the early 1990s and early 2000s increased the transport potential to the coast, strengthening the coupling between inter-annual differences in the magnitude and direction of wind-driven surface currents and

  16. Doel 2 reactor internals reevaluation in the SGR and power up-rate project

    In 2004, the 2 steam generators of the Doel 2 Belgian NPP have been replaced. Simultaneously a power up-rate of 10% has been studied and succeeded. In the same time, stretch-out operating conditions have been considered in the safety studies. It was thus necessary to evaluate the impact of these modifications on the integrity of the Reactor internals of Doel 2, especially in case of LOCA. The contents of the paper is as follows: Introduction; Situation of the NPP before the PUSGR project; Definition of the LOCA to be considered; Generation of mechanical loads due to LOCA; Selection of zones for detailed justification; Justification of the selected zones to the post-LBB breaks; Conclusions. The paper ends with the following conclusions. Reevaluation of the RPV internals of Doel 2, a 2-loop old vintage NPP designed before the issue of the subsection NG of the code ASME, to the post-LBB ruptures (reduced LOCA thanks to the LBB approach) has led to the following conclusions: - The Doel 2 RPV internals have major geometrical differences compared to more recent Belgian NPPs already designed according to the ASME code subsection NG (Doel 3, Tihange 2, Doel 4, Tihange 3) - These major differences concern the upper support plate, the upper support columns, the core barrel and the lower radial keys. - It would be impossible to justify the internals of Doel 2 to the LOCA if LBB studies did not have demonstrated previously that a instantaneous guillotine break in the hot or cold leg was unlikely. - The different stiffness used in the RPV system model must be more realistic as they are. - TE has succeeded to justify to an arbitrary break area of 0.1 A all critical zones of the CSS of Doel 2. This break area is equivalent to the area break of the largest auxiliary line (12'' sch140) connected to the cold legs of the primary loops. - The downflow configuration of the core is very penalizing for the baffle bolts localized at the top of the core but one geometrically non linear

  17. Reevaluation of fuel enthalpy in NSRR test for high burnup fuels

    adopted in the present reevaluation is described and the result is discussed; how the correction made can affect the PCMI failure limit and interpretation of other fuel behaviors, derived from the NSRR test results, such as cladding temperature, cladding deformation, and fission gas release under RIA conditions. (author)

  18. Reevaluation of FDG-PET/CT in patients with hoarseness caused by vocal cord palsy

    Vocal cord palsy (VCP) is a potential cause of hoarseness that results in decreasing mobility of the vocal cord. VCP can arise from a variety of causes; so, systematic screening is warranted for the management of patients with VCP. Asymmetrical fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in vocal cords is a well-known feature in patients with VCP, but no detailed analysis has been performed. This study aimed at reevaluating the 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for patients with VCP. We retrospectively surveyed the results of FDG-PET/CT for 59 patients with VCP, compared to laryngoscopic findings. Quantitative analysis was performed using maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and regions of interest were drawn over bilateral vocal cords as confirmed from the CT portion of PET/CT. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (n=14), in which VCP was caused by the lesion of the laryngeal area; Group 2 (n=40), in which VCP was caused by the lesion on the root of the recurrent laryngeal nerve; and Group 3 (n=5), in which VCP was caused by the lesion from the vagal center to the proximal vagus nerve. For Group 1, higher FDG uptake in the paralyzed vocal cord was seen in 86% of patients (mean SUVmax 8.1±5.3 vs. 2.3±0.4, paralyzed vs. non-paralyzed, respectively; Pmax 2.1±0.9 vs. 1.5±0.4, non-paralyzed vs. paralyzed, respectively; Pmax 1.8±0.3 vs. 1.7±0.3, non- paralyzed vs. paralyzed, respectively; P=0.30). The sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT for indicating the lesion causing VCP was 60% for Group 3. FDG accumulation in the vocal cords is dependent on the lesion site causing VCP. In addition, FDG-PET/CT can contribute to identification of the lesion responsible for inducing VCP. (author)

  19. REEVALUATION OF MALARIA PARASITES IN EL-FAYOUM GOVERNORATE, EGYPT USING RAPID DIAGNOSTIC TESTS (RDTS).

    Dahesh, Salwa M A; Mostafa, Heba I

    2015-12-01

    Malaria as a disease has been identified in Egypt since ancient times. Malaria was endemic in almost all parts of the country but prevalence showed a steady decrease by 1990, and regressed in most of the Governorates. Then by the end of 1998 till now Egypt become free from local transmission of malaria. All reported cases were imported mainly from Sudan. However, the outbreak of falciparum (1 case) and vivax (23 cases) that occurred (May 2014) in Aswan Governorate strongly indicated that malaria is reemerging in the country. El-Fayoum should be take special attention, rather than being the last residual focus. The efficient malaria vector A. sergenti, the proven vector A. pharoensis and the suspected vector A. multicolor were encountered. This work reevaluated malaria status by using RDTs in survey and Giemsa stained thick films to confirm positive cases and estimation of parasite rate, formula, densities and species, also to study the ecological and entomological efficacy factors. The result showed that out of 2044 examined persons, 14 (0.68%) were passive cases, i.e., attending themselves to El-Fayoum Malaria Units after their return from Sudan. Microscopic examination of their stained thick films obtained from MOH&P shows that 9 (64.2%) out of passive cases were positive 3 of them are P. falciparum (33.3%) and the rest P. vivax 6 (66.7%) The species formulas of P. falciparum and P. vivax were 33.3% and 66.7% respectively. Concerning the density class, only one vivax case was of low density class while the other cases were of high density class. All positive cases were males, imported from Sudan and most of them were merchants having trade activities in Sudan. All examined persons during active case detection ACD (1551) and neighborhood of detected cases NOD (479) were malaria negative by rapid diagnostic tests. The areas recording the highest number of imported cases were Abu Shanap, Aboxa (Ballona) and Kafr Aboud (Abshaway Center) but no Anopheline spp larvae

  20. Reevaluation and comparison of energy source of chemosynthesis-based animals in each hydrothermal fields

    Yamagami, S.; Fujikura, K.; Koito, T.; Inoue, K.; Yamanaka, T.

    2012-12-01

    Large biomass of dense benthic animals containing characteristic endemic species is often observed around seafloor cold seep and hydrothermal fluid vents. Parts of such animals rely on symbiotic microbes as their energy source. Those microbes are chemotrophic primary producer such as thioautotrophic and/or methanotrophic microbes. Therefore, it is commonly believed that those animals are supported only by geofluid that contains extremely high concentrations of reduced chemical species such as hydrogen sulfide and methane. However, geographical distribution of those animals is not limited nearby geofluid emitting area and is widely spreading around hydrothermal fields. Some communities are observed at an area where lack of detectable amount of reduced chemical species for sustaining the symbiotic animals. The purpose of this study, therefore, is reevaluation and comparison of the energy source quantitatively for chemotrophic primary production utilizing stable isotope signatures. We try to understand the origin of energy source for chemosynthesis-based benthic animals obtained from three areas, Okinawa Trough, Izu-Bonin Arc and Sagami Bay, where have different geological background and dominant animal species among each other. Samples of eight animal species were collected at the five geofluid fields, Iheya, Izena, Myojin, Suiyo and Sagami Bay, using RV/Natsushima and ROV/HyperDolphin during NT10-17 and NT11-09 cruise. In Okinawa Trough, the isotopic signature from the soft body parts of the thiotrophic animals who harbor sulfur-oxidizing microbes suggest that most of these animals assimilate not only originally geofluid-derived sulfide but also seawater-sulfate-derived sulfide through microbial sulfate-reducing activity. Furthermore, it seems that the methanotrophic species who harbor methane-oxidizing microbes do not rely only on their symbionts. It means that the animal species who harbor symbionts whether sulfur-oxidizing bacteria or methane-oxidizing bacteria

  1. A swipe at the dragon of the commonplace : a re-evaluation of George MacDonald's fiction

    Stelle, Ginger

    2011-01-01

    This thesis offers a re-evaluation of the fiction of George MacDonald (1824-1905), both fantasy and non-fantasy. The general trend in MacDonald studies is to focus primarily on his works of fantasy, either ignoring the rest (which includes non-fantasy fiction, sermons, poetry, and criticism) or using them to illuminate the fantasies. The overall critical consensus is that these works, particularly MacDonald’s non-fantasy fiction, possess little inherent value. Though many critics acknowled...

  2. Safety Re-evaluation of Kyoto University Research Reactor by reflecting the Accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Nakajima, K.; Yamamoto, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) is a light-water moderated tank-type reactor operated at rated thermal power of 5MW. After the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, we have settled a 40-ton water tank near the reactor room, and prepared a mobile fire pump and a mobile power generator as additional safety measures for beyond design basis accidents (BDBAs). We also have conducted the safety re-evaluation of KUR, and confirmed that the integrity of KUR fuels could be kept against the BDBA with the use of the additional safety measures when the several restrictions were imposed on the reactor operation.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Patent Blue V (E 131) as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS)

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of Patent Blue V (E 131). Patent Blue V (E 131) is a triarylmethane dye permitted for use as a food additive in the EU, that has been previously evaluated by JECFA in 1970 and 1975 and the EU SCF in 1983; JECFA established a Temporary Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 0-1 mg/kg bw/day in 1970, but withdrew it in 1975. Until now JECFA has not allocated an ADI to Patent Blue V (E...

  4. Reevaluating Bounds on Flavor-Changing Neutral Current Parameters in R-parity Conserving and R-parity Violating Supersymmetry

    Saha, J P; Saha, Jyoti Prasad; Kundu, Anirban

    2004-01-01

    We perform a systematic reevaluation of the constraints on the flavor-changing neutral current (FCNC) parameters in R-parity conserving and R-parity violating supersymmetric models. As a typical process, we study the constraints coming from the measurements on the B0-\\bar{B0} system on the supersymmetric $\\delta^d_{13}$ parameters, as well as on the products of the lambda' type R-parity violating couplings. Present data allows us to put constraints on both the real and the imaginary parts of the relevant parameters.

  5. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission perspective on seismic re-evaluation of nuclear power plants: the IPEEE methodology

    Since the late 1970 , seismic re-evaluation has been carried out in several stages at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). In the late 1970 and early 1980 , the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) was carried out to re-evaluate the eleven oldest nuclear power plants which received their construction permits between 1956 and 1967. In 1980, I and E Bulletin No. 80-11, was published requesting that licensees evaluate masonry walls whose failure could affect safety-related systems. In the late 1980 , Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 was initiated to verify the seismic adequacy of mechanical and electrical equipment in many of the older plants. Affected plants were typically those whose construction permit application was docketed (submitted) before about 1972. In the early 1990 the US NRC initiated the Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) Program; seismic was one of the major external events that had to be included in the licensee evaluation. This paper focuses on the seismic portion of the IPEEE analyses. It discusses acceptable methods for performing the seismic evaluation, enhancements to these methods that reflected the state-of-the-art improvements (circa late 1980's - early 1990's). Note: Guidance reflecting the current (circa 2000) state-of-knowledge for performing a seismic PRA or seismic margins assessment can be found in ANS, 2000. The NRC has not developed a position on this document. (authors)

  6. Identification of an intragenic deletion in the SGCB gene through a re-evaluation of negative next generation sequencing results.

    Giugliano, Teresa; Fanin, Marina; Savarese, Marco; Piluso, Giulio; Angelini, Corrado; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    A large mutation screening of 504 patients with muscular dystrophy or myopathy has been performed by next generation sequencing (NGS). Among this cohort of patients, we report a case with a severe form of muscular dystrophy with a proximal weakness in the limb-girdle muscles. Her biopsy revealed typical dystrophic features and immunohistochemistry for α- and γ-sarcoglycans showed an absent reaction, addressing the clinical diagnosis toward a sarcoglycanopathy. Considering that no causative point mutation was detected in any of the four sarcoglycan genes, we re-evaluated the NGS data by careful quantitative analysis of the specific reads mapping on the four sarcoglycan genes. A complete absence of reads from the sixth exon of the β-sarcoglycan gene was found. Subsequent array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis confirmed the result with the identification of a novel 3.3 kb intragenic deletion in the SGCB gene. This case illustrates the importance of a multidisciplinary approach involving clinicians and molecular geneticists and the need for a careful re-evaluation of NGS data. PMID:27108072

  7. Ozone balloon soundings at Payerne (Switzerland): Reevaluation of the time series 1967-2002 and trend analysis

    Jeannet, P.; Stübi, R.; Levrat, G.; Viatte, P.; Staehelin, J.

    2007-06-01

    This study documents the history of the Payerne (Switzerland) ozone series obtained with the Brewer-Mast sonde from the end of 1966 until the change to the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) sonde in autumn 2002, as well as the reevaluation of the original data. Several corrections were made in order to improve the homogeneity and the quality of the time series. We furthermore derived long-term trends for the reevaluated time series using atmospheric variables in a stepwise regression model. In the stratosphere, trends over the 1970-2002 period remain nearly the same as over periods ending a few years earlier. For tropospheric ozone trends, a hockey stick model allowing for a change in trend in 1990 was used and a sensitivity analysis with different data sets was carried out. Besides the standard World Meteorological Organization (WMO) data evaluation procedure, we used alternative data sets (1) accounting for the preflight laboratory calibrations, or (2) ignoring the total ozone normalization, (3) as well as correcting for chemical interference with SO2. With all data sets, tropospheric trends were strongly positive in all seasons over the 1967-1989 period. In the 1990-2002 period, winter trends remained positive over the whole troposphere with all data sets, whereas in the other seasons, trends were generally negative near the ground and shifted to zero or positive values with increasing altitude in the troposphere. The alternative evaluation procedures strongly affect the derived tropospheric trends in the 1990-2002 period and their uncertainties.

  8. A re-evaluation of 32S(n,p) cross sections from threshold to 5 MeV

    Two evaluations of the 32S(n,p) reaction cross sections, currently being used for the Nagasaki and Hiroshima dosimetry studies, yielded results that differ significantly. These two evaluations were reviewed and both were found to be quite old and without benefit of modern theoretical guidance and recent experimental data, hence inadequate in view of its relative importance for the present application. The necessity for a re-evaluation is further enhanced by the fact that: the present data search has uncovered a relatively high-quality data set that was not known previously, a generalized Bayes-theorem code is now available for averaging the various data sets with uncertainties and generating uncertainties for the results, effects on data combination of differing energy resolution in the various measurements can now be accounted for, and the ENDF/B-VI standards for 238U(n,f) cross sections have become available for renormalizing two of the available data sets. The re-evaluation is performed to 5 MeV, the upper energy limit for the present purpose. 8 refs., 2 figs

  9. Covalently bound phosphate residues in bovine milk xanthine oxidase and in glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger: A reevaluation

    The reported presence of covalently bound phosphate residues in flavoproteins has significant implications with regard to the catalytic mechanisms and structural stability of the specific enzymes themselves and in terms of general cellular metabolic regulation. These considerations have led to a reevaluation of the presence of covalently bound phosphorus in the flavoproteins xanthine oxidase and glucose oxidase. Milk xanthine oxidase purified by a procedure that includes anion-exchange chromatography is shown to contain three phosphate residues. All three are noncovalently associated with the protein, two with the FAD cofactor, and one with the molybdenum cofactor. Results of chemical analysis and 31P NMR spectroscopy indicate that enzyme purified by this method contains no phosphoserine residues. Xanthine oxidase preparations purified by chromatography on calcium phosphate gel in place of DEAE-Sephadex yielded higher phosphate-to-protein ratios, which could be reduced to the expected values by additional purification on a folate affinity column. Highly active, highly purified preparations of glucose oxidase are shown to contain only the two phosphate residues of the FAD cofactor. The covalently bound bridging phosphate reported by others may arise in aged or degraded preparations of the enzyme but appears not to be a constituent of functional glucose oxidase. These results suggest that the presence of covalent phosphate residues in other flavoproteins should be rigorously reevaluated as well

  10. Re-Evaluation of the 1921 Peak Discharge at Skagit River near Concrete, Washington

    Mastin, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The peak discharge record at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging station at Skagit River near Concrete, Washington, is a key record that has come under intense scrutiny by the scientific and lay person communities in the last 4 years. A peak discharge of 240,000 cubic feet per second for the flood on December 13, 1921, was determined in 1923 by USGS hydrologist James Stewart by means of a slope-area measurement. USGS then determined the peak discharges of three other large floods on the Skagit River (1897, 1909, and 1917) by extending the stage-discharge rating through the 1921 flood measurement. The 1921 estimate of peak discharge was recalculated by Flynn and Benson of the USGS after a channel roughness verification was completed based on the 1949 flood on the Skagit River. The 1949 recalculation indicated that the peak discharge probably was 6.2 percent lower than Stewart's original estimate but the USGS did not officially change the peak discharge from Stewart's estimate because it was not more than a 10-percent change (which is the USGS guideline for revising peak flows) and the estimate already had error bands of 15 percent. All these flood peaks are now being used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to determine the 100-year flood discharge for the Skagit River Flood Study so any method to confirm or improve the 1921 peak discharge estimate is warranted. During the last 4 years, two floods have occurred on the Skagit River (2003, 2006) that has enabled the USGS to collect additional data, do further analysis, and yet again re-evaluate the 1921 peak discharge estimate. Since 1949, an island/bar in the study reach has reforested itself. This has complicated the flow hydraulics and made the most recent recalculation of the 1921 flood based on channel roughness verification that used 2003 and 2006 flood data less reliable. However, this recent recalculation did indicate that the original peak-discharge calculation by Stewart may be high, and it added to a

  11. Statement on a conceptual framework for the risk assessment of certain food additives re-evaluated under Commission Regulation (EU) No 257/2010

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2014-01-01

    The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) provides a scientific statement presenting a conceptual framework for the risk assessment of certain food additives re-evaluated under Commission Regulation (EU) No 257/2010. This framework will be used in the evaluation made by the Panel, but the expert judgement of the scientific background, on a case-by-case basis, remains essential to reach a final conclusion. The outcome of the re-evaluation of food additives taking int...

  12. Seismic re-evaluation program of the Armenia nuclear power plant. Results from an international co-operation project

    The Armenian Nuclear Power Plant, constituted by two WWER-440 type reactor, was shutdown in 1989 after the destructive Spitak earthquake (December 1988). Following the decision to re-start the operation of Unit 2 (April 1993), Armenian authorities launched a complete program for enhance the plant safety. A co-operation effort, financed by a number of different Organisations, among which EC through TACIS Program, IAEA and U.S. DOE, aiming at improving the seismic safety of the plant was undertaken in accordance to methods and criteria as generally accepted by the international community, taking into account that no regulatory guides exist on seismic re-evaluation of existing NPP. An important milestone of this co-operation effort was the conference hosted by IAEA in Vienna in 1999 among the donor Institutions and involved Organisations where a joint work-plan for the plant seismic re-evaluation, to be completed soon on the base of the results achieved, was agreed. On this basis different Organisations, with very different approaches to the assistance to developing countries (e.g.: bilateral, UN, EC, etc.), cooperated within the same framework in order to provide the best safety improvement to the plant with a global resource optimisation. As a result, the planned tasks are under implementation and safety review, with a very important contribution by the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP) personnel which has been trained and involved since the very beginning of the project. The agreed technical approach among the different Organisations was codified in a IAEA Technical Guidelines Document, endorsed by both the ANPP and the Armenian Safety Authority (ANRA). In the above mentioned framework three main aspects were addressed: - re-assessment of the site geological stability and seismic hazard aimed to define the site specific maximum earthquake (Review Level Earthquake) to be used for plant re-evaluation purposes; - assessment of the seismic capacity of as

  13. New tool for biological dosimetry: Reevaluation and automation of the gold standard method following telomere and centromere staining

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We have applied telomere and centromere (TC) staining to the scoring of dicentrics. • TC staining renders the scoring of dicentrics more rapid and robust. • TC staining allows the scoring of not only dicentrics but all chromosomal anomalies. • TC staining has led to a reevaluation of the radiation dose–response curve. • TC staining allows automation of the scoring of chromosomal aberations. • Automated scoring of dicentrics after TC staining was as efficient as manual scoring. - Abstract: Purpose: The dicentric chromosome (dicentric) assay is the international gold-standard method for biological dosimetry and classification of genotoxic agents. The introduction of telomere and centromere (TC) staining offers the potential to render dicentric scoring more efficient and robust. In this study, we improved the detection of dicentrics and all unstable chromosomal aberrations (CA) leading to a significant reevaluation of the dose–effect curve and developed an automated approach following TC staining. Material and methods: Blood samples from 16 healthy donors were exposed to 137Cs at 8 doses from 0.1 to 6 Gy. CA were manually and automatically scored following uniform (Giemsa) or TC staining. The detection of centromeric regions and telomeric sequences using PNA probes allowed the detection of all unstable CA: dicentrics, centric and acentric rings, and all acentric fragments (with 2, 4 or no telomeres) leading to the precise quantification of estimated double strand breaks (DSB). Results: Manual scoring following TC staining revealed a significantly higher frequency of dicentrics (p < 10−3) (up to 30%) and estimated DSB (p < 10−4) compared to uniform staining due to improved detection of dicentrics with centromeres juxtaposed with other centromeres or telomeres. This improvement permitted the development of the software, TCScore, that detected 95% of manually scored dicentrics compared to 50% for the best currently

  14. Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

  15. Re-evaluation of the age of the Brandon Lignite (Vermont, USA) based on plant megafossils. [USA - Vermont

    Tiffney, B.H. (University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    The Brandon Lignite of west-central Vermont contains the northernmost megafossil flora of Cenozoic angiosperms, and one of the most diverse Cenozoic pollen floras in northeastern North America. While the floristic composition clearly indicates deposition of the Brandon sediments in the warmer parts of the Cenozoic, previous attempts at a more precise stratigraphic placement have been inconclusive, ranging from Cretaceous to Miocene. Re-evaluation of existing and new fruit, seed and wood data from the Brandon flora in the context of other floras in the Northern Hemisphere leads to the conservative conclusion that the deposit could range from earliest Oligocene to Early Miocene. Several lines of potentially weak evidence favor an Early Miocene age, in agreement with recent biostratigraphic data from the associated pollen flora. It is concluded that the Brandon Lignite is Early Miocene.

  16. Regulations and guidelines should be strengthened urgently for re-evaluation on post-marketing medicines in China.

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Tian, Feng

    2013-07-01

    This paper reviewed the situation of regulations and guidelines on post-marketing medicines in the developed countries and in China. The developed countries have accumulated a lot of empirical principles and techniques on postmarketing surveillance (also named pharmacovigilance), therefore, their regulation systems are nearly perfect. In China, the regulations on post-marketing re-evaluation and relative technical guidelines do not cover the whole aspects, even lack in some important aspects, and long-term risk management mechanisms have not been established. So it is urgent to establish new regulations and improve the regulatory system in China based on the existing regulations and guidelines, by learning from the ideas of foreign advanced regulations, then fully integrating them with China's actual conditions, and cooperating with multidisciplinary researchers. PMID:23818198

  17. Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For Potential Cost Savings At The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form

  18. Re-evaluation of the neutron scattering dynamics in heavy water, generation of multigroup cross sections for THERM-126

    In providing THERM-126 with cross section matrices for deuterium bound in heavy water the IKE phonon spectrum was reevaluated. The changes are modifications in the acoustic part and in the frequency of the second oscillator. Contrary to the phonon spectrum model for D in D2O in ENDF/B-IV the broad band of hindered rotations is assumed to be temperature dependent taking into account the diffusive motion of the molecule. With the new model scattering law data S (α, β) are generated in the temperature range 293.6 K-673.6 K. The THERM-126 scattering cross section matrices are calculated up to P3. As a validity check a lot of differential and integral cross sections are compared to experiments and benchmarks are recalculated. (orig.)

  19. Re-evaluation of thermal shock experiment results based on the VTT approach for statistical treatment of fracture toughness data

    One important step in fracture mechanical research has been thermal shock experiments (TSE). The TSEs are exceptional because many of them had extremely long crack fronts. As a trend, the TSE initiation fracture toughness results form a lower bound to the small specimen data used for material characterization. Presently, work is under way to produce an ASTM testing standard for fracture toughness testing in the transition region. The standard is based on the VTT approach for statistical treatment of fracture toughness data. Key components in the VTT approach are statistical expressions for describing the data scatter and for predicting a specimens size effect, and an expression for the fracture toughness temperature dependence. In order to examine the validity of the statistical size effect assumption, the TSEs were reevaluated with the VTT approach. For all the TSEs investigated, the application of the statistical size correction has had the effect of bringing the material characterization data in agreement with the actual TSE results. Furthermore, the application of a statistically defined size-corrected lower bound toughness estimate, based on the small specimen material characterization data and the master curve, yield a conservative, but realistic, estimate of the TSE failure behaviour. (orig.)

  20. Statistical re-evaluation of the ASME K{sub IC} and K{sub IR} fracture toughness reference curves

    Wallin, K.; Rintamaa, R. [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-11-01

    Historically the ASME reference curves have been treated as representing absolute deterministic lower bound curves of fracture toughness. In reality, this is not the case. They represent only deterministic lower bound curves to a specific set of data, which represent a certain probability range. A recently developed statistical lower bound estimation method called the `Master curve`, has been proposed as a candidate for a new lower bound reference curve concept. From a regulatory point of view, the Master curve is somewhat problematic in that it does not claim to be an absolute deterministic lower bound, but corresponds to a specific theoretical failure probability that can be chosen freely based on application. In order to be able to substitute the old ASME reference curves with lower bound curves based on the master curve concept, the inherent statistical nature (and confidence level) of the ASME reference curves must be revealed. In order to estimate the true inherent level of safety, represented by the reference curves, the original data base was re-evaluated with statistical methods and compared to an analysis based on the master curve concept. The analysis reveals that the 5% lower bound Master curve has the same inherent degree of safety as originally intended for the K{sub IC}-reference curve. Similarly, the 1% lower bound Master curve corresponds to the K{sub IR}-reference curve. (orig.)

  1. Fever of unknown origin; Re-evaluation of sup 67 Ga scintigraphy in detecting causes of fever

    Misaki, Takashi; Matsui, Akira; Tanaka, Fumiko; Okuno, Yoshishige; Mitsumori, Michihide; Torizuka, Tatsurou; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Shimbo, Shin-ichirou (Kyoto City Hospital (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy is a commonly performed imaging modality in deteting pyrogenic lesions in cases of long-standing inexplainable fever. To re-evaluate the significance of gallium imaging in such cases, a retrospective review was made of 56 scans performed in febrile patients in whom sufficient clinical and laboratory findings were obtained. Gallium scans were true positive in 30 patients, false positive in 3, true negative in 19, and false negative in 4. In the group of true positive, local inflammatory lesions were detected in 23 patients with a final diagnosis of lung tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, and inflammatory joint disease. Abnormal gallium accumulation, as shown in the other 7 patients, provided clues to the diagnosis of generalized disorders, such as hematological malignancies (n=3), systemic autoimmune diseases (n=3), and severe infectious mononucleosis (n=one). In the group of false positive, gallium imaging revealed intestinal excretion of gallium in 2 patients and physiological pulmonary hilar accumulation in one. In the true negative group of 19 patients, fever of unknown origin was resolved spontaneously in 12 patients, and with antibiotics and corticosteroids in 2 and 5 patients, respectively. Four patients having false negative scans were finally diagnosed as having urinary tract infection (n=2), bacterial meningitis (n=one), and polyarteritis (n=one). Gallium imaging would remain the technique of choice in searching for origin of unknown fever. It may also be useful for early diagnosis of systemic disease, as well as focal inflammation. (N.K.).

  2. Generalized gamma-ray isotopic analysis software and re-evaluation of the two important 242Pu branching ratios

    Wang, T; Raschke, K; Roberts, K; Dougan, A

    2009-07-06

    The goal of the generalized gamma-ray analysis software is to provide precise and accurate isotopic analyses of samples that do not have a standard experimental geometry. This analysis tool will analyze gamma-ray data from all types of measurement scenarios with little or no interaction from the user. This tool also provides complete transparency regarding the gamma-ray peaks and branching intensities used in the analysis with the capability for the user to modify this information. They are currently at the data collected phase of building a validated spectral library. One of the by-products in this data collection phase is enabling them to reevaluate the two important branching ratios in {sup 242}Pu. These branching ratios are required for very high burn-up plutonium fuels. The preliminary analysis shows that the energy of the states are 103.5 keV and 158.82 keV, the branching ratio are 1.36E-5 (9%) and 3.37E-6(7%), respectively. More accurate measurements and analysis are currently being carried out.

  3. Reevaluation of fatty acid receptor 1 as a drug target for the stimulation of insulin secretion in humans.

    Wagner, Robert; Kaiser, Gabriele; Gerst, Felicia; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E; Grundmann, Manuel; Machicao, Fausto; Peter, Andreas; Kostenis, Evi; Ulven, Trond; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Ullrich, Susanne

    2013-06-01

    The role of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) in glucose homeostasis is still incompletely understood. Small receptor agonists stimulating insulin secretion are undergoing investigation for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Surprisingly, genome-wide association studies did not discover diabetes risk variants in FFAR1. We reevaluated the role of FFAR1 in insulin secretion using a specific agonist, FFAR1-knockout mice and human islets. Nondiabetic individuals were metabolically phenotyped and genotyped. In vitro experiments indicated that palmitate and a specific FFAR1 agonist, TUG-469, stimulate glucose-induced insulin secretion through FFAR1. The proapoptotic effect of chronic exposure of β-cells to palmitate was independent of FFAR1. TUG-469 was protective, whereas inhibition of FFAR1 promoted apoptosis. In accordance with the proapoptotic effect of palmitate, in vivo cross-sectional observations demonstrated a negative association between fasting free fatty acids (NEFAs) and insulin secretion. Because NEFAs stimulate secretion through FFAR1, we examined the interaction of genetic variation in FFAR1 with NEFA and insulin secretion. The inverse association of NEFA and secretion was modulated by rs1573611 and became steeper for carriers of the minor allele. In conclusion, FFAR1 agonists support β-cell function, but variation in FFAR1 influences NEFA effects on insulin secretion and therefore could affect therapeutic efficacy of FFAR1 agonists. PMID:23378609

  4. Re-evaluation of metal bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity in Hyalella azteca using saturation curves and the biotic ligand model

    Borgmann, U.; Norwood, W.P.; Dixon, D.G

    2004-10-01

    Bioaccumulation by Hyalella of all metals studied so far in our laboratory was re-evaluated to determine if the data could be explained satisfactorily using saturation models. Saturation kinetics are predicted by the biotic ligand model (BLM), now widely used in modelling acute toxicity, and are a pre-requisite if the BLM is to be applied to chronic toxicity. Saturation models provided a good fit to all the data. Since these are mechanistically based, they provide additional insights into metal accumulation mechanisms not immediately apparent when using allometric models. For example, maximum Cd accumulation is dependent on the hardness of the water to which Hyalella are acclimated. The BLM may need to be modified when applied to chronic toxicity. Use of saturation models for bioaccumulation, however, also necessitates the need for using saturation models for dose-response relationships in order to produce unambiguous estimates of LC50 values based on water and body concentrations. This affects predictions of toxicity at very low metal concentrations and results in lower predicted toxicity of mixtures when many metals are present at low concentrations.

  5. LipL32 Is a Subsurface Lipoprotein of Leptospira interrogans: presentation of new data and reevaluation of previous studies.

    Marija Pinne

    Full Text Available The agents of leptospirosis, a zoonosis with worldwide distribution, are pathogenic spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. The leptospiral life cycle involves transmission via fresh water and colonization of the renal tubules of their reservoir hosts. Infection of accidental hosts, including humans, may result in life-threatening sequelae. Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs, particularly those with surface-exposed regions, play crucial roles in pathogen virulence mechanisms and adaptation to environmental conditions, including those found in the mammalian host. Therefore, elucidation and characterization of the surface-exposed OMPs of Leptospira spp. is of great interest in the leptospirosis field. A thorough, multi-pronged approach for assessing surface exposure of leptospiral OMPs is essential. Herein, we present evidence for a sub-surface location for most or all of the major leptospiral lipoprotein, LipL32, based on surface immunofluorescence utilizing three different types of antibodies and four different permeabilization methods, as well as surface proteolysis of intact and lysed leptospires. We reevaluate prior evidence presented in support of LipL32 surface-exposure and present a novel perspective on a protein whose location has been misleading researchers, due in large part to its extraordinary abundance in leptospiral cells.

  6. A regulatory view of the seismic re-evaluation of existing nuclear power plants in the United Kingdom

    The paper describes the background to the seismic re-evaluation of existing nuclear power plants in the United Kingdom. Nuclear installations in this country were not designed specifically to resist earthquakes until the nineteen-seventies, although older plants were robustly constructed. The seismic capability of these older installations is now being evaluated as part of the periodic safety reviews which nuclear licensees are required to carry out. The regulatory requirements which set the framework for these studies are explained and the approaches being adopted by the licensees for their assessment of the seismic capability of existing plants are outlined. The process of hazard appraisal is reported together with a general overview of UK seismicity. The paper then discusses the methodologies used to evaluate the response of plant to the hazard. Various other types of nuclear installation besides power plants are subject to licensing in the UK and the application of seismic evaluation to some of these is briefly described. Finally the paper provides some comments on future initiatives and possible areas of development. (author)

  7. Development of a standard data base for FBR core nuclear design. 10. Reevaluation of atomic number density of JOYO Mk-II core

    Numata, Kazuyuki; Sato, Wakaei [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Ishikawa, Makoto; Arii, Yoshio [Nuclear Energy System Incorporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The material composition of JOYO Mk-II core components in its initial core was reevaluated as a part of the effort for developing a standard data base for FBR core nuclear design. The special feature of the reevaluation is to treat the decay of Pu-241 isotope, so that the atomic number densities of Pu-241 and Am-241 in fuel assemblies can be exactly evaluated on the initial critical date, Nov. 22nd, 1982. Further, the atomic number densities of other core components were also evaluated to improve the analytical accuracy. Those include the control rods which were not so strictly evaluated in the past, and the dummy fuels and the neutron sources which were not treated in the analytical model so far. The results of the present reevaluation were as follows: (1) The changes of atomic number densities of the major nuclides such as Pu-239, U-235 and U-238 were about {+-}0.2 to 0.3%. On the other hand, the number density of Pu-241, which was the motivation of the present work, was reduced by 12%. From the fact, the number densities in the past analysis might be based on the isotope measurement of the manufacturing point of time without considering the decay of Pu-241. (2) As the other core components, the number densities of control rods and outer reflector-type A were largely improved. (author)

  8. Development of a standard data base for FBR core nuclear design. 10. Reevaluation of atomic number density of JOYO Mk-II core

    The material composition of JOYO Mk-II core components in its initial core was reevaluated as a part of the effort for developing a standard data base for FBR core nuclear design. The special feature of the reevaluation is to treat the decay of Pu-241 isotope, so that the atomic number densities of Pu-241 and Am-241 in fuel assemblies can be exactly evaluated on the initial critical date, Nov. 22nd, 1982. Further, the atomic number densities of other core components were also evaluated to improve the analytical accuracy. Those include the control rods which were not so strictly evaluated in the past, and the dummy fuels and the neutron sources which were not treated in the analytical model so far. The results of the present reevaluation were as follows: (1) The changes of atomic number densities of the major nuclides such as Pu-239, U-235 and U-238 were about ±0.2 to 0.3%. On the other hand, the number density of Pu-241, which was the motivation of the present work, was reduced by 12%. From the fact, the number densities in the past analysis might be based on the isotope measurement of the manufacturing point of time without considering the decay of Pu-241. (2) As the other core components, the number densities of control rods and outer reflector-type A were largely improved. (author)

  9. Vertical ozone distribution characteristics deduced from 44,000 re-evaluated Umkehr profiles (1957-2000)

    Bojkov, R. D.; Kosmidis, E.; DeLuisi, J. J.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Fioletov, V. E.; Godin, S.; Zerefos, C.

    Umkehr observations taken during the 1957-2000 period at 15 stations located between 19 and 52°N have been reanalyzed using a significantly improved algorithm-99, developed by DeLuisi and Petropavlovskikh et al. (2000a,b). The alg-99 utilizes new latitudinal and seasonally dependent first guess ozone and temperature profiles, new vector radiative transfer code, complete aerosol corrections, gravimetric corrections, and others. Before reprocessing, all total ozone values as well as the N-values (radiance) readings were thoroughly re-evaluated. For the first time, shifts in the N-values were detected and provisionally corrected. The re-evaluated Umkehr data set was validated against satellite and ground based measurements. The retrievals with alg-99 show much closer agreement with the lidar and SAGE than with the alg-92. Although the latitudinal coverage is limited, this Umkehr data set contains 44,000 profiles and represent the longest ( 40 years) coherent information on the ozone behavior in the stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere. The 14-months periods following the El-Chichon and the Mt. Pinatubo eruptions were excluded from the analysis. Then the basic climatological characteristics of the vertical ozone distribution in the 44-52°N and more southern locations are described. Some of these characteristics are not well known or impossible to be determined from satellites or single stations. The absolute and relative variability reach their maximum during winter-spring at altitudes below 24km the lower stratospheric layers in the middle latitudes contain 62% of the total ozone and contribute 57% to its total variability. The layer-5 (between 24 and 29km) although containing 20% of the total ozone shows the least fluctuations, no trend and contributes only 11% to the total ozone variability. Meridional cross-sections from 19 to 52°N of the vertical ozone distribution and its variability illustrate the changes, and show poleward-decreasing altitude of the ozone

  10. Reevaluation of the Coding Potential and Proteomic Analysis of the BAC Derived Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Strain 68-1

    Malouli, Daniel; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Camp, David G.; Chang, W. L.; Barry, Peter A.; Smith, Richard D.; Fruh, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are highly host restricted resulting in co-speciation with their hosts. As a natural pathogen of rhesus macaques (RM), Rhesus Cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) has therefore emerged as a highly relevant experimental model for pathogenesis and vaccine development due to its close evolutionary relationship to human CMV (HCMV). To date, most in vivo experiments performed with RhCMV employed strain 68-1 cloned as bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). However, the complete genome sequence of the 68-1 BAC has not been determined. Furthermore, the gene content of the RhCMV genome is unknown and previous open reading frame (ORF) predictions relied solely on uninterrupted ORFs with an arbitrary cutoff of 300bp. To obtain a more precise picture of the actual proteins encoded by the most commonly used molecular clone of RhCMV we re-evaluated the RhCMV 68-1 BAC-genome by whole genome shotgun sequencing and determined the protein content of the resulting RhCMV virions by proteomics. By additionally comparing the RhCMV genome to that of several closely related Old World Monkey (OWM) CMVs we were able to filter out many unlikely ORFs and obtain a simplified map of the RhCMV genome. This comparative genomics analysis eliminated many genes previously characterized as RhCMV-specific while consolidating a high conservation of ORFs among OWM-CMVs and between RhCMV and HCMV. Moreover, virion proteomics independently validated the revised ORF predictions since only proteins encoded by predicted ORFs could be detected. Taken together these data suggest a much higher conservation of genome and virion structure between CMVs of humans, apes and OWMs than previously assumed. Remarkably, BAC-derived RhCMV is able to establish and maintain persistent infection despite the lack of multiple genes homologous to HCMV genes involved in tissue tropism.

  11. Re-evaluation of the shielding adequacy of the brachytherapy treatment room at Korle-Bu teaching hospital, Ghana

    Staff and the general public's safety during the operation of the 137Cs brachytherapy unit at the Korle Bu teaching hospital depends on the adequacy of the shielding of the facility. Shielding design of the brachytherapy unit at the hospital was based on postulated workload and postulated occupancy factors to critical locations at the facility where the public and staff may occupy. This facility has been in existence for the past twelve (12) years and has accumulated operational workload data which differs from the postulated one. A study was carried out to re-evaluate the integrity of the biological shielding of the 137Cs brachytherapy unit. This study analyzed the accumulated workload data and used the information to perform shielding calculations to verify the adequacy of the biological shielding thicknesses to provide sufficient protection of staff and the public. Dose rate calculations were verified by measurements with calibrated dose rate meters. This provided the basis for determining the current state of protection and safety for staff and the general public. The results show that despite the variation in actual and postulated workloads, the dose rates were below the reference values of 0.5μSv/h for public areas and 7.5μSv/h for controlled areas. It was confirmed that the present shielding thickness of 535 mm can accommodate a high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir source with activity in the range 370 - 570 GBq with an operational workload of 30 patients per week and an average treatment time of 10 minutes.

  12. Re-evaluation of the lifetimes of the major CFCs and CH3CCl3 using atmospheric trends

    J. W. Elkins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer and its amendments came into effect, growth rates of the major ozone depleting substances (ODS, particularly CFC-11, -12 and -113 and CH3CCl3, have declined markedly, paving the way for global stratospheric ozone recovery. Emissions have now fallen to relatively low levels, therefore the rate at which this recovery occurs will depend largely on the atmospheric lifetime of these compounds. The first ODS measurements began in the early 1970s along with the first lifetime estimates calculated by considering their atmospheric trends. We now have global mole fraction records spanning multiple decades, prompting this lifetime re-evaluation. Using surface measurements from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Monitoring Division (NOAA GMD from 1978 to 2011, we estimated the lifetime of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113 and CH3CCl3 using a multi-species inverse method. The CFC-11 lifetime of 45 yr, currently recommended in the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, lies at the lower uncertainty bound of our estimates which are 524066 yr (1-sigma uncertainty when AGAGE data were used, and 504066 yr when the NOAA network data were used. Our derived lifetime for CFC-113 is higher than the WMO estimates of 85 yr (10488123 using AGAGE, 10387122 using NOAA. Our estimates of the lifetime of CFC-12 and CH3CCl3 agree well with other recent estimates being 10885137 and 10484135 yr (CFC-12, AGAGE and NOAA, respectively and 5.24.85.6 and 5.24.85.7 yr (CH3CCl3, AGAGE and NOAA, respectively.

  13. improbable molecular results and the need to reevaluate a priori genetic risks: A report of 2 neuromuscular disorders

    Giardine, R.M.; Rose, N.C.; Fischbeck, K.H. [Univ. of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Case 1: A 27-year-old woman whose brother and deceased father were diagnosed with myotonic dystrophy presented for preconceptional counseling. Three other first and second degree relatives were judged clinically affected on the basis of myotonia by positive electromyelograms (EMGs). The proband appeared to be clinically affected with mild percussion myotonia and a positive EMG. Initial studies by linkage analysis required postulation that the at-risk chromosome 19 inherited by the patient and her brother had undergone recombination in the brother between 2 very closely linked RFLP markers. Conclusion: Molecular testing did not support a unifying diagnosis for myotonia in this family. In addition to one classic example of myotonic dystrophy, it is possible a milder form of myotonia is also segregating in this pedigree. Case 2: The maternal aunt of a young man with Becker`s muscular dystrophy (BMD) presented for reproductive counseling. Serum CK values were elevated in her mother, who shared an X chromosome haplotype with the affected grandson and was judged an obligate carrier. The aunt was judged a likely carrier because of elevated serum CK values. Three maternal uncles, including ones with the same X chromosome haplotype as the affected nephew, were clinically normal. Finally, dosage analysis for dystrophin exons deleted in the grandson showed the grandmother and aunt to be non-carriers, but the mother of the affected boy to be a somatic carrier. The grandmother and aunt are not BMD carriers. Since the elevated CK levels do not segregate with the affected X chromosome, they may reflect autosomal inheritance or nongenetic influences; in either case their clinical significance is uncertain. These cases reinforce the importance of periodic reevaluation of initial genetic assignments, particularly when rare events must be invoked to explain molecular studies.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Patent Blue V (E 131 as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of Patent Blue V (E 131. Patent Blue V (E 131 is a triarylmethane dye permitted for use as a food additive in the EU, that has been previously evaluated by JECFA in 1970 and 1975 and the EU SCF in 1983; JECFA established a Temporary Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI of 0-1 mg/kg bw/day in 1970, but withdrew it in 1975. Until now JECFA has not allocated an ADI to Patent Blue V (E 131. The SCF established an ADI of 0-15 mg/kg bw/day. The Panel was not provided with a newly submitted dossier and based its evaluation on previous evaluations, additional literature that became available since then and the data available following a public call for data. The Panel concluded that the present dataset provides a rationale for a re-definition of the ADI. Using the NOAEL of 500 mg/kg bw/day derived from a chronic toxicity study in mice and applying an uncertainty factor of 100 to this NOAEL, the Panel establishes an ADI of 5 mg/kg bw/day. The Panel noted that at the maximum permitted levels of use of Patent Blue V (E 131, exposure estimates for high consumers are above the ADI of 5 mg/kg bw/day in toddlers and children. At the maximum reported use levels of Patent Blue V (E 131, exposure estimates are below the ADI of 5 mg/kg bw/day for all groups of the population.

  15. Re-evaluation of the lifetimes of the major CFCs and CH3CCl3 using atmospheric trends

    M. Rigby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and its amendments came into effect, growth rates of the major ozone depleting substances (ODS, particularly CFC-11, -12 and -113 and CH3CCl3, have declined markedly, paving the way for global stratospheric ozone recovery. Emissions have now fallen to relatively low levels, therefore the rate at which this recovery occurs will depend largely on the atmospheric lifetime of these compounds. The first ODS measurements began in the early 1970s along with the first lifetime estimates calculated by considering their atmospheric trends. We now have global mole fraction records spanning multiple decades, prompting this lifetime re-evaluation. Using surface measurements from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Monitoring Division (NOAA GMD from 1978 to 2011, we estimated the lifetime of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113 and CH3CCl3 using a multi-species inverse method. A steady-state lifetime of 45 yr for CFC-11, currently recommended in the most recent World Meteorological Organisation (WMO Scientific Assessments of Ozone Depletion, lies towards the lower uncertainty bound of our estimates, which are 544861 yr (1-sigma uncertainty when AGAGE data were used and 524561 yr when the NOAA network data were used. Our derived lifetime for CFC-113 is significantly higher than the WMO estimates of 85 yr, being 10999121 (AGAGE and 10997124 (NOAA. New estimates of the steady-state lifetimes of CFC-12 and CH3CCl3 are consistent with the current WMO recommendations, being 11195132 and 11295136 yr (CFC-12, AGAGE and NOAA respectively and 5.044.925.20 and 5.044.875.23 yr (CH3CCl3, AGAGE and NOAA respectively.

  16. Re-evaluation of the lifetimes of the major CFCs and CH3CCl3 using atmospheric trends

    Rigby, M.; Prinn, R. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Montzka, S. A.; McCulloch, A.; Harth, C. M.; Mühle, J.; Salameh, P. K.; Weiss, R. F.; Young, D.; Simmonds, P. G.; Hall, B. D.; Dutton, G. S.; Nance, D.; Mondeel, D. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Fraser, P. J.

    2013-03-01

    Since the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and its amendments came into effect, growth rates of the major ozone depleting substances (ODS), particularly CFC-11, -12 and -113 and CH3CCl3, have declined markedly, paving the way for global stratospheric ozone recovery. Emissions have now fallen to relatively low levels, therefore the rate at which this recovery occurs will depend largely on the atmospheric lifetime of these compounds. The first ODS measurements began in the early 1970s along with the first lifetime estimates calculated by considering their atmospheric trends. We now have global mole fraction records spanning multiple decades, prompting this lifetime re-evaluation. Using surface measurements from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Monitoring Division (NOAA GMD) from 1978 to 2011, we estimated the lifetime of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113 and CH3CCl3 using a multi-species inverse method. A steady-state lifetime of 45 yr for CFC-11, currently recommended in the most recent World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) Scientific Assessments of Ozone Depletion, lies towards the lower uncertainty bound of our estimates, which are 544861 yr (1-sigma uncertainty) when AGAGE data were used and 524561 yr when the NOAA network data were used. Our derived lifetime for CFC-113 is significantly higher than the WMO estimates of 85 yr, being 10999121 (AGAGE) and 10997124 (NOAA). New estimates of the steady-state lifetimes of CFC-12 and CH3CCl3 are consistent with the current WMO recommendations, being 11195132 and 11295136 yr (CFC-12, AGAGE and NOAA respectively) and 5.044.925.20 and 5.044.875.23 yr (CH3CCl3, AGAGE and NOAA respectively).

  17. Re-evaluation of benefit-risk analysis for mammographic screening in Japan using prevalence model and BEIR VII report

    The risk of radiation exposure associated with mammography in breast cancer screening must be considered. In this study, we re-evaluated the benefit vs. risk of the mammographic procedure used for breast cancer screening in Japan, assuming a screening interval of 2 years with 2 mammography views for women aged 40-49 years and 1 view for those aged 50 years or more. We also used a new breast tissue weighting factor defined by ICRP2007 and the life-time mortality coefficient defined by BEIR. The effective radiation dose used in mammography was assumed to be 0.72 mSv and 0.36 mSv for women aged 40-49 and 50 years or more respectively. The risk was expressed as loss of life expectancy (person-day) due to a single screening test. On the other hand, the benefit of screening was calculated on the basis of the number of lives saved by a stage shift of breast cancer detected by screening and then multiplying by the average life expectancy. Thus the benefit was expressed as the gain of life expectancy (person-day) due to a single screening. Finally, the benefit/risk ratio was obtained as: gain of life expectancy/loss of life expectancy as a function of age at which the benefit/risk ratio exceeded 1.0. In this study we showed that the benefit/risk ratio exceeds 1.0 from age of 25 years old or more in Japanese breast cancer screening, and so our screening is justified because the lowest age for the screenee is set at 40 years old. (author)

  18. Reevaluation of the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake test, with special reference to reversible primary hypothyroidism with elevated thyroid radioiodine uptake

    Okamura, K.; Sato, K.; Ikenoue, H.; Yoshinari, M.; Nakagawa, M.; Kuroda, T.; Fujishima, M.

