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Sample records for 2007adverse reactions reported

  1. Promoting adverse drug reaction reporting: comparison of different approaches

    Inês Ribeiro-Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe different approaches to promote adverse drug reaction reporting among health care professionals, determining their cost-effectiveness. METHODS We analyzed and compared several approaches taken by the Northern Pharmacovigilance Centre (Portugal to promote adverse drug reaction reporting. Approaches were compared regarding the number and relevance of adverse drug reaction reports obtained and costs involved. Costs by report were estimated by adding the initial costs and the running costs of each intervention. These costs were divided by the number of reports obtained with each intervention, to assess its cost-effectiveness. RESULTS All the approaches seem to have increased the number of adverse drug reaction reports. We noted the biggest increase with protocols (321 reports, costing 1.96 € each, followed by first educational approach (265 reports, 20.31 €/report and by the hyperlink approach (136 reports, 15.59 €/report. Regarding the severity of adverse drug reactions, protocols were the most efficient approach, costing 2.29 €/report, followed by hyperlinks (30.28 €/report, having no running costs. Concerning unexpected adverse drug reactions, the best result was obtained with protocols (5.12 €/report, followed by first educational approach (38.79 €/report. CONCLUSIONS We recommend implementing protocols in other pharmacovigilance centers. They seem to be the most efficient intervention, allowing receiving adverse drug reactions reports at lower costs. The increase applied not only to the total number of reports, but also to the severity, unexpectedness and high degree of causality attributed to the adverse drug reactions. Still, hyperlinks have the advantage of not involving running costs, showing the second best performance in cost per adverse drug reactions report.

  2. Chemical Reactions at Surfaces. Final Progress Report

    None

    2003-02-21

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Chemical Reactions at Surfaces was held at Holiday Inn, Ventura, California, 2/16-21/03. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  3. Lichenoid reactions in red tattoo: report of 2 cases

    César Bimbi

    2014-01-01

    Complications of cosmetic decorative tattoos were uncommon some decades ago. The practice is increasing and more cases are being reported. Red pigments are by far the commonest cause in tattoo reactions. We report two cases of lichenoid reactions limited to red tattoo pigment and review the literature on the subject.

  4. Lichenoid reactions in red tattoo: report of 2 cases

    César Bimbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complications of cosmetic decorative tattoos were uncommon some decades ago. The practice is increasing and more cases are being reported. Red pigments are by far the commonest cause in tattoo reactions. We report two cases of lichenoid reactions limited to red tattoo pigment and review the literature on the subject.

  5. Consumer reporting of adverse drug reactions

    Aagaard, Lise; Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2009-01-01

    medicines on level 1 of the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system. ADR reports from consumers were compared with reports from other sources (physicians, pharmacists, lawyers, pharmaceutical companies and other healthcare professionals). Chi-square and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated...... reported fewer ADRs from the ATC group B (blood and blood-forming organs) [OR = 0.04; 95% CI 0.006, 0.32] and the ATC groups J (anti-infective for systemic use) [OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.33, 0.58], L (antioneoplastic and immunomodulating agents) [OR = 0.19; 95% CI 0.12, 0.30] and V (various) [OR = 0.03; 95% CI...

  6. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms: Progress report

    This report describes activities of the Nuclear Theory Group at Brown University during the period 1 August 1987-31 July 1988, under Grant FG02-87ER40334. Completed and on-going research includes various theoretical and numerical studies on: parity non-conserving interactions in a relativistic system, processes involving virtual photons and real photons, deuteron-nucleus and neutron-deuteron collisions systems, and muon-catalyzed fusion

  7. Clinical survey on adverse reaction of contrast media, final report

    This report is a final analysis of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media examined in 33,440 patients from 11 hospitals during the period from October 1983 through June 1986. Adverse reactions, such as nausea, exanthema and vomiting, to contrast media occurred in 2,523 patients (7.5 %), with the higher number occuring in patients aged 40 - 60, irrespective of sex. There were no significant alternations in vital signs. Patients positive for pretesting and having a history of allergy had higher incidences of adverse reactions (48 % and 52 %, respectively). A history of allergy is the most potential predictor for adverse reactions to contrast media. There was no definitive correlation between prior medication of contrast media and the occurrence of their adverse reactions. The relationship between the occurrence of adverse reactions and both kinds and dosage of contrast media was unknown. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Sarcoma-associated sarcoid reaction: Report of cutaneous sarcoid reaction in a patient with liposarcoma.

    Beutler, Bryce D; Cohen, Philip R

    2015-12-16

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory condition in which noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas appear within one or several body sites. Sarcoid reaction (also referred to as sarcoidal or sarcoid-like reaction) occurs in patients who do not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for systemic sarcoidosis but present with similar clinical and histological features. As sarcoma-associated sarcoid reactions are rare, we describe the features of sarcoid reaction that developed in a man with liposarcoma and summarize reports of other oncology patients with sarcoma-associated sarcoid reactions. A 68-year-old man with retroperitoneal liposarcoma presented for evaluation of erythematous dermal plaques on his left leg. Microscopic examination of a tissue specimen revealed multiple epithelioid granulomas in the superficial and mid-reticular dermis. Correlation of the clinical presentation and histopathologic findings established a diagnosis of liposarcoma-associated cutaneous sarcoid reaction. Sarcoid reactions have been described in only seven individuals with sarcoma, including two patients with leiomyosarcoma and one patient with either carcinosarcoma, Kaposi sarcoma, liposarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, rhabdosarcoma, or synovial sarcoma. Sarcoidal granulomas most commonly develop within the locoregional draining lymph nodes. Sarcoid reactions may also affect other organs, such as the lungs, skin, and spleen. PMID:26677448

  9. Nuclear reaction mechanisms. Progress report, June 1975--May 1976

    Blann, M.

    1976-01-01

    Research under the subject contract has been directed along two major lines: (1) development and exploration of pre-equilibrium statistical models; (2) experimental measurement and theoretical investigation of heavy ion reaction mechanisms, with emphasis on the limits on compound nucleus formation. Much of the work under this contract has been published and a list of publications is part of this report. This work is not otherwise summarized herein. New unpublished results on heavy ion reactions are briefly summarized, as are results of precompound ..cap alpha.. emission. Colloquia and addresses are also summarized. Separate abstracts appear in ERA for six of the papers in this report.

  10. Integration of metabolome data with metabolic networks reveals reporter reactions

    Çakir, Tunahan; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Önsan, Zeynep Ilsen; Ülgen, Kutlu Özergin; Kirdar, Betül; Nielsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Interpreting quantitative metabolome data is a difficult task owing to the high connectivity in metabolic networks and inherent interdependency between enzymatic regulation, metabolite levels and fluxes. Here we present a hypothesis-driven algorithm for the integration of such data with metabolic...... network topology. The algorithm thus enables identification of reporter reactions, which are reactions where there are significant coordinated changes in the level of surrounding metabolites following environmental/genetic perturbations. Applicability of the algorithm is demonstrated by using data from...... is measured. By combining the results with transcriptome data, we further show that it is possible to infer whether the reactions are hierarchically or metabolically regulated. Hereby, the reported approach represents an attempt to map different layers of regulation within metabolic networks through...

  11. A workshop report on nuclear reaction and cluster structure

    A work shop was held in June 1984 at RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics), Osaka University, to discuss theory of nuclear reactions based on studies from microscopic or cluster structure viewpoints. About forty researchers participated in this work shop and 27 paperes were presented. All these papers with English abstracts are gathered in this collective report. (Aoki, K.)

  12. Student Reactions to Public Safety Reports of Hate Crimes

    Kahl, Jessica E.; Koenig, Anne; Smith, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated participant's reactions to hate crime versus nonbiased crime incident reports that included more or less detail about the crime using a 2 (victim race: African American, unstated) × 2 (amount of information: vague, detailed) between-subjects factorial design. We hypothesized that participants would be more sympathetic,…

  13. Reporting comprehensive income: reasons for reporting choices and investor reactions

    B. Turktas; G. Georgakopoulos; I. Sotiropoulos; K.Z. Vasileiou

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether the reporting way of comprehensive income is influenced by some factors mentioned by the Positive Accounting Theory and whether the investors value their choice by looking at stock returns (measured in different ways) for firms in the S&P 350 Europe Index. The

  14. Adverse drug reactions to ibuprofen: a case report

    Khobragade Yadneshwar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen is a commonly used drug available by prescription and over the counter for treatment of fever, joint pain, headache, migraine, inflammatory states. It is available in combination with paracetamol and various other drugs. Side effects associated with aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are rash, gastrointestinal ulcers, hepatic toxicity, Steven Johnson syndrome, respiratory skin rashes, acute exacerbation of asthma and anaphylaxis. We have reported here severe distress hypersensitive reaction with ibuprofen induced hypersensitivity syndrome. Within two hours of consumption of ibuprofen patient developed severe bronchospasm, throat and laryngeal oedema leading to respiratory distress. He was treated with salbutamol, hydrocortisone, deriphylline and supportive oxygen, but did not respond and went into coma. Unlike acetaminophen, ibuprofen does not have any antidote hence managing adverse drug reactions (ADR due to ibuprofen is big challenge. Therefore understanding pathophysiology of ADR to Ibuprofen is necessary to manage the patient. Literature in the field of allergic drug reaction shows that epinephrine, a physiological antagonist of histamine is the first drug of choice for the treatment of allergic or drug induced angioedema, laryngeal oedema and bronchospasm due to its direct action on target organs. Such reactions should therefore be managed by epinephrine without loss of time. ADR due to ibuprofen could be prevented by (a avoiding unnecessary intake of drug, (b educating patients / families and public about adverse drug reactions (c surveillance and monitoring of drug reactions (d record keeping (e drug audit and (f reporting of ADR to state/central pharmacovigilance agency. We do observe doctors having misconception about adrenaline, its actions, usage and side effects especially cardio-vascular, hence are reluctant to use. But in severe violent adverse drug reaction we have to use our wisdom and judgement

  15. Foreign body reaction due to skin filler: a case report.

    Kawamura, Juliana Y; Domaneschi, Carina; Migliari, Dante A; Sousa, Suzana Orsini Machado de

    2006-04-01

    Aquamid represents a new generation of soft-tissue fillers for aesthetic facial correction and reconstruction due to its reduced quantity of particles (2.5% of polyacrylamide) and high concentration of water (97.5%). It is a biocompatible, atoxic, homogeneous, and stable product. Additionally, it has good viscosity and elasticity, and it is very simple to use. Although reported in less than 1% of the cases, adverse effects such as pain, swelling, and erythema may occur, which may be the result of inappropriate injection procedure. This article reports the first case of an intraoral foreign body reaction resulting from Aquamid application in the nasolabial fold. Possible causes for this reaction, the chemical composition of the product, and the histopathologic aspects are discussed. PMID:16545711

  16. [Measurements of observables of pion-nucleon reactions]. Progress report

    This document reports the progress of the research of pion reactions. These include (1) a study to measure observables in the pion-nucleon system in the momentum interval 400 to 700 MeV/c, (2) differential cross section measurements at low energy for pion-nucleon charge exchange, and (3) elastic and inelastic scattering of π+- on 3H and 3He. Individual experiments will be indexed separately

  17. Lichenoid Reaction to Amalgam Restoration- A Case Report

    Ahmed, S.; Aboobacker, F.; Ummer, H; Sundaram, I.

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa is often a lone warrior subjected to face many diverse noxious opponents in the form of either hot or cold, acidic or alkaline substances, spiced or not so spicy foods. They may be also in constant contact with tobacco, alcohol, or other substances taken through the mouth or placed in the mouth like amalgam restorations. This paper reports a case of oral lichenoid reaction to amalgam and focuses on the local toxic effects of amalgam as dental restorations with particular reference...

  18. Erythema Multiforme-Like Reaction Due to Rosewood: Two Case Reports - Case Report

    Adem Köşlü

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Woods and their dusts can lead to various cutaneous reactions such as folliculitis, contact urticaria, irritant and allergic dermatitis. Erythema multiforme-like (EM cutaneous and respiratory system reactions such as astma and allergic rhinitis were also reported. The cutaneous reactions typically affect the areas such as the face, neck and arms exposed to the dust of the tree and usually occur on carpenters as occupational dermatitis. Rosewood is one of the most allergic varieties of the trees leading to contact dermatitis. It is a tropical tree and does not grow up in our country. It is especially used in the production of furniture and music instruments and imported from abroad to our country. A few cases of EM-like reaction were reported in 1976 and 1988 in the literature. Herein, two carpenters with severe EM-like skin reaction due to the rosewood, treated with systemic corticosteroids are reported for the first time in our country.

  19. Suspected adverse reactions to veterinary drugs reported in South Africa (January 1998 - February 2001 : special report

    R. Gehring

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance Centre received 59 reports of suspected adverse drug reactions during the period January 1998 - February 2001. The number of reports received increased after the establishment of a formal procedure for recording and responding to reports. The number of reports received per species was: dogs 19, cats 15, cattle 7, sheep/ goats 6, chickens 4, pigs 3, horses 2 and giraffe 1. Many different types of adverse reactions were reported, including lack of efficacy, hypersensitivity, inappropriate use of products by non-veterinarians, known adverse effects and adverse effects encountered with extra-label use of products.

  20. Adverse drug reaction reports of patients and healthcare professionals-differences in reported information

    Rolfes, Leàn; van Hunsel, Florence; Wilkes, Sarah; Grootheest, Kees van; Puijenbroek, Eugène van

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to explore the differences in reported information between adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports of patient and healthcare professionals (HCPs), and, in addition, to explore possible correlation between the reported elements of information. METHODS: This retrospective study co

  1. Severe cutaneous reaction induced by Hirudoid: a rare case report

    Wei He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and prognosis of local severe cutaneous reactions as result of the treatment with Hirudoid. Methods: One case of severe cutaneous reactions as result of the treatment with Hirudoid was reported and the relevant literatures were reviewed. Results: The site of puncture of left arm occurred non-leakage phlebitis with local pain after chemotherapy. The patient was applied the Hirudoid to the affected areas 2 times daily. After 2 days, local skin felt a kind of burning pain and it seems to be getting worse. The skin lesions began as pruritic red macules or papules. It became swelled and bleeding after scratching. We considered that the cutaneous reactions were an allergic response to Hirudoid. We discontinued the Hirudoid and desensitization treatment was used on cure, but it failed to respond to the medical treatment. A hot compress with 50% magnesium sulphate solution can reduce swelling and alleviate pain. Scales of skin peel off and weaved the new skin after 10 days. Conclusion: The case of local severe cutaneous reactions as result of the treatment with Hirudoid is very rare. A hot compress with 50%  magnesium sulphate solution can help to relieve the discomfort. 

  2. Kinetics of fast reactions of excited species. Final report

    This report contains brief summaries of findings in the following areas: gamma radiation induced decomposition of chloroform; proton transfer and ion neutralization reactions in gaseous hydrocarbons; kinetics of thremal D-atom reactions with CH4 C2H6; the gamma radiation induced decomposition of liquid n-pentane; pulse radiolysis of rare gases and liquid n-pentane and n-pentane-O2 solutions; rate constants and activation energies for second order decay of pentyl and peroxypentyl radicals; pulse radiolysis fo aromatic solutes in halogenated solvents; the gamma radiation induced decomposition of nitromethane; the radiolysis of heavy water vapor; pulse radiolysis of solvated electrons in binary liquid solutions; collisional quenching of rare gas excimers by small foreign molecules; kinetics and mechanism for decay of Paschen-1s argon atoms; detection and monitoring of excited atoms in pulse irradiated rare gases

  3. Perception of Nigerian medical students on adverse drug reaction reporting.

    Abubakar, Abdullahi Rabiu; Chedi, Bashir A Z; Mohammed, Khalid Garba; Haque, Mainul

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous reporting (SPR) and intensive monitoring are the conventional systems used for detecting, recording, and reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Using spontaneous reporting a lot of successes has been made as existing ADRs were identified and new ones prevented through this methods. The aim of this appraisal was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and the practice of medical students with regards to ADRs reporting and to see if differences exist between the level of study and genders. The questionnaire was adopted, modified, and validated from previous studies. It comprised of 25 questions. It was administered year-IV and V medical students of Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The data collected were coded and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20, currently known as IBM SPSS Statistics. The response rate was 74%. Among the 108 participants, 80% got the definition of ADRs correct; 63% of them knew the precise functions of pharmacovigilance (PV). In addition, 82% strongly agreed that ADR reporting is health care workers responsibility; 82% also said PV should be taught in detail. Meanwhile, 99% have noticed patient experiencing ADRs; 67% said even mild ADRs should be reported. The outcome of this study showed good knowledge and attitude with respect to ADRs and PV among the medical students surveyed. Unfortunately, the practice of medical students was found to be unsatisfactory. There is a need to upgrade the students teaching the curriculum with respect to ADRs monitoring. PMID:26605155

  4. Perception of Nigerian medical students on adverse drug reaction reporting

    Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous reporting (SPR and intensive monitoring are the conventional systems used for detecting, recording, and reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs. Using spontaneous reporting a lot of successes has been made as existing ADRs were identified and new ones prevented through this methods. The aim of this appraisal was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and the practice of medical students with regards to ADRs reporting and to see if differences exist between the level of study and genders. The questionnaire was adopted, modified, and validated from previous studies. It comprised of 25 questions. It was administered year-IV and V medical students of Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The data collected were coded and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20, currently known as IBM SPSS Statistics. The response rate was 74%. Among the 108 participants, 80% got the definition of ADRs correct; 63% of them knew the precise functions of pharmacovigilance (PV. In addition, 82% strongly agreed that ADR reporting is health care workers responsibility; 82% also said PV should be taught in detail. Meanwhile, 99% have noticed patient experiencing ADRs; 67% said even mild ADRs should be reported. The outcome of this study showed good knowledge and attitude with respect to ADRs and PV among the medical students surveyed. Unfortunately, the practice of medical students was found to be unsatisfactory. There is a need to upgrade the students teaching the curriculum with respect to ADRs monitoring.

  5. Information about adverse drug reactions reported in children

    Aagaard, Lise; Christensen, Arne; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2010-01-01

    included empirically based articles on ADRs in populations aged 0 to 17 years. Studies monitoring ADRs in patients with particular conditions or drug exposure were excluded. We extracted information about types and seriousness of ADRs, therapeutic groups, age and gender of the child and category......AIM: To review the literature on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children with respect to occurrence, seriousness, type, therapeutic group, age and gender of the child and category of reporter. METHODS: Medline and Embase databases were searched from origin and updated until February 2010. We...... inpatients and outpatients. However, prevalence and incidence were much lower in the national databases. Types of reported ADRs, seriousness of ADRs and types of medicines differed substantially between studies due to differences in time periods and patient populations. Information about ADRs was mainly...

  6. Allergic reaction related to ramipril use: a case report

    Alencar Renata C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors are widely prescribed for patients with diabetes as a nephroprotector drug or to treat hypertension. Generally they are safe for clinical practice, but the relationship between these drugs and angioedema is known. The exact mechanism for ACE inhibitors-induced angioedema is not clear and it is still a matter of discussion. Case Report We reported a case of a 23-year-old black female with an 11 year history of type 1 diabetes, regularly monitored in the department of diabetes, in use of 0,98 UI/kg/day of human insulin, which presented an allergic reaction 24 h after ramipril use. The drug had been prescribed to treat diabetic nephropathy. There was no previous history of drug induced or alimentary allergy. The patient was instructed to discontinue the use of ramipril and oral antihistaminic drug and topical corticosteroid were prescribed. Skin biopsies were performed and confirmed the clinical hypothesis of pharmacodermy. The evaluation of ACE polymorphism identified DD genotype. Six months after the withdrawal of ramipril the patient was prescribed the angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB losartan as nephroprotector. She remained well without adverse reactions. Conclusions ACE inhibitors-induced angioedema is uncommon and the clinical presentation is variable with lips, tongue, oropharinge, and larynge as the most common locations. The presence of angioedema during treatment requires the immediate cessation of treatment due to the risk of possible severe complications. The case reported presented moderate symptoms, with the development of early onset edema in uncommon regions. ACE DD genotype had been associated with angioedema-ACE inhibitors induced. In patients who have experienced ACE inhibitor-related angioedema, ARB should be used cautiously used. However in the case of our patient, the prescription of losartan as nefroprotector did not result in any recurrent adverse effect.

  7. Limitations and obstacles of the spontaneous adverse drugs reactions reporting: Two "challenging" case reports

    Caterina Palleria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, based on several epidemiological data, iatrogenic disease is an emerging public health problem, especially in industrialized countries. Adverse drugs reactions (ADRs are extremely common and, therefore, clinically, socially, and economically worthy of attention. Spontaneous reporting system for suspected ADRs represents the cornerstone of the pharmacovigilance, because it allows rapid detection of potential alarm signals related to drugs use. However, spontaneous reporting system shows several limitations, which are mainly related to under-reporting. In this paper, we describe two particular case reports, which emphasize some reasons of under-reporting and other common criticisms of spontaneous reporting systems. Materials and Methods: We performed a computer-aided search of Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library databases, national and international databases of suspected ADRs reports in order to identify previous published case reports and spontaneous reports about the ADRs reviewed in this paper, and to examine the role of suspected drugs in the pathogenesis of the described adverse reactions. Results: First, we reported a case of tizanidine-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. In the second case report, we presented an episode of asthma exacerbation after taking bimatoprost. Through the review of these two cases, we highlighted some common criticisms of spontaneous reporting systems: under-reporting and false causality attribution. Discussion and Conclusion: Healthcare workers sometimes do not report ADRs because it is challenging to establish with certainty the causal relationship between drug and adverse reaction; however, according to a key principle of pharmacovigilance, it is always better to report even a suspicion to generate an alarm in the interest of protecting public health.

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting among Health Professionals in Southwest Ethiopia

    Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo; Nasir Tajure Wabe

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Adverse drug reaction is noxious and unwanted reaction to drugs at dose used in humans for diagnosis, treatment or prophylaxis. Adverse drug reaction monitoring is an area of drug information that has been given little attention yet. Spontaneous reporting is currently the major back bone for the detection of adverse drug reactions. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of adverse drug reaction reporting among health professionals in selected heal...

  9. First reported case of tenofovir-induced photoallergic reaction

    Rajesh Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old man, a known case of human immunodeficiency virus infection for the past 1 year, was on antiretroviral therapy in the form of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine. Three days after replacing stavudine with tenofovir, he developed redness on the face and neck and within 48 h the rash became generalized. Dermatological examination revealed involvement of photoexposed areas of the face in the form of erythema and ill-defined hyperpigmented plaques, with mild periorbital edema. There was specific involvement of V and nape of the neck. Extensive erythema and scaling were also present on buttocks, thighs, and upper third of legs. A diagnosis of photoallergic dermatitis to tenofovir was considered and confirmed by histopathology and photopatch test. He responded well to the stoppage of the drug and oral corticosteroids. This is the first report of a photoallergic reaction to tenofovir in the literature.

  10. Allergic reactions to hyaluronidase in pain management -A report of three cases-

    Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Kyung Bong; Yoon, Duck Mi

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronidase has been gaining interest because it reduces tissue edema and fibrosis. Although rare, hyaluronidase has been shown to cause allergic reactions. A few cases of allergic reactions following hyaluronidase administration have been reported. Most of the described patients presented allergic reactions after peribulbar anesthesia for eye surgery. In this report, we describe three patients who experienced with allergic reactions to hyaluronidase following pain management. Two of the pa...

  11. Anaphylactoid reaction to intraoperative cholangiogram. Report of a case, review of literature, and guidelines for prevention.

    Moskovitz, A H; Bush, W H; Horvath, K D

    2001-10-01

    Anaphylactoid (pseudoallergic, idiosyncratic) reactions are a well recognized but uncommon consequence to radiographic contrast media. Most reported reactions are to intravascular injections, but systemic reactions to nonvascular injections of radiographic contrast also are well documented. Reactions to nonvascular radiographic contrast media have been reported during or after instillation of radiographic contrast into a multitude of nonvascular body compartments, but not with intraoperative cholangiogram. We describe a case of a systemic anaphylactoid reaction caused by intraoperative cholangiogram during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We then discuss the clinical presentation, suspected etiology, and treatment of these idiosyncratic reactions as well as established guidelines for prevention in patients at risk. PMID:11727111

  12. Quality check of spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting forms of different countries.

    Bandekar, M S; Anwikar, S R; Kshirsagar, N A

    2010-11-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are considered as one of the leading causes of death among hospitalized patients. Thus reporting of adverse drug reactions become an important phenomenon. Spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting form is an essential component and a major tool of the pharmacovigilance system of any country. This form is a tool to collect information of ADRs which helps in establishing the causal relationship between the suspected drug and the reaction. As different countries have different forms, our aim was to study, analyze the suspected adverse drug reaction reporting form of different countries, and assess if these forms can capture all the data regarding the adverse drug reaction. For this analysis we identified 18 points which are essential to make a good adverse drug reaction report, enabling proper causality assessment of adverse reaction to generate a safety signal. Adverse drug reaction reporting forms of 10 different countries were collected from the internet and compared for 18 points like patient information, information about dechallenge-rechallenge, adequacy of space and columns to capture necessary information required for its causality assessment, etc. Of the ADR forms that we analyzed, Malaysia was the highest scorer with 16 out of 18 points. This study reveals that there is a need to harmonize the ADR reporting forms of all the countries because there is a lot of discrepancy in data captured by the existing ADR reporting forms as the design of these forms is different for different countries. These incomplete data obtained result in inappropriate causality assessment. PMID:20845409

  13. Uranium reactions with water vapor. Final progress report

    The reaction kinetics and ion microprobe mass analyzer (IMMA) depth-profile data for water-oxygen-uranium reaction is explained in terms of the perfusive-precipitation model. This model is reviewed extensively enough to deal with this interacting, 3-element reaction system. The model, based on simultaneous diffusion and product precipitation, can be applied to several systems in a parameterless fashion. It is applied to the uranium-water reaction in the absence and presence of the oxygen inhibitor. The results of the calculations of the model are compared to the experimental rates and the IMMA depth profiles obtained when 18O-labeled water is used. The predictions are excellent for the pressure dependence of the rates, the activation energies for both the oxygen-poisoned and oxygen-free reactions, the absolute rates for the oxygen-poisoned case, and the IMMA depth profiles. The prediction of the absolute rate for the oxygen-free case is only within a factor of five due to the approximations made for the thermodynamics of the product layer that fixes the oxygen activity. Comparison of the model to experimental data for other metal-oxidation systems such as iron, silicon, copper, zirconium with oxygen, and thorium with water, is also presented to lend credibility to the modeling technique

  14. Systemic Immediate Hypersensitive Reactions after Treatment with Sweet Bee Venom: A Case Report

    NaYoung Jo; JeongDu Roh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A previous study showed that bee venom (BV) could cause anaphylaxis or other hypersensitivity reactions. Although hypersensitivity reactions due to sweet bee venom (SBV) have been reported, SBV has been reported to be associated with significantly reduced sensitization compared to BV. Although no systemic immediate hypersensitive response accompanied by abnormal vital signs has been reported with respect to SBV, we report a systemic immediate hypersensitive response that we experi...

  15. Nuclear reaction mechanisms. Progress report, June 1976--July 1977

    Blann, M.

    1977-01-01

    Research under the subject contract is on heavy ion induced reactions, both on experimental measurement and theoretical interpretation. Measurements have included determination of elastic scattering, evaporation residue, fission, quasi elastic and deep inelastic scattering cross sections. From these data we have extracted information on fusion barrier heights and radii, nucleus-nucleus potentials and fission parameterizations at high angular momenta. We have started investigating influence of excitation energies on inverse cross sections and of precompound decay in heavy ion reactions, and have investigated multidimensional potential energy surfaces for heavy ion collisions. Work which has been published is listed in the Publications Section; work not yet published and/or in progress is discussed herein.

  16. Nuclear reaction mechanisms. Progress report, June 1976--July 1977

    Research under the subject contract is on heavy ion induced reactions, both on experimental measurement and theoretical interpretation. Measurements have included determination of elastic scattering, evaporation residue, fission, quasi elastic and deep inelastic scattering cross sections. From these data we have extracted information on fusion barrier heights and radii, nucleus-nucleus potentials and fission parameterizations at high angular momenta. We have started investigating influence of excitation energies on inverse cross sections and of precompound decay in heavy ion reactions, and have investigated multidimensional potential energy surfaces for heavy ion collisions. Work which has been published is listed in the Publications Section; work not yet published and/or in progress is discussed herein

  17. Overview of suspected adverse reactions to veterinary medicinal products reported in South Africa (March 2004 - February 2006 : report

    V. Naidoo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre is responsible for the monitoring of veterinary adverse drug reactions in South Africa. An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the centre during the period March 2004 to February 2006 is presented. A total of 21 reports was received in the 2-year period, continuing the decline in the number of reports to a lower figure than in any previous year. This is surprising considering the legal obligation of the veterinary professionals to report all adverse drug reactions. Once again the majority of reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most of the products implicated were stock remedies. Veterinarians predominantly administered these products.

  18. Acute Dystonic Reaction as Medical Emergency: A Report of Two Cases

    Oyewole, AO; Adelufosi, AO; Abayomi, O

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced dystonic reactions are common presentations to the emergency department. Two cases of acute dystonic reactions presenting as acute medical emergency illustrate the associated fatality and possibility of misdiagnosis. This case series reports two cases of medication-induced (haloperidol and metoclopramide) acute dystonic reactions presenting with torticollis, tongue protrusion, and respiratory distress which resolved with the administration of intramuscular biperiden and oxygen by...

  19. Theory of nuclear structure and reactions. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1985-March 31, 1986

    In the period covered by this report (April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1986), work focused on five main areas: (A) relativistic effects in medium-energy nuclear reactions; (B) the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear physics; (C) quantum hadrodynamics and relativistic nuclear structure theory; (D) structure and reaction effects in intermediate-energy nuclear reactions; and (E) weak and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei. Results and publications in these areas are summarized

  20. Theory of nuclear structure and reactions. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985

    In the period covered by this report, work focused on five main areas: (1) relativistic effects in intermediate-energy nuclear reactions; (2) the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear physics; (3) quantum hadrodynamics and relativistic nuclear mean-field theory; (4) structure and reaction effects in intermediate-energy nuclear reactions; and (5) weak and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei. Results and publications in these areas are summarized. Publications are listed

  1. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure: Progress report

    This report discusses topics in nuclear theory. These general topics are: Quark physics, Quantum field theory, Relativistic nuclear physics, Nuclear dynamics, and Few-body problems and nonrelativistic methods

  2. Profile of rheumatology patients willing to report adverse drug reactions: bias from selective reporting

    Protić D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dragana Protić,1 Nada Vujasinović-Stupar,2 Zoran Bukumirić,3 Slavica Pavlov-Dolijanović,4 Snežana Baltić,5 Slavica Mutavdžin,6 Ljiljana Markovic-Denić,7 Marija Zdravković,8 Zoran Todorović1 1Department of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 2Department 2, Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 3Institute for Medical Statistics and Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 4Department 5, Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 5Department 5, Institute of Rheumatology, Belgrade, Serbia; 6Institute of Physiology “Rihard Burjan”, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 7Institute of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 8Department of Cardiology, Medical Center “Bežanijska kosa”, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs have a significant impact on human health and health care costs. The aims of our study were to determine the profile of rheumatology patients willing to report ADRs and to identify bias in such a reporting system. Methods: Semi-intensive ADRs reporting system was used in our study. Patients willing to participate (N=261 completed the questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study at the hospital admission. They were subsequently classified into two groups according to their ability to identify whether they had experienced ADRs during the previous month. Group 1 included 214 out of 261 patients who were able to identify ADRs, and group 2 consisted of 43 out of 261 patients who were not able to identify ADRs in their recent medical history. Results: Group 1 patients were more significantly aware of their diagnosis than the patients from group 2. Marginal significance was found

  3. Piperacillin plus Tazobactam induced Drug Hypersensitivity Reaction: A Case Report

    Modi RS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Penicillin alone or with combination should be used in hospitalized patients to treat bacterial infections with great precautions since penicillin is known to produce hypersensitivity reactions very commonly. A 53 year old hospitalized male patient having tibia fracture was initially given ceftriaxone plus salbactum and amikacin as an antibacterial therapeutics. Subsequently patient was treated with Pipzo (Inj. Piperacillin plus Tezobactum; 4.5 gm. on the basis of anti- bacterial sensitivity test of pus culture. It was observed in patient having fever with chills and rigors immediately after injecting Pepzo. Though drug induced these hypersensitivity signs subsided gradually. Later on patient was switch over to inj. Imipenum to cover pseudomonal infection with resulting improvement.

  4. Reactions of charged and neutral recoil particles following nuclear transformations. Progress report No. 10

    The status of the following programs is reported: study of the stereochemistry of halogen atom reactions produced via (n,γ) nuclear reactions with diastereomeric molecules in the condensed phase; decay-induced labelling of compounds of biochemical interest; and chemistry of positronium

  5. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

  6. Reactions of charged and neutral recoil particles following nuclear transformations. Progress report No. 13

    Research is reported on: caging and solvent effects in hot 38Cl substitution reactions in chlorinated hydrocarbons (dichlorobenzene), excitation labelling of organic compounds using 80Br, reactions of energetic tritium with graphite and SiC surfaces, and micellar systems and microemulsions studied by positron annihilation

  7. Adverse drug reactions reported by consumers for nervous system medications in Europe 2007 to 2011

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2013-01-01

    Reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has traditionally been the sole province of healthcare professionals. In the European Union, more countries have allowed consumers to report ADRs directly to the regulatory agencies. The aim of this study was to characterize ADRs reported by European...

  8. Report on the IAEA Technical Meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres

    This report summarizes the IAEA Technical Meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (biennial Data Centre Heads Meeting), held at the Japan Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, from 20 - 23 April 2010. The meeting was attended by 27 participants from 12 cooperating data centres of seven Member States and two International Organizations. The report contains a summary of the meeting, the conclusions and actions, the lists of working papers and presentations presented at the meeting. This report summarizes the IAEA Technical Meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (biennial Data Centre Heads Meeting), held at the Japan Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, from 20 - 23 April 2010. The meeting was attended by 27 participants from 12 cooperating data centres of seven Member States and two International Organizations. The report contains a summary of the meeting, the conclusions and actions, the lists of working papers and presentations presented at the meeting. (author)

  9. Self-reported adverse reactions among patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Brazil

    Cristiane A. Menezes de Pádua

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional analysis was carried out to describe adverse reactions to antiretroviral therapy (ART reported by HIV-infected patients initiating treatment at two public health AIDS referral centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2001-2003 and to verify their association with selected variables. Adverse reactions were obtained through interview at the first follow-up visit (first month after the antiretroviral prescription. Socio-demographic and behavioral variables related to ART were obtained from baseline and follow-up interviews and clinical variables from medical charts. Patients with four or more reactions were compared to those with less than four. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were estimated using logistic regression model for both univariate and multivariate analyses. At least one adverse reaction was reported by 92.2% of the participants while 56.2% reported four or more different reactions. Antiretroviral regimens including indinavir/ritonavir, irregular use of antiretrovirals and switch in regimens were independently associated with four or more adverse reactions (OR=7.92, 5.73 and 2.03, respectively. The initial period of ARV treatment is crucial and patients´ perception of adverse reactions should be carefully taken into account. Strategies for monitoring and management of adverse reactions including the choice of regimens and the prevention of irregular ART should be developed in AIDS/HIV referral centers in Brazil to promote better adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

  10. Adverse drug reactions to ibuprofen: a case report

    Khobragade Yadneshwar; Khobragade Sujata

    2016-01-01

    Ibuprofen is a commonly used drug available by prescription and over the counter for treatment of fever, joint pain, headache, migraine, inflammatory states. It is available in combination with paracetamol and various other drugs. Side effects associated with aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are rash, gastrointestinal ulcers, hepatic toxicity, Steven Johnson syndrome, respiratory skin rashes, acute exacerbation of asthma and anaphylaxis. We have reported here sever...

  11. Phenobarbitone induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS: a case report

    Navreet K. Natt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS is a life threatening cutaneous drug reaction with visceral involvement and hematological abnormalities. Being a rare side effect, it is often under-reported and misdiagnosed. The fatal adverse drug reaction is associated most commonly with aromatic anti-epileptics phenytoin, carbamazepine and less frequently with phenobarbitone. Here, we report a case of phenobarbitone induced DRESS in a 1 year old male child. He succumbed to fulminant hepatic failure inspite of being put on steroids, hepatoprotectives, antibiotics and ventilatory support. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 333-335

  12. Severe generalised hypersensitivity reaction to topical neomycin after cataract surgery: a case report

    Ansari Imran A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Systemic hypersensitivity reactions to topical ophthalmic treatment occur rarely, but when they do they can be severe as highlighted by this case. Case presentation A post-operative cataract surgery patient developed a severe and generalised hypersensitivity reaction following topical treatment with Maxitrol (Dexamethasone and Neomycin eye drops. The patient reported a previous allergic reaction to Neomycin. Conclusion This case report emphasises the importance of a thorough drug and allergy history when patients are seen at pre-assessment or clerked in for surgery.

  13. Leukemoid Reaction in Pancreatic Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Khusroo M Qureshi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Context The presentation of pancreatic cancer with a leukemoid reaction is rare with no prior reports in the English language literature.Case report We report a case of advanced pancreatic cancer presenting with leukemoid reaction. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colonystimulating factor levels were normal while interleukin-6 was elevated. The patient had no evidence of infection. The leukemoid reaction correlated with tumor response.Conclusion This is the first case report in the English literature of a leukemoid paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient withpancreatic cancer. A clear correlation between tumor response, serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels and leukemoid reaction is documented described. These include panniculitisarthritis- eosinophilia, dermatomyositis, recurrent Trousseau’s syndrome and Cushing’s syndrome. Leukemoid reaction refers to a reactive leukocytosis and has been described in response to inflammation, severe or disseminated infection, tissue destruction or other marrow stimulants. Leukemoid reactions have been described mainly in association with lung, gastrointestinal, genitourinary and head and neck cancers [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. These reactions have been attributed to increased cytokine production. Cytokines implicated in this process include granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, granulocyte colonystimulating factor (G-CSF, interleukin 3 (IL- 3 and interleukin 6 (IL-6 [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11]. Leukemoid reactions have rarely been described in association with pancreatic cancer. To our knowledge, this is the fourth case to be reported in literature. Furthermore, this is the only case described that shows an unequivocal tumor response and leukemoid reaction correlation.

  14. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting among Health Professionals in Southwest Ethiopia

    Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Adverse drug reaction is noxious and unwanted reaction to drugs at dose used in humans for diagnosis, treatment or prophylaxis. Adverse drug reaction monitoring is an area of drug information that has been given little attention yet. Spontaneous reporting is currently the major back bone for the detection of adverse drug reactions. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of adverse drug reaction reporting among health professionals in selected health facilities in southwest Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study design was used among health professionals in selected health facilities in January 2010. Prescribers other than physicians, junior pharmacy technicians and also health assistants were excluded. Data was collected using self administered questionnaires from volunteered physicians (Medical interns and above, nurses (Diploma and above and Pharmacy professionals (Diploma and above and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. RESULTS: A total of 82 health professionals were participated in the study. From those 82 participants, only 19 (23.17% and 21 (25.61% knew the existence of national reporting system and a yellow card of adverse drug reaction reporting form. Thirteen (15.85% participants encountered adverse drug reaction in the past 12 months in their clinical activities, but none of them reported to responsible body. Even though the participants’ knowledge and practice were inadequate, most of the respondents 47 (57.31% agreed that adverse drug reaction reporting is part of duty of them and important to the public in general and to the patient in particular. CONCLUSION: There was no documentation and reporting of adverse drug reaction, which might partly be explained by lack of knowledge and misconceptions about spontaneous reporting. Our study strongly suggests that there is a great need to create awareness and to promote the reporting of adverse drug reaction amongst health professionals

  15. Development Tool for Self-Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions of Statin

    Hadeer Akram AbdulRazzaq; Noorizan Abd Aziz; Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman; Yahaya Hassan; Omar Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Statins cause adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in patients on chronic use of medications. No specific tool available for patients to report these ADRs. Most of previous studies based on the doctors’ reports.Aim: development specific tool for reporting of satins-ADRs for cardiac outpatients, and to determine the incidences and correlations among these ADRs. Method: the questionnaire based on the commonly reported ADRs of statins, researchers' agreements and the consistent understan...

  16. Patient-reported multiple drug reactions: Clinical profile and results of challenge testing

    Ramam M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some patients report hypersensitivity reactions to many drugs making it difficult to prescribe medications when they fall ill. Aim: To describe the clinical profile of multiple drug hypersensitivity and the results of challenge testing in a large teaching hospital.Methods: We performed a five-year retrospective review of the records of patients who complained of reactions to two or more unrelated drugs and avoided medication because of a fear of developing reactions. Oral challenge testing was carried out in hospital with drugs suspected by the patient to cause reactions and/or commonly prescribed medications. A positive reaction was diagnosed when symptoms and signs resembled previously experienced episodes and there was no such reaction with placebo. Results: Twenty three patients (aged 14-65 years; 19 females underwent challenge testing. Their complaints had been present for 1-30 years, with 2-40 drug reaction episodes reported. Antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs were most commonly implicated, and urticaria/angioedema were the most often reported manifestations. The patients underwent 3-27 challenges with 1-24 drugs. Three had positive challenge reactions with various NSAIDs, 13 developed symptoms and signs that were judged not to be true reactions, and 7 had no reactions. None of our patients qualified for a diagnosis of true multiple drug hypersensitivity. Conclusion: Patients who believe they are allergic to multiple, pharmacologically unrelated drugs are usually mistaken. Challenge testing is a reliable way of demonstrating this and providing patients with a list of safe drugs.

  17. Adverse Drug Reaction Reports of Patients and Healthcare Professionals : How Different Are They?

    Rolfes, Leàn; van Hunsel, Florence; van Puijenbroek, Eugène; van Grootheest, Adrianus

    2013-01-01

    Background: Changes in the European pharmacovigilance legislation make it possible for patients of all European member states to report concerns regarding drugs directly to the national reporting centre for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Despite a number of studies that have been conducted on patien

  18. Adverse drug reactions in children reported by European consumers from 2007 to 2011

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2014-01-01

    Background Information about medicines safety in children is very limited. Consumer adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports can provide information about serious and unknown ADRs from medicine use in children. Objective To characterize ADRs in children reported by consumers in Europe from 2007 to 2011...

  19. Summary report on [IAEA] technical meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres

    An IAEA Technical Meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 25 to 26 May 2009. The meeting was attended by 23 participants from 13 cooperating data centres. A summary of the meeting is given in this report, along with the conclusions, actions, and status report of the participating data centres. (author)

  20. Summary Report of the Workshop on the Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database

    The Workshop on the Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database (EXFOR) was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2014. The workshop was organized to discuss various aspects of the EXFOR compilation process including compilation rules, different techniques for nuclear reaction data measurements, software developments, etc. A summary of the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop is reported here. (author)

  1. Unusual implant-related soft tissue reaction presenting as a swollen leg: a case report

    Ozkanli, Seyma; Soylemez, Mehmet Salih; Sahin, Adem; Senol, Serkan; Bilsel, Kerem; Ceylan, Hasan Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There are several causes of peri-implant edema, pain, and swelling around implants after orthopedic fixation device application for fracture repair. The most common and well-known reason is infection, however, granulomas associated with foreign body reactions are rarely seen. In this report we present a case of a granulomatous reaction mimicking a hydatid cyst and sarcoma. We emphasize the importance of differential diagnosis in triggering appropriate management of the patient. O...

  2. Summary Report of the Workshop on The Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database

    The Workshop on the Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database (EXFOR) was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2014. The workshop was organized to discuss various aspects of the EXFOR compilation process including compilation rules, different techniques for nuclear reaction data measurements, software developments, etc. A summary of the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop is reported here.

  3. Summary Report of the Workshop on The Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database

    Semkova, V. [IAEA Nuclear Data Section, Vienna (Austria); Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-10-10

    The Workshop on the Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database (EXFOR) was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2014. The workshop was organized to discuss various aspects of the EXFOR compilation process including compilation rules, different techniques for nuclear reaction data measurements, software developments, etc. A summary of the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop is reported here.

  4. Self-reported adverse reactions among patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Brazil

    Cristiane A. Menezes de Pádua; Cibele C. César; Palmira F. Bonolo; Francisco A. Acurcio; Mark Drew C. Guimarães

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis was carried out to describe adverse reactions to antiretroviral therapy (ART) reported by HIV-infected patients initiating treatment at two public health AIDS referral centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2001-2003 and to verify their association with selected variables. Adverse reactions were obtained through interview at the first follow-up visit (first month) after the antiretroviral prescription. Socio-demographic and behavioral variables related to ART were obtai...

  5. LDRD Final Report: Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements (04-ERD-057)

    Escher, J E; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D; Burke, J; Church, J A; Dietrich, F S; Forssen, C; Gueorguiev, V; Hoffman, R D

    2007-02-23

    Research carried out in the framework of the LDRD project ''Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements'' (04-ERD-057) is summarized. The project was designed to address the challenge of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions involving unstable targets, with a particular emphasis on reactions that play a key role in the production of the elements between Iron and Uranium. This report reviews the motivation for the research, introduces the approach employed to address the problem, and summarizes the resulting scientific insights, technical findings, and related accomplishments.

  6. LDRD Final Report: Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements (04-ERD-057)

    Research carried out in the framework of the LDRD project ''Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements'' (04-ERD-057) is summarized. The project was designed to address the challenge of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions involving unstable targets, with a particular emphasis on reactions that play a key role in the production of the elements between Iron and Uranium. This report reviews the motivation for the research, introduces the approach employed to address the problem, and summarizes the resulting scientific insights, technical findings, and related accomplishments

  7. Anaphylactoid reaction to corticosteroid: case report and review of the literature.

    Peller, J S; Bardana, E J

    1985-04-01

    It has been suggested that corticosteroids can cause allergic reactions including anaphylaxis. Thirty-five patients have been reported to have anaphylaxis-like reactions following exposure to hydrocortisone in topical and parenteral preparations. We describe a further case of a nonatopic woman who developed urticaria during intravenous infusion of hydrocortisone. A review of the literature reveals that IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity has not been definitely proven in any case. We conclude that the clinical manifestations occasionally experienced after receiving hydrocortisone are most likely pseudoallergic reactions. PMID:3985425

  8. Report on the 9. IAEA consultants' meeting of the nuclear reaction data centres

    This report summarizes the 1987 co-ordination meeting of the national and regional nuclear reaction data centers, convened by the IAEA at regular intervals. The main topics are: the international exchange of nuclear reaction data by means of the ''EXFOR'' system, and the further development of this system; the ''CINDA'' system as an international index and bibliography to neutron reaction data; the sharing of the workload for speedy and reliable data compilation; the exchange and documentation of evaluated data libraries in ENDF format, with the goal of rendering data center services to data users in IAEA Member States by means of computer retrievals and printed materials. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Report on the IAEA technical meeting on the network of nuclear reaction data centres

    Results of the IAEA Technical meeting on the Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, 12 to 14 October 2005, are summarized in this report. The meeting was attended by 16 participants from 11 co-operating data centres of six Member States and two International Organizations. The report contains a summary of the meeting, the conclusions and actions, and status reports of the participating data centres. (author)

  10. Report on the IAEA advisory group meeting on network of nuclear reaction data centres

    This report summarizes the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres, hold at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia, 15 to 19 May 2000. The meeting was attended by 28 participants from 13 co-operating data centres from seven Member States and two International Organizations. The report contains a meeting summary, the conclusions and actions, progress and status reports of the participating data centres and working papers considered at the meeting. (author)

  11. Maculopapular skin rash due to amoxicillin tri-hydrate hypersensitivity reaction: a case report

    Walli Mohammed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin tri-hydrate (AMT is a commonly used penicillin group of antibacterial agent to combat various bacterial infections. Penicillin group of drugs are known to cause cutaneous drug eruptions as a hypersensitivity reaction. Most of the time, these eruptions are mild in nature, however, sometimes they represent the early manifestation of rare and severe drug-induced cutaneous reactions, such as; Stevens and ndash;Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Here, we report a case of maculopapular skin rash developed due to AMT hypersensitivity reaction in a 48-year-old Indian male patient. Pheniramine maleate, hydrocortisone and skin protecting lotion were prescribed to manage the situation. This case is being reported to emphasize the need for reporting of drug induced complications and their management procedures. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 175-178

  12. Co-ordination of the nuclear reaction data centers. Report on an IAEA advisory group meeting

    This report summarizes the 1996 co-ordination meeting in Brookhaven, U.S.A., of the national and regional nuclear reaction data center, convened by the IAEA at regular intervals. The main topics are: the international exchange of nuclear reaction data by means of the ''EXFOR'' system, and the further development of this system; the ''CINDA'' system as an international index and bibliography to neutron reaction data; the sharing of the workload for speedy and reliable nuclear data compilation and data center services; the exchange and documentation of evaluated data libraries in ''ENDF'' format; the rapid advances of online electronic information technologies, with the goal of rendering data center services to data users in IAEA Member States by means of computer retrievals, online services and printed materials. The scope of data covers microscopic cross-sections and related parameters of nuclear reactions induced by neutrons, charged-particles and photons. (author). Refs, figs, tabs

  13. Co-ordination of the nuclear reactions data centers. Report on an IAEA advisory group meeting

    This report summarizes the 1998 co-ordination meeting at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna of the regional, national and specialized nuclear reaction data centers, concerned by the IAEA at two-year intervals. The main topics are: the international exchange of nuclear reaction data by means of the ''EXFOR'' system, and the further development of this system; the ''CINDA'' system as an international index and bibliography to neutron reaction data; the sharing of the workload for speedy and reliable nuclear data compilation and data center services; the exchange and documentation of evaluated data libraries in ''ENDF'' format; the rapid advances of online electronic information technologies, with goal of rendering data center services to data users in IAEA Member States by means of computer retrievals, online services and printed materials. The scope of data covers microscopic cross-sections and related parameters of nuclear reactions induced by neutrons, charged-particles and photons. (author)

  14. The concept of adverse drug reaction reporting: awareness among pharmacy students in a Nigerian university

    Johnson Segun Showande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse drug reaction (ADR is poorly reported globally but more in developing countries with poor participation by health professionals. Currently, there is no known literature on the Nigerian pharmacy students’ knowledge on ADR reporting. Hence the purpose of this study was to find out the level of knowledge of pharmacy students on the concept of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting and also to evaluate their opinions on the National Pharmacovigilance Centre guidelines on adverse drug reaction reporting. A pretested 34-item semi-structured questionnaire was administered among 69 pharmacy undergraduate students in their penultimate and final years that consented to take part in the study, in one of the universities in Nigeria. The study was carried out strictly adhering to the principles outlined in the Helsinki declaration of 1964, which was revised in 1975. The questionnaire used had four sections which included a section on biographical data, a section which evaluated the students knowledge on the concept of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting, a section on students personal experiences of adverse drug reactions and modes of reporting them and the final section of the questionnaire evaluated the students’ opinions on the National Pharmacovigilance Centre guidelines for reporting adverse drug reactions. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis statistical tests were used to analyze the data obtained. None of the participants knew the sequence of reporting ADR. More than half, 40(58.0% had heard about pharmacovigilance at symposiums, 7(10.1% during clinical clerkship program and 18(26.1% from media jingles. Twenty nine (42.0% agreed that pharmacovigilance was in their curriculum, however only 16(23.2% could define the term correctly. None of the participants had seen or used an ADR form prior to the study, but the students could easily identify and describe the type of ADR they had

  15. Report on the IAEA technical meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres

    An IAEA Technical Meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, from 8 to 10 October 2007. The meeting was attended by 19 participants from 11 cooperating data centres of six Member States and two international organizations. A summary of the meeting is given in this report, along with the conclusions, actions, and status reports of the participating data centres. (author)

  16. Spontaneous Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions through Electronic Submission from Regional Society Healthcare Professionals in Korea

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Kyung Hee; Moon, Hyun Joo; Lee, Yong Won; Park, Jung-Won; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacovigilance Research Network built a spontaneous reporting system and collected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by electronic submission (e-sub) in Korea. We analyzed ADRs spontaneously reported through e-sub from regional health professionals. Materials and Methods Nine hundred and thirty three ADR cases were collected and analyzed from January to December in 2008. "A matter" was defined as one symptom matched to one culprit drug included in an ADR case. We collected and analyzed...