    1988-10-01

    The clinical significance of the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) test was reevaluated in patients with various thyroid disorders. Compared with 262 normal subjects or 194 patients with euthyroid diffuse goiter with normal serum TSH levels, RAIU values were significantly higher in 100 patients with latent primary hypothyroidism (serum TSH, 5-40 mU/L). In 126 patients with overt primary hypothyroidism (serum TSH, greater than 40 mU/L), RAIU values were either extremely high (49 patients with reversible hypothyroidism and 10 patients with postpartum hypothyroidism) or low (67 patients with irreversible hypothyroidism). The increase in RAIU values in latent, or reversible overt hypothyroidism was TSH dependent, and there was a good correlation between RAIU values and serum TSH levels (r = 0.6203; P less than 0.001). In overt primary hypothyroidism, spontaneous recovery of thyroid function during iodide restriction alone occurred in 52 of 53 patients with RAIU values above 35%, in only 7 of 23 patients with RAIU values between 10-35%, and in none of 50 patients with RAIU below 10%. Thus, recovery was predicted by high RAIU values (P less than 0.001; prediction rate, 91.4%). Goiter was found in about 80% of the patients with reversible hypothyroidism, compared with only 34% of the patients with irreversible hypothyroidism. Recovery of thyroid function during iodide restriction also occurred in 71% of the patients with latent hypothyroidism. However, RAIU measurements did not predict the prognosis of patients with latent hypothyroidism. We conclude that iodine-induced reversible hypothyroidism is common in our patient population, and RAIU measurements may be helpful in determining the prognosis of patients with overt primary hypothyroidism.

  19. Reevaluation of the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake test, with special reference to reversible primary hypothyroidism with elevated thyroid radioiodine uptake

    The clinical significance of the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) test was reevaluated in patients with various thyroid disorders. Compared with 262 normal subjects or 194 patients with euthyroid diffuse goiter with normal serum TSH levels, RAIU values were significantly higher in 100 patients with latent primary hypothyroidism (serum TSH, 5-40 mU/L). In 126 patients with overt primary hypothyroidism (serum TSH, greater than 40 mU/L), RAIU values were either extremely high (49 patients with reversible hypothyroidism and 10 patients with postpartum hypothyroidism) or low (67 patients with irreversible hypothyroidism). The increase in RAIU values in latent, or reversible overt hypothyroidism was TSH dependent, and there was a good correlation between RAIU values and serum TSH levels (r = 0.6203; P less than 0.001). In overt primary hypothyroidism, spontaneous recovery of thyroid function during iodide restriction alone occurred in 52 of 53 patients with RAIU values above 35%, in only 7 of 23 patients with RAIU values between 10-35%, and in none of 50 patients with RAIU below 10%. Thus, recovery was predicted by high RAIU values (P less than 0.001; prediction rate, 91.4%). Goiter was found in about 80% of the patients with reversible hypothyroidism, compared with only 34% of the patients with irreversible hypothyroidism. Recovery of thyroid function during iodide restriction also occurred in 71% of the patients with latent hypothyroidism. However, RAIU measurements did not predict the prognosis of patients with latent hypothyroidism. We conclude that iodine-induced reversible hypothyroidism is common in our patient population, and RAIU measurements may be helpful in determining the prognosis of patients with overt primary hypothyroidism

  20. Reevaluating Teaching Evaluations

    D'Agostino, Susan; Kosegarten, Jay

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose the use of new terminology when discussing teaching evaluations. Surveys can be considered as providing students an opportunity for "feedback" about teachers, not "evaluations" of teachers. Students, professors, and administrators should not view the surveys as an opportunity to judge a…

  1. Thanatos--a reevaluation.

    Wallace, E R

    1976-11-01

    Freud's most controversial tenet is the death instinct. Although it appears full blown in 1920, it was doubtless nurtured for years in his mind. In its indissoluble relation to the repetition compulsion and Nirvana principle, Thanatos is the bedrock of much of Freud's later philosophy. This paper is an examination of the motivations for the idea, an exegesis of Freud's writings on the subject, and a review of critical opinion. PMID:792927

  2. The Reevaluation of MIBI as the Ligand of 99mTc-MIBI Radiopharmaceutical for Myocardial Imaging

    Z. Nurlaila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Methoxy isobutyl isonitrile labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc radionuclide can be used for the evaluation of acute myocardial infarction. The 99mTc-MIBI radiopharmaceutical is available in the lyophilized-kit, which is separately packed with its radionuclide. Recently, in CNTMR-BATAN Bandung, 99mTc-MIBI radiopharmaceutical was prepared using MIBI ligand synthesized in 1996 as lyophilized-kits having the radiochemical purity less than 90 % and not accumulated in the myocardium. It could be caused by several factors, among others were technical preparation of lyophilized dry-kit and the quality of MIBI; therefore the reevaluation of the ligand for the quality improvement was needed. Firstly, MIBI ligand was recristallized. It was found that MIBI as [Cu(MIBI4]BF4 salt was a glassy solid with the melting point of 98 -99 oC. The infra red analysis showed the presence of spectra vibration at 1085, 1180 cm-1 and 2180, 2220 cm-1 for –OCH3 and N≡C groups, respectively. The preparation of 99mTc-MIBI was performed by adding 99mTc radionuclide into new MIBI liquid-kit, then boiled in water bath for minimum period of 10 minutes. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-MIBI was analysed by thin layer chromatographic method using absolute ethanol as a mobile phase. The pre-clinical evaluation was observed in Wistar rat and clinical studies were performed in volunter using gamma camera. It is revealed that the radiochemical purity of more than 90 % i.e. 96.83 ± 1.43 % was still stable until 24 hours storage at room temperature. The stability studies of 99mTc-MIBI in human blood plasma showed that in 6 hours, the radiochemical purity was decreased to 90.89 ± 2.90 %. Clinical application of 99mTc-MIBI with tomography techniques using gamma camera showed the distinct accumulation of radioactivity in the heart.

  3. A re-evaluation of the Italian historical geomagnetic catalogue: implications for paleomagnetic dating at active Italian volcanoes

    F. D'Ajello Caracciolo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetism is proving to represent one of the most powerful dating tools of volcanics emplaced in Italy during the last few centuries/millennia. This method requires that valuable proxies of the local geomagnetic field (paleosecular variation ((PSV are available. To this end, we re-evaluate the whole Italian geomagnetic directional dataset, consisting of 833 and 696 declination and inclination measurements, respectively, carried out since 1640 AD at several localities. All directions were relocated via the virtual geomagnetic pole method to Stromboli (38.8° N, 15.2° E, the rough centre of the active Italian volcanoes. For declination-only measurements, missing inclinations were derived (always by pole method by French data (for period 1670–1789, and by nearby Italian sites/years (for periods 1640–1657 and 1790–1962. Using post-1825 declination values, we obtain a 0.46 ± 0.19° yr−1 westward drift of the geomagnetic field for Italy. The original observation years were modified, considering such drift value, to derive at a drift-corrected relocated dataset. Both datasets were found to be in substantial agreement with directions derived from the field models by Jackson et al. (2000 and Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009. However, the drift-corrected dataset minimizes the differences between the Italian data and both field models, and eliminates a persistent 1.6° shift of 1933–1962 declination values from Castellaccio with respect to other nearly coeval Italian data. The relocated datasets were used to calculate two post-1640 Italian SV curves, with mean directions calculated every 30 and 10 years before and after 1790, respectively. The curve comparison suggests that both available field models yield the best available SV curve to perform paleomagnetic dating of 1600–1800 AD Italian volcanics, while the Italian drift-corrected curve is probably preferable for the 19th century. For the 20th century, the global model by

  4. Indications of postoperative irradiation and prognosis in cancer of the uterine cervix; Reevaluation of its indications from prognosis

    Shiromizu, Kenji; Ishimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Kouichi; Onda, Takashi; Nishimura, Toshinobu; Takahashi, Michiko; Matsuzawa, Masumi; Sakura, Mizuyoshi (Saitama Prefectural Cancer Center, Ina (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This study reevaluated indications of postoperative radiotherapy for cancer of the uterine cervix from the viewpoint of prognosis and side effects. The subjects were 441 patients treated for clinical stage Ib or more from 1976 through 1987. According to the degree of cancer involvement, the patients were classified as cancer involvement to one third of the uterine cervix (group A), two thirds (group B), more than two thirds (group C), and the parauterine tissue (group D). Postoperative total pelvic irradiation of 40-50 Gy was given to patients with vascular involvement in groups A and B, all patients in groups C and D, and patients with lymph node (LN) metastases. Histology revealed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 354 patients and adenocarcinoma or adenomatous SCC in the other 87. In LN negative SCC patients (n=268), the recurrence rate for irradiated patients was 16.7% in group A, 13.6% in group B, and 21.0% in group C; the corresponding figures for non-irradiated patients were 9.6%, 8.3%, and 50.0%, respectively. In all LN positive SCC patients treated with irradiation (n=86), it was 0% in group A, 37.5% in group B, 45.7% in group C, and 54.8% in group D. The more cancer was involved, the higher the recurrence rate was in both negative and positive SCC patients. The 5-year survival rate in LN negative SCC patients was 100% and 97.2% for irradiated and non-irradiated patients, respectively, in group A, 100% and 97.0% in group B, and 89.7% and 50.0% in group C. Postoperative irradiation seemed to be unnecessary for LN negative patients in groups A and B. In SCC patients with either musculi iliacus involvement or primary LN metastases, prognosis was independent of the presence or absence of irradiation. The incidence of edema in the lower extremities and vulva was 0% for irradiation without LN dissection, 10.2% for LN dissection without irradiation, and 51.3% for both irradiation and LN dissection. (N.K.).

  5. A re-evaluation of the Italian historical geomagnetic catalogue: implications for paleomagnetic dating at active Italian volcanoes

    F. D'Ajello Caracciolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetism is proving to represent one of the most powerful dating tools of volcanics emplaced in Italy during the last few centuries/millennia. This method requires that valuable proxies of the local geomagnetic field (paleosecular variation ((PSV are available. To this end, we re-evaluate the whole Italian geomagnetic directional data set, consisting of 833 and 696 declination and inclination (respectively measurements carried out since 1640 AD at several localities. All directions were relocated via virtual geomagnetic pole method to Stromboli (38.8° N, 15.2° E, rough centre of the active Italian volcanoes. For declination-only measurements, missing inclinations were derived (always by pole method by French data (for period 1670–1789, and by nearby Italian sites/years (for periods 1640–1657 and 1790–1962. Using post-1805 declination values, we obtain a 0.46 ± 0.19 °/yr westward drift of the geomagnetic field for Italy. Original observation years were modified considering such drift value to derive a drift-corrected relocated data set. Both data sets were found to be in substantial agreement with directions derived from the field models by Jackson et al. (2000 and Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009. However, the drift-corrected data set minimizes the differences between the Italian data and both field models, and eliminates a persistent 1.6° shift of 1933–1962 declination values from Castellaccio with respect to other nearly coeval Italian data. The relocated data sets were used to calculate two post-1640 Italian SV curves, with mean directions calculated every 30 and 10 years before and after 1790, respectively. Curve comparison suggests that the regional model by Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009 yields the best available SV curve to perform paleomagnetic dating of 1600–1800 AD Italian volcanics, while the Italian drift-corrected curve is probably preferable for the XIX century. For the XX century, the global model by Jackson et al

  6. Re-evaluating the role of voluntary organisations: merchant networks, the Baltic and the expansion of European long-distance trade

    Sahle, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Based on a letter book of the London Baltic merchant Michael Mitford dating 1703-1707 this paper argues that the ability of merchant networks to secure property rights in long distance trade must be re-evaluated. Contrary to the argument of the New Institutional Economists, these were not inferior to the nation state in facilitating the expansion of trade and thereby Smithean growth. It is shown that Mitford's network did not limit membership by non-economic criteria but adapted to the needs ...

  7. Re-evaluation of the Optimum Dietary Vitamin C Requirement in Juvenile Eel, Anguilla japonica by Using L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate

    Bae, Jun-Young; Park, Gun-Hyun; Yoo, Kwang-Yeol; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Kim, Dae-Jung; Bai, Sungchul C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to re-evaluate the dietary vitamin C requirement in juvenile eel, Anguilla japonica by using L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (AMP) as the vitamin C source. Five semi-purified experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (AMP0), 30 (AMP24), 60 (AMP52), 120 (AMP108) and 1,200 (AMP1137) mg AMP kg-1 diet on a dry matter basis. Casein and defatted fish meal were used as the main protein sources in the semi-purified experimental diets. After a 4-week conditioning period, fish...

  8. A case of carbon monoxide poisoning by explosion of coal mine presenting as visual agnosia: re-evaluation after 40 years

    Takaiwa, A.; Yamashita, K.; Nomura, T.; Shida, K.; Taniwaki, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science

    2005-11-15

    We re-evaluated a case of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting as visual agnosia who had been injured by explosion of Miike-Mikawa coal mine 40 years ago. In an early stage, his main neuropsychological symptoms were visual agnosia, severe anterograde amnesia, alexia, agraphia, constructional apraxia, left hemispatial neglect and psychic paralysis of gaze, in addition to pyramidal and extra pyramidal signs. At the time of re-evaluation after 40 years, he still showed visual agnosia associated with agraphia and constructional apraxia. Concerning visual agnosia, recognition of the real object was preserved, while recognition of object photographs and picture was impaired. Thus, this case was considered to have picture agnosia as he could not recognize the object by pictorial cues on the second dimensional space. MRI examination revealed low signal intensity lesions and cortical atrophy in the bilateral parieto-occipital lobes on T1-weighted images. Therefore, the bilateral parieto-occipital lesions are likely to be responsible for his picture agnosia.

  9. Re-evaluation of the effective delayed neutron fraction measured by the substitution technique for a light water moderated low-enriched uranium core

    The effective delayed neutron fraction βeff for a light water moderated low-enriched UO2 core has been re-evaluated to obtain benchmark data for the validation of calculation codes and nuclear data. Originally, the βeff value was measured by the substitution method. In that method, the βeff value was obtained from measured reactivity change by substituting a Sb-Cd-Pb absorber rod for a 2.6 wt% UO2 rod for all core regions. In the present evaluation, we have employed the latest value for the buckling coefficient of reactivity to re-evaluate the substitution reactivity with high accuracy. In addition, the correction factor, which was ignored in the previous measurement, has been calculated to compensate the difference in the absorption cross sections of fuel and absorber rods. Consequently, the obtained βeff value in the present evaluation was 0.00771 ± 0.00017, and it is more credible than the previous one. The present result is available as benchmark data for the verification of delayed neutron data for light water reactors. For comparison, we have calculated the βeff value using a transport code TWODANT with the JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library. The calculated βeff value overestimated the experiments; the difference slightly exceeded the experimental error. (author)

  10. A safety re-evaluation of the AVR pebble bed reactor operation and its consequences for future HTR concepts

    The AVR pebble bed reactor (46 MWth) was operated 1967-88 at coolant outlet temperatures up to 990 C. A principle difference of pebble bed HTRs as AVR to conventional reactors is the continuous movement of fuel element pebbles through the core which complicates thermohydraulic, nuclear and safety estimations. Also because of a lack of other experience AVR operation is still a relevant basis for future pebble bed HTRs and thus requires careful examination. This paper deals mainly with some insufficiently published unresolved safety problems of AVR operation and of pebble bed HTRs but skips the widely known advantageous features of pebble bed HTRs. The AVR primary circuit is heavily contaminated with metallic fission products (Sr-90, Cs-137) which create problems in current dismantling. The amount of this contamination is not exactly known, but the evaluation of fission product deposition experiments indicates that the end of life contamination reached several percent of a single core inventory, which is some orders of magnitude more than precalculated and far more than in large LWRs. A major fraction of this contamination is bound on graphitic dust and thus partly mobile in depressurization accidents, which has to be considered in safety analyses of future reactors. A re-evaluation of the AVR contamination is performed here in order to quantify consequences for future HTRs (400 MWth). It leads to the conclusion that the AVR contamination was mainly caused by inadmissible high core temperatures, increasing fission product release rates, and not - as presumed in the past - by inadequate fuel quality only. The high AVR core temperatures were detected not earlier than one year before final AVR shut-down, because a pebble bed core cannot yet be equipped with instruments. The maximum core temperatures are still unknown but were more than 200 K higher than calculated. Further, azimuthal temperature differences at the active core margin of up to 200 K were observed

  11. A safety re-evaluation of the AVR pebble bed reactor operation and its consequences for future HTR concepts

    Moormann, R.

    2008-06-15

    The AVR pebble bed reactor (46 MW{sub th}) was operated 1967-88 at coolant outlet temperatures up to 990 C. A principle difference of pebble bed HTRs as AVR to conventional reactors is the continuous movement of fuel element pebbles through the core which complicates thermohydraulic, nuclear and safety estimations. Also because of a lack of other experience AVR operation is still a relevant basis for future pebble bed HTRs and thus requires careful examination. This paper deals mainly with some insufficiently published unresolved safety problems of AVR operation and of pebble bed HTRs but skips the widely known advantageous features of pebble bed HTRs. The AVR primary circuit is heavily contaminated with metallic fission products (Sr-90, Cs-137) which create problems in current dismantling. The amount of this contamination is not exactly known, but the evaluation of fission product deposition experiments indicates that the end of life contamination reached several percent of a single core inventory, which is some orders of magnitude more than precalculated and far more than in large LWRs. A major fraction of this contamination is bound on graphitic dust and thus partly mobile in depressurization accidents, which has to be considered in safety analyses of future reactors. A re-evaluation of the AVR contamination is performed here in order to quantify consequences for future HTRs (400 MW{sub th}). It leads to the conclusion that the AVR contamination was mainly caused by inadmissible high core temperatures, increasing fission product release rates, and not - as presumed in the past - by inadequate fuel quality only. The high AVR core temperatures were detected not earlier than one year before final AVR shut-down, because a pebble bed core cannot yet be equipped with instruments. The maximum core temperatures are still unknown but were more than 200 K higher than calculated. Further, azimuthal temperature differences at the active core margin of up to 200 K were

  12. Statement on two reports published after the closing date of the public consultation of the draft Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951) as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2013-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951) as a food additive. After the end of the public consultation on the draft opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E951) (15th February 2013, the cut-off date for the inclusion of new literature in the assessment), two papers were brought to the a...

  13. ["Re-evaluation upon suspected event" is an approach for post-marketing clinical study: lessons from adverse drug events related to Bupleuri Radix preparations].

    Wu, Shu-Xin; Sun, Hong-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Long, Hong-Zhu; Ye, Zu-Guang; Ji, Shao-Liang; Zhang, Li

    2014-08-01

    We revisited the "Xiao Chaihu Decoction event (XCHDE)" occurred in late 1980s in Japan and the Bupleuri Radix related adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports in China After careful review, comparison, analysis and evaluation, we think the interstitial pneumonitis, drug induced Liver injury (DILI) and other severe adverse drug envents (ADEs) including death happened in Japan is probably results from multiple factors, including combinatory use of XCHDE with interferon, Kampo usage under modern medicine theory guidance, and use of XCHD on the basis of disease diagnosis instead of traditional Chinese syndrome complex differentiation. There are less ADE case reports related to XCHD preparation in China compared to Japan, mostly manifest with hypersensitivity responses of skin and perfuse perspiration. The symptoms of Radix Bupleuri injection related ADEs mainly manifest hypersensitivity-like response, 2 cases of intravenous infusion instead of intramuscular injection developed hypokalemia and renal failure. One case died from severe hypersensitivity shock. In Chinese literatures, there is no report of the interstitial pneumonitis and DILI associated with XCHDG in Japan. So far, there is no voluntary monitoring data and large sample clinical research data available. The author elaborated the classification of "reevaluation" and clarified "re-evaluation upon events" included the reaction to the suspected safety and efficacy events. Based on the current status of the clinical research on the Radix Bupleuri preparations, the author points out that post-marketing "re-evaluation upon suspected event" is not only a necessity of continuous evaluation of the safety, efficacy of drugs, it is also a necessity for providing objective clinical research data to share with the international and domestic drug administrations in the risk-benefit evaluation. It is also the unavoidable pathway to culture and push the excellent species and famous brands of TCM to the international market, in

  14. Re-evaluation of experimental data on the second virial coefficient for steam and development of its analytical representation as a function of the internal energy

    Duška, Michal; Hrubý, Jan

    Liberec : Technical University of Liberec, 2013 - (Dančová, P.; Novotný, P.) ISBN 978-80-7372-912-7. ISSN 2100-014X. - (EPJ Web of Conferences. 45). [Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2012 /7./. Hradec Králové (CZ), 20.11.2012-23.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905; GA ČR GA101/09/1633; GA MŠk LA09011; GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/1593 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : second virial coefficien * reevaluation of experimental data Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/20134501024

  15. Reevaluation of Fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) as drug target for the stimulation of insulin secretion in humans

    Wagner, Robert; Kaiser, Gabriele; Gerst, Felicia;

    2013-01-01

    observations demonstrated a negative association between fasting free fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin secretion. As NEFA stimulate secretion through FFAR1, we examined the interaction of genetic variation in FFAR1 with NEFA and insulin secretion. The inverse association of NEFA and secretion was modulated by rs......The role of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) in glucose homeostasis is still incompletely understood. Small receptor agonists stimulating insulin secretion are under investigation for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Surprisingly, genome-wide association studies did not discover diabetes...... risk variants in FFAR1. We reevaluated the role of FFAR1 in insulin secretion using a specific agonist, FFAR1-knockout mice and human islets. Nondiabetic individuals were metabolically phenotyped and genotyped. In vitro experiments indicated that palmitate and a specific FFAR1-agonist, TUG-469...

  16. Exploring Ideational Metafunction in Helon Habila’s Oil on Water: A re-evaluation and redefinition of African Women’s Personality and Identity through Literature

    Léonard A. Koussouhon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at applying some of the principles guiding Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG to Helon Habila’s Oil On Water (2011. One of the major principles of Systemic Linguistics is that the exploration of the Transitivity properties (processes, participants, and circumstances in/of a text can give a full insight into how the writer encodes experiential meaning therein (Koussouhon & Allagbe, 2013 and Koussouhon & Dossoumou, 2014. This implies that the analysis in/of a text can reveal how its language is organized to express the speaker’s or narrator’s personal experience, views, etc., thereby contributing to the meaning of personal and interpersonal interaction. Given the importance of social role played by language in any societal situation, the experiential meaning of a structural choice is not determined only by Lexico-grammar, but also by contextual factors (Gledhill, 2011. By applying the theory of the grammar of experiential meaning to Helon Habila’s Oil On Water (2011, this article attempts to auscultate African society’s emerging perception of gender identity as it affects and re-presents women. By borrowing the way the writer encodes his experience (or fictional reality via the medium of language to affirm male writers’ support to the trend, this article is proving the propriety and relevance of womanist theory by re-evaluating and re-defining African women’s identity and personality through the novel under study.    Keywords: systemic functional grammar (SFG, experiential meaning, re-evaluation, redefinition, Womanism, women’s identity

  17. Seismic re-evaluation of EDF Bugey 900 PWR nuclear power plant in the frame of the 3rd periodic safety review

    Viallet, E.; Labbe, P.; Gallitre, E.; Nadjarian, A.; Vandeputte, D.; Ravet, S.; Humbert, N. [EDF - SEPTEN, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Durouchoux, C. [EDF - TEGG, 905 Avenue du Camp de Menthe, 13097 AIX-EN-PROVENCE CEDEX 02 (France); Pascal, P.; Blanchard, M.T.; Pons, Y. [EDF - SEPTEN, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Jadot, H., E-mail: hugo.jadot@edf.f [EDF - SEPTEN, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Louche, V.; Nicolet, S. [EDF - CIPN, 140 Avenue Viton, 13401 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2010-06-15

    As compared to the previous Periodic Safety Review (PSR), main features of the seismic facet of the Bugey NPP (France) 3rd PSR are relating to (i) a 45% increase of the Review Level Earthquake (RLE), (ii) a dramatic increase of computer code capabilities and (iii) a certain evolution of safety standards. This paper presents the method implemented to cope with this situation. Seismic input motion is determined according to an updated Basic Safety Rule published in 2001. Concerning buildings, 3D models are established, accounting for torsion effects, which were not represented by the initial design spring-mass models; analyses are carried out as per the IAEA methodology, accounting for ductile capacity through a F{sub m}u factor; finally the major impact of the seismic re-evaluation is a reinforcement of electrical building, so that it is less torsion sensitive. Regarding equipment, the concept of Safe Shutdown Equipment List (SSEL) is enlarged to all the Safety Related Equipment List (SREL). An equipment hierarchy classification is introduced, based on two complementary approaches: a system approach that identifies components associated to success paths for a safe shutdown, and a ruggedness approach that considers experience feedback about seismic behavior of components. On these bases, all the safety related equipments are classified in two categories: High Hierarchy level (HH) and Medium Hierarchy level (MH). MH equipment is mainly verified by walkdown, whereas HH equipment is by calculation, taking benefit from design margins. The optimization procedures enable to focus on the more relevant components. Bugey NPP seismic re-evaluation stands out by its realistic calculation chain and the completeness of its assessment, and eventually, the 3rd PSR is an opportunity to improve the plant safety and increase design margins.

  18. Re-evaluation of structural shielding designs of X-ray and CO-60 gamma-ray scanners at the Port of Tema, Ghana

    This research work was conducted to re-evaluate the shielding designs of the 6 MeV x-ray and the 1.253 MeV Co-60 gamma ray scanners used for cargo-containerized scanning at the Port of Tema. These scanners utilize ionizing radiation, therefore adequate shielding must be provided to reduce the radiation exposure of persons in and around the facilities to acceptable levels. The purpose of radiation shielding is to protect workers and the general public from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Investigations on the facilities indicated that after commissioning, no work had been carried out to re-evaluate the shielding designs. However, workloads have increased over time neccessitating review of the installed shielding. There has been introduction of scanner units with higher radiation energy (as in the case of the x-ray scanner) posibily increasing dose rates at various location requiring review of the shielding. New structures have been dotted around the facilities without particular attention to their distances and locations with respect to the radiation source. Measurements of distances from the source axes to the points of concern for primary and leakage barrier shielding; source to container and container to the points of concern for scattered radiation shielding were taken. The primary and secondary thicknesses required for both scanners were determined based on current operational parameters and compared with the thickness constituted during the construction of the facilities. Calculated and measured dose rate beyond the shielding barriers were used to established the adequacy or otherwise of the shielding employed by the shielding designers. Values obtained fell below the 20 µSv/hr specified by NCRP 151 (2005) which showed that the primary and secondary shields of both facilities were adequate requiring no additional shielding. (author)

  19. Re-evaluation of interferences of doubly charged ions of heavy rare earth elements on Sr isotopic analysis using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    We re-evaluate the interference of doubly charged heavy rare earth elements during Sr isotopic analysis using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). A series of mixed solutions of standard reference material SRM 987, rare earth elements, and Sr separated from rock reference materials are measured to assess the influence of isobaric interferences on the MC-ICP-MS analysis of Sr isotopes. After sample dissolution, conventional cation-exchange chromatography is employed for Sr purification of rock reference materials prior to MC-ICP-MS measurement. It has been demonstrated that if the natural abundances of Er and Yb are used to correct for doubly charged ion interferences on Sr, an overcorrection results. In contrast, the use of measured doubly charged ion ratios results in an accurate and precise correction of isobaric interference. This finding is confirmed by analytical results for several certified reference materials from mafic (basaltic) to felsic (granitic) silicate rocks. It is noteworthy that, because Er is more prone to doubly charged ion formation, it dominates over Yb doubly charged ions as an interference source. - Highlights: • We re-investigated interference of doubly charged HREE ion on Sr isotope. • Natural abundance of Er and Yb to correct the interference leads to an overcorrection. • Er is more prone to doubly charged ion formation than Yb

  20. Quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares: re-evaluating their nature in the context of power-law flare Fourier spectra

    Inglis, A R; Dominique, M

    2014-01-01

    The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares remains debated. Recent work has shown that power-law-like Fourier power spectra, also referred to as 'red' noise processes, are an intrinsic property of solar and stellar flare signals, a property that many previous studies of this phenomenon have not accounted for. Hence a re-evaluation of the existing interpretations and assumptions regarding QPP is needed. Here we adopt a Bayesian method for investigating this phenomenon, fully considering the Fourier power law properties of flare signals. Using data from the PROBA2/LYRA, Fermi/GBM, Nobeyama Radioheliograph and Yohkoh/HXT instruments, we study a selection of flares from the literature identified as QPP events. Additionally we examine optical data from a recent stellar flare that appears to exhibit oscillatory properties. We find that, for all but one event tested, an explicit oscillation is not required in order to explain the observations. Instead, the flare signals are adequately descri...

  1. Concrete reflected cylinders of highly enriched solutions of uranyl nitrate ICSBEP Benchmark: A re-evaluation by means of MCNPX using ENDF/B-VI cross section library

    This work presents a theoretical re-evaluation of a set of original experiments included in the 2009 issue of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, as “Concrete Reflected Cylinders of Highly Enriched Solutions of Uranyl Nitrate” (identification number: HEU-SOL-THERM- 002) [4]. The present evaluation has been made according to benchmark specifications [4], and added data taken out of the original published report [3], but applying a different approach, resulting in a more realistic calculation model. In addition, calculations have been made using the latest version of MCNPX Monte Carlo code, combined with an updated set of cross section data, the continuous-energy ENDF/B-VI library. This has resulted in a comprehensive model for the given experimental situation. Uncertainties analysis has been made based on the evaluation of experimental data presented in the HEU-SOLTHERM-002 report. Resulting calculations with the present improved physical model have been able to reproduce the criticality of configurations within 0.5%, in good agreement with experimental data. Results obtained in the analysis of uncertainties are in general agreement with those at HEU-SOL-THERM-002 benchmark document. Qualitative results from analyses made in the present work can be extended to similar fissile systems: well moderated units of 235U solutions, reflected with concrete from all directions. Results have confirmed that neutron absorbers, even as impurities, must be taken into account in calculations if at least approximate proportions were known. (authors)

  2. A reevaluation of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - 40 CFR 61, Subpart H) program at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    The initial National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - 40 CFR 61, Subpart H) Program at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) required: (1) continuous air monitoring of sources if the calculated effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) was > 0.1 mrem/yr; (2) the determination of emissions based on measurements or measured parameters if the EDE to the MEI was < 0.1 mrem/yr; and (3) the calculation of worst case releases when the expected air concentrations were below detection limits using standard monitoring equipment. This conservative interpretation of the regulation guided SNL/NM to model, track, and trend virtually all emission sources with the potential to include any radionuclides. The level of effort required to implement these activities was independent of the EDE contributing from individual sources. A recent programmatic review found the NESHAP program to be in excess of the legal requirements. A further review found that, in summation, 13 of 16 radionuclide sources had a negligible impact on the final calculated EDE to the MEI used to demonstrate compliance at 20 separate on-site receptor locations. A reevaluation was performed to meet the legal requirements of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, and still be reasonable and appropriate under the existing circumstances

  3. A re-evaluation of the ClO/Cl2O2 equilibrium constant based on stratospheric in-situ observations

    M. von Hobe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of ClO and its dimer carried out during the SOLVE II/VINTERSOL-EUPLEX and ENVISAT Validation campaigns in the Arctic winter 2003 suggest that the thermal equilibrium between the dimer formation and dissociation is shifted significantly towards the monomer compared to the current JPL 2002 recommendation. Detailed analysis of observations made in thermal equilibrium allowed to re-evaluate the magnitude and temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant. A fit of the JPL format for equilibrium constants yields KEQ=3.61x10-27exp(8167/T, but to reconcile the observations made at low temperatures with the existing laboratory studies at room temperature, a modified equation, KEQ=5.47x10-25(T/300-2.29exp(6969/T, is required. This format can be rationalised by a strong temperature dependence of the reaction enthalpy possibly induced by Cl2O2 isomerism effects. At stratospheric temperatures, both equations are practically equivalent. Using the equilibrium constant reported here rather than the JPL 2002 recommendation in atmospheric models does not have a large impact on simulated ozone loss. Solely at large zenith angles after sunrise, a small decrease of the ozone loss rate due to the ClO dimer cycle and an increase due to the ClO-BrO cycle (attributed to the enhanced equilibrium ClO concentrations is observed, the net effect being a slightly stronger ozone loss rate.

  4. Molecular monitoring of African swine fever virus using surveys targeted at adult Ornithodoros ticks : a re-evaluation of Mkuze Game Reserve, South Africa

    L.F. Arnot

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mkuze Game Reserve (MGR, in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa is an African swine fever virus (ASF controlled area. In a survey conducted in 1978, ASF prevalence in warthogs and Ornithodoros ticks in MGR was determined to be 2 % and 0.06 %, respectively. These values, acknowledged as being unusually low compared to other East and southern African ASF-positive sylvatic-cycle host populations, have not been assessed since. The availability of a sensitive PCR-based virus detection method, developed specifically for the sylvatic tampan host, prompted a re-evaluation of ASF virus (ASFV prevalence in MGR ticks. Of the 98 warthog burrows inspected for Ornithodoros presence, 59 (60.2 % were found to contain tampans and tick sampling was significantly male-biased. Whilst gender sampling-bias is not unusual, the 27 % increase in infestation rate of warthog burrows since the 1978 survey is noteworthy as it anticipates a concomitant increase in ASFV prevalence, particularly in light of the high proportion (75 % of adult ticks sampled. However, despite DNA integrity being confirmed by internal control amplification of the host 16S gene, PCR screening failed to detect ASFV. These results suggest that ASFV has either disappeared from MGR or if present, is localized, occurring at exceptionally low levels. Further extensive surveys are required to establish the ASFV status of sylvatic hosts in this controlled area.

  5. Re-evaluation of the role of P-glycoprotein in in vitro drug permeability studies with the bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    Hakkarainen, Jenni J; Rilla, Kirsi; Suhonen, Marjukka; Ruponen, Marika; Forsberg, Markus M

    2014-03-01

    1.  Currently available in vitro blood-brain barrier models all have recognized restrictions. In addition to leakiness, inconsistent data about P-glycoprotein mediated efflux limit the attractiveness of the primary bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (BBMECs). Therefore, we re-evaluated the role of P-glycoprotein mediated efflux with two culture conditions in BBMECs for prediction of drug permeability of potential P-glycoprotein substrates. 2.  BBMECs were monocultured on filters on petri dishes and on filter inserts, and expression and localization of P-glycoprotein were compared by using western blot and confocal microscopy, respectively. The functionality of P-glycoprotein was assessed by using cellular uptake, calcein-AM and bidirectional transport assays. 3.  P-glycoprotein expression was higher in BBMECs cultured on filter inserts decreasing the permeability of digoxin and paclitaxel, but not the permeability of vinblastine. However, the monocultured BBMECs were not able to demonstrate efflux in the bidirectional transport assays. Under certain culture conditions, occludin may not be correctly located, perhaps explaining in part the leakiness of BBMECs. 4.  In conclusion, BBMECs, despite possessing a functional P-glycoprotein, under certain culture conditions may not be a suitable in vitro model for the bidirectional transport assays and for predicting the permeability of drugs and xenobiotics that are potential P-glycoprotein substrates. PMID:23924297

  6. Discovery of Naturally Etched Fission Tracks and Alpha-Recoil Tracks in Submarine Glasses: Reevaluation of a Putative Biosignature for Earth and Mars

    Jason E. French

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, conspicuously “biogenic-looking” corrosion microtextures have been found to occur globally within volcanic glass of the in situ oceanic crust, ophiolites, and greenstone belts dating back to ~3.5 Ga. These so-called “tubular” and “granular” microtextures are widely interpreted to represent bona fide microbial trace fossils; however, possible nonbiological origins for these complex alteration microtextures have yet to be explored. Here, we reevaluate the origin of these enigmatic microtextures from a strictly nonbiological standpoint, using a case study on submarine glasses from the western North Atlantic Ocean (DSDP 418A. By combining petrographic and SEM observations of corrosion microtextures at the glass-palagonite interface, considerations of the tectonic setting, measurement of U and Th concentrations of fresh basaltic glass by ICP-MS, and theoretical modelling of the present-day distribution of radiation damage in basaltic glass caused by radioactive decay of U and Th, we reinterpret these enigmatic microtextures as the end product of the preferential corrosion/dissolution of radiation damage (alpha-recoil tracks and fission tracks in the glass by seawater, possibly combined with pressure solution etch-tunnelling. Our findings have important implications for geomicrobiology, astrobiological exploration of Mars, and understanding of the long-term breakdown of nuclear waste glass.

  7. Re-evaluation of the $^{16}$O($n$,$\\gamma$)$^{17}$O cross section at astrophysical energies and its role as neutron poison in the $s$ process

    Mohr, Peter; Pignatari, Marco; Dillmann, Iris; Mengoni, Alberto; Kaeppeler, Franz

    2016-01-01

    The doubly-magic nucleus $^{16}$O has a small neutron capture cross section of just a few tens of microbarn in the astrophysical energy region. Despite of this, $^{16}$O plays an important role as neutron poison in the astrophysical slow neutron capture ($s$) process due to its high abundance. We present in this paper a re-evaluation of the available experimental data for $^{16}$O($n,\\gamma$)$^{17}$O and derive a new recommendation for the Maxwellian-averaged cross sections (MACS) between $kT$= 5$-$100 keV. Our new recommendations are lower up to $kT$= 60 keV compared to the previously recommended values but up to 14\\% higher at $kT$= 100 keV. We explore the impact of this different energy dependence on the weak $s$-process during core helium- ($kT$= 26 keV) and shell carbon burning ($kT$= 90 keV) in massive stars where $^{16}$O is the most abundant isotope.

  8. Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

  9. Reevaluation of environmental monitoring program for radiological emergency at Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Plant, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    In order to respond to a major radiological emergency at the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Plant, located in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, the Emergency Response Team of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN) established a program of environmental monitoring. The purpose of this program is to define a monitoring trend to assess the off-site radiological conditions and give support to decision making for implementing protective measures in case of a radiological accident, taking into account atmospheric diffusion, population conglomerates and their habits, water and land use, contemplating the entire Emergency Planning Zone of 15 km radius. This program has been reevaluated recently, aiming to optimize it and keep it up to date to assure adequacy of environmental surveillance data in support to a prompt response in case of an emergency situation in the nuclear power plant. It has been organized in the form of a handbook to facilitate handling by field teams. Future revisions will be necessary to incorporate additional pertinent information and keep the handbook up to date, since Angra dos Reis is a summer resort region, subject to constant changes. This paper discusses the structure of the environmental monitoring program and describes the content and preparation of this handbook. (author)

  10. Reevaluation of the offset of the Great Wall associated with the 1739 M 8.0 Pingluo earthquake, Yinchuan Graben, China (Invited)

    Lin, A.; Rao, G.; Hu, J.; Gong, W.

    2013-12-01

    The study of large-magnitude earthquakes that occurred prior to the availability of routine instrumental measurements relies mainly on the analysis of historical documents and field observations. Significant uncertainties often exist in relation to the location of the epicenter, the magnitude, and the actual extent of damage, including the number of fatalities, caused by individual historical earthquakes, because records are generally focused on the effects in the restricted regions that were settled. In these cases, field observations of the geologic effects of large historical and paleo-earthquakes provide direct evidence of the co-seismic ground deformation and macro-seismic intensity of these large-magnitude events, and can therefore help to improve our ability to assess seismic hazards in densely populated epicentral regions. The ruins of ancient civilizations that experienced and were damaged by earthquakes are often used as surface indicators in the study of past seismic events in regions with long historical records, such as China, Japan, and Turkey. China is located in one of the most active seismic regions of the world and has experienced numerous destructive earthquakes over its long history. The damage caused by previous large-magnitude earthquakes has been recorded in historical documents, and co-seismic ground deformation is locally preserved in ruined ancient buildings such as temples, tombs, and other constructions erected over the past several thousand years. Previous studies have shown that the Great Wall of China was damaged and offset by the ca. M 8 Pingluo earthquake of 1739 along an active fault zone in the Yinchuan graben, on the western margin of the Ordos Block in northern central China (e.g., Deng and Liao, 1996, JGR; Zhang et al., 1986, BSSA). In this study, we reevaluate, on the basis of our investigation, the ground deformation caused around the area of the Great Wall by the ca. M 8 Pingluo earthquake of 1739 along an active fault zone

  11. Re-Evaluation of 6th Edition of AJCC Staging System for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Proposed Improvement Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Purpose: To use magnetic resonance imaging to re-evaluate and improve the 6th edition of the International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of the data from 924 biopsy-proven nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging examinations and received radiotherapy as their primary treatment. Results: The T classification, N classification, and stage group were independent predictors. No significant differences in the local failure hazards between adjacent T categories were observed between Stage T2b and T1, Stage T2b and T2a, and Stage T2b and T3. Although the disease failure hazards for Stage T1 were similar to those for Stage T2a, those for Stage T2b were similar to those for Stage T3. Survival curves of the different T/N subsets showed a better segregation when Stage T2a was downstaged to T1, T2b and T3 were incorporated into T2, and the nodal greatest dimension was rejected. The disease failure hazard for T3N0-N1 subsets were similar to those of the T1-T2N1 subsets belonging to Stage II; the same result was found for the T4N0-N2 subsets in the sixth American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. However, the staging system we propose shows more consistent hazards within the same stage group and better survival discrimination among T categories, N categories, and overall stages. Conclusion: Using the 6th American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system produces an acceptable distribution of patient numbers and segregation of survival curves among the different stage groups. The prognostic accuracy of the staging system could be improved by recategorizing the T, N, and group stage criteria.

  12. Re-evaluation of Assay Data of Spent Nuclear Fuel obtained at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for validation of burnup calculation code systems

    Highlights: → The specifications required for the analyses of the destructive assay data taken from irradiated fuel in Ohi-1 and Ohi-2 PWRs were documented in this paper. → These data were analyzed using the SWAT2.1 code, and the calculation results showed good agreement with experimental results. → These destructive assay data are suitable for the benchmarking of the burnup calculation code systems. - Abstract: The isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuels is vital data for studies on the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor physics. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been active in obtaining such data for pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuels, and some data has already been published. These data have been registered with the international Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition Database (SFCOMPO) and widely used as international benchmarks for burnup calculation codes and libraries. In this paper, Assay Data of Spent Nuclear Fuel from two fuel assemblies irradiated in the Ohi-1 and Ohi-2 PWRs in Japan are shown. The destructive assay data from Ohi-2 have already been published. However, these data were not suitable for the benchmarking of calculation codes and libraries because several important specifications and data were not included. This paper summarizes the details of destructive assay data and specifications required for analyses of isotopic composition from Ohi-1 and Ohi-2. For precise burnup analyses, the burnup values of destructive assay samples were re-evaluated in this study. These destructive assay data were analyzed using the SWAT2.1 code, and the calculation results showed good agreement with experimental results. This indicates that the quality of destructive assay data from Ohi-1 and Ohi-2 PWRs is high, and that these destructive assay data are suitable for the benchmarking of burnup calculation code systems.

  13. A re-evaluation of the ClO/Cl2O2 equilibrium constant based on stratospheric in-situ observations

    F. Stroh

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of ClO and its dimer carried out during the SOLVE II/VINTERSOL-EUPLEX and ENVISAT Validation campaigns in the Arctic winter 2003 suggest that the thermal equilibrium between the dimer formation and dissociation is shifted significantly towards the monomer compared to the current JPL 2002 recommendation. Detailed analysis of observations made in thermal equilibrium was used to re-evaluate the magnitude and temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant. A fit of the JPL format for equilibrium constants yields KEQ=4.06×10−23exp(6201/T, but to reconcile the observations made at low temperatures with the existing laboratory studies at room temperature, a modified equation, KEQ=2.31×10−13(T/300−34.9exp( −1118/T, is required. This format can be rationalised by a strong temperature dependence of the reaction enthalpy possibly induced by Cl2O2 isomerism effects. At stratospheric temperatures, both equations are practically equivalent. Using the equilibrium constant reported here rather than the JPL 2002 recommendation in atmospheric models does not have a large impact on simulated ozone loss. Solely at large zenith angles after sunrise, a small decrease of the ozone loss rate due to the ClO dimer cycle and an increase due to the ClO-BrO cycle (attributed to the enhanced equilibrium ClO concentrations is observed, the net effect being a slightly stronger ozone loss rate. The effects of Cl2O2 isomerism are not studied in detail, but the presence of isomers other than ClOOCl would be expected to lead to reduced ozone loss.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of propionic acid (E 280, sodium propionate (E 281, calcium propionate (E 282 and potassium propionate (E 283 as food additives

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of propionic acid (E 280, sodium propionate (E 281, calcium propionate (E 282 and potassium propionate (E 283 which are authorised as food additives in the EU and have been previously evaluated by the SCF and JECFA. JECFA allocated an ADI “not limited”. The SCF concluded that potassium propionate could be added to the list of preservatives and established an ADI ”not specified”. Propionates are naturally occurring substances in the normal diet. The Panel considered that forestomach hyperplasia reported in long-term studies in rodents is not a relevant endpoint for humans because humans lack this organ. Based on the reported presence of reversible diffuse epithelial hyperplasia in the oesophagus the LOAEL for a 90-day study in dogs was considered by the Panel to be 1 % propionic acid in the diet and the NOAEL to be 0.3 % propionic acid in the diet. The Panel considered that there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The Panel concluded that the present database did not allow allocation of an ADI for propionic acid - propionates. The overall mean and 95th percentile exposures to propionic acid - propionates resulting from their use as food additives (major contributor to exposure ranged from 0.7-21.1 and 3.6-40.8 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. The Panel noted that the concentration provoking site of contact effect in the 90-day study in dogs (1 % propionic acid in the diet is a factor of three higher than the concentration of propionic acid - propionates in food at the highest permitted level and concluded that for food as consumed, there would not be a safety concern from the maximum concentrations of propionic acid and its salts at their currently authorised uses and use levels as food additives.

  15. QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS IN SOLAR AND STELLAR FLARES: RE-EVALUATING THEIR NATURE IN THE CONTEXT OF POWER-LAW FLARE FOURIER SPECTRA

    The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar and stellar flares remains debated. Recent work has shown that power-law-like Fourier power spectra are an intrinsic property of solar and stellar flare signals, a property that many previous studies of this phenomenon have not accounted for. Hence a re-evaluation of the existing interpretations and assumptions regarding QPPs is needed. We adopt a Bayesian method for investigating this phenomenon, fully considering the Fourier power-law properties of flare signals. Using data from the PROBA2/Large Yield Radiometer, Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and Yohkoh/HXT instruments, we study a selection of flares from the literature identified as QPP events. Additionally, we examine optical data from a recent stellar flare that appears to exhibit oscillatory properties. We find that, for all but one event tested, an explicit oscillation is not required to explain the observations. Instead, the flare signals are adequately described as a manifestation of a power law in the Fourier power spectrum. However, for the flare of 1998 May 8, strong evidence for an explicit oscillation with P ≈ 14-16 s is found in the 17 GHz radio data and the 13-23 keV Yohkoh/HXT data. We conclude that, most likely, many previously analyzed events in the literature may be similarly described by power laws in the flare Fourier power spectrum, without invoking a narrowband, oscillatory component. Hence the prevalence of oscillatory signatures in solar and stellar flares may be less than previously believed. The physical mechanism behind the appearance of the observed power laws is discussed

  16. QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS IN SOLAR AND STELLAR FLARES: RE-EVALUATING THEIR NATURE IN THE CONTEXT OF POWER-LAW FLARE FOURIER SPECTRA

    Inglis, A. R.; Ireland, J. [Solar Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dominique, M. [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-01-10

    The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar and stellar flares remains debated. Recent work has shown that power-law-like Fourier power spectra are an intrinsic property of solar and stellar flare signals, a property that many previous studies of this phenomenon have not accounted for. Hence a re-evaluation of the existing interpretations and assumptions regarding QPPs is needed. We adopt a Bayesian method for investigating this phenomenon, fully considering the Fourier power-law properties of flare signals. Using data from the PROBA2/Large Yield Radiometer, Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and Yohkoh/HXT instruments, we study a selection of flares from the literature identified as QPP events. Additionally, we examine optical data from a recent stellar flare that appears to exhibit oscillatory properties. We find that, for all but one event tested, an explicit oscillation is not required to explain the observations. Instead, the flare signals are adequately described as a manifestation of a power law in the Fourier power spectrum. However, for the flare of 1998 May 8, strong evidence for an explicit oscillation with P ≈ 14-16 s is found in the 17 GHz radio data and the 13-23 keV Yohkoh/HXT data. We conclude that, most likely, many previously analyzed events in the literature may be similarly described by power laws in the flare Fourier power spectrum, without invoking a narrowband, oscillatory component. Hence the prevalence of oscillatory signatures in solar and stellar flares may be less than previously believed. The physical mechanism behind the appearance of the observed power laws is discussed.

  17. Quasi-periodic Pulsations in Solar and Stellar Flares: Re-evaluating their Nature in the Context of Power-law Flare Fourier Spectra

    Inglis, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Dominique, M.

    2015-01-01

    The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar and stellar flares remains debated. Recent work has shown that power-law-like Fourier power spectra are an intrinsic property of solar and stellar flare signals, a property that many previous studies of this phenomenon have not accounted for. Hence a re-evaluation of the existing interpretations and assumptions regarding QPPs is needed. We adopt a Bayesian method for investigating this phenomenon, fully considering the Fourier power-law properties of flare signals. Using data from the PROBA2/Large Yield Radiometer, Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and Yohkoh/HXT instruments, we study a selection of flares from the literature identified as QPP events. Additionally, we examine optical data from a recent stellar flare that appears to exhibit oscillatory properties. We find that, for all but one event tested, an explicit oscillation is not required to explain the observations. Instead, the flare signals are adequately described as a manifestation of a power law in the Fourier power spectrum. However, for the flare of 1998 May 8, strong evidence for an explicit oscillation with P ≈ 14-16 s is found in the 17 GHz radio data and the 13-23 keV Yohkoh/HXT data. We conclude that, most likely, many previously analyzed events in the literature may be similarly described by power laws in the flare Fourier power spectrum, without invoking a narrowband, oscillatory component. Hence the prevalence of oscillatory signatures in solar and stellar flares may be less than previously believed. The physical mechanism behind the appearance of the observed power laws is discussed.

  18. Decadal re-evaluation of contaminant exposure and productivity of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Chesapeake Bay Regions of Concern

    The last large-scale ecotoxicological study of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake Bay was conducted in 2000–2001 and focused on U.S. EPA-designated Regions of Concern (ROCs; Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco, Anacostia/middle Potomac, and Elizabeth Rivers). In 2011–2012, ROCs were re-evaluated to determine spatial and temporal trends in productivity and contaminants. Concentrations of p,p′-DDE were low in eggs and below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Eggs from the Anacostia/middle Potomac Rivers had lower total PCB concentrations in 2011 than in 2000; however, concentrations remained unchanged in Baltimore Harbor. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants declined by 40%, and five alternative brominated flame retardants were detected at low levels. Osprey productivity was adequate to sustain local populations, and there was no relation between productivity and halogenated contaminants. Our findings document continued recovery of the osprey population, declining levels of many persistent halogenated compounds, and modest evidence of genetic damage in nestlings from industrialized regions. - Highlights: • This study documents the continued recovery of the Chesapeake Bay osprey population. • Osprey eggshells have nearly returned to pre-DDT-era thickness. • Organochlorine pesticides are low in eggs, but PCB levels seem unchanged in industrialized areas. • PBDE flame retardants have declined in eggs, but seem to peak near wastewater treatment plants. • There is some evidence of genetic damage in nestling blood samples in the most industrialized areas. - While the Chesapeake Bay osprey population has recovered, concentrations of some persistent contaminants in eggs remain unchanged, and there is some evidence of genetic damage in nestlings

  19. Re-evaluating the reactive uptake of HOBr in the troposphere with implications for the marine boundary layer and volcanic plumes

    T. J. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactive uptake of HOBr onto halogen-rich aerosols promotes conversion of Br−(aq into gaseous reactive bromine (incl. BrO with impacts on tropospheric oxidants and mercury deposition. However, experimental data quantifying HOBr reactive uptake on tropospheric aerosols is limited, and reported values vary in magnitude. This study re-examines the reaction kinetics of HOBr across a range of aerosol acidity conditions, focusing on chemistry within the marine boundary layer and volcanic plumes. We highlight that the termolecular approach to HOBr reaction kinetics, used in numerical model studies to date, is strictly only valid over a specific pH range. Here we re-evaluate the reaction kinetics of HOBr according to the general acid assisted mechanism. The rate of reaction of HOBr with halide ions becomes independent of pH at high acidity yielding an acid-independent second-order rate constant, kII. The limit of acid-saturation is poorly constrained by available experimental data, although a reported estimate for HOBr+ Br−(aq+H+(aq, is kIIsat = 108–109 M−1 s−1, at pH ≲ 1. By consideration of halide nucleophilic strength and re-evaluation of reported uptake coefficient data on H2SO4-acidified sea-salt aerosol, we suggest the reaction of HOBr(aq + Cl−(aq+H+(aq may saturate to become acid-independent at pH ≤ 6, with kIIsat ~104 M−1 s−1. This rate constant is multiple orders of magnitude lower (a factor of 103 at pH = 3 and a factor of 106 at pH = 0 than that currently assumed in numerical models of tropospheric BrO chemistry, which are based on the termolecular approach. Reactive uptake coefficients, γHOBr, were calculated as a function of composition using the revised HOBr kinetics, with kI = kII · [X−(aq], and X = Br or Cl. γHOBr initially increases with acidity but subsequently declines with increasing H2SO4-acidification of sea-salt aerosol. The HOBr+Cl− uptake coefficient declines due to acid-displacement of HCl

  20. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.

    Miller, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetr...

  1. A reevaluation of the lineage development of Pararotalia and Praepararotalia including new material from the Rupelian of the southern Upper Rhine Graben

    Pirkenseer, C.; Spezzaferri, S.

    2009-04-01

    The lineage of the benthic Foraminifera Praepararotalia and Pararotalia has a known record since the Late Cretaceous to recent. Showing a wide range of morphologic variations, the most recent thorough generic definition of Pararotalia is heavily based on internal structures (e.g., HOTTINGER et al. 1991). Thus many of the older, not revised species are still assigned to Pararotalia by means of visible external structures. This applies also to the genus Praepararotalia (Cretaceous to Late Eocene), erected by LIU et al. (1998) as a "simple" predecessor-taxon with generally round, smooth to pustulated chambers of slowly increasing diameter, very low to flat spiral side and small overall size. Wall texture and aperture are identical in both genera. According to LIU et al. (1998) Pararotalia s.str. is characterized by a general size increase, planoconvex test, the development of peripheral pseudospines, keel and increasingly conical chambers ("angular" habitus) as well as a distinct umbilical sutures and plug. Pararotalia macneilli (Danian) and P. ishamae (Thanetian) are considered to represent linking species, the main difference being the initial development of an umbilical plug. The separation of the two genera took place in the Late Cretaceous or Earliest Paleogene, with Praepararotalia cretacea being the ancestral species (LIU et al. 1998). We present here a reevaluation of the morphogroups based on material from the Rupelian of the southern Upper Rhine Graben and the analysis of the record of reported species from literature. Four different groups can be separated in terms of external morphology. The first group represents the Praepararotalia-habitus of small size. New material from the Rupelian of the southern Upper Rhine Graben may be attributed to this group. It differs in a higher number of chambers in the last whorl and total chamber numbers (5-6 vs. 6-7, 11-16 vs. up to 22), a much larger size (up to 500µm) and a higher trochospire. Some specimens show a

  2. Re-evaluation of microscopic and integral cross-section data for important dosimetry reactions. Re-evaluation of the excitation functions for the 24Mg(n,p)24Na, 32S(n,p)32P, 60Ni(n,p)60m+gCo, 63Cu(n,2n)62Cu, 65Cu(n,2n)64Cu, 64Zn(n,p)64Cu, 115In(n,2n)114mIn, 127I(n,2n)126I, 197Au(n,2n)196Au and 199Hg(n,n')199mHg reactions

    Re-evaluations of cross sections and their associated covariance matrices have been carried out for ten dosimetry reactions: - excitation functions for the 63Cu(n,2n)62Cu, 65Cu(n,2n)64Cu, 64Zn(n,p)64Cu, 115In(n,2n)114mIn and 199Hg(n,n')199mHg reactions were re-evaluated over the neutron energy range from threshold to 20 MeV; - excitation functions for the 24Mg(n,p)24Na, 32S(n,p)32P and 60Ni(n,p)60m+gCo were reevaluated in the energy range from threshold to 21 MeV; - excitation functions for the 127I(n,2n)126I and 197Au(n,2n)196Au reactions were reevaluated in the energy range from threshold to 32 and 40 MeV, respectively. Benchmark calculations performed for 235U thermal fission and 252Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectra show that the integral cross sections derived from the newly evaluated excitation functions exhibit improved agreement with related experimental data when compared with the equivalent data from the IRDF-2002 library. (author)

  3. Statement on two reports published after the closing date of the public consultation of the draft Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951 as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951 as a food additive. After the end of the public consultation on the draft opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E951 (15th February 2013, the cut-off date for the inclusion of new literature in the assessment, two papers were brought to the attention of EFSA as relevant for the evaluation of aspartame. One was the evaluation by Gift et al. (2013 of several studies carried out by the European Ramazzini Foundation (ERF and the second was the Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer by the US-EPA. The Panel noted that the Gift et al. (2013 review of the ERF studies is consistent with EFSA’s conclusions on the lack of carcinogenic activity of aspartame. The Panel also analysed US-EPA’s Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer in the context of the safety assessment of aspartame. The Panel noted that the combination of the endpoint used, a benchmark dose response (BMR of 5% and the uncertainty factors applied, resulted in a Reference Dose (RfD for exogenous methanol of 2 mg/kg bw/day that was overly conservative. This RfD was by definition in addition to dietary intakes of methanol which were included in the background exposure estimates used by the US EPA. Taking all these factors into consideration, the Panel concluded that the toxicological review of methanol by US-EPA and the review by Gift et al. (2013 do not alter the conclusions on the risk assessment of aspartame performed by EFSA. EFSA confirmed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI for aspartame of 40 mg/kg bw/day.

  4. Automatic image segmentation for treatment planning in radiotherapy; Segmentation automatique des images pour la planifi cation dosimetrique en radiotherapie

    Pasquiera, D. [Centre Galilee, polyclinique de la Louviere, 59 - Lille (France); Peyrodie, L. [Ecole des hautes etudes d' ingenieur, 59 - Lille (France); Laboratoire d' automatique, genie informatique et signal (LAGIS), Cite scientifi que, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Denis, F. [Centre Jean-Bernard, 72 - Le Mans (France); Pointreau, Y.; Bera, G. [Clinique d' oncologie radiotherapie, Centre Henry-S.-Kaplan, CHU Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Lartigau, E. [Departement universitaire de radiotherapie, Centre O. Lambret, Universite Lille 2, 59 - Lille (France)

    2010-07-01

    One drawback of the growth in conformal radiotherapy and image-guided radiotherapy is the increased time needed to define the volumes of interest. This also results in inter- and intra-observer variability. However, developments in computing and image processing have enabled these tasks to be partially or totally automated. This article will provide a detailed description of the main principles of image segmentation in radiotherapy, its applications and the most recent results in a clinical context. (authors)

  5. A re-evaluation of k0 and related nuclear data for the 555.8 keV gamma-line emitted by the 104mRh-104Rh mother-daughter pair for use in NAA

    A re-evaluation is made of the k0-factor and related nuclear data for the 555.8 keV gamma-ray of the 104mRh-104Rh mother-daughter pair that are important in neutron activation analysis (NAA). This study considers that the relevant level is also fed by the 4.34 min 104mRh mother (with an absolute gamma-ray emission probability γ2=0.13%) and not only, as assumed in former work, by the 42.3 s 104Rh daughter isotope (with γ3=2.0%). In view of this, generalised equations were developed for both the experimental determination and the analytical use of the k0-factor and of the associated parameters k0(m)/k0(g), Q0(m) and Q0(g) [(m):104mRh; (g): 104Rh], requiring the introduction of the γ2 and γ3 data and also of the 104mRh→104Rh fractional decay factor F2(=0.9987). The experimental determinations were based on irradiations performed in the BR1 reactor in Mol and the WWR-M reactor in Budapest. Furthermore, considering the special formation of the 555.8 keV gamma-ray, the procedure for true-coincidence correction was revised as well. All this led to the compilation and recommendation of a new set of 'k0-NAA' data

  6. Re-evaluation of the 16O(N, γ)17O Cross Section at Astrophysical Energies and Its Role as a Neutron Poison in the s-process

    Mohr, Peter; Heinz, Christian; Pignatari, Marco; Dillmann, Iris; Mengoni, Alberto; Käppeler, Franz

    2016-08-01

    The doubly magic nucleus 16O has a small neutron-capture cross section of just a few tens of microbarns in the astrophysical energy region. Despite this, 16O plays an important role as a neutron poison in the astrophysical slow neutron capture (s) process due to its high abundance. We present in this paper a re-evaluation of the available experimental data for 16O(n,γ )17O and derive a new recommendation for the Maxwellian-averaged cross sections between kT = 5 and 100 keV. Our new recommendations are lower up to kT = 60 keV compared to the previously recommended values but up to 14% higher at kT = 100 keV. We explore the impact of this different energy dependence on the weak s-process during core helium burning (kT = 26 keV) and shell carbon burning (kT = 90 keV) in massive stars where 16O is the most abundant isotope.

  7. Re-evaluation of the dose to the cyst wall in P-32 radiocolloid treatments of cystic brain tumors using the Dose-Point-Kernel and Monte Carlo methods

    Intracavity instillation of β-emitting colloid pharmaceuticals is a common technique used to treat cystic brain tumors. Most of the dosimetric calculations that have been reported in the literature for this problem are based on empirical formulas derived by Loevinger. Concentration of P-32 radiolabeled solution for the delivery of a prescribed dose (200 Gy to the cyst wall) has been published previously using this formalism in what we refer to as a standard nomogram. The calculations using the Loevinger formulas for calculating the P-32 activity necessary to achieve 200 Gy at the cyst wall is re-evaluated and compared to numerically computed results based on full Monte Carlo simulations (EGSnrc) and the dose-point-kernel (DPK) integration method. For cyst diameters greater than 1 cm, the new calculations agree well with previously published results (the standard nomogram) to within a few percents. However, for cyst diameters of less than 1 cm, it is shown that the standard nomogram results underestimate the therapeutic activity by a factor of ∼3 for very small diameters (∼0.2 cm). New tables based on our calculations are presented and the sources of discrepancies are identified. It is concluded that the new set of data based on our calculations should replace the standard nomogram to administer accurately the target dose to the cyst wall for the smaller diameter cysts (<1 cm)

  8. Changes of TSH-Stimulation Blocking Antibody (TSBAb) and Thyroid Stimulating Antibody (TSAb) Over 10 Years in 34 TSBAb-Positive Patients with Hypothyroidism and in 98 TSAb-Positive Graves’ Patients with Hyperthyroidism: Reevaluation of TSBAb and TSAb in TSH-Receptor-Antibody (TRAb)-Positive Patients

    Mina Matsushita; Nobuyuki Takasu

    2012-01-01

    Two TRAbs: TSBAb and TSAb. TSBAb causes hypothyroidism. TSAb causes Graves' hyperthyroidism. TSBAb and TSAb block TSH-binding to cells as TRAb, measured as TSH-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII). We reevaluate TSBAb and TSAb. We studied TSBAb, TSAb, and TBII over 10 years in 34 TSBAb-positives with hypothyroidism and in 98 TSAb-positives with hyperthyroidism. Half of the 34 TSBAb-positives with hypothyroidism continued to have persistently positive TSBAb, continued to have hypothyroidis...

  9. Back to Lifeline: Reevaluate Chen Heqin's “Living Education” Finalism%回归命脉:重审陈鹤琴的“活教育”目的论

    黄书光

    2012-01-01

    当代中国教育学重建的一个重要基点就是要找回活生生的"人","做人"是教育的出发点和归宿。重审陈鹤琴的"活教育"目的论——"做人,做中国人,做现代中国人",体会其中所蕴藏的深刻教育哲理,寻觅其不朽的时代价值与现实意义,求索这一理论形成的实践诉求与本土文化底蕴,感悟其"一切为儿童"的崇高办学理想,对于我们进一步理解当代"教育家办学"和引领中国基础教育改革方向,无疑具有十分重要的启迪之功。%An important basic point of the reconstruction of pedagogy in contemporary China is to retrieve the animated “human being”.“How to behave as a human being” is the start and the destination of education. Reevaluating Chen Heqin's “Living Education” finalism: “behave as a human being, a Chinese, a modem Chinese”; experiencing the profound educational philosophy which contains in it; seeking the eternal time value and practical significance; searching the practical appeal and the local culture undertone which form the theory; comprehending his lofty ideal of running a school that all what we do is for the children; which all undoubtedly provide the fundamental enlightening contribution for us to further understand the idea of “educationists” running schools in contemporary China and guide the basic education reform direction.

  10. Re-evaluating the DSM-I

    Cooper, Rachel; Blashfield, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The DSM-I is currently viewed as a psychoanalytic classification, and therefore unimportant. There are four reasons to challenge the belief that the DSM-I was a psychoanalytic system. First, psychoanalysts were a minority on the committee that created the DSM-I. Second, psychoanalysts of the time did not use the DSM-I. Third, the DSM-I was as infused with Kraepelinian concepts as it was with psychoanalytic concepts. Fourth, contemporary writers who commented on the DSM-I did not perceive it a...

  11. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…

  12. A Reevaluation of the Attentional Inertia Concept

    W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractAnderson's (1983) theory about children's attention behavior during television viewing hypothesizes that attention behavior is affected by positive feedback (the inertia hypothesis) and the degree to which a child understands the television program. During an experiment, neither componen

  13. How to Reevaluate Outsourcing Contracts Best Practices

    Bill Martorelli

    2011-01-01

    Contract terms for outsourcing continue to change with the times,at least at the margins.The body of contractual best practices changes little in regard to specific terms available for governing outsourcing transactions,but their relative importance can shift in response to both ongoing and emerging risks.In 2009,for example,concerns over Satyam's sudden collapse and terrorism in Mumbai made customers keenly aware of their reliance on key service providers and how fragile they could be.But since then,Satyam is back solidly under new ownership (now Mahindra Satyam),and security measures in India and elsewhere have kept terrorism's specter largely at bay.While the risk of terrorism or a sudden failure of a key supplier-then top of mind - have fallen in priorities,new issues have emerged as more likely near-term concerns.%In order to effectively address contractual protections for threats existing in today's environment Forrester urges sourcing professionals to consider variations on time-honored outsourcing contractual best practices.

  14. Re-evaluating early breast neoplasia

    Moulis, Sharon; Sgroi, Dennis Charles

    2008-01-01

    Historically, histomorphological and epidemiological data suggested that atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ are the earliest recognizable neoplastic stages of breast cancer progression. Over the past several years, detailed high-throughput molecular genetic, gene expression and epigenetic analyses have enhanced our understanding of these early neoplastic lesions and have re-shaped our view of human breast cancer progression to include multiple distinct pathways of evolut...

  15. Re-evaluating DSM-I.

    Cooper, R; Blashfield, R K

    2016-02-01

    The DSM-I is currently viewed as a psychoanalytic classification, and therefore unimportant. There are four reasons to challenge the belief that DSM-I was a psychoanalytic system. First, psychoanalysts were a minority on the committee that created DSM-I. Second, psychoanalysts of the time did not use DSM-I. Third, DSM-I was as infused with Kraepelinian concepts as it was with psychoanalytic concepts. Fourth, contemporary writers who commented on DSM-I did not perceive it as psychoanalytic. The first edition of the DSM arose from a blending of concepts from the Statistical Manual for the Use of Hospitals of Mental Diseases, the military psychiatric classifications developed during World War II, and the International Classification of Diseases (6th edition). As a consensual, clinically oriented classification, DSM-I was popular, leading to 20 printings and international recognition. From the perspective inherent in this paper, the continuities between classifications from the first half of the 20th century and the systems developed in the second half (e.g. DSM-III to DSM-5) become more visible. PMID:26470724

  16. Reevaluating the impact of video games.

    Funk, J B

    1993-02-01

    The evolution of the video game phenomenon is reviewed and contemporary data are presented. A survey assessing frequency and location of play and game preference was completed by 357 seventh- and eighth-grade students. In this middle-class sample, about two thirds of girls played video games at least one to two hours per week at home, but only 20% played in arcades. About 90% of boys played in the home and about 50% in arcades. Approximately half of preferred games were from one of two categories of violent games, while 2% of preferred games were educational. Parent education about the influence of the media should include recommendations to monitor game playing and influence game selection. PMID:8432085

  17. The Negawatt association reevaluates its energy scenario

    In 2003 the association Negawatt imagined an energy policy scenario (2000-2050) which aims to divide by four the greenhouse gases emission. This scenario has just been completed for the 2006 edition with less growth evolution. This scenario expects the gradually shutdown of nuclear power plants for 2035, without the replacement by power plants of third generation. (A.L.B.)

  18. CHESAPEAKE BAY 2007 RE-EVALUATION

    A long term goal of multimedia environmental management is to achieve sustainable ecological resources. Progress towards this goal rests on a foundation of science-based methods and data integrated into predictive multimedia, multi-stressor open architecture modeling systems. The...

  19. A phylogenetic re-evaluation of Arthrinium

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Although the genus Arthrinium (sexual morph Apiospora) is commonly isolated as an endophyte from a range of substrates, and is extremely interesting for the pharmaceutical industry, its molecular phylogeny has never been resolved. Based on morphology and DNA sequence data of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU, 28S) and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and 5.8S rRNA gene of the nrDNA operon, the genus Arthrinium is shown to belong to Apiosporaceae in Xylariales. Arthrinium...

  20. A phylogenetic re-evaluation of Arthrinium.

    Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2013-07-01

    Although the genus Arthrinium (sexual morph Apiospora) is commonly isolated as an endophyte from a range of substrates, and is extremely interesting for the pharmaceutical industry, its molecular phylogeny has never been resolved. Based on morphology and DNA sequence data of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU, 28S) and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and 5.8S rRNA gene of the nrDNA operon, the genus Arthrinium is shown to belong to Apiosporaceae in Xylariales. Arthrinium is morphologically and phylogenetically circumscribed, and the sexual genus Apiospora treated as synonym on the basis that Arthinium is older, more commonly encountered, and more frequently used in literature. An epitype is designated for Arthrinium pterospermum, and several well-known species are redefined based on their morphology and sequence data of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF), beta-tubulin (TUB) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) gene regions. Newly described are A. hydei on Bambusa tuldoides from Hong Kong, A. kogelbergense on dead culms of Restionaceae from South Africa, A. malaysianum on Macaranga hullettii from Malaysia, A. ovatum on Arundinaria hindsii from Hong Kong, A. phragmites on Phragmites australis from Italy, A. pseudospegazzinii on Macaranga hullettii from Malaysia, A. pseudosinense on bamboo from The Netherlands, and A. xenocordella from soil in Zimbabwe. Furthermore, the genera Pteroconium and Cordella are also reduced to synonymy, rejecting spore shape and the presence of setae as characters of generic significance separating them from Arthrinium. PMID:23898419

  1. A phylogenetic re-evaluation of Arthrinium

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Although the genus Arthrinium (sexual morph Apiospora) is commonly isolated as an endophyte from a range of substrates, and is extremely interesting for the pharmaceutical industry, its molecular phylogeny has never been resolved. Based on morphology and DNA sequence data of the large subunit nuclea

  2. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite (Waite, 1973). The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program (Fledderman 2003). The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  3. Reevaluating the Impact of Video Games.

    Funk, Jeanne B.

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 357 seventh and eighth graders about video game play and preference. Found that approximately 64% of boys and 56% of girls played one to two hours of video games per week at home; and that, among five categories of video games, those most preferred by the students were games that involved fantasy violence and sports games. (BC)

  4. Work and Welfare: A Reevaluation of AFDC.

    Mason, Jan; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviews policy development and research trends relating to work, welfare, and AFDC. Examines the persistence over time of the values of capitalism, liberalism, and positivism, which have resulted in the work ethic and influenced the AFDC. Outlines a research agenda to counter these influences. (Author/JAC)

  5. Dementia and functional cerebral imaging a reevaluation

    New concepts which concerned especially the nosologic classification of dementia as for example Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) incite to revalue the main characteristics of the regional cerebral blood flow measurements studied by SPECT in several forms of dementia. SPECT analysis with 99m-Technetium HMPAO (555 MBq) was performed to 20 patients with probable DLB, 20 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 patients with Fronto-Temporal dementia (FTD). Ten pairs of regions of interest were analysed. Tracer uptake was expressed as a cortico-cerebellar activity ratio. Statistical analysis of index of fixation was performed using an univariate analysis of variance, and a selection of significative ROIs was performed using two cut-off values (80 and 82.5 %). In the FTD group, a decrease of HMPAO uptake in frontal cortical regions of interest (internal, lateral and posterior) was observed. In the DLB group the decrease of HMPAO uptake was widespread and concerned all the cortical regions of interest except the posterior frontal and occipital regions. Finally in the AD group there was a limited temporal and parietal hypoperfusion more marked on the left side without frontal hypoperfusion. This last result was obtained whatever the cognitive impairment. Consequently it seems that the frontal hypoperfusion previously reported in AD groups was induced by the fact that patients with DLB were also included because the diagnosis was not established. In conclusion we estimate that SPECT studies could be used more often in clinical research especially for a classification approach of dementia. (authors)

  6. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME. Overall, our review and analyses suggested that there is a strong linear

  7. 强化农药监测与再评价,科学防控各类安全风险%Strengthen the Monitoring of Pesticide and Re-evaluation of Scientific Prevention and Control of All Kinds of Security Risks

    宗伏霖; 顾宝根; 嵇莉莉; 朴秀英; 吕宁

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly elaborates the necessity and feasibility of establishing the pesticide safety monitoring,implementing pesticide re-evaluation and re-registration after their registered in china.Establishing the policy of pesticide re-evaluation and re-registration by following and learning from international pesticide management mode are the perfection of Chinese pesticide management policy,and are inevitable for pesticide safety management in the new period.%本文主要阐述在我国建立登记后农药安全性监测,实施农药再评价、再登记管理的必要性、可行性.遵循、借鉴国际农药管理模式,建立我国的农药再评价、再登记制度是对我国农药管理制度的完善,是新时期农药安全管理的必然.

  8. Seismic re-evaluation of Mochovce nuclear power plant. Seismic reevaluation of civil structures

    In this contribution, an overview of seismic design procedures used for reassessment of seismic safety of civil structures at the Mochovce NPP in Slovak Republic presented. As an introduction, the objectives, history, and current status of seismic design of the NPP have been explained. General philosophy of design methods, seismic classification of buildings, seismic data, calculation methods, assumptions on structural behavior under seismic loading and reliability assessment were described in detail in the subsequent section. Examples of calculation models used for dynamic calculations of seismic response are given in the last section. (author)

  9. Dosimetric factors predictive of late toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy; Radiotherapie prostatique: prediction de la toxicite tardive a partir des donnees dosimetriques

    Crevoisier, R. de [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Eugene-Marquis, 35 - Rennes (France); Inserm, U 642, 35 - Rennes (France); Fiorino, C. [Medical Physics Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Melghera, Milan (Italy); Dubray, B. [Departement de radiotherapie et de physique medicale, centre Henri-Becquerel, 76 - Rouen (France); EA 4108, UFR de medecine-pharmacie, QuantIF-LITIS, 76 - Rouen (France)

    2010-10-15

    Dose escalation in prostate cancer is made possible due to technological advances and to precise dose-volume constraints to limit normal tissue damage. This article is a literature review focusing on the correlations between exposure (doses and volumes) of organs at risk (OAR) and rectal, urinary, sexual and bone toxicity, as well as on mathematical models aiming at toxicity prediction. Dose-volume constraint recommendations are presented that have been shown to be associated with reduced rectal damage. Indeed, the clinical data is relatively strong for late rectal toxicity (bleeding), with constraints put on both the volume of the rectum receiving high doses ({>=}70 Gy) and the volume receiving intermediate doses (40 to 60 Gy). Predictive models of rectal toxicity (Normal Tissue Complication Probability) appear to accurately estimate toxicity risks. The correlations are much weaker for the bulb and the femoral heads, and nearly do not exist for the bladder. Further prospective studies are required, ideally taking into account patient-related risk factors (co-morbidities and their specific treatments), assays of normal tissue hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and mathematical models applied on 3D images acquired under the treatment machine (e.g. Cone Beam CT). (authors)

  10. Dosimetry validations with the help of the Delta4 phantom; Validations dosimetriques a l'aide du fantome Delta4

    Garcia, R.; Marguet, M.; Bodez, V.; Khamphan, C.; Jaegle, E.; Warren, S.; Alayrach, M.E. [Institut Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France)

    2009-10-15

    The radiotherapy got important technological advances that allow to provide irradiations useful to the optimization principles. It is advisable to implement means of measurement allowing to explore the whole of the irradiated volume. In this context, the quickness of the Delta4 system implementation and the possibility to get a three dimensional comparison makes of it a unique and powerful tool. The complex irradiations and especially in rotation are better controlled. (N.C.)

  11. The fallout in France of the Chernobyl accident. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences; Les retombees en France de l'accident de Tchernobyl. Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1999-07-01

    For the first time, the whole of scientific data available has been gathered and exploited thanks to the ASTRAL model, developed at the Institute of protection and nuclear safety, (IPSN). This model has allowed to explain the principal causes of land and food contamination, as well their potential consequences on the human being. This book has elaborated with the help of every organism that has made radioactivity measurements in environment and man and his feeding. The extent of information sources used in this work makes of it a reference work. It allows to estimate the impact, in France of the Chernobyl accident on each of us and to understand the transfer mechanisms of radioactivity in environment. (N.C.)

  12. Patient cumulative radiation exposure in interventional cardiology; Exposition cumulee aux rayonnements ionisants des patients en cardiologie interventionnelle: caracteristiques cliniques et dosimetriques

    Bernier, M.O.; Jacob, S.; Laurier, D. [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, LEPID, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maccia, C. [Centre d' assurance de qualite des applications technologiques dans le domaine de la sante - CAATS, Bourg-la-Reine (France); Bar, O.; Blanchard, D. [Clinique Saint-Gatien, Tours (France); Catelinois, O. [Institut de veille sanitaire, St Maurice (France)

    2012-01-15

    Interventional cardiology procedures can involve potentially high doses of radiation to the patients. Stochastic effects of ionising radiation - radiation-induced cancers in the long term - may occur. We analysed clinical characteristics and dosimetric data in a population of patients undergoing interventional cardiology. In all, 1 591 patients who had undergone coronarography and/or angioplasty in the course of a year at the Saint-Gatien Clinic in Tours (France) were included. Information on patients' individual clinical characteristics and Dose-Area Product values were collected. Organ doses to the lung, oesophagus, bone marrow and breast were mathematically evaluated. The median age of patients was 70 years. Their median cumulative dose-area product value was 48.4 Gy.cm{sup 2} for the whole year and the median effective dose was 9.7 mSv. The median organ doses were 41 mGy for the lung, 31 mGy for the oesophagus, 10 mGy for the bone marrow and 4 mGy for the breast. Levels of doses close to the heart appear to be rather high in the case of repeated interventional cardiology procedures. Clinical characteristics should be taken into account when planning epidemiological studies on potential radiation-induced cancers. (authors)

  13. Techniques and results of extremities dosimetric assessments among interventional imagery operators; Techniques et resultats d'evaluations dosimetriques des extremites chez les operateurs en imagerie interventionnelle

    Donadille, L.; Tagnard-Merat, F.; Rehel, J.L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Gauron, C. [Institut national de recherche et de securite pour la prevention des accidents du travail et des maladies professionnelles (INRS), Centre de Paris, 30 rue Olivier Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 1 4 (France)

    2009-07-01

    The authors evoke different surveys made among interventional imagery operators to assess the doses received by their hands. The operators had a local dosimeter on their middle finger nail during a single procedure, and had then to fill in a questionnaire. At least ten measurements per operator are required for the survey. The survey started in 2008 and is planned to end in December 2009. Some results are already briefly discussed

  14. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

    1997-12-31

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  15. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident.

  16. Is there a future for dosimetry by portal imaging?; Le controle dosimetrique par imagerie portale a-t-il un avenir?

    Huyskens, D.P. [Hopital Universitairel Gasthuisberg, Dept. de Radiotherapie, Louvain (Belgium)

    2000-12-01

    This article deals with the potential benefits of portal imaging as a tool for the dosimetric control of a radiotherapy treatment. In the introduction the advantages of dosimetric control with portal imaging are described. Subsequently, the physical problem is considered between patient exit dose and dose at the level of the portal detector. Measurements with phantoms have shown that this relationship is complex: different algorithms have been developed by groups of researchers and some of them are summarised in this article. Finally, three examples of dosimetric control using portal imaging are presented: in vivo dosimetry on the beam axis, dosimetric profiles in two dimensions and portal dosimetry for intensity modulation. (author)

  17. The future of new calculation concepts in dosimetry based on the Monte Carlo Methods; Avenir des nouveaux concepts des calculs dosimetriques bases sur les methodes de Monte Carlo

    Makovicka, L.; Vasseur, A.; Sauget, M.; Martin, E.; Gschwind, R.; Henriet, J. [Universite de Franche-Comte, Equipe IRMA/ENISYS/FEMTO-ST, UMR6174 CNRS, 25 - Montbeliard (France); Vasseur, A.; Sauget, M.; Martin, E.; Gschwind, R.; Henriet, J.; Salomon, M. [Universite de Franche-Comte, Equipe AND/LIFC, 90 - Belfort (France)

    2009-01-15

    Monte Carlo codes, precise but slow, are very important tools in the vast majority of specialities connected to Radiation Physics, Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. A discussion about some other computing solutions is carried out; solutions not only based on the enhancement of computer power, or on the 'biasing'used for relative acceleration of these codes (in the case of photons), but on more efficient methods (A.N.N. - artificial neural network, C.B.R. - case-based reasoning - or other computer science techniques) already and successfully used for a long time in other scientific or industrial applications and not only Radiation Protection or Medical Dosimetry. (authors)

  18. A re-evaluation of k sub 0 and related nuclear data for the 555.8 keV gamma-line emitted by the sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh- sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh mother-daughter pair for use in NAA

    Corte, F D; Simonits, A; Bossus, D; Sluijs, R V; Pommé, S

    1999-01-01

    A re-evaluation is made of the k sub 0 -factor and related nuclear data for the 555.8 keV gamma-ray of the sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh- sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh mother-daughter pair that are important in neutron activation analysis (NAA). This study considers that the relevant level is also fed by the 4.34 min sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh mother (with an absolute gamma-ray emission probability gamma sub 2 =0.13%) and not only, as assumed in former work, by the 42.3 s sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh daughter isotope (with gamma sub 3 =2.0%). In view of this, generalised equations were developed for both the experimental determination and the analytical use of the k sub 0 -factor and of the associated parameters k sub 0 (m)/k sub 0 (g), Q sub 0 (m) and Q sub 0 (g) [(m): sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh; (g): sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh], requiring the introduction of the gamma sub 2 and gamma sub 3 data and also of the sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh-> sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh fractional decay factor F sub 2 (=0.9987). The experimental determinations...

  19. Practice of Post-marketing Safety Reevaluation of Salvianolate and Other TCM Injections in Our Hospital%我院开展丹参多酚酸盐等中药注射剂上市后安全性再评价的实践Δ

    吕世文; 郭佳奕; 朱亚兰

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To explore the idea and method of post-marketing safety reevaluation of TCM injection in our hospi-tal. METHODS:In case-control study,salvianolate for injection was chosen for practice. 1 000 patients with stable angina receiv-ing Salvianolate for injection in our hospital during May 2012-Oct. 2013 were selected as subjects. The occurrence of ADR/ADE were observed and Logistic regression analysis was conducted by using SPSS 20.0 software. RESULTS:The incidence of ADR/ADE was 0.6%,and rare(0.1%-1%). The ADR/ADE were general and mainly manifested as erythra(66.67%). Skin and its ap-pendants were main organs involved in ADR(66.67%). Logistic regression analysis showed that gender,drug combination and age are risk factors of ADR/ADE. CONCLUSIONS:The post-marketing safety reevaluation of TCM injection not only make up for the deficiency of pre-marketing safety evaluation of TCM injection and find out potential delayed and severe ADR/ADE and drug inter-action,but also provide reference for rational drug use in the clinic and guarantee the safe and rational drug use.%目的:探索我院开展中药注射剂上市后安全性再评价的研究思路与方法。方法:采用队列内病例-对照研究,以注射用丹参多酚酸盐为例进行实践。选取我院2012年5月至2013年10月1000例使用注射用丹参多酚酸盐的冠心病稳定性心绞痛患者为研究对列,观察其不良反应/不良事件(ADR/ADE)的发生情况,结果采用SPSS 20.0软件进行Logistic回归分析。结果:患者的ADR/ADE发生率为0.6%,均为偶见(0.1%~1%),级别为“一般”,主要表现为皮疹(66.67%),主要累及器官为皮肤及其附件(66.67%);经Logistic回归分析显示,性别、合并用药、年龄是ADR/ADE发生的危险因素。结论:对中药注射剂进行上市后安全性再评价,不仅弥补了中药注射剂在药品上市前评价的不足,发现可能存

  20. A Critical Reevaluation of Motivation, Management, and Productivity.

    Stanton, Erwin S.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the decline in productivity and motivation, theories of work motivation, and changes in the work ethic and work attitudes. Recommends the revitalization of five essentials of sound management: recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal, supervision, and compensation. (SK)

  1. Endofenous metallothionein as determinant of intestinal cadmium absorbtion: a reevaluation

    Isolated segments of rat jejunum were perfused in situ with glucose-saline containing varying amounts of CdC12. At low Cd concentrations the endogenous Cd-binding capacity sufficed to trap almost all Cd taken up in the mucosa. At higher Cd levels, induction of metallothionein synthesis by Zn increased fractional trapping of Cd. Pretreatment with Zn did not induce protein synthesis in any fraction other than the low molecular weight heat-stable cystosol fraction. Acutely Zn did not affect Cd extrusion from the mucosa. Finally, Cd-metallothionein itself crosses the mucosa only very slowly. An earlier conclusion that metallothionein does not contribute to Cd trapping was based on low Cd concentrations in the perfusate; at higher concentrations metallothionein appears to be a major determinant of mucosal Cd retention. (Author)

  2. Reevaluating Assembly Evaluations with Feature Response Curves: GAGE and Assemblathons

    Vezzi, Francesco; Narzisi, Giuseppe; Mishra, Bud

    2012-01-01

    In just the last decade, a multitude of bio-technologies and software pipelines have emerged to revolutionize genomics. To further their central goal, they aim to accelerate and improve the quality of de novo whole-genome assembly starting from short DNA sequences/reads. However, the performance of each of these tools is contingent on the length and quality of the sequencing data, the structure and complexity of the genome sequence, and the resolution and quality of long-range information. Fu...

  3. Re-evaluation of hyaluronidase in peribulbar anaesthesia.

    Prosser, D P; Rodney, G E; Mian, T; Jones, H. M.; Khan, M Y

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Hyaluronidase can augment the actions of local anaesthetics in peribulbar anaesthesia. However, evidence suggests satisfactory anaesthesia can be achieved using mixtures without hyaluronidase. A randomised double blind study was conducted on 50 patients, undergoing peribulbar anaesthesia, to validate this observation. METHODS: Patients received a standard mixture of local anaesthetic (0.5% bupivacaine and 2% lignocaine in a 1:1 ratio) with or without hyaluronidase (25 IU/ml o...

  4. Downsizing a giant: re-evaluating Dreadnoughtus body mass.

    Bates, Karl T; Falkingham, Peter L; Macaulay, Sophie; Brassey, Charlotte; Maidment, Susannah C R

    2015-06-01

    Estimates of body mass often represent the founding assumption on which biomechanical and macroevolutionary hypotheses are based. Recently, a scaling equation was applied to a newly discovered titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur (Dreadnoughtus), yielding a 59 300 kg body mass estimate for this animal. Herein, we use a modelling approach to examine the plausibility of this mass estimate for Dreadnoughtus. We find that 59 300 kg for Dreadnoughtus is highly implausible and demonstrate that masses above 40 000 kg require high body densities and expansions of soft tissue volume outside the skeleton several times greater than found in living quadrupedal mammals. Similar results from a small sample of other archosaurs suggests that lower-end mass estimates derived from scaling equations are most plausible for Dreadnoughtus, based on existing volumetric and density data from extant animals. Although volumetric models appear to more tightly constrain dinosaur body mass, there remains a clear need to further support these models with more exhaustive data from living animals. The relative and absolute discrepancies in mass predictions between volumetric models and scaling equations also indicate a need to systematically compare predictions across a wide size and taxonomic range to better inform studies of dinosaur body size. PMID:26063751

  5. Seismic re-evaluation of Kozloduy NPP criteria, methodology, implementation

    The paper describes some features of the methodology applied for seismic upgrading of civil structures at the site of the Kozloduy NPP. The essence of the methodology is the use of as-build data, realistic damping and inelastic reduction factors. As an example of seismic upgrading the analyses of units 3 and 4 are presented. The analyses are showing that for effective seismic upgrading detailed investigations are needed in order to understand the significant response modes of the structures. In the presented case this is the rotation of the attached flexible structures to the stiff reactor building. Based on this an upgrading approach is applied to increase the seismic resistance for the predominant motion. The second significant approach applied is the strengthening of the prefabricated element joints. Although it is very simple it allows use of the available element capacity. (author)

  6. Reevaluating Measures of Disease Progression in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    Statland, Jeffrey M; McDermott, Michael P.; Heatwole, Chad; Martens, William B.; Pandya, Shree; van der Kooi, E. L.; Kissel, John T.; Wagner, Kathryn R; Tawil, Rabi

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) have identified potential therapeutic targets. Consequently, an accurate understanding of disease progression in FSHD is crucial for the design of future clinical trials. Data from 228 subjects in 3 clinical trials and 1 natural history study were compared to examine disease progression in FSHD. All studies utilized the same techniques for manual muscle testing and maximum vo...

  7. Tell el Yahudiyeh Ware: a re-evaluation

    Kaplan, M.F.; Harbottle, G.; Sayre, E.V.

    1980-01-01

    The TY (Tell el Yahudiyeh ware) project has implications for understanding the cultural interactions. The Second Intermediate Period (1750-1550 B.C.), one during which centraized government in Egypt collapses and, it is generally assumed, so does her trade network. Foreigners - the Hyksos - are able to enter the country and rule at least part of it. Results of this study (which includes activation analysis), however, indicate the TY is primarily an Egyptian pottery which appeared before the Hyksos entered and may have continued in use after they left. It cannot, therefore, be tightly associated with the Hyksos nor can it be used to judge the extent of their influence. Its wide distribution shows that Egypt continued to trade goods outside her boundaries throughout this period. Finally, not only goods travelled between what were generally considered to have been hostile neighbors, but the trade appears to have included ideas and technology as well.

  8. Digitonide precipitable sterols: a reevaluation with special attention to lanosterol

    Cenedella, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    The ability of digitonin to precipitate lanosterol from prepared mixtures and biological sources was evaluated. Commercially available lanosterol was determined to be composed of about 60% lanosterol and 40% dihydrolanosterol. Both sterols were only partially precipitated by digitonin under all conditions examined. The presence of cholesterol increased the precipitation of lanosterol, but never to completion. About 40% of the lanosterols from saponified sheep's-wool fat was not precipitated by digitonin. Also /sup 14/C-labeled lanosterol recovered from rat brain following intracerebral injection of 2-(/sup 14/C)mevalonate was only 70% precipitated by digitonin. Steric hinderance by the methyl groups at carbon -4 is suggesed to explain the poor precipitability of this sterol. In conclusion, lanosterol can not be considered to be a digitonide-precipitable sterol equivalent to cholesterol. Caution should be exercised in situations where digitonin-precipitable sterols are being prepared from sources containing significant concentrations of lanosterol (i.e., mass and/or radiolabel).

  9. Digitonide precipitable sterols: a reevaluation with special attention to lanosterol

    The ability of digitonin to precipitate lanosterol from prepared mixtures and biological sources was evaluated. Commercially available lanosterol was determined to be composed of about 60% lanosterol and 40% dihydrolanosterol. Both sterols were only partially precipitated by digitonin under all conditions examined. The presence of cholesterol increased the precipitation of lanosterol, but never to completion. About 40% of the lanosterols from saponified sheep's-wool fat was not precipitated by digitonin. Also 14C-labeled lanosterol recovered from rat brain following intracerebral injection of 2-[14C]mevalonate was only 70% precipitated by digitonin. Steric hinderance by the methyl groups at carbon -4 is suggesed to explain the poor precipitability of this sterol. In conclusion, lanosterol can not be considered to be a digitonide-precipitable sterol equivalent to cholesterol. Caution should be exercised in situations where digitonin-precipitable sterols are being prepared from sources containing significant concentrations of lanosterol (i.e., mass and/or radiolabel)

  10. A Critical Reevaluation of Radio Constraints on Annihilating Dark Matter

    Cholis, Ilias [Fermilab; Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Linden, Tim [Chicago U., KICP

    2015-04-03

    A number of groups have employed radio observations of the Galactic center to derive stringent constraints on the annihilation cross section of weakly interacting dark matter. In this paper, we show that electron energy losses in this region are likely to be dominated by inverse Compton scattering on the interstellar radiation field, rather than by synchrotron, considerably relaxing the constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section compared to previous works. Strong convective winds, which are well motivated by recent observations, may also significantly weaken synchrotron constraints. After taking these factors into account, we find that radio constraints on annihilating dark matter are orders of magnitude less stringent than previously reported, and are generally weaker than those derived from current gamma-ray observations.

  11. [Morphological Re-evaluation of the Basal Ganglia Network].

    Fujiyama, Fumino

    2016-07-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to dopamine signals, via dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of reward prediction error and conducts reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, with particular focus on the striosome and matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome and matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:27395470

  12. Risk in Enterprise Cloud Computing: Re-Evaluated

    Funmilayo, Bolonduro, R.

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative study was conducted to get the perspectives of IT experts about risks in enterprise cloud computing. In businesses, these IT experts are often not in positions to prioritize business needs. The business experts commonly known as business managers mostly determine an organization's business needs. Even if an IT expert classified a…

  13. Market orientation – a pertinent solution in reevaluating traditional marketing

    Luminita Zait

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on describing the latest trends in the theoretical and practical development of the marketing concept. Market orientation is the main item discussed, emphasizing the advantages and pitfalls of applying such a specific concept.

  14. Reevaluation of RINT1 as a breast cancer predisposition gene.

    Li, Na; Thompson, Ella R; Rowley, Simone M; McInerny, Simone; Devereux, Lisa; Goode, David; Investigators, LifePool; Wong-Brown, Michelle W; Scott, Rodney J; Trainer, Alison H; Gorringe, Kylie L; James, Paul A; Campbell, Ian G

    2016-09-01

    Rad50 interactor 1 (RINT1) has recently been reported as an intermediate-penetrance (odds ratio 3.24) breast cancer susceptibility gene, as well as a risk factor for Lynch syndrome. The coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of RINT1 were sequenced in 2024 familial breast cancer cases previously tested negative for BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 mutations and 1886 population-matched cancer-free controls using HaloPlex Targeted Enrichment Assays. Only one RINT1 protein-truncating variant was detected in a control. No excess was observed in the total number of rare variants (truncating and missense) (28, 1.38 %, vs. 27, 1.43 %. P > 0.999) or in the number of variants predicted to be pathogenic by various in silico tools (Condel, Polyphen2, SIFT, and CADD) in the cases compared to the controls. In addition, there was no difference in the incidence of classic Lynch syndrome cancers in RINT1 rare variant-carrying families compared to RINT1 wild-type families. This study had 90 % power to detect an odds ratio of at least 2.06, and the results do not provide any support for RINT1 being a moderate-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene, although larger studies will be required to exclude more modest effects. This study emphasizes the need for caution before designating a cancer predisposition role for any gene based on very rare truncating variants and in silico-predicted missense variants. PMID:27544226

  15. Seismic re-evaluation criteria for Bohunice V1 reconstruction

    Bohunice V1 in Slovakia is a Russian designed two unit WWER 440, Model 230 Pressurized Water Reactor. The plant was not originally designed for earthquake. Subsequent and ongoing reassessments now confirm that the seismic hazard at the site is significant. EBO, the plant owner has contracted with a consortium lead by Siemens AG (REKON) to do major reconstruction of the plant to significantly enhance its safety systems by the addition of new systems and the upgrading of existing systems. As part of the reconstruction, a complete seismic assessment and upgrading is required for existing safety relevant structures, systems and components. It is not practical to conduct this reassessment and upgrading using criteria applied to new design of nuclear power plants. Alternate criteria may be used to achieve adequate safety goals. Utilities in the U.S. have faced several seismic issues with operating NPPs and to resolve these issues, alternate criteria have been developed which are much more cost effective than use of criteria for new design. These alternate criteria incorporate the knowledge obtained from investigation of the performance of equipment in major earthquakes and include provisions for structures and passive equipment to deform beyond the yield point, yet still provide their essential function. IAEA has incorporated features of these alternate criteria into draft Technical Guidelines for application to Bohunice V1 and V2. REKON has developed plant specific criteria and procedures for the Bohunice V1 reconstruction that incorporate major features of the U.S. developed alternate criteria, comply to local codes and which envelop the draft IAEA Technical Guidelines. Included in these criteria and procedures are comprehensive walkdown screening criteria for equipment, piping, HVAC and cable raceways, analytical criteria which include inelastic energy absorption factors defined on an element basis and testing criteria which include specific guidance on interpretation of existing single axis, single frequency testing and on amplification factors for electrical cabinets. (author)

  16. Re-Evaluating Satellite Solar Power Systems for Earth

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Power Satellite System is a concept to collect solar power in space, and then transport it to the surface of the Earth by microwave (or possibly laser) beam, where if is converted into electrical power for terrestrial use. The recent increase in energy costs, predictions of the near-term exhaustion of oil, and prominence of possible climate change due to the "greenhouse effect" from burning of fossil fuels has again brought alternative energy sources to public attention, and the time is certainly appropriate to reexamine the economics of space based power. Several new concepts for Satellite Power System designs were evaluated to make the concept more economically feasible.