  17. Summary Report of the Technical Meeting on International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres

    This report summarizes the IAEA Technical Meeting on the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres, held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria from 23 to 25 April 2013. The meeting was attended by 24 participants representing 13 cooperative centres from 8 Member States and 2 International Organisations. A summary of the meeting is given in this report along with the conclusions and actions. (author)

  18. Report on the IAEA technical meeting on network of nuclear reaction data centres

    An IAEA Technical Meeting on the Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (and the biennial Data Centre Heads' Meeting) was held at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (near Paris), France, from 27 to 30 May 2002. The meeting was attended by 21 participants from 12 co-operating data centres of six Member States and two international organizations. This report contains the meeting summary, conclusions and actions, status reports of the participating data centres, and working papers considered. (author)

  19. Report on the IAEA technical meeting on network of nuclear reaction data centres

    An IAEA Technical Meeting on the Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (biennial Data Centre Heads Meeting) was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, from 25 to 28 September 2006. The meeting was attended by 19 participants from 10 cooperating data centres of six Member States and two international organizations. A summary of the meeting is given in this report, along with the conclusions, actions, and status reports of the participating data centres. (author)

  20. Acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention:A case report

    Sora Yasri; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Quinine is a classical antimalarial drug that is used worldwide. It is also used for pre-exposure of malaria before visiting to the jungle in the endemic area of malaria. In this article, the authors reported a case of acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention.

  1. Low quality of reporting adverse drug reactions in paediatric randomised controlled trials

    de Vries, Tjalling W; van Roon, Eric N

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Randomised controlled trials (RCT) offer an opportunity to learn about frequency and character of adverse drug reactions. To improve the quality of reporting adverse effects, the Consort group published recommendations. The authors studied the application of these recommendations in RCTs

  2. Acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention: A case report

    Sora Yasri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinine is a classical antimalarial drug that is used worldwide. It is also used for pre-exposure of malaria before visiting to the jungle in the endemic area of malaria. In this article, the authors reported a case of acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention.

  3. TORUS: Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes - Year 1 Continuation and Progress Report

    Arbanas, G; Elster, C; Escher, J; Mukhamedzhanov, A; Nunes, F; Thompson, I J

    2011-02-24

    The TORUS collaboration derives its name from the research it focuses on, namely the Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes. It is a Topical Collaboration in Nuclear Theory, and funded by the Nuclear Theory Division of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy. The funding started on June 1, 2010, it will have been running for nine months by the date of submission of this Annual Continuation and Progress Report on March 1, 2011. The extent of funding was reduced from the original application, and now supports one postdoctoral researcher for the years 1 through 3. The collaboration brings together as Principal Investigators a large fraction of the nuclear reaction theorists currently active within the USA. The mission of the TORUS Topical Collaboration is to develop new methods that will advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes by using three-body techniques to improve direct-reaction calculations, and, by using a new partial-fusion theory, to integrate descriptions of direct and compound-nucleus reactions. This multi-institution collaborative effort is directly relevant to three areas of interest: the properties of nuclei far from stability; microscopic studies of nuclear input parameters for astrophysics, and microscopic nuclear reaction theory.

  4. A Retrospective Analysis of Spontaneous Adverse Drug Reactions Reports Relating to Paediatric Patients.

    Rosliana Rosli

    Full Text Available Spontaneous reporting on adverse drug reactions (ADR has been established in Malaysia since 1987, and although these reports are monitored by the Malaysia drug monitoring authority, the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau, information about ADRs in the paediatric patient population still remains unexplored. The aims of this study, therefore, were to characterize the ADRs reported in respect to the Malaysian paediatric population and to relate the data to specific paediatric age groups.Data on all ADRs reported to the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau between 2000 and 2013 for individuals aged from birth to 17 years old were analysed with respect to age and gender, type of reporter, suspected medicines (using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification, category of ADR (according to system organ class as well as the severity of the ADR.In total, 11,523 ADR reports corresponding to 22,237 ADRs were analysed, with half of these reporting one ADR per report. Vaccines comprised 55.7% of the 11,523 ADR reports with the remaining being drug related ADRs. Overall, 63.9% of ADRs were reported for paediatric patients between 12 and 17 years of age, with the majority of ADRs reported in females (70.7%. The most common ADRs reported were from the following system organ classes: application site disorders (32.2%, skin and appendages disorders (20.6%, body as a whole general disorders (12.8% and central and peripheral nervous system disorders (11.2%. Meanwhile, ADRs in respect to anti-infectives for systemic use (2194/5106; 43.0% were the most frequently reported across all age groups, followed by drugs from the nervous system (1095/5106; 21.4%. Only 0.28% of the ADR cases were reported as fatal. A large proportion of the reports were received from healthcare providers in government health facilities.ADR reports concerning vaccines and anti-infectives were the most commonly reported in children, and are mainly seen in adolescents, with most of

  5. Summary report of consultants meeting on Minor Actinide Nuclear Reaction Data (MANREAD)

    A Consultants Meeting on reaction cross section data for minor actinides was held at the IAEA Headquarters, in Vienna on 23 and 24 November, 2007. The main objective of the initiative was to define the detailed plan for the Co-ordinated Research Project on Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD) CRP. The details of the discussions which took place at the reported meeting include a review of the current activities in the field, a list of recommendations and a proposed timescale for the CRP. (author)

  6. The Norwegian National Reporting System and Register of Severe Allergic Reactions to Food

    Martinus Løvik

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian National Reporting System and Register of Severe Allergic Reactions to Food, or the Food Allergy Register, is a nation-wide, government-funded permanent reporting and registration system for severe allergic reactions to food. The Food Allergy Register collects information based on a one-page reporting form, serum samples for specific IgE analysis, and food samples for food allergen analysis. Reporting physicians receive in return an extensive commentary on the reported case and the relevant allergies, and results of the specific IgE analysis and food allergen analysis.The Food Allergy Register has, after being active for a little more than four years, given valuable information about several important aspects of food allergy in Norway. The Food Allergy Register has revealed food safety problems in relation to allergy that probably could be discovered only with the help of a systematic, nation-wide registration of cases. The reactions of peanut allergic individuals to lupine flour in bakery products is an example of how the Food Allergy Register is able to reveal potentially serious problems that would otherwise probably have gone unnoticed and certainly unexplained. The amount and the value of the information from the Food Allergy Register are increasing as new reports of more cases are added. The typical Norwegian patient with a severe allergic reaction to food appears to be a young adult, female rather than male. The offending meal is consumed at a restaurant or fast-food stand or in a private party away from home, and peanuts, nuts and shellfish are among the most common offending foods, while fish allergy appears to be rather rare.

  7. Report on the IAEA technical meeting on network of nuclear reaction data centres

    This report summarizes the IAEA Technical Meeting on the Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (biennial Data Centre Heads Meeting), held at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA from 4-7 October 2004. The meeting was attended by 20 participants from 11 co-operating data centres of six Member States and two International Organizations. The report contains a summary of the meeting, the conclusions and actions, status reports of the participating data centres, and a revised technical protocol for the cooperation of the network. (author)

  8. Knowledge of adverse drug reaction reporting in first year postgraduate doctors in a medical college

    Upadhyaya P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prerna Upadhyaya,1 Vikas Seth,2 Vijay V Moghe,1 Monika Sharma,1 Mushtaq Ahmed11Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Sitapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan, 2Department of Pharmacology, Hind Institute of Medical Sciences, Safedabad, Barabanki, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaIntroduction: Poor reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs by doctors is a major hindrance to successful pharmacovigilance. The present study was designed to assess first-year residents’ knowledge of ADR reporting.Methods: First-year postgraduate doctors at a private medical college completed a structured questionnaire. The responses were analyzed by nonparametric methods.Results: All doctors were aware of the term “adverse drug reactions.” Fifty percent of the doctors reported being taught about ADR reporting during their undergraduate teaching, and 50% had witnessed ADRs in their internship training. Ten percent of patients suffering an ADR observed and reported by doctors required prolonged hospitalization for treatment as a result. Only 40% of interns reported the ADRs that they observed, while 60% did not report them. Twenty-eight percent reported ADRs to the head of the department, 8% to an ADR monitoring committee, and 4% to the pharmacovigilance center. Eighty-six percent of the doctors surveyed felt that a good knowledge of undergraduate clinical pharmacology therapeutics would have improved the level of ADR reporting.Conclusion: The knowledge of first-year doctors regarding ADR reporting is quite poor. There is a dire need to incorporate ADR reporting into undergraduate teaching, and to reinforce this during internships and periodically thereafter.Keywords: ADR reporting, pharmacovigilance, first-year postgraduate doctors

  9. Studies of heavy ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, August 1, 1979-July 31, 1980

    The study of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms at the SuperHILAC and LAMPF is reported. Preprints of five articles and manuscripts of four recent conference papers are given, along with complete citations of publications and a list of personnel. Significant work was performed in the following areas: the bombarding energy dependence of the 209Bi + 136Xe reaction; the fragment yields for specific Z and A for projectile-like fragments produced in the reaction of 8.3-MeV/u 56Fe ions with targets of 56Fe, 165Ho, 209Bi, and 238U; and time distributions of fragments from delayed fission after muon capture for muonic 235U, 238U, 237Np, 239Pu, and 242Pu

  10. Best practices in the differential diagnosis and reporting of acute transfusion reactions

    Hillis CM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Christopher M Hillis,1–3,* Andrew W Shih,1,3,* Nancy M Heddle1,3,4 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Oncology, 3McMaster Transfusion Research Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, 4Centre for Innovation, Canadian Blood Services, Ottawa, ON, Canada  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: An acute transfusion reaction (ATR is any reaction to blood, blood components, or plasma derivatives that occurs within 24 hours of a transfusion. The frequencies of ATRs and the associated symptoms, reported by the sentinel sites of the Ontario Transfusion Transmitted Injuries Surveillance System from 2008 to 2012, illustrate an overlap in presenting symptoms. Despite this complexity, the differential diagnosis of an ATR can be determined by considering predominant signs or symptoms, such as fever, dyspnea, rash, and/or hypotension, as these signs and symptoms guide further investigations and management. Reporting of ATRs locally and to hemovigilance systems enhances the safety of the blood supply. Challenges to the development of an international transfusion reaction reporting system are discussed, including the issue of jurisdiction and issues of standardization for definitions, investigations, and reporting requirements. This review discusses a symptom-guided approach to the differential diagnosis of ATRs, the evolution of hemovigilance systems, an overview of the current Canadian system, and proposes a best practice model for hemovigilance based on a World Health Organization patient safety framework. Keywords: blood transfusion, blood components, hemovigilance

  11. Overview of suspected adverse reactions to veterinary medicinal products reported in South Africa (March 2002 – February 2003

    V. Naidoo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre is responsible for the monitoring of veterinary adverse drug reactions in South Africa. An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the centre during the period March 2002 to February 2003 is given. In total, 40 reports were received. This had declined from the previous year. Most reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most of the products implicated were Stock Remedies. The animal owner predominantly administered these products. Only 1 report was received from a veterinary pharmaceutical company. Increasing numbers of reports are being received from veterinarians.

  12. Characterization of hypersensitivity reactions reported among Andrographis paniculata users in Thailand using Health Product Vigilance Center (HPVC) database

    Suwankesawong, Wimon; Saokaew, Surasak; Permsuwan, Unchalee; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2014-01-01

    Background Andrographis paniculata (andrographis) is one of the herbal products that are widely used for various indications. Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported among subjects receiving Andrographis paniculata in Thailand. Understanding of characteristics of patients, adverse events, and clinical outcomes is essential for ensuring population safety. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of hypersensitivity reactions reported in patients receiving andrographis containing ...

  13. IWTS metal-water reaction rate evaluation (Fauske and Associates report 99-26)

    The report presents a thermal stability analysis of partially metallic particulate in two IWTS components, the knock out pot and settlers. Particulate in the knock out pot is thermally stable for combinations of average particle size and metal mass fraction which appear realistic. Particulate in the settlers is thermally stable when a realistic account of particle reactions over time, metal fraction, and size distribution is considered

  14. Theory of photon and electron induced reactions: Progress report, July 1, 1987-June 30, 1988

    During the first eight months of our new grant from the Department of Energy we have made considerable progress or have completed our studies on the following aspects of the general investigation of electron and photon induced reactions: photo- and electro-production of mesons;the radiation tail accompanying elastic electron scattering and pair production;studies involving relativistic shell model;and electrofission conincidence angular distributions. We will report on each of these developments in this paper

  15. IWTS metal-water reaction rate evaluation (Fauske and Associates report 99-26)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-07-29

    The report presents a thermal stability analysis of partially metallic particulate in two IWTS components, the knock out pot and settlers. Particulate in the knock out pot is thermally stable for combinations of average particle size and metal mass fraction which appear realistic. Particulate in the settlers is thermally stable when a realistic account of particle reactions over time, metal fraction, and size distribution is considered.

  16. Summary report of first research coordination meeting on Minor Actinide Nuclear Reaction Data (MANREAD)

    The first Research Co-ordination Meeting of the MANREAD (Minor Actinides Neutron Reaction Data) was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 19 to 23 November 2007. A summary of the discussion which took place at the meeting is reported here. In addition, a task assignment list of the experimental data assessment activities was agreed, and is provided together with the plan for future CRP activities. (author)

  17. Theory of photon and electron induced reactions: Progress report, July 1, 1986-June 30, 1987

    During the third year of our three-year contract from the Department of Energy, we have made considerable progress or have completed our studies on the following aspects of the general investigation of electron and photon induced reactions; photo- and electro-production of mesons; the radiation tail accompanying elastic electron scattering and pair production; studies involving relativistic shell model; and electrofission coincidence angular distributions. We will report on each of these developments in this paper

  18. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms. Progress report, 1 August-31 July 1984

    This progress report describes activities of the Nuclear Theory group at Brown University during the period 1 August 1983 to 31 July 1984. Completed and ongoing research include various theoretical and numerical studies of few-particle systems, nuclear reaction models, nuclear electroexcitation and photon scattering from nuclei. In addition, research on atomic and molecular structure has essentially been concluded and no further DOE-supported research in this area is anticipated

  19. Light particle and gamma ray emission measurements in heavy ion reactions. Progress report

    Studies of neutron and charged particle emission in heavy ion reactions using the facilities at the HHIRF and the new computer facilities at Georgia State are briefly described. A progress report for 1982 to 1983 is combined with a proposal for work to be performed during 1983 to 1984. Present activities and immediate plans for a run already approved by the Program Advisory Committee of the HHIRF are discussed

  20. The attitudes of pharmacists and physicians in Bosnia and Herzegovina towards adverse drug reaction reporting

    Tarik Catic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are threat to the patient’s safety and the quality of life, and they increase the cost of health care. Spontaneous ADR reporting system mainly relies on physicians, but also pharmacists, nurses, and even patients. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes, barriers, and possible improvements to ADR reporting practices in Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was developed to collect data on the perception of pharmacovigilance practice and ADR reporting. The survey was conducted in the period between September, 2014 and October, 2014.Results: The response rate was 73% (44 of 60 and 93% (148 of 160 among the pharmacist and family medicine physician groups, respectively. Regarding the attitudes to pharmacovigilance practice and reporting, both the pharmacists and physicians found the practices important. The majority of pharmacists and physicians in year 2014 did not report any ADR, while 18% of the pharmacists and 12% of the physicians, who participated in this study, reported one ADR. Reporting procedure, uncertainty, and their exposure were the main barriers to reporting ADRs for the pharmacists. The physicians claimed lack of knowledge to whom to report an ADR as the main barrier. A significant number of the respondents thought that additional education in ADR reporting would have a positive impact, and would increase the ADR reporting rate.Conclusions: Despite the overall positive attitude towards ADR reporting, the reporting rate in Bosnia and Herzegovina is still low. Different barriers to the ADR reporting have been identified, and there is also the need for improvements in the traditional education in this field.

  1. Musculoskeletal adverse drug reactions: a review of literature and data from ADR spontaneous reporting databases.

    Conforti, Anita; Chiamulera, Christian; Moretti, Ugo; Colcera, Sonia; Fumagalli, Guido; Leone, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system can be a target organ for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Drug-induced muscle, bone or connective tissue injuries may be due to, i), primary direct drug action, or, ii), undirected consequence of generalized drug-induced disease. Musculoskeletal ADRs may be only temporarily disabling, such as muscle cramps, as well as in other cases may be serious and life-threatening, such as rhabdomyolysis. In the last few years there has been an increasing awareness of musculoskeletal ADRs. Some recent drug safety issues dealt with serious or uncommon musculoskeletal reactions like rhabdomyolysis associated to statins and tendon rupture associated to fluoroquinolones. In this review, we firstly selected those drug classes having a significantly high percentage of musculoskeletal disorder reports in the WHO adverse drug reaction database, maintained by the Uppsala Monitoring Centre. Secondly, the different musculoskeletal ADRs were closely analyzed through the data obtained from an Italian interregional ADRs spontaneous reporting database. The findings on drugs associated to different musculoskeletal disorders, have been integrated with a review of the epidemiological data available in the literature. For the most involved drugs (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones, corticosteroids, bisphosphonates, retinoids) the underlying musculoskeletal ADR mechanisms were also reviewed and discussed. PMID:18690950

  2. Adverse reaction after hyaluronan injection for minimally invasive papilla volume augmentation. A report on two cases

    Bertl, Kristina; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Jensen, Simon S;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To report two cases of adverse reaction after mucosal hyaluronan (HY) injection around implant-supported crowns, with the aim to augment the missing interdental papilla. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two patients with single, non-neighbouring, implants in the anterior maxilla, who were treated...... within the frames of a randomized controlled clinical trial testing the effectiveness of HY gel injection to reconstruct missing papilla volume at single implants, presented an adverse reaction. Injection of HY was performed bilaterally using a 3-step technique: (i) creation of a reservoir in the mucosa...... directly above the mucogingival junction, (ii) injection into the attached gingiva/mucosa below the missing papilla, and (iii) injection 2-3 mm apically to the papilla tip. The whole-injection session was repeated once after approximately 4 weeks. RESULTS: Both patients presented with swelling and extreme...

  3. Stellar Astrophysics and a Fundamental Description of Thermonuclear Reactions ? 04-ERD-058 Final Report

    Ormand, W E; Navratil, P; Libby, S B

    2007-02-22

    Report on the progress achieved in 04-ERD-058. The primary goal of the project was to investigate new methods to provide a comprehensive understanding of how reactions between light nuclei proceed in hot, dense environments, such as stellar interiors. The project sought to develop an entirely new theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of nuclear collisions based on the fundamental nuclear interactions. Based on the new theoretical framework, new computational tools were developed to address specific questions in nuclear structure and reactions. A full study of the true nature of the three-nucleon interaction was undertaken within the formalism of effective field theory. We undertook a preliminary theoretical study of the quantum corrections to electron screening in thermal plasmas to resolve a discrepancy exhibited in previous theoretical approaches.

  4. Does an allergy to fish pre-empt an adverse protamine reaction? A case report and a literature review.

    Collins, C

    2008-11-01

    The operating theatre exposes patients to myriad potential agents which could result in a life-threatening anaphylactic reaction. Anaesthetic drugs, blood products, and latex are only some of the possible allergens. Reactions are deemed to be anaphylactic when immediate sensitivity is combined with cardiovascular collapse. A patient who had a known allergy to shellfish presented for first time cardiopulmonary bypass. The perfusion team were concerned that there was a realistic possibility that an adverse reaction to protamine could occur. Anaphylactic reactions to protamine in patients allergic to fish have been reported. The anaesthetic team were informed and the necessary precautions taken. We report on the outcome for our patient and also discuss other risk factors and the types of reactions that can result when an adverse reaction to protamine occurs.

  5. The 34th report on survey of the adverse reaction to radiopharmaceuticals. The 37th survey in 2011

    This survey was performed in order to investigate the incidence of adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals in FY2011 in Japan. It was based on responses to questionnaires sent to nuclear medicine institutions. The reply was obtained from 999 institutions among 1,253 to which the questionnaire had been sent. Fourteen cases of adverse reactions were reported. A total of 1,068,833 radiopharmaceutical administrations was reported. The incidence of adverse reactions per 100,000 cases was 1.3. One case of defect products was reported, and the incidence of defect products per 100,000 cases was 0.1. (author)

  6. Type I allergic hypersensitivity reactions due to ethylene oxide sterilised leucocyte filters in patients with thalassaemia: report of four cases.

    Belen, Burcu; Polat, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is a highly reactive gas used in sterilisation of heat sensitive medical devices, such as infusion sets, cannulae, intubation materials, ventriculoperitoneal shunts, dialysis catheters and stents. Allergic reactions due to EO have been reported in haemodialysis patients, patients undergoing extracorporeal photopheresis and donors of plasmapheresis. Clinical manifestations vary considerably and generally do not allow differentiation between IgE-mediated anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions. We report four patients with thalassaemia who experienced anaphylaxis during transfusion due to ethylene oxide sterilised leucocyte filters. The aim of this report is to highlight the fact that frequently transfused patients can have allergic reactions due to EO particles left in leucocyte filters. PMID:25725028

  7. The 35th report on survey of the adverse reaction to radiopharmaceuticals. The 38th survey in 2012

    This survey was performed in order to investigate the incidence of adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals in FY2012 in Japan. It was based on responses to questionnaires sent to nuclear medicine institutions. The reply was obtained from 977 institutions among 1,251 to which the questionnaire had been sent. Eleven cases of adverse reactions were reported. A total of 1,060,526 radiopharmaceutical administrations was reported. The incidence of adverse reactions per 100,000 cases was 1.0. One case of defect products was reported, and the incidence of defect products per 100,000 cases was 0.1. (author)

  8. Awareness and attitudes of healthcare professionals in Wuhan, China to the reporting of adverse drug reactions

    李青; 张素敏; 陈华庭; 方世平; 于星; 刘东; 施侣元; 曾繁典

    2004-01-01

    Background A voluntary procedure for reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) was formally put in place in 1989. However, only a small proportion of ADR reports are actually forwarded to the national monitoring center. To identify the reasons for underreporting, the authors investigated the awareness and attitudes of healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, and administrators) toward the ADR system in China. In addition, the authors sought to formulate approaches to improve the current ADR reporting system.Methods Structured interviews were carried out in 16 hospitals selected from 27 municipal hospitals in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. A questionnaire survey of a stratified random sample of approximately 15% of healthcare professionals in each selected hospital was conducted during February to March 2003.Results The response rate of this survey was 85%. One thousand six hundred and fifty-three questionnaires were used in the final analysis. Only 2.7% of the healthcare professionals had a correct understanding to the definition of ADR. Eighty-nine point two percent of the healthcare professionals had encountered ADRs. Ninety-four percent of them were aware of the need to report these to the ADR monitoring center. However, only 28.5% of doctors, 22.8% of nurses, and 29.7% of administrators actually submitted a report. For the most part, they reported ADRs to the hospital pharmacy (66.0%), to other departments in the hospital (72.5%), and to the pharmaceutical industry (23.0%), rather than to the national monitoring center (2.9%) or regional monitoring center (9.5%). Severe or rare ADRs and ADRs to new products were generally perceived to be significant enough to report. Sixty-two point one percent of the healthcare professionals had encountered ADRs, yet not reported them to anybody. The major reasons for not reporting included no knowledge of the reporting procedure (71.4%), unavailability of the reporting center mailing address (67.9%), unavailability of the ADR

  9. Consequence analysis of IWTS metal water reactions (Fauske and Associates report 99-35)

    The report describes the consequences of postulated thermally unstable conditions in the IWTS knock out pot. The consequence analysis shows that both the knock out pot and particulate bed will stay intact, and that releases will be minor. Reaction rate limitations prevent knock out pot pressure and/or temperature from even approaching values that would threaten structural integrity. Source term calculations based on a particle bed with a homogeneous mixture of metal and oxide particles yield a release above the K Basin pool of about 12 grams

  10. Consequence analysis of IWTS metal water reactions (Fauske and Associates report 99-35)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-07-28

    The report describes the consequences of postulated thermally unstable conditions in the IWTS knock out pot. The consequence analysis shows that both the knock out pot and particulate bed will stay intact, and that releases will be minor. Reaction rate limitations prevent knock out pot pressure and/or temperature from even approaching values that would threaten structural integrity. Source term calculations based on a particle bed with a homogeneous mixture of metal and oxide particles yield a release above the K Basin pool of about 12 grams.

  11. Systemic Immediate Hypersensitive Reactions after Treatment with Sweet Bee Venom: A Case Report

    NaYoung Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A previous study showed that bee venom (BV could cause anaphylaxis or other hypersensitivity reactions. Although hypersensitivity reactions due to sweet bee venom (SBV have been reported, SBV has been reported to be associated with significantly reduced sensitization compared to BV. Although no systemic immediate hypersensitive response accompanied by abnormal vital signs has been reported with respect to SBV, we report a systemic immediate hypersensitive response that we experienced while trying to use SBV clinically. Methods: The patient had undergone BV treatment several times at other Oriental medicine clinics and had experienced no adverse reactions. She came to acupuncture & moxibustion department at Semyung university hospital of Oriental medicine (Je-cheon, Korea complaining of facial hypoesthesia and was treated using SBV injections, her first SBV treatment. SBV, 0.05 cc, was injected at each of 8 acupoints, for a total of 0.40 cc: Jichang (ST4, Daeyeong (ST5, Hyeopgeo (ST6, Hagwan (ST7, Yepung (TE17, Imun (TE21, Cheonghoe (GB2, and Gwallyeo (SI18. Results: The patient showed systemic immediate hypersensitive reactions. The main symptoms were abdominal pain, nausea and perspiration, but common symptoms associated with hypersensitivity, such as edema, were mild. Abdominal pain was the most long-lasting symptom and was accompanied by nausea. Her body temperature decreased due to sweating. Her diastolic blood pressure could not be measured on three occasions. She remained alert, though the symptoms persisted. The following treatments were conducted in sequence; intramuscular epinephrine, 1 mg/mL, injection, intramuscular dexamethasone, 5 mg/mL, injection, intramuscular buscopan, 20 mg/mL, injection, oxygen (O2 inhalation therapy, 1 L/minutes, via a nasal prong, and intravascular injection of normal saline, 1 L. After 12 hours of treatment, the symptoms had completely disappeared. Conclusion: This case shows that the use of SBV

  12. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms: a research proposal (renewal) and report of progress

    Research progress is reported on the following subjects: (1) diamagnetism, gauge transformations and sum rules, (2) quantal motion in an electric field, (3) a theorem concerning quadrupole absorption and scattering of photons, (4) excitation of natural parity states by Raman scattering in nuclei, (5) retarded E1 transitions and isoscaler giant dipole resonances, (6) low energy photon scattering from nuclei, (7) few-body models of nuclear reactions, (8) three- and four-nucleon configuration space calculations, (9) time-dependent few-body calculations, (10) atomic and molecular structure calculations, (11) bound state approximations, (12) extended Faddeev theory, (13) configuration-space techniques, and (14) time-dependent approach to scattering problems

  13. Report of seminar on relativistic approach to nuclear reaction and nuclear structure

    A seminar on 'Relativistic Approach to Nuclear Reaction and Nuclear Structure' was held in 1985 at Osaka University. This booklet includes twenty-four reports given at the seminar, which deal with: Conventional Nonrelativistic Description of Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Spin-Orbit Interactions; Relativistic Approach to Nuclear Structure; Atomic and Molecular Structure Calculations; Electromagnetic Interaction in Nucleus and Relativistic Effect; Nuclear Magnetic Moment in the Relativistic Mean Field Theory, Effective Mass and Particle-Vibration Coupling in the Relativistic σ-ω Model; Gauge Invariance in Relativistic Many-Body Theory; Relativistic Description of Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction in Review; σ-Particle in NN Interaction; Nuclear Optical Potentials Based on the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock Approach; Elastic Backscattering and Optical Potential; Description of Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Reactions; Dirac Phenomenology at E(p) = 65 MeV; Relativistic Impulse Approximation; Reaction Studies with Intermediate Energy Deuterons at SATURNE; Folding Model for Intermediate-Energy Deutron Scattering; Folding Model for Polarized Deutron Scattering at 700 MeV; Dirac Approach Problems and a Different Viewpoint; Relativistic Approach and EMC Effect; Quasielastic Electron Scattering; Response Function of Quasielastic Electron Scattering; Relativistic Hartree Response Function for Quasielastic Electron Scattering on 12C and 40Ca; Backflow-, Retardation- and Relativistic Effects on the Longitudinal Response Function of Nuclear Matter; Pion-Photoproduction in the σ-ω Model. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Development and preparation of superconducting mixed oxides by means of the reaction spray technique. Final report

    The report summarizes the work leading to a modification of the reaction spray technique in order to apply this technique for the preparation of powders for ceramic high-Tc superconductors. The task was to modify an existing reaction spray equipment to the specific requirements of the intended system for powder preparation and subsequent fabrication of superconducting, sintered specimens. The modification of the existing reaction spray equipment was relatively soon completed, and further optimizations finally resulted in a system capable of processing the material (YBaCuO; BiSrCaCuO) in batches of 10 kg in a routine operation mode, which proved to be a successful achievement for the fabrication of the sintered parts, which were formed by axial pressing and isostatic or hot pressing, or by thin film techniques. All the techniques were designed so as to yield superconducting specimens suitable for fabricating superconducting component parts. The Tc-values achieved were approx. 92 K (110 K) for YBaCuO (BiSrCaCuO). The jc values achieved 102 .. 103 A/cm2, represent the currently best achievable results for polycrystalline, sintered materials without any further structural optimization treatment being done. The dimensions of the disks, hollow cylinders, and thin films cover a range from several centimeters up to decimeters. (orig.)

  15. Safety of Cartrophen Vet in the dog: review of adverse reaction reports in the UK.

    Hannon, R L; Smith, J G; Cullis-Hill, D; Ghosh, P; Cawdery, M J Hope

    2003-05-01

    Suspected adverse reactions (SARs) reported for Cartrophen Vet (100 mg sodium pentosan polysulphate/ml) to the Veterinary Medicines Directorate in the UK for the period January 1991 to October 1999 were reviewed. Of the 161 reports, 28 were probably product related, 54 were possibly product related, 71 were unlikely to be related and eight were unclassified. An estimated real incidence of adverse reactions probably and possibly associated with Cartrophen Vet of 0.074 per cent on an individual dose basis was calculated (assuming only 10 per cent were documented due to underreporting). Sixty-two SARs (38.5 per cent) documented emesis, 22 (35.5 per cent) of which were product related (onset five to 15 minutes after administration). Sixty-eight SARs (42.2 per cent) documented general changes to demeanour, 10 (14.7 per cent) were product related (lethargy and/or mild depression and/or mild inappetence lasting up to two days after administration). Six SARs were considered likely to be associated with concurrently administered carprofen. Cartrophen Vet had a low incidence of side effects that were mild and transitory. PMID:12779171

  16. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study. Final report

    This report summarizes the results of the second year of a two-year study on the design and evaluation of the Cascade concept as a commercial inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. We developed a reactor design based on the Cascade reaction chamber concept that would be competitive in terms of both capital and operating costs, safe and environmentally acceptable in terms of hazard to the public, occupational exposure and radioactive waste production, and highly efficient. The Cascade reaction chamber is a double-cone-shaped rotating drum. The granulated solid blanket materials inside the rotating chamber are held against the walls by centrifugal force. The fusion energy is captured in a blanket of solid carbon, BeO, and LiAlO2 granules. These granules are circulated to the primary side of a ceramic heat exchanger. Primary-side granule temperatures range from 1285 K at the LiAlO2 granule heat exchanger outlet to 1600 K at the carbon granule heat exchanger inlet. The secondary side consists of a closed-cycle gas turbine power conversion system with helium working fluid, operating at 1300 K peak outlet temperature and achieving a thermal power conversion efficiency of 55%. The net plant efficiency is 49%. The reference design is a plant producing 1500 MW of D-T fusion power and delivering 815 MW of electrical power for sale to the utility grid. 88 refs., 44 figs., 47 tabs

  17. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study. Final report

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Bourque, R.F.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, R.L.; Norman, J.H.; Price, R.J.; Porter, J.; Schuster, H.L.; Simnad, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second year of a two-year study on the design and evaluation of the Cascade concept as a commercial inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. We developed a reactor design based on the Cascade reaction chamber concept that would be competitive in terms of both capital and operating costs, safe and environmentally acceptable in terms of hazard to the public, occupational exposure and radioactive waste production, and highly efficient. The Cascade reaction chamber is a double-cone-shaped rotating drum. The granulated solid blanket materials inside the rotating chamber are held against the walls by centrifugal force. The fusion energy is captured in a blanket of solid carbon, BeO, and LiAlO/sub 2/ granules. These granules are circulated to the primary side of a ceramic heat exchanger. Primary-side granule temperatures range from 1285 K at the LiAlO/sub 2/ granule heat exchanger outlet to 1600 K at the carbon granule heat exchanger inlet. The secondary side consists of a closed-cycle gas turbine power conversion system with helium working fluid, operating at 1300 K peak outlet temperature and achieving a thermal power conversion efficiency of 55%. The net plant efficiency is 49%. The reference design is a plant producing 1500 MW of D-T fusion power and delivering 815 MW of electrical power for sale to the utility grid. 88 refs., 44 figs., 47 tabs.

  18. [DRESS syndrome. Rare and potentially lethal allergic reaction to carbamazepine - a case report].

    Werber, A; Schiltenwolf, M; Barié, A

    2013-08-01

    A 64-year-old man with chronic low back pain had been treated with tramadol, meloxicam and metamizole for several years. Due to additional neuropathic pain in the lower extremities, the medication was complemented with carbamazepine. After 5 weeks of treatment, the patient developed maculopapulose exanthema and fever, followed by hepatitis, leukocytosis and eosinophilia. The patient was diagnosed with so-called DRESS (drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome, a severe anaphylactic reaction to carbamazepine treatment. Immunosuppressive therapy was complicated by an additional septic reaction. After recovery, the patient was referred to our clinic for a multimodal pain therapy. Fear, depressive episodes and fear-avoidance behavior were additional social factors responsible for the chronic pain syndrome of the patient. The previously diagnosed neuropathic pain syndrome cannot be verified. After appropriate modification of therapy, the patient's pain perception was significantly reduced, allowing for complete withdrawal of pain-relieving medication. This case report illustrates that merely pharmacological treatment of chronic pain syndromes bears only little prospect of success but increased risk of side effects. PMID:23761029

  19. Final Report for: "Bis-pi-allylpalladium Complexes in Catalysis of Multicomponent Reactions"

    Malinakova, H. C.; Shiota, Atsushi

    2012-06-29

    The research project involved the development of new and functionally improved Pd(II) catalyst for a three-component reaction of boronic acids, allenes and imines to afford homoallylic amines that are useful in synthesis of biologically active heterocycles. Furthermore, insights into the reaction mechanism and the structure and reactivity of the catalytically active intermediates involved in this process were sought. As a result of this work, a new type of Pd-catalysts possessing an auxiliary ligand attached to the Pd center via a C-Pd and N-Pd bonds were identified, and found to be more active than the traditional catalysts derived from Pd(OAc)2. The new catalysts provided an access to a broader range of homoallylic amine products. Although the final unequivocal evidence regarding the structure of the Pd(II) complex involved in the nucleophilic transfer of the allyl fragment from the palladium center to the imine could not be obtained, mechanistic insights into the events that are detrimental to the activity of the originally reported Pd(OAc)2-based catalytic systems were uncovered.

  20. Towards a standardized way of reporting physicochemical data and process metrics for transaminase reactions

    Tufvesson, Pär

    Transaminase catalyzed transformations have the potential of becoming a standard tool for the synthesis of optically pure chiral amines [1]. Many studies show the wide span of substrate acceptance and the excellent enantioselectivity that can be achieved [2]. However, many times critical informat......Transaminase catalyzed transformations have the potential of becoming a standard tool for the synthesis of optically pure chiral amines [1]. Many studies show the wide span of substrate acceptance and the excellent enantioselectivity that can be achieved [2]. However, many times critical...... information about the system and the reaction performance is lacking in the otherwise very useful scientific reports at laboratory scale. For instance, although K equilibrium is one of the key determining factors for the design and scale-up any transaminase process, it is very rarely reported [3]. In order...... to build a broader understanding of the correlation between the underlying physicochemical properties of the system (e.g. substrate volatility) and the process performance (e.g. gram of product per gram of biocatalyst), it would be highly beneficial if these data were reported, and ideally in a consistent...

  1. Reaction products from the chlorination of seawater. Final report 15 Jul 75-14 Jul 80

    Carpenter, J.H.; Smith, C.A.; Zika, R.G.

    1981-03-01

    Chemical treatment of natural waters, in particular the use of chlorine as a biocide, modifies the chemistry of these waters in ways that are not fully understood. The research described in this report examined both inorganic and organic reaction products from the chlorination of seawater using a variety of analytical approaches. Some analytical methods in widespread current use underestimate the residual oxidants in chlorinated seawater by as much as 70% depending upon the detail of the procedures. The chlorination of seawater in the presence of light produces substantial quantities of bromate ions which can influence standard analytical procedures and represents an unknown factor in estuarine and coastal waters. The copper complexing capacity of Biscayne Bay, Florida water was found to be substantially reduced with the addition of chlorine. Analysis was made by anodic stripping voltammetry on water samples after successive additions of copper sulfate solution. Laboratory chlorination of water from the intake of the Port Everglades, Florida power plant produces bromoform levels comparable to that found in the plant discharge. These results are in contrast to results reported in the literature for a power plant on the Patuxent estuary in Maryland, so that bromoform production appears to be site-specific. Chloroform extracts of chlorinated Biscayne Bay water are found to contain halogenated compounds which are new and different, and which pose unusual analytical problems. Studies using GC/ECD, GC/MS, HPLC, H NMR, differential pulsed polarography and other techniques on natural extracts and synthesized compounds are reported.

  2. [Studies of chemical reactions in solid matrices]. Final report, December 1,, 1979-November 30, 1984

    This program, which has been supported for 35 years by the Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, has produced significant advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of: (1) chemical activation by nuclear processes; (2) radiation chemistry; and (3) photochemistry. It has advanced knowledge of the reactions of electrons, hydrogen atoms and small free radicals, particularly in solids at cryogenic temperatures. It has applied radioisotopes as a tool in the solution of a number of chemical problems, has developed useful new techniques, and has contributed to the training of approximately 150 scientists at various levels. This final report includes a review of the evolution of areas of research emphasized, tabulations of the publications (chronologically and by research area) and Ph.D. theses resulting from the program, and tabulations of the research personnel (by academic category, by dates in the program and by subsequent employment)

  3. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome in a patient taking phenytoin and levetiracetam: a case report

    Hall David Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome is a potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction with rash, fever, and internal organ involvement, often hepatitis, occurring most commonly two to eight weeks after initiation of a medication. The present case is an example of severe and potentially life-threatening hepatitis as a manifestation of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome. Case presentation We report a case of anti-epileptic-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome in an 18-year-old African-American man who presented with a five-day history of rash, periorbital and upper extremity edema, hepatitis and fever. Laboratory findings revealed an atypical lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, and elevated serum transaminases. No drug allergies were reported at the time of presentation, but phenytoin and levetiracetam therapy had been initiated five weeks prior to hospital admission for new-onset seizures. Both medications were discontinued on hospital admission, and after three days of high-dose corticosteroid therapy the patient experienced resolution of both his symptoms and laboratory markers of inflammation. Conclusion Given the significant mortality attributed to drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome, medical personnel should be aware of the potential for this severe hypersensitivity reaction and should ensure close follow-up and offer anticipatory guidance when beginning any new medication, particularly anti-epileptic therapy. Early recognition of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome and initiation of appropriate therapy are imperative in limiting morbidity.

  4. Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Pattern in Turkey: Analysis of the National Database in the Context of the First Pharmacovigilance Legislation

    Ozcan, Gulnihal; Aykac, Emel; KASAP, Yelda; Nemutlu, Nergiz T.; Sen, Ebru; Aydinkarahaliloglu, N. Demet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Turkey, pharmacovigilance began in 1985. A fully structured adverse drug reaction (ADR)-reporting system was established with the publication of the first pharmacovigilance regulation in 2005. Subsequent regulation published in 2014 brought further improvements to the system. Objective In this study, we aimed to analyse the ADR-reporting pattern in the context of the first pharmacovigilance legislation in Turkey. Methods We analysed ADR reports submitted to the Turkish Pharmac...

  5. Report on the IAEA consultants' meeting on the co-ordination of nuclear reaction data centres (technical aspects)

    This report summarizes the results of the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on the Co-ordination of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (Technical Aspects), held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, 28 to 30 May 2001. The meeting was attended by 16 participants from 10 co-operating data centres from six Member States and two International Organizations. The report contains a meeting summary, the conclusions and actions, progress and status reports of the participating data centres and working papers considered at the meeting. (author)

  6. Interlaboratory reaction rate program. 12th progress report, November 1976-October 1979

    The Interlaboratory Reaction Rate UILRR) program is establishing the capability to accurately measure neutron-induced reactions and reaction rates for reactor fuels and materials development programs. The goal for the principal fission reactions, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, is an accuracy to within +- 5% at the 95% confidence level. Accurate measurement of other fission and nonfission reactions is also required, but to a lesser accuracy, between +- 5% and 10% at the 95% confidence level. A secondary program objective is improvement in knowledge of the nuclear parameters involved in the standarization of fuels and materials dosimetry measurements of neutron flux, spectra, fluence and burnup

  7. Interlaboratory reaction rate program. 12th progress report, November 1976-October 1979

    Lippincott, E.P.; McElroy, W.N.; Preston, C.C. (comps.)

    1980-09-01

    The Interlaboratory Reaction Rate UILRR) program is establishing the capability to accurately measure neutron-induced reactions and reaction rates for reactor fuels and materials development programs. The goal for the principal fission reactions, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U and /sup 239/Pu, is an accuracy to within +- 5% at the 95% confidence level. Accurate measurement of other fission and nonfission reactions is also required, but to a lesser accuracy, between +- 5% and 10% at the 95% confidence level. A secondary program objective is improvement in knowledge of the nuclear parameters involved in the standarization of fuels and materials dosimetry measurements of neutron flux, spectra, fluence and burnup.

  8. Hypersensitivity reactions to anticancer agents: Data mining of the public version of the FDA adverse event reporting system, AERS

    Sakaeda Toshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, adverse event reports (AERs submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA database were reviewed to confirm platinum agent-associated hypersensitivity reactions. The present study was performed to confirm whether the database could suggest the hypersensitivity reactions caused by anticancer agents, paclitaxel, docetaxel, procarbazine, asparaginase, teniposide, and etoposide. Methods After a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions, AERs involving candidate agents were analyzed. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 was applied to evaluate the susceptibility to hypersensitivity reactions, and standardized official pharmacovigilance tools were used for quantitative detection of signals, i.e., drug-associated adverse events, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean. Results Based on 1,644,220 AERs from 2004 to 2009, the signals were detected for paclitaxel-associated mild, severe, and lethal hypersensitivity reactions, and docetaxel-associated lethal reactions. However, the total number of adverse events occurring with procarbazine, asparaginase, teniposide, or etoposide was not large enough to detect signals. Conclusions The FDA's adverse event reporting system, AERS, and the data mining methods used herein are useful for confirming drug-associated adverse events, but the number of co-occurrences is an important factor in signal detection.

  9. Halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations. Progress report, February 15, 1975--February 14, 1976

    High energy reactions of halogen atoms or ions, activated by nuclear transformations, are being studied in gaseous, high pressure, and condensed phase saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, halomethanes, and other organic systems. Experimental and theoretical data are presented in the following areas: systematics of iodine hot atom reactions in halomethanes, reactions and systematics of iodine reactions with pentene and butene isomers, radiative neutron capture activated reactions of iodine with acetylene, gas to liquid to solid transition in hot atom chemistry, kinetic theory applications of hot atom reactions and the mathematical development of caging reactions, solvent dependence of the stereochemistry of the 38Cl for Cl substitution following 37Cl(n,γ)38Cl in liquid meso and dl-(CHFCl)2. A technique was also developed for the radioassay of Al in urine specimens

  10. Adverse drug reactions to antiretroviral therapy: Results from spontaneous reporting system in Nigeria

    Kenneth A Agu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study evaluated the suspected adverse drug reactions (ADR reported from a spontaneous reporting program in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in Nigeria Materials and Methods: This descriptive study analyzed individual case safety reports (ICSRs in HIV-positive patients receiving ART between January 2011 and December 2011 in 38 secondary hospitals. All ICSRs during this period were included. Chi-square was used to test the association between variables at 95% confidence interval. Results: From 1237 ICSRs collated, only 1119 (90.5% were valid for analysis. Mean age of patients was 35.3 (95%CI, 35.1-35.5 years; and 67.1% were females. A total of 1679 ADR cases were reported, a mean (± Standard Deviation, SD of 1.5 (± 0.8 ADR cases per patient. Of reported ADRs, 63.2%, 8.2% and 19.3% occurred in patients on Zidovudine-based, Stavudine-based and Tenofovir-based regimens, respectively. The commonest ADRs included (12.0% peripheral neuropathy, (11.4% skin rash, (10.1% pruritus and (6.5% dizziness. ADR occurrence was associated with ART regimens, concomitant medicines and age (P < 0.05 unlike gender. Anaemia was associated with Zidovudine (AZT/ Lamivudine (3TC /Nevirapine (NEV regimen [Odds ratio, OR = 6.4 (3.0-13.8; P < 0.0001], and peripheral neuropathy with Stavudine (d4T/3TC/NEV regimen [OR = 8.7 (5.8-30.0, P < 0.0001] and Tenofovir (TDF/Emtricitabine (FTC/Efavirenz (EFV regimen [OR = 2.1 (1.0-4.1, P = 0.0446]. Skin rash and peripheral neuropathy were associated with patients aged < 15years [OR = 3.0 (1.3-6.6, P = 0.0056] and 45-59years [OR = 1.9 (1.3-2.7, P = 0.0006] respectively. Palpitation and polyuria were associated with Salbutamol [OR = 55.7 (4.9-349.6, P = 0.0000] and Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS [OR = 50.2 (0.9-562.1, P = 0.0040] respectively. Conclusion: ADRs were less likely to occur in patients on stavudine-based and tenofovir-based regimens compared to

  11. Pattern of adverse drug reactions reported by the community pharmacists in Nepal

    Palaian S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacovigilance program in Nepal is less than a decade old, and is hospital centered. This study highlights the findings of a community based pharmacovigilance program involving the community pharmacists. Objectives: To collect the demographic details of the patients experiencing adverse drug reactions (ADR reported by the community pharmacists; to identify the common drugs causing the ADRs, the common types of ADRs; and to carry out the causality, severity and preventability assessments of the reported ADRs. Methods: The baseline Knowledge-Attitude-Practices (KAP of 116 community pharmacists from Pokhara valley towards drug safety was evaluated using a validated (Cronbach alpha=0.61 KAP questionnaire having 20 questions [(knowledge 11, attitude 5 and practice 4 maximum possible score 40]. Thirty community pharmacists with high scores were selected for three training sessions, each session lasting for one to two hours, covering the basic knowledge required for the community pharmacists for ADR reporting. Pharmacist from the regional pharmacovigilance center visited the trained community pharmacists every alternate day and collected the filled ADR reporting forms. Results: Altogether 71 ADRs, from 71 patients (37 males were reported. Antibiotics/ antibacterials caused 42% (n=37 of the total ADRs followed by non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [25% (n=22]. Ibuprofen/paracetamol combination accounted for ten ADRs. The most common type of ADR was itching [17.2 % (n=20, followed by generalized edema [8.6 % (n=10]. In order to manage the ADRs, the patients needed medical treatment in 69% (n=49 of the cases. Over two third (69% of the ADRs had a ‘possible’ association with the suspected drugs and a high percentage (70.4% were of ‘mild (level 2’ type. Nearly two third [64.7 % (n=46] of the ADRs were ‘definitely preventable’. Conclusion: The common class of drugs known to cause ADRs was antibacterial/ antibiotics. Ibuprofen

  12. Cremophor-Induced Lupus Erythematosus-Like Reaction with Taxol Administration: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Pham, Anthony Q.; Berz, David; Karwan, Patricia; COLVIN, GERALD A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of Cremophor EL-induced cutaneous lupus erythematosus-like reaction in a 40-year-old female undergoing treatment for breast cancer. There have been four reported cases of paclitaxel- and four cases of docetaxel-induced cutaneous lupus reactions in the published literature [Dasanu and Alexandrescu: South Med J 2008;101:1161–1162; Adachi and Horikawa: J Dermatol 2007;34:473–476; Lortholary et al: Presse Med 2007;36:1207–1208; Chen et al: J Rheumatol 2004;31:818–820]. Ou...

  13. International Working Group on Fast Reactors meeting of specialists on sodium-water reactions. Summary report

    The meeting of specialists on sodium-water reactions was the first of its kind within the framework of activity of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. The meeting was held at Argonne in accordance with the recommendation of the IWGPR and in agreement with the USA authorities. Participants from five countries took part in the meeting. The Agenda includes: Fundamental studies of reaction kinetics; Instrumentation for rig use; Sodium-water reaction tests and evaluation of results: - Large leaks; - Small leaks; Small-scale tests of corrosion/ erosion, metal wastage, etc. in presence of reacting sodium and water; Origin of water leak failure and its protection; Methods for detecting steam generator leaks and development of instrumentation for detection of sodium-water reactions in an actual steam generator; Test results and conclusions from test programs applicable to steam generator designs; Computing codes for the effect of a sodium-water reaction in a steam generating plant; Comparison with experiment; Influence of Geometry; Design of steam generators to accommodate reactions: - Methods for calculating effects of reaction on steam generator structure and secondary system; - Description of particular steam generators and associated sodium-water reaction effluent system, including ancillary circuits, instrumentation, etc.; - Design philosophy; - Experience of sodium-water reactions in steam generators; Design and effectiveness of relief systems; Methods for system recovery following a steam generator leak; Proposed further tests; Simulation tests of reactions using other fluids

  14. Medicinal plant reported with adverse reactions in Cuba: potential interactions with conventional drugs

    Ioanna Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Herbal drugs are a mixture of active compounds and the chemical complexity of each formulation increase with the possibility of interactions between them and conventional drugs. Many mechanisms are implicated in the interactions; scientific community has dedicated the attentions to enzymes as P-gp and CYP450. Aims: To investigate in the literature the principal plants with suspicions of adverse reactions in Cuba and their potential interactions with conventional drugs. Methods: PubMed was the database used as source of information until February 2014. Key words: Herb-Drug, Drug-Plant, Herbal–Drug, Interactions with scientific names of plants was used. Information was structured and analysed with EndNote X4. Analysis and integration of the information: Allium sativum L. (garlic was the plant with the high number of studies related with CYP450 and P-gp. Plants with great demand as Morinda citrifolia L. (noni, Psidium guajava L. (guayaba, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger and Eucalyptus spp. (eucalyptus have a very small number of studies. The professionals of the health should keep in mind the possibility of interactions between herbal products and conventional drugs to increase the effectiveness of phytotherapy. Conclusions: It is necessary enhance reports and investigations and to put to disposition of the system of health information on the interactions of plants and to stimulate the investigation that offers information for the rational use of our medicinal plants.