  17. Reevaluation of Turkey's hydropower potential and electric energy demand

    This paper deals with Turkey's hydropower potential and its long-term electric energy demand predictions. In the paper, at first, Turkey's energy sources are briefly reviewed. Then, hydropower potential is analyzed and it has been concluded that Turkey's annual economically feasible hydropower potential is about 188 TWh, nearly 47% greater than the previous estimation figures of 128 TWh. A review on previous prediction models for Turkey's long-term electric energy demand is presented. In order to predict the future demand, new increment ratio scenarios, which depend on both observed data and future predictions of population, energy consumption per capita and total energy consumption, are developed. The results of 11 prediction models are compared and analyzed. It is concluded that Turkey's annual electric energy demand predictions in 2010, 2015 and 2020 vary between 222 and 242 (average 233) TWh; 302 and 356 (average 334) TWh; and 440 and 514 (average 476) TWh, respectively. A discussion on the role of hydropower in meeting long-term demand is also included in the paper and it has been predicted that hydropower can meet 25-35% of Turkey's electric energy demand in 2020

  18. Re-telling, Re-evaluating and Re-constructing

    Gorana Tolja

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Graphic History: Essays on Graphic Novels and/as History '(2012 is a collection of 14 unique essays, edited by scholar Richard Iadonisi, that explores a variety of complex issues within the graphic novel medium as a means of historical narration. The essays address the issues of accuracy of re-counting history, history as re-constructed, and the ethics surrounding historical narration.

  19. Reevaluating the Serotype II Capsular Locus of Streptococcus agalactiae▿

    Martins, E. R.; Melo-Cristino, J.; Ramirez, M.

    2007-01-01

    We report a novel sequence of the serotype II capsular locus of group B streptococcus that resolves inconsistencies among the results of various groups and the sequence in GenBank. This locus was found in diverse lineages and presents genes consistent with the complete synthesis of the type II polysaccharide.

  20. Re-evaluation of the immunological Big Bang.

    Flajnik, Martin F

    2014-11-01

    Classically the immunological 'Big Bang' of adaptive immunity was believed to have resulted from the insertion of a transposon into an immunoglobulin superfamily gene member, initiating antigen receptor gene rearrangement via the RAG recombinase in an ancestor of jawed vertebrates. However, the discovery of a second, convergent adaptive immune system in jawless fish, focused on the so-called variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), was arguably the most exciting finding of the past decade in immunology and has drastically changed the view of immune origins. The recent report of a new lymphocyte lineage in lampreys, defined by the antigen receptor VLRC, suggests that there were three lymphocyte lineages in the common ancestor of jawless and jawed vertebrates that co-opted different antigen receptor supertypes. The transcriptional control of these lineages during development is predicted to be remarkably similar in both the jawless (agnathan) and jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, suggesting that an early 'division of labor' among lymphocytes was a driving force in the emergence of adaptive immunity. The recent cartilaginous fish genome project suggests that most effector cytokines and chemokines were also present in these fish, and further studies of the lamprey and hagfish genomes will determine just how explosive the Big Bang actually was. PMID:25517375

  1. Radiologic Reevaluation of the ampulla of Vater cancer

    To evaluate the radiographic characteristics of the ampulla of Vater cancer. The authors analyzed retrospectively the US(n=25) and CT(n=15) findings in 25 cases of ampulla of Vater cancer, with emphasis on the potential of CT and US in regard to the detectability of the mass. ERCP(n=15) and hypotonic duodenography(n=5) were also evaluated for the configuration of obstructed duct. The tumor was detected on sonography in only 12 cases(48%) as a small, relatively well delineated mass with slightly low echogenicity to the pancreas. The tumor was shown by CT in 8 cases(53%) as a well delineated mass protruding into the second portion of duodenal lumen with slightly low attenuation to the pancreas. CBD was dilated in 25 cases(100%), but pancreatic duct was dilated in 15 cases(60%). Obstructed end of CBD was nipple shaped in 7 cases(47%), clubbed in 3, flat in 3, and indistrict in 2 by ERCP. Hypotonic duodenogram showed irregular filling defect in the medial wall of second portion of the duodenum in 5 cases(100%). Mass detection rate cursing US or CT were not high in ampulla of Vater cancer. Except for a CT finding of small mass protruding into the regional duodenal lumen, other findings were nonspecific. Therefore, additional studies or more aggressive approach should be attempted for a correct diagnosis

  2. A report on seismic re-evaluation of Cirus systems

    Cirus was initiated way back in 1955 and its design was made with the methods prevailing at that time. The design codes and safety standards have changed since then, particularly with respect to seismic design criteria. As the structure is an important safety related structure it is mandatory to meet the present statutory requirement. This report contains the seismic qualification for some of the Cirus systems. The report has four parts. Part I gives the analytical studies performed in the containment building, Part II describes of experimental studies carried out to validate the analytical studies for containment builaing, Part III explains the seismic retrofitting of Battery bank, and Part IV summarizes the seismic qualification of inlet and exhaust damper of Cirus. (author)

  3. Reevaluation of atomic bomb dose in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    The Final Report Vol. 1 of the US-Japan Joint Reassessment of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which was carried out under the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, was released on July 8, 1987. Major contents of the Report are outlined here. The bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are respectively estimated to be equivalent to 22 kt and 12.5 kt of TNT. The number of leakage neutrons from the bombs was 1.07 x 1023 n/kt in Hiroshima and 1.65 x 1023 n/kt in Nagasaki while the number of leakage photons was 3.04 x 1021 γ/kt in Hiroshima and 3.79 x 1022 γ/kt in Nagasaki. The effects of the scattering at the ground surface and atmospheric humidity on the kerma in tissue in Hiroshima are shown. Investigation of the contributions of prompt and delayed neutrons and gamma rays to the kerma in tissue reveals that the dose of delayed gamma rays is increasingly greater than that of prompt gamma rays at points closer to the blast center. The soft tissue kerma values estimated from TL measurements made by various research institutes are compared to calculations. Measurements of neutron-induced radioactivity are also compared to calculations. Some model houses to be used for evaluation of the shielding performance of houses are proposed. Some applications of the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), a procedure for calculating the exposure dose of victims of the bombs developed in 1986 are also described. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Re-evaluation of the data from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    In spite of considerable revisions made in the dosimetric calculations the risk estimates for gamma radiation change little, if the revised dosimetry (DS 86) is used instead of the old one, owing to a number of contradictory changes. A certain rise was observed only in the leukaemia incidence. Nevertheless, clear differences between the new dose dependences for solid tumours and the previous risk estimates based on the work of the UNSCEAR and the recommendations of the ICRP become evident. A rise by about a factor of 2 is conditioned by the rise in cancer mortality that arose in the last decade and is still continuing among the atomic-bomb survivors. (orig./DG)

  5. Tell el Yahudiyeh Ware: a re-evaluation

    The TY (Tell el Yahudiyeh ware) project has implications for understanding the cultural interactions. The Second Intermediate Period (1750-1550 B.C.), one during which centraized government in Egypt collapses and, it is generally assumed, so does her trade network. Foreigners - the Hyksos - are able to enter the country and rule at least part of it. Results of this study (which includes activation analysis), however, indicate the TY is primarily an Egyptian pottery which appeared before the Hyksos entered and may have continued in use after they left. It cannot, therefore, be tightly associated with the Hyksos nor can it be used to judge the extent of their influence. Its wide distribution shows that Egypt continued to trade goods outside her boundaries throughout this period. Finally, not only goods travelled between what were generally considered to have been hostile neighbors, but the trade appears to have included ideas and technology as well

  6. Re-evaluation of ivermectin efficacy against equine gastrointestinal parasites.

    Klei, T R; Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Langholff, W K; Chapman, M R; French, D D; Hanson, P

    2001-07-27

    Two trials were conducted to confirm the efficacy of ivermectin paste against endoparasites of horses. In these trials, 20 ponies were treated with ivermectin oral paste at 200 mcg x kg body weight once on Day 0, and 20 ponies served as unmedicated controls. The animals carried naturally acquired parasite infections as confirmed by pretrial fecal examination. The animals were necropsied for worm recovery on Days 14, 15 or 16. Parasites recovered were identified to species. Horses treated with ivermectin had significantly (P99.0% reduction) adult small strongyles (Coronocyclus spp including C. coronatus, C. labiatus, C. labratus; Cyathostomum spp including C. catinatum, C. pateratum; Cylicocyclus spp including C. ashworthi, C. elongatus, C. insigne, C. leptostomum, C. nassatus, C. radiatus; Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus; Cylicostephanus spp including C. asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. calicatus, C. goldi, C. longibursatus, C. minutus; Gyalocephalus capitatus; Parapoteriostomum spp including P. euproctus, P. mettami; Petrovinema poculatum; Poteriostomum spp including P. imparidentatum, P. ratzii) and adult large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris; Triodontophorus spp including T. brevicauda, T. serratus; Craterostomum acuticaudatum) than the controls. Ivermectin was also highly effective (94% to >99%, POxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum. The data from these two trials confirm that ivermectin paste administered to horses orally at 200mcg x kg(-1) continues to be highly effective for treatment and control of a broad range of small and large strongyle species as well as other species of gastrointestinal parasites. PMID:11423189

  7. Re-Evaluating Risk and Exploring Educational Alternatives

    Brown, Mike; Fraser, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Risk is positioned as a distinguishing feature of outdoor adventure education (OAE) pedagogy. Risk defines much of what happens in OAE, from participants "taking" risks to instructors "managing" risks. The taken-for-granted centrality of risk continues to have currency due to the thrill and allure of adventurous outdoor activities. This paper…

  8. [Need of risk reevaluation in morphine dependence in pain patients].

    Boureau, F; Luu, M; Koskas-Sergent, A S; Doubrere, J F

    1992-11-01

    It is commonly recognized than opioids analgesics have an major place in the treatment of pain. In spite of guidelines, opioids drugs remain underutilized in chronic cancer pain and acute severe pain. Among the possible factors, involved in the insufficient use of opioids drugs, is the fear (opiophoby) of physicians, nurses, patients and family to induce or to maintain an addiction. This review examines the potential of iatrogenic addiction. We will examined the place of morphine-like drugs in the treatment of severe acute pain and chronic cancer pain, the definition of dependency in pain patients, the assessment of the dependency potential in patients treated for pain. Available studies indicate that iatrogenic addiction is quite scarce and that the risk for a major tolerance is very small. Further studies will be necessary, since opioids analgesics may also be useful in some non-cancer chronic pain. PMID:1363796

  9. Re-evaluation of the Tasty Compound: MSG

    Ng, Tina

    2002-01-01

    Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of glutamic acid, is a widely used flavor enhancer. Early reports have claimed that it is the causal agent for adverse reactions experienced after consumption of MSG-containing meals. In 1995, the Food and Drug Administration approved MSG as "generally recognized as safe." Still, there have been much skepticism and controversy over its potential effects. Recently, numerous well-designed studies have been conducted to investigate the existence of t...

  10. A RE-EVALUATION OF THE BULBOUS IRISES

    N. TILLIE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the results of recent morphological and molecular studies on the bulbous irises. The following taxa are discussed: (1 subgenus Scorpiris and its relationship to the bearded irises and subgenus Nepalensis; (2 subgenus Xiphium and the Spuriae - Tenuifoliae alliance; (3 the reticulata irises and their links with the Syriacae.

  11. A RE-EVALUATION OF THE BULBOUS IRISES

    N. TILLIE; Hall, T.; Chase, W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the results of recent morphological and molecular studies on the bulbous irises. The following taxa are discussed: (1) subgenus Scorpiris and its relationship to the bearded irises and subgenus Nepalensis; (2) subgenus Xiphium and the Spuriae - Tenuifoliae alliance; (3) the reticulata irises and their links with the Syriacae.

  12. Reevaluation of and Prospects for Undergraduate Teaching and Learning Evaluation

    Yanbao, Li; Xiaomei, Li; Qiongfei, Qu

    2009-01-01

    Begun in 2003, the National Undergraduate Teaching and Learning Evaluation, conducted in regular universities every five years, has surveyed the significance of evaluation and index scheme improvement at 171 higher education institutions. The launch in January 2007 of the national project of Undergraduate Teaching Quality and Teaching Reform in…

  13. Re-evaluating green marketing strategy : a stakeholder perspective

    Rivera Camino, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The present study aims to examine the influence of stakeholders on green marketing strategy (GMS). Marketing literature recognizes that stakeholders play a significant role in influencing organizations and markets, but has not targeted a single integrated approach to examine the relationship between stakeholder management and GMS. Design/methodology/approach This research comprised several phases, including the development of a typology of GMS, an analysis of how manage...

  14. Reevaluation of the Braginskii viscous force for toroidal plasma

    Johnson, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    The model by Braginskii for the viscous stress tensor is used to determine the shear and gyroviscous forces acting within a toroidally confined plasma. Comparison is made to previous evaluations which contain an inconsistent treatment of the radial derivative and neglect the effect of the pitch angle. A radial gyroviscous force is found to survive the limit of constant density and rigid toroidal rotation of the flux surface, and a radial shear viscous force may develop for sufficient vertical asymmetry to the ion velocity profile.

  15. Excess Barium as a Paleoproductivity Proxy: A Reevaluation

    Eagle, M.; Paytan, A.

    2001-12-01

    Marine barite may serve as a proxy to reconstruct past export production (Dymond, 1992). In most studies sedimentary barite accumulation is not measured directly, instead a parameter termed excess barium (Baexs), also referred to as biogenic barium, is used to estimate the barite content. Baexs is defined as the total Ba concentration in the sediment minus the Ba associated with terrigenous material. Baexs is calculated by normalization to a constant Ba/Al ratio, typically the average shale ratio. This application assumes that (1) all the Ba besides the fraction associated with terrigenous Al is in the form of barite (the phase related to productivity) (2) the Ba/Alshale is constant in space and time (3) all of the Al is associated with terrigenous matter. If these assumptions are invalidated however, this approach lead to significant errors in calculating export production rates. To test the validity of the use of Baexs as a proxy for barite we compared the Baexs in a wide range of core top sediments from different oceanic settings to the barite content in the same cores. We found that Baexs frequently overestimated the Ba fraction associated with barite and in several cases significant Baexs was measured in the cores where no barite was observed. We have also used a sequential leaching protocol (Collier and Edmond 1984) to determine Ba association with organic matter, carbonates, Fe-Mn hydroxides and silicates. While terrigenous Ba remains an important fraction, in our samples 25-95% of non-barite Ba was derived from other fractions, with Fe-Mn oxides contributing the most Ba. In addition we found that the Ba/Al ratio in the silicate fraction of our samples varied considerably from site to site. The above results suggest that at least two of the underlying assumptions for employing Baexs to reconstruct paleoproductivity are not always valid and previously published data from (Murray and Leinen 1993) indicate that the third assumption may also not hold in every oceanic regime. We conclude that using Baexs instead of direct estimates of barite accumulation rates in sediment cores may result in significant errors in estimating past productivity and this proxy should only be used when it is clear that the associated assumptions are valid throughout the cores used. Collier, R. and J. M. Edmond (1984). "The trace elements geochemistry of marine biogenic particulate matter." Progress in Oceanography 13: 113-199. Dymond, J. (1992). "Barium in deep-sea sediment: A geochemical proxy for paleoproductivity." Paleoceanography 7(2): 163-181. Murray, R. W. and M. Leinen (1993). "Chemical transport to the seafloor of the equatorial Pacific Ocean across a latitudinal transect at 135ºW: Tracking sedimentary major, trace, and rare earth element fluxes at the Equator and the Intertropical Convergence Zone." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 57: 4141-4163.

  16. Darwin's place in the history of thought: A reevaluation

    Robert J Richards

    2009-01-01

    Scholars have usually given Darwin's theory a neo-Darwinian interpretation. A more careful examination of the language of Darwin's notebooks and the language of the Origin of Species indicates that he reconstructed nature with a definite purpose: the final goal of man as a moral creature. In the aftermath of the Origin, Darwin, however, became more circumspect.

  17. Cordaiteans in paleotropical wetlands: An ecological re-evaluation

    Raymond, Anne [Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3115 (United States); Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3115 (United States); Lambert, Lance [Dept. of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Costanza, Suzanne [Paleobotanical Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Slone, E.J. [Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3115 (United States); Cutlip, P.C. [Dept. of Natural Science, St. Petersburg College, St. Petersburg, FL 33733-3489 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Cordaiteans in cordaite-dominated permineralized peat from Pennsylvanian coals in Iowa have been reconstructed as mangroves using root anatomy, peat taphonomy, and geochemical data. Macrofloral, palynofloral, and conodont biostratigraphy indicate that these peats come from the latest Atokan Blackoak coal and earliest Desmoinesian Cliffland coal (mid-Moscovian), both in the Kalo Formation. Thus, their depositional setting can be used to evaluate the mangrove hypothesis. In Recent mires, thick mangrove peats have accumulated in tropical to subtropical carbonate systems; in contrast, thick tropical freshwater peats have accumulated in siliclastic systems. Kalo Formation coals, which we interpret as freshwater deposits, formed in siliciclastic depositional settings, similar to those of modern tropical freshwater peat, and to other Pennsylvanian coals in North America interpreted as freshwater deposits. In the late Atokan and earliest Desmoinesian (mid-Moscovian), cordaiteans and tree ferns predominated in the Western Interior and Illinois Basins; lycopsids and cordaiteans predominated in the Appalachian and Donets Basins. The scarcity of lycopsid-only mires in North America during the late Atokan-earliest Desmoinesian (mid-Moscovian) suggests drier climates than during the mid-to-late Desmoinesian (late Moscovian). Rather than indicating mangrove swamps, cordaite-dominated peat may indicate climates with a 'low-rain' season. Although most plants in cordaite-dominated peat probably grew in freshwater, coastal mires in climate zones with seasons of 'low-rain' may harbor mangrove taxa. The Changuinola Swamp of Panama, a modern peat-accumulating wetland that has a 'low-rain' season, is a possible analog of ancient cordaite-dominated mires. In Changuinola, most plants require freshwater; however mangroves, sustained by salt-water influx into the swamp, grow along the seaward edge and along blackwater creeks. The 'low-rain' season hypothesis has implications for understanding rainfall amount and continuity during Pennsylvanian cyclothem deposition. The floral succession in diverse cordaite coals, from cordaiteans to tree ferns to lycopsids, suggests increasingly wet climate during coal accumulation. The position of these coals immediately above the sequence boundary suggests humid climate during early glacial melting for these cyclothems. (author)

  18. Reevaluation of the value of autoparasitoids in biological control.

    Lian-Sheng Zang

    Full Text Available Autoparasitoids with the capacity of consuming primary parasitoids that share the same hosts to produce males are analogous to intraguild predators. The use of autoparasitoids in biological control programs is a controversial matter because there is little evidence to support the view that autoparasitoids do not disrupt and at times may promote suppression of insect pests in combination with primary parasitoids. We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males. The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics. Provided with an adequate number of males, the autoparasitoids killed more hosts than En. formosa, a commonly used parasitoid for biological control of whiteflies. This study supports the view that autoparasitoids in combination with primary parasitoids do not disrupt pest management and may enhance such programs. The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

  19. Locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Chemoradiotherapy, reevaluation and secondary resection; Adenocarcinomes pancreatiques localement evolues. Chimioradiotherapie, reevaluation et resection secondaire?

    Delpero, J.R.; Turrini, O. [Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Dept. de chirurgie, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2006-11-15

    Induction chemoradiotherapy (CRT) may down-stage locally advanced pancreatic tumors but secondary resections are unfrequent. However some responders' patients may benefit of a RO resection. Patients and methods. We report 18 resections among 29 locally advanced pancreatic cancers; 15 patients were treated with neo-adjuvant 5-FU-cisplatin based (13) or taxotere based (2 patients) chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy), and 3 patients without histologically proven adenocarcinoma were resected without any preoperative treatment. Results. The morbidity rate was 28% and the mortality rate was 7%; one patient died after resection (5.5%) and one died after exploration (9%). The RO resection rate was 50%. The median survival for the resected patients was not reached and the actuarial survival at 3 years was 59%. Two specimens showed no residual tumor and the two patients were alive at 15 and 46 months without recurrence; one specimen showed less than 10% viable tumoral cells and the patient was alive at 36 months without recurrence. A mesenteric infarction was the cause of a late death at 3 years in a disease free patient (radiation induced injury of the superior mesenteric artery). The median survival of the 11 non-resected patients was 21 months and the actuarial survival at 2 years was 0%. When the number of the resected patients (18) was reported to the entire cohort of the patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated during the same period in our institution, the secondary resectability rate was 9%. Conclusion. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy identifies poor surgical candidates through observation and may enhance the margin status of patients undergoing secondary resection for locally advanced tumors. However it remains difficult to evaluate the results in the literature because of the variations in the definitions of resectability. The best therapeutic strategy remains to be defined, because the majority of patients ultimately succumb with distant metastatic disease. (author)

  20. 我国文献报道维生素D中毒病例诊断依据分析%Reevaluate of vitamin D intoxication diagnosis of reported cases in recent years in China and the criteria diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D intoxication

    胡燕琪; 盛晓阳

    2011-01-01

    [Objectives] To reevaluate the diagnosis of vitamin D overdose and intoxication in reported cases in China, to improve the awareness of pediatricians on vitamin D overdose and intoxication, and to properly administrate vitamin D supplements. [Methods] All the cases of vitamin D overdose and intoxication reported from January 2004 till May 2010 in major domestic database had been searched by keywords "vitamin D" , "overdose" , "intoxication". The clinical manifestation, laboratory finding, treatment and prognosis of these cases had been reviewed. [Results] A total of 11 references had been searched. There were 475 cases of vitamin D overdose and intoxication had been reported in these references. Among them, 23 cases (4.8 %) meet vitamin D intoxication diagnosis criteria; 17 cases (3.6 % ) were overdose of vitamin D;234 cases (49.3%) could not be confirmed because incomplete information; 201 cases (42.3%) were misdiagnosis. [Conclusions] Almost half of cases are misdiagnosed vitamin D overdose and intoxication. Long-term prophylactic supplement vitamin D is very important to prevent and reduce vitamin D deficiency in children. However, precaution vitamin D abuse or misuse also should be emphasized.%[目的]分析和评估我国近年文献报道的维生素D过量和中毒病例,以期为临床医生正确认识维生素D中毒和预防性补充提供参考.[方法]检索国内主要数据库,收集2004年1月-2010年5月全部维生素D中毒、过量的文献报道,并对报道病例进行分析和总结.[结果]共检索到11篇文献,报道475例维生素D过量或中毒病例.依据目前维生素D过量和中毒诊断标准评估,其中仅23例(4.8%)符合维生素D中毒诊断;17例(3.6%)明确维生素D过量;234例(49.3%)无法肯定诊断;201例(42.3%)缺乏必要诊断依据.[结论]近年来我国确实存在维生素D中毒病例,但部分报道病例诊断依据明显不足.临床医生应警惕维生素D的滥用或误用,同时提高对长

  1. Morris水迷宫测评方法的改进及对快速老化痴呆小鼠SAMP8认知功能的再评价%Improvements of Morris Water Maze Evaluation Method and Re-evaluation of the Rapid Aaging Dementia SAMP8 Cognitive Function in Mice

    刘金凤; 聂坤; 栗振杰; 徐思思; 张莹; 孙金平; 张雪竹

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To improve evaluation of the Morris water maze,which make it more suitable for the e-valuation of the cognitive function of mice. And re-evaluate the cognitive function of the rapid aging dementia mice the SAMP8 (senescence accelerated mouse prone 8). Methods: The SAMP8 group and its homologous normal control mice SAMR1 (senescence accelerated mouse resistant 1) were taken as the research object,and the e-valuation of the Morris water maze conditions was optimized. The effect of the mice spatial reference memory capacity by into water point position,the number of daily swim,test order,color and ect were researched. Results: The SAMP8 mice escape latency in each part of the test significantly was longer than SAMR1 mice. SAMP8 mice swam slower than SAMR1 mice. SAMP8 mice their own swimming speed remained stable during the test. Groups latency show no difference on the first day of change the test method.The SAMP8 mice search strategy were mostly random type and edge-type while the SAMR1 mice were linear type and tend type. Conclusion: Explore trials interspersed in hidden and reverse platform test is more effective in test mice short-term learning memory abilities. The scores of the first day after changing test method can not be the standard of evaluate the learning and memory abilities of mice. 4-5 times a day, the number of training does not affect the swimming speed of the mice. SAMP8 mice is a good animal model to study age-related learning and memory deficits.%目的 改进Morris水迷宫的测评方法,使之更适于评价小鼠的认知功能,并对快速老化痴呆小鼠SAMP8的认知功能进行再评价.方法 以SAMP8组及其正常同源对照小鼠SAMR1为研究对象,优化Morris水迷宫的测评条件,研究入水点位置、每日游泳次数、试验次序、颜色等对其空间参考记忆能力的影响.结果 SAMP8小鼠在各部分试验的逃避潜伏期明显长于SAMR1小鼠;SAMP8小鼠比SAMR1小鼠的游泳速度慢,自身

  2. Dosimetric comparison of IMRT and modulated arc-therapy techniques in the treatment of cervical cancers; Comparaison dosimetrique des techniques de RCMI et d'arctherapie modulee dans le traitement des cancers du col uterin

    Renard-Oldrini, S.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Huger, S.; Marchesi, V.; Bouziz, D.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Nancy (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the dosimetric comparison of two techniques used for the treatment of cervical cancers: the intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) with static beams and modulated arc-therapy with RapidArc. The treatment plans of 15 patients have been compared. The clinical target volume (CTV) comprises the gross target volume, the cervix, the upper third of the vagina, and ganglionary areas. The previsional target volume comprises the clinical target volume and a one centimetre margin. Organs at risk are rectum, bladder, intestine and bone marrow. Arc-therapy seems to provide a better sparing of intestine that IMRT, while maintaining a good coverage of the previsional target volume and decreasing treatment duration. Short communication

  3. Postoperative irradiation of thymomas: intensity-modulated radiotherapy or deep-inspiration breath-hold? Dosimetric investigation; Irradiation postoperatoire des thymomes: radiotherapie avec modulation d'intensite ou en inspiration profonde bloquee? etude dosimetrique

    Paumier, A.; Azoury, F.; Bretel, J.J.; Le Pechoux, C. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Beaudre, A.; Brahim, J.; Ferreira, I.; Lefkopoulos, D. [Unite de physique, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Besse, B. [Departement de medecine, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Dartevelle, P. [Departement de chirurgie, centre chirurgical Marie-Lannelongue, 92 - Le Plessis-Robinson (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report an investigation which aimed at assessing the protection of organs at risk whether conformational radiotherapy with or without intensity modulation is delivered with free breathing or with deep-inspiration breath-hold. Four treatment plans have been computed for eight patients: conventional conformational radiotherapy with free breathing or with deep-inspiration breath-hold, intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy or IMRT with free breathing or with deep-inspiration breath-hold. They compared the mean dose received by the organs at risk: lungs, heart, anterior intraventricular coronary artery, right coronary artery, circumflex coronary artery, oesophagus, and the whole body. A variance analysis has been performed on dosimetric data. It appears that intensity modulation allows the doses delivered to organs at risk to be reduced in the case of postoperative irradiation of thymomas. The breath-hold technique has no real interest for these patients. Short communication

  4. Realisation of dosimetric studies for workplaces with a risk of exposure to ionizing radiations (version 2). Practical guide; Realisation des etudes dosimetriques de poste de travail presentant un risque d'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants (version 2). Guide pratique

    Donadille, L.; Rehel, J.L.; Deligne, J.M.; Queinnec, F.; Aubert, B.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Clairand, I.; Jourdain, J.R.; Rannou, A.

    2010-07-01

    This guide proposes a methodological approach to help carry out dosimetric workplace studies complying with the french regulation, and necessary to identify risks of radiological exposure, optimize radiation protection, classify the workers into different categories and the workplaces into different areas. Additional information is provided relating the main objectives of a workplace study, the French regulatory context, main sources and pathways of exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation protection and operational quantities are reminded. Recommendations about the selection and use of detectors and about the implementation of calculation methods are also provided. The general methodological approach is applied and developed into 'workplace sheets', each one devoted to a particular type of workplace. (authors)

  5. Organ motion study and dosimetric impact of respiratory gating radiotherapy for esophageal cancer; Etude de mobilite organique et impact dosimetrique de l'asservissement respiratoire dans la radiotherapie des cancers de l'oesophage

    Lorchel, F

    2007-04-15

    Chemoradiotherapy is now the standard treatment for locally advanced or inoperable esophageal carcinoma. In this indication, conformal radiotherapy is generally used. However, prognosis remains poor for these patients. Respiratory gating radiotherapy can decrease healthy tissues irradiation and allows escalation dose in lung, liver and breast cancer. In order to improve radiotherapy technique, we propose to study the feasibility of respiratory gating for esophageal cancer. We will study the respiratory motions of esophageal cancer to optimize target volume delineation, especially the internal margin (I.M.). We will test the correlation between tumour and chest wall displacements to prove that esophageal cancer motions are induced by respiration. This is essential before using free breathing respiratory gating systems. We will work out the dosimetric impact of respiratory gating using various dosimetric analysis parameters. We will compare dosimetric plans at end expiration, end inspiration and deep inspiration with dosimetric plan in free-breathing condition. This will allow us to establish the best respiratory phase to irradiate for each gating system. This dosimetric study will be completed with linear quadratic equivalent uniform dose (E.U.D.) calculation for each volume of interest. Previously, we will do a theoretical study of histogram dose volume gradation to point up its use. (author)

  6. Dosimetric uncertainties related to the elasticity of bladder and rectal walls: Adenocarcinoma of the prostate; Incertitudes dosimetriques relatives a l'elasticite de la paroi rectale et vesicale: adenocarcinome de la prostate

    Voyant, C. [University of Corsica, Campus Grimaldi, 20250 Corte (France); CNRS UMR SPE 6134, University of Corsica, Campus Grimaldi, 20250 Corte (France); Radiotherapy Unit, Hospital of Castelluccio, BP 85, 20177 Ajaccio (France); Biffi, K.; Leschi, D.; Briancon, J.; Lantieri, C. [Radiotherapy Unit, Hospital of Castelluccio, BP 85, 20177 Ajaccio (France)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose. - Radiotherapy is an important treatment for prostate cancer. During treatment sessions, bladder and rectal repletion is difficult to quantify and cannot be measured with a single and initial CT scan acquisition. Some methods, such as image-guided radiation therapy and dose-guided radiation therapy, aim to compensate this missing information through periodic CT acquisitions. The aim is to adapt patient's position, beam configuration or prescribed dose for a dosimetric compliance. Methods. - We evaluated organ motion (and repletion) for 54 patients after having computed the original ballistic on a new CT scan acquisition. A new delineation was done on the prostate, bladder and rectum to determine the new displacements and define organ doses mistakes (equivalent uniform dose, average dose and dose-volume histograms). Results. - The new CT acquisitions confirmed that bladder and rectal volumes were not constant during sessions. Some cases showed that previously validated treatment plan became unsuitable. A proposed solution is to correct dosimetries when bladder volume modifications are significant. The result is an improvement for the stability of bladder doses, D50 error is reduced by 25.3%, mean dose error by 5.1% and equivalent uniform dose error by 2.6%. For the rectum this method decreases errors by only 1%. This process can reduce the risk of mismatch between the initial scan and following treatment sessions. Conclusion. - For the proposed method, the cone-beam CT is necessary to properly position the isocenter and to quantify bladder and rectal volume variation and deposited doses. The dosimetries are performed in the event that bladder (or rectum) volume modification limits are exceeded. To identify these limits, we have calculated that a tolerance of 10% for the equivalent uniform dose (compared to the initial value of the first dosimetry), this represents 11% of obsolete dosimetries for the bladder, and 4% for the rectum. (authors)

  7. Iodine-125 trans perineal prostate brachytherapy with pre-planning technique: pre and post-implant dosimetry results analysis; Curietherapie prostatique transperineale par iode 125 avec dosimetrie previsionnelle: analyse des resultats dosimetriques pre- et post-implantation

    Simonian-Sauve, M.; Smart, C.; Mailleux, H.; Rosello, R.; Salem, N. [Institut Paoli Calmettes, 13 - Marseille (France); Bladou, F. [Hopital Salvador, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2003-04-01

    Post-implant CT-based dosimetry is the only method of assessing the quality of permanent prostate brachytherapy. As a consequence of our permanent feedback with the pre-planned technique, geometric and dosimetric criteria for optimal seed implantation are proposed and pre and post-implantation dosimetric results are presented. In 2000 and 2001, one hundred and twenty patients with early stage prostate cancer were treated with trans-perineal I-125 pre-planned brachytherapy (RAPID Strand{sup TM}, Amersham Health). The prescription dose was 145 Gy to the planning target volume. For the pre-planning and post-implant dosimetry the Variseed 6.7 version software was used (Varian Medical Systems). The D90, V 100 and V 150 values, the position of the dose peak [Dose] peak) and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) on differential dose volume histogram from both planned and post-implant dosimetry were compared for all patients. For pre-planned dosimetry, the mean values for D90, V100, V150, [Dose] peak, FWMH were respectively of 199 Gy, 100%, 70%, 220 Gy, 113 Gy. For post-implantation, these values became respectively of 157 Gy, 90%, 62%, 220 Gy, 194 Gy. In our practice, differences are noted between pre-planned and post-implant dosimetry parameters that should be anticipated to assure optimal definitive result. A working methodology both for performing the pre-planned dosimetry and for evaluating the post-implantation dosimetric results is proposed. (authors)

  8. Influence of point defects on dosimetric properties and sintering capability of aluminia {alpha}; Influence des defauts ponctuels sur les proprietes dosimetriques et sur l'aptitude au frittage de l'alumine {alpha}

    Papin, Eric [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France)

    1997-12-11

    This work was devoted to the study of the influence of synthesis conditions on the thermoluminescence of aluminia {alpha} for use in ionizing radiation dosimetry. Powders are synthesized by heat treatment of pure aluminia {gamma} or doped by impregnation technique. The studied parameters are the thermal cycle, the gas atmosphere of the furnace and the nature of the dopants (Mg{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Th{sup 4+}, Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+}). The thermoluminescence (TL) is connected with the presence of point defects. This technique consists in measuring the intensity of light emitted by a previously irradiated solid. Three TL peaks were observed. A peak around - 40 deg. C allows making evident the magnesium impurities and the oxygen vacations. The evolution of the intensity of the two peaks at 190 deg. C and 360 deg. C, is studied as a function of the oxygen partial pressure of the heat treatment and of the Mg{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+} and Th{sup 4+} dopant concentrations. These investigations have permitted identifying the defects implied in the luminescence process of these two peaks, i.e. the aluminium vacations and the Cr{sup 3+} ions substituted to Al{sup 3+}. Thus aluminia powders having a high sensitivity to ionizing radiations (X rays, UV and {gamma} radiations) have been synthesized. Utilization in dosimetry of the peaks at 190 deg. C and 360 deg. C is suggested. The reactivity of non-doped powders containing different types of point defects was analyzed by dilatometry. Thus, the influence of the atmosphere of powder preparation upon the sintering behaviour was made evident. The differences between the removal velocities are correlated with the variations in the aluminium vacancy concentrations. These results suppose that the limiting stage in sintering these powders is the Al{sup 3+} ion diffusion.

  9. Mortality study among veterans with dosimeter monitoring during the French nuclear tests in the Pacific; Etude de mortalite des veterans ayant beneficie d'une surveillance dosimetrique lors des essais nucleaires francais dans le Pacifique

    Pedrono, G.; Pachol, H.; Segala, C. [SEPIA-sante, 31, rue de Pontivy, 56150 Baud (France)

    2011-06-15

    Background: A mortality study was carried out in a cohort of veterans present on the sites of the French nuclear experiments center in the Pacific (CEP) from 1966 to 1996, and for whom external dosimeter monitoring recordings were available. Methods: The cohort included 32,550 veterans having had at least one dosimetry recording. Current vital status was collected from the National Register of Identification of Physical People and causes of death data from the national causes of death database. Total mortality and mortality by cause were compared with mortality of the French population using standardized mortality ratios (SMR). To test the effect of a dosimeter recording higher than the threshold (0.2 mSv), i.e., no null dosimetry, the mortality of veterans was compared inside the cohort, using standardized ratios and Poisson regression models. Results: The mortality analysis was performed among 26,524 men, of whom 8% had had at least one non-null dosimeter. Five thousand four hundred and ninety-two (21%) veterans died before December 31, 2008 and causes were available for nearly 97% of these deaths. Comparing the mortality between the cohort and the French population highlighted a deficit of mortality, for all causes, by cancer and for radiation-induced pathologies; these results were related to the 'healthy worker effect'. The data showed that all causes mortality and cancer mortality of the cohort of veterans with no null dosimeter were not different from those of other veterans, but also showed an excess of hematological malignancies in this sub-population: this excess was significant in the regression model (RR = 1.82; CI 95% [1.6-2.0]). Conclusion: Among veterans with an external dosimeter monitoring recording, presence on the sites of CEP from 1966 to 1996 does not constitute a factor of increased mortality compared with the national population. However, an increased risk was observed for mortality by hematological malignancies among veterans with no null dosimetry. This result is in line with studies on veterans present during nuclear experiments abroad. (authors)

  10. Personnel radiation protection. Situation of the dosimetry surveillance of external exposure in 2003; La radioprotection des travailleurs. Bilan de la surveillance dosimetrique de l'exposition externe en 2003

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The situation of external exposure of workers for the year 2003 has been realised according to the same method than this one of the year 2002. It does not show big variations of trends, both in term of workforce watched and collective doses alike associated in the different sectors of activity. Some differences observed between the two years can explain by real evolutions of situations. For example, the 2800 workers registered in the veterinary sector are the result of a better awareness of this profession for the radiation protection during the last months. Some variations can be the results of artefacts in the data processing. The centralization at I.R.S.N. of the whole of dosimetry data should allow to make easy the data treatment and to improve the statistics of occupational exposure. (N.C.)

  11. Quality control of the treatment planning systems dose calculations in external radiation therapy using the Penelope Monte Carlo code; Controle qualite des systemes de planification dosimetrique des traitements en radiotherapie externe au moyen du code Monte-Carlo Penelope

    Blazy-Aubignac, L

    2007-09-15

    The treatment planning systems (T.P.S.) occupy a key position in the radiotherapy service: they realize the projected calculation of the dose distribution and the treatment duration. Traditionally, the quality control of the calculated distribution doses relies on their comparisons with dose distributions measured under the device of treatment. This thesis proposes to substitute these dosimetry measures to the profile of reference dosimetry calculations got by the Penelope Monte-Carlo code. The Monte-Carlo simulations give a broad choice of test configurations and allow to envisage a quality control of dosimetry aspects of T.P.S. without monopolizing the treatment devices. This quality control, based on the Monte-Carlo simulations has been tested on a clinical T.P.S. and has allowed to simplify the quality procedures of the T.P.S.. This quality control, in depth, more precise and simpler to implement could be generalized to every center of radiotherapy. (N.C.)

  12. Evaluation and re-evaluation of genetic radiation hazards in man

    A detailed presentation is made of the experimental data from the various systems used by Abrahamson to conclude that the per locus per rad (low LET) radiation-induced forward mutation rates in organisms whose DNA content varies by a factor of about 1000, is proportional to genome size. Additional information pertinent in this context is also reviewed. It is emphasized that the mutation rates cited by Abrahamson, although considered as pertaining to mutations at specific loci, actually derive from a broad variety of genetic end-points. It is argued that an initial (if not sufficient) condition for sound interspecific mutation rate comparisons, covering a wide range of organisms and detecting systems of various sensitivities, requires a reasonably consistent biological definition of a specific locus mutation, namely, a transmissible intralocus change. Granting the differences between systems in their resolving power to detect intergenic change, the data cited in this paper do not support the existence of a simple proportionality between radiation-induced intralocus mutation rate and genome size for the different species reviewed here

  13. Aragonian stratigraphy reconsidered, and a re-evaluation of the middle Miocene mammal biochronology in Europe

    Daams, R.; Meulen, A.J. van der; Alvarez Sierra, M.A.; Peláez-Campomanes, P.; Krijgsman, W.

    2001-01-01

    The recently collected fauna of Armantes 1A in Chron C5Br of the Armantes section necessitates reinterpretation of the previous bio- and magnetostratigraphical correlations between the Armantes and Vargas sections (Calatayud-Daroca Basin, Central Spain) [W. Krijgsman, M. Garcés, C.G. Langereis, R. D

  14. Medial prefrontal cortical activity reflects dynamic re-evaluation during voluntary persistence.

    McGuire, Joseph T; Kable, Joseph W

    2015-05-01

    Deciding how long to keep waiting for future rewards is a nontrivial problem, especially when the timing of rewards is uncertain. We carried out an experiment in which human decision makers waited for rewards in two environments in which reward-timing statistics favored either a greater or lesser degree of behavioral persistence. We found that decision makers adaptively calibrated their level of persistence for each environment. Functional neuroimaging revealed signals that evolved differently during physically identical delays in the two environments, consistent with a dynamic and context-sensitive reappraisal of subjective value. This effect was observed in a region of ventromedial prefrontal cortex that is sensitive to subjective value in other contexts, demonstrating continuity between valuation mechanisms involved in discrete choice and in temporally extended decisions analogous to foraging. Our findings support a model in which voluntary persistence emerges from dynamic cost/benefit evaluation rather than from a control process that overrides valuation mechanisms. PMID:25849988

  15. The social psychology of seismic hazard adjustment: re-evaluating the international literature

    Solberg, C.; Rossetto, T.; Joffe, H.

    2010-08-01

    The majority of people at risk from earthquakes do little or nothing to reduce their vulnerability. Over the past 40 years social scientists have tried to predict and explain levels of seismic hazard adjustment using models from behavioural sciences such as psychology. The present paper is the first to synthesise the major findings from the international literature on psychological correlates and causes of seismic adjustment at the level of the individual and the household. It starts by reviewing research on seismic risk perception. Next, it looks at norms and normative beliefs, focusing particularly on issues of earthquake protection responsibility and trust between risk stakeholders. It then considers research on attitudes towards seismic adjustment attributes, specifically beliefs about efficacy, control and fate. It concludes that an updated model of seismic adjustment must give the issues of norms, trust, power and identity a more prominent role. These have been only sparsely represented in the social psychological literature to date.

  16. Re-evaluation of the T2KK physics potential with simulations including backgrounds

    Hagiwara, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    The Tokai-to-Kamioka-and-Korea (T2KK) neutrino oscillation experiment under examination can have a high sensitivity to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy for a combination of relatively large (\\sim 3.0^circ) off-axis angle beam at Super-Kamiokande (SK) and small (\\sim 0.5^circ) off-axis angle at L \\sim 1,000km in Korea. We elaborate previous studies by taking into account smearing of reconstructed neutrino energy due to finite resolution of electron or muon energies, nuclear Fermi motion and resonance production, as well as the neutral current \\pi^0 production background to the nu_mu to nu_e oscillation signal. It is found that the mass hierarchy pattern can still be determined at 3sigma level if sin^22thata_rct \\quiv 4|U_{e3}|^2(1-|U_{e3}|^2) \\gsim 0.08(0.09) when the hierarchy is normal (inverted) with 5 \\times10^{21} POT exposure, or 5 years of the T2K experiment, if a 100kton water cherenkov detector is placed in Korea. The \\pi^0 backgrounds deteriorate the capability of the mass hierarchy determinatio...

  17. Re-evaluation of the T2KK physics potential with simulations including backgrounds

    Hagiwara, Kaoru; Okamura, Naotoshi

    2009-07-01

    The Tokai-to-Kamioka-and-Korea (T2KK) neutrino oscillation experiment under examination can have a high sensitivity to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy for a combination of relatively large ( ~ 3.0°) off-axis angle beam at Super-Kamiokande (SK) and small ( ~ 0.5°) off-axis angle at L ~ 1,000 km in Korea. We elaborate previous studies by taking into account smearing of reconstructed neutrino energy due to finite resolution of electron or muon energies, nuclear Fermi motion and resonance production, as well as the neutral current π0 production background to the νμ → νe oscillation signal. It is found that the mass hierarchy pattern can still be determined at 3σ level if sin22θRCT ≡ 4|Ue3|2(1 - |Ue3|2) >~ 0.08(0.09) when the hierarchy is normal (inverted) with 5 × 1021} POT (protons on target) exposure, or 5 years of the T2K experiment, if a 100 kton water Čerenkov detector is placed in Korea. The π0 backgrounds deteriorate the capability of the mass hierarchy determination, whereas the events from CC nuclear resonance productions contribute positively to the hierarchy discrimination power. We also find that the π0 backgrounds seriously affect the CP phase measurement. Although δMNS can still be constrained with an accuracy of ~ ±45° (±60°) at 1σ level for the normal (inverted) hierarchy with the above exposure if sin22θRCT >~ 0.04, CP violation can no longer be established at 3σ level even for δMNS = ±90° and sin22θRCT = 0.1. About four times higher exposure will be needed to measure δMNS with ±30° accuracy.

  18. Re-evaluation of the T2KK physics potential with simulations including backgrounds

    Hagiwara, Kaoru; Okamura, Naotoshi

    2009-01-01

    The Tokai-to-Kamioka-and-Korea (T2KK) neutrino oscillation experiment under examination can have a high sensitivity to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy for a combination of relatively large (\\sim 3.0^circ) off-axis angle beam at Super-Kamiokande (SK) and small (\\sim 0.5^circ) off-axis angle at L \\sim 1,000km in Korea. We elaborate previous studies by taking into account smearing of reconstructed neutrino energy due to finite resolution of electron or muon energies, nuclear Fermi motion a...

  19. Re-evaluating the Frankfurt isothermal static diffusion chamber for ice nucleation

    J. Schrod

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently significant advances have been made in the collection, detection, and characterization of ice nucleating particles (INP. Ice nuclei are particles that facilitate the heterogeneous formation of ice within the atmospheric aerosol by lowering the free energy barrier to spontaneous nucleation and growth of ice from atmospheric water and/or vapor. The Frankfurt isostatic diffusion chamber (FRIDGE is an INP collection and offline detection system that has become widely deployed and shows additional potential for ambient measurements. Since its initial development FRIDGE has gone through several iterations and improvements. Here we describe improvements that have been made in the collection and analysis techniques. We detail the uncertainties inherent in the measurement method, and suggest a systematic method of error analysis for FRIDGE measurements. Thus what is presented herein should serve as a foundation for the dissemination of all current and future measurements using FRIDGE instrumentation.

  20. Re-evaluating the Frankfurt isothermal static diffusion chamber for ice nucleation

    J. Schrod; A. Danielczok; Weber, D.; M. Ebert; Thomson, E. S.; H. G. Bingemer

    2015-01-01

    Recently significant advances have been made in the collection, detection, and characterization of ice nucleating particles (INP). Ice nuclei are particles that facilitate the heterogeneous formation of ice within the atmospheric aerosol by lowering the free energy barrier to spontaneous nucleation and growth of ice from atmospheric water and/or vapor. The Frankfurt isostatic diffusion chamber (FRIDGE) is an INP collection and offline detection system that has become widely deployed and sho...

  1. Re-evaluating the Frankfurt isothermal static diffusion chamber for ice nucleation

    Schrod, Jann; Danielczok, Anja; Weber, Daniel; Ebert, Martin; Thomson, Erik S.; Bingemer, Heinz G.

    2016-01-01

    Recently significant advances have been made in the collection, detection and characterization of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Ice nuclei are particles that facilitate the heterogeneous formation of ice within the atmospheric aerosol by lowering the free energy barrier to spontaneous nucleation and growth of ice from atmospheric water and/or vapor. The Frankfurt isostatic diffusion chamber (FRankfurt Ice nucleation Deposition freezinG Experiment: FRIDGE) is an INP collecti...

  2. Re-evaluating the Frankfurt isothermal static diffusion chamber for ice nucleation

    Schrod, Jann; Danielczok, Anja; Weber, Daniel; Ebert, Martin; Thomson, Erik S.; Bingemer, Heinz G.

    2016-03-01

    Recently significant advances have been made in the collection, detection and characterization of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Ice nuclei are particles that facilitate the heterogeneous formation of ice within the atmospheric aerosol by lowering the free energy barrier to spontaneous nucleation and growth of ice from atmospheric water and/or vapor. The Frankfurt isostatic diffusion chamber (FRankfurt Ice nucleation Deposition freezinG Experiment: FRIDGE) is an INP collection and offline detection system that has become widely deployed and shows additional potential for ambient measurements. Since its initial development FRIDGE has gone through several iterations and improvements. Here we describe improvements that have been made in the collection and analysis techniques. We detail the uncertainties inherent in the measurement method and suggest a systematic method of error analysis for FRIDGE measurements. Thus what is presented herein should serve as a foundation for the dissemination of all current and future measurements using FRIDGE instrumentation.

  3. Reevaluation of whether a soma-to-germ-line transformation extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Knutson, Andrew Kekūpa'a; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Strome, Susan

    2016-03-29

    The germ lineage is considered to be immortal. In the quest to extend lifespan, a possible strategy is to drive germ-line traits in somatic cells, to try to confer some of the germ lineage's immortality on the somatic body. Notably, a study in Caenorhabditis elegans suggested that expression of germ-line genes in the somatic cells of long-lived daf-2 mutants confers some of daf-2's long lifespan. Specifically, mRNAs encoding components of C. elegans germ granules (P granules) were up-regulated in daf-2 mutant worms, and knockdown of individual P-granule and other germ-line genes in daf-2 young adults modestly reduced their lifespan. We investigated the contribution of a germ-line program to daf-2's long lifespan and also tested whether other mutants known to express germ-line genes in their somatic cells are long-lived. Our key findings are as follows. (i) We could not detect P-granule proteins in the somatic cells of daf-2 mutants by immunostaining or by expression of a P-granule transgene. (ii) Whole-genome transcript profiling of animals lacking a germ line revealed that germ-line transcripts are not up-regulated in the soma of daf-2 worms compared with the soma of control worms. (iii) Simultaneous removal of multiple P-granule proteins or the entire germ-line program from daf-2 worms did not reduce their lifespan. (iv) Several mutants that robustly express a broad spectrum of germ-line genes in their somatic cells are not long-lived. Together, our findings argue against the hypothesis that acquisition of a germ-cell program in somatic cells increases lifespan and contributes to daf-2's long lifespan. PMID:26976573

  4. A reevaluation of X-irradiation-induced phocomelia and proximodistal limb patterning.

    Galloway, Jenna L; Delgado, Irene; Ros, Maria A; Tabin, Clifford J

    2009-07-16

    Phocomelia is a devastating, rare congenital limb malformation in which the long bones are shorter than normal, with the upper portion of the limb being most severely affected. In extreme cases, the hands or fingers are attached directly to the shoulder and the most proximal elements (those closest to the shoulder) are entirely missing. This disorder, previously known in both autosomal recessive and sporadic forms, showed a marked increase in incidence in the early 1960s due to the tragic toxicological effects of the drug thalidomide, which had been prescribed as a mild sedative. This human birth defect is mimicked in developing chick limb buds exposed to X-irradiation. Both X-irradiation and thalidomide-induced phocomelia have been interpreted as patterning defects in the context of the progress zone model, which states that a cell's proximodistal identity is determined by the length of time spent in a distal limb region termed the 'progress zone'. Indeed, studies of X-irradiation-induced phocomelia have served as one of the two major experimental lines of evidence supporting the validity of the progress zone model. Here, using a combination of molecular analysis and lineage tracing in chick, we show that X-irradiation-induced phocomelia is fundamentally not a patterning defect, but rather results from a time-dependent loss of skeletal progenitors. Because skeletal condensation proceeds from the shoulder to fingers (in a proximal to distal direction), the proximal elements are differentially affected in limb buds exposed to radiation at early stages. This conclusion changes the framework for considering the effect of thalidomide and other forms of phocomelia, suggesting the possibility that the aetiology lies not in a defect in the patterning process, but rather in progenitor cell survival and differentiation. Moreover, molecular evidence that proximodistal patterning is unaffected after X-irradiation does not support the predictions of the progress zone model. PMID:19553938

  5. A reevaluation of X-irradiation-induced phocomelia and proximodistal limb patterning

    Galloway, Jenna L.; Delgado, Irene; Ros, María A.; Tabin, Clifford J.

    2009-01-01

    Phocomelia is a devastating, rare congenital limb malformation in which the long bones are shorter than normal, with the upper portion of the limb being most severely affected. In extreme cases, the hands or fingers are attached directly to the shoulder and the most proximal elements (those closest to the shoulder) are entirely missing. This disorder, previously known in both autosomal recessive and sporadic forms, showed a dramatic increase in incidence in the early 1960’s due to the tragic ...

  6. Reevaluation of the 131I thyroid uptake in Rio de Janeiro

    The values of the 3 and 24 hour thyroid radioiodine uptake were analysed in 919 of the patients examined during 1977-1980. Reference values determined for 95% of the normal population are 2.5 - 17.5% for the 3 hour thyroid uptake values, and 10.5 - 41.2% for the 24 hour values. The non-toxic diffuse goiter group has significantly higher mean values than normals or patients with non-toxic nodular goiters and cold nodules, their upper values reaching 24.7% and 52.9% for 3 and 24 hour uptake. The discriminatory power of the test for non-toxic diffuse goiters may be increased if higher limits than those determined for normals are used in day to day routine. Values of 20% for 3 hour uptake and 45% for the 24 hour uptake improve diagnosis in these patients without seriously reducing the capacity for identification of thyrotoxicosis. A value greater than 0.6 for the ratio between the 3 hour and 24 hour uptake can serve as a coadjuvant factor in the diagnosis of diffuse toxic goiters; values higher than 0.8 were found in less than 0.5% of the non-toxic patients. (Author)

  7. Re-evaluation of Probable Maximum Tsunamis for Korean Nuclear Power Plant Sites

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Park, Sang ho; Bae, Jae Seok; Cho, Yong-Sik; Yoon, Sung Bum

    2014-05-01

    Most of tsunami-triggering earthquakes occur in subduction zones around the Pacific Ocean area including the East Sea surrounded by Korea, Japan and Russia. In the East Sea, there were three major historical tsunami events occurred in 1964, 1983 and 1993. Among them, the Central East Sea Tsunami occurred in 1983, in special, caused huge losses of human lives and property damage at Korean coastal communities. There are several nuclear power plants under operation and several more plants will be built along the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula. These historical tsunamis were considered individually to evaluate the probable maximum tsunamis for Korean nuclear power plant sites. Recently, several catastrophic tsunamis have been occurred around the Pacific Ocean rim. Among them, the East Japan Tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 has attracted social attention due to the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The accident is still going on. Therefore, new approach to evaluate the probable maximum tsunamis for the Korean sites is investigated in this study. Joint rupture of historical tsunami sources and hypothetical tsunami sources is employed to define the new source parameters of the probable maximum tsunami. The hypothetical tsunamis are inferred from the seismic gap theories. The numerical model using the modified leap-frog finite difference scheme is used to simulate the propagation of the new probable maximum tsunami across the East Sea and the numerical model simulating the associated run-up process of tsunamis is then employed to estimate the maximum run-up heights. Predicted results will be used to make a measure against unexpected tsunami attacks.

  8. Re-evaluation of Eko-Remaja uranium ore body, Kalan, west Kalimantan

    Uranium ore body which has been discovered at Eko-Remaja Hill belongs to the vein type system, but later on, after mining test study the oer body might not be as ideal as the vein from; at the southern part they show deviation from the original direction or even discontinue. From the view of the mining work these veins seem to from another type of ore body, which is called a stock work. The stock work consists of groups of closed vein, and the stock work at Eko is assumed to have 6 groups corning from 16 vein system. The stock work ore body seems to fit and to be supported also by the uranium geology condition at Eko hill. According to this assumption, the quality and the quantity of the uranium ore body will change, and the result of the evaluation will have a total of 4.32 million ton of ore, containing 531,56 ton uranium and it can be recovered at as much 0.18 Kg U3O8/ton ore. The mining system for these stock works vein system at Eko Hill is underground bulk mine, which is characterised by higher production capacities compared to underground shrinkage stopping mine

  9. Re-evaluation of an animal model for ADHD using a free-operant choice task.

    Pardey, Margery C; Homewood, Judi; Taylor, Alan; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2009-01-30

    Previous research using free-operant procedures have reported that the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) is more impulsive and inattentive than the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. Recently these behavioural differences have been suggested to be a consequence of differences in the overall activity of these strains. This study compared SHRs to WKYs on locomotor activity and delay sensitivity using a delayed reinforcement (DR) and extinction (EXT) task. SHRs maintained higher locomotor activity than WKYs, however no significant group differences were found on the total lever presses in the DR or EXT tasks. During the DR task, SHRs shifted to selecting the immediate small reinforcer significantly faster than WKYs as the delay increased. WKYs predominantly selected the lever previously associated with the delayed large reinforcer throughout the EXT task, while the SHRs showed no such preference. The significant group differences found on lever selection during the DR and EXT tasks suggests that SHRs are more sensitive to delays, therefore providing further support for the face validity of the SHR as an animal model of ADHD. PMID:18835408

  10. It is time to reevaluate the management of patients with brain metastases.

    Kondziolka, Douglas; Kalkanis, Steven N; Mehta, Minesh P; Ahluwalia, Manmeet; Loeffler, Jay S

    2014-07-01

    There are many elements to the science that drives the clinical care of patients with brain metastases. Although part of an understanding that continues to evolve, a number of key historical misconceptions remain that commonly drive physicians' and researchers' attitudes and approaches. By understanding how these relate to current practice, we can better comprehend our available science to provide both better research and care. These past misconceptions include: Misconception 1: Once a primary cancer spreads to the brain, the histology of that primary tumor does not have much impact on response to chemotherapy, sensitivity to radiation, risk of further brain relapse, development of additional metastatic lesions, or survival. All tumor primary histologies are the same once they spread to the brain. They are the same in terms of the number of tumors, radiosensitivity, chemoresponsiveness, risk of further brain relapse, and survival. Misconception 2: The number of brain metastases matters. This number matters in terms of subsequent brain relapse, survival, and cognitive dysfunction; the precise number of metastases can also be used as a limit in determining which patients might be eligible for a particular treatment option. Misconception 3: Cancer in the brain is always a diffuse problem due to the presence of micrometastases. Misconception 4: Whole-brain radiation therapy invariably causes disabling cognitive dysfunction if a patient lives long enough. Misconception 5: Most brain metastases are symptomatic. Thus, it is not worth screening patients for brain metastases, especially because the impact on survival is minimal. The conduct and findings of past clinical research have led to conceptions that affect clinical care yet appear limiting. PMID:24662510

  11. RE-EVALUATION OF THE MECHANISM AND TREATMENT OF ANGINA DECUBITUS

    陈纪林; 陈在嘉; 徐义枢; 高润霖; 寇文蓉; 姚康宝; 于全俊; 陶寿琪

    1996-01-01

    30 patients with angina decubittus(AD) were studied during hospitalization. These patients were found to have severe coronary artery obstructive lesions and an increase of myocardial oxygen consumption (MOC) before the onset to AD, indicating that AD belongs to the category of effort angina. 18 patients were investigated by continuous hemodynamic mordtoring. Three patients had significant increase in pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (PADP) before the onset. In the other 15 patients, PADP increased slightly in J2 and remained unchanged in 3 cases before the onset. Left ventriculography showed ejection fraction (EF))45% in 25 of the 27 patients. These results indicate that left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction is not a major factor in the pathogenesis of AD. The patients with LVEDP>12 mmHg constituted 60% of 25 patients with EF)45%, suggesting that these patients had obvious LV diastolic dysfunction, which may he the major factor in the pathogenesis of AD. According to the results of our treatment, Beta blockers may be used as the major form of treatment in the patients with AD.

  12. Was John Dewey Ethnocentric? Reevaluating the Philosopher's Early Views on Culture and Race

    Fallace, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    In this historical study, the author explores the early racial and cultural views of John Dewey. The author argues that, during his years at the University of Chicago, when he wrote the majority of his works on education, Dewey considered American non-White minorities to be biologically equal to Whites but socially deficient. In particular, Dewey…

  13. Re-evaluation of 60Co treatment facility of Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital

    The radiological protection assessment based on the shielding of the Co-60 Radiotherapy facility at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital after the source replacement has been carried out. The results indicate that the concrete biological shield is adequate to attenuate the gamma photons from the new 222 TBq Co-60 source in use. The dose rates at critical locations of the public access area are within the recommended dose rate limit of O.5J..1Sv/h and 7.5J..1Sv/h for public and staff respectively. Thus the shielding has not deteriorated and still provides adequate protection for members of the public and the operating staff (au).

  14. On the turnaround of stratospheric ozone trends deduced from the reevaluated Umkehr record of Arosa, Switzerland

    Zanis, P.; Maillard, E.; Staehelin, J.; Zerefos, C.; Kosmidis, E.; Tourpali, K.; Wohltmann, I.

    2006-11-01

    In this work, we investigate the issue of the turnaround in ozone trends of the recently homogenized Umkehr ozone record of Arosa, Switzerland, which is the longest Umkehr data set, extending from 1956 to date, using different statistical methods. All methods show statistically significant negative ozone trends from 1970 to 1995 in the upper stratosphere (above 32.6 km) throughout the course of the year as well as in the lower stratosphere (below 23.5 km) mainly during winter to spring, which can be partially attributed to dynamical changes. Over the recent period (1996-2004) the year-round trends in the lower stratosphere become positive and are more positive during the winter to spring period. The results also show changes in upper stratospheric ozone trends after 1996, which are, however, not statistically significant at 95% if aerosol correction is applied on the retrieved data. This lack of significant trend changes during the recent period in the upper stratosphere is regionally coherent with recent results derived from upper stratospheric ozone data recorded by lidars, microwave radiometers, and satellite instruments at an adjacent location. Although the positive change in trends after 1996 both for upper and lower stratospheric ozone is in line with the reduction of the emissions of ozone-depleting substances from the successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments, we recommend, because of lack of significance for the upper stratospheric trends, repeating this analysis in a few years in order to overcome ambiguous results for documentation of the turnaround of upper stratospheric ozone.

  15. Reevaluating the first and the second dividends of environmental tax reforms

    Gimenez, Eduardo L. [Departamento de Fundamentos da Analise Economica e Historia e Institucions Economicas and rede, Universidade de Vigo (Spain); Rodriguez, Miguel [Departamento de Economia Aplicada and rede, Universidade de Vigo (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    There is increasing global interest in market-based climate change policies following the last elections in the United States. In this context an Exxon Mobil chief executive came out in favour of a carbon tax. This paper is concerned with the welfare analysis of Environmental Tax Reforms (ETR), and takes up the claims for the need of an unambiguous and operative definition of the double dividend both for empirical purposes and political advisement. In this paper, we contest the usual definition of the second dividend and its assimilation to an 'efficiency dividend'. We propose alternative definitions by suggesting a different splitting of the total welfare variation between the first and the second dividend in order to isolate the efficiency effects of the ETR. The new definitions become clearly understandable and easy for economic and policy interpretation. Concepts like 'weak' and 'strong' double dividend turn out to be unnecessary. Finally, we analyze ETR for the US economy to illustrate the advantages of the proposed definitions for policy implementation. (author)

  16. Reevaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Thymus spp. extracts before and after encapsulation in liposomes.

    Gortzi, Olga; Lalas, Stavros; Chinou, Ioanna; Tsaknis, John

    2006-12-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of four Thymus species (boissieri, longicaulis, leucospermus, and ocheus) extracts were determined. Two methods (Rancimat and malondialdehyde by high-performance liquid chromatography) were used to measure the antioxidant action in comparison with common commercial antioxidants, including butylated hydroxytoluene and alpha-tocopherol. The extracts that presented high antioxidant activity were encapsulated in liposomes and their antioxidant action was again estimated. Thermal-oxidative decomposition of the samples (pure liposomes and encapsulating extracts) was studied using the differential scanning calorimetry method. The modification of the main transition temperature for the lipid mixture and the splitting of the calorimetric peak in the presence of the antioxidants were also demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry. All extracts showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Some extracts showed superior or equal antioxidant activity to alpha-tocopherol. When the extracts were encapsulated in liposomes, their antioxidant as well as antimicrobial activities proved to be superior from the same extracts in pure form. PMID:17186670

  17. Reevaluating the Concept of Treating Experimental Tumors with a Mixed Bacterial Vaccine: Coley's Toxin

    Maletzki, C.; Klier, U.; W. Obst; Kreikemeyer, B.; Linnebacher, M

    2012-01-01

    Several decades after Coley's initial work, we here systematically analyzed tumoricidal as well as immunostimulatory effects of the historical preparation Coley's Toxin (CT), a safe vaccine made of heat-inactivated S. pyogenes and S. marcescens. First, by performing in vitro analysis, established human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines responded with dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition. Effects were attributed to necrotic as well as apoptotic cell death as determined by increased Caspase...

  18. Re-evaluation of batoid pectoral morphology reveals novel patterns of diversity among major lineages.

    Martinez, Christopher M; Rohlf, F James; Frisk, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    Batoids (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea) are a diverse group of cartilaginous fishes which comprise a monophyletic sister lineage to all neoselachians or modern sharks. All species in this group possess anteroposteriorly expanded-pectoral fins, giving them a unique disc-like body form. Reliance on pectoral fins for propulsion ranges from minimal (sawfish) to almost complete dependence (skates and rays). A recent study on the diversity of planform pectoral fin shape in batoids compared overall patterns of morphological variation within the group. However, inconsistent pectoral homology prevented the study from accurately representing relationships within and among major batoid taxa. With previous work in mind, we undertook an independent investigation of pectoral form in batoids and evaluated the implications of shape diversity on locomotion and lifestyle, particularly in the skates (Rajoidei) and rays (Myliobatoidei). We used geometric morphometrics with sliding semilandmarks to analyze pectoral fin outlines and also calculate fin aspect ratios (AR), a functional trait linked to locomotion. In agreement with previous work, our results indicated that much of the evolution of batoid pectoral shape has occurred along a morphological axis that is closely related to AR. For species where kinematic data were available, both shape and AR were associated with swimming mode. This work further revealed novel patterns of shape variation among batoids, including strong bimodality of shape in rays, an intermediate location of skate species in the morphospace between benthic/demersal and pelagic rays, and approximately parallel shape trajectories in the benthic/demersal rays and skates. Finally, manipulation of landmarks verified the need for a consistent and accurate definition of homology for the outcome and efficacy of analyses of pectoral form and function in batoids. PMID:26869186

  19. Bathymetric limits of chondrichthyans in the deep sea: A re-evaluation

    Musick, J. A.; Cotton, C. F.

    2015-05-01

    Chondrichthyans are largely absent in abyssal (>3000 m) habitats in most regions of the world ocean and are uncommon below 2000 m. The deeper-living chondrichthyans include certain rajids, squaliforms and holocephalans. Several hypotheses have been erected to explain the absence of chondrichthyans from the abyss. These are mostly based on energetics: deep-sea food webs are impoverished due to their distance from primary production, and chondrichthyans, occupying the highest trophic levels, cannot be supported due to entropy among trophic levels. We examined this hypothesis by comparing trophic levels, calculated from dietary data, of deep-sea chondrichthyans with those of deep-sea teleosts. Chondrichthyans were mostly above trophic level 4, whereas all the teleosts examined were below that level. Both small and medium squaloids, as well as sharks and skates of large size, feed on fishes, cephalopods and scavenged prey, and thus occupy the highest trophic levels in bathydemersal fish communities. In addition, whereas teleosts and chondrichthyans both store lipids in their livers to support long periods of fasting, chondrichthyans must devote much of their liver lipids to maintain neutral buoyancy. Consequently teleosts with swim bladders are better adapted to survive in the abyss where food sources are sparse and unpredictable. The potential prey field for both chondrichthyans and teleosts declines in biomass and diversity with depth, but teleosts have more flexibility in their feeding mechanisms and food habits, and occupy abyssal trophic guilds for which chondrichthyans are ill adapted.

  20. Using genetic inference to re-evaluate the minimum longevity of the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris.

    Brooks, J L; Guttridge, T L; Franks, B R; Grubbs, R D; Chapman, D D; Gruber, S H; Dibattista, J D; Feldheim, K A

    2016-05-01

    A combination of mark-recapture and genetic sampling was used to extend the minimum longevity of an elasmobranch species and the life span estimate of the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris was increased conservatively from 20·2 to 37 years. This increase in longevity means higher vulnerability and a longer recovery time from exploitation. PMID:27060882

  1. A reevaluation of the late quaternary sedimentation in todos os Santos Bay (BA, Brazil

    GUILHERME C. LESSA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Todos os Santos Bay is a large ( 1000 km², structurally controlled tidal bay in northeast Brazil. Three main drainage basins debouch into the bay, providing a mean freshwater discharge of 200 m³/s (prior to 1985, or less than 1% of the spring tidal discharge through the bay mouth. Based on the result of several sedimentological studies performed in the 1970's, five surface sedimentary facies were identified inside the bay, namely i transgressive siliciclastic marine sand facies; ii transgressive bay sand-mud facies; iii a transgressive carbonate marine sand facies; iv regressive bay-mud facies, and v regressive fluvial sand facies. The spatial distribution of these facies would follow, somewhat closely, the hydrodynamic-energy distribution inside the bay. Seismic profiles along the bay bottom indicate the existence of several paleochannels, 5-10 m deep, blanketed at least by three different sedimentary units. The topmost sedimentary unit, 5-20 m thick, appears to be associated with the regressive bay-mud facies, and assuming that it was laid down within the last 5000 years, sedimentation rates for the central and northeastern part of the bay would average at 2,4 mm/y.

  2. Reevaluating Metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease from the Perspective of the Astrocyte-Neuron Lactate Shuttle Model

    Newington, Jordan T.; Harris, Richard A.; Cumming, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The conventional view of central nervous system (CNS) metabolism is based on the assumption that glucose is the main fuel source for active neurons and is processed in an oxidative manner. However, since the early 1990s research has challenged the idea that the energy needs of nerve cells are met exclusively by glucose and oxidative metabolism. This alternative view of glucose utilization contends that astrocytes metabolize glucose to lactate, which is then released and taken up by nearby neu...

  3. Re-evaluation of Need for Bone Marrow Examination in Patients with Isolated Thrombocytopenia Contributors.

    Purohit, Abhishek; Aggarwal, Mukul; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Seth, Tulika; Tyagi, Seema; Saxena, Renu; Pati, Hara P; Mishra, Pravas

    2016-06-01

    Diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is based on clinical suspicion and normal peripheral smear except for thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow examination is carried out to rule out leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia. However, in most cases, clinical diagnosis is not altered after the bone marrow reports. Hence, this present study was carried out to evaluate the justification for bone marrow examination in the setting of isolated thrombocytopenia. All patients presenting to the hematology OPD with isolated thrombocytopenia and suspected diagnosis of ITP, between October 2011 and April 2013, were included in the study. Data was collected from bone marrow reports and outpatient records. A total of 353 cases were found. 319 cases had features of typical ITP and the rest had some form of organomegaly and/or lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow examination in all cases revealed normal hematopoietic elements and prominence of megakaryocytes including juvenile forms with no novel diagnosis in any patient. Routine use of bone marrow examination in the diagnostic workup of isolated thrombocytopenia is not required in our center even if steroids are planned as a first line therapy. However, a detailed history, thorough examination with complete hemogram and peripheral smear examination are essential. PMID:27065582

  4. Reevaluating the first and the second dividends of environmental tax reforms

    There is increasing global interest in market-based climate change policies following the last elections in the United States. In this context an Exxon Mobil chief executive came out in favour of a carbon tax. This paper is concerned with the welfare analysis of Environmental Tax Reforms (ETR), and takes up the claims for the need of an unambiguous and operative definition of the double dividend both for empirical purposes and political advisement. In this paper, we contest the usual definition of the second dividend and its assimilation to an 'efficiency dividend'. We propose alternative definitions by suggesting a different splitting of the total welfare variation between the first and the second dividend in order to isolate the efficiency effects of the ETR. The new definitions become clearly understandable and easy for economic and policy interpretation. Concepts like 'weak' and 'strong' double dividend turn out to be unnecessary. Finally, we analyze ETR for the US economy to illustrate the advantages of the proposed definitions for policy implementation. (author)

  5. Critical data-based re-evaluation of minocycline as a putative specific microglia inhibitor

    Möller, Thomas; Bard, Frédérique; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Biber, Knut; Campbell, Brian; Dale, Elena; Eder, Claudia; Gan, Li; Garden, Gwenn A; Hughes, Zoë A; Pearse, Damien D; Staal, Roland G W; Wes, Paul D; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M

    2016-01-01

    Minocycline, a second generation broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been frequently postulated to be a "microglia inhibitor." A considerable number of publications have used minocycline as a tool and concluded, after achieving a pharmacological effect, that the effect must be due to "inhibition" of micr

  6. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development are also protective. When EPA finalizes and documents a position on the matter of indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments, site-specific risk assessments should make use of modified models and criteria. Screening values such as those presented in this report may be used to assess soil or other porous media to determine whether chemical warfare agent contamination is present as part of initial site investigations (whether due to intentional or accidental releases) and to determine whether weather/decontamination has adequately mitigated the presence of agent residual to below levels of concern. However, despite the availability of scientifically supported health-based criteria, there are significant resources needs that should be considered during sample planning. In particular, few analytical laboratories are likely to be able to meet these screening levels. Analyses will take time and usually have limited confidence at these concentrations. Therefore, and particularly for the more volatile agents, soil/destructive samples of porous media should be limited and instead enhanced with headspace monitoring and presence-absence wipe sampling.

  7. A reevaluation of the key factors that influence tomato fruit softening and integrity

    Saladie, M.; Matas, A; Isaacson, T.; Jenks, M.; Goodwin, S.; Niklas, K.; Xiaolin, R.; Labavitch, J.; Shackel, K.; Fernie, A.; Lytovchenko, A.; O'Neill, M.; Watkins, C.; Rose, J.

    2007-01-01

    The softening of fleshy fruits, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), during ripening is generally reported to result principally from disassembly of the primary cell wall and middle lamella. However, unsuccessful attempts to prolong fruit firmness by suppressing the expression of a range of wall-modifying proteins in transgenic tomato fruits do not support such a simple model. 'Delayed Fruit Deterioration' (DFD) is a previously unreported tomato cultivar that provides a unique opportunity t...

  8. Reevaluation of the proposed autocrine proliferative function of prolactin in breast cancer

    Nitze, Louise Maymann; Galsgaard, Elisabeth Douglas; Din, Nanni;

    2013-01-01

    The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) has been implicated in tumourigenesis. Expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) was reported in human breast epithelium and breast cancer cells. It was suggested that PRL may act as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. Here, we addressed the role of locally...... synthesised PRL in breast cancer. We analysed the expression of PRL in human breast cancer tumours using qPCR analysis and in situ hybridization (ISH). PRL mRNA expression was very low or undetectable in the majority of samples in three cDNA arrays representing samples from 144 breast cancer patients and in...... reduced and the cells were no longer responsive to exogenous recombinant PRL. Taken together, these data strongly indicate that autocrine PRL signalling is unlikely to be a general mechanism promoting tumour growth in breast cancer patients....

  9. Structural and Volumetric re-evaluation of the Vaiont landslide using DEM techniques

    Superchi, Laura; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Floris, Mario; Genevois, Rinaldo; Ghirotti, Monica; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2010-05-01

    On the 9th October 1963 a catastrophic landslide occurred on the southern slope of the Vaiont dam reservoir. A mass of approximately 270 million m3 collapsed into the reservoir generating a wave which overtopped the dam and hit the town of Longarone and other villages: almost 2000 people lost their lives. The large volume and high velocity of the landslide combined with the great destruction and loss of life that occurred make the Vaiont landslide as a natural laboratory to investigate landslide failure mechanisms and propagation. Geological, structural, geomorphological, hydrogeological and geomechanical elements should be, then, re-analyzed using methods and techniques not available in the '60s. In order to better quantify the volume involved in the movement and to assess the mechanism of the failure, a structural study is a preliminary and necessary step. The structural features have been investigated based on a digital elevation model (DEM) of the pre- and post-landslide topography at a pixel size of 5m and associated software (COLTOP-3D) to create a colored shaded relief map revealing the orientation of morphological features. Besides,the results allowed to identify on both pre- and post-slide surface six main discontinuity sets, some of which influence directly the Vaiont landslide morphology. Recent and old field surveys allowed to validate the COLTOP-3D analysis results. To estimate the location and shape of the sliding surface and to evaluate the volume of the landslide, the SLBL (Sloping Local Base Level) method has been used, a simple and efficient tool that allows a geometric interpretation of the failure surface based on a DEM. The SLBL application required a geological interpretation to define the contours of the landslide and to estimate the possible curvature of the sliding surface, that is defined by interpolating between points considered as limits of the landslide. The SLBL surface of the Vaiont landslide, was obtained from the DEM reconstruction of limits of the landslide defined by using geomorphological features and by literature data observed. Once the sliding plane was defined the potential sliding volume has been calculated in a GIS, considering also six different cross-sections realized along the landslide area before and after the event.

  10. Re-evaluation of early instrumental earthquake locations: methodology and examples

    R. D. Adams

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties of locating earthquakes in the early instrumental period are not always fully appreciated. The networks were sparse, and the instruments themselves were of low gain, often had inappropriate frequency response and recording resolution, and their timing could be unreliable and inaccurate. Additionally, there was only limited knowledge of earth structure and consequent phase identification and propagation. The primitive Zöppritz tables for P and S, with no allowance for the core, did not come into use until 1907, and remained the main model until the adoption of the Jeffreys-Bullen tables in the mid-1930s. It was not until the early 1920s that studies of Hindu Kush earthquakes revealed that earthquake foci could have significant depth. Although many early locations are creditably accurate, others can be improved by use of more modern techniques. Early earthquakes in unusual places often repay closer investigation. Many events after about 1910 are well enough recorded to be re-located by computer techniques, but earlier locations can still be improved by using more recent knowledge and simpler techniques, such as phase re-identification and graphical re-location. One technique that helps with early events is to locate events using the time of the maximum phase of surface waves, which is often well reported. Macroseismic information is also valuable in giving confirmation of earthquake positions or helping to re-assess them, including giving indications of focal depth. For many events in the early instrumental period macroseismic locations are to be preferred to the poorly-controlled instrumental ones. Macroseismic locations can also make useful trial origins for computer re-location. Even more recent events, which appear to be well located, may be grossly in error due to mis-interpretation of phases and inadequate instrumental coverage. A well converging mathematical solution does not always put the earthquake in the right place, and computer location programs may give unrealistically small estimates of error. Examples are given of improvements in locations of particular earthquakes in various parts of the world and in different time periods.

  11. A Case for Reevaluating Teacher's Role in Data-Driven Learning (DDL) of English Articles

    ZHAO Juan

    2013-01-01

    A case study has been made to explore whether the teacher’s role in data-driven learning (DDL) can be minimized. The outcome shows that the teacher’s role in offering an explicit instruction may be indispensable and even central to the acquisi-tion of English articles.

  12. Studies on the reevaluation of sterilization treatment and process control for disposable medical supplies

    Tabei, Masae; Ametani, Kazuo; Sato, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Hosobuchi, Kazushige

    1984-10-01

    Studies have been made on bioburden, sterilizing conditions and process control to establish the process and to obtain high productivity and energy saving. (1) Recently, the cost of gas sterilization and that of radiation sterilization are almost same. (2) Ethylene oxide gas (EOG) or radiation must be chosen according to the materials of medical supplies. EOG process is not suitable for ABS resin and soft vinyl chloride, and radiation process is not suitable for vinyl chloride, nitryl resin and polypropylene. (3) By lowering the bioburden through production environment control, process control and the training of workers, it is possible to decrease the radiation dose for sterilization from widely used 2.5 x 10/sup 4/ Gy to 2.0 x 10/sup 4/ Gy. (4) Gas sterilization can be used by four or more days of degasing or eight hours of aerator treatment. (Mori, K.).

  13. Vike-Freiberga calls on Russia to re-evaluate its history / Aaron Eglitis

    Eglitis, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisel holokausti uurimise konverentsil avaldas Läti president Vaira Vike-Freiberga kahetsust, et kuna Venemaa ei soovi tunnistada Läti okupeerimist Nõukogude Liidu poolt 1940. aasta juunis, tekitab see probleeme Läti-Vene suhetes

  14. Re-Evaluating and Exploring the Contributions of Constituency Grammar to Semantic Role Labeling

    Yang, Li

    2009-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Gildea and Jurafsky (2000), semantic role labeling (SRL) researchers have been trying to determine the appropriate syntactic/semantic knowledge and statistical algorithms to tackle the challenges in SRL. In search of the appropriate knowledge, SRL researchers shifted from constituency grammar to dependency grammar around…

  15. Preliminary re-evaluation of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in Chile: from Arica to Taitao Peninsula

    F. Leyton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chile is one of the most seismically active countries in the world; indeed, having witnessed very large earthquakes associated with high horizontal peak ground accelerations, the use of probabilistic hazard assessment is an important tool in any decision-making. In the present study, we review all the available information to improve the estimation of the probabilistic seismic hazard caused by two main sources: shallow interplate, thrust earthquakes and intermediate depth, intraplate earthquakes. Using previously defined seismic zones, we compute Gutenberg-Richter laws and, along with appropriate attenuation laws, revaluate the probabilistic seismic hazard assessments in Chile. We obtain expected horizontal peak ground acceleration with a 10% of probability of being exceeded in 50 years, reaching from 0.6 g up 1.0 g in the coast and between 0.4 g and 0.6 g towards the Andes Mountains, with larger values in Northern part of the country. The present study improves our knowledge of geological hazards in Chile, enabling the mitigation of important human and material losses due to large earthquakes in the future.

  16. The mineral treasure that almost got away: Re-evaluating yesterday's mine waste

    Högdahl, K.; Jonsson, E.; Troll, V.; Majka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Rare metals and semi-metals such as In, Ga, Se, Te and rare earth elements (REE) are increasing in demand for use in "new" and "green" technology. Yet, before the end of the 20th century the applications and thus the markets for these elements were limited. In many mines, the exploration paradigms and current knowledge as well as contemporary analytical methodology likely resulted in minerals hosting these metals to end up as waste, that is, on the mine dumps. In other cases, they were identified, but considered as mineralogical "exotica". Even extremely well-known and traditionally valuable metals such as gold went undetected on the dumps in some mine fields. This is due to a combination of factors such as that the deposits were "of the wrong type", assays were expensive, and suitable laboratory capacity sparse. This implies that in many regions, this old mine waste is a potential resource for several sought-after metals and semi-metals, including the ones increasingly used in modern high-tech applications. Admittedly, many older dumps and dump fields host only minor to moderate total amounts of material, but in todaýs society - increasingly focused on sustainability and related needs for recycling - this is likely to become an asset. In Sweden, many mine dumps date back hundreds of years or more as mining has been documented to go back at least 1000 years. Before the 20th century, only a single or, at best, a couple of metals were extracted from any given mine. Due to modern development in analytical techniques, the concentrations of trace elements, including highly sought-after metals and semi-metals can be obtained at moderate costs today. The presence of variable amounts of precious and rare elements along with the main ore commodity has now been documented in several cases. A recently started project in the classic, Palaeoproterozoic Bergslagen ore province in central Sweden is aimed at resolving the potential for finding and utilising these "unknown treasures". A conservative estimate based on SGU databases is that in this province alone, there are over 6500 mineralisations/deposits. A majority of these have associated mine dumps and in the case of more recently mined deposits, different types of tailings. Initial results highlight the high average contents of REÉs and identify their mineralogical and textural distribution in apatite-iron oxide ore present in both dumps and tailings. In addition, we report the occurrence of previously undetected mineralisation of indium and tungsten in different mine dumps in the western part of the province.

  17. [Review of placebo effect and re-evaluation of psychotherapy focusing on depressive disorders].

    Kato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that based on the findings of double-blind studies of antidepressants, placebos have an unexpected positive effect on depression. Neuroimaging studies comparing the effect of antidepressants and placebos by means of PET revealed that both placebo and fluoxetine treatment induced regional metabolic increases in such areas as the prefrontal and posterior cingulate, and metabolic decreases in such areas as the subgenual and thalamus. It is indicated that placebos have a similar pharmacological effect as antidepressants (Mayberg et al., 2002). This biological finding strongly suggests that when a patient takes an antidepressant administered by a doctor, and the treatment is effective, a placebo effect is always implicitly appended to any pharmacological effect of the medicine. In other words, the overall curative effect by administration of antidepressants can be schematically expressed as follows: Overall curative effect by antidepressant = Effect specific to pharmacotherapy + Placebo effect. In this case, the placebo effect is based on the patient's expectation and hope of recovery that is working consciously, preconsciously, and unconsciously; it is an essential condition that the patient has confidence and an expectation that the medicine will work. Such linguistic elements and subjective factors help to correct the metabolism of the cranial nerve system that was changed by depression, and thus encourages a cycle of resilience to restore the system to its former healthy state. This mechanism can be considered to operate as a top-down system. As easily inferred from the fact that the placebo effect is made up of a linguistic element and an emotional element found in the doctor-patient relationship, the formation of the doctor-patient relationship itself can be considered to be by tacit consent effective as a kind of psychotherapy. A brief look at the recent biological studies on the placebo effect lends support to the possibility that even one word spoken by a physician to a patient may bring about an effect that corrects any neurotic malfunction inside the brain. This paper indicates that non-pharmacotherapy such as psychotherapy or psychological and social support may have a similar effect to the administration of actual medicines that directly work on neurotransmitters in the brain. PMID:24167970

  18. A reevaluation of TDR propagation time determination in soils and geological media

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is an established method for the determination of apparent dielectric permittivity and water content in soils. Using current waveform interpretation procedures, signal attenuation and variation in dielectric media properties along the transmission line can significant...

  19. Need of reevaluation of the parameters of semen straws to be used in artificial insemination programs

    J. Angel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In buffalo industry artificial insemination is being used in breeding programs of our country . It has limitations such us seasonality, difficult estrus detection and low pregnancy rates when compared with cattle. IATF programs using a single insemination show results from 10 to 50% pregnancy rate, little information is available about minimum requirements of spermatozoa for IA. The aim of this paper is to compare the pregnancy rates after using narual mating or frozen semen in a sincronization of ovulation program. This work were conducted in Pueblo Nuevo Cordoba Colombia in August during the breeding season of 2005-6. 99 multiparous crossbred females were used with 50 to 150 postpartum days. Body score condition of 3,5 to 4. All animals were palpated to exclude anatomical alterations. Ovsynch protocol for IATF reported by Baruselli (2000, they were allocated in two groups: Buffalo group, after the last GnRH analog injection 17 females were allocated with 5 bulls, and IATF Group 82 females were inseminated 16 hours later. The semen of 7 different buffalo bulls were used and evaluated and qualified as normal. Inseminations were performed by 3 different technicians. A blood sample was obtained 20 days after IA to determine pregnancy by determinations of P4 levels using chemiluminiscence, ≥1ng/ml were used as cut off value to determine pregnancy. Data were compared using Chi square test. 70% (12/17 females of the bull group and 29% (24/82 of IATF group were diagnosed us pregnant using P4, this difference were statistically significant (P≤0.001. Buffalo bulls mount all females. No statistical differences were found in pregnancy rates of the bulls used for IATF, from 12% to 37 %, one exceptional bull obtain 71%. As expected bulls have higher pregnancy rates than artificial insemination, the results obtained here allow researchers to evaluated semen quality, specially density to improve results IATF in buffaloes.

  20. Re-Evaluating Sources of Inter-Model Spread in Climate Sensitivity

    Caldwell, P.; Zelinka, M. D.; Taylor, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Determining which feedbacks are responsible for the large spread in model predictions of global warming allows us to better focus our research towards reducing this spread. This study shows that there is no unique way to partition temperature change into components associated with individual feedbacks. Alarmingly, different partitioning approaches lead to conflicting conclusions about which processes are important in driving inter-model spread in climate sensitivity. Moreover, covariances between feedbacks is found to play an important yet largely ignored role in determining inter-model spread in climate response. We find, however, that the feedback definition of Held and Shell (2012), which assumes a fixed relative humidity for the baseline climate response, produces results that are more consistent across partitioning methods and are less dominated by covariance terms.

  1. The Gaia Nineties. Is It Time to Re-evaluate This Controversial Theory?

    McGuire, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Provides a graphing exercise designed to help students understand the coevolution of the physical environment and the biosphere during the last four billion years of Earth's history. The ideas are based upon the Gaia theory, which is the belief that the Earth is a self-regulating network of interdependent physical and biological systems. (ZWH)

  2. Re-Evaluating Evidence for Linguistic Relativity: Reply to Boroditsky (2001)

    January, David; Kako, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Six unsuccessful attempts at replicating a key finding in the linguistic relativity literature [Boroditsky, L. (2001). Does language shape thought?: Mandarin and English speakers' conceptions of time. "Cognitive Psychology," 43, 1-22] are reported. In addition to these empirical issues in replicating the original finding, theoretical issues…

  3. Adrian Marino and the Ideea of Freedom. A Necesary Reevaluation and Challenge

    Ionuţ COSTEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to highlight a turn in Marino Adrian's intellectual identity. This change wasconfirmed in memorialistic feature texts (dialogues, memories printed after the events of December1989 and it is seen at some program writings, which are militant in order to define a new Romanianculture, based on a real dialog with the West, animated by a critical spirit, being original andoriented through fundamental writings, synthesis and encyclopedias. If at cultural level, Marinoasserted his desire to build a new culture, at social level he believed in building up a civil society,dominated by the values of democracy and of human rights. In this context, Marino’s interest movesfrom the criticism and literary theory to the history of ideas and ideologies, in order to define aliberal culture necessary to the deep modernization and Europeanization of the Post communistRomania.1

  4. RE-EVALUATION OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL. III. "NOROESTE DE MINAS" MESOREGION

    CARVALHO Omar S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni in the "Noroeste de Minas" mesoregion, an area considered non-endemic. A malacologic survey and parasitologic stool examinations were undertaken in 13 municipalities of the mesoregion. A sample of 3,283 primary school students was submitted to fecal examination by the Kato-Katz method. A total of 3,627 planorbids was collected and examined. The molluscs were identified as Biomphalaria straminea in seven municipalities (Unaí, Bonfinópolis de Minas, Paracatu, João Pinheiro, Vazante, Lagamar and Lagoa Grande and as Biomphalaria peregrina in one (Presidente Olegário. All planorbids were negative for Schistosoma mansoni. Four students were diagnosed with schistosomiasis in the municipalities of Buritis, Formoso, Paracatu and Unaí, but none of these cases was considered autochthonous. The data obtained indicate that the "Noroeste de Minas" mesoregion continues to be non-endemic for schistosomiasis mansoni, although the presence of intermediate hosts associated with parasitized individuals emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis in this mesoregion.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of microcrystalline wax (E 905 as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on microcrystalline wax (E 905 when used as a food additive. Microcrystalline wax (E 905 is authorised quantum satis as a surface treatment agent on non-chocolate confectionery, chewing gum and decorations, coatings and fillings, except fruit based fillings. It is also permitted as a surface treatment of melons, papaya, mango and avocado. The substance was evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF in 1990 and 1995 and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, the latest in 1995. The JECFA established a group ADI of 20 mg/kg bw/day for mineral oils, paraffins and microcrystalline waxes. The Panel noted that all mineral oil products accumulated in tissues in a dose- and time-dependent manner with the exception of microcrystalline waxes. The Panel concluded that there is no concern for genotoxicity from microcrystalline wax (E 905. The Panel also considered that the available toxicity studies with mineral hydrocarbons, closely related from a chemical point of view with microcrystalline waxes, consistently reported no effects of concern associated with the intake of microcrystalline wax. The Panel further concluded that since no long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity studies with microcrystalline wax E 905 were available, no ADI could be established. The Panel also concluded that the conservative exposure estimates to microcrystalline wax (E 905 from its use at maximum permitted level (following quantum satis rules, resulted in a sufficient margin of safety compared to the NOAEL established by the Panel for the closely related high viscosity mineral oils, and therefore the use microcrystalline wax (E 905 as a food additive with the currently authorised uses would not be of safety concern.

  6. Re-evaluation of a subsurface injection experiment for testing flow and transport models

    The current preferred method for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Hanford Site is to vitrify the wastes so they can be stored in a near-surface, shallow-land burial facility (Shord 1995). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) managed the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a disposal facility for the vitrified LLW. Vadose zone flow and transport models are recognized as necessary tools for baseline risk assessments of stored waste forms. The objective of the Controlled Field Testing task of the PVTD Project is to perform and analyze field experiments to demonstrate the appropriateness of conceptual models for the performance assessment. The most convincing way to demonstrate appropriateness is to show that the model can reproduce the movement of water and contaminants in the field. Before expensive new experiments are initiated, an injection experiment conducted at the Hanford Site in 1980 (designated the ''Sisson and the Lu experiment'') should be completely analyzed and understood. Briefly, in that test, a solution containing multiple tracers was injected at a single point into the subsurface sediments. The resulting spread of the water and tracers was monitored in wells surrounding the injection point. Given the advances in knowledge, computational capabilities, and models over the last 15 years, it is important to re-analyze the data before proceeding to other experiments and history-matching exercises

  7. Re-evaluation of floor response spectra of reactor building for Daya Bay NPP

    The seismic analysis of nuclear island of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was just in accordance with the approaches in RCC-G standard for the model M310 in France, in which the simplified impedance matrix method was employed for the consideration of soil's function. In this paper the more sophisticated 3D half-space continuum impedance method based on the Green functions is used to analyze the function of soil. In addition, multi-group of input time histories was used in the seismic response analysis in the existing design and their average of responses for each group was taken as the design basis. The same multi-group of input time histories was used in the seismic response analysis in this study, but the average and enveloped value of responses for each case are calculated respectively to account for the uncertainty of input motions. Focused on the above two issues, the seismic responses of the reactor building are calculated and the floor response spectra (FRS), a very important data for the design of nuclear system and equipment, are generated and then compared with the corresponding design values, so that the evaluation and discuss on the design method and results are conducted. Some useful conclusions hopefully to provide some important references to the assessment of seismic safety margin for the NPP in operation are taken. (authors)

  8. REEVALUATING THE MASS-RADIUS RELATION FOR LOW-MASS, MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

    We examine the agreement between the observed and theoretical low-mass (☉) stellar main-sequence mass-radius relationship by comparing detached eclipsing binary (DEB) data with a new, large grid of stellar evolution models. The new grid allows for a realistic variation in the age and metallicity of the DEB population, characteristic of the local galactic neighborhood. Overall, our models do a reasonable job of reproducing the observational data. A large majority of the models match the observed stellar radii to within 4%, with a mean absolute error of 2.3%. These results represent a factor of two improvement compared to previous examinations of the low-mass mass-radius relationship. The improved agreement between models and observations brings the radius deviations within the limits imposed by potential starspot-related uncertainties for 92% of the stars in our DEB sample.

  9. Re-evaluation of the effectiveness of the central A/M Area recovery well network

    A groundwater recovery well network has been operating in the central portion of the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) since 1985 to retrieve chlorinated volatile organic solvents. In 1986, a groundwater modeling study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the recovery well network that included planned recovery wells (RWM 1 through 11) and process water wells (S. S. Papadopulous, 1986). Since the original modeling study, use of some of the process wells has discontinued and some pumping rates at other wells have changed. Also, the understanding of the hydrologic system in the A/M Area has improved because additional monitoring wells have been installed in the area. As a result, an updated groundwater flow model (Beaudoin et al., 1991) for the area was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing recovery network. The results of this study indicate that the estimated effectiveness of the recovery well has not changed dramatically since the original groundwater modeling study. However, slight differences do exist between the original study and this study because the recent model more accurately reflects the A/M Area subsurface hydrologic system

  10. Reevaluation of Mineral aerosol radiative forcings suggests a better agreement with satellite and AERONET data

    Y. Balkanski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling studies and satellite retrievals do not agree on the amplitude and/or sign of the direct radiative perturbation from dust. Modelling studies have systematically overpredicted mineral dust absorption compared to estimates based upon satellite retrievals. In this paper we first point out the source of this discrepancy, which originates from the shortwave refractive index of dust used in models. The imaginary part of the refractive index retrieved from AERONET over the range 300 to 700 nm is 3 to 6 times smaller than that used previously to model dust. We attempt to constrain these refractive indices using a mineralogical database and varying the abundances of iron oxides (the main absorber in the visible. We first consider the optically active mineral constituents of dust and compute the refractive indices from internal and external mixtures of minerals with relative amounts encountered in parent soils. We then compute the radiative perturbation due to mineral aerosols for internally and externally mixed minerals for 3 different hematite contents, 0.9%, 1.5% and 2.7% by volume. These constant amounts of hematite allow bracketing the influence of dust aerosol when it is respectively an inefficient, standard and a very efficient absorber. These values represent low, central and high content of iron oxides in dust determined from the mineralogical database. Linke et al. (2006 determined independently that iron-oxides represent 1.0 to 2.5% by volume using x-Ray fluorescence on 4 different samples collected over Morocco and Egypt. Based upon values of the refractive index retrieved from AERONET, we show that the best agreement between 440 and 1020 nm occurs for mineral dust internally mixed with 1.5% volume weighted hematite. This representation of mineral dust allows us to compute, using a general circulation model, a new global estimate of mineral dust perturbation between –0.47 and –0.24 Wm−2 at the top of the atmosphere, and between –0.81 and –1.13 Wm−2 at the surface for both shortwave and longwave wavelengths. The anthropogenic dust fraction is thought to account for between 10 and 50% of the total dust load present in the atmosphere. We estimate a top of the atmosphere forcing between –0.03 and –0.25 Wm−2, which is markedly different that the IPCC range of –0.6 to +0.4 Wm−2 (IPCC, 2001. The 24-h average atmospheric heating by mineral dust during summer over the tropical Atlantic region (15° N–25° N; 45° W–15° W is in the range +22 to +32 Wm−2 τ−1 which compares well with the 30±4 Wm−2 τ−1 measured by Li et al. (2004 over that same region. The refractive indices from Patterson et al. (1977 and from Volz (1973 overestimate by a factor of 2 the energy absorbed in the column during summer over the same region. This discrepancy is due to too large absorption in the visible but we could not determine if this is linked to the sample studied by Patterson et al. (1997 or to the method used in determining the refractive index.