  15. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms. Report of progress, February 1, 1975--October 31, 1975

    Progress in the following areas of research is reported: Energies of giant isoscalar monopole and quadrupole excitations, energy-weighted sum rules, the random-phase approximation, Hartree-Fock calculations, spreading widths, physical consequences of the locality of current-density commutators and current-current sum rules. Electron-hydrogen scattering using the inhomogenous equation method; variational calculation of e- + H scattering using the symmetrized channel coupling array equation; K operators and unitary approximations for the 3-body problem; approximate calculation of model (d-p) and (dd) amplitudes and cross sections; multi-step processes in direct reactions; bound state calculations using the channel coupling array theory. Methods for determining nuclear charge distributions, relativistic effects in nuclei, dispersion corrections and recoil corrections to elastic electron scattering; unitarity of elastic scattering amplitudes; low energy theorems for two-photon processes; pion-exchange contributions to the charge density; recoil effects and energy-dependent Hamiltonians; pion-exchange contributions to two-photon processes; hypervirial theorems for the Dirac equation; Coulomb energies of nuclei. Pion-nucleus scattering, diagonalization of the Δ-(nucleon-hole) configurations, doorway states and doorway dominance, calculations for 4He, discussion of experimental results

  16. [Research on early warning signals of adverse drug reactions to parenterally administered xiyanping based on spontaneous reporting system (SRS) data].

    Wang, Zhi-Fei; Xiang, Yong-Yang; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2013-09-01

    This article focused on early warning signals regarding the safety of parenterally administered Xiyanping. The study data was obtained from reports made between 2005-2012 from the national spontaneous reporting system (SRS). Proportion reporting ratio (PRR) and Bayesian confidence propagation neural network (BCPNN) algorithms were used to analyse: erythra, pruritus, anaphylactoid reactions and shiver with cold, these 4 adverse drug reactions had a total count of more than 500 events. The article found that Xiyanping's incidence rate of erythra was higher than for background-drugs in every year and in every season. Pruritus was an early warning signal in the second season of 2009, and anaphylactoid reaction was an early warning signal in the fourth season of 2011 and in the second season of 2012. There was however no early warning signal indicated by shiver with cold. This data indicates that erythra maybe an adverse drug reactions to parenterally administered Xiyanping, and if the incidence rate of pruritus and anaphylactoid reaction rises attention should be paid to its safety. PMID:24471321

  17. Reaction studies of hot silicon and germanium radicals. Progress report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    The experimental approach to attaining the goals of this research program is briefly outlined and the progress made in the last year is reviewed in sections entitled: (a) Primary steps in the reaction of recoiling silicon and germanium atoms and the identification of reactive intermediates; (b) Thermally induced silylene and germylene reactions; (c) Silicon free radical chemistry; (d) The role of ionic reactions in the chemistry of recoiling silicon atoms

  18. Hypersensitivity Reaction to Insulin Glargine and Insulin Detemir in a Pediatric Patient: A Case Report

    Badik, Jennifer; Chen, Jimmy; Letvak, Kira; So, Tsz-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Allergy to human insulin or its analogs is rare, but it is still a significant issue in current diabetes care. Allergic reactions can range from localized injection site reactions to generalized anaphylaxis, and they can be caused by excipients or the insulin molecules themselves. We presented a case of a 14-year-old male patient with generalized allergic reactions to insulin glargine and insulin detemir. The patient was successfully managed by being switched to a continuous subcutaneous insu...

  19. Synthesis of the reported structure of piperazirum using a nitro-Mannich reaction as the key stereochemical determining step

    James C. Anderson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Piperazirum, isolated from Arum palaestinum Boiss, was originally assigned as r-3,c-5-diisobutyl-c-6-isopropylpiperazin-2-one. The reported structure was synthesised diastereoselectively using a key nitro-Mannich reaction to set up the C5/C6 relative stereochemistry. The structure was unambiguously assigned by single crystal X-ray diffraction but the spectroscopic data did not match those reported for the natural product. The structure of the natural product must therefore be revised.

  20. Refill adherence and self-reported adverse drug reactions and sub-therapeutic effects : a population-based study

    Hedna, Khedidja; Hägg, Staffan; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hakkarainen, Katja M

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess refill adherence to dispensed oral long-term medications among the adult population and to investigate whether the percentages of self-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and sub-therapeutic effects (STEs) differed for medications with adequate refill adherence, oversupply, and undersupply. METHOD: Survey responses on self-reported ADRs and STEs were linked to the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register in a cross-sectional population-based study. Refill adherence to antihypert...

  1. Report on the consultants' meeting on co-ordination of the nuclear reaction data centres. (Technical aspects)

    This report summarizes the 1999 Co-ordination Meeting on Technical Aspects of the Co-operation of the Nuclear Reaction Data Centres, hold at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, 18 to 20 May 1999. The meeting was attended by scientists from 11 Nuclear Data Centres from 7 Member States and 2 International Organizations. The present document contains a meeting summary, the conclusions and actions, and progress reports of the Participating Data Centres. (author)

  2. Reactions of charged and neutral recoil particles following nuclear transformations. Final report

    A summary is given of the various activities conducted as part of the research on the chemical reactions of energetic particles generated in nuclear reactions. Emphasis was on hot atom chemistry in gases and liquids. A bibliography of 110 publications published as part of the program is included

  3. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms. Progress report, 1 November 1979-30 September 1980

    Among the topics investigated were the following: photon scattering and consistency condition between seagull quadrupole terms and the absorption sum rule; Raman scattering to negative-parity states; nonlocal terms due to exchange and retardation effects in charge-transfer reactions; consistency and meaning of various approximate channel coupling array equations; derivation of equations used in empirical nuclear reaction analyses; multicluster, n-particle scattering theory; converged molecular bound state calculations; consistency of approximate channel coupling array equations; derivations of equations used in empirical nuclear reaction analyses; and WKB-type approximation in angular momenta for central potentials. References to publications are given

  4. Pulse radiolysis studies of fast reactions in molecular systems. Progress report, November 1976--October 1977

    Results from research in the following two areas are given: formation, properties, and reactivity of molecular ionic species in irradiated liquid systems; and pulse radiolysis of elementary reactions in protein function

  5. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms: Progress report: [1 August 1986-31 July 1987

    Completed and ongoing research includes various theoretical and numerical studies of few-nucleon systems; nuclear reaction models; photon scattering from nuclei, including sum rules and current conservation; and properties of the pion

  6. Reactions governing coal solubilization. Tenth quarterly report, October 15, 1985-January 15, 1986

    Stock, L.M.; Choi, Chol-yoo; Mallya, N.

    1986-01-01

    PSOC-1197 has been reduced with large quantities of potassium in ND/sub 3/ and quenched with ND/sub 4/Cl with the purpose of characterizing the sites of reactions. The deuterium NMR spectrum of the pyridine soluble product suggests cleavage of carbon-carbon bonds and some degree of disproportionation of hydroaromatic structures either native to the coal or formed in the reduction reactions. Results of alkylation and various other reactions of PSOC-1197 in a strongly basic medium suggest that the small degree of alkylation is largely responsible for the high extractability. Effects of various alkylation and reduction reactions on Texas lignite are also described. 17 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Study of solid metal/ceramic reactions. Progress report, June 18, 1979-March 17, 1980

    Using a model superally containing Ni, Cr, an Al, experiments and analysis represent the beginning of an attempt to gain a fundamental understanding of ceramic-metal reactions, SiC and Si4N4 were the ceramics used

  8. Tattoo reactions-An epidemic on the surge: A report of 3 cases

    Swapnil A Sanghavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing has been practiced in India since ancient era. It has tremendous religious and spiritual significance. In addition, tattooing for cosmetic purposes has become quite popular in recent times. With this increasing trend, there is also an increased risk of adverse effects. Here, we have described two cases of lichenoid reaction developing to red ink in double- colored tattoos and a case of sarcoidal reaction to green tattoo.

  9. Tattoo reactions--an epidemic on the surge: a report of 3 cases.

    Sanghavi, Swapnil A; Dongre, Atul M; Khopkar, Uday S

    2013-01-01

    Tattooing has been practiced in India since ancient era. It has tremendous religious and spiritual significance. In addition, tattooing for cosmetic purposes has become quite popular in recent times. With this increasing trend, there is also an increased risk of adverse effects. Here, we have described two cases of lichenoid reaction developing to red ink in double- colored tattoos and a case of sarcoidal reaction to green tattoo. PMID:23442464

  10. Patients views and experiences in online reporting adverse drug reactions: findings of a national pilot study in Japan

    Yamamoto M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Michiko Yamamoto,1 Kiyoshi Kubota,2 Mitsuhiro Okazaki,3 Akira Dobashi,3 Masayuki Hashiguchi,4 Hirohisa Doi,1 Machi Suka,5 Mayumi Mochizuki4 1Education Center for Clinical Pharmacy Practice, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Pharmacoepidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan; 3Education and Research Institute of Information Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan; 4Division for Evaluation and Analysis of Drug Information, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Public Health and Environmental Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Background: Patients have been allowed to report adverse drug reactions (ADRs directly to the government in some countries, which would contribute to pharmacovigilance.Objective: We started a pilot study to determine whether web-based patient ADR reporting would work in Japan. This article aims to describe the characteristics of the patient reporters, and to clarify patient views and experiences of reporting.Methods: Patients who submitted online ADR reports were contacted to respond to an ADR reporting questionnaire; only consenting reporters were included. Subjects with multiple responses were excluded from analysis. The questionnaire consisted of both closed and open questions. Questionnaire responses were examined using Pearson’s chi-squared test.Results: A total of 220 web-based ADR reports were collected from January to December 2011; questionnaires were sent to 190 reporters, excluding those who gave multiple reports and those that refused to be contacted. Responses were obtained from 94 individuals (effective response rate: 49.5%. The median respondent age was 46.0 years. Sixty-three respondents found out about this pilot study on the Internet (67.0%. The numbers of respondents claiming that they had difficulty recalling the time/date of ADR occurrence were 16 patient

  11. The adsorption and reaction of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOC's) on metal oxides. 1998 annual progress report

    'The goal of the research is to elucidate the properties of the materials responsible for the activation of halocarbons and the nature of the intermediates formed in the dissociative adsorption of this class of compounds. This information is essential for interpreting and predicting stoichiometric and catalytic pathways for the safe destruction of halocarbon pollutants. The specific objectives are: (1) to study the adsorption and reactivity of chloromethanes and chloroethanes on metal oxides; (2) to identify the reaction intermediates using spectroscopic methods; and (3) to develop kinetic models for the reaction of these halocarbons with oxide surfaces. This report summarizes work after 20 months of a 36-month project. Emphasis has been placed understanding the surfaces phases, as well as the bulk phases that are present during the reactions of chlorinated hydrocarbons with strongly basic metal oxides. Most of the research has been carried out with carbon tetrachloride.'

  12. Expanding the scope of cyclopropene reporters for the detection of metabolically engineered glycoproteins by Diels–Alder reactions

    Anne-Katrin Späte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring glycoconjugates has been tremendously facilitated by the development of metabolic oligosaccharide engineering. Recently, the inverse-electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction between methylcyclopropene tags and tetrazines has become a popular ligation reaction due to the small size and high reactivity of cyclopropene tags. Attaching the cyclopropene tag to mannosamine via a carbamate linkage has made the reaction even more efficient. Here, we expand the application of cyclopropene tags to N-acylgalactosamine and N-acylglucosamine derivatives enabling the visualization of mucin-type O-glycoproteins and O-GlcNAcylated proteins through Diels–Alder chemistry. Whereas the previously reported cyclopropene-labeled N-acylmannosamine derivative leads to significantly higher fluorescence staining of cell-surface glycoconjugates, the glucosamine derivative gave higher labeling efficiency with protein preparations containing also intracellular proteins.

  13. Prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media: a consensus report and guidelines

    Morcos, S.K. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Thomsen, H.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Webb, J.A.W. [Diagnostic Radiology Department, St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to document, using consensus methodology, current practice for prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media, to identify areas where there is disagreement or confusion and to draw up guidelines for reducing the risk of generalized contrast media reactions based on the survey and a review of the literature. A document with 165 questions was mailed to 202 members of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The questions covered risk factors and prophylactic measures for generalized contrast media reactions. Sixty-eight members (34%) responded. The majority indicated that a history of moderate and severe reaction(s) to contrast media and asthma are important risk factors. The survey also indicated that patients with risk factors should receive non-ionic contrast media. In patients at high risk of reaction, if the examination is deemed absolutely necessary, a resuscitation team should be available at the time of the procedure. The majority (91%) used corticosteroid prophylaxis given at least 11 h before contrast medium to patients at increased risk of reaction. The frequency of the dosage varied from one to three times. Fifty-five percent also use antihistamine Hl, mainly administered orally and once. Antihistamine H2 and ephedrine are rarely used. All essential drugs are available on the emergency resuscitation trolley. Patients with risk factors are observed up to 30 min by 48% and up to 60 min by 43% of the responders. Prophylactic measures are not taken before extravascular use of contrast media. Prophylactic drugs are given to patients with a history of moderate or severe generalized reaction to contrast media. In patients with asthma, opinion is divided with only half of the responders giving prophylactic drugs. Aspirin, {beta}-blockers, interleukin-2 and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are not considered risk factors and therefore are not stopped before injection of contrast media. The survey showed some variability in

  14. Prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media: a consensus report and guidelines

    The aim of this study was to document, using consensus methodology, current practice for prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media, to identify areas where there is disagreement or confusion and to draw up guidelines for reducing the risk of generalized contrast media reactions based on the survey and a review of the literature. A document with 165 questions was mailed to 202 members of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The questions covered risk factors and prophylactic measures for generalized contrast media reactions. Sixty-eight members (34%) responded. The majority indicated that a history of moderate and severe reaction(s) to contrast media and asthma are important risk factors. The survey also indicated that patients with risk factors should receive non-ionic contrast media. In patients at high risk of reaction, if the examination is deemed absolutely necessary, a resuscitation team should be available at the time of the procedure. The majority (91%) used corticosteroid prophylaxis given at least 11 h before contrast medium to patients at increased risk of reaction. The frequency of the dosage varied from one to three times. Fifty-five percent also use antihistamine Hl, mainly administered orally and once. Antihistamine H2 and ephedrine are rarely used. All essential drugs are available on the emergency resuscitation trolley. Patients with risk factors are observed up to 30 min by 48% and up to 60 min by 43% of the responders. Prophylactic measures are not taken before extravascular use of contrast media. Prophylactic drugs are given to patients with a history of moderate or severe generalized reaction to contrast media. In patients with asthma, opinion is divided with only half of the responders giving prophylactic drugs. Aspirin, β-blockers, interleukin-2 and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are not considered risk factors and therefore are not stopped before injection of contrast media. The survey showed some variability in

  15. Chemical reactions of excited nitrogen atoms for short wavelength chemical lasers. Final technical report

    1989-12-15

    Accomplishments of this program include the following: (1) Scalable, chemical generation of oxygen atoms by reaction of fluorine atoms and water vapor. (2) Production of nitrogen atom densities of 1 {times} 10{sup 1}5 cm{sup {minus}3} with 5% electrical efficiency by injecting trace amounts of fluorine into microwave discharged nitrogen. (3) Production of cyanide radicals by reaction of high densities of N atoms with cyanogen. (4) Production of carbon atoms by reaction of nitrogen atoms with cyanogen or with fluorine atoms and hydrogen cyanide. (5) Confirmation that the reaction of carbon atoms and carbonyl sulfide produces CS(a{sup 3} {Pi}{sub r}), as predicted by conservation of electron spin and orbital angular momenta and as proposed by others under another SWCL program. (6) Production of cyanide radicals by injection of cyanogen halides into active nitrogen and use as spectroscopic calibration source. (7) Demonstration that sodium atoms react with cyanogen chloride, bromide and iodide and with cyanuric trifluoride to produce cyanide radicals. (8) Demonstration of the potential utility of the fluorine atom plus ammonia reaction system in the production of NF(b{sup l}{Sigma}{sup +}) via N({sup 2}D) + F{sub 2}.

  16. An evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting among prescribers at a tertiary care hospital

    Chetna K Desai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Spontaneous reporting is an important tool in pharmacovigilance. However, its success depends on cooperative and motivated prescribers. Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs by prescribers is a common problem. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP regarding ADR reporting among prescribers at the Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, to get an insight into the causes of under-reporting of ADRs. Materials and Methods: A pretested KAP questionnaire comprising of 15 questions (knowledge 6, attitude 5, and practice 4 was administered to 436 prescribers. The questionnaires were assessed for their completeness (maximum score 20 and the type of responses regarding ADR reporting. Microsoft Excel worksheet (Microsoft Office 2007 and Chi-Square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 260 (61% prescribers completed the questionnaire (mean score of completion 18.04. The response rate of resident doctors (70.7% was better than consultants (34.5% (P < 0.001. ADR reporting was considered important by 97.3% of the respondents; primarily for improving patient safety (28.8% and identifying new ADRs (24.6%. A majority of the respondents opined that they would like to report serious ADRs (56%. However, only 15% of the prescribers had reported ADRs previously. The reasons cited for this were lack of information on where (70% and how (68% to report and the lack of access to reporting forms (49.2%. Preferred methods for reporting were e-mail (56% and personal communication (42%. Conclusion: The prescribers are aware of the ADRs and the importance of their reporting. However, under reporting and lack of knowledge about the reporting system are clearly evident. Creating awareness about ADR reporting and devising means to make it easy and convenient may aid in improving spontaneous reporting.

  17. Pulse radiolysis of fast reactions in molecular systems. Progress report, November 1979-September 1980

    The rates of elementary chemical reactions in irradiated solutions are being studied by observation of reactive intermediates using the pulse radiolysis technique. Optical absorption spectra of these transient species, which determine the course of the chemistry, are being obtained. The types of reactive species currently of interest are organic molecule ions (both cations and anions) and radical ions, and transition metal carbonyl radicals in solution. Since reaction is initiated by a pulse of high energy electrons, our investigations inherently relate to radiation chemical systems. The information obtained is, however, also of interest in various areas of organic reaction kinetics in which ionic species are known to play a central role. The rectivity of the transition metal carbonyl radicals is of interest in the area of homogeneous catalysis. Current activities involve: spectra and reactivities of transition metal carbonyl radicals of the type M(CO)5; reactivity of organic ionic species (including carbocations and carbanions) in irradiated solutions

  18. Pulse radiolysis studies of fast reactions in molecular systems. Progress report, November 1979-September 1980

    The rates of elementary chemical reactions in irradiated solutions are being studied by observation of reactive intermediates using the pulse radiolysis technique. Optical absorption spectra of these transient species, which determine the course of the chemistry, are being obtained. The types of reactive species currently of interest are organic molecule ions (both cations and anions) and radical ions, and transition metal carbonyl radicals in solution. Since reaction is initiated by a pulse of high energy electrons, our investigations inherently relate to radiation chemical systems. The information obtained is, however, also of interest in various areas of organic reaction kinetics in which ionic species are known to play a central role. The reactivity of the transition metal carbonyl radicals is of interest in the area of homogeneous catalysis. Current activities involve: spectra and reactivities of transition metal carbonyl radicals of the type M(CO)5; reactivity of organic ionic species (including carbocations and carbanions) in irradiated solutions

  19. Catalytic hydrocarbon reactions over supported metal oxides. Progress report, April 1, 1994--January 31, 1995

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1995-01-31

    Oxide catalysis plays a central role in hydrocarbon processing and improvements in catalytic activity or selectivity are of great technological importance because these improvements will translate directly into more efficient utilization of hydrocarbon supplies and lower energy consumption in separation processes. An understanding of the relationships between surface structure and catalytic properties is needed to describe and improve oxide catalysts. Our approach has been to prepare supported oxides that have a specific structure and oxidation state and then employ these structures in reaction studies. Our current research program is focused on studying the fundamental relationships between structure and reactivity for two important reactions that are present in many oxide-catalyzed processes, partial oxidation and carbon-carbon bond formation. Oxide catalysis can be a complex process with both metal cation and oxygen anions participating in the chemical reactions. From an energy perspective carbon-carbon bond formation is particularly relevant to CO hydrogenation in isosynthesis. Hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation form the basis for heteroatom removal in fuels processing. Understanding the catalysis of these processes (and others) requires isolating reaction steps in the overall cycle and determining how structure and composition influence the individual reaction steps. Specially designed oxides, such as we use, permit one to study some of the steps in oxidation, carbon-carbon coupling and heteroatom removal catalysis. During the course of our studies we have: (1) developed methods to form and stabilize various Mo and W oxide structures on silica; (2) studied C-H abstraction reactions over the fully oxidized cations; (3) studied C-C bond coupling by methathesis and reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones over reduced cation structures; and (4) initiated a study of hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis over reduced cation structures.

  20. Cross-sectional study exploring barriers to adverse drug reactions reporting in community pharmacy settings in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Amin, Mohammad Nurul; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Dewan, Syed Masudur Rahman; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Moghal, Mizanur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess community pharmacists'/pharmacy technicians' knowledge and perceptions about adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and barriers towards the reporting of such reactions in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Method A cross-sectional study was planned to approach potential respondents for the study. A self-administered questionnaire was delivered to community pharmacists/pharmacy technicians (N=292) practising in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Results The overall response to the survey was 69.5% (n=203). The majority of the sample was comprised of pharmacy technicians (152, 74.9%) who possessed a diploma in pharmacy, followed by pharmacists (37, 18.2%) and others (12, 5.9%). Overall, 72 (35.5%) of the respondents disclosed that they had experienced an ADR at their pharmacy, yet more than half (105, 51.7%) were not familiar with the existence of an ADR reporting body in Bangladesh. Exploring the barriers to the reporting of ADRs, it was revealed that the top four barriers to ADR reporting were ‘I do not know how to report (Relative Importance Index (RII)=0.998)’, ‘reporting forms are not available (0.996)’, ‘I am not motivated to report (0.997)’ and ‘Unavailability of professional environment to discuss about ADR (RII=0.939)’. In addition to these, a majority (141, 69.46%) were not confident about the classification of ADRs (RII=0.889) and were afraid of legal liabilities associated with reporting ADRs (RII=0.806). Moreover, a lack of knowledge about pharmacotherapy and the detection of ADRs was another major factor hindering their reporting (RII=0.731). Conclusions The Directorate of Drug Administration in Bangladesh needs to consider the results of this study to help it improve and simplify ADR reporting in Bangladeshi community pharmacy settings. PMID:27489151

  1. Status report on cross-sections of monitor reactions for radioisotope production

    The status of data on cross-sections of 19 monitor reactions, especially for cyclotron operation, is summarized. Most of the information was extracted from the data compiled in EXFOR (EXchange FORmat) which is a common format used by the co-operating nuclear data centres in the world. The EXFOR data were supplemented by a number of additional data sets found in the literature. For each reaction a brief status summary, graphical plots of the available experimental and evaluated data, and a table of all experimental data sorted by incident particle energy, are given

  2. Hypersensitivity Reaction to Insulin Glargine and Insulin Detemir in a Pediatric Patient: A Case Report.

    Badik, Jennifer; Chen, Jimmy; Letvak, Kira; So, Tsz-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Allergy to human insulin or its analogs is rare, but it is still a significant issue in current diabetes care. Allergic reactions can range from localized injection site reactions to generalized anaphylaxis, and they can be caused by excipients or the insulin molecules themselves. We presented a case of a 14-year-old male patient with generalized allergic reactions to insulin glargine and insulin detemir. The patient was successfully managed by being switched to a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with insulin aspart. Allergic reactions to insulin detemir and insulin glargine have both been well described, with insulin detemir allergy appearing to be more common. There are several potential mechanisms for insulin allergy, and immunologic characteristics vary among different insulin analogs. After confirming insulin allergy in practice, management involves treating symptoms and switching insulin preparations. This is the first documented case of allergies to both insulin glargine and insulin detemir in a pediatric patient. Exact mechanism of insulin allergy is unknown, and management strategies must be individualized for each patient. PMID:26997933

  3. Reaction studies of hot silicon and germanium radicals. Progress report, February 1, 1982-July 31, 1984

    The experimental approach toward attaining the goals of this research program is briefly outlined, and the progress made in the 1982 to 1984 period is reviewed in sections entitled: (1) Recoil atom experiments, (2) Studies of thermally and photochemically generated silicon and germanium radicals, and (3) Ion-molecule reaction studies

  4. Intraperitoneal granulomatous foreign body reaction after accidental perforation of the abdominal wall. Case report

    Lanng, C; Winther-Nielsen, H; Hougen, H P

    After an accidental perforation by a wooden stake of the abdominal wall and distal ileum a 28-year-old man developed an aggressive granulomatous foreign body reaction of the greater omentum with high fever and abdominal pain. The patient was cured by omental resection and prednisone treatment....

  5. [Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report].

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral da; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20minutes after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial - like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU two hours after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. PMID:25458838

  6. Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report.

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; da Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20min after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial-like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU 2h after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. PMID:27343798

  7. Report on the IAEA technical meeting on co-ordination of the network of nuclear reaction data centres

    Results of the IAEA Technical Meeting on the Co-ordination of the Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, 17 to 19 June 2003, are summarised in this report. The meeting was attended by 14 participants from 9 cooperating data centres of five member states and two International Organizations. A meeting summary, the conclusions and actions, progress and status reports of the participating data centres, and working papers considered at the meeting, are given in the relevant sections. (author)

  8. Report on the consultants' meeting on co-ordination of the nuclear reaction data centers (technical aspects)

    The report summarizes the co-ordination meeting of the network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres organized by the IAEA in 1997. The meeting was attended by technical staff from ten member centres of the network (representing USA, Russia, China, Japan, Hungary, OECD-NEA and IAEA) to discuss technical matters of the nuclear data compilation and exchange by means of the jointly operated computerized systems CINDA, EXFOR, ENDF and others. Observers from Belgium and Ukraine also attended the meeting. The document includes status reports of all centres and selected working papers

  9. Hot atom reactions involving multivalent and univalent species. Progress report, February 1977--January 1978

    The study on the relative reactivities of conjugated 1,3-butadiene and pentadienes towards 31SiF2 was completed, and a similar study on the relative reactivities of these conjugated dienes towards silylene, 31SiH2 was made. In the latter case, experiments with the use of varying amounts of NO have indicated that the ratio of singlet to triplet 31SiH2 formed in the recoil 31Si system is about 1:6. The large difference in reactivity between trans- and cis-pentadienes which has been observed for triplet 31SiF2 is absent in the case of 31SiH2, mainly because triplet 31SiF2 is absent in the case of 31SiH2, mainly because triplet 31SiH2 is expected to react as a free entity instead of a bulky 31SiH2-donating complex. Other studies include: (i) the synthesis of 2-methylsilacyclopent-3-ene by the copyrolysis method for calibration; (ii) a temperature variation study of the 31SiF2 competition reaction to identify the major controlling parameter; (iii) the identification of 1,2,3-pentatriene as the last unknown product in recoil 11C reactions with 1,3-butadiene; (iv) a detailed moderator study on the recoil 11C reactions with 1,3-butadiene system to obtain information about energetics of the product formation processes; (v) the completion of the moderator effect study on the recoil 32P reactions with PF3-PH3 mixture; (vi) the completion of an review article on the recoil tritium reactions with organic compounds; and (vii) the construction of an ''effluent combustion'' type radio-gas chromatography set-up and the demonstration of its use to the study of carbohydrate transport and metabolism in plants

  10. Studies of heavy ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, August 1, 1983-August 31, 1984

    The status of the current understanding of the microscopic mechanisms operating in damped nuclear reactions is reviewed. Several experimental and conceptual problems of attempts to determine the nuclear interaction potential for distances inside the fusion barrier are discussed. An explanation of the unexpectedly large angular anisotropies of fragments from fission of heavy systems produced at large spins has been found in terms of the statistical scission model. In this model, the phase space available to the final deformed fission fragments governs the fission probability. Processes associated with incomplete linear-momentum transfer have been studied for 292-MeV 20Ne-induced fission with targets of 165Ho, 181Ta, 197Au, 209Bi, and 238U. Preequilibrium neutron emission has been studied in central and peripheral 165Ho + 20Ne and 165Ho + 12C collisions at bombarding energies between 11 and 25 MeV/nucleon. In preparation of kinematically complete coincidence experiments, a fast, position-sensitive avalanche detector with a large active area has been developed. The theoretical framework of the statistical scission model for fission has been reconsidered. Exclusive measurements were made of alpha particles emitted in the damped reaction 165Ho + 56Fe at E/sub Lab/ = 465 MeV. The data were interpreted with the aid of rather detailed Monte Carlo evaporation simulations. As part of an extensive coincidence study of equilibration mechanisms in damped reactions, inclusive measurements of projectile-like and fusion-fission-like fragments have been performed for the 197Au + 51V system at E/sub Lab/ = 447 MeV. The damped reaction features have been interpreted in terms of phenomenological reaction models

  11. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions: Progress report, September 1, 1986 through August 31, 1987

    The production of large fragments, fragments with mass between light particles and fission fragments, in intermediate and high energy nuclear reactions has fostered the proposal of a number of novel reaction mechanisms. These include liquid-vapor equilibrium and nuclear shattering. Temporarily left in the wake of these exciting proposed mechanisms was the old standard, statistical decay of compound nuclei. To be sure, the standard treatment of compound nucleus decay did not deal with large fragment production. However, this omission was not due to any fundamental deficiency of statistical models, but rather an uncertainty concerning exactly how to splice large fragment emission into statistical models. A large portion of our program deals with this problem. Specifically, by studying the yields of large fragments produced in sufficiently low energy reactions we are attempting to deduce the asymmetry and l-wave dependence of large fragment emission from compound nuclear intermediates. This, however, is only half of the problem. Since the novel mechanisms proposed for large fragment emission were spawned by intermediate and high energy reaction data, we must also realize the relevance of the compound nucleus mechanisms at high energies. It is not unreasonable to suspect that compound nucleus-like objects are formed with less than complete momentum transfer and perhaps less than complete mass transfer. Therefore the study of large fragment production in low energy reactions should go hand in hand with the study of energy, mass, and angular momentum transfer in non-compound reactions. This thread joins the apparently divergent subjects covered in this report. 39 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions: Progress report, September 1, 1987--August 31, 1988

    The production of large fragments, fragments with mass between light particles and fission fragments, in intermediate and high energy nuclear reactions has fostered the proposal of a number of novel reaction mechanisms. These include liquid-vapor equilibrium and nuclear shattering. Temporarily left in the wake of these exciting proposed mechanisms was the old standard, statistical decay of compound nuclei. To be sure, the standard treatment of compound nucleus decay did not deal with large fragment production. However, this emission was not due to any fundamental deficiency of statistical models, but rather an uncertainty concerning exactly how to splice large fragment emission into statistical models. A large portion of our program deals with this problem. Specifically, by studying the yields of large fragments produced in sufficiently low energy reactions we are attempting to deduce the asymmetry and l-wave dependence of large fragment emission from compound nuclear intermediates. This, however, is only half of the problem. Since the novel mechanisms proposed for large fragment emission were spawned by intermediate and high energy reaction data, we must also realize the relevance of the compound nucleus mechanisms at high energies. It is not unreasonable to suspect that compound nucleus-like objects are formed with less than complete momentum transfer and perhaps less than complete mass transfer. Therefore the study of large fragment production in low energy reactions should go hand in hand with the study of energy, mass, and angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion and non-compound reactions. This thread joins the apparently divergent subjects covered in this report

  13. Kinetic measurements on elementary fossil fuel combustion reactions over wide temperatures ranges. Progress report, December 1, 1990--November 30, 1991

    Fontijin, A.

    1992-01-01

    The goals of this work are to provide accurate data on the temperature dependence of the kinetics of elementary combustion reactions (i) for use by combustion modelers, and (ii) to gain a better fundamental understanding of, and hence predictive ability for, the chemistry involved. Experimental measurements are made using the pseudo-static HTP (high-temperature photochemistry) technique. This approach allows observations on single reactions in the 300 to 1800 K temperature range to be made. Typical total (bath gas) pressures are in the 100 to 1000 mbar range. Ground-state O and H atoms are produced by flash or excimer laser photolysis of suitable precursors (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}). The relative atom concentrations are monitored by resonance fluorescence pumped by a cw microwave discharge flow lamp. The molecular reactant-in-excess is introduced through a cooled inlet. Adequate time for mixing, 0.1 to 10 s, between this inlet and the photolysis/observation zone is achieved by using slow flows (typically less than 20 cm s{sup {minus}1}). Results are reported for: O-Atom Reactions with the Four Isomeric Butenes, H + HCl {yields} H{sub 2} + Cl, and the O-atom 1,3-butadiene reaction.

  14. Light particle emission measurements in heavy ion reactions: Progress report, June 1, 1986-May 31, 1987

    During the past year we have completed our work on neutron emission in coincidence with fission fragments from the 158Er system. In addition to this we have completed preliminary analysis of our results on neutron emission from products of damped reactions between 58Ni and 165Ho at 930 MeV. Two experiments were planned for the present contract period as discussed in our proposal for 1986-87. One of these, to measure the mass and charge distributions from projectile-like fragments (PLF) in the reactions 58Ni + 165Ho and 58Ni + 58Ni using the time-of-flight facility at the HHIRF has been successfully completed. The other, to measure momentum correlations between neutrons and charged particles produced in central collisions between 32S + 197Au is scheduled to be run in mid-February. 14 refs., 4 figs

  15. Research on high-energy chemical reactions. Annual progress report, August 1, 1974--October 31, 1975

    Product yields for the reactions T* + c - C6D12 → c - C6D11T, DT have been measured using a beam of T* formed by charge exchange in the energy range of 25 eV to 100 eV. A computer program was written to calculate the probability of collision vs. energy of a beam of T* moderated by He gas

  16. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations. Progress report, February 15-December 31, 1984

    Energetic halogen atoms or ions, activated by various nuclear transformations are studied in gas, high pressure and condensed phase saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, halomethanes, and liquid and solid aqueous solutions of biomolecular and organic solutes in order to understand better the mechanisms and dynamics of high energy monovalent species. The experimental program and its goals remain the same, consisting of four interrelated areas: (1) The stereochemistry of energetic 18F, /sup 34m/Cl, and 38Cl substitution reactions with chiral molecules in the gas and condensed phase is studied. (2) The gas to condensed state transition in halogen high energy chemistry, involving energetic chlorine, bromine, and iodine reactions in halomethanes, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons and aqueous solutions of biomolecules and alkyl halides is being investigated in more detail. Current attention is given to defining the nature of the enhancement yields in the condensed phase. Specifically, energetic halogen reactions in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions or organic and biomolecular solutes are studied. (3) Reactions of bromine and iodine activated by isomeric transition with halogenated biomolecular and organic solutes in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions are being studied in an attempt to learn more about the activation events in the condensed phase. (4) The applications of hot chemistry techniques and theory to neutron activation analysis of biological systems are being continued. Current attention is given to developing procedures for trace molecular determinations in biological systems. The applications of hot halogen atoms as site indicators in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of halogenated bases and nucleosides are currently being developed. 14 references

  17. Lichenoid reaction associated with silver amalgam restoration in a Bombay blood group patient: A case report

    Rohini Rangarao Pawar; Mattigatti, Sudha S.; Rushikesh R Mahaparale; Amit P Kamble

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic relationship between the oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) and dental restorative materials has been confirmed many times. An OLR affecting oral mucosa in direct contact with an amalgam restoration represents a delayed, type IV, cell mediated immune response to mercury or one of the other constituents of the dental amalgam. Bombay blood group patients are more prone to this. A case of bilateral OLR is presented, which is present in relation to amalgam restoration. The lesion healed...

  18. Ultrafast optical studies of surface reaction processes at semiconductor interfaces. Progress report

    Miller, R.J.D.

    1994-10-01

    The DOE funded research has focused on the development of novel non-linear optical methods for the in situ study of surface reaction dynamics. In particular, the work has concentrated on interfacial charge transfer processes as this is the simplest of all surface reactions, i.e., no bonds are broken and the reaction is derived from nuclear repolarization. Interfacial charge transfer forms the basis for a number of important solar energy conversion strategies. In these studies, semiconductor liquid junctions provide a convenient system in which the interfacial charge transfer can be optically initiated. The all-optical approach necessitates that the dynamics of the charge transfer event itself be put in the proper context of the operating photophysical processes at the surface. There are at least four dynamical processes that are coupled in determining the overall rate of electron flux across the interface. In the limit that interfacial charge transfer approaches strong coupling, the time scale for transport of even field accelerated carriers within the space charge region becomes comparable to the charge transfer dynamics. The transport component needs to be convolved to probes of the carrier population at the surface. The other two dynamical processes, carrier thermalization and surface state trapping, determine the states which ultimately serve as the donor levels to the solution acceptor distribution. In terms of the hot carrier model, these latter two processes compete with direct unthermalized charge transfer. There is a fifth dynamical process which also needs consideration: the solvent modes that are coupled to the reaction coordinate. Ultimately, the dynamics of solvent relaxation determine the upper limit to the charge transfer process. Different optical techniques have been developed to follow all the above dynamical processes in which a real time view of charge transfer dynamics at semiconductor surfaces is emerging. These results are discussed here.

  19. Catalytic hydrocarbon reactions over supported metal oxides. Final report, August 1, 1986--July 31, 1995

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1995-10-20

    Oxide catalysis plays a central role in hydrocarbon processing and improvements in catalytic activity or selectivity are of great technological importance because these improvements will translate directly into more efficient utilization of hydrocarbon supplies and lower energy consumption in separation processes. An understanding of the relationships between surface structure and catalytic properties is needed to describe and improve oxide catalysts. The approach has been to prepare supported oxides that have a specific structure and oxidation state and then employ these structures in reaction studies. The current research program is focused on studying the fundamental relationships between structure and reactivity for two important reactions that are present in many oxide-catalyzed processes, partial oxidation and carbon-carbon bond formation. During the course of these studies the author has: (1) developed methods to form and stabilize various Mo and W oxide structures on silica; (2) studied C-H abstraction reactions over the fully oxidized cations; (3) studied C-C bond coupling by metathesis and reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones over reduced cation structures; and (4) initiated a study of hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis over reduced cation structures.

  20. Attitude of nurses and pharmacists on adverse drug reactions reporting in selected hospitals in Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria

    Umar, Muhammad Tukur; Bello, Shaibu Oricha; Chika, Aminu; Oche, Oche Mansur

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Objective of this study was to assess the attitude of nurses and pharmacists towards adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting. Methods: The questionnaire was designed based on extended “Inman seven deadly sins.” Two hundred and seventy-two respondents were selected by stratified sampling technique. The questionnaires were delivered to the respondents at their places of practice. The data generated were analyzed by Sigma XL Software Inc. Findings: There was no statistically significant relationship between demographic profiles and reporting attitude except for qualification. On extended “Inman seven deadly sins” awareness of reporting protocol and nearby center for ADRs reporting were low 27.3 and 7.5%, respectively. However, respondents’ score on components of attitude of ADRs reporting is generally encouraging. On comparative basis, no statistical significance exists between pharmacists and nurses. Conclusion: The study showed that attitude of respondents towards ADRs reporting is good. However, there is a need for targeted health education intervention among these cadres of health-care professionals, especially on aspects of awareness of reporting protocol and reporting center.

  1. Report of thirty one admissions due to adverse drug reactions inBo-Ali Sina hospital, Sari, Iran

    Mohammad Reza Rafati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available , (Received 16 May, 2009 ; Accepted 8 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Mortality rate due to ADRs are ahead of pulmonary disease, AIDS, pneumonia and automobile accidents. This study evaluated the admission rates in a University teaching hospital related to ADRs.Materials and methods: During this retrospective study between 2001 and 2007, all patients admitted due to adverse drug reaction in Sari Bo-Ali Sina Hospital were evaluated.Results: In these years, 31 patients out of 71,680 were admitted, due to ADRs. Most common ADRs were skin reaction (74% and fever (22%. Phenobarbital and penicillin were the most common drugs causing ADRs.Conclusion: Only 0.04% of hospital admissions were drug related, while reported admission due to ADRs in other countries were 2.4 to 6.2%. It appears that less drug-depended hospital admissions in Iran rational drug administration, but are due to lack of enough detection, records and reporting procedures.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(71: 67-70 (Persian.

  2. Potential plasma markers of type 1 and type 2 leprosy reactions: a preliminary report

    Oliveira Maria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical management of leprosy Type 1 (T1R and Type 2 (T2R reactions pose challenges mainly because they can cause severe nerve injury and disability. No laboratory test or marker is available for the diagnosis or prognosis of leprosy reactions. This study simultaneously screened plasma factors to identify circulating biomarkers associated with leprosy T1R and T2R among patients recruited in Goiania, Central Brazil. Methods A nested case-control study evaluated T1R (n = 10 and TR2 (n = 10 compared to leprosy patients without reactions (n = 29, matched by sex and age-group (+/- 5 years and histopathological classification. Multiplex bead based technique provided profiles of 27 plasma factors including 16 pro inflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL- IL12p70, IL2, IL17, IL1 β, IL6, IL15, IL5, IL8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1 alpha (MIP1α, 1 beta (MIP1β, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES, monocyte chemoattractrant protein 1 (MCP1, CC-chemokine 11 (CCL11/Eotaxin, CXC-chemokine 10 (CXCL10/IP10; 4 anti inflammatory interleukins: IL4, IL10, IL13, IL1Rα and 7 growth factors: IL7, IL9, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF, platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF BB, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Results Elevations of plasma CXCL10 (P = 0.004 and IL6 (p = 0.013 were observed in T1R patients compared to controls without reaction. IL6 (p = 0.05, IL7 (p = 0.039, and PDGF-BB (p = 0.041 were elevated in T2R. RANTES and GMCSF were excluded due to values above and below detection limit respectively in all samples. Conclusion Potential biomarkers of T1R identified were CXCL10 and IL6 whereas IL7, PDGF-BB and IL6, may be laboratory markers of TR2. Additional studies on these biomarkers may help understand the

  3. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity Testing of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product (Test Report)

    1996-01-01

    The product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants, or fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), has been hypothesized as a contributory cause of an anomaly which occurred in the chamber pressure (PC) transducer tube on the Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) aft thruster 467 on flight STS-51. A small hole was found in the titanium-alloy PC tube at the first bend below the pressure transducer. It was surmised that the hole may have been caused by heat and pressure resulting from ignition of FORP. The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to define the chemical characteristics of FORP, characterize its reactivity, and simulate the events in a controlled environment which may have lead to the Pc-tube failure. Samples of FORP were obtained from the gas-phase reaction of MMH with NTO under laboratory conditions, the pulsed firings of RCS thrusters with modified PC tubes using varied oxidizer or fuel lead times, and the nominal RCS thruster firings at WSTF and Kaiser-Marquardt. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC), ion chromatography (IC), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to FTIR (TGA/FTIR), and mechanical impact testing were used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the chemical, thermal, and ignition properties of FORP. These studies showed that the composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depends on the fuel loxidizer ratio at the time of formation, composition of the post-formation atmosphere (reducing or oxidizing), and reaction or postreaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate (MMHN), ammonium nitrate (AN), methylammonium nitrate (MAN), and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. The thermal decomposition

  4. Preventable and potentially preventable serious adverse reactions induced by oral protein kinase inhibitors through a database of adverse drug reaction reports.

    Egron, Adeline; Olivier-Abbal, Pascale; Gouraud, Aurore; Babai, Samy; Combret, Sandrine; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle

    2015-06-01

    Antineoplastic drugs are one of the pharmacological classes more frequently involved in occurrence of "serious" adverse drug reactions. However, few epidemiological data are available regarding the preventability of adverse drug reactions with ambulatory cancer chemotherapy. We assessed the rate and characteristics of "preventable" or "potentially preventable" "serious" adverse drug reactions induced by oral protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs). We performed a retrospective study with all "serious" adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009 in the French Pharmacovigilance Database with the eight oral protein kinase inhibitors marketed in France: sorafenib, imatinib, erlotinib, sunitinib, dasatinib, lapatinib, nilotinib and everolimus (Afinitor®) using the French adverse drug reactions preventability scale. This study was carried out on 265 spontaneous notifications. Most of adverse drug reactions were "unpreventable" (63.8 %). Around one third were "unevaluable" due to notifications poorly documented (medical history, dosage, use of drugs as first or second intention, concomitant drugs). One (0.4 %) adverse drug reaction was "preventable" with dasatinib (subdural hematoma) and three (1.1 %) were "potentially preventable" (hepatic adverse drug reactions): two with imatinib and one with sorafenib. For these four cases, we identified some characteristics: incorrect dosages, drug interactions and off-label uses. An appropriate prescription could avoid the occurrence of 1.5 % "serious" adverse drug reactions with oral PKIs. This rate is low and further studies are needed to compare our results by using other preventability instruments and to improve the French ADRs Preventability Scale. PMID:25056801

  5. An evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of Indian pharmacists towards adverse drug reaction reporting: A pilot study

    Akram Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacovigilance is a useful to assure the safety of medicines and protect consumers from their harmful effects. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR reporting as part of their professional obligation and participate in the existent pharmacovigilance programs in their countries. In India, the National PV Program was re-launched in July 2010. Objectives: This survey was conducted in order to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Indian pharmacists with the aim of exploring the pharmacists′ participation in ADR reporting system, identifying the reasons of under reporting and determining the steps that could be adopted to increase reporting rates. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the pharmacists in India using a pretested questionnaire with 33 questions (10 questions on knowledge, 6 on attitude, 7 on practice, 7 on future of ADR reporting in India and 3 on benefits of reporting ADRs.. The study was conducted, over a period of 3 months from May 2012 to July 2012. Results: Out of the 600 participants to whom the survey was administered, a total of 400 were filled. The response rate of the survey was 67%. 95% responders were knowledgeable about ADRs. 90% participants had a positive attitude towards making ADRs reporting mandatory for practicing pharmacists. 87.5% participants were interested in participating in the National Pharmacovigilance program, in India. 47.5% respondents had observed ADRs in their practice, and 37% had reported it to the national pharmacovigilance center. 92% pharmacists believed reporting ADRs immensely helped in providing quality care to patients. Conclusion : The Indian pharmacists have poor knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP towards ADR reporting and pharmacovigilance. Pharmacists with higher qualifications such as the pharmacists with a PharmD have better KAP. With additional training on Pharmacovigilance, the Indian Pharmacists

  6. Intermediate energy nuclear physics (Task C) and charge exchange reactions (Task W). Progress report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    This report summarizes work carried out between October 1, 1983 and October 1, 1984 in the Nuclear Physics Laboratory in the Department of Physics at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The major part of the report describes work carried out under two separate contracts with the United States Department of Energy. The first contract supports the theoretical research program and the latter the work in experimental intermediate energy nuclear physics. The experimental research contract is divided into two separate tasks, C and W. Task C covers intermediate energy physics in general and Task W supports study of the (p,n) reaction at the WNR facility at LAMPF. In addition to the work supported by the described contracts, other efforts in the laboratory, such as LAMPF II accelerator development and several projects in low-energy nuclear physics, are described in this report

  7. Final Report: Catalytic Hydrocarbon Reactions over Supported Metal Oxides, August 1, 1995 - July 31, 1999

    Ekerdt, John G.

    1999-07-31

    The research program focused on the catalysis of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) over molybdenum-based catalysts and how catalyst composition, redox ability, structure and neighboring sites control the catalytic properties of metal oxides. We sought to understand the catalytic features/sites that control hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, and isomerization during HDS. Unprompted silica-supported molybdenum oxides and molybdenum sulfides were studied. Model catalyst systems were prepared from organometallic precursors or cluster compounds to generate supported structures that feature Mo(II) and Mo(IV) cations that are isolated or in ensembles and that have either Mo-O or Mo-S bonds. Conventional MOS{sub 2} catalysts, which contain both edge and rim sites, were be studied. Finally, single-layer MOS{sub 2} structures were also prepared from 2H-MoS{sub 2} powder so that the model systems could be compared against a disulfide catalyst that only involves rim sites. Catalytic reactions for thiophene and tetrahydrothione were studied over the various catalysts. Oxidation states were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray crystallography was used to characterize and follow changes in the MOS{sub 2} structures. The program on metal oxides prepared supported oxides that have a specific structure and oxidation state to serve as model templates for the more complex commercial catalysts and then employed these structures in reaction studies. This focus area examined the relationships between structure and cation redox characteristics in oxidation catalysis. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the cations and reaction intermediates.

  8. Abuse liability of flupirtine revisited: implications of spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions.

    Gahr, Maximilian; Freudenmann, Roland W; Connemann, Bernhard J; Hiemke, Christoph; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Early studies suggested that the centrally acting non-opioid and non-steroidal analgesic flupirtine (FLP) has no potential for abuse. However, FLP's agonistic effects at the GABAA receptor might prime addictive behaviors, and literature provides some anecdotal reports on FLP abuse/dependence. To shed more light on this topic we acquired and evaluated data obtained from a national German pharmacovigilance database. We analyzed all reports of FLP abuse/dependence that were recorded in the database of the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM). A total of n = 48 reports of FLP abuse/dependence could be identified (mean age 45 years, 62.5% female). First reports were submitted to BfArM in 1991 with increasing numbers of annual reports from the year 2006 on. Mean daily FLP dosage was 805 mg (range 200-3,000 mg). Current or previous substance abuse/dependence was reported in 21% and 17%, respectively. Mean duration of FLP abuse/dependence until report to BfArM was 23 months (range 1-84 months). Withdrawal syndromes after discontinuation of FLP were reported in n = 9 (19%). Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that FLP features a potential to cause addictive behaviors. Female sex, age >40 years, and long-term FLP-treatment may be possible risk factors for the development of FLP abuse/dependence. PMID:24037995

  9. Removal of asphaltene and paraffin deposits using micellar solutions and fused reactions. Final report, 1995--1997

    Chang, C.L.; Nalwaya, V.; Singh, P.; Fogler, H.S.