  11. The chastity of amoebae: re-evaluating evidence for sex in amoeboid organisms

    Lahr, Daniel J.G; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Katz, Laura A.; Lara, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Amoebae are generally assumed to be asexual. We argue that this view is a relict of early classification schemes that lumped all amoebae together inside the ‘lower’ protozoa, separated from the ‘higher’ plants, animals and fungi. This artificial classification allowed microbial eukaryotes, including amoebae, to be dismissed as primitive, and implied that the biological rules and theories developed for macro-organisms need not apply to microbes. Eukaryotic diversity is made up of 70+ lineages,...

  12. A re-evaluation of the archaeal membrane lipid biosynthetic pathway

    Villanueva, L.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2014-01-01

    Archaea produce unique membrane lipids in which isoprenoid alkyl chains are bound to glycerol moieties via ether linkages. As cultured representatives of the Archaea have become increasingly available throughout the past decade, archaeat genomic and membrane lipid-composition data have also become a

  13. Re-evaluating Open Source for Sustaining Competitive Advantage for Hosted Applications

    Daniel Crenna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of open source in hosted solutions is undoubtedly widespread. However, it is seldom considered important in its own right, nor do the majority of hosted solutions providers contribute to or create open source as natural artifacts of doing good business. In this exploration of the nature of hosted solutions and their developers, it is suggested that not only consuming open source, but creating and disseminating it to collaborators and competitors alike, is essential to success. By establishing an open source ecosystem where hosted solutions compete on differentiation rather than lose time and money to concerns that are expected by users, do not add value, and benefit from public scrutiny, hosted solution providers can reduce the cost of their solution, the time it takes to deliver new ones, and improve their quality without additional resources.

  14. Immunization of mice with ultraviolet-irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae: a re-evaluation

    Dean, D.A.; Murrell, K.D.; Xu, S.; Mangold, B.L.

    1983-07-01

    Mice immunized by percutaneous exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae developed levels of resistance to subsequent S. mansoni infection comparable to those induced by gamma-irradiated cercariae (50-70% reduction in adult worm burden). Cercariae treated with ultraviolet doses ranging from one to three times the minimum dose required to prevent long-term survival induced the highest levels of resistance.

  15. Immunization of mice with ultraviolet-irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae: a re-evaluation

    Mice immunized by percutaneous exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae developed levels of resistance to subsequent S. mansoni infection comparable to those induced by gamma-irradiated cercariae (50-70% reduction in adult worm burden). Cercariae treated with ultraviolet doses ranging from one to three times the minimum dose required to prevent long-term survival induced the highest levels of resistance

  16. What is Menière’s disease? A contemporary re-evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops

    Gürkov, Robert; Pyykö, I.; Zou, J.; Kentala, E.

    2016-01-01

    Menière’s disease is a chronic condition with a prevalence of 200–500 per 100,000 and characterized by episodic attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, aural pressure and a progressive loss of audiovestibular functions. Over 150 years ago, Prosper Menière was the first to recognize the inner ear as the site of lesion for this clinical syndrome. Over 75 years ago, endolymphatic hydrops was discovered as the pathologic correlate of Menière’s disease. However, this pathologic fin...

  17. What is Menière's disease? A contemporary re-evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops.

    Gürkov, R; Pyykö, I; Zou, J; Kentala, E

    2016-04-01

    Menière's disease is a chronic condition with a prevalence of 200-500 per 100,000 and characterized by episodic attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, aural pressure and a progressive loss of audiovestibular functions. Over 150 years ago, Prosper Menière was the first to recognize the inner ear as the site of lesion for this clinical syndrome. Over 75 years ago, endolymphatic hydrops was discovered as the pathologic correlate of Menière's disease. However, this pathologic finding could be ascertained only in post-mortem histologic studies. Due to this diagnostic dilemma and the variable manifestation of the various audiovestibular symptoms, diagnostic classification systems based on clinical findings have been repeatedly modified and have not been uniformly used in scientific publications on Menière's disease. Furthermore, the higher level measures of impact on quality of life such as vitality and social participation have been neglected hitherto. Recent developments of high-resolution MR imaging of the inner ear have now enabled us to visualize in vivo endolymphatic hydrops in patients with suspected Menière's disease. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge from temporal bone histologic studies and from the emerging evidence on imaging-based evaluation of patients with suspected Menière's disease. These indicate that endolymphatic hydrops is responsible not only for the full-blown clinical triad of simultaneous attacks of auditory and vestibular dysfunction, but also for other clinical presentations such as "vestibular" and "cochlear Menière's disease". As a consequence, we propose a new terminology which is based on symptomatic and imaging characteristics of these clinical entities to clarify and simplify their diagnostic classification. PMID:27083887

  18. Reevaluating the contribution of sulfuric acid and the origin of organic compounds in atmospheric nanoparticle growth

    Vakkari, Ville; Tiitta, Petri; Jaars, Kerneels; Croteau, Philip; Beukes, Johan Paul; Josipovic, Miroslav; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Venter, Andrew D.; Zyl, Pieter G.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Laakso, Lauri

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol particles formed in the atmosphere are important to the Earth's climate system due to their ability to affect cloud properties. At present, little is known about the atmospheric chemistry responsible for the growth of newly formed aerosol particles to climate-relevant sizes. Here combining detailed aerosol measurements with a theoretical framework we found that depending on the gaseous precursors and size of the newly formed particles, the growth was dominated by either sulfuric acid accompanied by ammonium or organic compounds originating in either biogenic emissions or savannah fires. The contribution of sulfuric acid was larger during the early phases of the growth, but in clean conditions organic compounds dominated the growth from 1.5 nm up to climatically relevant sizes. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that in polluted environments the contribution of sulfuric acid to the growth may have been underestimated by up to a factor of 10.

  19. Reevaluating the Mass-Radius Relation for Low-mass, Main-sequence Stars

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian

    2012-09-01

    We examine the agreement between the observed and theoretical low-mass (models. The new grid allows for a realistic variation in the age and metallicity of the DEB population, characteristic of the local galactic neighborhood. Overall, our models do a reasonable job of reproducing the observational data. A large majority of the models match the observed stellar radii to within 4%, with a mean absolute error of 2.3%. These results represent a factor of two improvement compared to previous examinations of the low-mass mass-radius relationship. The improved agreement between models and observations brings the radius deviations within the limits imposed by potential starspot-related uncertainties for 92% of the stars in our DEB sample.

  20. Reevaluating the Mass-Radius Relation for Low-Mass, Main Sequence Stars

    Feiden, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    We examine the agreement between the observed and theoretical low-mass (< 0.8 solar masses) stellar main sequence mass-radius relationship by comparing detached eclipsing binary (DEB) data with a new, large grid of stellar evolution models. The new grid allows for a realistic variation in the age and metallicity of the DEB population, characteristic of the local galactic neighborhood. Overall, our models do a reasonable job of reproducing the observational data. A large majority of the models match the observed stellar radii to within 4%, with a mean absolute error of 2.3%. These results represent a factor of two improvement compared to previous examinations of the low-mass mass-radius relationship. The improved agreement between models and observations brings the radius deviations within the limits imposed by potential starspot-related uncertainties for 92% of the stars in our DEB sample.

  1. Learning to love what we despise: Experiential re-evaluation of stigmatised technologies

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    Commercialization of novel technologies may be hampered by stakeholder resistance and a sceptical public. Genetic modification has suffered particularly from such stigma; at present, practically no products exist on the shelves of European retailers that are labelled as containing genetically...... interventions. A study is presented in which the effectiveness and mechanisms of direct-experience interventions are experimentally tested. Results indicate that even a single trial of a high-quality genetically modified food can lead to strong changes in consumer attitudes (effect size d = .40). Furthermore...... in the launch of the first genetically modified foods in Europe....

  2. Re-evaluation of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) bioeconomics in Louisiana

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key insect pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., grown in Louisiana. For more than 40 years Louisiana sugarcane farmers have used a value of 10% internodes bored at harvest as the Economic Damage level (ED) because damage l...

  3. A re-evaluation of the archaeal membrane lipid biosynthetic pathway.

    Villanueva, Laura; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Schouten, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    Archaea produce unique membrane lipids in which isoprenoid alkyl chains are bound to glycerol moieties via ether linkages. As cultured representatives of the Archaea have become increasingly available throughout the past decade, archaeal genomic and membrane lipid-composition data have also become available. In this Analysis article, we compare the amino acid sequences of the key enzymes of the archaeal ether-lipid biosynthesis pathway and critically evaluate past studies on the biochemical functions of these enzymes. We propose an alternative archaeal lipid biosynthetic pathway that is based on a 'multiple-key, multiple-lock' mechanism. PMID:24801941

  4. Re-evaluation of the systematics of the endemic corals of Brazil by molecular data

    Nunes, F.; Fukami, H.; Vollmer, S. V.; Norris, R. D.; Knowlton, N.

    2008-06-01

    Recent genetic work on various coral genera has shown that morphological convergence between Atlantic and Pacific corals obscures evolutionary relationships and inferred levels of endemicity between the regions. Based on DNA sequences from nuclear and mitochondrial loci that provide higher resolution than those previously presented, this study shows that relationships within parts of the Atlantic coral fauna are also in need of substantial revision. The data presented here indicate that (1) the endemic Brazilian genus Mussismilia is a monophyletic clade, (2) Mussismilia is more closely related to the Caribbean Faviidae than Mussidae, the family in which it is currently placed, (3) the Brazilian endemic coral Favia leptophylla is much more closely related to Mussismilia than other species of Favia and has most likely been incorrectly placed in the genus Favia and (4) the other endemic Favia species found in Brazil, Favia gravida, is genetically distinct from Favia fragum, a Caribbean congener with which it is frequently synonymized. The nuclear data also suggest the possible presence of a cryptic species within Mussismilia, but additional sampling and morphological information is required to confirm this finding.

  5. Re-evaluation of the use of low activation materials in waste management strategies for fusion

    The world fusion programs have had a long goal that fusion power stations should produce only low level waste and thus not pose a burden for the future generations. However, the environmental impact of waste material is determined not only by the level of activation, but also the total volume of activated material. Since a tokamak power plant is large, the potential to generate a correspondingly large volume of activated material exists. The adoption of low activation materials, while important for reducing the radiotoxicity of the most active components, should be done as part of a strategy that also minimizes the volume of waste material that might be categorized as radioactive, even if lower in level. In this paper we examine different fusion blanket and shield designs in terms of their ability to limit the activation of the large vessel/ex-vessel components (e.g. vacuum vessel, magnets) and we identify the trends that allow improved in-vessel shielding to result in reduced vessel/ex-vessel activation. Recycling and clearance are options for reducing the volume of radioactive waste in a fusion power plant. Thus, the performance of typical fusion power plant designs with respect to recycling and clearance criteria are also assessed, to show the potential for improvement in waste volume reduction by careful selection of materials' combinations. We discuss the impact of these results on fusion waste strategies and on the development of fusion power in the future

  6. A re-evaluation of physical protection standards for irradiated HEU fuel

    In the post-September 11 era, it is essential to reconsider all the assumptions upon which the physical protection systems of the past were based and determine whether these assumptions are still appropriate in light of the current terrorist threat. For instance, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission definition of a 'formula quantity' of special nuclear material is derived from the belief that a terrorist plot to carry out multiple coordinated attacks on different facilities with the goal of acquiring enough SNM for a nuclear weapon is incredible. This assumption has clearly been proven wrong by the September 11 attacks. Another standard that needs to be revisited is the 'self-protection' threshold that determines whether or not an item containing SNM is considered to be 'irradiated' for physical protection purposes. The current value of this threshold, 1 Sv/hr unshielded at 1 meter, is of questionable value as a deterrent to determined terrorists who would be willing to sustain long-term injury as long as they could accomplish their near-term goals. A more credible threshold would be set at a level that would have a high likelihood of disabling the perpetrators before they could complete their mission. Most irradiated nonpower reactor fuels would be unable to meet such a standard. This raises serious questions about the adequacy of the level of physical protection applied today to the large inventories of irradiated HEU fuels now scattered in storage sites around the world. The absence of a coherent global policy for dealing with these materials has created a situation rife with vulnerabilities that terrorists could exploit. The international community, now seized with concern about unused stockpiles of unirradiated HEU fuels around the world, also needs to appreciate the dangers posed by lightly irradiated spent fuels as well. A U.S. proposal to import Russian HEU for supplying U.S. nonpower reactors will only prolong this situation This paper will review policy options to mitigate this threat. (author)

  7. Gall-bladder and colonic retention of SeHCAT: a re-evaluation

    A number of suggested alternatives and emendations to the 7-day SeHCAT retention test have been compared with whole-body counting. It was found that correction for colonic retention is an unnecessary complication in patients with diarrhoea and that imaging either of the gall-bladder or of the distribution of activity in the intestines at 24 h does not add useful information to the standard 7-day retention measurement. Neither could the patterns of colonic uptake identified in patients following extensive ideal resection or radiotherapy be reproduced in patients with idiopathic diarrhoea. Sadly it must be concluded that neither of these shortened techniques is of clinical value in patients with intact small bowel and that there remains no reliable alternative to the 7-day Se HCAT retention test. The simplest technique the best. (orig.)

  8. Re-evaluating Primary Biotic Resource Use for Marine Biomass Production: A New Calculation Framework.

    Luong, Anh D; Schaubroeck, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo; De Laender, Frederik

    2015-10-01

    The environmental impacts of biomass harvesting can be quantified through the amount of net primary production required to produce one unit of harvested biomass (SPPR-specific primary production required). This paper presents a new calculation framework that explicitly takes into account full food web complexity and shows that the resulting SPPR for toothed whales in the Icelandic marine ecosystem is 2.8 times higher than the existing approach based on food web simplification. In addition, we show that our new framework can be coupled to food web modeling to examine how uncertainty on ecological data and processes can be accounted for while estimating SPPR. This approach reveals that an increase in the degree of heterotrophy by flagellates from 0% to 100% results in a two-fold increase in SPPR estimates in the Barents Sea. It also shows that the estimated SPPR is between 3.9 (herring) and 5.0 (capelin) times higher than that estimated when adopting food chain theory. SPPR resulting from our new approach is only valid for the given time period for which the food web is modeled and cannot be used to infer changes in SPPR when the food web is altered by changes in human exploitation or environmental changes. PMID:26348118

  9. Reevaluating the roles of large public surpluses and sovereign wealth funds in Asia

    Lee, Bernard; Wang, Hefei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the increasingly important roles of Asian official institutions in the new global financial landscape and the reasons that have led to the build-up of massive public surpluses. We re-examine the role of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) as the de facto "global lender of last resort" during the recent financial crisis. Specifically, we analyze SWFs’ balance sheet characteristics, target allocations strategies, strategic agendas and political realities, management philosop...

  10. Gudden's Ventral Tegmental Nucleus Is Vital for Memory: Re-Evaluating Diencephalic Inputs for Amnesia

    Vann, Seralynne D.

    2009-01-01

    Mammillary body atrophy is present in a number of neurological conditions and recent clinical findings highlight the importance of these nuclei for memory. While most accounts of diencephalic amnesia emphasize the functional importance of the hippocampal projections to the mammillary bodies, the present study tested the importance of the other…

  11. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of hexamethylene tetramine (E 239 as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hexamethylene tetramine (HMT is a food additive, currently only permitted in EU for use in Provolone cheese. The maximum permitted level is 25 mg/kg residual amount, expressed as formaldehyde, the break down product of HMT under acidic conditions. HMT has been previously evaluated by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, 1974 who established an ADI of 0.15 mg/kg bw/day based on a reproductive study with a NOEL of 15 mg/kg bw/day. Due to the limitations in the database the Panel could not identify a critical study and therefore to derive an ADI. However, the Panel noted that the exposure to formaldehyde from HMT of high level consumers of Provolone cheese equalled 18 µg formaldehyde/kg bw/day in adults and could be as high as 87 µg formaldehyde/kg bw/day in children according to a theoretical conservative assumption that all ripened cheese consumed was Provolone cheese. Considering the estimated exposure from the very limited permitted use, the toxicological database on HMT, the data from use of HMT therapeutically, the available oral toxicity and toxicokinetic data of formaldehyde and the magnitude of the potential effect on intracellular formaldehyde levels arising from this use of HMT, the Panel concluded that the use of HMT in Provolone cheese at the MPL of 25 mg/kg residual amount, expressed as formaldehyde, would not be of safety concern. However the Panel considered that any increase in the permitted uses of HMT or increases in the MPL of 25 mg /kg residual amount, expressed as formaldehyde would need detailed assessment which might require new toxicity data as well as use levels and/or an evaluation of its impact on formaldehyde levels in vivo.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951 as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion on the safety of aspartame (E 951. Aspartame is a sweetener authorised as a food additive in the EU. In previous evaluations by JECFA and the SCF, an ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day was established based on chronic toxicity in animals. Original reports, previous evaluations, additional literature and data made available following a public call were evaluated. Aspartame is rapidly and completely hydrolysed in the gastrointestinal tract to phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol. Chronic and developmental toxicities were relevant endpoints in the animal database. From chronic toxicity studies in animals, a NOAEL of 4000 mg/kg bw/day was identified. The possibility of developmental toxicity occurring at lower doses than 4000 mg/kg in animals could not be excluded. Based on MoA and weight-of-evidence analysis, the Panel concluded that developmental toxicity in animals was attributable to phenylalanine. Phenylalanine at high plasma levels is known to cause developmental toxicity in humans. The Panel concluded that human data on developmental toxicity were more appropriate for the risk assessment. Concentration-response modelling was used to determine the effects of aspartame administration on plasma phenylalanine using human data after phenylalanine administration to normal, PKU heterozygote or PKU homozygote individuals. In normal and PKU heterozygotes, aspartame intakes up to the ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day, in addition to dietary phenylalanine, would not lead to peak plasma phenylalanine concentrations above the current clinical guideline for the prevention of adverse effects in fetuses. The Panel concluded that aspartame was not of safety concern at the current aspartame exposure estimates or at the ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day. Therefore, there was no reason to revise the ADI of aspartame. Current exposures to aspartame - and its degradation product DKP - were below their respective ADIs. The ADI is not applicable to PKU patients.

  13. Reevaluation of Monier-Williams method for determining sulfite in food.

    Warner, C R; Daniels, D H; Joe, F L; Fazio, T

    1986-01-01

    The Monier-Williams distillation procedure has a long history of successful use for determining sulfite in fruit products and wine; however, a systematic evaluation of its accuracy and precision with other food matrices has not been undertaken. We found that the Monier-Williams distillation yielded greater than 90% recovery of sulfite added to foods such as table grapes, hominy, dried mangoes, and lemon juice. Less than 85% recovery was obtained with broccoli, soda crackers, cheese-peanut butter crackers, mushrooms, and potato chips. These results may, in fact, accurately reflect the residual levels of sulfite if a portion of the sulfite undergoes irreversible reaction with some food components. Analysis of commercial food products gave sulfite levels ranging from 1400 ppm in dried apple slices to 25 ppm in cream sherry. PMID:3949694

  14. Beyond the ‘dyad’: a qualitative re-evaluation of the changing clinical consultation

    Swinglehurst, Deborah; Roberts, Celia; Li, Shuangyu; Weber, Orest; Singy, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics of consultations that do not conform to the traditionally understood communication ‘dyad’, in order to highlight implications for medical education and develop a reflective ‘toolkit’ for use by medical practitioners and educators in the analysis of consultations. Design A series of interdisciplinary research workshops spanning 12 months explored the social impact of globalisation and computerisation on the clinical consultation, focusing specifically on contemporary challenges to the clinician–patient dyad. Researchers presented detailed case studies of consultations, taken from their recent research projects. Drawing on concepts from applied sociolinguistics, further analysis of selected case studies prompted the identification of key emergent themes. Setting University departments in the UK and Switzerland. Participants Six researchers with backgrounds in medicine, applied linguistics, sociolinguistics and medical education. One workshop was also attended by PhD students conducting research on healthcare interactions. Results The contemporary consultation is characterised by a multiplicity of voices. Incorporation of additional voices in the consultation creates new forms of order (and disorder) in the interaction. The roles ‘clinician’ and ‘patient’ are blurred as they become increasingly distributed between different participants. These new consultation arrangements make new demands on clinicians, which lie beyond the scope of most educational programmes for clinical communication. Conclusions The consultation is changing. Traditional consultation models that assume a ‘dyadic’ consultation do not adequately incorporate the realities of many contemporary consultations. A paradox emerges between the need to manage consultations in a ‘super-diverse’ multilingual society, while also attending to increasing requirements for standardised protocol-driven approaches to care prompted by computer use. The tension between standardisation and flexibility requires addressing in educational contexts. Drawing on concepts from applied sociolinguistics and the findings of these research observations, the authors offer a reflective ‘toolkit’ of questions to ask of the consultation in the context of enquiry-based learning. PMID:25270858

  15. Re-evaluating Sustainability Assessment: Aligning the vision and the practice

    Sustainable Development is the core goal of the expanding field of Sustainability Assessment (SA). However, we find that three key areas of debate in relation to SA practice in England and Western Australia can be classified as policy controversies. Through literature review and analysis of documentary evidence we consider the problem of reductionism (breaking down complex processes to simple terms or component parts) as opposed to holism (considering systems as wholes); the issue of contested understandings of the meaning of sustainability (and of the purpose of SA); and the definition of 'inter-generational' in the context of sustainable development and how this is reflected in the timescales considered in SA. We argue that SA practice is based on particular framings of the policy controversies and that the critical role of SA in facilitating deliberation over these controversies needs to be recognised if there is to be a move towards a new deliberative sustainability discourse which can accommodate these different framings.

  16. Statistically based reevaluation of PISC-II round robin test data

    This report presents a re-analysis of an international PISC-II (Programme for Inspection of Steel Components, Phase 2) round-robin inspection results using formal statistical techniques to account for experimental error. The analysis examines US team performance vs. other participants performance,flaw sizing performance and errors associated with flaw sizing, factors influencing flaw detection probability, performance of all participants with respect to recently adopted ASME Section 11 flaw detection performance demonstration requirements, and develops conclusions concerning ultrasonic inspection capability. Inspection data were gathered on four heavy section steel components which included two plates and two nozzle configurations

  17. Reevaluating Data Stall Time with the Consideration of Data Access Concurrency

    刘宇航; 孙贤和

    2015-01-01

    Data access delay has become the prominent performance bottleneck of high-end computing systems. The key to reducing data access delay in system design is to diminish data stall time. Memory locality and concurrency are the two essential factors influencing the performance of modern memory systems. However, existing studies in reducing data stall time rarely focus on utilizing data access concurrency because the impact of memory concurrency on overall memory system performance is not well understood. In this study, a pair of novel data stall time models, the L-C model for the combined effort of locality and concurrency and the P-M model for the effect of pure miss on data stall time, are presented. The models provide a new understanding of data access delay and provide new directions for performance optimization. Based on these new models, a summary table of advanced cache optimizations is presented. It has 38 entries contributed by data concurrency while only has 21 entries contributed by data locality, which shows the value of data concurrency. The L-C and P-M models and their associated results and opportunities introduced in this study are important and necessary for future data-centric architecture and algorithm design of modern computing systems.

  18. Re-Evaluating the Geophysical Evidence for a Procellarum Impact Basin on the Lunar Nearside

    Andrews-Hanna, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Geophysical evidence does not support the existence of a Procellarum basin. The thin crust is a result of primordial long-wavelength variations. Topography data reveals no evidence for a basin rim. Gravity reveals magmatic-tectonic structures.

  19. Reevaluating the conceptual framework for applied research on host-plant resistance

    Michael J.Stout

    2013-01-01

    Applied research on host-plant resistance to arthropod pests has been guided over the past 60 years by a framework originally developed by Reginald Painter in his 1951 book,Insect Resistance in Crop Plants.Painter divided the "phenomena" of resistance into three "mechanisms," nonpreference (later renamed antixenosis),antibiosis,and tolerance.The weaknesses of this framework are discussed.In particular,this trichotomous framework does not encompass all known mechanisms of resistance,and the antixenosis and antibiosis categories are ambiguous and inseparable in practice.These features have perhaps led to a simplistic approach to understanding arthropod resistance in crop plants.A dichotomous scheme is proposed as a replacement,with a major division between resistance (plant traits that limit injury to the plant) and tolerance (plant traits that reduce amount of yield loss per unit injury),and the resistance category subdivided into constitutive/inducible and direct/indirect subcategories.The most important benefits of adopting this dichotomous scheme are to more closely align the basic and applied literatures on plant resistance and to encourage a more mechanistic approach to studying plant resistance in crop plants.A more mechanistic approach will be needed to develop novel approaches for integrating plant resistance into pest management programs.

  20. Robert Boyle's chiral crystal chemistry: computational re-evaluation of enantioselective adsorption on quartz.

    Kahr, Bart; Chittenden, Brianne; Rohl, Andrew

    2006-02-01

    While searching for early examples of interactions of organic chromophores with minerals in the context of a systematic study of the process of dyeing crystals, we came across Robert Boyle's description of an experiment that may have been evidence of the enantioselective adsorption of a natural product, carminic acid (7-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-9,10-dihydro-3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methyl-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid), to the chiral surfaces of alpha-quartz, three centuries before such interactions became the subject of active chemical investigations. In order to determine whether Boyle did indeed observe enantioselective adsorption--albeit unbeknownst to him--we attempted to dye quartz with carminic acid according to his recipe. Quartz adsorbs carminic acid only because on heating it develops a network of microfissures that adsorb dye. This process depends on capillarity, not on specific non-covalent interactions; there is no evidence of enantioselectivity adsorption to heated crystals or enantioselective epitaxy to unheated crystals. These failures changed the focus of our inquiry: Why have almost all attempts to demonstrate the enantioselective adsorption of additives to quartz crystal surfaces been generally confounding and equivocal? In order to answer this question, we complement our experimental historical re-investigation with contemporary computational techniques for modeling crystal surface structure and the adsorption of additives. Minimizations of the energies associated with the adsorption of carminic acid to relaxed, hydrated d- and l-quartz {10(-)0} surfaces are analyzed in light of quartz's abysmal record as an enantioselective stationary phase. PMID:16385623

  1. Re-evaluating luminescence burial doses and bleaching of fluvial deposits using Bayesian computational statistics

    Cunningham, A. C.; Wallinga, J.; Hobo, N.; Versendaal, A. J.; Makaske, B.; Middelkoop, H.

    2015-01-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal from fluvial sediment often contains a remnant from the previous deposition cycle, leading to a partially bleached equivalent-dose distribution. Although identification of the burial dose is of primary concern, the degree of bleaching could potentially provide insights into sediment transport processes. However, comparison of bleaching between samples is complicated by sample-to-sample variation in aliquot size and luminescence sensitivity. Here we begin development of an age model to account for these effects. With measurement data from multi-grain aliquots, we use Bayesian computational statistics to estimate the burial dose and bleaching parameters of the single-grain dose distribution. We apply the model to 46 samples taken from fluvial sediment of Rhine branches in the Netherlands, and compare the results with environmental predictor variables (depositional environment, texture, sample depth, depth relative to mean water level, dose rate). Although obvious correlations with predictor variables are absent, there is some suggestion that the best-bleached samples are found close to the modern mean water level, and that the extent of bleaching has changed over the recent past. We hypothesise that sediment deposited near the transition of channel to overbank deposits receives the most sunlight exposure, due to local reworking after deposition. However, nearly all samples are inferred to have at least some well-bleached grains, suggesting that bleaching also occurs during fluvial transport.

  2. Re-evaluation of neutron nuclear data for 129I and 143Nd

    The evaluated nuclear data for 129I and 143Nd stored in JENDL-3.3 were investigated comparing with other evaluated data and experimental data. New experimental data were available especially for the capture cross sections of both nuclides. The parameters used in theoretical calculations were modified so as to reproduce those experimental data. The statistical model calculation was performed using the revised parameters. The resonance parameters were also revised so that the cross sections measured in the thermal energy region were reproduced well. The present results were compiled in the ENDF-6 format. (author)

  3. Reevaluation of spin-dependent WIMP-proton interactions as an explanation of the DAMA data

    Nobile, Eugenio Del; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Georgescu, Andreea; Huh, Ji-Haeng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA,475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-08-25

    We reexamine the interpretation of the annual modulation signal observed by the DAMA experiment as due to WIMPs with a spin-dependent coupling mostly to protons. We consider both axial-vector and pseudo-scalar couplings, and elastic as well as endothermic and exothermic inelastic scattering. We conclude that the DAMA signal is in strong tension with null results of other direct detection experiments, particularly PICASSO and KIMS.

  4. Reevaluating the Role of Saharan Air Layer in Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenesis and Evolution

    Braun, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The existence of the Saharan air layer (SAL), a layer of warm, dry, dusty air that frequently moves westward off of the Saharan desert of Africa and over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, has long been appreciated. As air moves over the desert, it is strongly heated from below, producing a very hot air mass at low levels. Because there is no moisture source over the Sahara, the rise in temperature causes a sharp drop in relative humidity, thus drying the air. In addition, the warm air produces a very strong jet of easterly flow in the middle troposphere called the African easterly jet that is thought to play a critical role in hurricane formation. In recent years, there has been an increased focus on the impact that the SAL has on the formation and evolution of hurricanes in the Atlantic. However, the nature of its impact remains unclear, with some researchers arguing that the SAL amplifies hurricane development and with others arguing that it inhibits it. The argument for positively influencing hurricane development is based upon the fact that the African easterly jet provides an energy source for the waves that eventually form hurricanes and that it leads to rising motion south of the jet that favors the development of deep thunderstorm clouds. The potential negative impacts of the SAL include 1) low-level vertical wind shear associated with the African easterly jet; 2) warm SAL air aloft, which increases thermodynamic stability and suppresses cloud development; and 3) dry air, which produces cold downdrafts in precipitating regions, thereby removing energy needed for storm development. As part of this recent focus on the SAL and hurricanes (which motivated a 2006 NASA field experiment), there has been little emphasis on the SAL s potential positive influences and almost complete emphasis on its possible negative influences, almost to the point of claims that the SAL is the major suppressing influence on hurricanes in the Atlantic. In this study, multiple NASA satellite data sets (TRMM, MODIS, CALIPSO, and AIRS/AMSU) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction global analyses are used to see if the proposed negative influences deserve all of the attention they have recently received. The results show that storms generally form on the southern side of the African jet, where favorable background rotation is high. The jet often helps to form the northern side of the storms and is typically stronger in storms that intensify than those that weaken, suggesting that jet-induced vertical wind shear is not a negative influence on developing storms. Warm SAL air is confined to regions north of the jet and generally does not impact the tropical cyclone precipitation south of the jet. A comparison of the environments of strongly strengthening storms and of weakening storms shows no differences in SAL structure, indicating that the SAL has little influence on whether storms weaken or intensify. The large-scale flow at upper levels above the SAL was found to be most important, with the environment of strengthening storms having very little vertical wind shear and also favoring more expansive outflow from the storm. The SAL is shown to occur in a large-scale environment that is already characteristically dry as a result of large-scale subsidence (sinking air motions). Strong surface heating and deep dry convective mixing enhance dryness at low levels, but moisten the air at midlevels. Therefore, mid-to-upper-level dryness is not a defining characteristic of the SAL, but is instead a signature of subsidence. As a result, we conclude that the SAL is not the major negative influence on hurricanes that recent studies have emphasized. It is just one of many possible influences and can be both positive and negative.

  5. A RE-EVALUATION OF THE EVOLVED STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M13

    We have analyzed photometry from space- and ground-based cameras to identify all bright red giant branch (RGB), horizontal branch (HB), and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars within 10' of the center of the globular cluster M13. We identify a modest (7%) population of HB stars redder than the primary peak (including RR Lyrae variables at the blue end of the instability strip) that is somewhat more concentrated to the cluster core than the rest of the evolved stars. We find support for the idea that they are noticeably evolved and in the late stages of depleting helium in their cores. This resolves a disagreement between distance moduli derived from the tip of the RGB and from stars in or near the RR Lyrae instability strip. We identified disagreements between HB model sets on whether stars with Teff ∼eff ∼eff ∼ 22, 000 K) as previously suggested. These stars are brighter than other stars of similar color (either redder or bluer), and may be examples of 'early hot flashers' that ignite core helium fusion shortly after leaving the RGB. We used ultraviolet photometry to identify hot post-HB stars, and based on their numbers (relative to canonical AGB stars) we estimate the position on the HB where the morphology of the post-HB tracks change to I ∼ 17.3, between the two peaks in the HB distribution. Concerning the possibility of helium enrichment in M13, we revisited the helium-sensitive R ratio, applying a new method for correcting star counts for larger lifetimes of hot HB stars. We find that M13's R ratio is in agreement with theoretical values for primordial helium abundance YP = 0.245 and inconsistent with a helium enhancement ΔY = 0.04. The brightness of the HB (both in comparison to the end of the canonical HB and to the tip of the RGB) also appears to rule out the idea that the envelopes of the reddest HB stars have been significantly enriched in helium. The absolute colors of the turnoffs of M3 and M13 potentially may be used to look for differences in their mean helium abundances, but there are inconsistencies in current data sets between colors using different filters that prevent a solid conclusion. The numbers of stars on the lower RGB and in the red giant bump agree very well with recent theoretical models, although there are slight indications of a deficit of red giant stars above the bump. There is not convincing evidence that a large fraction of stars leave the RGB before undergoing a core helium flash.

  6. A Model of Re-Evaluating International Partnerships in Universities: A UK Example

    Ayoubi, Rami M.

    2013-01-01

    International cooperation and partnerships became an important asset for UK universities, where in order to facilitate such international cooperation, selecting partners and arranging partnerships are considered as major organizational steps towards the success of the partnership itself. This study aims at investigating the organizational process…

  7. Air transport in connection with the Hiroshima-Nagasaki dose-reevaluation effort

    During calendar year 1981 one man-year of effort on the part of the Monte Carlo Group at Los Alamos was committed to the renormalization of cross sections for use in air-over-ground calculations. Calculations of the Army Pulsed Reactor Division (APRD) measurements, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) broomstick experiments, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pulsed sphere experiments carried out with the view to renormalizing the air transport cross sections are described in this report. On the basis of our calculations, it is impossible to conclude that there is anything grossly in error with the air transport cross sections

  8. Seismic re-evaluation and upgrading of Bohunice V1 NPP

    Bohunice V1 in Slovakia is a two unit WWER 440/230 whose units went into commercial operation in 1979 and 1981 respectively. The plant was not initially designed for seismic loading. Later geotechnical studies concluded that the site seismic hazard should be defined as an earthquake of MSK 8 intensity. This relates to approximately 0.25 g peak ground acceleration in the free field at the site. Some early reconstruction to strengthen the plant against earthquakes was done in the early 1990s but did not include all safety significant structures and equipment. In 1996, EBO, the plant operator, entered into a contract with consortium REKON, a Siemens and VUJE joint venture, for a major reconstruction program to update all safety systems required for a safe shutdown, to improve integrity of confinement and assure spent fuel cooling. This reconstruction project includes verification of seismic adequacy of all safety related structures and equipment in the REKON scope which is not being replaced by new construction. Siemens and EQE International are jointly conducting the seismic verification and required upgrading for the existing structures and equipment. Criteria for the verification and upgrading were developed for the project utilizing Technical Guidelines provided by IAEA, Reference 1, and linking them with international and local codes and standards and specific methodologies developed for similar projects in the US and Western Europe. The criteria are briefly discussed herein and are summarized in a companion paper, Reference 4. Because of the major improvements being implemented in safety systems, much of the essential safety related equipment is being directly replaced or completely new systems are being constructed that supersede existing ones. Consequently, a significant amount of the equipment that would normally require seismic adequacy verification is deleted from the verification scope (see Table 4). The reconstruction project will continue through 1999. This paper summarizes the progress to date in seismic adequacy verification of existing structures and equipment which will remain as essential elements of the plant safety systems. (author)

  9. A re-examination and re-evaluation of salamander orbital glands.

    Rehorek, Susan J; Grand-Pierre, Alix E; Cummings, Joshua R; Jewell, Bridgette; Constantine, Julieanne; Hillenius, W Jaap

    2013-11-01

    The amphibian integument contains numerous multicellular glands. Although two of these, the nasolabial and orbital glands and the associated nasolacrimal duct (NLD), have historically received considerable attention, interpretation of the original observations can be problematic in the context of current literature. Salamanders, in particular, are frequently regarded as at least indicative of aspects of the morphology of the common ancestor to all extant tetrapods; hence, an understanding of these glands in salamanders might prove to be informative about their evolution. For this study, the orbitonasal region of salamanders from three families was histologically examined. Three themes emerged: (1) examination of the effect of phylogeny on the nasolabial gland and NLD revealed a combination of features that may be unique to plethodontid salamanders, and may be correlated to their nose-tapping behavior by which substances are moved into the vomeronasal organ; (2) ecology appears to impact the relative development of the orbital glands, but not necessarily the nasolabial gland, with smaller glands being present in the aquatic species; (3) the nomenclature of the salamander orbital gland remains problematic, especially in light of comparative studies, as several alternate possibilities are viable. From this nomenclatural conundrum, however, it could be concluded that there may be a global pattern in the location of tetrapod orbital gland development. Molecular questions in terms of ontogeny and genetic homology affect the nature of the debate on orbital gland nomenclature. These observations suggest that rather than reflecting an ancestral condition, salamanders may instead represent a case of specialized, convergent evolution. PMID:24106029

  10. Nasopalatine ducts and flehmen behavior in the mandrill: reevaluating olfactory communication in Old World primates.

    Charpentier, Marie J E; Mboumba, Sylvère; Ditsoga, Claude; Drea, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    Compared to other modes of communication, chemical signaling between conspecifics generally has been overlooked in Old World primates, despite the presence in this group of secretory glands and scent-marking behavior, as well as the confirmed production and perception of olfactory signals. In other mammalian species, flehmen is a behavior thought to transport primarily nonvolatile, aqueous-soluble odorants via specialized ducts to the vomeronasal organ (VNO). By contrast, Old World primates are traditionally thought to lack a functional VNO, relying instead on the main olfactory system to process volatile odorants from their environment. Here, in the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx), we document unusual morphological and behavioral traits that typically are associated with the uptake of conspecific chemical cues for processing by an accessory olfactory system. Notably, we confirmed that both sexes possess open nasopalatine ducts and, in response to the presentation of conspecific odorants, we found that both sexes showed stereotyped behavior consistent with the flehmen response. If, as in other species, flehmen in the mandrill serves to mediate social or reproductive information, we expected its occurrence to vary with characteristics of either the signaler or receiver. Flehmen, particularly in a given male, occurred most often in response to odorants derived from male, as opposed to female, conspecifics. Moreover, odorants derived during the breeding season elicited more flehmen responses than did odorants collected during the birthing season. Lastly, odorants from reproductively cycling females also elicited more responses than did odorants from contracepted females. Although confirming a link between the nasopalatine ducts, flehmen behavior, and olfactory processing in mandrills would require further study, our observations provide new information to suggest anatomical variability within Old World primates, calling further attention to the underappreciated role of chemical communication in this lineage. PMID:23526642

  11. Conceptualizing and Re-Evaluating Resilience across Levels of Risk, Time, and Domains of Competence

    Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines potential theoretical constraints on resilience across levels of risk, time, and domain of outcome. Studies of resilience are reviewed as they relate to the prevalence of resilience across levels of risk (e.g., single life events vs. cumulative risk), time, and domains of adjustment. Based on a thorough review of pertinent…

  12. Rasch analysis of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS): a statistical re-evaluation

    Comins, J; Brodersen, J; Krogsgaard, M;

    2008-01-01

    The knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), based on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), is widely used to evaluate subjective outcome in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed patients. However, the validity of KOOS has not been assessed...... and subsequent rehabilitation. Rasch analysis showed that of the five proposed subscales in KOOS, only knee-related quality of life (QoL) and sport and recreational related function (Sport/Rec) fulfilled the criteria of a unidimensional measurement scale when applied to these patients. The three...... subdomains in KOOS extracted from WOMAC did not fulfill these criteria. While the content of KOOS appears to be relevant for knee patients, the psychometric measurement properties of KOOS are insufficient for use on patients 20 weeks subsequent to ACL reconstruction. A new knee measure targeted for these...

  13. Re-evaluating gadolinium(III) texaphyrin as a radiosensitizing agent.

    Bernhard, E J; Mitchell, J B; Deen, D; Cardell, M; Rosenthal, D I; Brown, J M

    2000-01-01

    Gadolinium(III) texaphyrin (Gd-tex) was recently proposed as a radiosensitizing agent that combines preferential tumor uptake with detection of drug localization by magnetic resonance imaging (S. W. Young et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 93: 6610-6615, 1996). In view of the initial report on this compound, four radiobiology laboratories undertook independent efforts to further study radiosensitization by Gd-tex. In addition to repeating the previously reported studies on Gd-tex in HT-29 cells, we tested five other human tumor cell lines (U-87 MG, U251-NCI, SW480, A549, and MCF-7). These studies included a Gd-tex treatment period of 24 h before irradiation (as in the original publication), with concentrations of Gd-tex ranging from 20-500 microM. In neither the HT-29 cells nor any of the other five human cell lines did we see radiation sensitization by Gd-tex. Two cell lines (MCF-7 and U-87 MG) were further tested for radiosensitization by Gd-tex under hypoxic conditions. No radiosensitization was observed in either case. Finally, the radiation response of two tumor lines were assessed in vivo. Neither HT-29 xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice nor RIF-1 tumors growing in C3H mice demonstrated radiosensitization after Gd-tex treatment before single or fractionated doses of radiation. Our results raise questions about the efficacy of Gd-tex as a radiosensitizing agent. PMID:10646858

  14. Reevaluation of design waves off the western Indian coast considering climate change

    Satyavathi, P.; Deo, M.C.; Kerkar, J.; Vethamony, P.

    the western Indian coastline. Historical ve model forced by wind data extracted for Environmental Prediction and the , while future wave data are generated that of water in the ocean, along with their interactions as differential equa- wind-wave model. Because... data. Radhika et al. (2012) lcific stations in Indian sea waters and noticed considerable rise in their values. Dinesh Kumar et al. (2013) analyzed 17 years of satellite altimeter data sensed over the Indian Ocean and found no significant changes...

  15. Multi-omic landscape of Rheumatoid Arthritis: re-evaluation of drug adverse effects

    Paolo eTieri; XiaoYuan eZhou; Lisha eZhu; Christine eNardini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide a frame to estimate the systemic impact (side/adverse events) of (novel) therapeutic targets by taking into consideration drugs potential on the numerous districts involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the inflammatory and immune response to the gut-intestinal (GI) microbiome.Methods: We curated the collection of molecules from high-throughput screens of diverse (multi-omic) biochemical origin, experimentally associated to RA. Starting from such collection we genera...

  16. Multi-omic landscape of rheumatoid arthritis: re-evaluation of drug adverse effects

    Tieri, Paolo; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Lisha; Nardini, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide a frame to estimate the systemic impact (side/adverse events) of (novel) therapeutic targets by taking into consideration drugs potential on the numerous districts involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the inflammatory and immune response to the gut-intestinal (GI) microbiome. Methods: We curated the collection of molecules from high-throughput screens of diverse (multi-omic) biochemical origin, experimentally associated to RA. Starting from such collection we ge...

  17. Multi-omic landscape of Rheumatoid Arthritis: re-evaluation of drug adverse effects

    Paolo eTieri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a frame to estimate the systemic impact (side/adverse events of (novel therapeutic targets by taking into consideration drugs potential on the numerous districts involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA from the inflammatory and immune response to the gut-intestinal (GI microbiome.Methods: We curated the collection of molecules from high-throughput screens of diverse (multi-omic biochemical origin, experimentally associated to RA. Starting from such collection we generated RA-related protein-protein interaction (PPI networks (interactomes based on experimental PPI data. Pharmacological treatment simulation, topological and functional analyses were further run to gain insight into the proteins most affected by therapy and by multi-omic modelling.Results: Simulation on the administration of MTX results in the activation of expected (apoptosis and adverse (nitrogenous metabolism alteration effects. Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2 and Interleukin-1 Receptor Associated Kinase-4 (IRAK4, already an RA target emerge as relevant nodes. The former controls the activation of inflammatory, proliferative and degenerative pathways in host and pathogens. The latter controls immune alterations and blocks innate response to pathogens.Conclusions: This multi-omic map properly recollects in a single analytical picture known, yet complex, information like the adverse/side effects of MTX, and provides a reliable platform for in silico hypothesis testing or recommendation on novel therapies. These results can support the development of RA translational research in the design of validation experiments and clinical trials, as such we identify GRB2 as a robust potential new target for RA for its ability to control both synovial degeneracy and dysbiosis, and, conversely, warn on the usage of IRAK4-inhibitors recently promoted, as this involves potential adverse effects in the form of impaired innate response to pathogens.

  18. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951) as a food additive

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2013-01-01

    The EFSA ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion on the safety of aspartame (E 951). Aspartame is a sweetener authorised as a food additive in the EU. In previous evaluations by JECFA and the SCF, an ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day was established based on chronic toxicity in animals. Original reports, previous evaluations, additional literature and data made available following a public call were evaluated. Aspartame is rapidly and completely hydrolysed in the gastrointestinal tract to phenylalanine,...

  19. Re-evaluation of the carcinogenic significance of hepatitis B virus integration in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Suzhen Jiang

    Full Text Available To examine the role of hepatitis B virus (HBV integration in hepatocarcinogenesis, a systematic comparative study of both tumor and their corresponding non-tumor derived tissue has been conducted in a cohort of 60 HBV associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients. By using Alu-polymerase chain reaction (PCR and ligation-mediated PCR, 233 viral-host junctions mapped across all human chromosomes at random, no difference between tumor and non-tumor tissue was observed, with the exception of fragile sites (P = 0.0070. HBV insertions in close proximity to cancer related genes such as hTERT were found in this study, however overall they were rare events. No direct correlation between chromosome aberrations and the number of HBV integration events was found using a sensitive array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH assay. However, a positive correlation was observed between the status of several tumor suppressor genes (TP53, RB1, CDNK2A and TP73 and the number of chromosome aberrations (r = 0.6625, P = 0.0003. Examination of the viral genome revealed that 43% of inserts were in the preC/C region and 57% were in the HBV X gene. Strikingly, approximately 24% of the integrations examined had a breakpoint in a short 15 nt viral genome region (1820-1834 nt. As a consequence, all of the confirmed X gene insertions were C-terminal truncated, losing their growth-suppressive domain. However, the same pattern of X gene C-terminal truncation was found in both tumor and non-tumor derived samples. Furthermore, the integrated viral sequences in both groups had a similar low frequency of C1653T, T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations. The frequency and patterns of HBV insertions were similar between tumor and their adjacent non-tumor samples indicating that the majority of HBV DNA integration events are not associated with hepatocarcinogenesis.

  20. Thyroid cancer. Reevaluation of an experimental model for radiogenic endocrine carcinogenesis

    The status of experimental studies of radiogenic thyroid cancer is appraised, and some older data are reinterpreted in the light of more recent findings. Problems of thyroid dosimetry, particularly the dosimetry of internal radioiodides, are discussed. The steps in radiation carcinogenesis during the acute phase, the latent phase, and the phase of tumor growth are discussed in terms of thyroid epithelial cell population changes. The roles of three cell populations (undamaged or completely repaired epithelial cells, oncogenically initiated cells, and terminally damaged but functionally competent cells) in neoplasia are described. Finally, the implications for man of these experimental results and conclusions are discussed. 89 refs., 4 figs

  1. How Fragile Are Fragile Inferences? A Re-evaluation of the Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment.

    McAleer, Michael; Michael R. Veall

    1989-01-01

    Extreme bounds analysis attempts to measure the effects of the uncertainty in the specification of the explanatory variables in a regression model on the estimated coefficients of interest. Standard errors for the stochastic extreme bounds are computed using the bootstrap technique. State-by-state cross section data are used to study the deterrent effect of capital punishment in the United States in 1950. The bootstrap standard errors are sufficiently large for some bounds to suggest caution ...