    1998-05-01

    Chemical treatments of paraffin and asphaltene deposition by means of cleaning fluids were carried out in this research project. Research focused on the characterization of asphaltene and paraffin materials and dissolution of asphaltene and paraffin deposits using surfactant/micellar fluids developed early in the project. The key parameters controlling the dissolution rate were identified and the process of asphaltene/paraffin dissolution were examined using microscopic apparatus. Numerical modeling was also carried out to understand the dissolution of paraffin deposits. The results show that fused chemical reaction systems are a promising way of removing paraffin deposits in subsea pipelines. The fused system may be in the form of alternate pulses, emulsions systems or encapsulated catalyst systems. Fused reaction systems, in fact, are extremely cost-effective--less than 10% of the cost of replacing entire sections of the blocked pipeline. The results presented in this report can have a real impact on the petroleum industry and the National Oil Program, if it is realized that the remediation technologies developed here can substantially delay abandonment (due to asphaltene/paraffin plugging) of domestic petroleum resources. The report also sheds new light on the nature and properties of asphaltenes and paraffin deposits which will ultimately help the scientific and research community to develop effective methods in eliminating asphaltene/paraffin deposition problems. It must also be realized that asphaltene remediation technologies developed and presented in this report are a real alternative to aromatic cleaning fluids currently used by the petroleum industry.

  10. Report on research in progress in the nuclear spectroscopy area : reactions and structure

    Helene, O.A.M.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Seale, W.A. (Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica); Saxena, R.N. (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1982-09-01

    Research on nuclear spectroscopy which are being done by several groups in Brazil are reported. Works, both experimental and theoretical, are divided in particle and gamma spectroscopy and the former has also gamma-gamma angular correlation.

  11. Report on research in progress in the nuclear spectroscopy area : reactions and structure

    Research on nuclear spectroscopy which are being done by several groups in Brazil are reported. Works, both experimental and theoretical, are divided in particle and gamma spectroscopy and the former has also gamma-gamma angular correlation. (L.C.)

  12. Iron Reduction and Radionuclide Immobilization: Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Hydrologic controls & Reaction-Based Modeling - Final Report

    William D. Burgos

    2004-06-18

    Our research focused on (1) microbial reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) individually, and concomitantly in natural sediments, (2) Fe(III) oxide surface chemistry, specifically with respect to reactions with Fe(II)and U(VI), (3) the influence of humic substances on Fe(III) and U(VI) bioreduction, and on U(VI) complexation, and (4) the development of reaction-based reactive transport biogeochemical models to numerically simulate our experimental results. We have continued our investigations on microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides. Modeling our earlier experimental results required assumption of a hydrated surface for hematite, more reactive than predicted based on theoretical solubility (Burgos et al.2002). Subsequent studies with Shewanella putrefaciens and Geobacter sulfurreducens confirmed the rates of Fe(III) bioreduction depend on oxide surface area rather than oxide thermodynamic properties (Roden,2003a,b;2004; Burgos et al,2003). We examined the potential for bioreduction of U(VI) by Geobacter sulfurreducens in the presence of synthetic Fe(III) oxides and natural Fe(III) oxide-containing solids (Jeon et al,2004a,b) in which more than 95% of added U(VI) was sorbed to mineral surfaces. The results showed a significant portion of solid-associated U(VI) was resistant to both enzymatic and abiotic (Fe(II)-driven) reduction, but the rate and extent of bioreduction of U(VI) was increased due to the addition of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). We conducted long-term semicontinuous culture and column experiments on coupled Fe(III) oxide/U(VI) reduction. These experiments were conducted with natural subsurface sediment from the Oyster site in Virginia, whose Fe content and microbial reducibility are comparable to ORNL FRC sediments (Jeon et al, 2004b). The results conclusively demonstrated the potential for sustained removal of U(VI) from solution via DMRB activity in excess of the U(VI) sorption capacity of the natural mineral assemblages. Jang (2004) demonstrated

  13. Progress report [Parameters for calculation of nuclear reactions of relevance to non-energy nuclear applications

    Extensive effort has been dedicated towards testing RIPL-2/3 database in practical reaction calculations with EMPIRE code. The three major exercises should be considered in this context: 72 full-scale evaluations of neutron induced reactions performed for ENDF/B-VII.0. These calculations include also three actinides; Low-fidelity covariances project that consisted in calculation of sensitivity matrices to 15 model parameters for 309 targets from 19-F to 209-Bi; Calculations for 654 materials from JEFF-3.1/A (up to 60 MeV) performed on the NNDC cluster. These calculations were testing optical model, levels, masses and gamma segments of the RIPL-2/3 database. EMPIRE specific level densities, which are not included in RIPL-2, but are foreseen to be part of RIPL-3 were used in most of the calculations. No critical problems in the RIPL database were detected in these extensive computations. However, one should bear in mind that the calculations concerned nuclei relatively close to the valley of stability. New Coupled-Channel optical potentials were produced as off-spin of the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluations. These potentials are derived from the global parameterization of the spherical potential. The explicit inclusion of the coupling within the Coupled-Channels model resulted in the reduction of the imaginary surface term of the potential by about 15%. EMPIRE-specific level densities, which were not part of RIPL-2, are going to be included in the current RIPL-3 release. This particular phenomenological approach to level densities involves BCS model between discrete levels and critical energy Ucrt and the Fermi gas approach above. In the latter one the spin distribution is obtained through subtracting rotational energy, thus reducing thermal energy available for intrinsic excitations. The rotational energies are estimated using spin and temperature dependent moments of inertia that effect also rotational enhancement factor. Collective (rotational and vibrational) enhancement

  14. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  15. An evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Sikkim

    Supratim Datta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Spontaneous voluntary adverse drug reaction (ADR reporting is paramount to the success of the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India. There has however been minimal and sporadic voluntary reporting of ADR's at the ADR Monitoring Centre (AMC Gangtok, Sikkim. Knowledge, perception, attitude, and awareness of health professionals are determinants of reporting practices. This questionnaire study aims at evaluating these indicators in the teaching hospital attached to the Medical Institute and find out methods to improve existing reporting practices. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based observational study carried out in the Medical, Surgical and Pathology Departments of the Teaching Hospital, Gangtok, Sikkim over a period of 2 months. The questionnaires were filled by the respondents and returned back to us within the next 24 h. Data obtained from filled questionnaires were thereby analyzed. Results: The overall correct response rate to the knowledge-based questions was 56.3%. While 97% of respondents were of the view that ADR reporting was necessary, 35% of the respondents felt that the difficulty in deciding the causality of an ADR discouraged them from reporting. 79% of the respondents were not aware of the presence of an AMC affiliated to the hospital, and 87% of the respondents admitted that they were not sending filled ADR forms to the AMC. Conclusions: The study indicates that the respondents have an average knowledge and positive attitude toward ADR reporting and pharmacovigilance. There is however a lack of awareness and poor ADR reporting practices. Efforts are required to enhance awareness and attitude toward pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting.

  16. Vertical Ground Reaction Forces are Associated with Pain and Self-Reported Functional Status in Recreational Athletes with Patellofemoral Pain.

    de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Briani, Ronaldo; Pazzinatto, Marcella; Ferrari, Deisi; Aragão, Fernando; de Azevedo, Fábio

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) use different motor strategies during unipodal support in stair climbing activities, which may be assessed by vertical ground reaction force parameters. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate possible differences in first peak, valley, second peak, and loading rate between recreational female athletes with PFP and pain-free athletes during stair climbing in order to determine the association and prediction capability between these parameters, pain level, and functional status in females with PFP. Thirty-one recreational female athletes with PFP and 31 pain-free recreational female athletes were evaluated with three-dimensional kinetics while performing stair climbing to obtain vertical ground reaction force parameters. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate the usual knee pain. The anterior knee pain scale was used to evaluate knee functional score. First peak and loading rate were associated with pain (r = .46, P = .008; r = .56, P = .001, respectively) and functional limitation (r = .31, P = .049; r = -.36, P = .032, respectively). Forced entry regression revealed the first peak was a significant predictor of pain (36.5%) and functional limitation (28.7%). Our findings suggest that rehabilitation strategies aimed at correcting altered vertical ground reaction force may improve usual knee pain level and self-reported knee function in females with PFP. PMID:26286949

  17. Characterization of porosity via secondary reactions. Final technical report, 1 September 1991--30 November 1995

    Calo, J.M.; Zhang, L.; Hall, P.J.; Antxustegi, M. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1997-09-01

    A new approach to the study of porosity and porosity development in coal chars during gasification was investigated. This approach involves the establishment of the relationships between the amount and type of surface complexes evolved during post-activation temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and the porosity, as measured by gas adsorption and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques. With this new method, the total surface area and micropore volume can be determined by the interpretation of post-activation TPD spectra. The primary conclusion of this work is that it is possible to predict total surface area and micropore volume from TPD spectra. From the extended random pore model, additional information about the micropore surface area, the nonmicroporous surface area, and the mean micropore size development as a function of reaction time (or burn-off) can also be predicted. Therefore, combining the TPD technique and the extended random pore model provides a new method for the characterization of char porosity.

  18. Exaggerated placental site reaction: case report of a rare benign trophoblastic lesion

    Archana Shetty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Exaggerated placental site is a rare benign non-neoplastic trophoblastic lesion in which the intermediate trophoblastic cells extensively infiltrate into the endometrium and the underlying myometrium. The importance of this lesion lies in that the cells of this lesion display an identical morphological and immunophenotypic profile to the intermediate trophoblastic cells found placental site trophoblastic tumour, which are closely related neoplastic lesions Also differentials for this lesion are placental site nodule, choriocarcinoma and epithelioid trophoblastic tumour all of which have varied lines of treatment and interventions. We present a rare case of an exaggerated placental site reaction in a lady, who was in her first trimester of pregnancy and presented with signs of a septic abortion. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1647-1649

  19. Development of an apparatus to study chemical reactions at high temperature - a progress report

    Sturzenegger, M.; Schelling, Th.; Steiner, E.; Wuillemin, D. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    TREMPER is an apparatus that was devised to study kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature reactions under concentrated solar irradiation. The design allows investigations on solid or liquid samples under inert or reactive atmospheres. The working temperature is adjustable; the upper limit that has yet been reached is about 1900 K. TREMPER will facilitate chemical reactivity studies on a temperature level that is difficult to access by other means. First experiments were conducted to study the decomposition of manganese oxide MnO{sub 2}. Chemical analysis of exposed samples confirmed that the parent MnO{sub 2} was decomposed to mixtures of Mn O and Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The amount of Mn O ranged from 60 mol-% in air to 86 mol-% under inert atmosphere. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  20. Lichenoid reaction associated with silver amalgam restoration in a Bombay blood group patient: A case report.

    Pawar, Rohini Rangarao; Mattigatti, Sudha S; Mahaparale, Rushikesh R; Kamble, Amit P

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic relationship between the oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) and dental restorative materials has been confirmed many times. An OLR affecting oral mucosa in direct contact with an amalgam restoration represents a delayed, type IV, cell mediated immune response to mercury or one of the other constituents of the dental amalgam. Bombay blood group patients are more prone to this. A case of bilateral OLR is presented, which is present in relation to amalgam restoration. The lesion healed up after the replacement of restorations with an intermediate restorative material. The clinician should be aware of all the possible pathological etiologies of white lesions. If there is any doubt about the nature or management of a usual oral lesion, a referral to an appropriate specialist is mandatory. PMID:27217647

  1. Life threatening biphasic adverse reactions to desmopressin: case report and review of the literature.

    Wang, Lijun; Chen, Ruijun; Tian, Fang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Li; Yu, Baojun; Huang, Xianwen; Zhang, Yuehui; Su, Shengyuan; Ma, Guangnian; Wang, Kaichen

    2016-08-01

    Treatment with desmopressin diacetate arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) and its withdrawal are associated with side effects. We present a rare case of severe biphasic adverse reactions induced by DDAVP and its withdrawal in a 63-year-old female patient. A lump in the left axillary region was biopsied, and she received DDAVP after surgery. The following day, she lost consciousness, with foaming at the mouth and seizures. Hypotonic encephalopathy was considered. DDAVP was ceased, and she received electrolytes. On day 1, she displayed low blood pressure and increased urine output. She received DDAVP and dopamine as well as electrolytes. The patient was ambulatory on day 7 and was discharged without brain abnormalities on MRI. In conclusion, severe hyponatremia induced by DDAVP and massive polyuria and hypovolemic shock induced by DDAVP withdrawal are life-threatening conditions. This case underlines the need to be vigilant when administering DDAVP and to monitor for any side effects. PMID:27142268

  2. Environmental influences on the immune system and allergic reactions. Final report 1970--1976

    Environmental interactions with the immune system may result in two types of adverse outcomes: immunodeficiency and immunopathology. Serious immunodeficiency most commonly results from ionizing radiation or as a recognized side effect of iatrogenic drug therapy, usually cancer chemotherapy. At present, there is no basis for believing that biologically significant suppression of immune competence results from more subtle interactions with environmental agents. On the other hand, environmentally triggered immunopathology is a source of considerable morbidity and mortality. Additional research is needed on the basic mechanisms of immunopathological reactions, on the development of methods for accurately implicating or excluding immunological mechanisms in the etiology of hypersensitivity states, on the development of methods for assessing in advance the potential immunogenicity and allergenicity of new industrial chemicals and occupational allergens, and on the identification of the risk factors which predispose to immunopathological outcomes when individuals are exposed to sensitizing chemicals or other natural allergens

  3. Final Report: Dominant Mechanisms of Uranium-Phosphate Reactions in Subsurface Sediments

    Catalano, Jeffrey G. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Giammar, Daniel E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-08

    Phosphate addition is an in situ remediation approach that may enhance the sequestration of uranium without requiring sustained reducing conditions. However, the geochemical factors that determine the dominant immobilization mechanisms upon phosphate addition are insufficiently understood to design efficient remediation strategies or accurately predict U(VI) transport. The overall objective of our project is to determine the dominant mechanisms of U(VI)-phosphate reactions in subsurface environments. Our research approach seeks to determine the U(VI)-phosphate solid that form in the presence of different groundwater cations, characterize the effects of phosphate on U(VI) adsorption and precipitation on smectite and iron oxide minerals, examples of two major reactive mineral phases in contaminated sediments, and investigate how phosphate affects U(VI) speciation and fate during water flow through sediments from contaminated sites. The research activities conducted for this project have generated a series of major findings. U(VI) phosphate solids from the autunite mineral family are the sole phases to form during precipitation, with uranyl orthophosphate not occurring despite its predicted greater stability. Calcium phosphates may take up substantial quantities of U(VI) through three different removal processes (adsorption, coprecipitation, and precipitation) but the dominance of each process varies with the pathway of reaction. Phosphate co-adsorbs with U(VI) onto smectite mineral surfaces, forming a mixed uranium-phosphate surface complex over a wide range of conditions. However, this molecular-scale association of uranium and phosphate has not effect on the overall extent of uptake. In contrast, phosphate enhanced U(VI) adsorption to iron oxide minerals at acidic pH conditions but suppresses such adsorption at neutral and alkaline pH, despite forming mixed uranium-phosphate surface complexes during adsorption. Nucleation barriers exist that inhibit U(VI) phosphate

  4. Lichenoid reaction associated with silver amalgam restoration in a Bombay blood group patient: A case report

    Pawar, Rohini Rangarao; Mattigatti, Sudha S.; Mahaparale, Rushikesh R.; Kamble, Amit P.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic relationship between the oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) and dental restorative materials has been confirmed many times. An OLR affecting oral mucosa in direct contact with an amalgam restoration represents a delayed, type IV, cell mediated immune response to mercury or one of the other constituents of the dental amalgam. Bombay blood group patients are more prone to this. A case of bilateral OLR is presented, which is present in relation to amalgam restoration. The lesion healed up after the replacement of restorations with an intermediate restorative material. The clinician should be aware of all the possible pathological etiologies of white lesions. If there is any doubt about the nature or management of a usual oral lesion, a referral to an appropriate specialist is mandatory. PMID:27217647

  5. Response of rupture discs to sodium-water reaction pulses. Final report

    A 1/7-scale model of a double rupture disc pressure relief device, designed for the intermediate heat transfer system of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor, was subjected to incident pressure pulses that simulated various sodium-water reaction pulses. General features of the pulses generated were an initial rise in pressure that lasted from 1 to 2 ms followed by a slow decrease in pressure that lasted for more than 50 ms. Pulses with nominal maximum pressures of 50, 100, 150, 200, 400, 600, and 800 psi were generated and transmitted along the pipe to load the rupture discs. The hydrostatic collapse pressure of the spherical cap of the rupture disc, determined by test in the same apparatus, was 250 psi

  6. Development of the helical reaction hydraulic turbine. Final technical report, July 1, 1996--June 30, 1998

    Gorlov, A.

    1998-08-01

    The present report contains the final results obtained during July 1996--July 1998. This report should be considered in association with the Annual Progress Report submitted in July 1997 due to the fact that not all of the intermediate results reflected in the Progress Report have been included in the Final Report. The aim of the project was to build a helical hydraulic turbine prototype and demonstrate its suitability and advantages as a novel apparatus to harness hydropower from ultra low-head rivers and other free water streams such as ocean currents or rivers without dams. The research objectives of the project are: Design, optimization and selection of the hydro foil section for the helical turbine; Design of the turbine for demonstration project; Construction and testing of the turbine module; Assessing test results and determining scale-up feasibility. The research conducted under this project has substantially exceeded the original goals including designing, constructing and testing of a scaled-up triple-helix turbine, as well as developing recommendations for application of the turbine for direct water pumping in irrigation systems and for future use in wind farms. Measurements collected during two years of turbine testing are kept in the PI files.

  7. Energy transfer mechanisms in photobiological reactions. Progress report, 1 August 1976--31 July 1977

    Spikes, J.D.

    1977-07-31

    Progress is reported on the following studies: chemical structure of biomolecules and mechanisms of their sensitized photo-oxidation; relationships between the structure and photosensitizing efficiencies of porphyrins; effects of photodynamic treatment on mammalian tendons; and sensitized photo-oxidation of substituted uracils, methionine, other amino acids, and horse-radish peroxidase. (HLW)

  8. Final Report for Nucleation and growth of semiconductor nanocrystals by solid-phase reaction

    P. D. Persans; T. M. Hayes

    2005-12-12

    This final report describes the technical output of a scientific program aimed at understanding the formation and structure of II-VI nanocrystals formed by solid phase precipitation within a glass environment. The principle probes were optical absorption spectroscopy to determine crystallite sizes, Raman scattering to determine composition, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the evolution of local reactant environments.

  9. Bullous reaction to a Mantoux test; a case report and review of the literature

    Daifullah Al Aboud2

    2016-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test is widely used in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection Blistering skin lesion from the test is rarely observed. In this manuscript, I report a patient who develops a bullous lesion from the test and I review the related literature.

  10. Reaction mechanisms

    The 1988 progress report of the Reaction Mechanisms laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research topics are: the valence bond methods, the radical chemistry, the modelling of the transition states by applying geometric constraints, the long range interactions (ion - molecule) in gaseous phase, the reaction sites in gaseous phase and the mass spectroscopy applications. The points of convergence between the investigations of the mass spectroscopy and the theoretical chemistry teams, as well as the purposes guiding the research programs, are discussed. The published papers, the conferences, the congress communications and the thesis, are also reported

  11. UV-MAOR - UV-B-specific reactions of marine planktons. Final report

    An initial finding of the studies performed here is that under certain hydrogeographic and meteorological conditions vertical migration of phyto and zooplankton also occurs in near-shore parts of flat waters. The vertical migration of phytoplankton was induced by exceeding the threshold intensity of approx. 300 μmol photons m-2 s-1 (PAR). However, the sigmoidal course of the reaction of phytoplankton suggests that it is apparently not the PAR intensity alone but the ratio of PAR/UV-B which governs the downward migration. However, the present body of data is not sufficient for a definitive statistical verification of this finding. Light irradiation resulted in an increased density and thus in a reduced buoyancy of flounder spawn. This effect was primarily dependent on intensity and did not increase upon irradiation with UV-B, UV-A and PAR as compared to UV-A and PAR alone. Irradiation with UV-B did not influence the substance located in the vitellus whose absorption maximum was found to be 300 nm, probably gadusol

  12. Final Report Theoretical Studies of Surface Reactions on Metals and Electronic Materials

    Jerry L. Whitten

    2012-04-23

    This proposal describes the proposed renewal of a theoretical research program on the structure and reactivity of molecules adsorbed on transition metal surfaces. A new direction of the work extends investigations to interfaces between solid surfaces, adsorbates and aqueous solutions and includes fundamental work on photoinduced electron transport into chemisorbed species and into solution. The goal is to discover practical ways to reduce water to hydrogen and oxygen using radiation comparable to that available in the solar spectrum. The work relates to two broad subject areas: photocatalytic processes and production of hydrogen from water. The objective is to obtain high quality solutions of the electronic structure of adsorbate-metal-surface-solution systems so as to allow activation barriers to be calculated and reaction mechanisms to be determined. An ab initio embedding formalism provides a route to the required accuracy. New theoretical methods developed during the previous grant period will be implemented in order to solve the large systems involved in this work. Included is the formulation of a correlation operator that is used to treat localized electron distributions such as ionic or regionally localized distributions. The correlation operator which is expressed as a two-particle projector is used in conjunction with configuration interaction.

  13. Anaphylatic reaction after Crotalus envenomation treatment in a dog: case report

    L.G. Conceição; N. M. Argôlo Neto; Castro, A. P.; L. B. A. Faria; C.O. Fonterrada

    2007-01-01

    Crotalus envenomation is the second most frequent condition caused by venomous snakes attacking dogs and cats in Brazil. Affected animals show severe neurological and muscular involvement, lower motor neuron signs and myalgia due to extensive rabdomiolysis. The present case report is about Crotalus envenomation in a dog which showed severe clinical and laboratory abnormalities. After treatment with antivenom (specific antidote) and clinical support, the dog totally recovered from that condition.

  14. Charge separation in photoredox reactions. Technical progress report, June 15, 1993--June 15, 1996

    Kevan, L.

    1996-07-01

    The structural aspects controlling charge separation in molecular photoionization reactions in organized molecular assemblies involving micelles, reverse micelles and vesicles and in microporous silica gel materials are being studied by optical and electron magnetic resonance techniques including the time domain technique of deuterium electron spin echo modulation (ESEM) and matrix proton electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) to measure weak electron-nuclear dipolar interactions. ESEM and matrix ENDOR are particularly well adapted to the study of disordered systems as exemplified by micelles and vesicles. In addition to conventional studies by optical absorption and electron spin resonance, ESEM and matrix ENDOR complement each other and enable independent detection and analysis of extremely weak electron-nuclear dipolar interactions which give structural information often not available by other experimental techniques. The complementarity of using both these techniques greatly strengthens the conclusions reached. Since dipolar interactions are averaged out by molecular tumbling in liquid - solutions, their exploitation requires studies in rapidly frozen solutions. A variety of experiments has shown that micellar and vesicular structure is retained in these rapidly frozen solutions. Also, the conformation of x-doxylstearic acid spin probes has been studied as a function of x in cationic and anionic vesicles in liquid solution by detailed simulation of the electron spin resonance lineshapes. The conformation changes with x and with vesicle charge type are the same as independently measured in frozen solutions by variations of the deuterium electron spin echo modulation depth. This shows that embedded photoionizable molecules in frozen vesicle solutions have similar locations and conformations as in liquid vesicle solutions.

  15. Biological reaction mechanism following micro radiation exposure if solitary cells. Final report

    The localized micro irradiation of cells or sub-cellular structures allow the evaluation of several radiobiological questions. Due to the extensive technology only about 10 micro irradiation facilities exist worldwide that use ionizing radiation. Many experiments concerning damage identification, signal transport and recruitment of proteins following induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) were performed with substitute laser irradiation systems. The project was aimed to compare systematically the recruitment of DSB repair proteins and signal factors following ion micro irradiation with different ions and following laser irradiation. The report describes the calibration of the different irradiation systems, the comparison of kinetics of foci formation and persistency, including their number and configuration.

  16. Final Report: Molecular Basis for Microbial Adhesion and Geochemical Surface Reactions: A Study Across Scales

    Dixon, David Adams [The University of Alabama

    2013-06-27

    Computational chemistry was used to help provide a molecular level description of the interactions of Gram-negative microbial membranes with subsurface materials. The goal is to develop a better understanding of the molecular processes involved in microbial metal binding, microbial attachment to mineral surfaces, and, eventually, oxidation/reduction reactions (electron transfer) that can occur at these surfaces and are mediated by the bacterial exterior surface. The project focused on the interaction of the outer microbial membrane, which is dominated by an exterior lipopolysaccharide (LPS) portion, of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the mineral goethite and with solvated ions in the environment. This was originally a collaborative project with T.P. Straatsma and B. Lowery of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The University of Alabama effort used electronic structure calculations to predict the molecular behavior of ions in solution and the behavior of the sugars which form a critical part of the LPS. The interactions of the sugars with metal ions are expected to dominate much of the microscopic structure and transport phenomena in the LPS. This work, in combination with the molecular dynamics simulations of Straatsma and the experimental electrochemistry and microscopy measurements of Lowry, both at PNNL, is providing new insights into the detailed molecular behavior of these membranes in geochemical environments. The effort at The University of Alabama has three components: solvation energies and structures of ions in solution, prediction of the acidity of the critical groups in the sugars in the LPS, and binding of metal ions to the sugar anions. An important aspect of the structure of the LPS membrane as well as ion transport in the LPS is the ability of the sugar side groups such as the carboxylic acids and the phosphates to bind positively charged ions. We are studying the acidity of the acidic side groups in order to better understand the ability of

  17. Does the pressure dependence of kinetic isotope effects report usefully on dynamics in enzyme H-transfer reactions?

    Hoeven, Robin; Heyes, Derren J; Hay, Sam; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2015-08-01

    The temperature dependence of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) has emerged as the main experimental probe of enzymatic H-transfer by quantum tunnelling. Implicit in the interpretation is a presumed role for dynamic coupling of H-transfer chemistry to the protein environment, the so-called 'promoting motions/vibrations hypothesis'. This idea remains contentious, and others have questioned the importance and/or existence of promoting motions/vibrations. New experimental methods of addressing this problem are emerging, including use of mass-modulated enzymes and time-resolved spectroscopy. The pressure dependence of KIEs has been considered as a potential probe of quantum tunnelling reactions, because semi-classical KIEs, which are defined by differences in zero-point vibrational energy, are relatively insensitive to kbar changes in pressure. Reported combined pressure and temperature (p-T) dependence studies of H-transfer reactions are, however, limited. Here, we extend and review the available p-T studies that have utilized well-defined experimental systems in which quantum mechanical tunnelling is established. These include flavoproteins, quinoproteins, light-activated enzymes and chemical model systems. We show that there is no clear general trend between the p-T dependencies of the KIEs in these systems. Given the complex nature of p-T studies, we conclude that computational simulations using determined (e.g. X-ray) structures are also needed alongside experimental measurements of reaction rates/KIEs to guide the interpretation of p-T effects. In providing new insight into H-transfer/environmental coupling, combined approaches that unite both atomistic understanding with experimental rate measurements will require careful evaluation on a case-by-case basis. Although individually informative, we conclude that p-T studies do not provide the more generalized insight that has come from studies of the temperature dependence of KIEs. PMID:25581554

  18. Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform Attenuation Parameter Studies: Heterogeneous Hydrolytic Reactions -- Status Report

    Amonette, James E.; Qafoku, Odeta; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Russell, Colleen K.; Truex, Michael J.

    2009-09-18

    This report documents a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study sought also to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. It was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Office of Environmental Management Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies (CRPST) project and complements work initiated by the Hanford Groundwater Project in FY 2006 that focused primarily on CT in homogenous solution. Work was performed by staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the State University of New York at Cortland (SUNY-Cortland).

  19. Studies of heavy ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, September 1, 1985-August 31, 1986

    Progress is reported of research directed to explore nuclear relaxation and transport phenomena induced in heavy-ion collisions, in the range from near-barrier energies to more than 20 MeV per nucleon above the interaction barrier. Transport processes studied include the redistribution of kinetic energy of relative motion and of linear momentum as well as the gradual relaxation of various conditions of a colliding heavy-ion system, initially far from thermodynamic equilibrium, towards a uniform population of phase space. And, finally, they include the stochastic, equilibrium, and nonequilibrium patterns of nuclear disintegration. The group activities range from design of hardware to theoretical modeling. 112 refs., 56 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Case Report of Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's Disease) with Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Human Papillomavirus 13.

    Brehm, Mary A; Gordon, Katie; Firan, Miahil; Rady, Peter; Agim, Nnenna

    2016-05-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is an uncommon benign proliferation of oral mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly subtypes 13 and 32. The disease typically presents in young Native American patients and is characterized by multiple asymptomatic papules and nodules on the oral mucosa, lips, tongue, and gingiva. The factors that determine susceptibility to FEH are unknown, but the ethnic and geographic distribution of FEH suggests that genetic predisposition, particularly having the human lymphocytic antigen DR4 type, may be involved in pathogenesis. We report a case of FEH with polymerase chain reaction detection of HPV13 in a healthy 11-year-old Hispanic girl and discuss the current understanding of disease pathogenesis, susceptibility, and treatment. PMID:27072123

  1. Search for direct photon production in 200 A GeV S + Au reactions: a status report

    Albrecht, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Awes, T.C.; Barlag, C.; Berger, F.; Bloomer, M.; Blume, C.; Bock, D.; Bock, R.; Bohne, E.; Bucher, D.; Claesson, G.; Claussen, A.; Clewing, G.; Debbe, R.; Dragon, L.; Eklund, A.; Fokin, S.; Garpman, S.; Glasow, R.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Hansen, O.; Hoelker, G.; Idh, J.; Ippolitov, M.; Jacobs, P.; Kampert, K.H.; Karadjev, K.; Kolb, B.W.; Lebedev, A.; Loehner, H.; Lund, I.; Manko, V.; Moskowitz, B.; Obenshain, F.E.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Peitzmann, T.; Plasil, F.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Purschke, M.; Roters, B.; Saini, S.; Santo, R.; Schmidt, H.R.; Soederstrom, K.; Sorensen, S.P.; Stankus, P.W.; Steffens, K.; Steinhaeuser, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stueken, D.; Vinogradov, A.; Wegner, H.; Young, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Univ. Muenster (Germany)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Univ. Lund (Sweden)]|[Kurchatov Inst. of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Univ. Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); WA80 Collaboration

    1995-07-24

    Direct thermal photons in the p{sub T} range of 0 - 5 GeV/c are expected to provide a sensitive probe of the hot dense matter formed in the early stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions. The production of single photons in 200 A GeV S+Au reactions has been investigated using the 3800 element Pbglass calorimeter of CERN experiment WA80. Neutral {pi}{sup 0} and {eta} cross sections have been measured via their two-photon decay branch yields. In a first analysis of the WA80 results, a slight excess photon yield above that which may be accounted for by hadronic decays was observed for central collisions. A report on the status of the reanalysis of this data is presented. (orig.).

  2. Search for direct photon production in 200 A GeV S + Au reactions: a status report

    Direct thermal photons in the pT range of 0 - 5 GeV/c are expected to provide a sensitive probe of the hot dense matter formed in the early stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions. The production of single photons in 200 A GeV S+Au reactions has been investigated using the 3800 element Pbglass calorimeter of CERN experiment WA80. Neutral π0 and η cross sections have been measured via their two-photon decay branch yields. In a first analysis of the WA80 results, a slight excess photon yield above that which may be accounted for by hadronic decays was observed for central collisions. A report on the status of the reanalysis of this data is presented. (orig.)

  3. Search for direct photon production in 200 A GeV S + Au reactions: A status report

    Awes, T.C. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Direct thermal photons in the PT range of 0 - 5 GeV/c are expected to provide a sensitive probe of the hot dense matter formed in the early stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions. The production of single photons in 200 A GeV S+Au reactions has been investigated using the 3800 element Pbglass calorimeter of CERN experiment WA80. Neutral {pi}{sup o} and {eta} cross sections have been measured via their two-photon decay branch yields. In a first analysis of the WA80 results, a slight excess photon yield above that which may be accounted for by hadronic decays was observed for central collisions. A report on the status of the reanalysis of this data is presented.

  4. Nuclear structure and reaction studies at medium energies: Progress report, April 1988-March 1989

    This document constitutes the (1988--1989) progress report for the ongoing medium energy nuclear physics research programs supported by The US Department of Energy through special research grant DE-FG05-88ER40444. A major part of the work has been associated with research done at the Los Alamos Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS), the External Proton Beam (EPB), and the new Neutron Time of Flight Facility (NTOF). Other research has been done at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The research effort focuses on: providing proton + nucleus data which test nonrelativistic and relativistic models of the medium energy proton + nucleus interaction, providing (p,p') and (p,n) data which are to be analyzed to provide new nuclear structure information (both ground state and excited state), providing nucleon + nucleon data to aid in the systematic study of the fundamental nucleon-nucleon interaction, developing and improving the proton + nucleus theoretical models themselves, and initiating new experimental programs whose goals are to search for new phenomena in nuclear physics

  5. Subsurface mineralisation. Rate of CO2 mineralisation and geomechanical effects on host and seal formations. A review of relevant reactions and reaction rate data. First interim report

    There is general agreement that CO2 emissions need to be reduced in order to limit climate change and global warming effects. One way of disposing of carbon dioxide is by subsurface mineralisation, which entails the injection of CO2 into the subsurface where it will be converted into carbonates, and hence rendered immobile. Research on subsurface mineralisation is the main focus of Work Package 4.1 of the Dutch international research programme CATO (CO2 capture, transport and storage). CATO aims to build up a strong and coherent knowledge network, combined with adequate dissemination of knowledge, in the area of CO2 capture, transport and storage. This network will gather and validate knowledge, develop novel technologies for CO2 capture and storage, built up capacity to implement these technologies, and explore to which extent specific Clean Fossil Fuel options are acceptable to society. The principle behind CO2 sequestration by subsurface mineralisation is based on a number of sequential chemical reactions: (1) CO2 dissolves in the reservoir water to form carbonic acid, and subsequently bicarbonate; (2) the bicarbonate reacts with cations present in the reservoir water in order to form stable carbonates. If sufficient cations are present, these reactions can lead to the long term, safe, storage of carbon dioxide as stable carbonates. When CO2 is injected into an impure sandstone reservoir, feldspars and clays present in the rock will act as the cation source, and protons present in the reservoir water, as a result of carbon dioxide dissolution, will leach out the necessary cations from the silicate structure. In order to model the progress, efficiency and geochemical/geomechanical effects of any such mineralisation process, data are needed on the response of appropriate reservoir rocks to CO2 injections.The title PhD project forms part of CATO Workpackage WP 4.1. It aims to (1) determine the reaction rates of any relevant reactions taking place; (2) characterise

  6. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukemoid reaction in a woman with spindle cell sarcoma: a case report

    Lauter Carl B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a case of a patient with marked eosinophilia and neutrophilia as a manifestation of a spindle cell sarcoma. Case presentation A 41-year-old African American woman presented with an enlarging, painful mass in her right knee area. Four years previously, she had had a mass similar to this diagnosed as an osteosarcoma, and had undergone a radical resection and hinge-knee replacement. Before the surgery, she was treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and gemcitabine. A biopsy was taken from the recurrent mass, and histological examination revealed high-grade soft-tissue sarcoma. The patient received no further treatment. Complete blood counts revealed a white blood cell (WBC count of 13.6 to 17.9 × 109/L, with neutrophils being 8.2 to 10.9 × 109/L and eosinophils 1.8 to 1.9 × 109/L. At readmission six months later, WBC was 126.7 × 109/L, with neutrophils being 57.02 × 109/L and eosinophils 60.82 × 109/L. The eosinophils peaked at 77.79 × 109/L two days later. Evaluations for allergies, infection, and autoimmune mechanisms were negative. Bone marrow revealed increased eosinophils without blasts. After resection, blood counts abruptly decreased to the normal range. Pathology confirmed high-grade spindle cell sarcoma. Approximately one year after resection, the patient was readmitted with metastatic disease to her lungs. During this presentation, her eosinophil and neutrophil count was again increased. WBC was 107.8 × 109/L, with eosinophil count of 47.43 × 109/L and neutrophil count of 44.10 × 109/L. Interleukin-5 was normal, and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF was elevated at 208.8 (normal Conclusion In our case, the patient had eosinophilia and neutrophilia associated with a spindle cell sarcoma, possibly representing a paraneoplastic syndrome secondary to GM-CSF. There were no signs of infectious, allergic, or autoimmune causes for the eosinophilia or neutrophilia. Even though the

  7. The vapour phase deposition of boron on titanium by the reaction between gaseous boron trichloride and titanium metal. Final report

    The reaction, between boron trichloride vapour and titanium has been investigated in the temperature range 200 - 1350 deg. C. It has been found that an initial reaction leads to the formation of titanium tetrachloride and the deposition of boron on titanium, but that except for reactions between 900 and 1000 deg. C, the system is complicated by the formation of lower titanium chlorides due to secondary reactions between the titanium and titanium tetrachloride

  8. Adverse reaction to metal bearing leading to femoral stem fractures: a literature review and report of two cases

    Al-Azzani, Waheeb A.K.; Iqbal, Hafiz J.; John, Alun

    2016-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing in total hip replacement (THR) has a high failure rate due to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). There is a spectrum of soft tissue and bony changes in ARMD including muscle necrosis and osteolysis. In our institution, more than 1500 MoM THRs were implanted since 2003. Recently, we have revised significant numbers of these. We report our experience and management of a mode of failure of MoM THR that has been infrequently reported—the distal femoral stem fracture. We report on two patients who presented with worsening pain attributable to fracture of the femoral stem. Severe femoral osteolysis led to loss of proximal stem support and eventual fatigue fracture of the component. Both patients were revised employing a posterior approach. Bone trephine was used to extract a well-fixed distal stem fragment without any windows. Both patients had successful outcome after revision with excellent pain relief and no complications. PMID:26846269

  9. Electrochemical reactions at surfaces. 1976-September, 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1976-September 1980

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    This bibliography covers electrode processes in aqueous solutions. The citations discuss battery electrode reactions, fuel cell reactions, electrochemical corrosion studies, catalyst reactions, chemisorption, theoretical analysis, electrical double layer, and measurement techniques. Also included are some molten salt processes. (This updated bibliography contains 148 citations, 23 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  10. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome (DRESS) syndrome associated with azithromycin presenting like septic shock: a case report

    Sriratanaviriyakul, Narin; Nguyen, Lam-Phuong; Henderson, Mark C.; Timothy E Albertson

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome is a potentially life-threatening cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction characterized by extensive mucocutaneous eruption, fever, hematologic abnormalities including eosinophilia and/or atypical lymphocytosis, and extensive organ involvement. The drugs most often responsible for causing drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome are anticonvulsants, antimicrobial agents and antipyretic or anti-inflam...

  11. Low energy ion-molecule reaction dynamics and chemiionization kinetics: Progress report, February 1, 1985-January 31, 1988

    The research program at Rochester is devoted to an understanding of the dynamics of elementary gas phase ionic reactions by using the molecular beam methods. We seek to elucidate pathways for energy disposal in elementary reactions, with the goal of using this information to understand the topology of the potential surfaces which govern the reaction, applying the results to ionic channels in combustion systems. We have made significant accomplishments in several distinct areas of research in crossed beam studies of ion-neutral reaction dynamics in the past three years. Our research has focused on the following topics and has resulted in 15 publications and submissions to major journals, with several additional manuscripts in preparation: dynamics of gas phase proton transfer reactions, gas phase carbon and methyl cation chemistry, reactive scattering from double minimum potentials, reactions of highly vibrationally excited ions: NH3+ + D2, and electron and proton transfer reactions of anions. 9 refs

  12. Analysis of 251 cases of adverse drug reactions in our hospital report%我院251例药品不良反应报告分析

    唐锦辉

    2013-01-01

      purpose: to understand adverse drug reactions in our hospital (Adverse Drug Reaction) the incidence and relevant factors, provide reference for rational drug use, avoid the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Methods: 251 cases on our 2011 colection statistics, analysis of ADR reports. Results 251 cases ADR report total involved 16 class drugs, vein drops note is caused ADR of main to drug way (201 cases); antibiotics occurred rate Supreme (142 cases), second is proprietary Chinese medicines (28 cases), and antipyretic analgesia drug (20 cases), and anti-tumor drug (16 cases), and effect blood and hematopoietic system of drug (12 cases); clinical performance main for skin and damage (99 cases), accounted for 39.44%, digestive system of of damage (75 cases) accounted for 29.88%. Conclusion: ADR is related to many factors relevant to clinical ADR monitoring work should be strengthened to reduce or avoid the occurrence of ADR.

  13. Seriousness, preventability, and burden impact of reported adverse drug reactions in Lombardy emergency departments: a retrospective 2-year characterization

    Perrone V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Valentina Perrone,1,* Valentino Conti,2,* Mauro Venegoni,2 Stefania Scotto,2 Luca Degli Esposti,3 Diego Sangiorgi,3 Lucia Prestini,4 Sonia Radice,1 Emilio Clementi,5,6 Giuseppe Vighi,2,4 1Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University Hospital Luigi Sacco, Università di Milano, Milan, Italy; 2Regional Centre for Pharmacovigilance, Lombardy, Milan, Italy; 3CliCon Srl, Health, Economics and Outcomes Research, Ravenna, Italy; 4Unit of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacovigilance, Niguarda Ca’Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University Hospital Luigi Sacco, Università di Milano, Milan, Italy; 6Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Lecco, Italy *These authors contributed equally to the work Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs reported in emergency departments (EDs and carry out a thorough characterization of these to assess preventability, seriousness that required hospitalization, subsequent 30-day mortality, and economic burden. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of data from an active pharmacovigilance project at 32 EDs in the Lombardy region collected between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011. Demographic, clinical, and pharmacological data on patients admitted to EDs were collected by trained and qualified monitors, and deterministic record linkage was performed to estimate hospitalizations. Pharmacoeconomic analyses were based on Diagnosis-Related Group reimbursement. Results: 8,862 ADRs collected with an overall prevalence rate of 3.5 per 1,000 visits. Of all ADRs, 42% were probably/definitely preventable and 46.4% were serious, 15% required hospitalization, and 1.5% resulted in death. The System Organ Classes most frequently associated with ADRs were: skin and subcutaneous tissue, gastrointestinal

  14. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions. Progress report, January 1, 1993 - September 1, 1995

    This work involves the study of low and intermediate energy heavy-ion nuclear reactions. This work has two foci. First, the authors desired to learn about the properties of both nuclei and nuclear matter under abnormal conditions. Their efforts towards this end run abreast of those for their second focus which is the study of the relevant reaction mechanisms. The two objectives are inexorably linked because their experimental laboratory for studying nuclear properties is a dynamic one. Their task is to answer the questions of how nuclear and nuclear matter properties are reflected in the dynamics of the reactions. The second objective also has great intrinsic value in that they can anticipate improving upon their understanding of the reaction mechanism themselves and therefore to the response characteristics of finite, perhaps non-equilibrium, strongly interacting systems. The program has been: to study the dynamics of fusion reactions, specifically the dynamics of energy, mass, and angular momentum deposition. This work includes reactions near the Coulomb barrier, where fusion dominates the reaction cross section as well as higher energies where incomplete fusion reactions are the primary reactions. This includes the dynamics of fission, still the premier example of collective nuclear motion, as a function of excitation, spin, mass, and mass asymmetry. The authors push these kinds of studies into the intermediate energy domain, and where novel reaction scenarios are predicted. They have studied very central and peripheral collisions between very massive nuclei, and simplified projectile fragmentation reactions utilizing medium to light mass projectiles. The study of central collisions has shown us the importance of collective expansion. The study of peripheral collisions between very heavy nuclei has demonstrated the importance of dynamical production of fragments from the neck region

  15. Evaluation of patient reporting of adverse drug reactions to the UK ‘Yellow Card Scheme’: literature review, descriptive and qualitative analyses, and questionnaire surveys

    Avery, A J; Anderson, Claire; Bond, C M; Fortnum, H.; Gifford, A.; Hannaford, P. C.; Hazell, L; Krska, J; Lee, A. J.; McLernon, D. J.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Shakir, S; Watson, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The monitoring of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) through pharmacovigilance is vital to patient safety. Spontaneous reporting of ADRs is one method of pharmacovigilance, and in the UK this is undertaken through the Yellow Card Scheme (YCS). Yellow Card reports are submitted to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) by post, telephone or via the internet. The MHRA electronically records and reviews information submitted so that important safety ...

  16. How should we manage a patient with invasive mucoromycosis who develops life-threatening reaction to amphotericin B? Report of two cases and literature review

    Fereshte Sheybani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This report presents two cases of invasive rhino-orbital mucormycosis who had life-threatening reactions to amphotericin B. Both cases were treated with a combination of posaconazole–caspofungin favorably with no evidence of recurrence upon long-term follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of invasive mucormycosis with azole–echinocandin combination. It may suggest that caspofungin exerts additional or even synergistic antimucoral effects to posaconazole.

  17. A Qualitative Report of the Ways High School Chemistry Students Attempt to Represent a Chemical Reaction at the Atomic/Molecular Level

    Kern, Anne L.; Wood, Nathan B.; Roehrig, Gillian H.; Nyachwaya, James

    2010-01-01

    We report the findings of a large-scale (n = 1,337) qualitative descriptive analysis of U.S. high schools students' particulate representations of a chemical reaction, specifically, the combustion of methane. Data were collected as part of an end of course exam. Student representations were coded into 17 distinct subcategories under one of five…

  18. Synthesis of the Reported Pyranonaphthoquinone Structure of the Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase Inhibitor Annulin B by Regioselective Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Inman, Martyn; Carvalho, Catarina; Lewis, William; Moody, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    Annulin B, isolated from the marine hydroid isolated from Garveia annulata, is a potent inhibitor of the tryptophan catabolizing enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). A synthesis of the reported pyranonaphthoquinone structure is described, in which the key step is a regioselective Diels-Alder reaction between a pyranobenzoquinone dienophile and a silyl ketene acetal diene. PMID:27513176

  19. Cross Sections for Neutron-induced Reactions on Actinide Targets Extracted from Surrogate Experiments: A Status Report

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Lesher, S R; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J; Younes, W

    2009-10-01

    The Surrogate nuclear reactions method, an indirect approach for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving difficult-to-measure targets, is reviewed. Focusing on cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on actinides, we review the successes of past and present applications of the method and assess its uncertainties and limitations. The approximations used in the analyses of most experiments work reasonably well for (n,f) cross sections for neutron energies above 1-2 MeV, but lead to discrepancies for low-energy (n,f) reactions, as well as for (n,{gamma}) applications. Correcting for some of the effects neglected in the approximate analyses leads to improved (n,f) results. We outline steps that will further improve the accuracy and reliability of the Surrogate method and extend its applicability to reactions that cannot be approached with the present implementation of the method.

  20. Individual Reactions of Permanganate and Various Reductants - Student Report to the DOE ERULF Program for Work Conducted May to July 2000

    Gauger, Amber M.; Hallen, Richard T.

    2012-09-15

    Tank waste on the Hanford Site contains radioactive elements that need to be removed from solution prior to disposal. One effective way to do this is to precipitate the radioactive elements with manganese solids, produced by permanganate oxidation. When added to tank waste, the permanganate reacts quickly producing manganese (IV) dioxide precipitate. Because of the speed of the reaction it is difficult to tell what exactly is happening. Individual reactions using non-radioactive reductants found in the tanks were done to determine reaction kinetics, what permanganate was reduced to, and what oxidation products were formed. In this project sodium formate, sodium nitrite, glycolic acid, glycine, and sodium oxalate were studied using various concentrations of reductant in alkaline sodium hydroxide solutions. It was determined that formate reacted the quickest, followed by glycine and glycolic acid. Oxalate and nitrite did not appear to react with the permanganate solutions. The products of the oxidation reaction were examined. Formate was oxidized to carbonate and water. Glycolic acid was oxidized slower producing oxalate and water. Glycine reactions formed some ammonia in solution, oxalate, and water. The research reported by Amber Gauger in this report was part of a DOE ERULF student intern program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under the direction of Richard Hallen in the summer of 2000.

  1. An investigation of the role of water on retrograde/condensation reactions and enhanced liquefaction yields. Final report

    Miknis, F.P.; Netzel, D.A.; Wallace, J.C. Jr.; Butcher, C.H.; Mitzel, J.M.; Turner, T.F.

    1995-02-01

    While great strides have been made in developing the technology of coal liquefaction processes in recent years, many unsolved problems still remain before a viable and economical process can be achieved. The technological problems that still exist can be solved through a more fundamental understanding of the chemistry associated with each stage of the coal liquefaction process, starting with any pretreatment steps that may be carried out on the coal itself. Western Research Institute, under the a contract from the US Department of Energy, has conducted a study of different methods of coal drying as pretreatment steps before liquefaction. The results of that study are the subject of this report. Coals that were dried or partially dried thermally and with microwaves had lower liquefaction conversions than coals containing equilibrium moisture contents. However, chemically dried coals had conversions equal to or greater than the premoisturized coals. The conversion behavior is consistent with changes in the physical structure and cross linking reactions because of drying. Thermal and microwave drying appear to cause a collapse in the pore structure, thus preventing donor solvents such as tetralin from contacting reactive sites inside the coals. Chemical dehydration does not appear to collapse the pore structure. From the study of the kinetics of the chemical dehydration of coals, it was possible to quantify the amount of water on the surface, the amount readily accessible in pores, and the amount more strongly bonded in the internal structure of the coals. The results indicate that high-rank coals have proportionally less surface and easily accessible water than the lower rank coals.

  2. Seriousness, preventability, and burden impact of reported adverse drug reactions in Lombardy emergency departments: a retrospective 2-year characterization

    Perrone, Valentina; Conti, Valentino; Venegoni, Mauro; Scotto, Stefania; Degli Esposti, Luca; Sangiorgi, Diego; Prestini, Lucia; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio; Vighi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported in emergency departments (EDs) and carry out a thorough characterization of these to assess preventability, seriousness that required hospitalization, subsequent 30-day mortality, and economic burden. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of data from an active pharmacovigilance project at 32 EDs in the Lombardy region collected between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011. Demographic, clinical, and pharmacological data on patients admitted to EDs were collected by trained and qualified monitors, and deterministic record linkage was performed to estimate hospitalizations. Pharmacoeconomic analyses were based on Diagnosis-Related Group reimbursement. Results 8,862 ADRs collected with an overall prevalence rate of 3.5 per 1,000 visits. Of all ADRs, 42% were probably/definitely preventable and 46.4% were serious, 15% required hospitalization, and 1.5% resulted in death. The System Organ Classes most frequently associated with ADRs were: skin and subcutaneous tissue, gastrointestinal, respiratory thoracic and mediastinal, and nervous system disorders. The most common Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classes involved in admissions were J (anti-infectives and immunomodulating agents), B (blood and blood-forming organs), and N (nervous system). Older age, yellow and red triage, higher number of concomitantly taken drugs, and previous attendance in ED for the same ADR were significantly associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. The total cost associated with ADR management was €5,184,270, with a mean cost per patient of €585. Fifty-eight percent of the economic burden was defined as probably/definitely preventable. Conclusion ADRs are a serious health/economic issue in EDs. This assessment provides a thorough estimation of their seriousness, preventability, and burden impact in a large population from a representative European region. PMID

  3. Inert Electrodes Program: Characterization of the reaction layer or film on PNL (Pacific Northwest Laboratory) inert anodes: Progress Report for April-December 1989

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Stice, N.D.

    1990-05-01

    This progress report addresses activities conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) between April 1989 and December 1989 to characterize the reaction layer or film previously proposed by PNL to form on cermet anodes during the electrolytic production of aluminum in Hall-Heroult cells. Formation of this resistive film was thought to protect the cermet anode from corrosion reactions that would otherwise occur in the molten cryolite electrolyte. The results of potential-step studies, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem microscopic analysis of polarized anodes suggest that the processes of corrosion of the metallic phase of the anode and the production of oxygen gas are separable and exhibit very different kinetic behavior. The corrosion reactions occur predominantly at low anode potentials, appear to show diffusion control, and may be related to the porosity of the anode. The oxygen production reaction is the predominant reaction above 2.2 V, exhibits activation control, occurs primarily on the surface of the anode, and is accompanied by an increase in surface roughness at higher current densities. Evidence presented in this report indicates that the production of oxygen shuts down the corrosion reactions, possibly through a pore-blocking mechanism. In addition, roughness effects may help explain some of the impedance relationships previously observed by PNL for these anodes. Although the present results do not rule out the formation of a protective layer or film, they strongly indicate mechanisms other than the formation of a macroscopic protective film for the apparent attenuation of corrosion reactions at typical operating current densities. 11 refs.

  4. The adsorption and reaction of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOC's) on metal oxides. Annual progress report, September 1996 - October 1997

    'The interactions of carbon tetrachloride with strongly basic oxides and hydroxides have been studied by several techniques in order to understand the surface reactions and the subsequent bulk reactions that result in the destruction of the chlorinated hydrocarbon. Emphasis has been placed on understanding the surface phases, as well as the bulk phases, that are present during these transformations. As a result of the study with barium oxide, a reaction cycle has been demonstrated that may have practical significance in the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons.'

  5. Theoretical nuclear reaction and structure studies using kaons and photons: Final technical report, June 1, 1979--September 1, 1988

    The research topics of this program have involved several sectors of nuclear and particle physics. In addition to studying reactions involving kaons and photons/endash/a project treating K+ meson elastic scattering, K+ photo and electroproduction, hypernuclear photo-excitation and photo-proton knockout reactions with delta isobar formation, this research program has also investigated symmetry principles and their usefulness in reaction theory. This paper provides a brief overview of the major scientific findings and cite key, representative publications containing full details

  6. Oxidation reaction of ferrocytochrome C by ferricyanide as a probe to effects of alcohols on structure and reactivity of the protein. Technical progress report

    Ilan, Y.; Shafferman, A.

    1977-05-01

    Results are reported on the effect of ethanol on the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c by ferricyanide and its cumulative effect with pH and temperature, on structure and spectra of cytochrome c. It is concluded that low concentrations of alcohols which do not change dramatically the structure and physical properties of cytochrome c, but produce changes in the structure of water, cause small changes in the structure of the protein. This is manifested by the shift in the pKa, and also in the retardation of the redox reactions. This indicates that water molecules participate in the reaction complex of cytochrome c with its redox substrates. (DLC)

  7. Summary report of third research coordination meeting on parameters for calculation of nuclear reactions of relevance to non-energy nuclear applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III)

    A summary is given of the Third and Final Research Coordination Meeting on Parameters for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions of Relevance to Non-Energy Nuclear Applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III), including a review of the various work undertaken by participants. The new RIPL-3 library should serve as input for theoretical calculations of nuclear reaction data at incident energies up to 200 MeV, as needed for modern energy and non-energy applications of nuclear data. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan to conclude the data evaluation activities are summarized. Timescales and agreed actions to deliver the database and Technical Report are also given. Participants' summary reports at the RCM are included in this report. (author)

  8. Methodology for Estimating the Risk of Adverse Drug Reactions in Pregnant Women: Analysis of the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database.

    Sakai, Takamasa; Ohtsu, Fumiko; Sekiya, Yasuaki; Mori, Chiyo; Sakata, Hiroshi; Goto, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

      Safety information regarding drug use during pregnancy is insufficient. The present study aimed to establish an optimal signal detection method to identify adverse drug reactions in pregnant women and to evaluate information in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database between April 2004 and November 2014. We identified reports on pregnant women using the Standardised MedDRA Queries. We calculated the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and reporting odds ratio (ROR) of the risk factors for the two known risks of antithyroid drugs and methimazole (MMI) embryopathy, and ritodrine and fetal/infant cardiovascular events. The PRR and ROR values differed between all reports in the JADER database and those on pregnant women, affecting whether signal detection criteria were met. Therefore we considered that reports on pregnant women should be used when risks associated with pregnancy were determined using signal detection. Analyses of MMI embryopathy revealed MMI signals [PRR, 159.7; ROR, 669.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 282.4-1588.7] but no propylthiouracil signals (PRR, 1.98; ROR, 2.0; 95%CI, 0.3-15.4). These findings were consistent with those of reported risks. Analyses of fetal/infant cardiovascular events revealed ritodrine signals (PRR, 2.1; ROR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.3). These findings were also consistent with reported risks. Mining the JADER database was helpful for analyzing adverse drug reactions in pregnant women. PMID:26935093

  9. Adverse reactions of Methylphenidate in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: Report from a referral center

    Khajehpiri, Zahra; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Faghihi, Toktam; Karimzadeh, Iman; Khalili, Hossein; Mohammadi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine various aspects of methylphenidate adverse reactions in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Iran. Methods: During the 6 months period, all children under methylphenidate treatment alone or along with other agents attending a university-affiliated psychology clinic were screened regarding all subjective and objective adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of methylphenidate. Causality and seriousness of detected ADRs ...

  10. Mixing and non-equilibrium chemical reaction in a compressible mixing layer. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    Steinberger, Craig J.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of compressibility, chemical reaction exothermicity, and non-equilibrium chemical modeling in a reacting plane mixing layer were investigated by means of two dimensional direct numerical simulations. The chemical reaction was irreversible and second order of the type A + B yields Products + Heat. The general governing fluid equations of a compressible reacting flow field were solved by means of high order finite difference methods. Physical effects were then determined by examining the response of the mixing layer to variation of the relevant non-dimensionalized parameters. The simulations show that increased compressibility generally results in a suppressed mixing, and consequently a reduced chemical reaction conversion rate. Reaction heat release was found to enhance mixing at the initial stages of the layer growth, but had a stabilizing effect at later times. The increased stability manifested itself in the suppression or delay of the formation of large coherent structures within the flow. Calculations were performed for a constant rate chemical kinetics model and an Arrhenius type kinetic prototype. The choice of the model was shown to have an effect on the development of the flow. The Arrhenius model caused a greater temperature increase due to reaction than the constant kinetic model. This had the same effect as increasing the exothermicity of the reaction. Localized flame quenching was also observed when the Zeldovich number was relatively large.

  11. Reações aos diferentes pigmentos de tatuagens: relato de dois casos Reactions to the different pigments in tattoos: a report of two cases

    Fernanda André Martins Cruz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A tatuagem é definida como deposição de pigmento intencional ou acidental na pele. Os pigmentos têm sido associados a diversas dermatoses, como a dermatite de contato alérgica, a dermatite liquenoide e as reações fotoinduzidas, granulomatosas, sarcoídeas e pseudolinfomatosas. Enfocam-se os diversos tipos de reações aos pigmentos e a importância de reconhecê-los clinicamente. São relatados dois casos: um de dermatite liquenoide sobre o pigmento vermelho e outro de pseudolinfoma sobre os pigmentos vermelho e lilás e de reação fotoinduzida sobre o amarelo. A remoção geralmente requer múltiplos tratamentos, e a maioria não retira as cores completamente.Tattoos are defined as the intentional or accidental deposit of pigment into the skin. These pigments have been associated with various dermatoses such as allergic contact dermatitis, lichenoid dermatitis, photoinduced reactions, and granulomatous, sarcoid and pseudolymphomatous reactions. The objective of this report was to describe the various types of reactions to pigments and the importance of recognizing them clinically. Two cases are reported: one of lichenoid dermatitis resulting from a reaction to the red pigment of a tattoo and the other of a pseudolymphoma resulting from a reaction to red and lilac pigments and a photo-induced reaction to a yellow pigment. Removal generally requires multiple forms of treatment, most of which fail to remove the colors completely.

  12. Photogenerated carrier-induced reactions on uhv semiconductor surfaces. Technical progress report, December 15, 1989--December 14, 1992

    Osgood, R.M. Jr.

    1992-05-28

    The objective for this experimental work was to examine the reaction mechanisms, half-collision dynamics, and other optically induced chemical effects, that are operable on a well characterized single-crystal semiconductor surface. Of particular interest were reactions induced by charge transfer from the semiconductor surface including hot carrier and thermalized carrier processes. The primary technique to measure the desorbed fragment translational energies was time-of-flight mass-spectroscopy, used in conjunction with a pulsed tunable laser source. The work was carried out in ultrahigh vacuum, thus other surface spectroscopies such as temperature-programmed desorption, (TPD), (LEED), etc. were used as needed. In the project, the photoreactions of several halogen-containing molecules on GaAs(110) surfaces have been investigated. The studies have made the first observations of several new photochemical processes on uhv prepared surfaces including intermolecular charge transfer; desorption by thermal-carrier-induced reactions (including the measurement of coverage-dependent changes in the translational energies of the desorbed products); interferometric oscillation of photoinduced reactions; and self-quenching of thermal carrier reactions on surfaces.

  13. Pulse radiolysis studies of fast reactions in molecular systems. Progress report, February 1, 1981-September 30, 1982

    The rates of elementary chemical reactions in irradiated solutions are being studied by observation of the formation and decay of reactive intermediates using the pulse radiolysis technique. These short-lived species are monitored by fast optical absorption measurement; optical absorption spectra of the transients are also obtained. Reactive species currently of interest include organic molecule ions (both cations and anions) and radical anions. Transition metal carbonyl radicals in solution, another category of intermediates, are also under investigation. Since the reactions are initiated by a pulse of high energy electrons, this work inherently relates to radiation chemical systems. The information obtained is also of interest in various areas of organic reaction kinetics in which ions play a central role. In the area of homogeneous catalysis, the reactivity of transition metal carbonyl radicals is of interest. Current activities are directed at reactivity of organic ionic species (carbocations and carbanions) in irradiated solutions; and optical spectra and reactivities of transition metal carbonyl radicals

  14. Summary report of second research coordination meeting on parameters for calculation of nuclear reactions of relevance to non-energy nuclear application (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III)

    A summary is given of the Second Research Coordination Meeting on Parameters for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions of Relevance to Non-Energy Nuclear Applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III), including a review of the various work undertaken by participants. The new RIPL-3 library should serve as input for theoretical calculations of nuclear reaction data at incident energies up to 200 MeV, as needed for energy and non-energy modern applications of nuclear data. Significant progress was achieved in defining the contents of the RIPL-3 library. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme are summarized, along with actions and deadlines. Participants' summary reports at the RCM are also included in this report. (author)

  15. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations. Progress report, February 15, 1978--February 14, 1979

    High energy reactions of halogen atoms or ions, activated by nuclear transformations, were studied in gaseous, high pressure and condensed phase saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, halomethanes and other organic systems in order to better understand the mechanisms and dynamics of high energy monovalent species. The experimental and theoretical program consists of six interrelated areas: (1) the reactions of iodine with alkenes and alkynes activated by radiative neutron capture and isomeric transition in low pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators, high pressure and liquid systems; (2) the gas to condensed state transition in halogen high chemistry, involving bromine activated by the (n,γ) and (I.T.) processes in ethane was investigated in more detail; (3) systematics of halogen hot atom reactions. The reactions of 80Br/sup m/, 80Br, 82Br/sup m/ + 82Br, 82Br, 128I, 130I, and 130I/sup m/ + 130I activated by radiative neutron capture or isomeric transition in hydrocarbons and halo-substituted alkanes in low pressure and high pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators; (4) kinetic theory applications of high energy reactions and mathematical development of caging mechanisms were developed; (5) the sterochemistry of 38Cl substitution reactions involving diastereomeric 1,2-dichloro-1,2-difluorethane in liquid mixtures was completed, suggesting that the stereochemical course of the substitution process is controlled by the properties of the solvent molecules; and (6) the applications of high energy chemistry techniques and theory to neutron activation analysis of biological systems was continued, especially involving aluminum and vanadium trace determinations

  16. Analysis of adverse reaction reports of penicillin drugs%青霉素类药物不良反应报告分析

    张兵; 冯变玲; 赵晓红; 吉天天

    2013-01-01

    目的比较注射与口服青霉素类药物不良反应的差别。方法采用回顾性分析方法对2007~2012年江苏省不良反应中心收集到的青霉素类药品的不良反应报告进行分析。结果江苏省注射用青霉素的不良反应数为6082例,占92.98%;口服青霉素的不良反应数为454例,占6.94%。注射用青霉素有新的严重的不良反应2例。注射用青霉素不良反应病例经治疗后有9例死亡病例,3例病人留下后遗症;口服青霉素的不良反应经治疗后均痊愈或好转。结论口服青霉素类药物不良反应数量少,且严重程度低,经治疗后无死亡或留下后遗症的病例。%Objective Compare with injection penicillin drugs and oral penicillin drugs for ADR .Method The adverse reaction re-ports of penicillin drugs collected by Jiangsu adverse reaction center from 2007 to 2012 were analyzed retrospectively .Result The case number of adverse reactions of injection penicillin was 6 082 ,accounting for 92 .98% ;Oral penicillin adverse reactions num-ber was 454 cases ,accounting for 6 .94% ;The injection penicillin drugs had new serious adverse reactions in 2 cases ;After the treatment of injection penicillin adverse reaction ,9 cases were die and 3 cases left sequela ;On the other hand ,the cases of oral penicillin adverse reactions were recoveried or better after treatment .Conclusion For the adverse drug reactions of oral penicillin , the quantity was less and the serious degree was low and no death or sequela was reported after treatment .

  17. Acoustic signal processing for the detection of sodium boiling or sodium-water reaction in LMFRs. Final report of a co-ordinated research programme 1990-1995

    This report is a summary of the work performed under a co-ordinated research programme entitled Acoustic Signal Processing for the Detection of Sodium Boiling or Sodium-Water Reaction in Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactors. The programme was organized by the IAEA and carried out from 1990 to 1995. It was the continuation of an earlier research co-ordination programme entitled Signal Processing Techniques for Sodium Boiling Noise Detection, which was carried out from 1984 to 1989. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. The first technical report for the improvement of R and D evaluation : Focusing on the evaluation reaction of R and D project investigator

    Yeo, Ji Won; Kim, I.C.; Won, B.C.; Kim, M.R. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-12-01

    The main objectives of this report are as follows. - Measuring the project manager's reaction on R and D evaluation and determining its influencing factors. - Testing the relationship between personal characteristics (tolence for ambiguity, risk-taking propensity, self-efficacy, Turn-over intention) and the outcome of Project Evaluation. - Presenting the useful information related to rebuilding a R and D Evaluation System of KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). 72 refs., 6 figs., 41 tabs. (Author)

  19. Development of a high-density gas-jet target for nuclear astrophysics and reaction studies with rare isotope beams. Final Report

    Uwe, Greife [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-08-12

    The purpose of this project was to develop a high-density gas jet target that will enable a new program of transfer reaction studies with rare isotope beams and targets of hydrogen and helium that is not currently possible and will have an important impact on our understanding of stellar explosions and of the evolution of nuclear shell structure away from stability. This is the final closeout report for the project.

  20. Anaphylactic reaction to platelet transfusion as the initial symptom of an undiagnosed systemic mastocytosis: a case report and review of the literature

    Blieden, Clifford R.; Campuzano-Zuluaga, German; Moul, Adrienne; Chapman, Jennifer R.; Cioffi-Lavina, Maureen; Offiong F Ikpatt; Byrne, Gerald E.; Vega, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The association between anaphylactic reactions and systemic mastocytosis is well documented. However, platelet transfusion has not previously been reported as a potential elicitor of anaphylaxis in the context of systemic mastocytosis. Case presentation We describe the clinicopathological findings of a 59-year-old Latin American man who presented to the emergency room with fatigue, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia and mild hepatosplenomegaly. He developed two separate, temporally a...

  1. Final Report: The Impact of Carbonate on Surface Protonation, Electron Transfer and Crystallization Reactions in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Colloids

    Dixon, David Adams [The University of Alabama

    2013-07-02

    This project addresses key issues of importance in the geochemical behavior of iron oxides and in the geochemical cycling of carbon and iron. For Fe, we are specifically studying the influence of carbonate on electron transfer reactions, solid phase transformations, and the binding of carbonate to reactive sites on the edges of particles. The emphasis on carbonate arises because it is widely present in the natural environment, is known to bind strongly to oxide surfaces, is reactive on the time scales of interest, and has a speciation driven by acid-base reactions. The geochemical behavior of carbonate strongly influences global climate change and CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies. Our goal is to answer key questions with regards to specific site binding, electron transfer reactions, and crystallization reactions of iron oxides that impact both the geochemical cycling of iron and CO{sub 2} species. Our work is focused on the molecular level description of carbonate chemistry in solution including the prediction of isotope fractionation factors. We have also done work on critical atmospheric species.

  2. Kinetic study of radical-aromatic hydrocarbon reactions. Annual progress report No. 3, 1 May 1980-31 March 1981

    During the last 12 months, the analysis of some of the data on OH reactions with benzene and toluenes were completed. The following OH reactions were also studied: OH + o-xylene → products at 298-870 K; OH + m-xylene → products at 250-970 K; and OH + p-xylene → products at 298-970 K. This work is now complete and has been written up for publication in the Journal of Physical Chemistry. Apart from the above-mentioned OH reactions, the following O(3P) reactions have been studied utilizing the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique: O(3P) + C6H6 → products at 298-870 K (1); O(3P) + C6D6 → products at 298-806 K (2); O(3P) + C6H5CH3 → products at 298-930 K (3); O(3P) + C6H5CD3 → products at 298-930 K (4); O(3P) + o-xylene → products at 298-970 K (5); O(3P) + m-xylene → products at 298-970 K (6); and O(3P) + p-xylene → products at 298-970 K

  3. Report on the consultants' meeting on technical aspects of the co-operation of nuclear reaction data centers

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convenes in annual intervals coordination meetings of the Network of the Nuclear Reaction Data Center. The present meeting dealt with technical matters of the nuclear data compilation and exchange by means of the jointly operated computerized systems CINDA, EXFOR, ENDF and others. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. The Information Content of Note Disclosures and MD&A Information in the Financial Report – A Study of Market Reactions in Denmark

    Thinggaard, Frank; Sønderby Jeppesen, Carsten; Madsen, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of disclosures in the financial report constitutes a significant cost to most companies, but do the disclosures have information content to investors? This paper examines stock market reactions to the release of note disclosures and MD&A (management discussion and analysis......) information. The study is based on data from the Danish capital market in 2006-2009 because here it is largely possible to isolate the release of such information from other information in the financial report. The primary results suggest that for some companies, note disclosures and information in the MD...

  5. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations. Progress report, February 15, 1979-February 14, 1980

    The program consists of six interrelated areas: (1) Reactions of iodine with alkenes and alkynes activated by radiative neutron capture and isomeric transition in low pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators, high pressure, and liquid systems. Special attention was given to the reactivity of excited complex formation and structural effects of electrophilic iodine attack on various pi-bond systems. (2) The gas-to-condensed phase transition in halogen high energy chemistry. Current interest involves the study of caging effects of an ice lattice on recombination reactions involving neutron-irradiated frozen aqueous solutions of halogenated organic and biochemical solutes in order to learn more about kinetic energy effects, halogen size, solute molecule size, steric effects and hydrogen bonding within an ice lattice cage. (3) Systematics of halogen hot atom reactions. The reactions of /sup 80m/Br, 80Br, /sup 82m/Br + 82Br, 82Br, 82Br, 128I, 130I, and /sup 130m/I + 130I activated by radiative neutron capture or isomeric transition in hydrocarbons and halo-substituted alkanes in low pressure and high pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators are currently being studied. (4) Mathematical and computer simulation studies of caging events within an ice lattice are being investigated. (5) At Brookhaven National Laboratory, cyclotron-produced chlorine and fluorine hot atoms substitution reactions with molecules possessing a single chiral center are under investigation. (6) The applications of high energy techniques and concepts to neutron activation analysis for trace elements and trace molecule determinations in biological systems was continued

  6. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations. Progress report, February 15, 1980-February 14, 1981

    The stereochemistry of high energy 18F, /sup 34m/Cl, and 76Br substitution reactions involving enantiomeric molecules in the gas and condensed phase is studied. The gas to condensed state transition in halogen high energy chemistry, involving chlorine, bromine, and iodine activated by the (n,γ) and (I.T.) processes in halomethanes, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons is being investigated in more detail. Special attention is given to defining the nature of the enhancement yields in the condensed phase. High energy halogen reactions in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of organic and biomolecular solutes are studied in an attempt to learn more about these reactions. The applications of high energy chemistry techniques and theory to neutron activation analysis of biological systems are being continued. Special attention is given to developing procedures for trace molecular determinations in biological systems. The applications of hot halogen atoms as indicators of solute-solute interactions in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of halogenated bases and nucleosides are being developed. Experiments are designed to explain the mechanisms of the radioprotection offered biomolecular solutes trapped within the frozen ice lattice. Reactions of bromine and iodine activated by isomeric transition with halogenated biomolecular solutes in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions are studied. The high energy reactions of iodine with the isomers of pentene have been studied in low pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators and liquid systems. Reactivity of excited complex formation and structural effects of electrophilic iodine attack on the pi-bond systems are studied

  7. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions: [Progress report for the period July 1, 1985 through December 31, 1986

    The production of large fragments, fragments with mass between light particles and fission fragments, in intermediate and high energy nuclear reactions has fostered the proposal of a number of novel reaction mechanisms. These include liquid-vapor equilibrium and nuclear shattering. Temporarily left in the wake of these exciting proposed mechanisms was the old standard, statistical decay of compound nuclei. To be sure, the standard treatment of compound nucleus decay did not deal with large fragment production. However, this omission was not due to any fundamental deficiency of statistical models, but rather an uncertainty concerning exactly how to splice large fragment emission into statistical models. A large portion of our program deals with this problem. Specifically, by studying the yields of large fragments produced in sufficiently low energy reactions we are attempting to deduce the asymmetry and l-wave dependence of large fragment emission from compound nuclear intermediates. This, however, is only half of the problem. Since the novel mechanisms proposed for large fragment emission were spawned by intermediate and high energy reaction data, we must also realize the relevance of the compound nucleus mechanisms at high energies. It is not unreasonable to suspect that compound nucleus-like objects are formed with less than complete momentum transfer and perhaps less than complete mass transfer. Therefore the study of large fragment production in low energy reactions should go hand in hand with the study of energy, mass, and angular momentum transfer in non-compound reactions. This thread joins the apparently divergent subjects covered in this report. 32 refs., 20 figs

  8. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. Progress report for the period September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1993-09-06

    This is a progress report on activities of the Washington University group in nuclear reaction studies for the period Sept 1, 1992 to Aug 31, 1993. This group has a research program which touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin; studies at the interface between structure and reactions; production and study of hot nuclei; reaction mechanism studies; development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in the above areas of research. Specific activities of the group include in part: superdeformation in {sup 82}Sr; structure of and identical bands in {sup 182}Hg and {sup 178}Pt; a highly deformed band in {sup 136}Pm; particle decay of the {sup 164}Yb compound nucleus; fusion reactions; proton evaporation; two-proton decay of {sup 12}O; modeling and theoretical studies; excited {sup 16}O disassembly into four alpha particles; {sup 209}Bi + {sup 136}Xe collisions at 28.2 MeV/amu; and development work on 4{pi} solid angle gamma detectors, and x-ray detectors.

  9. Progress report on IAEA research agreement no. 12488. Measurement and standardisation of nuclear reaction cross section, data for production of some therapeutic radionuclides

    The work on four charged particle induced reactions, namely the 64Ni(p,n)64Cu, 70Zn(p, □)67Cu, 103Rh(p,n)103Pd and 124Te(p,n)124I processes is summarized. For the 64Ni(p,n)64Cu and 70Zn(p, □)67Cu reactions a literature search was carried out. All of the data are available in the EXFOR file. They were critically scrutinized according to the established practice. The most concordant set of data were selected and sent to the coordinating laboratory. An evaluation can now be performed. Regarding the 103Rh(p,n)103Pd reaction, on the basis of a thorough experimental and theoretical study done jointly by the FZ Juelich and Debrecen University, an evaluated curve was presented, and recommended cross sections were given. It is suggested that the reported evaluated curve should be adopted. As far as the 124Te(p,n)124I reaction is concerned, accurate cross section data were measured jointly by the FZ Juelich and ATOMKI Debrecen. A survey of the literature data was also carried out. All data are now with the co-ordinating laboratory and an evaluation can be performed

  10. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction-path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators: Final Report

    Mattson, Earl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fujita, Yoshiko [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Carl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reed, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Vicki [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The project was aimed at demonstrating that the geothermometric predictions can be improved through the application of multi-element reaction path modeling that accounts for lithologic and tectonic settings, while also accounting for biological influences on geochemical temperature indicators. The limited utilization of chemical signatures by individual traditional geothermometer in the development of reservoir temperature estimates may have been constraining their reliability for evaluation of potential geothermal resources. This project, however, was intended to build a geothermometry tool which can integrate multi-component reaction path modeling with process-optimization capability that can be applied to dilute, low-temperature water samples to consistently predict reservoir temperature within ±30 °C. The project was also intended to evaluate the extent to which microbiological processes can modulate the geochemical signals in some thermal waters and influence the geothermometric predictions.

  11. Adverse Drug Reactions Reported With Cholinesterase Inhibitors : An Analysis of 16 Years of Individual Case Safety Reports From VigiBase

    Kroeger, Edeltraut; Mouls, Marie; Wilchesky, Machelle; Berkers, Mieke; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; van Marum, Rob; Souverein, Patrick; Egberts, Toine; Laroche, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    Background: No worldwide pharmacovigilance study evaluating the spectrum of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI) in Alzheimer's disease has been conducted since their emergence on the market. Objective: To describe ChEI related ADRs in Alzheimer's disease (donepe

  12. Final Report: Caustic Waste-Soil Weathering Reactions and Their Impacts on Trace Contaminant Migration and Sequestration

    The principal goal of this project was to assess the molecular nature and stability of radionuclide (137-Cs, 90-Sr, and 129-I) immobilization during weathering reactions in bulk Hanford sediments and their high surface area clay mineral constituents. We focused on the unique aqueous geochemical conditions that are representative of waste-impacted locations in the Hanford site vadose zone: high ionic strength, high pH and high Al concentrations. The specific objectives of the work were to (i) measure the coupling of clay mineral weathering and contaminant uptake kinetics of Cs+, Sr2+ and I-; (ii) determine the molecular structure of contaminant binding sites and their change with weathering time during and after exposure to synthetic tank waste leachate (STWL); (iii) establish the stability of neoformed weathering products and their sequestered contaminants upon exposure of the solids to more ''natural'' soil solutions (i.e., after removal of the caustic waste source); and (iv) integrate macroscopic, microscopic and spectroscopic data to distinguish labile from non-labile contaminant binding environments, including their dependence on system composition and weathering time. During this funding period, we completed a large set of bench-scale collaborative experiments and product characterization aimed at elucidating the coupling between mineral transformation reactions and contaminant sequestration/stabilization. Our experiments included three representative Hanford sediments: course and fine sediments collected from the Hanford Formation and Ringold Silt, in addition to investigations with specimen clay minerals illite, vermiculite, smectite and kaolinite. These experiments combined macroscopic measurements of element release, contaminant uptake and subsequent neoformed mineral dissolution behavior, with detailed studies of solid phase products using SEM and TEM microscopy, NMR, XAS and FTIR spectroscopy. Our studies have shown direct coupling between mineral

  13. Task assignment No. 3. Solar audience test summary report. [Reactions of viewers to public service advertisements about solar energy

    1980-12-03

    Audience response to a public service advertisement concerning solar energy was tested. The test was designed to answer four categories of questions: (1) what information on solar energy in general is conveyed by the advertisement. What additional information is desired; (2) what is the reaction of the respondent to specific components or characteristics of the advertisment; (3) how appropriate is the use of the American Indian in conveying the message; and (4) how likely is the respondent to take further action as a result of viewing the advertisment. The rationale and methods for answering each question are discussed. (LEW)

  14. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  15. Direct determination of atom and radical concentrations in thermal reactions of hydrocarbons and other gases. Progress report, December 1, 1981-December 31, 1982

    This is the seventh annual progress report on this project. During the period covered by the first six reports (June 1976 through December 1980) a shock tube and optical systems to measure H, D and O atom concentrations were built and fully characterized. The performance of our microwave discharge lamps were defined by numerous high-resolution spectroscopic profiles, while empirical calibrations were also made for all three of the above species. H, D and O atom concentrations were measured in gas mixtures containing H2, D2, O2, CD4, C2H6, C2D6, C3H8 and C3D8 in various proportions, and rate constants of several elementary reactions were deduced from the data. During the period covered by this report (December 1, 1981 to December 31, 1982) we have made kinetic modelling calculations to correlate H, D and O atom concentrations measured in shock-heated mixtures of C2H6-O2-Ar, C2D6-O2-Ar, C3H8-O2-Ar and C3D8-O2-Ar. These computations are difficult because there are several reactions for which rate constants are not known, so that it is necessary to do many calculations to completely optimize the results. Consequently, work is still going on with these calculations. We have completed an extensive series of measurements of H and D atom concentrations in pyrolysis experiments of benzene, toluene and neopentane and deuterium analogs, that have led to rate constants for the initial dissociation of these compounds, and for the reaction of H atoms with benzene and toluene

  16. Unusual acute and delayed skin reactions during and after whole-brain radiotherapy in combination with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. Two case reports

    Schulze, B.; Roedel, C.; Weiss, C. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Meissner, M.; Wolter, M. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Besides radiotherapy (RT) and surgery, the introduction of BRAF inhibitors like vemurafenib has provided new opportunities for treatment of patients with metastasized malignant melanomas. RT and vemurafenib are being increasingly used concurrently, although little is known about the potential side effects of this combination. Vemurafenib is known to cause severe cutaneous skin reactions such as phototoxicity and evidence is accumulating that RT may further enhance these side effects. We report two cases of unusual skin reactions occurring during and after treatment with a combination of vemurafenib and whole-brain irradiation in patients with cerebral metastases arising from malignant melanomas. One case report describes excessive acute radiodermatitis which arose during whole-brain irradiation in combination with vemurafenib. The second describes a late skin reaction occurring approximately 30 days after completion of RT. These two case reports show that combination of both treatment modalities is possible, but requires close monitoring of patients and good interdisciplinary collaboration. (orig.) [German] Neben der Strahlentherapie und Chirurgie stellt die Einfuehrung von BRAF-Inhibitoren wie Vemurafenib eine neue Moeglichkeit zur Behandlung von metastasierten malignen Melanomen dar und immer haeufiger kommt eine Kombination aus Strahlentherapie und Vemurafenib zum Einsatz. Bislang ist wenig bekannt ueber potentielle Nebenwirkungen, die sich aus einer Kombination beider Therapieoptionen ergeben koennen. Vemurafenib kann zu schweren kutanen Nebenwirkungen wie z. B. Phototoxizitaet fuehren und es haeufen sich Hinweise, dass die Strahlentherapie diese Nebenwirkungen verstaerken kann. Wir berichten ueber zwei Faelle ungewoehnlicher Hautreaktionen waehrend und nach einer Ganzhirnbestrahlung in Kombination mit Vemurafenib. Ein Fall beschreibt eine akute und ueberschiessende Radiodermatitis unter fortlaufender Radiotherapie und der andere Fall beschreibt eine spaete

  17. Iron Reduction and Radionuclide Immobilization: Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Hydrologic controls and Reaction-Based Modeling - Final Report

    Our research focused on (1) microbial reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) individually, and concomitantly in natural sediments, (2) Fe(III) oxide surface chemistry, specifically with respect to reactions with Fe(II)and U(VI), (3) the influence of humic substances on Fe(III) and U(VI) bioreduction, and on U(VI) complexation, and (4) the development of reaction-based reactive transport biogeochemical models to numerically simulate our experimental results. We have continued our investigations on microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides. Modeling our earlier experimental results required assumption of a hydrated surface for hematite, more reactive than predicted based on theoretical solubility (Burgos et al.2002). Subsequent studies with Shewanella putrefaciens and Geobacter sulfurreducens confirmed the rates of Fe(III) bioreduction depend on oxide surface area rather than oxide thermodynamic properties (Roden,2003a,b;2004; Burgos et al,2003). We examined the potential for bioreduction of U(VI) by Geobacter sulfurreducens in the presence of synthetic Fe(III) oxides and natural Fe(III) oxide-containing solids (Jeon et al,2004a,b) in which more than 95% of added U(VI) was sorbed to mineral surfaces. The results showed a significant portion of solid-associated U(VI) was resistant to both enzymatic and abiotic (Fe(II)-driven) reduction, but the rate and extent of bioreduction of U(VI) was increased due to the addition of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). We conducted long-term semicontinuous culture and column experiments on coupled Fe(III) oxide/U(VI) reduction. These experiments were conducted with natural subsurface sediment from the Oyster site in Virginia, whose Fe content and microbial reducibility are comparable to ORNL FRC sediments (Jeon et al, 2004b). The results conclusively demonstrated the potential for sustained removal of U(VI) from solution via DMRB activity in excess of the U(VI) sorption capacity of the natural mineral assemblages. Jang (2004) demonstrated

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTION REPORTING CULTURE IN SECOND PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL UNDERGRADUATES AT TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL: A HEALTH IMPERATIVE

    Deepak; Gitanjali; Rangeel Singh; Priyanka; Heenopama; Adit; Hemant Kumar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to under reporting of ADRs by clinicians, second professional medical under graduates were sensitized about ADR reporting. METHODS: ‘Sensitization of Medical Under graduates for ADR Reporting’ (SMUAR Model) was introduced for promoting ADR notification by clinicians. One year prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital with the help of 2nd Prof MBBS students. The students were asked to collect ADRs from clinical departments. Group of eight...

  19. Educational intervention to improve physician reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in a primary care setting in complementary and alternative medicine

    Ostermann Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that adverse drug reactions (ADRs are underreported. This may be particularly true of ADRs associated with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Data on CAM-related ADRs, however, are sparse. Objective was to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention and monitoring programme designed to improve physician reporting of ADRs in a primary care setting. Methods A prospective multicentre study with 38 primary care practitioners specialized in CAM was conducted from January 2004 through June 2007. After 21 month all physicians received an educational intervention in terms of face-to-face training to assist them in classifying and reporting ADRs. The study centre monitored the quantity and quality of ADR reports and analysed the results. To measure changes in the ADR reporting rate, the median number of ADR reports and interquartile range (IQR were calculated before and after the educational intervention. The pre-intervention and post-intervention quality of the reports was assessed in terms of changes in the completeness of data provided for obligatory items. Interrater reliability between the physicians and the study centre was calculated using Cohen's kappa with a 95% confidence interval (CI. We used Mann Whitney U-test for testing continuous data and chi-square test was used for categorical data. The level of statistical significance was set at P Results A total of 404 ADRs were reported during the complete study period. An initial 148% increase (P = 0.001 in the number of ADR reports was observed after the educational intervention. Compared to baseline the postinterventional number of ADR reportings was statistically significant higher (P P Conclusion The results of the present study demonstrate that an educational intervention can increase physician awareness of ADRs. Participating physicians were able to incorporate the knowledge they had gained from face-to-face training into their

  20. Handbook for calculations of nuclear reaction data. Reference input parameter library. Final report of a co-ordinated research project

    With the aim to develop an internationally recognised input parameter library with the contributions from all major nuclear data laboratories, IAEA initiated and co-ordinated a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Development of Reference Input Parameter Library for Nuclear Model calculations of Nuclear Data (Phase 1: Starter File)'. Between 1994 and 1997 the following two major results were produced: complete electronic Reference Input Parameter Library (Starter File) available to users cost-free and this Handbook containing a detailed description of the Library. Starter file contains input parameters for calculations of nuclear reaction cross sections arranged in seven segments (directories): Atomic masses and deformations, Discrete level schemes, Average neutron resonance parameters, Optical model parameters, Level densities, Gamma-ray strength functions, Continuum angular distributions. This book contains ten papers describing the cited subjects, each with a separate abstract

  1. Theoretical nuclear reaction and structure studies using kaons and photons: Progress report, [January 1986-31 December 1986

    New, significant research results are briefly summarized. In the area of kaon electromagnetic production, several key results were obtained. These results include production from the proton and deuteron forming novel hypernuclear systems and production from nuclei to excite hypernuclei. In the area of continuum shell model studies of photonuclear reactions, interesting results have been obtained in this program which entail large scale, coupled channels calculations using realistic effective interactions which include all spin, isospin and tensor components. In addition, the nuclear many-body wavefunctions are properly antisymmetrized and span a large shell model space. Principle findings were obtaining a good, quantitative description of the forward angle 160(γ,p)15N data by achieving full convergence in the multipole expansion and documenting important contributions from δ particle excitations for a variety of multipoles, especially at medium energies near the quasielastic region of 200 to 400 MeV. 5 figs

  2. Energy transfer mechanisms in photobiological reactions. Final report, 1 April 1960--31 March 1979. [Photodynamic processes in selected biomolecules

    Spikes, J.D.

    1979-03-31

    This project was concerned primarily with studies of the mechanisms of the sensitized photooxidation of selected biomolecules using a variety of phtosensitizers. Such reactions are often termed photodynamic processes. In particular we have carried out steady-state kinetic studies, flash photolysis and spectral studies, and product formation studies of the sensitized photooxidation of the five susceptible amino acids (cycteine, histidine, methonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine) and their derivatives, as well as purines and pyrimidines. A number of studies were also carried out on the mechanisms of the photodynamic inactivation of enzymes (trypsin, ribonuclease, lysozyme). Mechanism of photosensitization were studied using a variety of sensitizers including flavins, porphyrins, and a number of synthetic dyes (substituted fluoresceins, acridines, thyazines).

  3. The occurrence of adverse drug reactions reported for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD medications in the pediatric population: a qualitative review of empirical studies

    Aagaard L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lise Aagaard1-3, Ebba Holme Hansen1-31Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Section for Social Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 2FKL-Research Centre for Quality in Medicine Use, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Danish Pharmacovigilance Research Project (DANPREP, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: To review empirical studies of adverse drug reactions (ADRs reported to be associated with the use of medications generally licensed for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms in the pediatric population.Methods: PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO® databases were searched from origin until June 2011. Studies reporting ADRs from amphetamine derivates, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, and modafinil in children from birth to age 17 were included. Information about ADR reporting rates, age and gender of the child, type, and seriousness of ADRs, setting, study design, ADR assessors, authors, and funding sources were extracted.Results: The review identified 43 studies reporting ADRs associated with medicines for treatment of ADHD in clinical studies covering approximately 7000 children, the majority of 6- to 12-year-old boys, and particularly in the United States of America (USA. The most frequently reported ADRs were decrease in appetite, gastrointestinal pain, and headache. There were wide variations in reported ADR occurrence between studies of similar design, setting, included population, and type of medication. Reported ADRs were primarily assessed by the children/their parents, and very few ADRs were rated as being serious. A large number of children dropped out of studies due to serious ADRs, and therefore, the actual number of serious ADRs from use of psychostimulants is probably higher. A large number of studies were conducted by the same groups of authors and sponsored by the pharmaceutical companies manufacturing the respective medications.Conclusion: Reported ADRs from use of

  4. The Analysis of 358 Adverse Drug Reaction Reports in Children%358例儿童药品不良反应报告分析

    陆晓彤; 刘海涛; 张健; 张春

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the results of adverse drug reaction supervision in our hospital from January in 2007 to June in 2010 in order to improve rational and safe clinical drug treatment for children. Methods: Methods of descriptive study, statistics and analysis were used to estimate some characteristics of medicine usage. This included patients' basic conditions, route of administtration, ding combination and clinic manifestations. Results: Alnong 358 reports about adverse dlug reactions, there were 169 cases aged between 0 and 3 years, which accounted for 47.2%. There were 327 cases relating to the use of antibiotics, taking up 91.34% , in which there were 296 cases relating to β-lactaln antibiotics. The lnost usual adverse ding reaction caused by β-lactaln antibiotics were skin rashes, urticaria and anaphylactoid reactions. Alnong those 358 cases, adverse drug reaction occurred more easily when administrated via intravenous dropping method, which accounted for 83.24% (298 cases). Conclusions: There are more adverse drug reactions taking place in neonates and children when antibiotics are administrated by intravenous dropping method. This method of treatment needs to be further studied.%目的:总结我院2007年~2010年6月药品不良反应监测情况,促进临床安全、合理用药.方法:采用描述性研究的方法,对我院上报的药品不良反应分别从患者的基本情况、给药途径、联合用药、临床表现等方面进行统计、分析与评价.结果:358例不良反应监测报告中,患儿年龄0~3岁169例,占47.20%;与抗菌药物有关的327例,占91.34%,其中β内酰胺类296例,β内酰胺类引起的ADR多为皮疹、荨麻疹、过敏样反应;以静脉滴注途径给药的发生频率最高,共298例占83.24%.结论:我院婴幼儿抗菌药物静脉注射时发生的不良反应较多,应予以重点关注.

  5. Summary Report of the First Research Coordination Meeting on Nuclear Data for Charged-Particle Monitor Reactions and Medical Isotope Production

    A summary is given of the first IAEA research coordination meeting on ''Nuclear Data for Charged-particle Monitor Reactions and Medical Isotope Production'. Participants reassessed and reviewed the requirements for both cross-section and decay data, based on the earlier findings of three IAEA consultants' meetings (High-precision beta-intensity measurements and evaluations for specific PET radioisotopes, INDC(NDS)-0535, December 2008; Improvements in charged-particle monitor reactions and nuclear data for medical isotope production, INDC(NDS)-0591, September 2011; Intermediate-term nuclear data needs for medical applications: cross sections and decay data, INDC(NDS)-0596, September 2011). While significant emphasis was placed on the needs defined in IAEA report INDC(NDS)-0591, a limited number of relevant items and issues were also considered from the other two technical meetings. Recommendations focused on cross-section studies for a reasonably wide range of targets and projectiles, along with decay data measurements and evaluations for specific radionuclides. Individual presentations and discussions are described in this report, along with listings of the agreed work packages to be undertaken by the participants of the coordinated research project. (author)

  6. Environmental reactions and their effects on mechanical behavior of metallic materials. Technical progress report, February 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

    Gibala, R.; Ratka, J.; Talia, J.; Wu, S.

    1980-10-31

    Results are described in five project areas: (1) implantation softening of niobium; (2) the crack path in hydrogen embrittlement of 4340 steel; (3) hydrogen embrittlement and stress corrosion cracking (report of a conference); (4) solution hardening and softening of niobium by interstitial solutes; (5) solution hardening and softening in oxide-coated niobium and niobium alloys.

  7. Hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids.

    Vatti, Rani R; Ali, Fatima; Teuber, Suzanne; Chang, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric

    2014-08-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids (CS) are rare in the general population, but they are not uncommon in high-risk groups such as patients who receive repeated doses of CS. Hypersensitivity reactions to steroids are broadly divided into two categories: immediate reactions, typically occurring within 1 h of drug administration, and non-immediate reactions, which manifest more than an hour after drug administration. The latter group is more common. We reviewed the literature using the search terms "hypersensitivity to steroids, adverse effects of steroids, steroid allergy, allergic contact dermatitis, corticosteroid side effects, and type I hypersensitivity" to identify studies or clinical reports of steroid hypersensitivity. We discuss the prevalence, mechanism, presentation, evaluation, and therapeutic options in corticosteroid hypersensitivity reactions. There is a paucity of literature on corticosteroid allergy, with most reports being case reports. Most reports involve non-systemic application of corticosteroids. Steroid hypersensitivity has been associated with type I IgE-mediated allergy including anaphylaxis. The overall prevalence of type I steroid hypersensitivity is estimated to be 0.3-0.5%. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is the most commonly reported non-immediate hypersensitivity reaction and usually follows topical CS application. Atopic dermatitis and stasis dermatitis of the lower extremities are risk factors for the development of ACD from topical CS. Patients can also develop hypersensitivity reactions to nasal, inhaled, oral, and parenteral CS. A close and detailed evaluation is required for the clinician to confirm the presence of a true hypersensitivity reaction to the suspected drug and choose the safest alternative. Choosing an alternative CS is not only paramount to the patient's safety but also ameliorates the worry of developing an allergic, and potentially fatal, steroid hypersensitivity reaction. This evaluation becomes

  8. Fusion measurements in light and medium mass heavy-ion reactions. Progress report, June 1, 1984-May 31, 1985

    During the year, analysis of one series of measurements, that of the entry lines in residues from fusion in 16O + 12C, was completed and papers are being prepared. Analysis of several others is in progress. Two new experiments have been initiated, and several more are in the planning stage. For the entry line measurements, a paper on the average neutron energies has been accepted for publication and papers on the average charged particle energy and on the average gamma-ray energy and multiplicity are in preparation. Analysis of data taken over the past two years for incomplete fusion in 24Mg, 28Si + 12C, 24Mg, 27Al, 28Si, and 40Ca is in progress. The analysis for sigma/sub fus/ in 24Mg + 24Mg at E/sub lab/ = 110, 160, and 205 MeV is being done at K.U. A measurement of the reaction mechanisms yielding heavy residues in the interaction of 28Si + 28Si and 16O + 40Ca, with more detailed exclusive measurements, was started at Argonne. This used coincidences between events in time-of-flight telescopes and a large solid angle, position sensitive, ΔE-E detector

  9. Processing of high level waste: Spectroscopic characterization of redox reactions in supercritical water. 1998 annual progress report

    'The author is engaged in a collaborative research effort with Los Alamos staff scientists Steven Buelow, Jeanne Robinson, and Bernie Foy all staff members in group CST-6. The work proposed by these LANL staff scientists is directed towards the destruction of complexants and oxidation of chromium and technetium by hydrothermal processing in near critical or supercritical aqueous solutions. The work addresses two areas of investigation related to ongoing efforts at LANL: (1) kinetic studies of oxidation-reduction reactions in supercritical water; (2) measurement of physical properties of ionic solutes in supercritical water. All of the work during this first year was carried out at Los Alamos National Lab. During the Summer program at LANL all equipment and supplies were provided through Dr. Buelow''s program at LANL. The author has now set up a Raman spectroscopy lab at Furman. Using departmental funds he purchased an optical bench, a laser, and a CCD detector, and a grant from the Dreyfus Foundation assisted in the purchase of a Raman spectrometer. He is now able to carry out experiments using the Raman system at Furman. The plan is to continue the Summer collaboration at LANL and carry out experiments at Furman during the academic year.'

  10. Final report on LDRD project: A phenomenological model for multicomponent transport with simultaneous electrochemical reactions in concentrated solutions

    CHEN,KEN S.; EVANS,GREGORY H.; LARSON,RICHARD S.; NOBLE,DAVID R.; HOUF,WILLIAM G.

    2000-01-01

    A phenomenological model was developed for multicomponent transport of charged species with simultaneous electrochemical reactions in concentrated solutions, and was applied to model processes in a thermal battery cell. A new general framework was formulated and implemented in GOMA (a multidimensional, multiphysics, finite-element computer code developed and being enhanced at Sandia) for modeling multidimensional, multicomponent transport of neutral and charged species in concentrated solutions. The new framework utilizes the Stefan-Maxwell equations that describe multicomponent diffusion of interacting species using composition-insensitive binary diffusion coefficients. The new GOMA capability for modeling multicomponent transport of neutral species was verified and validated using the model problem of ternary gaseous diffusion in a Stefan tube. The new GOMA-based thermal battery computer model was verified using an idealized battery cell in which concentration gradients are absent; the full model was verified by comparing with that of Bernardi and Newman (1987) and validated using limited thermal battery discharge-performance data from the open literature (Dunning 1981) and from Sandia (Guidotti 1996). Moreover, a new Liquid Chemkin Software Package was developed, which allows the user to handle manly aspects of liquid-phase kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport (particularly in terms of computing properties). Lastly, a Lattice-Boltzmann-based capability was developed for modeling pore- or micro-scale phenomena involving convection, diffusion, and simplified chemistry; this capability was demonstrated by modeling phenomena in the cathode region of a thermal battery cell.

  11. Polysymptomatic syndromes and autonomic reactivity to nonfood stressors in individuals with self-reported adverse food reactions.

    Bell, I R; Markley, E J; King, D S; Asher, S; Marby, D; Kayne, H; Greenwald, M; Ogar, D A; Margen, S

    1993-06-01

    This study compared symptom reports and cardiovascular reactivity of a group of 24 individuals recruited from the community who reported a cognitive or emotional symptom caused by at least one food (food-sensitivity reporters, FSR) vs those of 15 controls (C) without a history of food, chemical, drug, or inhalant sensitivities. The main findings were: 1) FSR indicated sensitivities not only to foods, but also to environmental chemicals, drugs, and natural inhalants, as well as significantly more symptoms than C in multiple systems; 2) more FSR than C noted recent state depression and anxiety, as well as higher trait anxiety on the Bendig form of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale; 3) however, on multiple regression analysis, not only depression, but also the number of sensitivities (foods, chemicals, drugs, inhalants), accounted for part of the variance in total number of symptoms (38 and 17%, respectively), whereas none of the affective measures accounted for any of the variance in total number of sensitivities over all subjects; 4) after controlling for depression and anxiety, FSR still showed a trend toward poorer performance on a timed mental arithmetic task (p = 0.16); and 5) FSR and C showed opposite patterns of heart rate change to two different stressful tasks (mental arithmetic and isometric exercise) (group by task interaction, p foods, chemicals, drugs, and inhalants) and for salient psychological stress in the expression of psychophysiological dysfunctions of FSR. As in other chronically ill populations, negative affect in food-sensitive individuals may explain greater symptom reporting, but not necessarily account for the illness itself. For either a food or a psychological stimulus to begin to elicit sensitized responses, e.g., marked physiological differences from C, FSR may require multiple, intermittent exposures spaced over 5-28 days rather than on only 1 day. PMID:8409077

  12. Continued investigations into techniques producing selective chemical reactions on surfaces and target spheres and related studies. Final report

    This report describes efforts leading to the development and characterization of a compact ion source and optical transfer system producing relatively high current density ion beams. The ion source and beam transfer system represent a major advance in the state of the art in that high current densities at low kinetic energies have been achieved for high molecular weight polyatomic ions. Indeed, the ion beams produced display ion abundance patterns typical of simple low energy electron impact ionization processes

  13. Nuclear Reactions

    Bertulani, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear reactions generate energy in nuclear reactors, in stars, and are responsible for the existence of all elements heavier than hydrogen in the universe. Nuclear reactions denote reactions between nuclei, and between nuclei and other fundamental particles, such as electrons and photons. A short description of the conservation laws and the definition of basic physical quantities is presented, followed by a more detailed account of specific cases: (a) formation and decay of compound nuclei;...