  2. Reevaluating the first and the second dividends of environmental tax reforms

    There is increasing global interest in market-based climate change policies following the last elections in the United States. In this context an Exxon Mobil chief executive came out in favour of a carbon tax. This paper is concerned with the welfare analysis of Environmental Tax Reforms (ETR), and takes up the claims for the need of an unambiguous and operative definition of the double dividend both for empirical purposes and political advisement. In this paper, we contest the usual definition of the second dividend and its assimilation to an 'efficiency dividend'. We propose alternative definitions by suggesting a different splitting of the total welfare variation between the first and the second dividend in order to isolate the efficiency effects of the ETR. The new definitions become clearly understandable and easy for economic and policy interpretation. Concepts like 'weak' and 'strong' double dividend turn out to be unnecessary. Finally, we analyze ETR for the US economy to illustrate the advantages of the proposed definitions for policy implementation.

  3. Reevaluation of Meta-analysis on prophylactic drug management for recurrence of febrile seizures

    Huan LIAO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the efficiency and safety of drugs to prevent the recurrence of febrile seizures (FS.  Methods Relevant literatures were searched via PubMed, EMBASE/SCOPUS, EBSCO-CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from December 1997 to November 2014 using the following keywords: febrile seizure OR febrile convulsion, recurrence, prevention OR prophylaxis, medicine OR medication. Publication type was limited to Meta-analysis. Extract the relevant information of Meta-analysis, such as characteristics of objects, types of study design, number of clinical trials, number of cases, search strategies, databases, information of methodology (methods of randomization, concealment, blinding, withdrawal and exit, follow-up time, heterogeneity analysis, subgroup analysis and outcome assessment, etc. Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses (QUOROM and Oxman-Guyatt Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ were used to assess the quality of included Meta-analyses. Jadad decision was used to assess inclusion and exclusion criteria, search strategies, effectiveness evaluation, data extraction and data analysis, to explore reliable evidence of evidence-based medicine.  Results Eventually, four Meta-analyses were included after screening of all the literatures that can be searched out. Among those Meta-analyses, the Meta-analysis of Offringa and Newton (2012 was relatively more reliable. The results suggesed that no clinically important benefits were found in administering intermittent oral or rectal diazepam, oral phenobarbitone, phenytoin, valproate, pyridoxine, buprofen, diclofenac and acetominophen to children with FE. Only one clinical trial reported that intermittent oral clobazam could reduce the recurrence of FE in comparing with placebo at 6-month follow-up (RR = 0.360, 95% CI: 0.200-0.640; P = 0.000, but it should be verified by more randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Among 4 Meta-analyses included in this study, the Meta-analyses of Rosenbloom (2013, Masuko (2003 and Rantala (1997 did not mention the problems of publication bias; in the Meta-analysis of Offringa and Newton (2012, a funnel plot was applied for evaluation of this problem, however, no quantitative analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of publication bias on the validity of conclusions and no further processing was mentioned. Conclusions In view of good prognosis of recurrent FE, unsure efficacy of preventive medicine and high risk of adverse drug reactions, it should not be routinely recommended the use of antiepileptic drugs, antipyretic drugs or pyridoxine to prevent the recurrence of FE. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.011

  4. A reevaluation of myceliogenic germination of sclerotia for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strain Sun-87

    Basal stalk rot of sunflower is an economically important, and rather unique disease, among crops that are susceptible to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This disease is the result of myceliogenic germination of sclerotia whereby the vegetative hyphae infect the sunflower below the soil level. In contrast...

  5. A conserved class of queen pheromones? Re-evaluating the evidence in bumblebees (Bombus impatiens).

    Amsalem, Etya; Orlova, Margarita; Grozinger, Christina M

    2015-10-22

    The regulation of reproductive division of labour is a key component in the evolution of social insects. Chemical signals are important mechanisms to regulate worker reproduction, either as queen-produced pheromones that coercively inhibit worker reproduction or as queen signals that honestly advertise her fecundity. A recent study suggested that a conserved class of hydrocarbons serve as queen pheromones across three independent origins of eusociality. In bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), pentacosane (C25) was suggested to serve as a queen pheromone. Here, we repeat these studies using a different species of bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) with a more controlled experimental design. Instead of dequeened colonies, we used same-aged, three-worker queenless groups comprising either experienced or naive workers (with/without adult exposure to queen pheromone). We quantified three hydrocarbons (C23, C25 and C27) on the cuticular surfaces of females and tested their effects on the two worker types. Our results indicate differences in responses of naive and experienced workers, genetic effects on worker reproduction, and general effects of hydrocarbons and duration of egg laying on ovary resorption rates. However, we found no evidence to support the theory that a conserved class of hydrocarbons serve as queen pheromones or queen signals in Bombus impatiens. PMID:26490791

  6. 34 CFR 602.19 - Monitoring and reevaluation of accredited institutions and programs.

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation approaches that enables the agency to identify problems with an institution's or program's...) Each agency must monitor overall growth of the institutions or programs it accredits and, at least... accrediting agencies must monitor the growth of programs at institutions experiencing significant...

  7. Latent dimensions of social anxiety disorder: A re-evaluation of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN).

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Espejo, Emmanuel; Ayers, Catherine R; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Stein, Murray B

    2015-12-01

    The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN; Connor et al., 2000) is a well-validated instrument for assessing severity of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, evaluations of its factor structure have produced inconsistent results and this aspect of the scale requires further study. Primary care patients with SAD (N=397) completed the SPIN as part of baseline assessment for the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management study (Roy-Byrne et al., 2010). These data were used for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the SPIN. A 3-factor model provided the best fit for the data and factors were interpreted as Fear of Negative Evaluation, Fear of Physical Symptoms, and Fear of Uncertainty in Social Situations. Tests of a second-order model showed that the three factors loaded strongly on a single higher-order factor that was labeled Social Anxiety. Findings are consistent with theories identifying Fear of Negative Evaluation as the core feature of SAD, and with evidence that anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty further contribute to SAD severity. PMID:26454660

  8. Taxonomic Re-evaluation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Isolated from Strawberry in Korea

    Nam, Myeong Hyeon; Park, Myung Soo; Lee, He Duck; Yu, Seung Hun

    2013-01-01

    For the past two decades, the causal agent of anthracnose occurring on strawberry in Korea was considered Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. However, the recent molecular analysis has shown that the genus Colletotrichum has undergone many taxonomic changes with introduction of several new species. As a result, it revealed that C. gloeosporioides indeed consisted of more than 20 distinct species. Therefore, the Korean pathogen isolated from strawberry should be reclassified. The shape and size of...

  9. Reevaluation of induced radioactivity in 10MeV electron-irradiated pepper for public acceptance

    To examine whether or not radioactivity could be produced in black pepper and white pepper with 10MeV electrons, the sample was irradiated with 10MeV electrons from a linear accelerator and its radioactivity was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry and beta-ray counting. The patterns of gamma-ray spectra showed that there was no difference between the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples, suggesting that the induced radioactivity in the irradiated sample was below the detection limit of its induced radioactivity. For further estimation, elemental composition was analyzed and photonuclear reactions which could produce radioactivity in the sample were investigated based on the data already published. Some photonuclear target nuclides in the list were spiked to the sample, being checked in the same way. Although short lived photonuclear products were observed, these radioactivities were found to decrease below the detection limit in a week. It is concluded that the induced radioactivity in the 10MeV electron-irradiated pepper and, hence, its biological effect is far smaller than the natural radioactivity arising from 40K contained in the non-irradiated sample. (author)

  10. Effects of personality and loss of anonymity on aggression: a reevaluation of deindividuation.

    Propst, L R

    1979-09-01

    Zimbardo's deindividuation hypothesis was reexamined by individuating some subjects. Twelve four-person groups administered shock to a confederate in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design with two levels of social individuation (subjects' level of anonymity to group members), two levels of nonsocial individuation (subjects' opportunity to give identifying information to the experimenter on a word association test) and two levels of individual differences. It was found that subjects, who individuated themselves by giving information to the experimenter on the word association test showed more, not less, antisocial behavior. Furthermore, this increased antisocial behavior was exhibited only by externally oriented subjects: those with an external locus of control and a low mysticism score. Some of those more antisocial subjects were also more likely to report feeling like they stood out from the group. It was concluded that antisocial behavior in this paradigm may thus be a response to experimenter demand felt most strongly when subjects felt most identifiable. PMID:490306

  11. Re-evaluation and continued development of shielding benchmark database SINBAD

    The Expert Group on Radiation Transport and Shielding was started at the OECD/NEA in June 2011 with the mandate to, among others, monitor, steer and support the continued development of the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database (SINBAD), in cooperation with RSICC. The present status of this database is presented, which grew since its beginnings in the 1990’s to an international reference database containing at present 100 benchmarks relevant for fission, fusion and accelerator shielding applications. As part of its activities a thorough revision of 45 benchmark experiments was completed recently in order to verify in details the completeness and consistency of the benchmark information, in particular concerning the evaluation of the experimental sources of uncertainty. This review process is expected to provide users with a proper choice and help them make better use of the experimental information and is planned to be extended to other available benchmarks. (author)

  12. The sparing is far from spurious: reevaluating within-trial contingency effects in the attentional blink.

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Hulleman, Johan; Spalek, Thomas; Kawahara, Jun-ichiro; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The attentional blink is the marked deficit in awareness of a 2nd target (T2) when it is presented shortly after the 1st target (T1) in a stream of distractors. When the distractors between T1 and T2 are replaced by even more targets, the attentional blink is reduced or absent, indicating that the attentional blink results from online selection mechanisms that act in response to distracting input rather than being the result of T1-induced cognitive resource depletion. However, Dell'Acqua, Jol...

  13. The Sparing Is Far from Spurious: Reevaluating Within-Trial Contingency Effects in the Attentional Blink

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Hulleman, Johan; Spalek, Thomas; Kawahara, Jun-ichiro; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The attentional blink is the marked deficit in awareness of a 2nd target (T2) when it is presented shortly after the 1st target (T1) in a stream of distractors. When the distractors between T1 and T2 are replaced by even more targets, the attentional blink is reduced or absent, indicating that the attentional blink results from online selection…

  14. Re-evaluating Okun's law in South Africa: A nonlinear co-integration approach

    Phiri, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study undertakes an examination of asymmetric co-integration adjustment in Okun’s law for South Africa between the periods of 2000-2013. This objective is tackled through the use of momentum threshold autoregressive (MTAR) econometric framework. Contrary to conventional theory, the results show that unemployment granger causes economic growth in the long-run, a result which may account for the job-less growth experienced by South Africa over the last decade or so. The obtained results ha...

  15. Pandemic of Pregnant Obese Women: Is It Time to Re-Evaluate Antenatal Weight Loss?

    Anne M. Davis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Obesity pandemic will afflict future generations without successful prevention, intervention and management. Attention to reducing obesity before, during and after pregnancy is essential for mothers and their offspring. Preconception weight loss is difficult given that many pregnancies are unplanned. Interventions aimed at limiting gestational weight gain have produced minimal maternal and infant outcomes. Therefore, increased research to develop evidence-based clinical practice is needed to adequately care for obese pregnant women especially during antenatal care. This review evaluates the current evidence of obesity interventions during pregnancy various including weight loss for safety and efficacy. Recommendations are provided with the end goal being a healthy pregnancy, optimal condition for breastfeeding and prevent the progression of obesity in future generations.

  16. 75 FR 31834 - Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation

    2010-06-04

    ... mentioned benefits, the 2004 EIS contemplated a future high-speed rail system at the TTC in the form of a rail box that could accommodate high-speed rail trains. On the basis of the 2004 EIS, the FTA issued a... the train box under the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail Program. The American Recovery...

  17. Not so Fas: Re-evaluating the mechanisms of immune privilege and tumor escape

    Restifo, Nicholas P

    2000-01-01

    Based on early studies, it was hypothesized that expression of Fas ligand (FasL) by tumor cells enabled them to counterattack the immune system, and that transplant rejection could be prevented by expressing FasL on transplanted organs. More recent studies have indicated that the notion of FasL as a mediator of immune privilege needed to be reconsidered, and taught a valuable lesson about making broad conclusions based on small amounts of data.

  18. Recruitment processes in Baltic sprat - A re-evaluation of GLOBEC Germany hypotheses

    Voss, Rudiger; Peck, M.A.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.;

    2012-01-01

    projections of the future strength of the Balticsprat stock will need to take into account climate-driven changes in both abiotic (e.g., drift trajectories) and biotic (trophodynamic) factors. Although our understanding ofprocesses affecting pre-recruit (larval) growth and survival has been advanced......The GLOBEC Germany program (2002–2007) had the ambitious goal to resolve the processes impacting the recruitment dynamics ofBalticsprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by examining various factors affecting early life history stages. At the start of the research program, a number of general...... for year-class strength particularly at high sprat stock sizes. A suggested mechanism is density-dependant regulation of survival via intra- and inter-specific competition for prey in coastal areas. A documented change in larval vertical migration behavior between the early 1990s and early 2000s increased...

  19. Reevaluation of the effect of calcium ions on auxin-induced elongation

    Cleland, R.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle); Rayle, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    The mechanism by which calcium ions inhibit cell elongation has been reinvestigated. Growth-inhibiting levels of calcium, when applied to isolated walls (in vitro treatment) do not decrease cell wall extensibility as measured by the Instron technique. Thus, the hypothesis that calcium inhibits growth by forming wall-stiffening calcium bridges must be abandoned. Treatment of living auxin-treated sections with calcium (in vivo treatment) does cause a decrease in the subsequently measured wall extensibility, but this decline appears to be simply a consequence of the growth inhibition rather that its cause. Growth-inhibiting levels of calcium do not appreciably reduce the rate of auxin-enhanced H+ excretion. Pretreatment with calcium does not reduce the capacity of walls to undergo acid-activated wall loosening in the absence of calcium. High concentrations of CaC1/sub 2/ (0.02 M) cause an initial elastic shrinkage of Avena sections comparable to that caused by the same osmolarity of mannitol, but the subsequent growth inhibition is to great to be explained by an osmotic inhibition.Calcium ions do inhibit H+-induced extension of frozen-thawed sections under tension. The growth-inhibitory effects of calcium, then, may be ascribed to a direct inhibition exerted by calcium ions on the H+-induced wall-loosening process.

  20. Re-Evaluating the Role of Energy Efficiency Standards: A Time-Consistent Behavioral Economics Approach

    Tsvetan Tsvetanov; Kathleen Segerson

    2011-01-01

    The economic models that prescribe Pigovian taxation as the first-best means of reducing energy-related externalities and argue that taxes are superior to energy efficiency standards are typically based on the neoclassical model of rational consumer choice. Yet, observed consumer behavior with regards to energy use and the purchase of energy-using durable goods is generally thought to be far from efficient, giving rise to the concept of the “energy-efficiency gap.” In this paper, we present a...

  1. Studies on the reevaluation of sterilization treatment and process control for disposable medical supplies

    Studies have been made on bioburden, sterilizing conditions and process control to establish the process and to obtain high productivity and energy saving. (1) Recently, the cost of gas sterilization and that of radiation sterilization are almost same. (2) Ethylene oxide gas (EOG) or radiation must be chosen according to the materials of medical supplies. EOG process is not suitable for ABS resin and soft vinyl chloride, and radiation process is not suitable for vinyl chloride, nitryl resin and polypropylene. (3) By lowering the bioburden through production environment control, process control and the training of workers, it is possible to decrease the radiation dose for sterilization from widely used 2.5 x 104 Gy to 2.0 x 104 Gy. (4) Gas sterilization can be used by four or more days of degasing or eight hours of aerator treatment. (Mori, K.)

  2. Re-evaluation and Re-commendation of Neutron Induced Data of 197Au

    2002-01-01

    The evaluation of neutron-induced data of 197Au with energy range from 10-5 eV to 20 MeV wascarried out. Based on the available measured data, the code APMN is used to get the neutron opticalpotential with energy region from 5 keV to 20 MeV based on the available measured data, such as totalcross section, non-elastic scattering cross sections and elastic angular distributions. The parameters for

  3. Re-evaluation of the 23Mg(p,γ) 24Al reaction rate

    Liu Hong-Lin; Liu Men-Quan; Lai Xiang-Jun; Luo Zhi-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Based on a new screening Coulomb model, this paper discusses the effect of electron screening on proton capture reaction of 23Mg. The derived result shows that, in some considerable range of stellar temperatures, the effect of electron screening on resonant reaction is prominent; on the non-resonant reaction the effect is obvious only in the low stellar temperatures. The reaction rates of 23Mg(p,γ)24Al would increase 15%-25% due to the fact that the electron screening are considered in typical temperature range of massive mass white dwarfs, and the results undoubtedly affect the nucleosynthesis of some heavier nuclei in massive mass white dwarfs.

  4. Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the public health and economic burden of endemic canine rabies in Africa and Asia. METHODS: Data from these regions were applied to a set of linked epidemiological and economic models. The human population at risk from endemic canine rabies was predicted using data on dog density, and human rabies deaths were estimated using a series of probability steps to determine the likelihood of clinical rabies developing in a person after being bitten by a dog suspected of having...

  5. Relapse surveillance in AFP-positive hepatoblastoma: re-evaluating the role of imaging

    Rojas, Yesenia; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A.; Nuchtern, Jed G. [Baylor College of Medicine, Pediatric Surgery Division, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Guillerman, R.P. [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Zhang, Wei [Texas Children' s Hospital, Surgical Outcomes Center, Houston, TX (United States); Thompson, Patrick A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Pediatrics, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); University of North Carolina, Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Pediatrics, North Carolina Children' s Hospital, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Children with hepatoblastoma routinely undergo repetitive surveillance imaging, with CT scans for several years after therapy, increasing the risk of radiation-induced cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of surveillance CT scans compared to serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels for the detection of hepatoblastoma relapse. This was a retrospective study of all children diagnosed with AFP-positive hepatoblastoma from 2001 to 2011 at a single institution. Twenty-six children with hepatoblastoma were identified, with a mean age at diagnosis of 2 years 4 months (range 3 months to 11 years). Mean AFP level at diagnosis was 132,732 ng/ml (range 172.8-572,613 ng/ml). Five of the 26 children had hepatoblastoma relapse. A total of 105 imaging exams were performed following completion of therapy; 88 (84%) CT, 8 (8%) MRI, 5 (5%) US and 4 (4%) FDG PET/CT exams. A total of 288 alpha-fetoprotein levels were drawn, with a mean of 11 per child. The AFP level was elevated in all recurrences and no relapses were detected by imaging before AFP elevation. Two false-positive AFP levels and 15 false-positive imaging exams were detected. AFP elevation was found to be significantly more specific than PET/CT and CT imaging at detecting relapse. We recommend using serial serum AFP levels as the preferred method of surveillance in children with AFP-positive hepatoblastoma, reserving imaging for the early postoperative period, for children at high risk of relapse, and for determination of the anatomical site of clinically suspected recurrence. Given the small size of this preliminary study, validation in a larger patient population is warranted. (orig.)

  6. Re-evaluation of a bacterial antifreeze protein as an adhesin with ice-binding activity.

    Shuaiqi Guo

    Full Text Available A novel role for antifreeze proteins (AFPs may reside in an exceptionally large 1.5-MDa adhesin isolated from an Antarctic Gram-negative bacterium, Marinomonas primoryensis. MpAFP was purified from bacterial lysates by ice adsorption and gel electrophoresis. We have previously reported that two highly repetitive sequences, region II (RII and region IV (RIV, divide MpAFP into five distinct regions, all of which require mM Ca(2+ levels for correct folding. Also, the antifreeze activity is confined to the 322-residue RIV, which forms a Ca(2+-bound beta-helix containing thirteen Repeats-In-Toxin (RTX-like repeats. RII accounts for approximately 90% of the mass of MpAFP and is made up of ∼120 tandem 104-residue repeats. Because these repeats are identical in DNA sequence, their number was estimated here by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Structural homology analysis by the Protein Homology/analogY Recognition Engine (Phyre2 server indicates that the 104-residue RII repeat adopts an immunoglobulin beta-sandwich fold that is typical of many secreted adhesion proteins. Additional RTX-like repeats in RV may serve as a non-cleavable signal sequence for the type I secretion pathway. Immunodetection shows both repeated regions are uniformly distributed over the cell surface. We suggest that the development of an AFP-like domain within this adhesin attached to the bacterial outer surface serves to transiently bind the host bacteria to ice. This association would keep the bacteria within the upper reaches of the water column where oxygen and nutrients are potentially more abundant. This novel envirotactic role would give AFPs a third function, after freeze avoidance and freeze tolerance: that of transiently binding an organism to ice.

  7. Reevaluating NIMBY: Evolving Public Fear and Acceptance in Siting a Nuclear Waste Facility

    The not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) syndrome has long been the focus of academic and policy research. We test several competing hypothesis concerning the sources of NIMBY sentiments, including demographics, proximity, political ideology and partisanship, and the unfolding policy process over time. To test these hypotheses we use survey data collected in New Mexico dealing with risk perceptions and acceptance related to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP), a permanent storage site for radioactive waste located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP became operational and received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. This study tracks the changes of risk perception and acceptance over a decade, using measures taken from 35 statewide surveys of New Mexico citizens spanning the 11-year period from fall 1990 to summer 2001. This time span includes periods before and after WIPP became operational. We find that acceptance of WIPP is greater among those in the most proximate counties to WIPP. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations drawn from the broader literature, acceptance is also greater among those who live closest to the nuclear waste transportation route. We also find that ideology, partisanship, government approval and broader environmental concerns influence support for WIPP acceptance. Finally, the sequence of procedural steps taken toward formal approval of WIPP by government agencies proved to be important to public acceptance, the most significant being the opening of the WIPP facility itself

  8. Development of seismic safety reevaluation procedure considering the ageing of NPP facilities

    Lee, Myoung Kue [Jeonju Univ., Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. M. [Cheonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. S.; Cheong, S. H.; Kim, I. S.; Lee, M. G.; Kim, D. O. [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, G. H. [Mokpo National Maritime Univ., Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    There are three of Nuclear Power Plants subject to the USI A-46 in Korea, including Kori No 1 and No 2 and Wolsung No 1. For the sake of resolution of the issue the possibility of adopting the GIP developed by the SQUG in USA is very high. In relation to the issue, this study addresses some technical improvements of the GIP including sloshing analysis based on multiple modes, seismic retrofit of cabinet for reduction of ICRS and modification of IRS depending on damping ratio. Dominant degradation factor and its affects NPP concrete elements are reviewed : chloride induced corrosion, carbonation of concrete elements, freezing and thawing of concrete elements, chemical and biological process, crack affect on concrete degradation. Various technical reports and papers about age-related degradation are reviewed for identification of degradation properties of NPP structures and components and degradation trend in NPP structures and components. This report summarizes numerical model for concrete degradation and development procedure of numerical models for concrete degradation. This report proposes the research necessity for performance evaluation of degraded concrete structure and selection of element for further study.

  9. Re-evaluation of the 1976 Guatemala earthquake taking into account the environmental effects

    Porfido, Sabina; Esposito, Eliana; Spiga, Efisio; Sacchi, Marco; Molisso, Flavia; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Guatemala is one of the most seismically active countries in Central America.The largest earthquakes are produced by along the subduction zone of the Cocos and Caribbean plates in the Middle America Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Large earthquakes are also triggered along the boundary between the North American and the Caribbean plates, defined by a zone of large left lateral strike-slip faults that run through Guatemala from the Swan Fracture Zone in the Caribbean Sea. The earthquakes generated along these transcurrent faults, although less frequent, have a great importance to seismic hazard in Central America, more than the subduction-related earthquakes, because of their shallow ipocenters and the proximity of many cities and villages to these active structures. The most destructive event in this region was the earthquake occurred on 4, February 1976 in Guatemala, associated with the Motagua fault, causing 23 000 deaths, and 77 200 injuries. This study attempts at reconstructing the coseismic effects on the environment, to better assess the intensities according to the ESI scale 2007. For the Guatemala 1976 earthquake (M=7,5), the original scientific seismic, geological and macroseismic reports have been reviewed in order to highlight effects on natural environment. The maximum estimated intensity was IX MM in Gualan, in the Mixco area and in the centre of Guatemala City. Intensities value were underestimated despite there was a high level of damages, in fact several towns and villages were totally destroyed and although the earthquake triggered very large and spectacular primary and secondary ground effects. On the basis of all the gathered information has been possible to detect and to localize coseismic environmental effects, and classify them into six main types: surface faulting, slope movements, ground cracks, ground settlements, hydrological changes and tsunami. Primary effects was identified in the Motagua Valley and the mountainous area W of the valley, a strike-slip fault with a total length of 230 km, and maximum horizontal displacement of 3.25 m, secondary faults were observed in the Mixco area, in the western part of Guatemala City, with total length of ca. 10 km. Secondary effects were mostly landslides, (ca. 50.000) throughout a broad region of central Guatemala parallel to the main fault, mainly involving rock falls, debris slides, and flows as well as thick pumiceous pyroclastic rocks. Lateral spreads and liquefaction phenomena occurred in the Motagua valley, along Atlantic coast of Guatemala and Honduras, and along the shores of Lake Amatitlan, evidence of a a tsunami was reported in Honduras. According to the ESI2007 scale, I0 XI corresponds to 230 km total rupture length and maximum horizontal offset of 3.25 m, in good agreement to the total area of relevant ground effects of about 18.000 km. The I0 = XI ESI 2007 indicate a more realistic value with respect to intensity IX MM assessed by Espinosa e al.1976. Once again it is important to underline the role played by environmental effects on the seismic hazard evaluation for the national and regional seismic hazards.

  10. Using Rasch Modeling to Re-Evaluate Rapid Malaria Diagnosis Test Analyses

    Dawit G. Ayele

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate the use of the Rasch model by assessing the appropriateness of the demographic, social-economic and geographic factors in providing a total score in malaria RDT in accordance with the model’s expectations. The baseline malaria indicator survey was conducted in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP regions of Ethiopia by The Carter Center in 2007. The result shows high reliability and little disordering of thresholds with no evidence of differential item functioning.

  11. Pandemic of Pregnant Obese Women: Is It Time to Re-Evaluate Antenatal Weight Loss?

    Anne M. Davis

    2015-01-01

    The Obesity pandemic will afflict future generations without successful prevention, intervention and management. Attention to reducing obesity before, during and after pregnancy is essential for mothers and their offspring. Preconception weight loss is difficult given that many pregnancies are unplanned. Interventions aimed at limiting gestational weight gain have produced minimal maternal and infant outcomes. Therefore, increased research to develop evidence-based clinical practice is needed...

  12. Re-evaluating high-latitude warming in the Pliocene Nordic Seas

    Hill, Daniel; Smith, Yvonne; Dolan, Aisling

    2016-04-01

    The Pliocene warm period was generally been seen as stable warm climate with global temperatures of 2-3K above pre-industrial and significant polar amplification. Northern Hemisphere ice has been reconstructed to be restricted to the high altitude areas of Greenland and global reconstructions of sea surface temperatures show an especially strong warming in the Nordic Seas, most often attributed to increased ocean heat transport in the North Atlantic Ocean. Here we present climate model results that show that the strongest warming recorded in the Nordic Seas and Arctic is forced by changes in orbital forcing and palaeogeographic changes. Of particular importance is the presence of a sub-aerial landmass in the Barents Sea region, which has subsequently been eroded by Pleistocene glaciation. While climate models can produce strong warming signals in the Nordic Seas, a new iceberg modelling study showing that through much of the Pliocene the conditions in the Nordic Seas were suitable for the presence of significant quantities of icebergs. The locations of IRD records also raises the possibility of significant glaciations in places previously considered to be ice free in the Pliocene.

  13. A re-evaluation of the determinants of glomerular filtration rate

    Karlsen, F M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1995-01-01

    to the TGF mechanism also depresses renin release. The resulting local angiotensin II concentration has effects both on the arteriolar resistances and on the APR. The renin-angiotensin system and TGF are therefore considered to be integrated parts of a common control system regulating GFR. According...... the TGF mechanism, while larger changes in the APR cause near parallel changes in the GFR mainly because of the effect on tubular pressure. The hydraulic resistance in the distal nephron segments is an additional factor in regulating GFR, through its effect on proximal tubular pressure. The stimulus...... to the hypothesis advocated here, TGF-mediated changes in afferent arteriolar resistance and angiotensin-mediated changes in efferent arteriolar resistance and APR cooperate in counteracting perturbations in proximal tubular pressure and Henle loop flow. However, because of the biphasic proximal...

  14. Reevaluation of the role of the polar groups of collagen in the platelet-collagen interaction.

    Chesney, C. M.; Pifer, D D; Crofford, L J; Huch, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical modification of collagen is a tool for exploring the platelet-collagen interaction. Since collagen must polymerize prior to the initiation of platelet aggregation and secretion, modification must be shown to affect platelet-collagen interaction and not collagen-collagen interaction. To address this point, the authors carried out the following chemical modifications on soluble monomeric collagen and preformed fibrillar collagen in parallel: 1) N-and O-acetylation, 2) esterification of...

  15. Re-evaluation of the function of the male specific lethal complex in Drosophila

    James Birchler; Lin Sun; Harvey Fernandez; Ryan Donohue; Weiwu Xie; Abhijit Sanyal

    2011-01-01

    A set of proteins and noncoding RNAs,referred to as the male specific lethal (MSL) complex,is present on the male X chromosome in Drosophila and has been postulated to be responsible for dosage compensation of this chromosome - the up-regulation of its expression to be equal to that of two X chromosomes in females.This hypothesis is evaluated in view of lesser known aspects of dosage compensation such as the fact that metafemales with three X chromosomes also have equal expression to normal females,which would require a down-regulation of each gene copy.Moreover,when this complex is ectopically expressed in females or specifically targeted to a reporter in males,there is no increase in expression of the genes or targets with which it is associated.These observations are not consistent with the hypothesis that the MSL complex conditions dosage compensation.A synthesis is described that can account for these observations.

  16. Re-evaluation of the LHC potential for the measurement of mW

    We present a study of the LHC sensitivity to the W boson mass based on simulation studies. We find that both experimental and phenomenological sources of systematic uncertainties can be strongly constrained with Z measurements: the lineshape, dσZ/dm, is robustly predicted, and its analysis provides an accurate measurement of the detector resolution and absolute scale, while the differential cross-section analysis, d2σZ/dydpT, absorbs the strong interaction uncertainties. A sensitivity δmW∝7 MeV for each decay channel (W→eν,W→μν), and for an integrated luminosity of 10fb-1, appears as a reasonable goal. (orig.)

  17. Re-evaluation of the LHC potential for the measurement of m{sub W}

    Besson, Nathalie; Boonekamp, Maarten [CEA, IRFU, SPP, DSM Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Klinkby, Esben; Mehlhase, Sascha [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Petersen, Troels [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    We present a study of the LHC sensitivity to the W boson mass based on simulation studies. We find that both experimental and phenomenological sources of systematic uncertainties can be strongly constrained with Z measurements: the lineshape, d{sigma}{sub Z}/dm, is robustly predicted, and its analysis provides an accurate measurement of the detector resolution and absolute scale, while the differential cross-section analysis, d{sup 2}{sigma}{sub Z}/dydp{sub T}, absorbs the strong interaction uncertainties. A sensitivity {delta}m{sub W}{proportional_to}7 MeV for each decay channel (W{yields}e{nu},W{yields}{mu}{nu}), and for an integrated luminosity of 10fb{sup -1}, appears as a reasonable goal. (orig.)

  18. Interrupting, patronizing and silencing in the series Teen Mom 2:re-evaluating the stereotypes

    Sirén, T. (Teppo)

    2016-01-01

    Today’s western society sees women as powerless and incapable and men as dominant leaders in any given situation. These stereotypes of men and women are often reflected as expectations of how men and women should behave and carry themselves. Women are expected to stay quiet and men are expected to take charge regardless of the situation at hand. These expectations further prevent opportunities for both men and women in working life, for example. They also cloud people’s ability and willingnes...

  19. Re-evaluation of the concrete faced rockfill dams in Turkey

    Tosun, H. [Dam Safety Association, Ankara (Turkey); Turkoz, M. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2006-07-01

    One of the most popular types of dams in the world is the concrete faced rockfill dam (CFRD). In the 1940s, it was used for moderate height structures, however with the application of the vibratory roller, it quickly advanced. The concrete-faced rockfill dam is being constructed with increasing frequency, because it does not have settlement problems as a result of the use of compacted rockfill. It is thought that the entire rockfill mass increases the overall stability of the dam, since the water pressure acts on the upstream face. One of its advantages is that there can be no pore water pressure due to earthquake shaking, because the embankment does not include water inside. Therefore, it is not necessary to consider a strength reduction for embankment materials and have a high resistance to seismic loading when well compacted. Currently, CFRD's are designed with an upstream zone of small rock particles and soil materials without any permeability problems. The stability of slopes of concrete-faced rockfill dams can be analysed under different levels of seismic loading. In Turkey, the CFRD is increasingly popular. This paper described evaluation of design principles for CFRD's in Turkey and introduced the results of a study including deformation and stress analyses of the Kurtun Dam using the Finite Element Method and compared the calculated and measured values of settlement. The predicted values of settlement were compared with actual ones. It was concluded that settlement analysis using the finite element model is a credible method when suitable parameters of embankment materials are used in the analysis. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  20. Evaluation and re-evaluation of genetic radiation hazards in man

    The arm number hypothesis proposed by Brewen and colleagues in 1973 has been examined in the light of information thus far available from mammalian studies. In experiments with peripheral blood lymphocytes (radiation in vitro), a linear relationship between dicentric yield and the effective chromosome arm number of the species was obtained in the mouse, Chinese hamster, goat, sheep, pig, wallaby and man. However, the data are not consistent with such a relationship in several primate species (marmoset, rhesus monkey, cynomolgus monkey, squirrel monkey and the slow loris), the cat and the dog. In the rabbit, the data are conflicting. In the mouse and the Chinese hamster the frequencies of reciprocal translocations recorded in spermatocytes descended from irradiated spermatogonia are in line with the expectation based on the arm number hypothesis, whereas in the golden hamster, rabbit and the rhesus they are not. In man and the marmoset, the limited data are not inconsistent with a 2-fold higher sensitivity of these species relative to the mouse although they do not rule out a difference as high as 4-fold. In the guinea-pig, the situation is unclear. New data on the transmission of reciprocal translocations in mice suggest that the frequency in the F1 progeny may be close to one-quarter of that recorded in the spermatocytes of the irradiated fathers (spermatogonial irradiation) at an exposure level of 150 R, whereas at higher exposures, the reduction factor is about one-eighth, the latter being in line with the earlier finding. All these results taken together suggest that inter-specific extrapolation from the radiosensitivity of somatic cells (to dicentric induction) to that of germ cells (to translocation induction) is fraught with uncertainty at present. Certain aspects that need to be studied in more detail in the context of induced chromosome aberrations are discussed

  1. Re-evaluation of the epicontinental paradigm for genesis of the Triassic succession in southern Israel

    Benjamini, Chaim; Korngreen, Dorit; Bialik, Or

    2014-05-01

    The Middle and Late Triassic succession in southern Israel has been regarded as part of the epicontinental marginal marine zone of the Gondwanan margin. This scenario is at odds with field evidence in southern Israel. The clastic-dominated Pelsonian succession and the carbonate-evaporite late Anisian to Carnian successions were largely marine low energy settings below storm wave base. δ13C values occur within a range characteristic of the Triassic open marine environment. Some deeper settings were marked by downslope transport to the deep ramp. Sea level falls are evidenced by shallowing to proximal subtidal zones of wave or storm activity. Subaerial exposure features are absent except in the late Pelsonian, when rate of sedimentation of continental clastics briefly exceeded subsidence, and at the termination of tectonic subsidence in the Carnian, when evaporites were superseded by prograding microbialites. Early Pelsonian mixed siliciclastic/carbonate sediments initially accumulated below storm wave base. Sea level fall and aridization in the hinterland led briefly to reduction of siliciclastic influx, This transition was in the lower --Balatonicus ammonoid zone, correlative to a Bithynian/ Pelsonian humid pulse followed by a Pelsonian semi-arid regime recorded elsewhere in the Tethys. Subsequent increased rainfall and concomitant siliciclastic influx caused delta progradation and inhibition of carbonates. The delta front zone was mostly below or near fair weather wave base, with the proximal subtidal zone reached only at the time of sea level fall. Rising sea level of the later Pelsonian led to flooding of clastic-dominated deltaic lagoons and the increasingly carbonate-dominated, fully marine settings of the Illyrian and Fassanian. The Longobardian stromatolitic and incipient evaporite facies indicate both lowered sea-level and climate change to aridity. Ocean connectivity fluctuated between deep hypersaline waters pooled behind a deep barrier at sea-level highstands, and stromatolite-dominated biofacies during lowstands. The low overall rate of sedimentation was consistent with condensation. In the Longobardian, thin clastic-type evaporite horizons are interbedded with fossiliferous carbonates. Evaporites vs. carbonates formed on the proximal shallow margins of the basin according to whether climate was arid or humid, and were transported downslope. An early Carnian carbonate-free interval indicates a humid pulse, followed by development of thick cycles of shale, dolomite, and laminated gypsarenite, the latter representing resedimented evaporite crystals on the deep ramp and toe of slope of a subsiding basin. Subsidence terminated in aggrading subtidal microbialites beneath a major regional truncation surface. Termination of differential subsidence in the latest Carnian - Norian is coeval across Israel from south to north, but coincides with establishment of a reefal succession on the northwestern Israel coast. The Triassic succession of southern Israel formed within a varied bathymetric shelf-edge depositional setting of variably restricted basins and highs, responding to eustatic sea level changes, remote climate conditions and events, and local and regional tectonic movements. The dominance of deep, open water settings calls into question the extensive ramp- or platform- like nature assumed for epicontinental marine environments of the Triassic in Israel.

  2. Bringing in Gangs and Community: A Re-Evaluation of Social Disorganization and Collective Efficacy

    Tuthill, Louis C.

    2012-01-01

    For the last two decades, social disorganization and collective efficacy have been two of the main tenants of criminological thinking. Although gaps in these theories have been pointed out during the past decade, these theories persisted in the criminological literature. Further, these theories have been used as the bases for models of intervention, prevention, and suppression to reduce crime and juvenile delinquency. These programs have had mixed results because they do not account for pr...

  3. Read my lips : Re-evaluating subtitling and dubbing in Europe

    Mera, Miguel

    1999-01-01

    Language transfer in European film and television is dominated by two techniques; subtitling and dubbing, and most countries tend to harbour a marked preference and prejudice in which method they use. These preferences are largely historical and self-perpetuating, because over-exposure to one or other technique affirms its acceptability and continued use. However, there is little understanding of the way in which these two language transfer methods actually affect the meaning and reception of...

  4. Re-evaluating the NO 2 hotspot over the South African Highveld

    Alexandra S.M. Lourens

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally, numerous pollution hotspots have been identified using satellite-based instruments. One of these hotspots is the prominent NO2hotspot over the South African Highveld. The tropospheric NO2column density of this area is comparable to that observed for central and northern Europe, eastern North America and south-east Asia. The most well-known pollution source in this area is a large array of coal-fired power stations. Upon closer inspection, long-term means of satellite observations also show a smaller area, approximately 100 km west of the Highveld hotspot, with a seemingly less substantial NO2column density. This area correlates with the geographical location of the Johannesburg–Pretoria conurbation or megacity, one of the 40 largest metropolitan areas in the world. Ground-based measurements indicate that NO2concentrations in the megacity have diurnal peaks in the early morning and late afternoon, which coincide with peak traffic hours and domestic combustion. During these times, NO2concentrations in the megacity are higher than those in the Highveld hotspot. These diurnal NO2 peaks in the megacity have generally been overlooked by satellite observations because the satellites have fixed local overpass times that do not coincide with these peak periods. Consequently, the importance of NO2 over the megacity has been underestimated. We examined the diurnal cycles of NO2 ground-based measurements for the two areas – the megacity and the Highveld hotspot – and compared them with the satellite-based NO2 observations. Results show that the Highveld hotspot is accompanied by a second hotspot over the megacity, which is of significance for the more than 10 million people living in this megacity.

  5. Reevaluation of Stratospheric Ozone Trends From SAGE II Data Using a Simultaneous Temporal and Spatial Analysis

    Damadeo, R. P.; Zawodny, J. M.; Thomason, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper details a new method of regression for sparsely sampled data sets for use with time-series analysis, in particular the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II ozone data set. Non-uniform spatial, temporal, and diurnal sampling present in the data set result in biased values for the long-term trend if not accounted for. This new method is performed close to the native resolution of measurements and is a simultaneous temporal and spatial analysis that accounts for potential diurnal ozone variation. Results show biases, introduced by the way data is prepared for use with traditional methods, can be as high as 10%. Derived long-term changes show declines in ozone similar to other studies but very different trends in the presumed recovery period, with differences up to 2% per decade. The regression model allows for a variable turnaround time and reveals a hemispheric asymmetry in derived trends in the middle to upper stratosphere. Similar methodology is also applied to SAGE II aerosol optical depth data to create a new volcanic proxy that covers the SAGE II mission period. Ultimately this technique may be extensible towards the inclusion of multiple data sets without the need for homogenization.

  6. Epigenetic Inheritance and Its Role in Evolutionary Biology: Re-Evaluation and New Perspectives.

    Burggren, Warren

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics increasingly occupies a pivotal position in our understanding of inheritance, natural selection and, perhaps, even evolution. A survey of the PubMed database, however, reveals that the great majority (>93%) of epigenetic papers have an intra-, rather than an inter-generational focus, primarily on mechanisms and disease. Approximately ~1% of epigenetic papers even mention the nexus of epigenetics, natural selection and evolution. Yet, when environments are dynamic (e.g., climate change effects), there may be an "epigenetic advantage" to phenotypic switching by epigenetic inheritance, rather than by gene mutation. An epigenetically-inherited trait can arise simultaneously in many individuals, as opposed to a single individual with a gene mutation. Moreover, a transient epigenetically-modified phenotype can be quickly "sunsetted", with individuals reverting to the original phenotype. Thus, epigenetic phenotype switching is dynamic and temporary and can help bridge periods of environmental stress. Epigenetic inheritance likely contributes to evolution both directly and indirectly. While there is as yet incomplete evidence of direct permanent incorporation of a complex epigenetic phenotype into the genome, doubtlessly, the presence of epigenetic markers and the phenotypes they create (which may sort quite separately from the genotype within a population) will influence natural selection and, so, drive the collective genotype of a population. PMID:27231949

  7. Reevaluation of spin-dependent WIMP-proton interactions as an explanation of the DAMA data

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Georgescu, Andreea; Huh, Ji-Haeng

    2015-01-01

    We reexamine the interpretation of the annual modulation signal observed by the DAMA experiment as due to WIMPs with a spin-dependent coupling mostly to protons. We consider both axial-vector and pseudo-scalar couplings, and elastic as well as endothermic and exothermic inelastic scattering. We conclude that the DAMA signal is in strong tension with null results of other direct detection experiments, particularly PICASSO and KIMS.

  8. Re-evaluating "transitional neonatal hypoglycemia": mechanism and implications for management

    A Committee of the Pediatric Endocrine Society was recently formed to develop guidelines for evaluation and management of hypoglycemia in neonates, infants, and children. To aid in formulating recommendations for neonates, in this review, we analyzed available data on the brief period of hypoglycemi...

  9. Preparation of gravimetric standards for measurements of atmospheric oxygen and reevaluation of atmospheric oxygen concentration

    Tohjima, Yasunori; Machida, Toshinobu; Watai, Tomonori; Akama, Isao; Amari, Taketo; Moriwaki, Yasushi

    2005-06-01

    Fourteen standard mixtures composed of ambient levels of CO2, Ar, O2, and N2 have been prepared in 10-L high-pressure aluminum cylinders by a gravimetric technique for atmospheric O2 measurements. A highly precise balance with a precision of 2.5 mg is used to determine the masses of individual components in the cylinders. To balance the buoyant forces on both sides of the balance beam during weighing the gravimetric standard cylinder, a same sized cylinder is placed on a pan on the opposite side of the beam. In addition, the cylinders of the gravimetric standards and a tare cylinder are alternately weighed to compensate for the drift of the zero-point of the balance. To determine the mole fractions accurately, the mass of each component is corrected for the buoyancy changes caused by the expansion of the cylinder, and the molecular masses of the source O2 and N2 gases are corrected for their isotopic compositions. The differences in the O2 mole fractions of the 14 gravimetric standards range about 100 ppm (μmol mol-1). The gravimetric mole fractions are compared with the analyzed values of CO2, Ar, O2 + Ar, and (O2 + Ar)/N2. The reproducibility of the gravimetric technique is determined from the standard deviations of the differences between the gravimetric and analyzed values, and is quantified as 15.5 per meg for the O2/N2 ratio and 2.9 ppm for the O2 mole fraction. The gravimetric scale is applied to the measurements from air samples collected at Hateruma Island, Japan. The average Ar mole fraction for the air samples collected from June 2003 through June 2004 is 9333 ± 2 ppm. On the basis of this Ar mole fraction, the annual average mole fractions of O2 and N2 in 2000 are evaluated to be 209392 ± 3 ppm and 780876 ± 2 ppm, respectively.

  10. Taxonomic re-evaluation of species in Talaromyces section Islandici, using a polyphasic approach

    N. Yilmaz; Visagie, C.M.; Frisvad, J.C.; Houbraken, J.; Jacobs, K; Samson, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy of Talaromyces rugulosus, T. wortmannii and closely related species, classified in Talaromyces sect. Islandici, is reviewed in this paper. The species of Talaromyces sect. Islandici have restricted growth on MEA and CYA, generally have yellow mycelia and produce rugulosin and/or skyrin. They are important in biotechnology (e.g. T. rugulosus, T. wortmannii) and in medicine (e.g. T. piceus, T. radicus). The taxonomy of sect. Islandici was resolved using a combination of morphologic...

  11. Re-evaluation of the socio-economical cost for straw

    The socio-economical price for straw is calculated. Prices per ton are for the year 1984, 230 Danish kroner per ton and 15.53 kroner per giga joule, for 1990, 291 kroner per ton and 19.40 per giga joule and for 1992, 171 kroner per ton and 11.81 per giga joule. This development reflects that in the case of some machines there has been a fall in price, and that the operation capacity has in many instances increased. The calculation of storage costs must be seen in relation to the current discussion on acceptable straw qualities. The calculated storage costs are based on the consideration of 6 storage possibilities. It was attempted to price the management methods in relation to equipment which is most used by farmers and lorry drivers daily. An example of this is that tranportation calculations are based on the probable use of secondhand renovated lorries, as new ones can not be afforded. Sliced straw is not included in the calculations. (AB) (16 refs.)

  12. Brazilian Alcohol Program (Proalcool): economic re-evaluation and demand adjustments

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the economic impact on the Brazilian National Alcohol Programme caused by changes in the energy scenery, in view of recent oil price fall in the international market, and evaluate the necessary adjustments of the Programme according to the new Brazilian economic reality. The economic analysis concludes that the alcohol production, considering current production capacity and its investments, could be economically feasible at international oil prices near US$ 30.00. Excluding investments, its feasibility would be between US$ 18.00 and US$ 20.00 per equivalent oil barrel. Based on these conclusions, proposals for adjusting the PROALCOOL are discussed, including alternative pricing, fiscal and credit policies to control the alcohol-fuel demand. (author)

  13. Re-Evaluating the Role of the Saharan Air Layer in Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenesis and Evolution

    Braun, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The existence of the Saharan air layer (SAL), a layer of warm, dry, dusty air frequently present over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, has long been appreciated. The nature of its impact on hurricanes remains unclear, however, with some researchers arguing that the SAL amplifies hurricane development and with others arguing that it inhibits it. Most research in recent years has emphasized the potential negative impacts of the SAL, but is this emphasis justified? The potential negative impacts of the SAL include 1) vertical wind shear associated with the African easterly jet; 2) warm air aloft, which increases thermodynamic stability at the base of the SAL; and 3) dry air, which produces cold downdrafts. Multiple NASA satellite data sets and NCEP global analyses are used to characterize the SAL's properties and evolution in relation to tropical cyclones and to evaluate these potential negative influences. The results suggest that the negative influences of the SAL have been significantly over-emphasized, in part because of several false assumptions about the structure and role of the SAL.

  14. Re-evaluation of honeybees and wind on pollination of avocado

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) flowers, with their synchronously dichogamous behavior, are considered to be pollinated by honeybees, despite the lack of any direct evidence. Results in south Florida showed that avocado pollen was transferable by wind and dispersed over a brief period of time (15-60...