  14. 喹诺酮类药物的不良反应报告分析%Analysis of Quinolones Adverse Reaction Reports

    王惠霞; 陆建平

    2012-01-01

      Objective:Explore the occurrence of adverse reactions of quinolones and clinical control measures.Method:A total of 27 cases of quinolone ADR reports collected in our hospital in 2009 were analyzed statistically in respect of patients age and sex,route of administration,drug varieties,organs or systems involved and the clinical manifestation.Result:Lesions of skin and its appendages were the most common damages of quinolone ADR.Conclusion:Importance should be attached to the reporting and monitoring of quinolone ADR reports in the clinic and reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.%  目的:探讨喹诺酮类药物不良反应(ADR)的发生情况与临床控制措施。方法:对笔者所在医院2011年1-12月上报的27例喹诺酮类药物 ADR 报告,按患者年龄、性别、药品类别、ADR 累及器官或系统及临床表现等进行统计、分析。结果:喹诺酮类抗菌药物药物的不良反应临床表现以皮肤及附件损害最多见。结论:临床应重视喹诺酮类药物的不良反应,加强 ADR 监测工作,促进临床合理用药,减少不良反应的发生。

  15. Research concerning ionic and free radical reactions in radiation chemistry. Progress report, September 15, 1977--September 15, 1978

    One achievement during the past year was the development of cryogenic techniques to allow samples to be γ irradiated at 40K and then transferred to the EPR spectrometer for subsequent observations at 10 to 150K and above. The adduct methyl radical in γ-irradiated dimethyl sulfoxide-h6 was detected by this means. A study of d-atom abstraction by trapped H and D atoms in 3-methylpenetane-d14 at temperatures below 500K was completed. Abstracts of reports published during the year are included

  16. Long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal: Chemical reaction of fabricated and high burnup spent UO2 fuel with saline brines. Final report

    This is the final report of a large EU-research project on spent fuel stability in saline repository environments. Static dissolution experiments with high burnup spent fuel samples and unirradiated UO2 were performed for about two years in anaerobic NaCl solutions and deionized water with and without container material (iron) being present. Experiments performed at 25 and 150 C gave similar results. Dissolution rates were similar to those measured in the Swedish, or Canadian program for granite media. Rates are strongly influenced by the specific sample surface area, probably related to the mass balance of consumption and production of radiolytic oxidants. In the competition between the oxidizing effect of radiolysis and the reducing effect of iron, the metal corrosion process dominates. Processes controlling radionuclide release are matrix dissolution, solubility, coprecipitation sorption phenomena and colloid formation. In the absence of iron release rates of Sr90, Tc99, Np237, Sb125 and at low reaction progress Ru106 were controlled by matrix dissolution whereas concentrations of tetra-, hexa-, and trivalent actinides (U, Pu, Am, Cm) were controlled by solubility or coprecipitation. The presence of iron did effectively reduce the rates of fuel dissolution and the concentration of many, though not all radionuclides. Solubilities of U were similar for uniradiated UO2 and for spent fuel both in the case of oxidizing and reducing conditions. In contrast, due to the effect of radiolysis, reaction rates of spent fuel were higher than UO2 dissolution rates. (orig.)

  17. Amitriptyline adverse reactions reported by outpatients / Reacciones adversas a amitriptilina relatadas por pacientes ambulatoriales / Reações adversas a amitriptilina relatadas por pacientes ambulatoriais

    Sebastião ECO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to know the profile of adverse drug reactions (ADR, at ambulatory level, suffered by patients using amitrityline. Method: After an informed consent, 130 randomly chosen patients using pharmacy services from eight different health units in Riberão Preto - São Paulo (Brazil were interviewed. To gather socioeconomic, clinical data and ADR, an structured questionnaire was used. The latter were analyzed regarding their seriousness, frequency, causality and preventability. Results: All surveyed patients reported at least one ADR to amitriptyline, being doubtful (4%, possible (44% and probable (52%. From probable/possible, 29% were reported as moderate/serious, and among them, 67% were frequent. 79% of total ADR were considered as preventable. 5 more cited symptoms (29.5% were: dry mouth or taste disturbances, drowsiness, orthostatic hypotension and weakness. Conclusions: Reported amitriptylin ADRs could have been prevented or reduced their seriousness, or, at least, advised when occurring, because they may produce other drug-related problems, non-compliance or discomfort. Patients should be taken into account as ADR information sources, improving physician-patient relationship and their quality of life by improving medical care.

  18. Investigation of cold fusion phenomena in deuterated metals. Final report, Volume 1. Overview, executive summary, chemistry, physics, gas reactions, metallurgy. Technical information series

    The March 1989 announcement by Pons and Fleischmann stimulated worldwide interest in the cold fusion phenomenon. In Utah the legislature appropriated $5 million to support cold fusion research and development. As cold fusion inquiries continue worldwide, this interim report has been written to document the scientific and legal work that has been funded by the Utah legislature. Partial contents include these titles of papers: Cold Fusion Studies in a High-Pressure Sealed Cell; Tritium and Neutron Generation in Palladium Cathodes with High Deuterium Loading; Deuterium-Gas Phase Reactions on Palladium; Excess Heat Estimation with the Kalman Filter; Ultrasonic Energy Effects on Palladium Electrodes in Cold Fusion Cells; Nuclear Measurements on Deuterium-Loaded Palladium and Titanium

  19. Ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction

    Hari Babu Ramineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ofloxacin is a commonly used antimicrobial agent to combat various infections. The adverse profile of quinolones includes gastrointestinal symptoms, which are the most frequent, neuropsychiatric symptoms, hematologic abnormalities are less common. We report a rare case of ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction in a 57 year old female patient with complaints of rashes over the axilla, upper limb and back, abdomen, thorax associated with exfoliation of skin all over the axilla associated with severe itching. Based on history and clinical examination patient was diagnosed as ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction and was successfully treated with antihistamines and corticosteroids. Pharmacovigilance should be a part of patient care in order to reduce occurrence of adverse drug reaction and also encourage practitioners in reporting so as to gather more and more data regarding adverse drug reactions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 349-351

  20. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. Technical progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979. [Summaries of research activities at Washington Univ

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental research on nuclear structure and reactions both published and in progress is summarized. Included are fusion reactions, strongly damped heavy ion collisions, and nuclear structure at high angular momentum. A list of publications is included. (JFP)

  1. Fundamental studies of the mechanism of catalytic reactions with catalysts effective in the gasification of carbon solids and the oxidative coupling of methane. Quarterly report, 1 January--31 March 1994

    Iglesia, E.; Heinemann, H.; Perry, D.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Center for Advanced Materials

    1994-03-01

    This report describes work in progress on three tasks: (1) Catalytic steam gasification of coals and cokes; (2) Oxidative coupling of methane; and (3) Synthesis and characterization of catalysts. Since Task 1 is complete, a final report has been written. This report describes membrane reactors, cyclic methane conversion reactors, theoretical descriptions of reaction-separation schemes, and time-space relationships in cyclic and membrane reactors, all subtasks of Task 2. Initial studies under Task 3 are briefly described.

  2. 避孕药具不良反应监测报告分析%Analysis of monitoring report for contraceptive adverse reactions ZHONG

    钟如玉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze monitoring report for contraceptive adverse reactions, and to provide reference for clinical choice of appropriate contraceptive and development of family planning work. Methods There were 51802 people using contraceptive as study subjects, and analysis was made on monitoring report for their contraceptive adverse reactions. Results A total of 51802 cases of contraceptive were provided with follow-up in 50766 cases as 98.0%. There were 9260 cases of short-term effect oral contraceptive, 128 cases of emergency contraceptive, 16002 cases of nonoxinol external contraceptive, 24564 cases of male condoms, 192 cases of contraceptive foam, and 620 cases of intra uterine device (IUD). Follow-up showed that there were 124 cases with contraceptive adverse reactions of these contraceptives, except male condoms and contraceptive foam. Conclusion Contraceptive has an important role in family planning, while its adverse reactions have influence on clinical effect. Monitoring and follow-up of contraceptive can provide timely information of various contraceptives. Timely judgment and clinical treatment can be applied, thus clinical effects of contraceptives can be improved, and users’safety can also be ensured.%目的:对避孕药具不良反应监测报告进行分析,为临床选取合适的避孕药具提供依据,同时为临床开展计划生育工作提供参考。方法51802例使用避孕药具人员为研究对象,对其不良反应监测报告进行分析。结果共发放避孕药具51802例,随访50766例,随访率为98.0%。其中包括发放短效口服避孕药9260例,紧急避孕药128例,壬苯醇醚外用避孕药16002例,男用安全套24564例,隐形避孕套192例,节育环(IUD)620例,随访过程中发现避孕药具不良反应124例,除男用避孕套、女用隐形避孕套在随访过程中未发现明显的不良反应外,其余均出现不同的不良反应。结论避孕药具是落实节育措施的

  3. The role of Clinical Pharmacists in the improvement of a pharmacovigilance system: A review of the reported adverse drug reactions during 2004-2010 in Mazandaran Province of Iran

    Elham Azhdari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following establishment of Iranian Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR Monitoring Center in 1997, ADR committees were established in all hospitals of Mazandaran Province of Iran. Clinical pharmacists from Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences have been involved with these committees since 2007. The aim of this study was to compare the results of the pharmacovigilance system before and after active involvement of clinical pharmacists. Methods: This study included Yellow Cards filled out by healthcare providers in Mazandaran Province during 2004-2010. Frequency of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs, route of administration, reporters, number of reports in each years and damaged organs were focuses. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software. P Results: A total of 793 yellow cards were completed during 2004 – 2010. Only 38 ADRs (4.8% were related to 2004-2007. Most of the reports generated by Nurses (49.3% followed by Pharmacists and Physicians (P Conclusion: Clinical pharmacists’ intervention regarding establishing ADR committees in the hospitals improved the output of the pharmacovigilance system, although under-reporting is still a major drawback of spontaneous reporting. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, Adverse Drug Reaction, Mazandaran, Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems

  4. Report on the relevance and feasibility of measurements of the heat of chemical reactions during core meltdown and of the integral heat content of core melts. Pt. 2

    In the feasibility study chemical reactions which seemed to need experimental investigation had to be identified with special reference to the accident simulation by computer codes. For selected reactions, measuring methods and measuring set-ups had to be devised. A total of seven chemical reactions requiring experimental investigation were identified. In line with the current emphasis within the core meltdown research programme, three subjects were selected: (a) the exothermic steel melt-steam reaction during the core melt-concrete interaction, (b) the reaction which may occur immediately after the rupture of the reactor pressure vessel, between the metal melt, which contains steel and residual amounts of zirconium, and the containment atmosphere, and (c) the total of all reactions occuring during core melt-concrete interaction (integral reaction). Measuring methods and detailed set-ups for experimental investigations were conceived for the first two reactions. The apparatus were designed such that they can also be used for other investigations on chemical reactions during core meltdown. As regards the determination of integral heat of reaction by means of high-temperature calorimetry, the study showed that experimental difficulties may arise if gaseous reactions are involved. (orig.) 891 HP

  5. 171例严重药品不良反应报告分析%ADR Report Analysis of 171 Cases of Serious Adverse Drug Reactions

    文加勇; 张万智; 唐晓霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解严重药品不良反应(ADR)的发生特点,为ADR监测工作提供参考。方法:提取国家ADR监测系统中2011-2013年孝感市上报的ADR严重病例报告171份,对报告来源、患者性别、药品种类、给药途径、ADR累及器官/系统等进行分析。结果:严重ADR报告率与年龄因素和性别因素有关,且儿童和老年人高于中青年人(P <0.05),女性高于男性(男女之比为1∶1.44, P <0.05);171份严重 ADR 报告中,抗感染药(78,45.62%)、维生素、营养药、调节水电解质和酸碱平衡药(37,21.64%)和中药注射剂(15,8.77%)位居前三;静脉滴注给药125例(73.09%),口服给药26例(15.20%);过敏性反应82例(47.95%),皮肤及附件损害36例(21.05%)。结论:2011-2013年孝感市严重ADR高发于女性、儿童和老年人用药、抗感染药物和静脉滴注给药,在ADR监测中应引起注意。%ABSTRACTObjective:To investigate the characteristics of serious adverse drug reactions(ADRs)so as to pro-vide a reference for ADR monitoring.Methods:The reports of 171 cases of severe ADRs submitted by Xiaogan city from 2011 to 2013 were extracted from the National Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring System. The data was analyzed such as the source of report, patient sex, drug species, route of administration and ADR involving or-gans/systems.Results:The serious ADR reporting rate was associated with age and gender factors, serious ADRs in children and the elderly were higher than young and middle-aged people(P<0.05)and higher in women than in men(the ratio of male to female was 1∶1.44,P<0.05). In 171 cases of severe ADRs, 78 cases(45.62%) ever used anti-infective drugs, 37 cases(21.64%)used Vitamins, nutritional supplements and the drugs of regulat-ing water-electrolyte and acid-base balance, and 15 cases(8.77%)were given traditional Chinese medicine injec-tions. About 125 cases(73.09%)received intravenous

  6. Adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals

    Full text. An adverse reaction can occur following administration of a radio pharmaceutical, but fortunately reactions are uncommon. They are usually mild and do not require intensive treatment. This is probably related to the fact that only small chemical quantities of material are administered to patients and that only one or a small number of doses are administered. Since symptoms are unrelated to any known pharmacology of the agents, they can be described as Type B reactions according to the classification of Rawlings and Thompson. Types of reaction that occur and possible mechanisms will be described. The reactions most commonly observed are skin rashes and vasomotor symptoms. It is important that, as far as possible, a cause - effect relationship can be established between the administration of the radio pharmaceutical and the symptoms caused. Some classification schemes therefore exclude vasomotor reactions such as hypotension and slow pulse, since such events can arise in a variety of clinical situations unrelated to radio pharmaceutical administration. It is important for nuclear medicine departments to be aware of the nature of reactions such that they can be recognized and appropriate re-assurance and/or prompt treatment can be given to their patients. Radio pharmaceuticals most frequently mentioned in reporting schemes are di phosphonates used for bone imaging. This probably reflect the fact that these agents are the most frequently used in current practice rather than that they cause more reactions. Problems in establishing the overall frequency of adverse reactions to radio pharmaceuticals include the fact that events may not be recognized if they occur after the patient has left the Nuclear Medicine Department and that reactions are never reported. Two recent studies have attempted to obtain more definitive information by performing prospective studies in a large number of departments. A study in the USA found that there was a rate of 2.3 events per

  7. Piezonuclear Reactions

    Cardone, Fabio; Petrucci, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the subject of piezonuclear reactions, namely nuclear reactions (of new type) triggered by pressure waves. We discuss the experimental evidences obtained in the last two decades, which can be summarized essentially as follows: experiments in cavitation of liquids, where transmutation of elements, creation of elements and emission of neutrons have been observed; emission of neutrons in brittle failure of solids subjected to mechanical pressure; alteration of the lifetime of un unstable element (thorium) subjected to cavitation. A theoretical model to explain these facts is proposed. Future perspectives of these experimental and theoretical investigations are also underlined.

  8. A delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction after partial exchange transfusion for sickle cell disease in pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature.

    Brumfield, C G; Huddleston, J F; DuBois, L B; Harris, B A

    1984-03-01

    A delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction that occurred after a prophylactic partial exchange transfusion for sickle-cell disease in pregnancy is described. The clinical presentation and laboratory findings of delayed transfusion reactions are discussed, with special emphasis on problems associated in the sickle-cell disease patient. Suggestions on how to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions in the pregnant sickle-cell disease patient are given. PMID:6700873

  9. Progress report on research project [Parameters for calculation of nuclear reactions of relevance to non-energy nuclear applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III)

    Full text: We have proposed new coupled-channels optical model potentials to be included in the RIPL database. These potentials concern nucleon-induced reactions up to 150 MeV for selected fissile nuclei. They will be sent to the CRP secretary by March 2006. Intra-nuclear cascade calculations were carried out using the CEM2k code in order to calculate prompt fission neutrons spectra from 20 to 150 MeV. These calculations have been shown to perform very well for selected nuclei and energies below 150 MeV, where the use of INC calculations is questionable. Those results can provide useful benchmarks for extending fission neutrons spectra calculations above 20 MeV. A study of the 89Y(n,2n) reaction covariance matrix was presented, demonstrating significant, but understandable, differences in covariance matrices evaluated from experiment or from model calculations alone. The KALMAN code was used for that. Finally, GNASH calculations of the (n,f) and (n,2n) cross sections for some actinides were performed, using Goriely's HFB calculated fission barrier parameters and nuclear level densities at saddle points. More work remains to be done on this item, in order for the outcome to be of any use for the present project. At our last meeting, several actions were also decided for LANL to carry out during the coming year. Here is the list of these actions: - Provide 28Si and 56Fe (n,n') data from R.C.Haight; - Send optical model potentials used at LANL for several isotopes, as described in our last progress report; - Provide experimental information (if any) on class-II states; - Provide a code for calculating Madland-Nix fission neutron spectra. Get versions from Fukahori and Herman, and write one single code that will be tested and benchmarked against other codes and evaluations. Also, provide a suite of input parameters that have already been evaluated (e.g., get input parameters from Ignatyuk as obtained in the Thorium CRP); - Provide a MODLIB module to calculate level

  10. Report on the relevance and feasibility of measurements of the heat of chemical reactions during core meltdown and of the integral heat content of core melts. Pt. 1

    Under the reactor safety programme of the German Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, Battelle-Frankfurt is conducting investigations into the heat produced by chemical reactions which may occur in the course of a hypothetical core meltdown accident. The first research phase consisted of a study into the significance of this heat compared with the nuclear decay heat. At present, some of the boundary conditions determining the course of the chemical reactions are not sufficiently well known. Therefore, some of the calculations had to be based upon assumptions which were chosen under conservative aspects. The results of the present study should thus be regarded as limiting values intended to stimulate more detailed investigations. Of the reactions that may occur between the main core components (zircaloy, steel and uranium dioxide), steam and atmospheric oxygen in the containment, the oxidation reactions were considered more closely. Reactions involving the hydrogen evolved in the reactions, the pressure vessel material or the concrete were left out of consideration. Based on the available literature, the maximum possible reaction heat, under the assumption of the complete oxidation of zircaloy and steel, and the rate of the highly exothermal reaction between zirconium and steam, were calculated. It was found that the latter reaction alone may be substantial compared with the nuclear decay reaction, both in terms of the amount of heat produced per unit time and of total heat produced. The oxidation of the steel, which is an exothermal reaction as well, is to be added to the oxidation of the zirconium. If the atmospheric oxygen in the containment should participate in the oxidation of steel during the late phases of the accident, additional peaks in the heat production must be expected. (orig.) 891 HP

  11. Exuberant local tissue reaction to intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin)--a steroid compound in a sesame seed oil base--mimicking soft tissue malignant tumors: a case report and review of the literature.

    Khankhanian, N K; Hammers, Y A; Kowalski, P

    1992-12-01

    We present an unusual pseudotumor that formed in reaction to self-administered intramuscular injections of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) in a young soldier. The histopathologic features which closely mimicked several malignant neoplasms could have led to an incorrect diagnosis of malignancy and unnecessary extensive surgery. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported. PMID:1470383

  12. [Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions

    This report contains papers that discuss: Target Dependence of Complex Fragment Emission in 47-MeV/u La-Induced Reactions; Deconvolution of Time-of-Flight Data to Improve Mass Identification; and Study of the Reaction of La + Al at E/A = 50 MeV with Landau-Vlasov Dynamics

  13. Adverse Drug Reactions Reported in Our Hospital: Analysis of 560 Cases%我院560例药品不良反应报告分析

    张夏华; 吴广通; 石玉岚; 米丽

    2009-01-01

    To probe into the status quo and characteristics of the adverse drug reactions (ADR) occurred in our hospital. METHODS: A total of 560 ADR cases collected in our hospital from 2004 to 2008 were analyzed statistically in respect of patients' age and sex, drug varieties, route of administration and clinical manifestation, etc. RESULTS: Of all the ADR cases reported in our hospital, 51.8% were induced by anti-infective drugs vs. 10.7% by traditional Chinese medicines; 51.8% manifested as lesions of skin and its appendants, but none of them died. CONCLUSION: Clinical importance should be attached to the monitoring of ADR, the indications of the anti-infective drugs and traditional Chinese medicines should be strictly followed in order to decrease the incidence of ADR.%目的:了解我院药品不良反应(ADR)的发生情况及特点.方法:将我院2004~2008年收集的ADR报告560例,按患者性别、年龄、涉及药品种类、给药途径、临床表现等进行统计、分析.结果:在我院上报的ADR中,抗感染药引发的ADR占51.8%,中药制剂占10.7%;ADR类型以皮肤及其附件损伤最常见,占51.8%,无死亡病例报道.结论:临床应加强ADR监测工作,尤其要严格把握抗感染药及中成药的使用指征,减少ADR的发生.

  14. Solving The Long-Standing Problem Of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions At The Highest Microscopic Level. Annual Continuation And Progress Report, August 15, 2014 -- August 14, 2015

    Quaglioni, Sofia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-19

    The aim of this project is to develop a comprehensive framework that will lead to a fundamental description of both structural properties and reactions of light nuclei in terms of constituent protons and neutrons interacting through nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) forces. This project will provide the research community with the theoretical and computational tools what will enable: an accurate prediction for fusion reactions that power stars and Earth-based fusion facilities; an improved description of the spectroscopy of exotic nuclei, including light Borromean systems; and, a fundamental understanding of the three-nucleon force in nuclear reaction and nuclei at the drip line.

  15. Technical Report for a Study on the Mechanism and Control of Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction in Gamma-Irradiated Food

    Gamma irradiation leads to a non-enzymatic browning reaction (carbonyl -amine reaction) in an aqueous system similar to those induced in a heated one. This reaction may influence the changes of the color in irradiated foods. The intensity of the reaction was dependent on the type of the sugar, if the occurrence is by irradiation or by heating. There was a difference in the browning reaction between irradiation and heating. Although no browning was observed in the heated solution of the non-reducing sugar, the formation of colored products was observed in the irradiated sucrose-lysine solution. It could be explained on the basis that irradiation promotes the breakdown of the glycosidic linkages of the disaccharide, sucrose and the produce of a reducing power. The high molecular weight melanoidin (> MW 12,000-14,000 Da) was produced by gamma irradiation from the non-enzymatic browning reaction between glucose and glycine. The structure of melanoidin was similar to melanodin from heat processing. The results suggested that gamma-irradiation occurred the non-enzymatic browning reaction that is similar the reaction by heat processing. Non-enzymatic browning reaction during gamma-irradiation processing was greatly influenced by pH and medium of reaction system. The brown color development of irradiated sugar solutions with and without glycine is more increased in buffer system especially with alkaline pH than DDW. When food is irradiated, off-color such as browning can be produced due to the non-enzymatic browning reaction and it is influenced by other ions and/or pH of system. This suggests that the browning of irradiated food might be retarded by lowering the pH of the system. Gamma-irradiation produce the free radical and the radiolysis products of sugar and glycine and then they may be condensed to colored products during post-irradiation. However, when the food is irradiated in frozen state, the production of free radical and radiolysis product is inhibited and it

  16. Technical Report for a Study on the Mechanism and Control of Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction in Gamma-Irradiated Food

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-01-15

    Gamma irradiation leads to a non-enzymatic browning reaction (carbonyl -amine reaction) in an aqueous system similar to those induced in a heated one. This reaction may influence the changes of the color in irradiated foods. The intensity of the reaction was dependent on the type of the sugar, if the occurrence is by irradiation or by heating. There was a difference in the browning reaction between irradiation and heating. Although no browning was observed in the heated solution of the non-reducing sugar, the formation of colored products was observed in the irradiated sucrose-lysine solution. It could be explained on the basis that irradiation promotes the breakdown of the glycosidic linkages of the disaccharide, sucrose and the produce of a reducing power. The high molecular weight melanoidin (> MW 12,000-14,000 Da) was produced by gamma irradiation from the non-enzymatic browning reaction between glucose and glycine. The structure of melanoidin was similar to melanodin from heat processing. The results suggested that gamma-irradiation occurred the non-enzymatic browning reaction that is similar the reaction by heat processing. Non-enzymatic browning reaction during gamma-irradiation processing was greatly influenced by pH and medium of reaction system. The brown color development of irradiated sugar solutions with and without glycine is more increased in buffer system especially with alkaline pH than DDW. When food is irradiated, off-color such as browning can be produced due to the non-enzymatic browning reaction and it is influenced by other ions and/or pH of system. This suggests that the browning of irradiated food might be retarded by lowering the pH of the system. Gamma-irradiation produce the free radical and the radiolysis products of sugar and glycine and then they may be condensed to colored products during post-irradiation. However, when the food is irradiated in frozen state, the production of free radical and radiolysis product is inhibited and it

  17. Nuclear reactions

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  18. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population

    Noe Ontiveros; López-Gallardo, Jesús A.; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J.; Francisco Cabrera-Chávez

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administer...

  19. TORUS: Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes Annual Continuation and Progress Report Year-2: March 1, 2011 - February 29, 2012

    Arbanas, G; Elster, C; Escher, J; Mukhamedzanov, A; Nunes, F; Thompson, I J

    2012-02-24

    The TORUS collaboration derives its name from the research it focuses on, namely the Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes. It is a Topical Collaboration in Nuclear Theory, and funded by the Nuclear Theory Division of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy. The funding supports one postdoctoral researcher for the years 1 through 3. The collaboration brings together as Principal Investigators a large fraction of the nuclear reaction theorists currently active within the USA. The mission of the TORUS Topical Collaboration is to develop new methods that will advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes by using three-body techniques to improve direct-reaction calculations, and, by using a new partial-fusion theory, to integrate descriptions of direct and compound-nucleus reactions. This multi-institution collaborative effort is directly relevant to three areas of interest: the properties of nuclei far from stability; microscopic studies of nuclear input parameters for astrophysics, and microscopic nuclear reaction theory.

  20. Time-resolved studies of free radicals and laser-initiated chain reactions: Final report, 1 April 1979-31 March 1988

    Pulsed lasers were used in this work to photofragment molecules or to initiate chain reactions. One of the major advances was the availability of high-powered rare gas halide excimer lasers. In addition, pulsed Nd:YAG lasers and dye lasers were used throughout. Results include: generalized kinetic formulations of the problem of laser-initiated chain reactions. Several studies were carried out to explore the details of chain combustion phenomena, slow chain reactions, chain branching behavior, and vibrational temperatures of combusting mixtures. A method to determine the rotational temperature of nitrogen molecules by laser multiphoton ionization was shown. The chain reaction methodology was applied to complex polyatomic systems, in which complete infrared spectra of the emitting species were obtained. Systems studied included, chlorine + HBr, HI, methane, hydrogen, ethane, propane, butane, cyclopropane, and cyclohexane. Photofragmentation studies involved the production and analysis of radical species, such as methyl, CH2I, and CCH. Molecules studied included methylene iodide, methyl iodide, dimethyl mercury, acetone, acetylene, vinyl chloride, dichloroethylene, and fluorochloroethylene. The first infrared characterization of a highly vibrationally excited radical was shown. Reactions of methyl radicals were studied in detail, in which a new method for obtaining absolute values of the methyl radical reaction rates were obtained

  1. Microwave-Accelerated Organic Reactions

    LU; TaJung

    2001-01-01

    The use of microwave technology in accelerating organic reactions has received intense attention leading to immense growth recently. Accordingly, we have been interested in improving the efficacy of organic processes by microwave irradiation. Here we report our results on the microwave assisted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of nitrile oxides with allylic alcohols, the cleavage reaction of 1,3-diketones under alkaline conditions, and the formation of carbamates from isocyanates with alcohols. The reactions carried out under microwave irradiation, in general, required considerably less reaction time and afforded the desired products in higher yields than those under classical conditions. In all the cases we have studied, the procedures are simplified, the purity of the products are higher, and the cost of reaction is greatly reduced employing microwave.  ……

  2. Microwave-Accelerated Organic Reactions

    LU TaJung

    2001-01-01

    @@ The use of microwave technology in accelerating organic reactions has received intense attention leading to immense growth recently. Accordingly, we have been interested in improving the efficacy of organic processes by microwave irradiation. Here we report our results on the microwave assisted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of nitrile oxides with allylic alcohols, the cleavage reaction of 1,3-diketones under alkaline conditions, and the formation of carbamates from isocyanates with alcohols. The reactions carried out under microwave irradiation, in general, required considerably less reaction time and afforded the desired products in higher yields than those under classical conditions. In all the cases we have studied, the procedures are simplified, the purity of the products are higher, and the cost of reaction is greatly reduced employing microwave.

  3. Analysis of adverse drug reactions:on 93 cases report%药品不良反应93例分析

    罗卿春

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解我院药品不良反应发生的特点及其引发的相关因素,为临床安全、合理用药提供依据。方法对该院2014年度收集上报的93例 ADR 报告进行回顾性分析。结果 ADR 93例,男性高于女性,50岁以上人群所占比例高于其他年龄段;引起 ADR 的因素以抗菌药物使用最高,占56.99%,其中又以β-内酰胺类居首,24例,占45.28%;损害器官、系统以皮肤及附件为主,引发 ADR 类型以一般药品不良反应为主,占94.62%。结论药品不良反应的发生与年龄、联合用药等因素有关,应加强 ADR 监测和报告工作,指导临床合理用药,减少药品不良反应的发生。%Objective To investigate the characteristics and the predisposing factors of adverse drug reactions(ADR) occurred in our hospital,the safety and rational use of drugs may be provided. Methods Analyzed 93 cases of ADRs,collected from a retrospective survey,in our hospital in 2014. Results Among 93 cases of ADRs,the male was more than the female in the ratio,proportion of people over the age of 50 was higher than other age groups;The incidence of ADR cases was mainly in-duced by the antimicrobial drugs,accounted for 56. 99% ,among which the cases that caused by β-lactamase antibiotics were acounted for the most(24cases,45. 28% );system-organ damages were common in skin and appendixes,the conventional ADR was most in the predisposing types of ADRs,accounting for 94. 62% . Conclusion Occurrence rate of ADR relates to the dis-tribution of patient age and approach of using drug. We should strengthen the monitoring and reporting work,in order to promote the rational drug use,and reduce ADRs.

  4. Uptake kinetics and biodistribution of 14C-d-luciferin - a radiolabeled substrate for the firefly luciferase catalyzed bioluminescence reaction: impact on bioluminescence based reporter gene imaging

    Firefly luciferase catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of d-luciferin to oxyluciferin in the presence of cofactors, producing bioluminescence. This reaction is used in optical bioluminescence-based molecular imaging approaches to detect the expression of the firefly luciferase reporter gene. Biokinetics and distribution of the substrate most likely have a significant impact on levels of light signal and therefore need to be investigated. Benzene ring 14C(U)-labeled d-luciferin was utilized. Cell uptake and efflux assays, murine biodistribution, autoradiography and CCD-camera based optical bioluminescence imaging were carried out to examine the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the tracer in cell culture and in living mice respectively. Radiolabeled and unlabeled d-luciferin revealed comparable levels of light emission when incubated with equivalent amounts of the firefly luciferase enzyme. Cell uptake assays in pCMV-luciferase-transfected cells showed slow trapping of the tracer and relatively low uptake values (up to 22.9-fold higher in firefly luciferase gene-transfected vs. nontransfected cells, p=0.0002). Biodistribution studies in living mice after tail-vein injection of 14C-d-luciferin demonstrated inhomogeneous tracer distribution with early predominant high radioactivity levels in kidneys (10.6% injected dose [ID]/g) and liver (11.9% ID/g), followed at later time points by the bladder (up to 81.3% ID/g) and small intestine (6.5% ID/g), reflecting the elimination routes of the tracer. Kinetics and uptake levels profoundly differed when using alternate injection routes (intravenous versus intraperitoneal). No clear trapping of 14C-d-luciferin in firefly luciferase-expressing tissues could be observed in vivo. The data obtained with 14C-d-luciferin provide insights into the dynamics of d-luciferin cell uptake, intracellular accumulation, and efflux. Results of the biodistribution and autoradiographic studies should be useful for optimizing and

  5. Parameters for calculation of nuclear reactions of relevance to non-energy nuclear applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III). Summary report of the first research coordination meeting

    A summary is given of the First Research Coordination Meeting on Parameters for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions of Relevance to Non-Energy Nuclear Applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III), including a critical review of the RIPL-2 file. The new library should serve as input for theoretical calculations of nuclear reaction data at incident energies up to 200 MeV, as needed for energy and non-energy modern applications of nuclear data. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme are summarized, along with actions and deadlines. Participants' contributions to the RCM are also attached. (author)

  6. Linking Drugs to Obscure Illnesses: Lessons from Pure Red Cell Aplasia, Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis, and Reye’s Syndrome. A Report From the Southern Network on Adverse Reactions (SONAR)

    Bennett, Charles L.; Starko, Karen M.; Thomsen, Henrik S; Cowper, Shawn; Sartor, Oliver; Macdougall, Iain C.; Qureshi, Zaina P; Bookstaver, P. Brandon; Miller, April D; Norris, LeAnn B.; Xirasagar, Sudha; Trenery, Alyssa; Lopez, Isaac; Kahn, Adam; Murday, Alanna

    2012-01-01

    Identification of serious adverse drug reactions (sADRS) associated with commonly used drugs can elude detection for years. Reye’s syndrome (RS), nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients were recognized in 1951, 2000, and 1998, respectively. Reports associating these syndromes with aspirin, gadodiamide, and epoetin, were published 29, 6, and 4 years later, respectively. We obtained primary information from clinicians who...

  7. Chain reaction

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  8. EXERCISE AND REACTION TIMES

    Varun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise provides multiple benefits to an individual. It is known that exercising regularly can prevent coronary heart disease, hypertension and obesity and improve flexibility. The effect of exercise on visual reaction time needs to be studied, a s the existing data on the benefit of aerobic exercise on psychomotor functions is insufficient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online Visual reaction time is measured before and after exercise. Subjects were instructed to run on the spot with a springy step in ex aggerated motion for 50 to 60 counts at 2 counts per second, maintaining a constant rhythm. RESULTS: We observed that reaction time was significantly lower after performance of exercise. Individuals reported improved mental alertness, feel good factor, bet ter mood and increase circulation. CONCLUSION: Improving reaction times in sports can help the athlete to optimize his performance in making decisions and increasing attention span for example getting off the starting blocks sooner or successfully making c ontact with the ball. In addition this study shows that use of physical exercise helps improve cognitive function. Exercise proves to be a cheap non pharmacological alternative to improve cognitive performance.

  9. Recalled Peritraumatic Reactions, Self-Reported PTSD, and the Impact of Malingering and Fantasy Proneness in Victims of Interpersonal Violence Who Have Applied for State Compensation

    Kunst, Maarten; Winkel, Frans Willem; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the associations between three types of peritraumatic reactions (dissociation, distress, and tonic immobility) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of 125 victims of interpersonal violence who had applied for compensation with the Dutch Victim Compensation Fund (DCVF). In addition, the…

  10. Clusters: Elucidating the dynamics of ionization events and ensuing reactions in the condensed phase. Final technical report, March 1, 1991--February 28, 1994

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1994-10-01

    Chemical reactions that proceed following either a photophysical or ionizing event, are directly influenced by the mechanisms of energy transfer and dissipation away from the site of absorption. Neighboring solvent or solute molecules can affect this by collisional deactivation (removal of energy), through effects in which dissociating molecules are kept in relatively close proximity for comparatively long periods of time due to the presence of the solvent, and in other ways where the solvent influences the energetics of the reaction coordinate. Research on clusters offers promise of elucidating the molecular details of these processes. The studies have focused on providing critical information on problems in radiation biology through investigations of reactions of molecules which simulate functional groups in biological systems, as they proceed following the absorption of ionizing radiation. The overall objective of the program has been to undertake basic underpinning research that contributes to a quantification of the behavior of radionuclides and pollutants associated with advanced energy activities after these materials emanate from their source and are transferred through the environment to the biota and human receptor. Some of the studies have dealt with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter yielding new data that finds value in assessing photoinduced transformation of pollutants including reactions which take place on aerosol particles, as well as those of species which become transformed into aerosols as a result of their chemical and physical interactions.

  11. 邢台市人民医院2009年药物不良反应报告分析%Analysis of adverse drug reaction report of Xingtai People' hospital in 2009

    李福秀

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过对某院药物不良反应报告的分析和讨论,为临床安全用药提供参考.方法 对该院2009年度上报的120例不良反应报告进行收集、汇总、统计分析.结果 药物不良反应报告主要来源于医疗机构,涉及药物不良反应的药品中抗感染药居首位,给药途径以静脉滴注为主.不良反应主要累及消化系统,皮肤及其附件.结论 应加强和重视药品不良反应的检测,保障公众安全合理用药.%OBJECTIVE To analyze and discuss the adverse drug reactions of Xingtai people' hospital and refer to the clinical medication safety. METHODS We collected summarized and analyzed the adverse drug reactions with 120 patients in 2009. RESULTS The adverse drug reaction report mainly derives from medical institution. The adverse drug reactions in our hospital were chiefly caused by antiinfectives, which the primary route of administration was intravenous drip. The major adverse reaction involved the digestive system, skin and its appendage. CONCLUSION We should strengthen and attach importance to the adverse drug reaction in order to guarantee the public to use drug safely and reasonably.

  12. Emotional and Behavioral Reaction to Intrusive Thoughts

    Berry, Lisa-Marie; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Kavanagh, David

    2010-01-01

    A self-report measure of the emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusive thoughts was developed. The article presents data that confirm the stability, reliability, and validity of the new seven-item measure. Emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusions emerged as separate factors on the Emotional and Behavioral Reactions to Intrusions…

  13. The reduction ring-opening reaction of imidazoline

    史真; 李诤; 白银娟

    2000-01-01

    A new reduction ring-opening reaction of 2-imidazoline with sodium borohydride is reported, and the effect of reaction condition on the yield, reaction mechanism and the use of the new reaction in synthesis of ethylenediamine derivatives are discussed. A new method for the preparation of unsymmetrical substituted ethylenediamine via the reduction ring-opening reaction of imidazoline is provided.

  14. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  15. Neutrons from Piezonuclear Reactions

    Cardone, F; Mignani, R; Perconti, W; Petrucci, A; Rosetto, F; Spera, G

    2007-01-01

    We report the results obtained by cavitating water solutions of iron salts (iron chloride and iron nitrate) with different concentrations at different ultrasound powers. In all cases we detected a neutron radiation well higher than the background level. The neutron production is perfectly reproducible and can at some extent be controlled. These evidences for neutron emission generated by cavitation support some preliminary clues for the possibility of piezonuclear reactions (namely nuclear reactions induced by pressure and shock waves) obtained in the last ten years. We have been able for the first time to state some basic features of such a neutron emission induced by cavitation, namely: 1) a marked threshold behavior in power, energy and time; 2) its occurring without a concomitant production of gamma radiation.

  16. Electromagnetic effects on explosive reaction and plasma

    Tasker, Douglas G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mace, Jonathan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pemberton, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Thomas D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Richard J [INDIAN HEAD DIVISION

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have reported that electric fields can have quantifiable effects on the initiation and growth of detonation, yet the mechanisms of these effects are not clear. Candidates include Joule heating of the reaction zone, perturbations to the activation energy for chemical reaction, reduction of the Peierls energy barrier that facilitates dislocation motion, and acceleration of plasma projected from the reaction zone. In this study the possible role of plasma in the initiation and growth of explosive reaction is investigated. The effects of magnetic and electric field effects on reaction growth will be reviewed and recent experiments reported.

  17. Final Technical Report - Stochastic Analysis of Advection-Diffusion-reaction Systems with Applications to Reactive Transport in Porous Media - DE-FG02-07ER24818

    Karniadakis, George Em [Brown University

    2014-03-11

    The main objective of this project is to develop new computational tools for uncertainty quantifica- tion (UQ) of systems governed by stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) with applications to advection-diffusion-reaction systems. We pursue two complementary approaches: (1) generalized polynomial chaos and its extensions and (2) a new theory on deriving PDF equations for systems subject to color noise. The focus of the current work is on high-dimensional systems involving tens or hundreds of uncertain parameters.

  18. Hydrogen-transfer and charge transfer in photochemical and high energy radiation induced reactions: effects of thiols. Final report, February 1, 1960-january 31, 1979

    Absorption of ultraviolet or visible light, or high energy radiation, may lead to highly reactive free radicals. Thiols affect the reactions of these radicals in the following ways: (1) transfer of hydrogen from sulfur of the thiol to a substrate radical, converting the radical to a stable molecule, and the thiol to a reactive thiyl radical; and (2) transfer of hydrogen from a substrate radical or molecule to thiyl, regenerating thiol. The thiol is thus used repeatedly and a single molecule may affect the consequences of many quanta. Three effects may ensue, depending upon the system irradiated: (1) the substrate radicals may be converted by thiol-thiyl to the original molecules, and protection against radiation damage is afforded. (2) The radicals may be converted to molecules not identical with the starting materials, and in both cases damage caused by radical combination processes is prevented. (3) Product yields may be increased where the initial radicals might otherwise regenerate starting materials. It was shown that rates of reaction of excited species can be correlated with triplet energies and reduction potentials, and with ionization potentials, that amines are very reactive toward excited carbonyl compounds of all types, and that yields of products from these reactions can be increased by thiols, leading to increased efficiency in utilization of light

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of elementary chemical reactions of importance in combustion. Periodic report 3 for the period April-October 1987

    The reaction C3H3 + O2 -> products was studied by pulse radiolysis combined with transient absorption spectrophotometry. A rate constant k = 1.Ox108 M-1S-1 was measured at T=298 K and p=1 atm. The Ar-sensitized radiolysis of SF6 was employed to obtain a high yield of F-atoms and subsequently NH2 or OH via the reactions (1) F + NH3 -> HF + NH2 and () F ? H2O -> HF + OH. Time profiles of NH2 and OH were monitored at 597.6 nm and 308.7 nm, respectively. The observed decay rates of NH2 in the presence of NO corresponds to an overall rate constant of 1.3 x 1010 M-1S-1 for the branced reaction NH2 + NO -> N2 + H2O or N2H + OH. The relative yield of OH was found to be less than 8% at T 0 298 K and p = 1 atm. Transient absorption signals observed by pulse radiolysis of Ar/SF6/HCOOH mixtures have been assigned to the carboxyl radicals COOH or the isomeric radical HCOO. (EG)

  20. Hypersensitivity reaction associated with phenytoin.

    Indu, T H; Basutkar, Roopa Satyanarayan

    2015-09-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are generally associated with aromatic AEDs. We present a case of hypersensitivity reactions followed by administration of phenytoin with diazepam and ranitidine in a patient with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Antigen-antibody reactions or decreased levels of epoxide hydrolase are well known with phenytoin. Increased level of serum phenytoin causing toxicities due to competitive inhibition with diazepam on co-administration was also reported in the literature. Prevention of the adverse effects with AEDs is a multi-stage process, which requires implementation of preventive measures through careful monitoring and prompts interventions. PMID:26692739

  1. Annual report 1978

    1978 progress report is presented: works in theoretical physics, reactions and nuclear structures, high and intermediary energies, heavy ions (mechanisms, reactions) and developments in instrumentation

  2. Encefalitis herpética confirmada por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real: reporte de caso Herpetic encephalitis confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction: case report

    Beatriz H. Aristizábal

    2006-04-01

    , migraine and alteration in the conscience level. Due to the commitment of the temporary lobe, the clinical manifestations can also include hallucinations, aphasia and changes of personality. The sequels in the treated patients are significant. Objective: to show the importance of early molecular diagnosis in patients with suspected herpetic encephalitis infection. Methods: the diagnosis of the herpetic encephalitis has changed in the last years thanks to the coming of the real time polymerase chain reaction for herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid, a fast strategy with high sensitivity and specificity that has allowed to replace the suspect diagnoses made by tomography axial computerized or electroencephalogram, or the low yields of the viral isolation in the cerebrospinal fluid. Results: A clinical case report of a patient attended in our hospital with image and neuropsychological studies compatible for herpetic encephalitis, and confirmed diagnosis by real time polymerase chain reaction is described. Conclusions: the results of laboratory and the early diagnosis are critical for the precocious treatment and the evolution of the patient.

  3. Chemistry of heavy ion reactions

    The use of heavy ions to induce nuclear reactions was reported as early as 1950. Since that time it has been one of the most active areas of nuclear research. Intense beams of ions as heavy as uranium with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of even the heaviest elements are available. The wide variety of possible reactions gives rise to a multitude of products which have been studied by many ingenious chemical and physical techniques. Chemical techniques have been of special value for the separation and unequivocal identification of low yield species from the plethora of other nuclides present. Heavy ion reactions have been essential for the production of the trans-Md elements and a host of new isotopes. The systematics of compound nucleus reactions, transfer reactions, and deeply inelastic reactions have been elucidated using chemical techniques. A review of the variety of chemical procedures and techniques which have been developed for the study of heavy ion reactions and their products is given. Determination of the chemical properties of the trans-Md elements, which are very short-lived and can only be produced an ''atom-at-a-time'' via heavy ion reactions, is discussed. 53 refs., 19 figs

  4. Charged particle cross-section database for medical radioisotope production: diagnostic radioisotopes and monitor reactions. Final report of a co-ordinated research project

    Medical applications of nuclear radiation are of considerable interest to the IAEA. Cyclotrons and accelerators, available in recent years in an increasing number of countries, are being used for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The physical basis of this production is described through interaction of charged particles, such as protons, deuterons and alphas, with matter. These processes have to be well understood in order to produce radioisotopes in an efficient and clean manner. In addition to medical radioisotope production, reactions with low energy charged particles are of primary importance for two major applications. Techniques of ion beam analysis use many specific reactions to identify material properties, and in nuclear astrophysics there is interest in numerous reaction rates to understand nucleosynthesis in the Universe. A large number of medically oriented cyclotrons have been running in North America, western Europe and Japan for more than two decades. In recent years, 30-40 MeV cyclotrons and smaller cyclotrons (Ep < 20 MeV) have been installed in several countries. Although the production methods are well established, there are no evaluated and recommended nuclear data sets available. The need for standardization was thus imminent. This was pointed out at three IAEA meetings. Based on the recommendations made at these meetings, the IAEA decided to undertake and organize the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Reference Charged Particle Cross-Section Database for Medical Radioisotope Production. The project was initiated in 1995. It focused on radioisotopes for diagnostic purposes and on the related beam monitor reactions in order to meet current needs. It constituted the first major international effort dedicated to standardization of nuclear data for radioisotope production. It covered the following areas: Compilation of data on the most important reactions for monitoring light ion

  5. Establishing the transport properties of QCD with heavy ion reactions. Final Scientific Report for DE-FG02-07ER41524

    During the time period from 9/1/07 - 3/1/08 the principle investigator was awarded a federal grant from the Department of Energy (DE-FG02-07ER41524) to establish the transport properties of QCD through heavy ion reactions. A relativistic viscous hydrodynamic computer code was developed in 2+1 dimensions which is suitable for extracting the shear viscosity from available heavy ion data. In addition, the transport coefficients of heavy mesons in strongly coupled N = 4 plasmas were determined using the gauge gravity duality. These transport coefficients are suppressed by 1/Nc2 which stymied previous efforts to determine the kinetics of these mesons.

  6. Effects of mercaptans and disulfides on photochemical and high energy radiation induced reactions. Progress report, November 1, 1974--October 31, 1975

    A chain reaction may be formulated at alkaline pH in terms of e-/sub aq/ acting as a source of -OH as a reactant and H. regenerating e-/sub aq/. This may account for radiolytic conversion of CO to formate with high G. 60Co γ-radiolysis of alkaline aqueous acetonitrile and acetamide gave no evidence of a chain; extensive hydrolysis of methyl acetate is now attributed to non-radiolytic, normal hydrolysis. Aromatic mercaptans are found to retard photoreduction of a benzophenone by aliphatic amines, largely by hydrogen atom-transfer repair reactions. Aliphatic mercaptans accelerate photoreduction, apparently by affecting the reduction to quenching ratio in the intermediate charge-transfer complex. In photoreduction of a benzophenone by 2,3-butylene glycol at pH 3, the glycol is converted, not to 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, but to 2-butanone, and about 4 molecules of this are formed per molecule of ketone reduced. A short chain appears to be established. Mercaptan appears to accelerate the reduction of the ketone and retard the formation of 2-butanone

  7. Integrated Microreactors for Reaction Automation: New Approaches to Reaction Development

    McMullen, Jonathan P.; Jensen, Klavs F.

    2010-07-01

    Applications of microsystems (microreactors) in continuous-flow chemistry have expanded rapidly over the past two decades, with numerous reports of higher conversions and yields compared to conventional batch benchtop equipment. Synthesis applications are enhanced by chemical information gained from integrating microreactor components with sensors, actuators, and automated fluid handling. Moreover, miniaturized systems allow experiments on well-defined samples at conditions not easily accessed by conventional means, such as reactions at high pressure and temperatures. The wealth of synthesis information that could potentially be acquired through use of microreactors integrated with physical sensors and analytical chemistry techniques for online reaction monitoring has not yet been well explored. The increased efficiency resulting from use of continuous-flow microreactor platforms to automate reaction screening and optimization encourages a shift from current batchwise chemical reaction development to this new approach. We review advances in this new area and provide application examples of online monitoring and automation.

  8. Kinetics of actinide complexation reactions

    Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the kinetics of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation kinetics. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions

  9. Successful treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis diagnosed early by polymerase chain reaction after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: two case reports and review of the literature.

    Miyagi, T; Itonaga, H; Aosai, F; Taguchi, J; Norose, K; Mochizuki, K; Fujii, H; Furumoto, A; Ohama, M; Karimata, K; Yamanoha, A; Taniguchi, H; Sato, S; Taira, N; Moriuchi, Y; Fukushima, T; Masuzaki, H; Miyazaki, Y

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasmic encephalitis represents a rare, but often fatal infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based preemptive therapy is considered promising for this disease, but is not routinely applied, especially in low seroprevalence countries including Japan. We encountered 2 cases of toxoplasmic encephalitis after transplantation that were successfully treated. The diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in these cases was confirmed by PCR testing when neurological symptoms were observed. Both patients received pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine treatments within 2 weeks of the development of neurological symptoms, and remained free of recurrence for 32 and 12 months. These results emphasized the importance of the PCR test and immediate treatment after diagnosis for the management of toxoplasmic encephalitis. PMID:25970830

  10. Investigation of the dynamics and threshold behavior of endothermic negative ion-neutral reactions. Annual progress report, July 15, 1980-July 14, 1981

    Modifications to a tandem mass spectrometer inlet system and ion source have been accomplished to facilitate introduction of solid organometallic compounds and oxidizing gases, which are potential sources of inorganic oxide molecular ions when these compounds are subjected to electron impact or microwave discharge. Experiments with a variety of organometallic compounds have resulted in successful production of PO-, PO2-, and FeO2-, which were utilized as projectile ions in studies of collision-induced dissociation and endothermic charge transfer reactions. Energy thresholds measured in the latter experiments yielded the bond dissociation energies, D00(O- - P) = 5.6 +- 0.1 eV and D00(O- - PO) = 7.4 +- 0.2 eV, the first direct experimental determinations of these quantities. Used in conjunction with other thermochemical data these results lead to the determination of ΔH0/sub f/(PO-) = -1.0 +- 0.1 eV; ΔH0/sub f/(PO2-) = -6.4 +- 0.2 eV; E.A. (PO) = 1.0 +- 0.1 eV; and E.A. (PO2) = 3.3 +- 0.2 eV. From the threshold measured for the endothermic charge transfer reaction of FeO2- with NO2, 0.77 +- 0.2 eV, the electron affinity of FeO2 was determined to be 3.1 +- 0.2 eV. Results are discussed

  11. 114例儿童药品不良反应报告分析%Analysis of 114 Pediatric Adverse Drug Reaction Reports in Our Hospital

    李榕; 陈崇泽

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the adverse drug reactions that occurred in children. Methods: The ages, sex, drug usage, main manifestation, time of occurrence and level of severity of ADR were analyzed in 114 cases of children aged from 2 month to 15 years old. Results: Among 114 cases, 78 patients were male, 36 patients were female. There were fifty three drugs involved. Antibiotics held the first position (42. 11%) and the next was Chinese Anti-inffectives (25. 44%). The main manifestation of ADR was rash, anaphylactoid reaction and somnolence. The main route of administration was intravenous drip. Conclusions: Monitoring of ADR in children should be strengthened in order to ensure the safety of drug usage.%目的:了解儿童发生药品不良反应(ADR)的情况.方法:按患者的年龄、性别、用药情况及ADR的主要表现、发生时间、严重程度等进行统计分析.结果:114例ADR报告中,男78例,女36例,涉及药品53种,主要为抗感染药物(42.11%),其次为中药抗感染药物(25.44%).ADR主要表现是皮疹,其次是过敏样反应、嗜睡.主要给药途径是静脉滴注.结论:应加强对儿童ADR的监测工作,以保证用药安全.