  15. Dosimetry evaluation of the potential exposure bound to uranium and thorium natural accumulation in the sand of some beaches of the Camargue littoral; Evaluations dosimetriques de l'exposition potentielle liee a l'accumulation naturelle d'uranium et de thorium dans les sables de certaines plages du littoral de Camargue

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this report is the assessment of potential exposure to radioactive sands discovered in 2000 in two points of the coast of the Camargue (East of Beauduc and Espiguette lighthouses), where specific activity can reach up several thousands of Bq.kg{sup -1} for radionuclides of U{sup 238} and Th{sup 232} radioactive families, and environmental dose rate up to ten times of usual natural background. The excess of radioactivity is carried by small particles of sand (apatites and zircons less than 100 {mu}m). First chapter focuses on radioactivity of the coast of the Golfe du lion and of the Camargue, and more particularly on these two points (cartography, measure, radionuclide identification, mineralogical characterization of particles). This chapter concludes the excess of radioactivity is natural; particles come from several massifs of the Rhone basin, transported by the river and re-distributed on the coast. Second chapter focuses on dosimetric assessment, using reasonable scenarios for the frequenting of these sites by persons of the public in one hand, and drawing up the sizing of the sands and their solubility in gastric and intestinal fluids in an other hand. the annual effective dose, carefully calculated, is about 1 mSv, mainly due to external exposure to gamma rays. such a dose, of same levels as the dose received for 17 months of residence in Paris for example, does not involve any particular action. (authors)

  16. Adaptation of proton total dose with respect to dosimetric parameters within the frame of treatment of skull base or upper cervical spine chordomas; Adaptation de la dose totale de protons en fonction des parametres dosimetriques dans le cadre du traitement des chordomes de la base du crane et du rachis cervical haut

    Hemery, C.G.; Mazeron, J.J.; Feuvret, L. [Groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere (AP-HP), 75 - Paris (France); Calugaru, V.; Bolle, S.; Habrand, J.L.; Datcharty, J.; Alapetite, C.; Dendale, R.; Feuvret, L. [Institut Curie-Centre de protontherapie d' Orsay, 91 (France); Habrand, J.L.; Datcharty, J. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Noel, G. [Centre Paul-Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report the study of the feasibility of a photon-proton irradiation protocol with a dose adaptation with respect to dosimetric factors for patients suffering form a skull base and upper cervical spine chordoma. Sixty patients have been treated between May 2006 and June 2008 with a combination of high energy photons and protons. As five tumours have locally relapsed and one at distance, the authors comment the local control rates, the number of attained cranial nerves, the value of the macroscopic tumour volume, the survival rate without relapse in terms of multifactorial of uni-factorial analysis. Short communication

  17. Mediastinal Hodgkin's disease: dosimetric study of intensity-modulated radiotherapy combined with the deep-inspiration breath-hold technique; Maladie de Hodgkin mediastinale: etude dosimetrique de la radiotherapie avec modulation d'intensite associee au blocage en inspiration profonde

    Paumier, A.; Galibafian, M.; Beaudre, A.; Pichenot, C.; Ferreira, I.; El Nemr, M.; Azoury, F.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Girinsky, T. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Unite de physique, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a study which aimed to assess the additional benefits of using the deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in terms of protection of organs at risk for patients with mediastinal Hodgkin's disease. Two simulation computed tomography scans were performed for each patient: one using the free-breathing (FB) technique and the other using the DIBH technique with a dedicated spirometer. The clinical target volume, planning target volume (PTV), and organs at risk were determined on both computed tomography scans according to the guidelines of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. There were no significant differences in PTV coverage between the two techniques (FB vs. DIBH). The mean doses delivered to the coronary arteries, heart, and lungs were significantly reduced by 10% to 20% using DIBH compared with FB. The greatest benefit was obtained for tumours in the upper part of the mediastinum. Short communication

  18. Clinical and dosimetric results of three-dimensional image-guided and pulsed dose rate curie-therapy in locally advanced cervical cancers; Resultats cliniques et dosimetriques de la curietherapie de debit de dose pulse guidee par imagerie tridimensionnelle dans les cancers du col de l'uterus localement evolues

    Mazeron, R.; Gilmore, J.; Dumas, I.; Abrous-Anane, S.; Haberer, S.; Verstraet, R.; Champoudry, J.; Martinetti, F.; Morice, P.; Haie-Meller, C. [Institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a review of data obtained between 2004 and 2009 on 130 women who had been treated by optimized pulsed-rate curie-therapy for a locally advanced cervical cancer. Results are discussed in terms of cancer stage, treatment (with or without concomitant chemotherapy), planning method (MRI, scanography), delivered doses in the clinical target volumes, surgery, relapse occurrence and localizations, global survival probability, local control, undesirable side effects, occurrence of intestine or urinary toxicity. It appears that the association of a concomitant chemo-radiotherapy and optimized curie-therapy results in a good local-regional control and a low toxicity level. Short communication

  19. Report GT2 by the pluralistic expertise group on the Limousin uranium mining sites.Volume 1 and 2: Environmental, ecosystem and health controls. Environmental risk. Dose and health impacts; Rapport GT2 du Groupe d'Expertise Pluraliste sur les sites miniers d'uranium du Limousin. Surveillances environnementale, des ecosystemes et sanitaire. Risque environnemental Impacts dosimetrique et sanitaire

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    After a presentation of the expertise group and of its mission, the first volume reports the various controls and monitoring actions performed on the environment, on ecosystems, and on health. For each of this field, objectives, equipment, methods and results are presented, as well as the actors involved in data acquiring and gathering. Results are discussed and recommendations are proposed. With the same kind of approach (objectives, equipment, method and results), risks are assessed for the environment and for the population. The different standards of radiological and chemical exposure are presented. The second volume deals with the same topics and contains many documents detailing each of these issues

  20. Dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated arc-therapy and intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy in the treatment of prostate at high risk; Comparaison dosimetrique de l'arctherapie volumique modulee et de la radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite dans le traitement de la prostate a haut risque

    Largeron, G.; Pouchard, I.; Lorchel, F.; Passerat, V.; Barbet, N.; Khodri, M. [Centre de radiotherapie Orlam, Macon (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a dosimetric comparison of IMRT (intensity-modulated radiotherapy) plans with that of volumetric-modulated arc-therapy in the case of treatment of high risk prostate, these plans being calculated on an Eclipse 8.9 (Varian{sup TM}) treatment planning system. The study is based on the treatment of 20 patients. Both techniques give similar results in terms of target volume coverage plan as well as in terms of organ-at-risk sparing, except for the plan with a single arc which results in smaller coverage and a lower homogeneity. Short communication

  1. Assessment of the dosimetric impact associated with the use of the car park of the Jean Laville stadium in the city of Gueugnon; Evaluation de l'impact dosimetrique lie a l'utilisation du parking du stade Jean Laville de la commune de Gueugnon (71)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This document first reports and comments the assessment of external exposure associated with the use of a car park located on an ancient uranium contaminated zone (that has been rehabilitated): gamma dose rate measurements, assessment of the added yearly efficient dose associated with external exposure. It discusses the available data to assess the efficient dose added by internal exposure

  2. Dosimetric comparison between conformational radio-therapies with or without intensity modulation in the postoperative treatment of retroperitoneal sarcomas; Comparaison dosimetrique entre radio-therapies conformationnelles sans et avec modulation d'intensite dans le traitement postoperatoire des sarcomes retro-peritoneaux

    Paumier, A.; Le Pechoux, C.; Negretti, L.; Roberti, E.; Daly-Schweitzer, N. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Ferreira, I.; Beaudre, A.; Brahim, J.; Lefkopoulos, D. [Unite de physique, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Bonvalot, S. [Departement de chirurgie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a study performed on ten patients who had a postoperative radiotherapy. Three treatment plans have been computed (conventional conformational radiotherapy, intensity-modulated conformation radiotherapy or IMRT with 6 or 9 beams). Different parameters have been compared: dose delivered to organs at risk, dose delivered to the whole body, and the conformity index. It appears that IMRT reduces high-dose irradiated volumes, increases low dose irradiation, and also allows the treatment duration to be reduced. Radio-induced cancers and late toxicity are still to be assessed, notably the intestinal and contralateral renal toxicity. Short communication

  3. Dosimetric comparison between three dimensional conformal radiotherapy, tomo-therapy and treatment by Cyberknife: about one case of a ponto cerebellar meningioma; Comparaison dosimetrique entre radiotherapie conformationnelle tridimensionnelle, tomotherapie et traitement par cyberknife: a propos d'un cas de meningiome de l'angle pontocerebelleux

    Vasseur, F.; Rezvoy, N.; Lacornerie, T.; Lartigau, E. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, Dept. Universitaire de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2009-10-15

    In order to illustrate the evolution of techniques in radiotherapy we compare the dose distributions calculated for the exclusive treatment of a ponto-cerebellar angle meningioma by a linear accelerator (clinac 2100) by helical irradiation and by cyberknife in radiosurgery mode and in fractionated mode. In conclusion: according to our first results, the tomo-therapy or the fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy appear as the treatments conjugating the advantages of stereotactic radiotherapy ( conformation of the dose to the target volume) and the fractionated radiotherapy ( protection of sane tissues by the fractionation). This study highlights the saving of sane tissues that allows these techniques. this better tolerance is to be evaluated. If it was confirmed, an increasing of the dose prescribed on the target volume could be considered. (N.C.)

  4. The contribution of three-dimensional intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) in the Hodgkin disease: dosimetric study comparing tomo-therapy and three-dimensional conformation radiotherapy; Apport de la radiotherapie conformationnelle tridimensionnelle avec modulation d'intensite (RCMI) dans la maladie de Hodgkin: etude dosimetrique comparant une tomotherapie et une radiotherapie conformationnelle tridimensionnelle

    Antoni, D.; Meyer, P.; Niederst, C.; Karamanoukian, D.; Noel, G. [Centre de lutte contre le cancer Paul-Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Bourahla, K. [Service de medecine nucleaire, centre Paul-Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Ame, S. [Service d' onco-hematologie, CHU Strasbourg, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2010-10-15

    A risk of cancer induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy has been observed on a long term for patients suffering from the Hodgkin disease. The age at the time of irradiation and a high dose delivered in the breast could be the major risk factors for breast cancers. The authors report the results of the use of an IMRT which reduces these high doses. Notably, the planning target volume (PTV) is significantly better with the IMRT. The authors discuss the volume distribution of low doses for different organs. A long term monitoring is still required to confirm the interest of using IMRT. Short communication

  5. Radiotherapy for soft tissue sarcomas of extremities. Preliminary comparative dosimetric study of 3D conformal radiotherapy versus helical tomo-therapy; Radiotherapie postoperatoire des sarcomes des tissus mous des extremites. Etude dosimetrique preliminaire comparative de la radiotherapie conformationnelle avec la tomotherapie helicoidale

    Donnay, L.; Dejean, C.; Amsellem, E.; Bourezgui, H.; Figueiredo, B.H. de; Duparc, A.; Caron, J.; Tournat, H.; Lagarde, P.; Kantor, G. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Stoeckle, E. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Dept. de Chirurgie, Institut Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2008-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate dosimetry of helical tomo-therapy versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-C.R.T.) with and without I.M.R.T. for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (S.T.S.) of the thigh. Methods and patients: A retrospective study was performed for three patients who received 3D-C.R.T. as adjuvant radiation therapy for S.T.S. of the thigh. These three patients had a tumor in posterior, adductor or anterior compartment of the thigh. In each case, three treatments plans were optimised in tomo-therapy, without bloc, with directional bloc and complete bloc of contralateral limb, to adequately treat the planning target volume and spare organ at risk. For each patient, we compare the three modalities of tomo-therapy or 'classical' I.M.R.T. from a Clinac with the 3D-C.R.T. actually performed for the treatment. Results: Tomo-therapy provides improved P.T.V. coverage and dose homogeneity. This benefit was comparable in the three tomo-therapy plans. The average D95% for tomo-therapy and 3D-C.R.T. were 97.6% and 94.8% respectively and the standard deviation is, at least, divided by two with conformal and is always better than performed with a Clinac. The volume of the surrounding soft tissues receiving at least full prescription and hot spots, as evaluated by D2%, were significantly reduced in tomo-therapy. Nevertheless, the results concerning the skin, the femur and the gonads were dependent on the tumor site in the thigh and not always improved with tomo-therapy dosimetric studies. (authors)

  6. Physical and methodological aspects of the multimodality imaging and principles of the treatment planning for the conformal 3-D radiation therapy; Aspects physiques et methodologiques de l'imagerie multimodalites et principes de planification dosimetrique pour la radiotherapie conformationnelle tridimensionnelle

    Lefkopoulos, D.; Foulquier, J.N.; Petegnief, Y. [Hopital Tenon, Unite de Physique Medicale, 75 - Paris (France); Touboul, E. [Hopital Tenon, Service d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Petegnief, Y. [Hopital Tenon, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-10-01

    The recent evolutions of the imaging modalities, the dose calculation models, the linear accelerators and the portal imaging permit to improve the quality of the conformal radiation therapy treatment planning. With DICOM protocols, the acquired imaging data coming from different modalities are treated by efficient image fusion algorithms and yield more precise target volumes and organs at risk. The transformation of the clinical target volumes (CTV) to planning target volumes (PTV) can be realised using advanced probabilistic techniques based on clinical experience. The treatment plans evaluation is based on the dose volume histograms. Their precision and clinical relevance are improved by the multimodality imaging and the advanced dose calculation models. The introduction of the inverse planning systems permitting to realize modulated intensity radiation therapy generates highly conformal dose distributions. All the previously cited complex techniques require the application of rigorous quality assurance programs. (author)

  7. Dosimetric comparison of parietal helical tomo-therapy, radiotherapy with TomoDirect{sup TM} and conventional conformational radiotherapy; Comparaison dosimetrique d'une tomotherapie helicoidale, d'une radiotherapie avec TomoDirect{sup TM} et d'une radiotherapie conformationelle classique parietales

    Cavuto, C.; Boujelbene, N.; Castella, C.; Touillez, M.; Khanfir, K. [Service de radio-oncologie, hopital de Sion (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    The author report a comparison of treatment plans of helical tomo-therapy, radiotherapy with TomoDirect and conventional conformational radiotherapy in the case of an extended parietal recurrence of a right breast cancer. The three techniques provide a good coverage of the previsional target volume. Otherwise, they are compared in terms of maximum dose, organ-at-risk sparing. TomoDirect gives the best results. Short communication

  8. Radiological and dosimetric consequences in case of nuclear accident: taking them into account within the security approach and protection challenges; Consequences radiologiques et dosimetriques en cas d'accident nucleaire: prise en compte dans la demarche de surete et enjeux de protection

    Cogez, E.; Herviou, K.; Isnard, O.; Cessac, B.; Reales, N.; Quentric, E.; Quelo, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Direction de l' Environnement et de l' Intervention, Service des Situations d' Urgence et d' Organisation de Crise, BP 17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-07-01

    This report first proposes a presentation of the 'defence in depth' concept which comprises five as much as possible independent levels: preventing operation anomalies and system failures, maintaining the installation within the authorized domain, controlling accidents within design hypotheses, preventing the degradation of accidental conditions and limiting consequences of severe accidents, limiting radiological consequences for population in case of important releases. Then, after a description of a release atmospheric dispersion and of its consequences, this report describes the consequences of two accident scenarios. The first accident is a failure of steam generator tubes, and the second a loss of primary coolant. It notably indicates the main released radionuclides, exposure levels at different distance for a given set of dispersion conditions

  9. Methodology of assessment of the clinical and dosimetric impact of a change of dose calculation algorithm in radiotherapy; Methodologie d'evaluation de l'impact dosimetrique et clinique du changement d'algorithme de calcul de dose en radiotherapie

    Chaikh, A.; Giraud, J.Y.; Balosso, J. [Centre hospitalier universitaire de Grenoble, Grenoble (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the use of five dose calculation algorithms and the comparison of six treatment plans with identical configurations regarding patient, energy, and ballistics. Thirteen tumour locations have been compared (five in lungs, one in oesophagus, one in breast, three in ENT, two in brain, and one in prostate). The methodology is based on a dosimetric criterion (analysis related to the treatment dose, and to dose distribution) and on a statistic criterion. Short communication

  10. Development of a personalized dosimetric tool for radiation protection in case of internal contamination and targeted radiotherapy in nuclear medicine; Developpement d'un outil dosimetrique personnalise pour la radioprotection en contamination interne et la radiotherapie vectorisee en medecine nucleaire

    Chiavassa, S

    2005-12-15

    Current internal dosimetric estimations are based on the M.I.R.D. formalism and used standard mathematical models. These standard models are often far from a given patient morphology and do not allow to perform patient-specific dosimetry. The aim of this study was to develop a personalized dosimetric tool, which takes into account real patient morphology, composition and densities. This tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., a French acronym of Tool for the Evaluation of Personalized Internal Dose, is a user-friendly graphical interface. O.E.D.I.P.E. allows to create voxel-based patient-specific geometries and associates them with the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code. Radionuclide distribution and absorbed dose calculation can be performed at the organ and voxel scale. O.E.D.I.P.E. can be used in nuclear medicine for targeted radiotherapy and in radiation protection in case of internal contamination. (author)

  11. Comparative study and clinical implementation of two breathing-adapted radiotherapy techniques: dosimetric benefits for lung cancer treatment; Etude comparative et mise en oeuvre clinique de deux systemes de radiotherapie asservie a la respiration: benefice dosimetrique pour le traitement du cancer du poumon

    Simon, L.; Giraud, P.; Rosenwald, J.C. [Institut Curie, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Servois, V. [Institut Curie, Dept. d' Imagerie Medicale, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-11-15

    Breathing can lead to organ motions up to several centimeters. For radiotherapy of lung, these motions are generally taken into account by adding a specific margin around the target. Thus, treated volumes are often too large to allow for the high-dose values requested for local control. To manage respiratory motion, deep-inspiration breath-hold technique (DIBH) and gated radiotherapy are starting being used clinically. DIBH consists in asking the patient to perform breath-hold during the treatment and the image acquisition, DIBH level being measured by a spirometer. Gated radiotherapy consists in treating the patient at a certain phase of the free breathing. Linac is synchronized with the motion of a marker' located on the patient chest. Planning images are obtained by a four-dimensional CT (4D-CT) using the same marker. We have assessed the value of these two methods. For lung treatment, compared to a standard treatment, toxicity reduction was mainly due to the lung total volume increase.; It is therefore more significant for breath-hold approach. It is also due to the reduction of safety margins, which is similar for both methods. These two techniques, which have specific advantages and drawbacks, are used routinely at Curie Institute for a large proportion of lung patients, but also for some breast, liver or even Hodgkin disease treatments. (author)

  12. Comparison of three dosimetric techniques to take in account lung tumor motion: gating-like technique results lead to advice the use of gating device even in the cases of pre-operative irradiation; Analyse des contraintes dosimetriques obtenues par trois techniques d'irradiation de tumeurs pulmonaires

    Beneyton, V.; Billaud, G.; Niederst, C.; Meyer, P.; Schumacher, C.; Karamanoukian, D.; Noel, G. [Centre de lutte contre le cancer Paul-Strauss, Dept. de radiotherapie, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Bourhala, K. [Centre de lutte contre le cancer Paul-Strauss, Dept. de medecine nucleaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Comparison of three dosimetric techniques of lung tumor delineation to integrate tumor motion during breathing. Patients and method: Nineteen patients with T1-3N0M0 malignant lung tumor were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (14 cases) or pre-surgery chemo radiation. Doses were, respectively, 66 and 46 Gy. CT-scan for delineation was performed during three phases of breathing: free breathing and deep breath-hold inspiration and expiration. G.T.V. (gross tumor volume) was delineated on the three sequences. The classic technique included G.T.V. from the free-breathing sequence plus a C.T.V. (clinical target volume) margin of 5 to 8 mm plus a P.T.V. (planning target volume) margin of 7 to 10 mm (including I.T.V. [internal target volume] margin and set-up margin). The gating-like technique included G.T.V. from the deep breath-hold inspiration sequence plus a C.T.V. margin of 5 to 8 mm plus a P.T.V. margin of 2 mm. The three-volume technique, included G.T.V. as a result of the fusion of G.T.V.s from the three sequences plus a C.T.V. margin of 5 to 8 mm plus a P.T.V. margin of 2 mm. Dosimetry was calculated for the three P.T.V.s, if possible, with the same fields number and position. Dose constraints and rules were imposed to accept dosimetries: firstly spinal cord maximal dose less than 45 Gy, followed by V95 % for P.T.V. greater than or equal to 95 %, and V20 GY{sub Gy} for lung less than or equal to 30 %, V30 GY{sub Gy} for lung less than or equal to 20 %. Results: G.T.V.s were not statistically different between the three methods of delineation. P.T.V.s were significantly lower with the gating-like technique. V95% of the P.T.V. were not different between the three techniques. With the classic-, the gating-like- and the 3-volume techniques, dosimetry was considered as acceptable, respectively in 15, 18 and 15 cases. Comparisons of constraint values showed that the gating-like method gave the best results. In the case of pre-operative management, the gating-like method allowed the best results even for the V95% values. However, in the absence of gating device or without the possibility to use it, the 3-volume method allowed to take into account more precisely the organ motion than the classical technique. Conclusion: The 3-volume method can be done. It is a good method to take into account the organ motions. However, the gating-like method gives the best results leading to propose its use even for pre-operative patients with upper tumors. (authors)

  13. Monte-Carlo simulation of the SL-ELEKTA-20 medical linear accelerator. Dosimetric study of a water phantom; Simulation Monte Carlo de l'accelerateur lineaire clinique SL-ELEKTA 20. Etude dosimetrique dans un fantome d'eau

    Thiam, Ch. O

    2003-06-01

    In radiotherapy, it is essential to have a precise knowledge of the dose delivered in the target volume and the neighbouring critical organs. To be usable clinically, the models of calculation must take into account the exact characteristics of the beams used and the densities of fabrics. Today we can use sophisticated irradiation techniques and get a more precise assessment of the dose and with a better knowledge of its distribution. Thus in this report, will be detailed a simulation of the head of irradiation of accelerator SL-ELEKTA-20 in electrons mode and a dosimetric study of a water phantom. This study is carried out with the code of simulation Monte Carlo GATE adapted for applications of medical physics; the results are compared with the data obtained by the anticancer center 'Jean Perrin' on a similar accelerator. (author)

  14. Study and determination of the national dosimetric standards in terms of air kerma for X-rays radiation fields of low and medium-energies; Etude et realisation des references dosimetriques nationales en termes de kerma dans l'air pour les faisceaux de rayons X de basses et moyennes energies

    Ksouri, W

    2008-12-15

    Progress in radiation protection and radiotherapy, and the increased needs in terms of accuracy lead national metrology institutes to improve the standard. For ionizing radiation, the standard is defined by an absolute instrument used for air kerma rate measurement. The aim of the thesis is to establish standards, in terms of air kerma for X-rays beams of low and medium-energies. This work enables to complement the standard beam range of the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB). Two free-air chambers have been developed, WK06 for medium-energy and WK07 for low-energy. The air-kerma rate is corrected by several correction factors. Some are determined experimentally; and the others by using Monte Carlo simulations. The uncertainty budget of the air-kerma rate at one standard deviation has been established. These dosimetric standards were compared with those of counterparts' laboratories and are consistent in terms of degree of equivalence. (author)

  15. Radiotherapy of breast or left wall and of ganglionary areas including the internal mammary chain: dosimetric comparison of different ballistics; Radiotherapie du sein ou de la paroi gauche et des aires ganglionnaires incluant la chaine mammaire interne: comparaison dosimetrique de differentes balistiques

    Regnault de la Mothe, P.; Berger, A.; Bensadoun, R.J. [PRC, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2010-10-15

    As the irradiation of the mammary chain is still a matter of controversy because of non negligible toxicity risks, the authors report the comparison of three different irradiation ballistics for the breast or left wall as well as for ganglionary areas: short ballistics of internal mammary chains, long ballistics of internal mammary chains, and ballistics in tangential beams. Target volumes and organs at risk have been delineated, and dose-volume histograms have been compared. Short communication

  16. Re-evaluating sheet erosion rates in a popular trekking trail located at the Spanish Central System

    Bodoque del Pozo, Jose Maria; Ballesteros Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Rubiales Jimenez, Juan Manuel; Martín-Duque, José F.; Genova Fuster, Maria del Mar; Díez-Herrero, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    Degradation of walking tracks, mainly due to sheet erosion associated with hiking activities, damages the natural and recreational value of protected natural areas. Senda Schmidt is a popular trail located on the northern slope of the Sierra de Guadarrama (Central Spanish System), that shows high denudation morphologies on account of accelerated soil-erosion processes basically caused by human influence (trampling by continuous trekking), resulted in exposed roots. Previous works hav...

  17. A new species of the basal "kangaroo" Balbaroo and a re-evaluation of stem macropodiform interrelationships.

    Karen H Black

    Full Text Available Exceptionally well-preserved skulls and postcranial elements of a new species of the plesiomorphic stem macropodiform Balbaroo have been recovered from middle Miocene freshwater limestone deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area of northwestern Queensland, Australia. This constitutes the richest intraspecific sample for any currently known basal "kangaroo", and, along with additional material referred to Balbaroo fangaroo, provides new insights into structural variability within the most prolific archaic macropodiform clade--Balbaridae. Qualitative and metric evaluations of taxonomic boundaries demonstrate that the previously distinct species Nambaroo bullockensis is a junior synonym of B. camfieldensis. Furthermore, coupled Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reveal that our new Balbaroo remains represent the most derived member of the Balbaroo lineage, and are closely related to the middle Miocene B. camfieldensis, which like most named balbarid species is identifiable only from isolated jaws. The postcranial elements of Balbaroo concur with earlier finds of the stratigraphically oldest balbarid skeleton, Nambaroo gillespieae, and suggest that quadrupedal progression was a primary gait mode as opposed to bipedal saltation. All Balbaroo spp. have low-crowned bilophodont molars, which are typical for browsing herbivores inhabiting the densely forested environments envisaged for middle Miocene northeastern Australia.

  18. Theoretical reevaluations of black hole mass -- bulge mass relation - I. Influences of the seed black hole mass

    Shirakata, Hikari; Okamoto, Takashi; Makiya, Ryu; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Enoki, Motohiro; Oogi, Taira; Kobayashi, Masakazu A R

    2016-01-01

    We show influences of the mass of seed black holes on black hole mass -- bulge mass relation at z ~ 0 by using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation combined with large cosmological N-body simulations. We constrain our model to reproduce observed properties of galaxies at z ~ 0. Similar to other semi-analytic models, we place a seed black hole immediately after a galaxy forms. When we set the seed black hole mass to 10^5 M_sun, we find that the model result becomes inconsistent with recent observational results of black hole mass -- bulge mass relation for dwarf galaxies. Namely, the model predicts that bulges with ~ 10^9 M_sun harbor black holes more massive than observed. On the other hand, when we employ seed black holes with 10^3 M_sun or randomly choose their masses in the range of 10^{3-5} M_sun, the black hole mass -- bulge mass relation obtained from these models are consistent with observational results including dispersions. We find that to obtain more stringent restrictions of the mass of seed ...

  19. "Once Upon a Time There Was a Saint…": Re-evaluating Folklore in Anglo-Latin Hagiography.

    Powell, Hilary

    2010-07-01

    This article examines methods for identifying folklore in hagiography. Using hagiographical materials from eleventh and twelfth century England, it critiques the current trend of equating folklore motifs with oral transmission and argues in favour of a "performer-centred" understanding of folklore and hagiographical composition. PMID:23750046

  20. Reevaluation of the Correlation between Angiotensinogen Gene M235T Polymorphism and Familial Essential Hypertension Using MS-PCR Technique

    2001-01-01

    Objective Using mutagenically separated allele-specific polymerase-chain-reaction (MS-PCR) technique to determine the correlation between angiotensinogen gene M235T (Ag TM235T) polymorphism and the onset of familial essential hypertension in the population from Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces. Methods (1) Establish and compare the optimal reaction system of PCR-RFLP and MS-PCR technique to detect AgTM235T polymorphism. (2) All subjects were divided into four groups: 62 patients with both hypertension and familial background (FH), 32 normal persons who had familial background (FNH), 26 persons in control group (N) and 10 patients with hypertension but without familial background (NFH group). The genotype of all subjects was determined by MS-PCR technique.Results (1) The frequency of T allele in PCR-RFLP was 0.5, much lower than 0.95 in MS-PCR, which was demonstrated by DNA sequencing. (2) The TT-genotype and the frequency of T allele (TT/T) in FH and FNH groups were much higher than those in N and NFH groups (0.581/0.766 and 0.563/0.766 vs 0.346/0.577 and 0.40/0.550, P<0.005). (3) Persons developing hypertension in FNH group were much younger than other three groups (28.07±9.72 , P<0.025). Conclusion (1) Compared with PCR-RFLP, MS-PCR is a rapid, simple and reliable technique for detection gene polymorphism of Ag TM25T. (2) In Jiangsu and Anhui area, the present study confirms the observation of a higher frequency of the 235T allele of the angiotensinogen gene in hypertension and identifies individuals with family history. Concerning of the age, we might speculate that the AgTM235T polymorphism is only associated with familial essential hypertension.

  1. Reevaluation of Acromegalic Patients in Long-Term Remission according to Newly Proposed Consensus Criteria for Control of Disease

    Elisa Verrua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acromegaly guidelines updated in 2010 revisited criteria of disease control: if applied, it is likely that a percentage of patients previously considered as cured might present postglucose GH nadir levels not adequately suppressed, with potential implications on management. This study explored GH secretion, as well as hormonal, clinical, neuroradiological, metabolic, and comorbid profile in a cohort of 40 acromegalic patients considered cured on the basis of the previous guidelines after a mean follow-up period of 17.2 years from remission, in order to assess the impact of the current criteria. At the last follow-up visit, in the presence of normal IGF-I concentrations, postglucose GH nadir was over 0.4 μg/L in 11 patients (Group A and below 0.4 μg/L in 29 patients (Group B; moreover, Group A showed higher basal GH levels than Group B, whereas a significant decline of both GH and postglucose GH nadir levels during the follow-up was observed in Group B only. No differences in other evaluated parameters were found. These results seem to suggest that acromegalic patients considered cured on the basis of previous guidelines do not need a more intensive monitoring than patients who met the current criteria of disease control, supporting instead that the cut-off of 0.4 mcg/L might be too low for the currently used GH assay.

  2. The multidimensional driving style inventory a decade later: Review of the literature and re-evaluation of the scale.

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Skvirsky, Vera

    2016-08-01

    The Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory (MDSI; Taubman - Ben-Ari, Mikulincer, & Gillath, 2004a), a self-report questionnaire assessing four broad driving styles, has been in use for the last ten years. During that time, numerous studies have explored the associations between the MDSI factors and sociodemographic and driving-related variables. The current paper employs two large data sets to summarize the accumulated knowledge, examining MDSI factors in samples of young drivers aged 17-21 (Study 1, n=1436) and older drivers aged 22-84 (Study 2, n=3409). Findings indicate that driving-related indicators are coherently and systematically related to the four driving styles in the expected directions, revalidating the structure of the MDSI. The results also help clarify the relationships between the driving styles and variables such as gender, ethnicity, car ownership, age, and experience, and suggest that driving styles are largely unaffected by sociodemographic characteristics, except for gender and ethnicity, and appear to represent a relatively stable and universal trait. The two studies highlight the validity and reliability of the MDSI, attesting to its practical value as a tool for purposes of research, evaluation, and intervention. PMID:27208590

  3. Re-evaluation of the mechanisms of dietary fibre and implications for macronutrient bioaccessibility, digestion and postprandial metabolism.

    Grundy, Myriam M-L; Edwards, Cathrina H; Mackie, Alan R; Gidley, Michael J; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2016-09-01

    The positive effects of dietary fibre on health are now widely recognised; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in producing such benefits remains unclear. There are even uncertainties about how dietary fibre in plant foods should be defined and analysed. This review attempts to clarify the confusion regarding the mechanisms of action of dietary fibre and deals with current knowledge on the wide variety of dietary fibre materials, comprising mainly of NSP that are not digested by enzymes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These non-digestible materials range from intact cell walls of plant tissues to individual polysaccharide solutions often used in mechanistic studies. We discuss how the structure and properties of fibre are affected during food processing and how this can impact on nutrient digestibility. Dietary fibre can have multiple effects on GI function, including GI transit time and increased digesta viscosity, thereby affecting flow and mixing behaviour. Moreover, cell wall encapsulation influences macronutrient digestibility through limited access to digestive enzymes and/or substrate and product release. Moreover, encapsulation of starch can limit the extent of gelatinisation during hydrothermal processing of plant foods. Emphasis is placed on the effects of diverse forms of fibre on rates and extents of starch and lipid digestion, and how it is important that a better understanding of such interactions with respect to the physiology and biochemistry of digestion is needed. In conclusion, we point to areas of further investigation that are expected to contribute to realisation of the full potential of dietary fibre on health and well-being of humans. PMID:27385119

  4. The Cost Escalation of Rail Projects: Using Previous Experience to Re-Evaluate the CalSpeed Estimates

    Leavitt, Dan; Ennis, Sean; McGovern, Pat

    1993-01-01

    This report is a follow-up study to last year's CalSpeed publication, "High-Speed Trains for California," Working Paper No. 565. The purpose of this paper is to test rigorously and critically the cost estimate methodology presented in that previous working paper. This has been accomplished primarily by focusing on the issue of cost escalation of rail projects, with reference to both U.S. and foreign experience.

  5. Comparison of H+ and He+ plasmapause locations based on the resurrected and reevaluated OGO-5 ion composition data base

    Truhlík, Vladimír; Třísková, Ludmila; Benson, R. F.; Bilitza, D.; Grebowsky, J.; Richards, P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, NOV (2014), s. 27-34. ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11123 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasmasphere * plasmapause * FLIP * empirical model * OGO-5 Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682614001321#

  6. Reevaluation of the spring onset/fire association in the western U.S. using Phenological vs. Hydrological Models

    Westerling, A. L.; Betancourt, J. L.; Schwartz, M. D.

    2007-12-01

    An important aspect of climate variability and change is the exact timing of the transition from winter to spring, generally defined here as spring onset. Spring onset can have important hydrological and ecological consequences, including changes in the timing of snowmelt and snowmelt runoff, in timing of plant and animal phenologies and their interactions, in ecosystem fluxes, and in the probabilities of ecological disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks. Spring onset can be variably defined, which can affect its use as a predictor. To evaluate changing fire probabilities in the western U.S., Westerling et al. (2006) used center of mass of annual streamflow (CT, after Stewart et al 2005) for snowmelt-dominated gauge records as a proxy for spring onset, and compared it with the number of forest wildfires greater than 400 ha annually around the western U.S. This study indicated a strong association between large wildfire occurrence across the West and CT, and a particular sensitivity to the timing of snowmelt in the Northern Rockies. Though the timing of snowmelt can affect fire occurrence in several ways, the use of CT as a proxy for spring onset biased the analysis towards higher elevations and latitudes. To skirt this bias, we undertook a similar analysis using Spring Indices (SI) developed from cloned lilac and honeysuckle phenological data and representing seasonally integrated changes in temperature (Schwartz et al. 2006). The SI models can be generated at any location that has daily maximum-minimum temperature time series, and allowed comparison of large fire occurrence in defined regions with a network of select weather stations across the West for which we computed SI. The SI/fire comparison showed strong associations between SI at weather stations, particularly those in the Central Rockies/Colorado Plateau and large fire frequency in the northern, central and southern Rockies, as well as in the Sierra Nevada, but less so in southern California and the Black Hills. Given large differences in fire seasonality, vegetation type, and the importance of snowpack, explanations for the spring onset/fire association could be inherently complex. Though they also have biases and shortcomings, phenological models such as SI may be particularly useful in predicting climate change impacts on fire and other phenomena, and could offer more precision and better lead time in fire forecasting. Schwartz, M.D., R. Ahas, A. Aasa 2006: "Onset of spring starting earlier across the Northern Hemisphere" Global Change Biology, 12: 343-351. Stewart, I.T., D.R. Cayan and M.D. Dettinger, 2005: Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across Western North America. Journal of Climate, 18, 1136-1155. Westerling, A.L., H.G. Hidalgo, D.R. Cayan, T.W. Swetnam 2006: "Warming and Earlier Spring Increases Western U.S. Forest Wildfire Activity" Science, 313: 940-943.

  7. Lymphatic marker podoplanin/D2-40 in human advanced cirrhotic liver- Re-evaluations of microlymphatic abnormalities

    Yoshimura Kazunori

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the morphological appearance, it was impossible to distinguish terminal portal venules from small lymphatic vessels in the portal tract even using histochemical microscopic techniques. Recently, D2-40 was found to be expressed at a high level in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs. This study was undertaken to elucidate hepatic lymphatic vessels during progression of cirrhosis by examining the expression of D2-40 in LECs. Methods Surgical wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from non-cirrhotic portions of human livers (normal control and from cirrhotic livers (LC (Child A-LC and Child C-LC. Immunohistochemical (IHC, Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted using D2-40 as markers for lymphatic vessels, as well as CD34 for capillary blood vessels. Results Imunostaining of D2-40 produced a strong reaction in lymphatic vessels only, especially in Child C-LC. It was possible to distinguish the portal venules from the small lymphatic vessels using D-40. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed strong D2-40 expression along the luminal and abluminal portions of the cell membrane of LECs in Child C-LC tissue. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish portal venules from small lymphatic vessels using D2-40 as marker. D2-40- labeling in lymphatic capillary endothelial cells is related to the degree of fibrosis in cirrhotic liver.

  8. Nurture Net of Nature: Re-Evaluating the Role of Shared Environments in Academic Achievement and Verbal Intelligence

    Daw, Jonathan; Guo, Guang; Harris, Kathie Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Prominent authors in the behavioral genetics tradition have long argued that shared environments do not meaningfully shape intelligence and academic achievement. However, we argue that these conclusions are erroneous due to large violations of the additivity assumption underlying behavioral genetics methods – that sources of genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance are independent and non-interactive. This is compounded in some cases by the theoretical equation of the effective...

  9. Nurture net of nature: Re-evaluating the role of shared environments in academic achievement and verbal intelligence.

    Daw, Jonathan; Guo, Guang; Harris, Kathie Mullan

    2015-07-01

    Prominent authors in the behavioral genetics tradition have long argued that shared environments do not meaningfully shape intelligence and academic achievement. However, we argue that these conclusions are erroneous due to large violations of the additivity assumption underlying behavioral genetics methods - that sources of genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance are independent and non-interactive. This is compounded in some cases by the theoretical equation of the effective and objective environments, where the former is defined by whether siblings are made more or less similar, and the latter by whether siblings are equally subject to the environmental characteristic in question. Using monozygotic twin fixed effects models, which compare outcomes among genetically identical pairs, we show that many characteristics of objectively shared environments significantly moderate the effects of nonshared environments on adolescent academic achievement and verbal intelligence, violating the additivity assumption of behavioral genetic methods. Importantly, these effects would be categorized as nonshared environmental influences in standard twin models despite their roots in shared environments. These findings should encourage caution among those who claim that the frequently trivial variance attributed to shared environments in behavioral genetic models means that families, schools, and neighborhoods do not meaningfully influence these outcomes. PMID:26004471

  10. Re-evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in cancer - a preclinical therapeutic small animal model study.

    Sneha Pande

    Full Text Available Tumor hypoxia is a known driver of angiogenesis that also facilitates tumor growth. Moreover, poorly oxygenated central tumor area remains relatively radio or chemo resistant. HBO therapy is known to elevate the levels of dissolved oxygen and eliminates tumor hypoxia. It has been one of the modalities in cancer treatment; therefore its optimization is important. In this experimental study, no cancer enhancing effect was seen during the course of HBO therapy; however, post therapy there was an accelerated growth and progression of tumor. HBO treated mice lived shorter and the response to therapy was dose & tumor volume dependent. HBO therapy probably exert its effect on the cancer proliferating cells through multiple pathways such as increased DNA damage, apoptosis & geno-toxicity leading to slow cancer progression while post therapy tumorigenic effect could be due to impaired DNA repair mechanism, mutagenic effect & aneuploidy as well as altered blood supply & nutrients. Tumor growth reached plateau with time and this finding validated theoretical model predicting tumor reaching an asymptotic limit. While, marked asymmetry observed in tumor volume progression or cancer cell proliferation rate in each of the experimental C3H mouse suggested a need for an alternate small animal pre-clinical cancer therapeutic model.

  11. Insight from Frogs: Sonic Hedgehog Gene Expression and a Re-evaluation of the Vertebrate Odontogenic Band.

    Grieco, Theresa M; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2016-08-01

    While the identification of conserved processes across multiple taxa leads to an understanding of fundamental developmental mechanisms, the ways in which different animals fail to conform to common developmental processes can elucidate how evolution modifies development to result in the vast array of morphologies seen today-the developmental mechanisms that lead to anatomical variation. Odontogenesis-how teeth are initiated and formed-is well suited to the examination of both developmental conservation and phenotypic diversity. We suggest here that the study of early tooth development, the period of odontogenic band development, reveals departures from conserved mechanisms that question the role of players in the developmental process. In the earliest stages of odontogenesis, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene expression is interpreted as critical evidence of tooth initiation prior to any histological indication. However, a detailed examination of studies of tooth development across a wide range of taxa reveals that several vertebrate species fail to conform to the expectations of the Shh Consensus Model, calling for a reconsideration of the assumed causality of epithelial Shh in tooth initiation. We present new Shh gene expression data for an amphibian, the frog Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis. In these animals, craniofacial and odontogenic developmental processes are more disjunct, and thereby provide a natural test of the hypothesis that Shh is immediately required for subsequent tooth development. Our results suggest that Shh expression may actually be related to the formation of the mouth rather than a required precursor to subsequent tooth formation. Anat Rec, 299:1099-1109, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27262165

  12. A re-evaluation of test data on bond in R/C by means of FEM modeling

    Fernández Ruiz, Miguel; Muttoni, Aurelio; Gambarova, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    The role of various parameters governing bond behavior is investigated in this paper taking advantage of a simple but efficient finite-element model, whose fundamental aspects are briefly recalled. Several well-documented test results on bond are examined in order to clarify the relevance of some aspects of bond phenomenological behavior, and to study a few bond situations where testing has been scarce in the past, as in the case of push-in tests. Parametric studies are performed as well, wit...

  13. Re-evaluation of groundwater monitoring data for glyphosate and bentazone by taking detection limits into account

    Hansen, Claus Toni; Ritz, Christian; Gerhard, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    .e. samples with concentrations below the detection limit, as left-censored observations. The median calculated pesticide concentrations are shown to be reduced 10(4) to 10(5) fold for two representative herbicides (glyphosate and bentazone) relative to the median concentrations based upon observations above...

  14. Re-evaluating your nuclear program needs: how to benefit from your vendor's Q.A. program

    The quality assurance component control and verification program to be presented provides a cost effective approach to monitoring and controlling the implementation of the design, fabrication, inspection and shipping plans of a supplier. It attempts to coordinate and integrate quality control and verification effort of a supplier with the control and verification effort of the purchaser to obtain a composite which accomplishes a total need. Based on the competency and capabilities of the supplier the purchaser can either maximize the effort the supplier performs or he must maximize his effort to obtain an optimum mix. The ultimate goal is to utilize the supplier's quality assurance program to the greatest benefit in assuring maximum quality

  15. Fine scale fault structure and kinematics in the Zofar basin, Wadi Arava: Reevaluation of high-resolution reflection seismology

    Medvedev, B. J.; Agnon, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Dead Sea Transform is partitioned into two major faults at central Arava: Wadi Arava fault (WAF) in which the main displacement is strike slip, and Zofar fault which is a mostly normal fault with a vertical displacement of hundreds of meters. Previous work from this area shows a single fault zone along WAF, expressed as small scale pressure ridges and inferred from eight high resolution reflection profiles along 10km; all the profiles are perpendicular to the fault (Haberland et al., 2007). These high resolution profiles, together with a fault-zone-waves survey (Haberland et al., 2003) show that there is a narrow fault zone. Re-examining the data by reprocessing and analyzing the subsurface structures in several perspectives show a small scale shortening structure. In the absence of a control crossing profile, a clear reflector is chosen along all profiles for geometrical analysis. The shortening structure is characterized in each profile by three points: the western and eastern extremities, and the maximum. Except for one profile in the central area of the survey, the structure is well developed, with a distinct hinge. That central profile shows a flat reflector with two hinges. Once we highlight these hinges, north-south segmentation in the interpolated hinge profiles emerges, with the central profile at the discontinuity. Both segments follow an azimuth of 014, whilst the connection between them follows 005 or less. The step-over between the inferred segments is 0.3 km. The ratio of half wavelength to amplitude of the structure along the profiles shows a stable value of 1:2.5 except on the profile with suggested fault azimuth change. These subsurface observations underscore a sharp releasing bend in the major fault, here detected for the first time.

  16. Re-evaluating the Rose approach: comparative benefits of the population and high-risk preventive strategies

    Cooney, Marie-Therese; Dudina, Alexandra; Whincup, Peter; Capewell, Simon; Menotti, Alessandro; Jousilahti, Pekka; Njølstad, Inger; Oganov, Raphel; Thomsen, Troels; Tverdal, Aage; Wedel, Hans; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Graham, Ian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Options for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, the greatest global cause of death, include population preventive measures (the Rose approach), or specifically seeking out and managing high-risk cases. However, the likely benefit of a population approach has been recently...... questioned. OBJECTIVE: To compare the estimated effects of population strategies at varying levels of population-wide risk factor reduction and high-risk strategies at varying rates of screening uptake on cardiovascular disease mortality. METHODS: Data (of 109 954 participants) were pooled from six European...... general population cohort studies [the high-risk cohorts from the SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation) dataset]. The effects of various population and high-risk strategies for the reduction of risk factors were estimated by calculating the change in 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease mortality...

  17. [A transference from somewhere else: reevaluation of the controversies between Melanie Klein and Anna Freud (of noise and silence)].

    Prado de Oliveira, L E

    1995-01-01

    Starting from The Freud-Klein Controversies, the author explores the historical reality of these controversies and their transformations into myth which give them the appearance of titanic fights. The verification of the different periods, the description of the variations in themes and style of intervention of the principal actors of these debates show aspects of the way a psychoanalytic institute works and of the theoretical elaboration in psychoanalysis: these appear very different from what the myth suggests. The major function of myth is, as Freud noted and Strachey reminds us, to hide very trite, even shameful realities. History and myth, theoritical effort and institutional life are all organized from and around transference, a major axis of psychoanalytic thought. When we organize our psychoanalytic lives in societies, we have the pride or the vanity of participating in a great historical movement. This goes back to the work of transference in institutional life that involves primal objects in the crudeness of their sexuality. Such is the constraining strength of transference. Being fully conscious of it, like Stratchey or Balint show us, enables to alleviate its violence and stimulate creativity. PMID:8559850

  18. A taxonomic reevaluation of Phrynops (Testudines: Chelidae) with the description of two new genera and a new species of Batrachemys.

    McCord, W P; Joseph-Ouni, M; Lamar, W W

    2001-06-01

    Relationships among turtle species loosely categorized within the South American genus Phrynops are explored. Three once recognized genera (Batrachemys, Mesoclemmys and Phrynops) that were demoted to subgenera, and then synonymized with Phrynops, are demonstrated to warrant full recognition based on morphometric analysis, skull osteology, and mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequencing. Mesoclemmys is resurrected from the synonymy of Phrynops as a monotypic genus including M. gibba. The genus Rhinemys, previously a synonym of Phrynops, is resurrected for the species R. rufipes. Ranacephala gen. nov. is described to include the species R. hogei. The genus Batrachemys is resurrected from the synonymy of Phrynops and includes B. dahli, B. nasuta, B. raniceps, B. tuberculata, and B. zuliae. The taxon vanderhaegei is placed in Bufocephala gen. nov. The genus Phrynops is redefined to include the taxa P. geoffroanus, P. hilarii, P. tuberosus, and P. williamsi. Cladistic analysis of morphological data supports this taxonomy. A new species of Batrachemys is described from the western Amazon region, and is distinguished by having facial markings in juveniles, a relatively wide head, and a flattened shell. The new species, B. heliostemma sp. nov., is sympatric with and most similar to the recently resurrected form Batrachemys raniceps in the upper Amazonian region of Peru and adjacent Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Colombia. Lastly, morphometric data from living and museum specimens of all species of Batrachemys are presented. PMID:11935927

  19. Xanthochromia revisited: a re-evaluation of lumbar puncture and CT scanning in the diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    MacDonald, A; Mendelow, A D

    1988-01-01

    The CT and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings of 100 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms were reviewed. Forty six percent of the 68 patients who had a lumbar puncture had blood stained CSF but with no xanthochromia. There was no blood visible on the CT scan in 20 patients: seven of these 20 had blood in their CSF, but no xanthochromia. It is concluded that it is blood stained CSF that is important in the diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), and not xanthochromia, and that a ...

  20. Poor Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake, re-evaluation with Tc-99m MAG3 scintigraphy in Lowe syndrome

    99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is filtered through the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules as low molecular weight proteins. In Lowe syndrome this mechanism is impaired and so poor DMSA uptake is seen. Poor DMSA uptake was shown in very few studies, but none mentioned normal 99mTc MAG3 uptake. In this case, the patient had poor DMSA uptake, normal MAG3 uptake and a neurogenic bladder in anterior to the left kidney that attenuates left kidney. (author)