  12. On thermonuclear reaction rates

    Hans J. Haubold; Mathai, Arak Mathai

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution of galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the cases of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are als...

  13. Discreteness-Induced Criticality in Random Catalytic Reaction Networks

    Awazu, Akinori; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2009-01-01

    Universal intermittent dynamics in a random catalytic reaction network, induced by smallness in the molecule number is reported. Stochastic simulations for a random catalytic reaction network subject to a flow of chemicals show that the system undergoes a transition from a stationary to an intermittent reaction phase when the flow rate is decreased. In the intermittent reaction phase, two temporal regimes with active and halted reactions alternate. The number frequency of reaction events at e...

  14. A Green Multicomponent Reaction for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: The Aqueous Passerini Reaction

    Hooper, Matthew M.; DeBoef, Brenton

    2009-01-01

    Water is the ideal green solvent for organic reactions. However, most organic molecules are insoluble in it. Herein, we report a laboratory module that takes advantage of this property. The Passerini reaction, a three-component coupling involving an isocyanide, aldehyde, and carboxylic acid, typically requires [similar to] 24 h reaction times in…

  15. Final Report for Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-91ER45455, "Theoretical Study of Reactions at the Electrode-Electrolyte Interface"

    J. W. Halley

    2009-05-19

    In this project, reaction rates were predicted by numerical methods, in a collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory . Emphasis is on electron transfer and transport involving ions known to be important in enhancing stress corrosion cracking in light water reactors and on electron transfer at oxide surfaces. In the latter part of the grant period we placed increased emphasis on development and use of self consistent tight binding methods for this kind of study. We showed that by careful fitting of results from first principles plane wave calculations,we could model surfaces and interfaces oxides and metals using these methods. We obtained results for the titanium/titanium oxide interface in this way and completed a model of the ruthenium dioxide surface using our innovative self consistent tight binding molecular dynamics methods. We completed development of a description of liquid water within the self consistent tight binding context and studied the rutile water 110 interface to determine if it is hydroxylated. A self consistent tight binding study of titanium metal surfaces demonstrated the usefulness of this method for metals. In collaboration with the Argonne group, we extended the tight binding calculations on rutile titania to the anatase form and made the first calculations of the relative stability of anatase and rutile as a function of crystallite size. We completed studies of small anatase particles in water using the method and found significant distortions of nanoparticle crystallite shapes as a consequence of interactions with the water.

  16. Hydrogen-transfer and charge-transfer in photochemical and radiation induced reactions. Progress report, November 1, 1975--October 31, 1976

    The relative importance of light absorption, quenching of triplet, and hydrogen transfer repair has been examined in retardation by mercaptans of photoreduction of aromatic ketones by alcohols. In the reduction of benzophenone by 2-propanol, retardation is efficient and, after correction for the first two effects, is due entirely to hydrogen-transfer repair, as indicated by deuterium labeling. In reduction of acetophenone by α-methylbenzyl alcohol, repair by hydrogen transfer is also operative. In reduction of benzophenone by benzhydrol, retardation is less efficient and is due to quenching, as the ketyl radical does not abstract hydrogen from mercaptan rapidly in competition with coupling. Deuterium isotope effects are discussed in terms of competitive reactions. Photoreduction of benzophenone by 2-butylamine and by triethylamine is retarded by aromatic mercaptans and disulfides. Of the retardation not due to light absorption and triplet quenching by the sulfur compounds, half is due to hydrogen-transfer repair, as indicated by racemization and deuterium labeling. The remainder is attributed to quenching by the sulfur compound of the charge-transfer-complex intermediate. Photoreduction by primary and secondary amines, but not by tertiary amines, is accelerated by aliphatic mercaptans. The acceleration is attributed to catalysis of hydrogen transfer by the mercaptan in the charge-transfer complex. The effect is large in hydrocarbon solvent, less in polar organic solvents and absent in water

  17. Handbook for calculations of nuclear reaction data, RIPL-2. Reference Input Parameter Library-2. Final report of a coordinated research project

    Nuclear data for applications constitute an integral part of the IAEA programme of activities. When considering low-energy nuclear reactions induced with light particles, such as neutrons, protons, deuterons, alphas and photons, a broad range of applications are addressed, from nuclear power reactors and shielding design through cyclotron production of medical radioisotopes and radiotherapy to transmutation of nuclear waste. All these and many other applications require a detailed knowledge of production cross sections, spectra of emitted particles and their angular distributions. A long-standing problem of how to meet the nuclear data needs of the future with limited experimental resources puts a considerable demand upon nuclear model computation capabilities. Originally, almost all nuclear data were provided by measurement programmes. Over time, theoretical understanding of nuclear phenomena has reached a high degree of reliability, and nuclear modeling has become standard practice in nuclear data evaluations (with measurements remaining critical for data testing and benchmarking). Thus, theoretical calculations are instrumental in obtaining complete and internally consistent nuclear data files. The practical use of nuclear model codes requires a considerable numerical input that describes the properties of the nuclei and the interactions involved. Experts have used a variety of different input sets, often developed over years in their own laboratories. Many of these partial input databases were poorly documented or not documented at all, and were not always available for other users. With the trend of reduced funds for nuclear data evaluations, there is a real threat that the immense accumulated knowledge of input parameters and associated calculations may be compromised or even lost for future applications. Therefore, the IAEA has undertaken an extensive co-ordinated effort to develop a library of evaluated and tested nuclear-model input parameters. Considering

  18. The hydrophobic character of nonsulfide mineral surfaces as influenced by double-bond reactions of adsorbed unsaturated collector species. Progress report

    Miller, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    The primary goal of this research is to improve the flotation efficiency of nonsulfide mineral systems by establishing the fundamental features of collector adsorption reactions and developing appropriate chemical control strategies. In situ real-time FR-IR/IRS measurements, nonequilibrium electrophoresis, vacuum flotation, contact-angle goniometry, and laser Raman spectroscopy have been used to accomplish this goal. These experimental techniques have led to the determination of important information concerning collector adsorption phenomena in each nonsulfide mineral system. For example, the demonstration of polymerization of adsorbed unsaturated surfactant species has added a new dimension to semi-soluble salt flotation chemistry and may have more general utility. Furthermore, refinement of the in situ FT-IR/IRS analysis has been accomplished particularly for the examination of surfactant aggregation phenomena at nonsulfide mineral surfaces. Finally, the significance of the lattice ion hydration theory has been demonstrated by nonequilibrium electrophoretic mobility measurements, and the new results will provide a better basis for the understanding of soluble-salt flotation phenomena.

  19. Anaphylactic reaction to intravenous diclofenac

    Ranju Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diclofenac sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used as an opioid sparing agent for postoperative analgesia. Anaphylaxis due to intravenous diclofenac sodium is very rare. We report a case of anaphylactic reaction to IV diclofenac sodium, occurring postoperatively in a 25-year-old primigravida, the clinical features of which mimicked pulmonary embolism. The rarity, clinical importance and the diagnostic dilemma associated prompted us to report this case.

  20. The Glyoxal Clock Reaction

    Ealy, Julie B.; Negron, Alexandra Rodriguez; Stephens, Jessica; Stauffer, Rebecca; Furrow, Stanley D.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the glyoxal clock reaction has led to adaptation of the clock reaction to a general chemistry experiment. This particular reaction is just one of many that used formaldehyde in the past. The kinetics of the glyoxal clock makes the reaction suitable as a general chemistry lab using a Calculator Based Laboratory (CBL) or a LabPro. The…

  1. Workshop climate change. The second report of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC). Impressions and reactions from the Dutch society

    In December 1995 the Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published four reports in which the most recent scientific findings with respect to the climate change problemacy are outlined: (1) The Science of Climate Change (IPCC Working Group 1); (2) Scientific-Technical Analysis of Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change (IPCC Working Group); (3)The Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change (IPCC Working Group 3); and (4) Synthesis of Scientific-Technical Information (IPCC Second Assessment). Experts from governmental institutes, industry, businesses, non-governmental institutes, research institutes, and politicians in the Netherlands reviewed the reports and assessed the contents during the title workshop. 21 fig., 4 refs

  2. Estimating the Backup Reaction Wheel Orientation Using Reaction Wheel Spin Rates Flight Telemetry from a Spacecraft

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    A report describes a model that estimates the orientation of the backup reaction wheel using the reaction wheel spin rates telemetry from a spacecraft. Attitude control via the reaction wheel assembly (RWA) onboard a spacecraft uses three reaction wheels (one wheel per axis) and a backup to accommodate any wheel degradation throughout the course of the mission. The spacecraft dynamics prediction depends upon the correct knowledge of the reaction wheel orientations. Thus, it is vital to determine the actual orientation of the reaction wheels such that the correct spacecraft dynamics can be predicted. The conservation of angular momentum is used to estimate the orientation of the backup reaction wheel from the prime and backup reaction wheel spin rates data. The method is applied in estimating the orientation of the backup wheel onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The flight telemetry from the March 2011 prime and backup RWA swap activity on Cassini is used to obtain the best estimate for the backup reaction wheel orientation.

  3. [Pion-nucleus interactions and nucleon transfer reactions primarily at LAMPF, TRIUMF, and IUCF]: Technical progress report, [October 1, 1986-October 1, 1987

    This report summarizes work carried out between October 1, 1986 and October 1, 1987 in the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Department of Physics at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Other efforts in the laboratory, such as development of an R.F. cavity for an advanced hadron facility accelerator, beam pickoff devices, a buncher for the LAMPF proton beam, and the US-Brazil Cooperative Science Program are described

  4. Double beta decay of Uranium-238: Proton reactions of 238U in 5--12 MeV range. Final report, April 15, 1987--March 31, 1992

    This report is in two parts. The first part reports on the experimental work determining the half-life for double beta decay of 238U to 238PU to be (2.0 ± 0.6) x 1021 years. This is the first evidence for a third mode of decay of this heaviest naturally occurring nucleus. This rate is about 106 times slower than spontaneous fission, which itself is about 106 times slower than alpha decay. The implication of this double beta decay to neutrino masses depends on uncertain theoretical calculations of the rate for such a heavy nucleus. The second part reports on yields of principal fission products from 5.6, 7.3, 9.4, and 11.5 MeV proton interactions with 238U. The yields at 11.5 MeV are similar to those from 14 MeV neutron fission of 238U. At the same time, the production cross sections of 238Np at the same energies are determined. This nuclide is produced as often as fission at the lowest energy but only 3.8% as often at the highest energy

  5. Exchange Reactions. Proceedings of the Symposium on Exchange Reactions

    The mechanisms and kinetics of chemical reactions are of great interest to chemists. The study of exchange reactions in particular helps to shed light on the dynamics of chemical change, providing an insight into the structures and the reactivities of the chemical species involved. The main theme of this meeting was the subject of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the net result is the transfer of one or more electrons between the different oxidation states of the same element. Other studies reported included the transfer of protons, atoms, complex ligands or organic radicals between molecules. Heterogeneous exchange, which is of importance in many cases of catalytic action, was also considered. For a long time isotopic tracers have formed the most convenient means of studying exchange reactions and today a considerable amount of work continues to be done with their aid. Consequently, several papers presented at this Symposium reported on work carried out by purely radiochemical tracer methods. In recognition, however, of the important role which nuclear magnetic resonance and electron spin resonance play in this field, in particular in the study of fast reactions, a number of reports on investigations in which these techniques had been used was included in the programme. By kind invitation of the United States Government the Symposium on Exchange Reactions was held from 31 May to 4 June at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, N.Y., USA. It was attended by 46 participants from nine countries and one inter-governmental organization. The publication of these Proceedings makes the contents of the papers and the discussion available to a wider audience

  6. Practice Gaps: Drug Reactions.

    Wolverton, Stephen E

    2016-07-01

    The term "drug reactions" is relevant to dermatology in three categories of reactions: cutaneous drug reactions without systemic features, cutaneous drug reactions with systemic features, and systemic drugs prescribed by the dermatologist with systematic adverse effects. This article uses examples from each of these categories to illustrate several important principles central to drug reaction diagnosis and management. The information presented will help clinicians attain the highest possible level of certainty before making clinical decisions. PMID:27363888

  7. Basic and engineering studies of radiation induced reactions in the liquid phase. Final technical report, June 1, 1970-May 31, 1974

    Laboratory studies reported on are ionic polymerization under superdry conditions, emulsion polymerization, and vinyl chloride polymerization. Engineering studies include the effect of moisture level on radiation-induced solution polymerization, effect of dose rate on radiation-induced emulsion polymerization of styrene, the effect of soap exchange in styrene emulsion polymerization, pilot plant studies of radiation induced emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride, pilot plant studies of radiation-induced emulsion copolymerization of vinyl chloride with vinyl acetate, pilot plant study of radiation-induced graft emulsion polymerization of styrene onto polyvinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate), and radiation-induced precipitation polymerization of vinyl chloride in a flow reactor

  8. Localized morphea. A rare but significant secondary complication following breast cancer radiotherapy. Case report and review of the literature on radiation reaction among patients with scleroderma/morphea

    Herrmann, Thomas; Csere, Peter [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Univ. of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Guenther, Claudia [Dept. of Dermatology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Univ. of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose and approach: to report a case of morphea (localized scleroderma) in a patient following breast cancer therapy and to summarize the current literature. Results and conclusion: the occurrence of morphea is an unexpected late effect (approximately 1 year after the end of radiation therapy) which occurs frequently in the irradiated breast in women with breast-conserving therapy. The pathogenesis is unclear. The main differential diagnoses are recurrence of carcinoma and a radiogenic subcutaneous fibrosis (in most cases, the final diagnosis can only be made by means of a biopsy). Diagnosis and therapy must be performed in cooperation between dermatologist and radiooncologist. (orig.)

  9. Laboratory studies of heterogeneous reactions of nitrogen compounds on dust and soot surfaces. Final report; Laboruntersuchungen heterogener Reaktionen von Stickstoffverbindungen an Staub- und Russoberflaechen. Abschlussbericht

    Crowley, J.N.; Hanisch, F.

    2002-07-01

    The heterogeneous reactions of nitric acid and dinitrogen pentoxide with various authentic dust, mineral and soot surfaces has been investigated by means of the Knudsen reactor technique at room temperature. Authentic dust surfaces from the Saharan, the Chinese and the Arizona dust regions were used as substrates, as were the minerals aluminium oxide and calcite. The uptake of both trace gases was investigated at concentrations as low as 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3} (HNO{sub 3}) and 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} (N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and found to be large and irreversible. For both trace gases uptake coefficients of the order of 0.1 were determined. Water was found to have some influence onto the uptake coefficient, though this depended on the substrate used. It was observed that diffusion into the pores of the sample bulk was not relevant for the trace gases and substrates used. These results strongly suggest that mineral aerosol can redistribute nitrate from the gaseous cto the particulate phase, modifying tropospheric photochemical cycles involving NOx and NOy. (orig.) [German] Im vorliegenden Forschungsvorhaben wurden mit Hilfe der Knudsen-Reaktor-Technik die heterogenen Reaktionen von Salpetersaeure und Distickstoffpentaoxid mit verschiedenen-authentischen Staeuben, Mineralstaeuben und Russ bei Zimmertemperatur untersucht. Als Substrate wurden authentischer Staub aus der Sahara, aus China und aus Arizona, sowie die Mineralien Aluminiumoxid und Calcit verwendet. Die Aufnahme beider Spurengase wurde bei Konzentrationen von minimal 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3} (HNO{sub 3}) und 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} (N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) bestimmt. Die Aufnahme von HNO{sub 3} und N{sub 2}O{sub 5} war irreversibel mit Aufnahmekoeffizienten in der Groessenordnung von 0,1. Wasser hat je nach Substrat unterschiedlichen Einfluss auf die Aufnahmekoeffizienten. Diffusion von HNO{sub 3} und N{sub 2}O{sub 5} in die Substratporen ist nicht wichtig bei den untersuchten Substraten, so dass keine Korrektur der gemessenen

  10. Organosulphur compounds in coals as determined by reaction with Raney nickel and microscale pyrolysis techniques. Fifth quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Philp, R.P.

    1996-01-31

    This project is designed to study the nature of sulphur-containing organic compounds and their respective linkages in coals and related materials using a variety of microscale pyrolysis techniques combined with gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. The majority of the work will be undertaken using a PYRAN pyrolysis system purchased with funds from the DOE University Instrumentation Program. Since the last report, we have reached the point in the project that we are satisfied with the nickel boride chemical degradation method, and are now working our way through the large amounts of data collected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. While we have tentatively identified a variety of compounds produced by the chemical degradation method with spectra from the literature, we have yet to confirm many of these identifications with pure standards or specialized oil samples. As a result we will present in this report chromatograms of one of the coals (Illinois No. 6) and compare the free aliphatic hydrocarbons with those compounds cleaved from the polar extract, asphaltenes and pre-extracted coal matrix.

  11. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    Shaw Jeffrey L; Levy Michael B; Zacharisen Michael C; Kurup Viswanath P

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling ...

  12. Vision 2020. Reaction Engineering Roadmap

    Klipstein, David H. [Reaction Design, San Diego, CA (United States); Robinson, Sharon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Reaction Engineering Roadmap is a part of an industry- wide effort to create a blueprint of the research and technology milestones that are necessary to achieve longterm industry goals. This report documents the results of a workshop focused on the research needs, technology barriers, and priorities of the chemical industry as they relate to reaction engineering viewed first by industrial use (basic chemicals; specialty chemicals; pharmaceuticals; and polymers) and then by technology segment (reactor system selection, design, and scale-up; chemical mechanism development and property estimation; dealing with catalysis; and new, nonstandard reactor types).

  13. Incomplete fusion reactions

    Various aspects of the mechanism of heavy-ion induced reactions in the range of bombarding energies from a few to about 20 MeV/A are reviewed with special emphasis on the reactions for very asymmetric systems. Results of the experimental studies of binary reactions and particularly of the incomplete fusion reactions (selected by means of various coincidence techniques)are discussed. A model of generalized critical angular momentum is formulated. The model explains essential features of the incomplete fusion reactions and predicts that particular reaction channels are localized in well defined regions of angular momenta. An extension of this model (the sum-rule model) is also proposed in attempt to consistently describe the complete fusion reactions, incomplete fusion reactions and multibody reactions in the framework of statistical competition constrained by the angular momentum limitations. (author)

  14. CHRISGAS Project. WP13: Ancillary and Novel Processes. Final Report: Separation of Hydrogen with Membranes Combined with Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Oxygen pressurized gasification of biomass out stands as a very promising approach to obtain energy or hydrogen from renewable sources. The technical feasibility of this technology has been investigated under the scope of the VI FP CHRISGAS project, which started in September 2004 and had a duration of five and a half years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participated in this project in Work Package 13: Ancillary and novel processes, studying innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems. Such systems include novel or available high temperature water gas shift catalysts and commercially available membranes not yet tried in this type of atmosphere. This report describes the activities carried out during the project regarding the performance of high temperature water gas shift catalysts for upgrading of synthesis gas obtained from biomass gasification, the separation of H2 with selective membranes and the combination of both processes in one by means of a catalytic membrane reactor. (Author) 20 refs.

  15. CHRISGAS Project. WP13: Ancillary and Novel Processes. Final Report: Separation of Hydrogen with Membranes Combined with Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Sanchez-Hervas, J. M.; Marono, M.; Barreiro, M. M.

    2011-05-13

    Oxygen pressurized gasification of biomass out stands as a very promising approach to obtain energy or hydrogen from renewable sources. The technical feasibility of this technology has been investigated under the scope of the VI FP CHRISGAS project, which started in September 2004 and had a duration of five and a half years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participated in this project in Work Package 13: Ancillary and novel processes, studying innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems. Such systems include novel or available high temperature water gas shift catalysts and commercially available membranes not yet tried in this type of atmosphere. This report describes the activities carried out during the project regarding the performance of high temperature water gas shift catalysts for upgrading of synthesis gas obtained from biomass gasification, the separation of H2 with selective membranes and the combination of both processes in one by means of a catalytic membrane reactor. (Author) 20 refs.

  16. Rare, severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Korsholm; Ebbehøj, Eva; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The literature reports a large variety of adverse reactions to potassium iodide. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide in a 51-year-old woman with Graves' thyrotoxicosis is described. Following administration the patient developed sialadenitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis and acne...

  17. Michael Addition Reaction of Fluorinated Nitro Compounds

    郇凤; 胡华伟; 黄焰根; 陈庆云; 郭勇

    2012-01-01

    The Michael addition reactions of fluorinated nitro compounds with electron deficient olefins to give γ-fiuoro-γ-nitro-esters, nitriles and ketones which bear a fluorinated quaternary carbon center were reported. The reactions were promoted by TMG, affording the desired adducts in acceptable to good yields.

  18. Severe systemic allergic reaction induced by accidental skin contact with cow milk in a 16-year-old boy. A case report.

    Liccardi, G; De Falco, F; Gilder, J A; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2004-01-01

    The symptoms of food allergy are rarely induced by skin contact. A 16-year-old boy was referred to our Allergology Centre after an episode of systemic symptoms triggered by accidental skin contact with a drop of cow milk (CM) dripped from a sandwich containing fresh cheese. The patient had been allergic to CM from the age of 24 months and had experienced several episodes of urticaria-angioedema after the ingestion of tiny or "hidden" amounts of CM proteins. In vivo and in vitro diagnostic procedures showed intense sensitisation to all CM proteins (1/100 dilutions of allergenic extracts produced large wheals, and class 4 specific IgE antibodies. Total IgE antibodies were elevate (770.0 UI/). A moderate degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was found (PC20 metacholine: 3.90 milligrams). This case report suggests that patients with a high degree of sensitisation to CM proteins should be alert to the danger of skin contact and should beware of "hidden" CM allergens. PMID:15301310

  19. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with brentuximab vedotin therapy: A report of 5 cases from the Southern Network on Adverse Reactions (SONAR) project

    Carson, Kenneth R.; Newsome, Scott D.; Kim, Ellen J.; Wagner-Johnston, Nina D.; von Geldern, Gloria; Moskowitz, Craig H.; Moskowitz, Alison J.; Rook, Alain H.; Jalan, Pankaj; Loren, Alison W.; Landsburg, Daniel; Coyne, Thomas; Tsai, Donald; Raisch, Dennis W.; Norris, LeAnn B.; Bookstaver, P Brandon; Sartor, Oliver; Bennett, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Brentuxiumab vedotin (BV) is an anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody-drug conjugate approved in 2011 for treating anaplastic large cell and Hodgkin lymphomas. The product label indicates that three BV-treated patients developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a frequently fatal JC-virus induced central nervous system infection. Prior immunosuppressive therapy and compromised immune systems were postulated risk factors. We report 5 patients who developed BV-associated PML, including two immunocompetent patients. Patients Case information was obtained from clinicians (four patients) or a Food and Drug Administration database (one patient). Results All five patients had lymphoid malignancies. Two patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphomas had not previously received chemotherapy. PML developed after a median of three BV doses (range, 2 to 6) and within a median of 7 weeks following BV initiation (range, 3 to 34 weeks). Presenting findings included aphasia, dysarthria, confusion, hemiparesis, and gait dysfunction; JC virus in cerebrospinal fluid (two patients), or CNS biopsy (three patients); and brain MRI scans with white matter abnormalities (five patients). Four patients died a median of 8 weeks (range, 6 to 16 weeks) after PML diagnosis. The sole survivor developed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Conclusion PML can develop after a few BV doses and within weeks of BV initiation. Clinicians should be aware of this syndrome, particularly when neurologic changes develop following BV initiation. The decision to administer BV to patients with indolent cutaneous lymphomas should be based on consideration of risk-benefit profiles and of alternative options. PMID:24771533

  20. Quantifying silica reactivity in subsurface environments: Reaction affinity and solute matrix controls on quartz and SiO2 glass. 1997 annual progress report

    'The author reports the preliminary results of the experiments on the dissolution behavior of vitreous silica (v-SiO2) into aqueous solutions of variable pH and ionic strength. The experiments are being conducted in mixed flow reactors with a high circulation rate that simulates constant-stirred conditions, the efficacy of which the authors discuss below. The preliminary results indicate that v-SiO2 dissolves into aqueous solutions approximately two orders of magnitude more quickly than crystalline silica (e.g., quartz). With additional experiments, they will utilize the dissolution rate data as a framework for understanding the behavior of waste glass compositions in the subsurface. In other work related to the studies of glass reactivity, the author has written one book chapter that will be published as part of a proceedings for the CEA/VALRHO international nuclear waste disposal conference held in Mejannes le Clap, France. In separate work, she is presently writing a second book chapter for the volume entitled Adsorption on Silica Surfaces.'

  1. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Lee, Chung-cheng; Sui, Guodong; Elizarov, Arkadij; Kolb, Hartmuth C.; Huang, Jiang; Heath, James R.; Phelps, Michael E.; Quake, Stephen R.; Tseng, Hsian-rong; Wyatt, Paul; Daridon, Antoine

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  2. Microscale Thermite Reactions.

    Arnaiz, Francisco J.; Aguado, Rafael; Arnaiz, Susana

    1998-01-01

    Describes the adaptation of thermite (aluminum with metal oxides) reactions from whole-class demonstrations to student-run micro-reactions. Lists detailed directions and possible variations of the experiment. (WRM)

  3. Anaphylaxis-Like Reactions

    ... be "primed" by previous exposure to cause anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reactions can occur with no previous exposure at all. ... an X-ray. Although the mechanism of an anaphylactoid reaction is different, the treatment is the same as ...

  4. Common Reactions After Trauma

    ... here Enter ZIP code here Common Reactions After Trauma Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Common Reactions After Trauma Available in Spanish: Reacciones Comunes Después de un ...

  5. Preequilibrium Nuclear Reactions

    After a survey on existing experimental data on precompound reactions and a description of preequilibrium reactions, theoretical models and quantum mechanical theories of preequilibrium emission are presented. The 25 papers of this meeting are analyzed separately

  6. Chemical transport reactions

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  7. Reaction pathways of propene pyrolysis.

    Qu, Yena; Su, Kehe; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yan; Zeng, Qingfeng; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Litong

    2010-05-01

    The gas-phase reaction pathways in preparing pyrolytic carbon with propene pyrolysis have been investigated in detail with a total number of 110 transition states and 50 intermediates. The structure of the species was determined with density functional theory at B3PW91/6-311G(d,p) level. The transition states and their linked intermediates were confirmed with frequency and the intrinsic reaction coordinates analyses. The elementary reactions were explored in the pathways of both direct and the radical attacking decompositions. The energy barriers and the reaction energies were determined with accurate model chemistry method at G3(MP2) level after an examination of the nondynamic electronic correlations. The heat capacities and entropies were obtained with statistical thermodynamics. The Gibbs free energies at 298.15 K for all the reaction steps were reported. Those at any temperature can be developed with classical thermodynamics by using the fitted (as a function of temperature) heat capacities. It was found that the most favorable paths are mainly in the radical attacking chain reactions. The chain was proposed with 26 reaction steps including two steps of the initialization of the chain to produce H and CH(3) radicals. For a typical temperature (1200 K) adopted in the experiments, the highest energy barriers were found in the production of C(3) to be 203.4 and 193.7 kJ/mol. The highest energy barriers for the production of C(2) and C were found 174.1 and 181.4 kJ/mol, respectively. These results are comparable with the most recent experimental observation of the apparent activation energy 201.9 +/- 0.6 or 137 +/- 25 kJ/mol. PMID:20082392

  8. Anaphylactoid reactions to paracetamol

    Ayonrinde, O.; Saker, B.

    2000-01-01

    The toxic effects of paracetamol in overdose quantities are well recognised but the occurrence of anaphylactoid reactions to paracetamol is infrequently identified by consumers and health care professionals. Nevertheless adverse reactions to this drug, even in therapeutic doses, can have fatal or near fatal consequences. A case of an anaphylactoid reaction to paracetamol is described.


Keywords: paracetamol; anaphylaxis; allergy; hypersensitivity

  9. Sodium concrete reactions

    The data from an extensive series of sodium/concrete reaction tests are presented and mechanisms by which the reactions proceed are analyzed. The results indicate water transport and the resulting sodium/water reaction dominate both the chemical energy release and H2 generation. A mechanism which explains the limited penetration of concrete observed in most of these tests is proposed

  10. Asian collaboration on nuclear reaction data compilation

    Nuclear reaction data are essential for research and development in nuclear engineering, radiation therapy, nuclear physics and astrophysics. Experimental data must be compiled in a database and be accessible to nuclear data users. One of the nuclear reaction databases is the EXFOR database maintained by the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Recently, collaboration among the Asian NRDC members is being further developed under the support of the Asia-Africa Science Platform Program of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. We report the activity for three years to develop the Asian collaboration on nuclear reaction data compilation. (author)

  11. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: nuclear structure; fusion reactions near and below the barrier; incomplete fusion and fragmentation reactions; and instrumentation and analysis. (LSP).

  12. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles

    This report discusses research in the following areas: nuclear structure; fusion reactions near and below the barrier; incomplete fusion and fragmentation reactions; and instrumentation and analysis. (LSP)

  13. Modelling of biochemical reaction networks

    Gloppen Jørgensen, Arne Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    This report investigates signalling in reaction kinetic networks. The main topic is signalling between a substance being controlled by another substance and how this can be related to control theory. Different types of so-called natural controllers are compared and certain properties are investigated. Natural controllers are models on how a catalyst enzyme controls, for example the concentration, of a substance. There are sixteen different combinations of signalling between these substanc...

  14. Adverse Reactions of Ferric Carboxymaltose

    Thanusubramanian, Harish; Patil, Navin; Shenoy, Smita; Bairy, K. L.; Sarma, Yashdeep

    2014-01-01

    The author reports a 55-year-old female diagnosed of chronic kidney disease grade-5 with associated co-morbidities like type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy and hypothyroidism was admitted for arteriovenous fistula construction. She was started on ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of anaemia. She was given a test dose before administering the drug intravenously and she did not develop any reaction. The drug ferric carboxymaltose was then administered over a period of one hour....

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis of multi-use forage energy crops, year 2 report: Studies on the improvement of reaction conditions, differences between forages. SRC technical report No. 141, and SRC publication No. C-711-6-B-83

    Jackson, L.J.; Coxworth, E.C.

    1983-12-31

    The main objective of the work described in this report is to optimize the conversion of forages and crop residues to simple sugars, and to determine the quantity of protein that can be readily recovered after enzymatic hydrolysis of those materials. The simple sugars would be used as substrates for fermentation to fuels and chemicals, and the protein is a potentially valuable byproduct for use as fertilizer or feed. The plant materials studied were kochia, Jerusalem artichoke, pea stem and chaff, oilseed radish, alfalfa, and slender wheat grass. The enzymes used in the hydrolysis were Onozuka R-10, Celluclast 200L Type N, and cellobiase 250L. Results reported include comparisons of enzymatic reactivity of the materials studied, the quantity of protein remaining after treatment, and the dry matter solubility of the materials achieved using the different enzymes.

  16. Noncanonical Reactions of Flavoenzymes

    Pablo Sobrado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes containing flavin cofactors are predominantly involved in redox reactions in numerous cellular processes where the protein environment modulates the chemical reactivity of the flavin to either transfer one or two electrons. Some flavoenzymes catalyze reactions with no net redox change. In these reactions, the protein environment modulates the reactivity of the flavin to perform novel chemistries. Recent mechanistic and structural data supporting novel flavin functionalities in reactions catalyzed by chorismate synthase, type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, UDP-galactopyranose mutase, and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase are presented in this review. In these enzymes, the flavin plays either a direct role in acid/base reactions or as a nucleophile or electrophile. In addition, the flavin cofactor is proposed to function as a “molecular scaffold” in the formation of UDP-galactofuranose and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate by forming a covalent adduct with reaction intermediates.

  17. Unexpected Stereospecific Rearrangement-Addition Reaction of Trisubstituted Gibberellin Epoxides with Trimethylaluminium

    2001-01-01

    A novel rearrangement-addition reaction of trisubstituted gibberellin epoxides with trimethylaluminium is reported. The reaction proceeds stereospecifically to give tertiary methyl alcohols. The possible mechanism for the reaction is also discussed.

  18. Cosmetic tattoo pigment reaction

    Greywal, Tanya; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundCutaneous reactions to tattoos are most commonly granulomatous or lichenoid. PurposeWe describe a woman who developed a lymphocytic reaction following a cosmetic tattoo procedure with black dye. The reaction occurred not only at the site of the tattoos (eyebrows and eyelash lines), but also in non-tattooed skin (bilateral malar cheeks). Methods and MaterialsWe reviewed PubMed for the following terms: cosmetic, dye, granuloma, granulomatous, lichenoid, lymphocytic, ...

  19. Anaphylactic reactions to cinoxacin.

    Stricker, B H; Slagboom, G.; Demaeseneer, R.; Slootmaekers, V.; Thijs, I.; Olsson, S

    1988-01-01

    During 1981 to mid-1988 three cases of anaphylactic shock after treatment with the quinolone derivative cinoxacin were reviewed by the Netherlands Centre for Monitoring of Adverse Reactions to Drugs and 17 cases of an anaphylactic type of reaction notified to the World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring. In five out of six patients for whom data were available the reaction began shortly after taking a single capsule of a second or next course of treatme...

  20. Community reaction to noise from power stations

    Community reaction is a major consideration in noise control. The relationship between noise exposure and community reaction has received considerable attention in relation to railway, traffic, aircraft and impulsive noise. The results have shown a number of features in common, including: similarly shaped noise/reaction functions; similar results across different measurement techniques and cultures, noise/reaction correlations based on individual respondent data are low (mean r = 0.42 ± 0.12: Job, 1988), although correlations of .58 and above have been reported correlations based on data grouped by noise exposure are generally high and relatively unaffected by the type of noise studied whereas correlations based on individual data tend to be lower for impulsive noise than for transportation noise attitude to the noise source and sensitivity to noise shows strong correlations with reaction. This paper reports that the present study was undertaken in order toe establish over a wider range of noise exposure whether community reaction to power station noise is similar to reaction to other types of non-impulsive noise. It is possible that reaction is different given important differences in the source of the noise which may affect attitude. Attitudes towards power stations may be more positive than attitudes to aircraft or rail noise for example, because almost all respondents use electricity regularly every day. Further, the power stations in the present study provided employment for the relatively small surrounding communities

  1. Reaction kinetics of polybutylene terephthalate polycondensation reaction

    Darda, P. J.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.; Souren, F.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of the forward polycondensation reaction of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) has been investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PBT - prepolymer with an initial degree of polymerization of 5.5 was used as starting material. The PBT prepolymer was prepared from dimethyl tereph

  2. Reactions at Solid Surfaces

    Ertl, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Expanding on the ideas first presented in Gerhard Ertl's acclaimed Baker Lectures at Cornell University, Reactions at Solid Surfaces comprises an authoritative, self-contained, book-length introduction to surface reactions for both professional chemists and students alike. Outlining our present understanding of the fundamental processes underlying reactions at solid surfaces, the book provides the reader with a complete view of how chemistry works at surfaces, and how to understand and probe the dynamics of surface reactions. Comparing traditional surface probes with more modern ones, and brin

  3. Desosamine in multicomponent reactions

    Achatz, Sepp; Dömling, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Desosamine occurring ubiquitously in natural products is introduced into isocyanide based multicomponent reaction chemistry. Corresponding products are of potential interest for the design of novel antibiotics. © 2006.

  4. Knoevenagel Reaction of Unprotected Sugars

    Scherrmann, Marie-Christine

    The Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected sugars was investigated in the 1950s using zinc chloride as promoter. The so-called Garcia Gonzalez reaction had been almost forgotten for 50 years, until the emergence of new water tolerant catalysts having Lewis acid behavior. The reaction was thus reinvestigated and optimal conditions have been found to prepare trihydroxylated furan derivatives from pentose or β-tetrahydrofuranylfuran from hexoses with non-cyclic β-keto ester or β-diketones. Other valuable compounds such as β-linked tetrahydrobenzofuranyl glycosides or hydroxyalkyl-3,3,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione can be obtained using cyclic β-dicarbonylic derivatives. Apart from one report in the 1950s, the Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected carbohydrate in basic condition has been studied only in the mid-1980s to prepare C-glycosyl barbiturates from barbituric acids and, later on, from non-cyclic β-diketones, β-C-glycosidic ketones. The efficient method exploited to prepare such compounds has found an industrial development in cosmetics.

  5. Analysis of the Reports of Adverse Drug Reactions Induced by PEG-interferon Alfa-2a Injection%聚乙二醇干扰素α-2a注射液不良反应报告分析

    韩丹; 代菲; 储文功

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨聚乙二醇干扰素α-2a注射液不良反应发生的特点及相关因素,为临床安全用药提供参考.方法:收集某省药品不良反应监测中心2004~2011年自发呈报系统上报的1 606例聚乙二醇干扰素α-2a注射液的不良反应(ADR)报告,对ADR所涉及的患者年龄、性别,以及ADR年份、类型、结果、临床表现等进行统计分析.结果:1606例报告中,男883例,女723例,30 ~60岁患者最多(72.6%);发生严重不良反应243例,新的严重ADR 86例;临床表现以血液系统损害为主占59.95%,其次为肝胆系统损害占10.76%.结论:临床在运用聚乙二醇干扰素α-2a治疗丙肝的过程中,应密切观察其ADR,制定周密的护理计划,积极干预和防治,以有效减少和防止ADR发生.%To probe into the characteristics of adverse drug reactions (ADR) caused by PEG-interferon alfa-2a injection to provide some rational clinical guidance. Methods: 1606 reports of adverse reactions caused by PEG-interferon alfa-2a injection were collected from January 2004 to December 2011 and statistically analyzed in respect of patients'sex and age, involved type, years, result, clinical manifestations, etc. Results:883 of the 1606 cases were male cases,723 were female cases, and 72. 6% were the adults at the age of 30 to 60.The incidence rate of severe ADR were 243 cases, and new and severe ADR were 86 cases. The blood system was the main lesion in ADR cases (59.95%) , and the second was liver and gall system(10.76%). Conclusion: The corresponding adverse reactions should be closely observed during the clinical use of PEG-interferon alfa-2a in the treatment of hepatitis C. The occurrence of adverse reactions could be effectively reduced and prevented by making a careful nursing plan and conducting an active intervention and control.

  6. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center, Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden. Final Report

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled 'Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center', which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  7. Adverse reactions to injectable aesthetic microimplants.

    Requena, C; Izquierdo, M J; Navarro, M; Martínez, A; Vilata, J J; Botella, R; Amorrortu, J; Sabater, V; Aliaga, A; Requena, L

    2001-06-01

    New inert materials such as polymerized silicones, Bioplastique, Artecoll, and Dermalive are now being used as injectable aesthetic microimplants. These substances are better than the old ones because they tend not to migrate and do not usually produce much of a host immune response. Adverse reactions after injection of these materials are rare, although there are a few reported cases as a result of bad technique or anomalous granulomatous reactions. We report on four patients with unsightly results after cosmetic microimplants, including one of Artecoll, one of Dermalive (to the best of our knowledge, the latter is the first such case reported), and two of silicone. This report describes the histopathologic features of cutaneous reactions to these injectable aesthetic materials. PMID:11391099

  8. Chemical reaction and separation method

    Jansen, J.C.; Kapteijn, F.; Strous, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to process for performing a chemical reaction in a reaction mixture, which reaction produces water as by-product, wherein the reaction mixture is in contact with a hydroxy sodalite membrane, through which water produced during the reaction is removed from the reaction mixtu

  9. Clock Reaction: Outreach Attraction

    Carpenter, Yuen-ying; Phillips, Heather A.; Jakubinek, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry students are often introduced to the concept of reaction rates through demonstrations or laboratory activities involving the well-known iodine clock reaction. For example, a laboratory experiment involving thiosulfate as an iodine scavenger is part of the first-year general chemistry laboratory curriculum at Dalhousie University. With…

  10. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  11. Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD

    Briceño, Raúl A; Luu, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    One of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low- energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path ...

  12. Electrochemical promotion of catalytic reactions

    Imbihl, R.

    2010-05-01

    The electrochemical promotion of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions (EPOC) became feasible through the use of porous metal electrodes interfaced to a solid electrolyte. With the O 2- conducting yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ), the Na + conducting β″-Al 2O 3 (β-alumina), and several other types of solid electrolytes the EPOC effect has been demonstrated for about 100 reaction systems in studies conducted mainly in the mbar range. Surface science investigations showed that the physical basis for the EPOC effect lies in the electrochemically induced spillover of oxygen and alkali metal, respectively, onto the surface of the metal electrodes. For the catalytic promotion effect general concepts and mechanistic schemes were proposed but these concepts and schemes are largely speculative. Applying surface analytical tools to EPOC systems the proposed mechanistic schemes can be verified or invalidated. This report summarizes the progress which has been achieved in the mechanistic understanding of the EPOC effect.

  13. Catalytic Conia-ene and related reactions.

    Hack, Daniel; Blümel, Marcus; Chauhan, Pankaj; Philipps, Arne R; Enders, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Since its initial inception, the Conia-ene reaction, known as the intramolecular addition of enols to alkynes or alkenes, has experienced a tremendous development and appealing catalytic protocols have emerged. This review fathoms the underlying mechanistic principles rationalizing how substrate design, substrate activation, and the nature of the catalyst work hand in hand for the efficient synthesis of carbocycles and heterocycles at mild reaction conditions. Nowadays, Conia-ene reactions can be found as part of tandem reactions, and the road for asymmetric versions has already been paved. Based on their broad applicability, Conia-ene reactions have turned into a highly appreciated synthetic tool with impressive examples in natural product synthesis reported in recent years. PMID:26031492

  14. Acceleration of Organic Reactions Using Microwave

    Lu Ta-Jung

    2004-01-01

    The use of microwave technology in accelerating organic reactions has received intense attention leading to immense growth recently. Accordingly, we have been interested in improving the efficacy of organic processes by microwave irradiation. Here we report our results on the microwave assisted direct amide formation from carboxylic acid and amine, the hydrolysis of biopolymers, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The reactions carried out under microwave irradiation, in general, required considerably less reaction time and afforded the desired products in higher yields than those under classical conditions. In all the cases we have studied, the procedures are simplified, the purity of the products are higher, and the cost of reaction is greatly reduced employing microwave.

  15. Electroweak meson production reaction in the nucleon resonance region

    We report on our recent study of the the neutrino-nucleon reaction in the nucleon resonance region. The dynamical reaction model of meson production reaction on the nucleon for the pion and photon induced reaction has been developed in order to investigate the spectrum of nucleon excited state. We have extended this model in order to describe the weak meson production reactions with the πN, ηN, KΛ, KΣ and ππN final states. We also studied the role of the final state interaction in the photon and the neutrino induced pion production reaction on the deuteron around the Δ(1232) resonance region

  16. Analysis of 109 Reports of Adverse Drug Reaction of Cefoperazone Sodium and Sulbactam Sodium for Injection%109例头孢哌酮钠舒巴坦钠不良反应报告分析

    刘宪军; 付娜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate relevant factors of the adverse drug reaction induced by cefoperazone sodium and sulbactam sodium for injection to provide scientific reference for the safe and rational drug use in clinic. Methods 109 ADR reports of cefoperazone sodium and sulbactam sodium for injection collected by Beijing Center for ADR Monitoring from January 2010 to October 2010 were statistically analyzed retrospectively. Results The clinical manifestations of ADR involved skins and appendages damage, blood system damage, digestive system damage, hepatobiliary system damage and generalized lesion. Most ADR cases occurred in 30 minutes after medication, and drug combination maybe cause serious adverse reactions. Conclusion The ADR induced by cefoperazone sodium and sulbactam sodium for injection is associated with its chemical structure, individual diathesis, different diet, drug combination and so on. In order to avoid the occurrence of ADR induced by cefoporazone sodium and sulbactam sodium for injection, the drug must be used rationally and the patient should be intensively warded.%目的:探讨头孢哌酮钠舒巴坦钠致不良反应发生的相关因素,为临床安全合理用药提供参考。方法采用回顾性研究方法,对2012年1月~2012年10月北京市药品不良反应监测中心收集的109例注射用头孢哌酮钠舒巴坦钠不良反应报告进行统计分析。结果头孢哌酮钠舒巴坦钠致不良反应累及系统-器官主要为皮肤及其附件、血液系统、胃肠系统、肝胆系统及全身性损害。多数不良反应出现在用药后30 min 内,且以联合用药出现不良反应的症状较重。结论头孢哌酮钠舒巴坦钠致不良反应与其化学结构、患者个体体质、饮食、联合用药等有关。加强注射用头孢哌酮钠舒巴坦钠的合理使用及用药监护,可以避免或减少不良反应的发生。

  17. Reactions of charged and neutral recoil particles following nuclear transformations

    The status of the following programs is reported: study of the stereochemistry of halogen atom or ion reactions produced via (eta,γ) or (IT) nuclear reactions with diastereomeric molecules; study of nuclear decay induced reactions of halogen species with organic compounds in the gas phase; decay-induced labelling of compounds of biochemical interest; energetics and mechanisms involved in the reactions of highly energetic carbon-11 atoms with simple organic molecules; and chemistry of the positronium. (LK)

  18. Reactions of oriented molecules.

    Brooks, P R

    1976-07-01

    Beams of oriented molecules have been used to directly study geometrical requirements in chemical reactions. These studies have shown that reactivity is much greater in some orientations than others and demonstrated the existence of steric effects. For some reactions portions of the orientation results are in good accord with traditional views of steric hindrance, but for others it is clear that our chemical intuition needs recalibrating. Indeed, the information gained from simultaneously orienting the reactants and observing the scattering angle of the products may lead to new insights about the detailed mechanism of certain reactions. Further work must be done to extend the scope and detail of the studies described here. More detailed information is needed on the CH(3)I reaction and the CF(3)I reaction. The effects of alkyl groups of various sizes and alkali metals of various sizes are of interest. In addition, reactions where a long-lived complex is formed should be studied to see if orientation is important. Finally, it would be of interest to apply the technique to the sort of reactions that led to our interest in the first place: the S(N)2 displacements in alkyl halides where the fascinating Walden inversion occurs. PMID:17793988

  19. Cyclodextrin-promoted Diels Alder reactions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon under mild reaction conditions

    Chaudhuri, Sauradip; Phelan, Tyler; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the effect of cyclodextrins on the rates of aqueous Diels Alder reactions of 9-anthracenemethanol with a variety of N-substituted maleimides. These reactions occurred under mild reaction conditions (aqueous solvent, 40 °C), and were most efficient for the reaction of N-cyclohexylmaleimide with a methyl-β-cyclodextrin additive (94% conversion in 24 hours). These results can be explained on the basis of a model wherein the cyclodextrins bind the hydrophobic substituents on the maleimides and activate the dienophile via electronic modulation of the maleimide double bond. The results reported herein represent a new mechanism for cyclodextrin-promoted Diels Alder reactions, and have significant potential applications in the development of other cyclodextrin-promoted organic transformations. Moreover, the ability to deplanarize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) under mild conditions, as demonstrated herein, has significant applications for PAH detoxification. PMID:26692588

  20. The Reaction Wheel Pendulum

    Block, Daniel J; Spong, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    This monograph describes the Reaction Wheel Pendulum, the newest inverted-pendulum-like device for control education and research. We discuss the history and background of the reaction wheel pendulum and other similar experimental devices. We develop mathematical models of the reaction wheel pendulum in depth, including linear and nonlinear models, and models of the sensors and actuators that are used for feedback control. We treat various aspects of the control problem, from linear control of themotor, to stabilization of the pendulum about an equilibrium configuration using linear control, t

  1. Electron transfer reactions

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  2. Adverse reaction of topical etofenamate: petechial eruption.

    Orbak, Z; Yildirim, Z K; Sepetci, O; Karakelleoglu, C; Alp, H

    2012-10-01

    Etofenamate is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Clinical findings caused by etofenamate are uncommon. Allergic contact dermatitis is the most common cutaneous reaction reported. But petechial eruption due to etofenamate had not been reported yet. This report concerns an 11-year old male with petechial eruption after application of topical etofenamate. Physicians need to be aware that patients can develop an asymptomatic purpuric eruption when etofenamate is ordered. PMID:23620980

  3. Autocatalysis in reaction networks.

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Gopalkrishnan, Manoj

    2014-10-01

    The persistence conjecture is a long-standing open problem in chemical reaction network theory. It concerns the behavior of solutions to coupled ODE systems that arise from applying mass-action kinetics to a network of chemical reactions. The idea is that if all reactions are reversible in a weak sense, then no species can go extinct. A notion that has been found useful in thinking about persistence is that of "critical siphon." We explore the combinatorics of critical siphons, with a view toward the persistence conjecture. We introduce the notions of "drainable" and "self-replicable" (or autocatalytic) siphons. We show that: Every minimal critical siphon is either drainable or self-replicable; reaction networks without drainable siphons are persistent; and nonautocatalytic weakly reversible networks are persistent. Our results clarify that the difficulties in proving the persistence conjecture are essentially due to competition between drainable and self-replicable siphons. PMID:25245394

  4. Chemisorption And Precipitation Reactions

    The transport and bioavailability of chemical components within soils is, in part, controlled by partitioning between solids and solution. General terms used to describe these partitioning reactions include chemisorption and precipitation. Chemisorption is inclusive of the suit...

  5. Nucleon induced reactions

    The collection contains full texts of 37 contributions; all fall within the INIS Subject Scope. The topics treated include some unsolved problems of nuclear reactions and relevant problems of nuclear structure at low and intermediate energies. (Z.S.)

  6. Allergic reactions in anaesthesia

    Krøigaard, M; Garvey, L H; Menné, T;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective survey of possible allergic reactions during anaesthesia was to investigate whether the cause suspected by anaesthetists involved corresponded with the cause found on subsequent investigation in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre (DAAC). METHODS: Case...... notes and anaesthetic charts from 111 reactions in 107 patients investigated in the DAAC were scrutinized for either suspicions of or warnings against specific substances stated to be the cause of the supposed allergic reaction. RESULTS: In 67 cases, one or more substances were suspected. In 49 of these...... match, the right substance being suspected, but investigations showed an additional allergen or several substances, including the right substance being suspected. CONCLUSIONS: An informed guess is not a reliable way of determining the cause of a supposed allergic reaction during anaesthesia and may put...

  7. Substance abusers' personality disorders and staff members' emotional reactions

    Hesse Morten; Thylstrup Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that aggressive behaviour and DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders (PD) may be associated with professionals' emotional reactions to clients, and that cluster C PD may be associated with positive emotional reactions. Methods Staff members recruited from workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, ...

  8. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    Dogra A; Minocha Y; Kaur S

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly ...

  9. Meson production in + reactions

    H Machner; M Betigeri; J Bojowald; A Budzanowski; A Chatterjee; J Ernst; L Freindl; D Frekers; W Garske; K Grewer; A Hamacher; J Ilieva; L Jarczyk; K Kilian; S Kliczewski; W Klimala; D Kolev; T Kutsarova; J Lieb; H Machner; A Magiera; H Nann; L Pentchev; H S Plendl; D Protić; B Razen; P Von Rossen; B J Roy; R Siudak; J Smyrski; R V Srikantiah; A Strzałkowski; R Tsenov; K Zwoll

    2001-08-01

    Total and differential cross sections for the reactions $p+d → 3He + 0 with = ; and + → 3H + + were measured with the GEM detector at COSY for beam momenta between threshold and the maximum of the corresponding baryon resonance. For both reactions a strong forward–backward asymmetry was found. The data were compared with model calculations. The aspect of isospin symmetry breaking is studied.

  10. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  11. EXERCISE AND REACTION TIMES

    Varun; Neeraj; Ushadhar; Yogesh; Rinku

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise provides multiple benefits to an individual. It is known that exercising regularly can prevent coronary heart disease, hypertension and obesity and improve flexibility. The effect of exercise on visual reaction time needs to be studied, a s the existing data on the benefit of aerobic exercise on psychomotor functions is insufficient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online Visual reaction time is measured before and after exercise. Subjects were ...

  12. The power-law reaction rate coefficient for barrierless reactions

    Yin, Cangtao; Du, Jiulin

    2014-01-01

    The power-law reaction rate coefficient for the barrierless reactions is studied if the reactions take place in systems with power-law distributions, and a generalized rate formula for the barrierless reactions in Gorin model is derived. We show that due to barrierless, different from those for bimolecular and unimolcular reactions, the power-law rate coefficient for the barrierless reactions does not have the factor of power-law distribution function and thus it is not very strongly dependen...

  13. Fundamental studies of the mechanism of catalytic reactions with catalysts effective in the gasification of carbon solids and the oxidative coupling of methane. Quarterly report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Iglesia, E.; Perry, D.L.; Heinemann, H.

    1995-03-01

    The synthesis of ethane and ethylene from methane and oxygen will be carried out in novel hydrogen transport inorganic membranes and in cyclic reactors in order to prevent undesirable secondary reactions of C{sub 2} molecules to CO and CO{sub 2}. Neither inorganic membrane reactors nor cyclic tubular reactors are presently used in commercial processes. Their application to catalytic reactions represents a novel application of engineering and solid-state chemistry concepts to catalytic reactions. Our approach combines high temperature membrane and cyclic experimental reactors, synthesis and characterization of thin membrane films and of high surface area catalysts, and detailed models of complex gas phase and surface reactions involved in oxidative coupling. We anticipate that this approach will lead to novel reactors for carrying our kinetic-controlled sequential reactions, such as the oxidative coupling of methane. Careful spectrographic and wet chemical analyses of fresh and silent catalysts have shown considerable differences which have permitted conclusions as to the source of deactivation. Our activities in the first quarter FYI 995 have focused on the synthesis, structural characterization, and catalytic evaluation of membrane films, disks, and reactors. We have also continued to exploit reaction-transport models to predict the performance of membrane, cyclic, and recycle reactors in the oxidative coupling of methane.

  14. Two-phase flow characteristics of hot water discharged from a thin nozzle. 1st Report. Boiling two-phase flow rate in a nozzle and reaction force by two-phase jet

    An experimental and analytical study on the mass flux and reaction force of water single-phase and steam-water two-phase jets discharged from a thin nozzle was carried out. The mass flux of water jet is well predicted using the Bernoulli's equation with the contraction coefficient, but the recovery of contraction at the nozzle exit should be considered to evaluate the reaction force. The L/D of the nozzle affects the mass flux and reaction force of the two-phase jet, i.e., the mass flux decreases and the reaction force increases with the L/D. The behavior of high-temperature water jet is similar to that of the water jet if the L/D is smaller or nozzle inlet pressure is higher. The behaviors of the mass flux and the reaction force show hysteresis depending on the decrease or increase of nozzle inlet pressure. The mass flux and reaction force can be well predicted by the critical flow analysis based on a separated flow model with the non-equilibrium parameter. (author)

  15. Two-phase flow characteristics of hot water discharged from a thin nozzle. 1st Report. Boiling two-phase flow rate in a nozzle and reaction force by two-phase jet

    Hamada, Hirotsugu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Takahashi, Minoru; Inoue, Akira; Aritomi, Masanori [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study on the mass flux and reaction force of water single-phase and steam-water two-phase jets discharged from a thin nozzle was carried out. The mass flux of water jet is well predicted using the Bernoulli's equation with the contraction coefficient, but the recovery of contraction at the nozzle exit should be considered to evaluate the reaction force. The L/D of the nozzle affects the mass flux and reaction force of the two-phase jet, i.e., the mass flux decreases and the reaction force increases with the L/D. The behavior of high-temperature water jet is similar to that of the water jet if the L/D is smaller or nozzle inlet pressure is higher. The behaviors of the mass flux and the reaction force show hysteresis depending on the decrease or increase of nozzle inlet pressure. The mass flux and reaction force can be well predicted by the critical flow analysis based on a separated flow model with the non-equilibrium parameter. (author)

  16. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media

    Webb, Judith A.W. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); Stacul, Fulvio [Institute of Radiology, Ospedale di Cattinara, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730 Herlev (Denmark); Morcos, Sameh K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield S5 7AU (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after contrast medium injection. They have received increasing interest over the past decade, but their prevalence remains uncertain and their pathophysiology is not fully understood. The Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the available information, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 8th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa. Late adverse reactions after intravascular iodinated contrast medium include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headache, itching, skin rash, musculoskeletal pain, and fever. A significant proportion of these reactions is unrelated to the contrast medium; however, allergy-like skin reactions are well-documented side effects of contrast media with an incidence of approximately 2%. Late reactions appear to be commoner after non-ionic dimers. The majority of late skin reactions after contrast medium exposure are probably T-cell-mediated allergic reactions. Patients at increased risk of late skin reactions are those with a history of previous contrast medium reaction and those on interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are self-limiting and resolve within a week. Management is symptomatic and similar to the management of other drug-induced skin reactions. (orig.)

  17. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media

    Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after contrast medium injection. They have received increasing interest over the past decade, but their prevalence remains uncertain and their pathophysiology is not fully understood. The Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the available information, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 8th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa. Late adverse reactions after intravascular iodinated contrast medium include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headache, itching, skin rash, musculoskeletal pain, and fever. A significant proportion of these reactions is unrelated to the contrast medium; however, allergy-like skin reactions are well-documented side effects of contrast media with an incidence of approximately 2%. Late reactions appear to be commoner after non-ionic dimers. The majority of late skin reactions after contrast medium exposure are probably T-cell-mediated allergic reactions. Patients at increased risk of late skin reactions are those with a history of previous contrast medium reaction and those on interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are self-limiting and resolve within a week. Management is symptomatic and similar to the management of other drug-induced skin reactions. (orig.)

  18. Chemical kinetics of gas reactions

    Kondrat'Ev, V N

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions explores the advances in gas kinetics and thermal, photochemical, electrical discharge, and radiation chemical reactions. This book is composed of 10 chapters, and begins with the presentation of general kinetic rules for simple and complex chemical reactions. The next chapters deal with the experimental methods for evaluating chemical reaction mechanisms and some theories of elementary chemical processes. These topics are followed by discussions on certain class of chemical reactions, including unimolecular, bimolecular, and termolecular reactions. The rema

  19. Marketing Mix Reactions to Entry

    Robinson, William T.

    1988-01-01

    Initial product, distribution, marketing expenditure, and price reactions by incumbents are examined for 115 entrants into oligopolistic markets. The most common reaction pattern is either no reaction or only a single reaction. It is very unusual for entrants to face reactions across the entire marketing mix. Reactions in the first two years after entry are explained as a function of the entrant's strategy, incumbent characteristics, and industry characteristics. The explanation provides insi...

  20. Introduction to chemical reaction engineering

    This deals with chemical reaction engineering with thirteen chapters. The contents of this book are introduction on reaction engineering, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics and chemical reaction, abnormal reactor, non-isothermal reactor, nonideal reactor, catalysis in nonuniform system, diffusion and reaction in porosity catalyst, design catalyst heterogeneous reactor in solid bed, a high molecule polymerization, bio reaction engineering, reaction engineering in material process, control multi-variable reactor process using digital computer.

  1. Amino Acids Catalyzed Direct Aldol Reactions in Aqueous Micelles

    PENG Yi-Yuan; WANG Qi; DING Qiu-Ping; HE Jia-Qi; CHENG Jin-Pei

    2003-01-01

    @@ Since the discovery of its roles as a good small-organic-molecule catalyst in intramolecular aldol reactions, pro line has drawn considerable attention in synthetic chemistry due to its similarity to the type-Ⅰ aldolases. Recently,List and others have reported some new direct asymmetric intermolecular reactions catalyzed by proline, including aldol, Mannich, Michael, and other analogous reactions. Except for two recent examples, [1,2] proline catalyzed aldol reactions in aqueous micelles have not been reported, nor have other amino acids as organocatalysts in directly catalyzing aldol reaction been reported. Herein we wish to present our recent results regarding environmentally be nign direct aldol reactions catalyzed by amino acids including proline, histidine and arginine in aqueous media.

  2. Towards Quantum Transport for Central Nuclear Reactions

    Danielewicz, Pawel; Barker, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium Green's functions represent a promising tool for describing central nuclear reactions. Even at the single-particle level, though, the Green's functions contain more information that computers may handle in the foreseeable future. In this study, we explore slab collisions in one dimension, first in the mean field approximation and demonstrate that only function elements close to the diagonal in arguments are relevant, in practice, for the reaction calculations. This bodes well for the application of the Green's functions to the reactions. Moreover we demonstrate that an initial state for a reaction calculation may be generated through adiabatic transformation of interactions. Finally, we report on our progress in incorporating correlations into the dynamic calculations.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of dust sulphation reactions

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A.

    1997-12-31

    Sulphation reactions of metal oxides with SO{sub 2} and O. or SO{sub 3} play significant roles in sulphation roasting of sulphide and oxide minerals as well as in desulphurisation process of combustion gases. In metallurgical waste-heat boilers for sulphide smelting, the sulphation of the oxidic flue dust in the atmosphere containing sulphur oxides is an unavoidable process, and the sulphation reactions have to be guided in a controlled way in the proper parts of the gas handling equipment. In this report, some thermodynamic analyses were conducted for the oxide sulphation reactions in relation to sulphide smelting processes. The phase stability of Me-S-O systems especially for oxides - sulphates equilibrium was studied under different thermodynamic conditions of gas compositions and temperatures. The sulphate stability was analysed for an example of gas compositions in the copper flash smelter of Outokumpu Harjavalta Metals Oy, in relation to temperature. In the report, most of the information was from literature. Moreover, a number of thermodynamic computations were carried out with the HSC program, and the constructed phase stability diagrams were compared with those from the literature whenever possible. The maximum temperatures for stable sulphates under normal operating conditions of the waste-heat boilers in sulphide smelting processes were obtained. This report will serve as the basis for the kinetic studies of the sulphation reactions and the sulphation reaction modelling in pyrometallurgical processes. (orig.) SULA 2 Programme. 36 refs.

  4. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    Dogra A

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  5. Reaction Qualifications Revisited

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

      When, in a competitive sphere, people are selected on the basis of qualifications only, their chances of acquiring positions of advantage may seem to depend entirely upon their abilities, not discriminatory bias. However, if reaction qualifications - i.e. characteristics which contribute...... of merit. Specifically, it preserves symmetry between negative evaluations of antimeritocratic bases of selection and negative evaluations of qualifications rooted in comparable antimeritocratic reactions. So if employers should not select among applicants on the basis of their (the employers') racial...... preferences, recipients should not respond to the applicant actually hired on the basis of their (the recipients') racial preferences. My account decomposes the meritocratic ideal into four separate norms, one of which applies to recipients rather than to selectors. Finally, it defends the view that reaction...

  6. Interfacial Reaction Kinetics

    O'Shaughnessy, Ben; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    1998-01-01

    We study irreversible A-B reaction kinetics at a fixed interface separating two immiscible bulk phases, A and B. We consider general dynamical exponent $z$, where $x_t\\sim t^{1/z}$ is the rms diffusion distance after time $t$. At short times the number of reactions per unit area, $R_t$, is {\\em 2nd order} in the far-field reactant densities $n_A^{\\infty},n_B^{\\infty}$. For spatial dimensions $d$ above a critical value $d_c=z-1$, simple mean field (MF) kinetics pertain, $R_t\\sim Q_b t n_A^{\\in...

  7. Nuclear reactions and structure

    A more complete data base for deriving level parameters for specific nuclei is provided by using charged-particle induced reactions. (α,pγ) reactions on 40Ca, 52Cr, 19F, 26Mg, 48Ti and 51V at Eα = 12 MeV have been used to excite levels in 43Sc, 55Mn, 22Ne, 29Al, 51V and 54Cr. Gamma rays were observed in coincidence with associated protons using a multiparameter data acquisition system. 5 figs., 9 refs., 1 tab

  8. Nuclear structure, nuclear reaction

    Etchegoyen, Maria Cristina Berisso de.; Sinclair, D.; Dr. D. Sinclair

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis, particle- particle angular correlations for reactions in non-zero degree geometry and with non-zero spin nuclei are performed and found to be a valuable tool for spin determination, (d-α) angular correlations in the reaction process 14N(6Li,d)18F* (α)14N are measured for three high excited states in 18F with a 6Li beam of 36MeV. Spins and parities for two of the observed states are determined, and in agreement with theoretical predictions, these states are s...

  9. KVI Annual Report 1982

    This annual report offers 93 informative descriptions of the current research projects at the KVI cyclotron during 1982. The projects are classed under the following heads: elastic and inelastic scattering; giant resonances; transfer and charge exchange reactions; breakup reactions; heavy ion reactions; electromagnetic and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; atomic physics; nuclear solid state physics; cyclotron, computers and instrumentation; nuclear medicine; environmental studies. (Auth.)

  10. Diastereoselective Ugi reaction for the synthesis of unnatural amino esters

    Rafael Oliveira Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Multicomponent Reactions (MCR are useful reactions to obtain complex products by the simple mixture of 3 or more reactants. The classic Ugi reaction (4-UCR involves a mixture of an amine, aldehyde, isocyanide and a carboxylic acid, giving peptoides as products. Some modifications of this reaction have been reported, among which the use of amino acids and Lewis acids, such as titanium (IV chloride, to induce stereoselectivity in good ratio. In this work we demonstrate the efficiency of different Lewis acids in the modified Ugi reaction and good levels of diastereoselectivity and yields in the synthesis of unnatural secondary amino esters.

  11. Two RNAs or DNAs May Artificially Fuse Together at a Short Homologous Sequence (SHS) during Reverse Transcription or Polymerase Chain Reactions, and Thus Reporting an SHS-Containing Chimeric RNA Requires Extra Caution.

    Xie, Bingkun; Yang, Wei; Ouyang, Yongchang; Chen, Lichan; Jiang, Hesheng; Liao, Yuying; Liao, D Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Tens of thousands of chimeric RNAs have been reported. Most of them contain a short homologous sequence (SHS) at the joining site of the two partner genes but are not associated with a fusion gene. We hypothesize that many of these chimeras may be technical artifacts derived from SHS-caused mis-priming in reverse transcription (RT) or polymerase chain reactions (PCR). We cloned six chimeric complementary DNAs (cDNAs) formed by human mitochondrial (mt) 16S rRNA sequences at an SHS, which were similar to several expression sequence tags (ESTs).These chimeras, which could not be detected with cDNA protection assay, were likely formed because some regions of the 16S rRNA are reversely complementary to another region to form an SHS, which allows the downstream sequence to loop back and anneal at the SHS to prime the synthesis of its complementary strand, yielding a palindromic sequence that can form a hairpin-like structure.We identified a 16S rRNA that ended at the 4th nucleotide(nt) of the mt-tRNA-leu was dominant and thus should be the wild type. We also cloned a mouse Bcl2-Nek9 chimeric cDNA that contained a 5-nt unmatchable sequence between the two partners, contained two copies of the reverse primer in the same direction but did not contain the forward primer, making it unclear how this Bcl2-Nek9 was formed and amplified. Moreover, a cDNA was amplified because one primer has 4 nts matched to the template, suggesting that there may be many more artificial cDNAs than we have realized, because the nuclear and mt genomes have many more 4-nt than 5-nt or longer homologues. Altogether, the chimeric cDNAs we cloned are good examples suggesting that many cDNAs may be artifacts due to SHS-caused mis-priming and thus greater caution should be taken when new sequence is obtained from a technique involving DNA polymerization. PMID:27148738

  12. Two RNAs or DNAs May Artificially Fuse Together at a Short Homologous Sequence (SHS) during Reverse Transcription or Polymerase Chain Reactions, and Thus Reporting an SHS-Containing Chimeric RNA Requires Extra Caution

    Xie, Bingkun; Yang, Wei; Ouyang, Yongchang; Chen, Lichan; Jiang, Hesheng; Liao, Yuying; Liao, D. Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Tens of thousands of chimeric RNAs have been reported. Most of them contain a short homologous sequence (SHS) at the joining site of the two partner genes but are not associated with a fusion gene. We hypothesize that many of these chimeras may be technical artifacts derived from SHS-caused mis-priming in reverse transcription (RT) or polymerase chain reactions (PCR). We cloned six chimeric complementary DNAs (cDNAs) formed by human mitochondrial (mt) 16S rRNA sequences at an SHS, which were similar to several expression sequence tags (ESTs).These chimeras, which could not be detected with cDNA protection assay, were likely formed because some regions of the 16S rRNA are reversely complementary to another region to form an SHS, which allows the downstream sequence to loop back and anneal at the SHS to prime the synthesis of its complementary strand, yielding a palindromic sequence that can form a hairpin-like structure.We identified a 16S rRNA that ended at the 4th nucleotide(nt) of the mt-tRNA-leu was dominant and thus should be the wild type. We also cloned a mouse Bcl2-Nek9 chimeric cDNA that contained a 5-nt unmatchable sequence between the two partners, contained two copies of the reverse primer in the same direction but did not contain the forward primer, making it unclear how this Bcl2-Nek9 was formed and amplified. Moreover, a cDNA was amplified because one primer has 4 nts matched to the template, suggesting that there may be many more artificial cDNAs than we have realized, because the nuclear and mt genomes have many more 4-nt than 5-nt or longer homologues. Altogether, the chimeric cDNAs we cloned are good examples suggesting that many cDNAs may be artifacts due to SHS-caused mis-priming and thus greater caution should be taken when new sequence is obtained from a technique involving DNA polymerization. PMID:27148738

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in radiation reactions

    Background: A national hyperbaric centre was established in 1994 at Haukeland Hospital with responsibility of all hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment in Norway. In hypoxic tissues with symptomatic radiation reactions, hyperbaric oxygen induces the formation of collagen and angiogenesis resulting in permanently improved local microcirculation. Material and method: 234 patients received elective HBO treatment at Haukeland Hospital in 12997 with total of 4048 treatments. All 47 patients treated for radiation reactions in the pelvic area in 1997 received a questionnaire 3-15 months after HBO therapy, 81% reported. Results: Rectal bleeding and haematuria were reported as much improved in 61% and 55% respectively, while bladder incontinence was much improved in 46%. Interpretation: this treatment modality may be an alternative in symptomatic radiation reactions at the urinary bladder and the bowel when conventional treatment has given unsatisfactory results

  14. Fundamental studies of the mechanism of catalytic reactions with catalysts effective in the gasification of carbon solids and the oxidative coupling of methane. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.; Perry, D.L.

    1992-09-01

    Work will continue on the oxidative coupling reaction of methane over ternary oxide catalysts to produce C{sub 2}, C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} hydrocarbons and Particularly Olefins with high selectivity. The work which has shown that close to 100% selectivity can be obtained has received wide attention and has resulted in collaborative efforts with industry (CRADA) towards the development of a commercial process. An immediate purpose of additional work is to increase the conversion without diminishing the extremely high selectivity of the reaction and also to permit operation at higher space velocity to reduce equipment size. The mechanism of this reaction is not understood and much additional work is needed to explain the role of carbon formation and of water as intermediates in the reaction and to investigate whether carbon oxides are intermediates. It has been found that oxides other than calcium-nickel-potassium oxides can be useful catalysts for this reaction in the presence of steam and at relatively low temperatures and long contact times. Better definition of the class of binary metal oxides is required and better catalyst characterization is needed to ensure reproducibility Of catalyst preparation and operational results. Pretreatment of the catalyst should be shortened and higher space velocities must be obtained. Close collaboration with Orion ACT is required to advance the project toward the pilot plant stage. In the area of coal and char catalytic steam gasification, the large volume of data obtained at atmospheric pressure will be extended to operations at higher pressures.

  15. Multinucleon transfer reactions

    Nuclear reactions induced by complex nuclei are studied. The description of the single neutron transfer is used to show some aspect of the theoretical treatment of transfer reactions and rules concerning the dependence of cross sections on quantum numbers of the initial and final channels are deduced. Strongly excited states of 20Ne, 19F, sup(16,17)0, 15N were studied experimentally by using different projectile-target combinations in the four-particle, eight-particle and ten-particle transfer reactions, leading to the some final nuclei. Obtained results are discussed. In addition, studies of the projectile break-up phenomenon were performed. The dissociation of 6Li and 7Li projectiles was investigated in reactions on Pb, Sn and Ni nuclei. These nuclei were chosen to allow measurements at one incident energy below, above and at the Coulomb barrier. The observed spectra indicate that the process proceeds primarily via the resonance level but the shape deviates from the shape which was calculated assuming isotropic decay of the excited 6Li in its center of mass system. The investigations of the elastic scattering turned out to be more fruitful and allowed to define better the Coulomb barrier for the 6Li-target system. (S.B.)

  16. Managing Your Emotional Reactions

    ... takes a bit more practice for some people. Learning to React Well Managing emotional reactions means choosing how and when to express ... easier to make choices that work out well. Learning to react well takes ... at taking emotional situations in stride and expressing emotions in healthy ...

  17. Azlactone Reaction Developments.

    de Castro, Pedro P; Carpanez, Arthur G; Amarante, Giovanni W

    2016-07-18

    Azlactones (also known as oxazolones) are heterocycles usually employed in the stereoselective synthesis of α,α-amino acids, heterocycles and natural products. The versatility of the azlactone scaffold arises from the numerous reactive sites, allowing its application in a diversity of transformations. This review aims to cover classical and recent applications of oxazolones, especially those involving stereoselective processes. After a short introduction on their structures and intrinsic reactivities, dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) processes as well as reactions involving stereoselective formation of a new σ C-C bond, such as alkylation/allylation/arylation, aldol, ene, Michael and Mannich reactions will be exposed. Additionally, cycloadditions, Steglich rearrangement and sulfenylation reactions will also be discussed. Recent developments of the well-known Erlenmeyer azlactones will be described. For the most examples, the proposed mechanism, activation modes and/or key reaction intermediates will be exposed to rationalize both the final product and the observed stereochemistry. Finally, this review gives an overview of the synthetic utility of oxazolones. PMID:27245128

  18. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  19. The Gewald multicomponent reaction

    Huang, Yijun; Doemling, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Gewald reaction of sulfur, cyanoacetic acid derivatives, and oxo-component (G-3CR) yielding highly substituted 2-aminothiophene derivatives has seen diverse applications in combinatorial and medicinal chemistry. Its products are of great use in pharmaceutical industry mainly as small molecular w

  20. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive re

  1. Cluster knockout reactions

    Arun K Jain; B N Joshi

    2014-04-01

    Cluster knockout reactions are expected to reveal the amount of clustering (such as that of , d and even of heavier clusters such as 12C, 16O etc.) in the target nucleus. In simple terms, incident medium high-energy nuclear projectile interacts strongly with the cluster (present in the target nucleus) as if it were existing as a free entity. Theoretically, the relatively softer interactions of the two outgoing particles with the residual nucleus lead to optical distortions and are treated in terms of distorted wave (DW) formalism. The long-range projectile–cluster interaction is accounted for, in terms of the finite range (FR) direct reaction formalism, as against the more commonly adopted zero-range (ZR) distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA) formalism. Comparison of the DWIA calculations with the observed data provide information about the momentum distribution and the clustering spectroscopic factor of the target nucleus. Interesting results and some recent advancements in the area of (, 2) reactions and heavy cluster knockout reactions are discussed. Importance of the finite-range vertex and the final-state interactions are brought out.

  2. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Relativistic heavy ion reactions are reviewed in terms of our present understanding of some selected experimental results from the LBL Bevalac and the CERN ISR. The Lund Model for nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented and its power of predictivity is illustrated. (authors)

  3. Reaction Formulation: A Bibliography.

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Reaction formation was studied by Sigmund Freud. This defense mechanism may be related to repression, substitution, reversal, and compensation (or over-compensation). Alfred Adler considered compensation a basic process in his individual psychology. Anna Freud discussed some defense mechanisms, and Bibring, Dwyer, Huntington, and Valenstein…

  4. Reaction product imaging

    Chandler, D.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  5. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    ... and ulcers. Affected individuals may complain of a burning sensation and mouth sensitivity to cold, hot, and spicy foods. Lichenoid ... melon, and pineapple, are all associated with this syndrome. You should inform your ... reaction in the mouth, though some are more common than others. If ...

  6. Revisiting cutaneous adverse reactions to pemetrexed

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Quatresooz, Pascale; Reginster, Marie‑Annick; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2011-01-01

    Pemetrexed (Alimta®) is a multitargeted antifolate drug approved as a single agent or in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of a small number of malignancies including advanced and metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and malignant pleural mesothelioma. This review reports the recent peer-reviewed publications and original findings regarding cutaneous adverse reactions (CARs) to pemetrexed. Pemetrexed-related CARs are frequently reported under the unspecific t...

  7. Green Paper 'Entrepreneurship in Europe': Reaction

    EIM

    2003-01-01

    Early 2003, the European Commission published the Green Paper 'Entrepreneurship in Europe' on the promotion of entrepreneurship. Amongst others, think tanks and research institutions were invited to react. EIM's reaction is bundled in this report. The report comprises concrete policy recommendations on e.g. mediation between business angels and enterprises, tax credits granted to spin-off enterprises, one-stop shops for start-ups, counterbalancing the effects of bankruptcies, reduction of hug...

  8. The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in leptospirosis.

    Vaughan, C.; Cronin, C. C.; Walsh, E. K.; Whelton, M.

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with leptospirosis whose condition worsened after initiation of antibiotic therapy are reported. Their clinical deterioration appeared to be due to the development of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction rather than to progression of their underlying infection. Relevant aspects of the management of patients with leptospirosis are discussed.

  9. Photoneutron reactions in astrophysics

    Varlamov, V. V., E-mail: Varlamov@depni.sinp.msu.ru; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.; Peskov, N. N.; Stopani, K. A. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    Among key problems in nuclear astrophysics, that of obtaining deeper insight into the mechanism of synthesis of chemical elements is of paramount importance. The majority of heavy elements existing in nature are produced in stars via radiative neutron capture in so-called s- and r processes, which are, respectively, slow and fast, in relation to competing β{sup −}-decay processes. At the same time, we know 35 neutron-deficient so-called bypassed p-nuclei that lie between {sup 74}Se and {sup 196}Hg and which cannot originate from the aforementioned s- and r-processes. Their production is possible in (γ, n), (γ, p), or (γ, α) photonuclear reactions. In view of this, data on photoneutron reactions play an important role in predicting and describing processes leading to the production of p-nuclei. Interest in determining cross sections for photoneutron reactions in the threshold energy region, which is of particular importance for astrophysics, has grown substantially in recent years. The use of modern sources of quasimonoenergetic photons obtained in processes of inverse Compton laser-radiation scattering on relativistic electronsmakes it possible to reveal rather interesting special features of respective cross sections, manifestations of pygmy E1 and M1 resonances, or the production of nuclei in isomeric states, on one hand, and to revisit the problem of systematic discrepancies between data on reaction cross sections from experiments of different types, on the other hand. Data obtained on the basis of our new experimental-theoretical approach to evaluating cross sections for partial photoneutron reactions are invoked in considering these problems.

  10. The human acrosome reaction

    H.W.G.Baker; D.Y.Liu; C.Garrett; M.Martic

    2000-01-01

    We developed tests of sperm-oocyte interaction: sperm-zona binding, zona-induced acrosome reaction, spermzona penetration and sperm-oolemma binding, using oocytes which failed to fertilise in clinical in vitro fertilization (IVF). Although oocyte defects contribute to failure of sperm oocyte interaction, rarely are all oocytes from one woman affected. Low or zero fertilization in standard IVFwas usually caused by sperm abnormalities. Poor sperm-zona pellucida binding was frequently associated with failure of standard IVF and obvious defects of sperm motility or morphology. The size and shape of the acrosome is particularly important for sperm binding to the oocyte. The proportion of acrosome intact sperm in the insemination medium was related to the IVF rate. Inducing the acrosome reaction with a calcium ionophore reduced sperm-zona binding. Blocking acrosome dispersal with an acrosin inhibitor prevented spermzona penetration. Sperm-zona penetration was even more highly related to IVF rates than was sperm-zona binding. Some patients had low or zero fertilization rates with standard IVF but normal sperm by conventional tests and normal sperm-zona binding. Few of their sperm underwent the acrosome reaction on the surface of the zona and none penetrated the zona. In contrast, fertilization and pregnancy rates were high with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. We call thiscondition defective zona pellucida induced acrosome reaction. Discovery of the nature of the abnormalities in the signal transduction and effector pathways of the human zona pellucida induced acrosome reaction should result in simpler tests and treatments for the patients and also provide new leads for contraceptive development.

  11. Comparative Study Between Ethylbenzene Disproportionation Reaction and its Ethylation Reaction with Ethanol over ZSM-5

    Tukur, N. M.

    2009-06-23

    Ethylation of ethylbenzene with ethanol has been studied over ZSM-5 catalyst in a riser simulator that mimics the operation of a fluidized-bed reactor. The feed molar ratio of ethylbenzene:ethanol is 1:1. The study was carried out at 350, 400, 450, and 500°C for reaction times of 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, and 15 s. Comparisons are made between the results of the ethylbenzene ethylation reaction with that of ethylbenzene disproportionation reaction earlier reported. The effect of reaction conditions on ethylbenzene reactivity, p-diethylbenzene selectivity, total diethylbenzene (DEB) isomers selectivity, p-DEB-to-m-DEB ratio, benzene-to-DEB molar ratio, and benzene selectivity, are reported. Benzene selectivity is about 10 times more in the EB disproportion reaction as compared to its ethylation reaction with ethanol at 350°C. In addition, the results showed a p-DEB/m-DEB ratio for the EB ethylation reaction varying between 1.2-1.7, which is greater than the equilibrium values. Increase in temperature shifts the alkylation/dealkylation equilibrium towards dealkylation, thereby decreasing conversion and selectivity to DEB. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.

  12. The development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/steam interaction. Final report 9-21-90--3-31-95

    The objective of this research to experimentally determine the hydrogen generation rate during the beginning and subsequent stages of liquid metal (Li17Pb83) and water reaction. The experimental set-up has been built. It includes a metal sample preparation apparatus, a reaction system, a measurement system and a PC based data acquisition and control system. The most important feature of the reaction system is a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature, all stainless steel valve used the system for reaction time control. The PC system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all the systems except the metal preparation apparatus. Due to the reactivity of the lithium, all the metal sampling, preparation and loading procedures are executed in a glove box under argon protection. The metal temperature was varied between 350 degrees C-650 degrees C and water temperature fixed at 60 degrees C during the experiments. A set of experimental procedures and two analyses methods: (1) thermodynamics method and (2) heat transfer method are discussed. All the measurements and data collections are executed under the PC system control. A data analysis program is used to calculate both the partial pressure of hydrogen and the hydrogen generation rate. The experiment results indicate that the amount of hydrogen generated is relate to the initial liquid metal temperature when the reaction surface is fixed. The mass of hydrogen generated as a function of initial liquid metal temperature and time of reaction is presented, The hydrogen generation over a time period of 240 seconds and the calculated errors are summarized in Table 1

  13. Development of nuclear data library for nucleon-induced reactions on heavy nuclei in wide energy region. Final Project Technical Report on the work performed from 01.12.2003 to 30.04.2007

    The main goal of the project is to the development of nuclear data calculation technique for innovative hybrid nuclear technologies, first at all for technology of radioactive waste transmutation and energy production. Within the framework of the project two main problems were decided: - development of a reliable code enabling for calculation of main characteristics of nuclear reactions induced by nucleons in wide energy range; - development of nuclear data library containing complete transport files for hybrid accelerator- driven systems. The results of the project have both fundamental and applied character. Within the framework of the project the following main results were obtained: The analysis of experimental and theoretical data for all items in question of new data library; The development of new parameterization of global optical potential which is necessary for entrance channel simulation and development of appropriate subroutines for a code realizing method of coupled channels for reaction cross-section calculations; The updating of existing models and codes and the development of new ones for a fast reaction stage (intranuclear cascade model), preequilibrium stage (model with a multiple emission of particles) and final stage (statistical model of fission/particle emission competition) for reactions with intermediate energy nucleons; The development of model for fission barriers and fission products yield calculations; inclusion of the appropriate subroutines in a statistical code; The test calculations with the code system developed and analysis of the results and comparison with existing experimental data; The systematical calculations for reactions with protons and neutrons (20-1000 MeV) for a wide range of targets; For each reaction (fixed target + projectile (proton or neutron) for fixed energy) the nuclear data file in the ENDF-6 format has been developed, including: - total cross section, reaction cross section and cross section of elastic

  14. Reporters Report Reporters.

    MacDougall, Curtis D.

    This collection brings together 58 news stories by professional reporters who wrote of their own involvement in newsworthy events. Part One, "Reporters Are Like All of Us and Can Be Newsworthy Too," features accounts written by reporters who were employed by newspapers that went out of business, were victims of crimes, were accused of committing…

  15. Parameters influencing the pyrotechnic reaction

    Berger, Beat [Swiss Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports, armasuisse, Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland)

    2005-02-01

    Phenomena (reaction effects) such as varied light emissions, sound, varied burning rates, varied heats of reaction and reaction products occur during the reaction of inorganic redox systems used for pyrotechnics. The peculiarity of these redox reactions is, that they take place as solid-solid, solid-liquid or solid-gaseous state reactions. In opposite the theoretical redox reaction normally postulated in inorganic chemistry takes place in a solvent. By variation of different parameters as for example the reducing agent, the oxidizer, the oxygen balance and the particle size, it is possible to create the above-mentioned effects in a wide range. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Experimental investigation of the chemistry of exccited states of rare gases. Fourth quarterly (and annual) progress report, July 15, 1978-October 15, 1978. [Reaction of Ar(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) or Xe(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) with XeO/sub 4/

    Setser, D.W.

    1978-12-01

    A brief account is given of work on the quenching of XeF(B) and other excited rare-gas systems. A more detailed report is given of the studies of the vacuum uv photolysis of XeO/sub 4/ and reactions of Xe(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) and Ar(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) with XeO/sub 4/. (DLC)

  17. 1,3,5-Triethylbenzene Transformation Reactions Compared to Its Transalkylation Reaction with Ethylbenzene

    Akhtar, M. Naseem

    2009-08-20

    The transalkylation of 1,3,5-triethylbenzene (1,3,5-TEB) with ethylbenzene (EB) has been studied over USYtype catalysts using a riser simulator that mimics the operation of a fluidized-bed reactor. The reaction mixture EB and 1,3,5-TEB was used at a molar ratio of 1:1, which is equivalent to 40:60 wt % of EB/1,3,5-TEB, respectively. The reaction temperature was varied from 350 to 500 °C with a time on stream ranging from 3-15 s. The effect of reaction conditions on 1,3,5-TEB conversion, DEB selectivity, and isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is reported. The transalkylation of 1,3,5-TEB with EB has been compared to the transformation reaction of pure 1,3,5-TEB and EB. The experimental results have revealed that reactivity of 1,3,5-TEB and selectivity of DEB is increased during the transalkylation reaction (EB + 1,3,5-TEB) as compared to the transformation reaction of pure EB or 1,3,5-TEB. The 1,3,5-TEB undergoes isomerization and a cracking reaction to produce DEB and EB but does not undergo any appreciable disproportionation reaction. The isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is more active at low temperatures, while cracking is more active at high temperatures. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. α-Regioselective Barbier Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds and Allyl Halides Mediated by Praseodymium.

    Wu, San; Li, Ying; Zhang, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    The first utility of praseodymium as a mediating metal in the Barbier reaction of carbonyl compounds with allyl halides was reported in this paper. In contrast to the traditional metal-mediated or catalyzed Barbier reactions, exclusive α-adducts were obtained in this one-pot reaction with a broad scope of substrates and feasible reaction conditions. PMID:27490708

  19. 7690例药品不良反应报告中ADR性别差异的回顾性分析%Retrospective analysis of gender differences in ADR of 7 690 cases of reported adverse drug reactions

    孙言才; 刘琳琳; 史天陆; 王崇薇; 张蕾; 苏丹; 姜玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand certain basic characteristics of the presented gender factors during the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR)in patients for the implementation of drug safety monitoring,and to provide a reference for clinical therapy. Methods National Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center database of a hospital from January 2005 to December 2010 which reported 7 690 cases of ADR was collected. A retrospective analysis was performed on the 7 690 cases of ADR reports,and gender factors were analyzed and eval-uated in correlation with other indicators such as patient age,drug class,anterior drugs,drug dosage form,route of administration,involving system/ organ. Results In 7 690 cases of ADR reports,4,052 cases were male,accounting for 52. 69%,3,638 cases were female,ac-counting for 47. 31%,and the male to female ratio was 1. 11 ∶ 1. 4 years from 2007 to 2010 the proportion of males was higher than that of fe-males,and 2 years from 2005 to 2006,male lower than female. In people aged 0 to 20,over the age of 50 years,the number of ADR cases was more in male than in female,and in people aged 21 to 50,the number of ADR cases was more in female than in male. The number of ADR cases caused by drugs affecting the blood and blood-forming system,traditional Chinese medicine,vitamins,etc. ,was more in male than in female,and the number of ADR cases caused by drugs affecting allergy and immune function,cardiovascular system drugs,respirato-ry system drugs,etc. was more in female than in male. ADR cases caused by seven kinds of drugs such as oxaliplatin for injection,fluoroura-cil injection,dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection were more male than female. ADR cases caused by levofloxacin hydrochloride injec-tion,levofloxacin lactate and sodium chloride injection,injection of ceftriaxone sodium were more female than male. ADR cases caused by six kinds of formulations like application suspensions,oral solutions,powder,etc. appeared more in male than in female

  20. Multi-step direct reactions

    In recent years a variety of statistical theories has been developed concerning multistep direct (MSD) nuclear reactions. In addition, dominant in applications is a whole class of semiclassical models that may be subsumed under the heading of 'generalized exciton models'; these are basically MSD-type extensions on top of compound-like concepts. In this report the relation between their underlying statistical MSD-postulates are highlighted. A command framework is sketched that enables to generate the various MSD theories through assigning statistical properties to different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Then it is shown that distinct forms of nuclear randomness are embodied in the mentioned theories. All these theories appear to be very similar at a qualitative level. In order to explain the high energy-tails and forward-peaked angular distribution typical for particles emitted in MSD reactions, it is imagined that the incident continuum particle stepwise looses its energy and direction in a sequence of collisions, thereby creating new particle-hole pairs in the target system. At each step emission may take place. The statistical aspect comes in because many continuum states are involved in the process. These are supposed to display chaotic behavior, the associated randomness assumption giving rise to important simplifications in the expression for MSD emission cross sections. This picture suggests that mentioned MSD models can be interpreted as a variant of essentially one and the same theory. 113 refs.; 25 figs.; 9 tabs

  1. Report on waterborne diseases: The polymerase chain reaction for the identification of enteric viruses in water; Rapporto sulle malattie infettive di origine idricamerizzazione a catena per l`identificazione dei virus enterici nell`acqua

    Muscillo, M.; La Rosa, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1995-12-01

    A variety of human infectious diseases are associated with the pollution of water by enteric viruses. The epidemiological data on cases associated with drinking and recreational water show Norwalk, hepatitis A and E viruses, rotavirus and enteroviruses as the etiological agents. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is certainly the most reliable technique available for the rapid identification of these viruses in water samples.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Multi-Phase Flow in Sodium-Water Reaction using MPS Method; Numerical Investigation of Dropret Breakup and Flow Regime (Final report of the JNC cooperative research shceme on the nuclear fuel cycle)

    Duan, R.-O.; 越塚 誠一; 高田 孝; 山口 彰

    2004-01-01

    The JNC cooperative research scheme on the nuclear fuel cycle with The University of Tokyo has been carried out to investigate a flow regime and interfacial area density of multi-phase flow in sodium-water reaction using the Moving-Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method.

  3. Nuclear reactions in astrophysics

    It is revised the nuclear reactions which present an interest in astrophysics regarding the explanation of some problems such as the relative quantity of the elements, the structure and evolution of the stars. The principal object of the study is the determination of the experimental possibilities in the field of astrophysics, of an accelerator Van de Graaff's 700 KeV type. Two hundred nuclear reactions approximately, were found, and nothing or very little has been done in the intervals of energy which are of interest. Since the bombardment energies and the involved sections are low in some cases, there are real possibilities, for the largest number of stars to obtain important statistical data with the above mentioned accelerator, taking some necessary precautions. (author)

  4. Photooxidative reactions of psoralens

    The mechanism and biological significance of photooxidative reactions of psoralens are reviewed. Skin-photosensitizing activities of bifunctional and monofunctional psoralens are compared. Antioxidants tocopherols and butilated hydroxytoluene inhibit photochemical reactions of psoralens responsible for induction of erythema. The same antioxidants do not inhibit PUVA-therapy of psriasis. Though psoralens can generate singlet oxygen under UVA-irradiation (315 - 400 nm), nevertheless singlet oxygen does not play significant role in 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) sensitized photooxidation of tocopherol or dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). SH-compounds enhance the rate of 8-MOP sensitized photooxidation of DOPA by a factor of four, simultaneously the rate of oxidation of SH-groups is enhanced many fold in the presence of DOPA. Under UVA-irradiation in organic solvents psoralens are photooxidized. Dimeric photooxidized psoralens are easily destructed in water medium, their destruction induce oxidation of unsaturated lipids and DOPA. (author)

  5. On Reaction Coordinate Optimality.

    Krivov, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    The following question is addressed: how to establish that a constructed reaction coordinate is optimal, i.e., that it provides an accurate description of dynamics. It is shown that the reaction coordinate is optimal if its cut free energy profile, determined using length-weighted transitions, is constant, i.e., it is position and sampling interval independent. The observation leads to a number of interesting results. In particular, the equilibrium flux between two boundary states can be computed exactly as diffusion on a free energy profile associated with the coordinate. The mean square displacement, for the trajectory projected onto the coordinate, grows linear with time. That for the same trajectory projected onto a suboptimal coordinate grows slower than linear with time. The results are illustrated on a number of model systems, Sierpinski gasket, FIP35 protein, and beta3s peptide. PMID:26589017

  6. Volume effect and skin reaction

    Volume effect has been investigated about late skin necrosis. Tolerance dose of skin by single irradiation has been suggested to increase from 20∼22.5 Gy for 2.0 cm in diameter to more than 50 Gy for 1.0 cm in diameter. It is consistent with the volume effect for acute skin reaction. Similar relationship has been reported for normal tissue tolerance of central nervous system. The volume effect where a large difference in threshold dose is evident has not been explained by statistical calculation, such as critical element models. White matter necrosis rate has been simulated well using Monte Carlo calculation postulating inter-elemental migration but not by models assuming elemental independence. (author)

  7. Adverse reactions of ferric carboxymaltose.

    Thanusubramanian, Harish; Patil, Navin; Shenoy, Smita; Bairy, K L; Sarma, Yashdeep

    2014-10-01

    The author reports a 55-year-old female diagnosed of chronic kidney disease grade-5 with associated co-morbidities like type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy and hypothyroidism was admitted for arteriovenous fistula construction. She was started on ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of anaemia. She was given a test dose before administering the drug intravenously and she did not develop any reaction. The drug ferric carboxymaltose was then administered over a period of one hour. About half an hour after drug administration, the patient developed breathlessness and myalgia. After half hour of the above episode of breathlessness and myalgia she also developed vomiting (one episode). Patient was managed with oxygen therapy, IV fluids and other drugs like corticosteroids, phenaramine maleate and nalbuphine which controlled the above symptoms. PMID:25478369

  8. Two photon reactions

    Some recent results from the field of photon-photon interaction are presented. After a brief general introduction author discusses resonance production, exclusive processes with the four pion final state (γγ→π+π-π+π-), exclusive reaction γγ→psi psi, γγ - 2 body final state and jet production. Total hadronic cross sections for γγ - interactions and the photon structure function are also considered. (M.F.W.)

  9. Polymerase chain reaction

    Gaurav Solanki

    2015-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications. There are three major steps involved in the PCR technique: denaturation, annealing and extension. PCR is useful in the investigation...

  10. Photochemical reaction dynamics

    Moore, B.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the program is to develop a fundamental understanding of unimolecular and bimolecular reaction dynamics with application in combustion and energy systems. The energy dependence in ketene isomerization, ketene dissociation dynamics, and carbonyl substitution on organometallic rhodium complexes in liquid xenon have been studied. Future studies concerning unimolecular processes in ketene as well as energy transfer and kinetic studies of methylene radicals are discussed.

  11. Enhance decarboxylation reaction of carboxylic acids in clay minerals

    Clay minerals are important constituents of the Earth's crust. These minerals catalyze reactions in several ways: by energy transfer processes, redox reactions, stabilization of intermediates and by Broensted or Lewis acidity behavior. Important set of organic reactions can be improved in the precedence of clay minerals. Besides the properties of clays to catalyze chemical reactions, it is possible to enhance some of its reactions by using ionizing radiation. The phenomenon of radiation-induced catalysis may be connected with ionizing process in the solid and with the trapped non-equilibrium charge carriers. In this paper we are reporting the decarboxylation reaction of carboxylic acids catalyzed by clay and by irradiation of the system acid-clay. We studied the behaviour of several carboxylic acids and analyzed them by gas chromatography, X-ray and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that decarboxylation of the target compound is the dominating pathway. The reaction is enhanced by gamma radiation in several orders of magnitude. (author)

  12. Iodine Oxide Thermite Reactions: Physical and Biological Effects

    Russell, Rod; Pantoya, Michelle; Bless, Stephan; Clark, William

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the potential for some thermite-like material reactions to kill bacteria spores. Iodine oxides and silver oxides react vigorously with metals like aluminum, tantalum, and neodymium. These reactions theoretically produce temperatures as high as 8000K, leading to vaporization of the reactants, producing very hot iodine and/or silver gases. We performed a series of computations and experiments to characterize these reactions under both quasi-static and ballistic impact conditions. Criteria for impact reaction were established. Measurements of temperature and pressure changes and chemical evolution will be reported. Basic combustion characterizations of these reactions, such as thermal equilibrium analysis and reaction propagation rates as well as ignition sensitivity, will be discussed. Additionally, testing protocols were developed to characterize the biocidal effects of these reactive materials on B. subtilis spores. The evidence from these tests indicates that these reactions produce heat, pressure, and highly biocidal gases.

  13. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces

    Vecitis, Chad David

    2009-12-01

    ) Adsorption of dilute PFOS(aq) and PFOA(aq) to acoustically cavitating bubble interfaces was greater than equilibrium expectations due to high-velocity bubble radial oscillations; 2) Relative ozone oxidation kinetics of aqueous iodide, sulfite, and thiosulfate were at variance with previously reported bulk aqueous kinetics; 3) Organics that directly chelated with the anode surface were oxidized by direct electron transfer, resulting in immediate carbon dioxide production but slower overall oxidation kinetics. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces can be the rate-limiting step of a reaction network and often display novel mechanisms and kinetics as compared to homogeneous chemistry.

  14. Delayed Allergic Reaction to Secondary Administrated Epidural Hyaluronidase

    Park, A Reum; Kim, Woong Mo; Heo, Bong Ha

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting a rare case of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction caused by hyaluronidase allergy following a lumbar transforaminal epidural block. Using an intradermal skin test, we have provided evidence that the systemic allergic reaction resulted from hypersensitivity to hyaluronidase. To our knowledge, this is a rare case of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to epidural hyaluronidase, comprised of an initial exposure to hyaluronidase with no subsequent allergic response in prior bloc...

  15. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-10-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed.

  16. Electromagnetic Reactions and Few-Nucleon Dynamics

    Bacca Sonia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an update on recent theoretical studies of electromagnetic reactions obtained by using the Lorentz integral transform method. The 4He nucleus will be the main focus of this report: results for the photo-disintegration and the electro-disintegration processes will be shown, as well as a recent calculation of polarizability effects in muonic atoms. We also discuss the exciting possibility to investigate inelastic reactions for mediummass nuclei in coupled-cluster theory, highlighted by the recent application to the 16O photo-nuclear cross section.

  17. Electromagnetic reactions and few-nucleon dynamics

    We present an update on recent theoretical studies of electromagnetic reactions obtained by using the Lorentz integral transform method. The 4He nucleus will be the main focus of this report: results for the photo-disintegration and the electro-disintegration processes will be shown, as well as a recent calculation of polarizability effects in muonic atoms. We also discuss the exciting possibility to investigate inelastic reactions for medium mass nuclei in coupled-cluster theory, highlighted by the recent application to the 16O photo-nuclear cross section. (author)

  18. Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia with Eosinophilic Leukemoid Reaction

    Manish Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 7 year-old male presented with recurrent fever, cough and respiratory distress for over last 2 years. Based on extremely high eosinophil count, high Immunoglobulin E, increase in eosinophilic precursors in bone marrow, and positive antigen test for Wuchereria bancrofti, a diagnosis of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia with Eosinophilic Leukemoid Reaction was made. Complete recovery was achieved with Diethylcarbamazine for 3 weeks. We are reporting this case as the first case of Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia with eosinophilic leukemoid reaction in a child.

  19. Astrophysical Reaction Rates as a Challenge for Nuclear Reaction Theory

    Rauscher, T.

    2010-01-01

    The relevant energy ranges for stellar nuclear reactions are introduced. Low-energy compound and direct reactions are discussed. Stellar modifications of the cross sections are presented. Implications for experiments are outlined.

  20. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    Carsten Sauer Mikkelsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink.