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Sample records for 2004-5 southern brazil

  1. Metodologia do estudo da coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Metodologia de estudio de la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Methodology of the Pelotas birth cohort study from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Fernando C Barros

    2008-12-01

    ínicos fueron realizados en las visitas. Los participantes de la cohorte son descritos de acuerdo con las variables demográficas, socioeconómicas y de salud, obtenidas en los primeros acompañamientos, que son utilizadas como variables de exposición. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de los jóvenes de la cohorte fueron acompañados durante 23 años de vida y distintas visitas. Los acompañamientos que obtuvieron mayor éxito fueron aquellos precedidos por un censo de la ciudad. Con éste método fueron localizados 87,2% en 1984 (edad promedio de 19 meses, 84,1% en 2006 (promedio 43 meses, y 77,4% en 2004-5 (promedio 23 años. CONCLUSIONES: Estudios de cohorte de nacimientos pueden ser realizados con éxito en países en desarrollo, y la metodología utilizada en esos estudios de ciclo vital permite estudiar la influencia de exposiciones precoces sobre la determinación de las enfermedades de la vida adulta.OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods employed in the longitudinal and follow-up studies of children born in Pelotas (Southern Brazil in 1982. METHODS: The cohort began with a perinatal health survey that included all 6,011 children born in maternity wards in Pelotas in 1982. The 5,914 children born alive in the city were included in the follow-up studies. By 2004-5, we had conducted eight follow-ups, which consisted of the administration of questionnaires to mothers and/or cohort members, depending on age, in addition to anthropometric and clinical examination. Cohort subjects are described in terms of demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables collected during early follow-up studies, which are used as exposure variables. RESULTS: The majority of subjects in the cohort were followed for 23 years and on multiple occasions. The most successful follow-ups were those preceded by a city census. Using this method, we were able to locate 87.2% of subjects in 1984 (mean age 19 months, 84.1% in 1986 (mean age 43 months, and 77.4% in 2004-5, and 77.4% in 2004-5 (mean age 23

  2. Maternidade e paternidade na coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Maternidad y paternidad en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Denise P Gigante

    2008-12-01

    , en Pelotas (Sur de Brasil y entrevistados en 2004-5. Fueron considerados elegibles los jóvenes que señalaron haber tenido uno o más hijos, nacidos vivos o muertos. Dos cuestionarios fueron aplicados para colectar informaciones sobre salud reproductiva, datos socioeconómicos y demográficos. Las variables independientes fueron sexo y color de la piel, renta familiar en 1982 y 2004-5, cambio de renta, peso al nacer del joven y escolaridad a los 23 años. Los análisis brutos y ajustados fueron realizados por medio de regresión de Poisson para investigar los efectos de las variables independientes sobre la maternidad/paternidad en la adolescencia. RESULTADOS: De 4.297 jóvenes entrevistados, 1.373 (32% eran madres o padres, de los cuales 842 (19,6% habían experimentado la maternidad/paternidad en la adolescencia. La planificación del embarazo del primer hijo mostró relación directa con la edad del joven. Relación inversa fue observada entre las variables socioeconómicas y la ocurrencia de maternidad/paternidad en la adolescencia. La probabilidad de ser mamá en la adolescencia fue mayor entre las mujeres negras o pardas, pero el color de la piel no estuvo asociado con la paternidad en la adolescencia. CONCLUSIONES: Hubo fuerte relación entre la maternidad/paternidad en la adolescencia y condiciones socioeconómicas, la cual debe ser considerada en el delineamiento de acciones preventivas en el campo de la salud pública.OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS: The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic

  3. Determinantes sociais da iniciação sexual precoce na coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Determinantes sociales de la iniciación sexual precoz en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Determinants of early sexual initiation in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Helen Gonçalves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar determinantes sociais da iniciação sexual precoce de jovens pertencentes a uma coorte de nascimentos. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistados em 2004-5 os indivíduos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas (RS, em 1982 (N=4.297. A iniciação sexual precoce (OBJETIVO: Analizar las determinantes sociales de la iniciación sexual precoz de jóvenes pertenecientes a una cohorte de nacimientos. MÉTODOS: Fueron entrevistados en 2004-5 los individuos de la cohorte de nacimientos de Pelotas (Sur de Brasil, en 1982 (N= 4.297. La iniciación sexual precoz (OBJECTIVE: To analyze social determinants of early sexual initiation among young adults from a birth cohort. METHODS: Individuals from the 1982 birth cohort (N=4,297 were interviewed in 2004-5, city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Early sexual initiation (<13 years of age was the outcome. Descriptive and stratified analyses were performed according to sex. Variables analyzed were family income in 1982, ethnicity, young adult's level of education and change in income (between 1982 and 2004-5. Ethnographic data were used to complement result analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence of early sexual initiation was higher among black and mixed men, and those with low level of education and low family income in 1982 and 2004-5. More traditional male sexual role requirements, such as virility and sexual initiative, showed more repercussion and adherence from an early age among men. Young family women with higher income and level of education tended to delay their sexual initiation. Imposition of traditional values was found to influence early sexual initiation among men and women with lower level of education and income. CONCLUSIONS: Results found re-established the economic factor as a determinant of behavior or uses of sexuality for both sexes. To focus on political efforts that help the economically disadvantaged to have opportunities and egalitarian future perspectives is an important strategy for health

  4. Educação e trabalho na coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Educación y trabajo en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2005, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Education and work in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Fernando C Barros

    2008-12-01

    efecto de las variables demográficas, socioeconómicas, peso al nacer y amamantamiento materno sobre los desenlaces. RESULTADOS: La escolaridad promedio fue de 9,4 años (± 3,1 y 42% de los jóvenes estaban frecuentando la escuela en 2004-5. Uno de cada cinco jóvenes había ingresado en la universidad y cerca de dos tercios estaban trabajando en el mes anterior a la entrevista. El ingreso en la universidad fue determinado por las condiciones económicas, y tuvo influencia de peso al nacer en las mujeres y del amamantamiento en los hombres. La inserción en el mercado de trabajo fue más frecuente entre los hombres más pobres, pero no para las mujeres. CONCLUSIONES: La baja inclusión universitaria y la necesidad de inserción en el mercado de trabajo de los jóvenes de familias más pobres mantienen un círculo vicioso que reproduce la jerarquía social dominante.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of biological and socioeconomic factors throughout life on entry into the university and insertion in the work force of young adults from the 1982 birth cohort. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 5,914 births that took place in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1982. Data was collected by means of questionnaires applied on young adults when accompanying the 1982 cohort in 2004-5. Information was gathered concerning educational level and insertion in the labor market. Poisson Regression was utilized to study the effect of demographic and socioeconomic variables, as well as birth weight and maternal breastfeeding, on the outcomes. RESULTS: On the average, these young adults had 9.4 (± 3.1 years of schooling and 42% of them were attending school in 2004-5. One in five young adults had entered a university and approximately two thirds were working during the month prior to the interview. Entry in the university was determined by economic conditions. Furthermore, women's birth weight and breastfeeding among men influenced this outcome. Insertion in the labor market was more

  5. Utilização de serviços de saúde por adultos da coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Utilización de servicios de salud por adultos de la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2005, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Pattern of health services utilization by adults of the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Juvenal S Dias-da-Costa

    2008-12-01

    acompañados hasta los 23 años. El desenlace fue definido por informaciones colectadas sobre consultas con profesionales de la salud realizadas en el año anterior a la entrevista entre 2004 y 2005. Los locales de consulta fueron clasificados como públicos, privados o seguros de salud. Los análisis descriptivos fueron realizados para utilización y tipo de servicio de salud. Regresión de Poisson fue utilizada en el análisis ajustado. RESULTADOS: De los entrevistados, 72,0% tuvieron consulta con profesionales de la salud en el año anterior a la entrevista; 86,2% (IC 95% 84,7;87,7 de las mujeres y 59,3% (IC 95% 57,3;61,3 de los hombres. A pesar de que se excluyeron las consultas con ginecólogos, las mujeres continuaban más consultas que los hombres, 68,4% (IC 95% 66,4;70,4. La utilización de los servicios de salud fue más frecuente entre los entrevistados de mejor nivel socioeconómico. Diferencia de menor uso en relación al color de piel no blanca fue observada solamente entre los jóvenes del sexo masculino. Hubo diferencias en relación al tipo de profesional consultado por hombres y mujeres y también conforme a la renta familiar. Hombres y mujeres consultaron más frecuentemente el sistema público, los servicios por convenio y en menor proporción el sistema privado. CONCLUSIONES: La situación socioeconómica influencio la utilización y el tipo de servicio de salud, con hombres y mujeres clasificados como "pobres en el momento", indicando menor utilización de servicios. Tales diferencias socioeconómicas pueden ser indicativas de dificultades de acceso al sistema de salud.OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of health services utilization by young adults. METHODS: Longitudinal study in Pelotas (Southern Brazil, in which the individuals were identified at birth in 1982 and followed up until 23 years of age. The outcome was defined by information collected about visits to health professionals that were attended in the year before the interview, between 2004

  6. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  7. A new species of Fernandezina (Araneae, Palpimanidae from southern Brazil

    Ricardo Ott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Fernandezina Birabén, 1951, F. nica sp. nov. is described from Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. Fernandezina pulchra Birabén, 1951, is registered for Brazil and a new geographic record in Brazil is presented for F. pelta Platnick, 1975.

  8. Three new species of Cladonia (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota from Southern Brazil

    ANA M. CHARNEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cladonia maculata, C. paranaensis and C. quiririensisare described as new to science. These species were found between the altitudes of 900 to 1887 meters on the Serra do Mar Mountain in Southern Brazil.

  9. Neurotuberculosis in cattle in southern Brazil.

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Bandinelli, Marcele Bettim; Driemeier, David; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis in cattle is a chronic infectious-contagious disease characterized by the development of nodular lesions (granulomas) in mainly the lungs and regional lymph nodes. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, an acid-fast bacillus (AFB). Tuberculosis in the central nervous system is a rare condition in cattle. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathological findings of six neurotuberculosis cases in cattle diagnosed in Southern Brazil. The average age of the cattle affected was 12 months, and they varied in breed and sex. The clinical history ranged from 5 to 30 days and was characterized by motor incoordination, opisthotonus, blindness, and progression to recumbency. The cattle were euthanized, and grossly, the leptomeninges at the basilar brain showed marked and diffuse expansion, with nodular yellowish lesions ranging in size. On microscopic examination, there were multifocal granulomas located mainly in the meninges, though sometimes extending to adjacent neuropil or existing as isolated granulomas in neuropil. AFBs were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells through Ziehl-Neelsen histochemical staining and identified as Mycobacterium sp. through immunohistochemistry. PMID:27026233

  10. Milk production characteristics in Southern Brazil

    Tony Picoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe milk production in Southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and to identify factors that affect milk quality at this region. The average age of regional dairy farmers is 49, and 67.9% has not concluded elementary school. Dairy farming is carried out on properties with an average of 26.06 hectares and 8.4 lactating cows. Most of them (32.83% yield 50 to 100 L/day. Among the properties, 13.21% yield up to 30 L/day, and only 1.89% produces over 500 milk liters a day. Average yield was 6.8 L/day. Regarding to milking procedure, 39.3% farmers milk manually the animals, only 14.2% performed pre-milking teat disinfection, and 53.9% uses a single cloth to dry all animal teats. For infrastructure, 52.8% milks animals in wooden cowsheds. We observed that the average somatic cell count (SCC was within legal parameters, presenting negative correlation with milk production (r = -0.23 and lactose content (r = -0.39. However, the total bacterial count (TBC was above legal parameters. Education level seems to interfere in management and milk quality, because the less educated groups are, the less adequate are infrastructure, management, and product quality. Data show that there is a lower quality milk production where poor management techniques are adopted and owner education level affects milk quality.

  11. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  12. Acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil

    Maria de Lourdes Adrien

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the epidemiological and pathological aspects of an outbreak of acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil. Fifteen out of 70 three-year-old pregnant cows lost weight in the 30-40 days prior to calving. Clinical signs included diarrhea, weakness, mild anemia and jaundice. Dark yellow fluid in the abdominal cavity was observed at necropsy. Fibrin and clotted blood were adhered to the pericardium and lung, primarily in the diaphragmatic lobes. The liver was enlarged, and the capsular surface was irregular with clear areas and petechiae. At the cut surface, the liver was irregular, firm and edematous, and several hemorrhagic channels could be observed. Areas of fibrosis through the parenchyma and whitish thrombi occluding the great vessels were also observed. The livers of 10 cows that not died were condemned at slaughter for lesions of fasciolosis similar to those observed at necropsy. Microscopically, the liver showed areas of coagulation necrosis, extensive hemorrhages in the streaks or foci and disruption of the parenchyma with neutrophil and eosinophil infiltration. Fibrosis and bile duct proliferation were also observed. Immature Fasciola hepatica flukes were observed in the parenchyma surrounded by degenerated hepatocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and hemorrhages. The outbreak occurred on a farm located in an area endemic for fasciolosis, although the acute form of the disease is not common in cattle in this region. It is likely that the cows were infected by F. hepatica metacercariae released in the late fall or early spring in the rice stubble where the herd was grazing prior to calving. Although mortality due to fasciolosis in cattle is infrequent, outbreaks can occur and treatments that are effective in both the immature and adult forms of the parasite should be administered to prevent economic losses.

  13. Genetic structure of honeybee populations from southern Brazil and Uruguay

    Nilza Maria Diniz; Ademilson Espencer Egea Soares,; Walter Steve Sheppard; Marco Antonio Del Lama

    2003-01-01

    Apis mellifera scutellata was introduced to Brazil in 1956 and Africanized honeybee populations have now spread from Argentina to the southwestern United States. Temperate climatic restrictions seem to be a natural limit to Africanized honeybee expansion around parallels 35° to 40° SL. We used allozyme loci (Mdh-1 and Hk-1) and mtDNA haplotypes to characterize honeybee populations in southern Brazil and Uruguay and define a possible transition area between Africanized and European bees. Sampl...

  14. A new species of Thelypteris (Thelypteridaceae) from southern Bahia, Brazil

    Matos, Fernando B.; Smith, Alan R.; Labiak, Paulo H.

    2010-01-01

    A new species, Thelypteris beckeriana (Thelypteridaceae), is here described. It belongs to subgenus Goniopteris because of the presence of forked and stellate hairs on some parts of its blades. It is a narrow endemic to the Atlantic Rain Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. A complete description, illustrations, and comparisons with the most similar species are provided.

  15. On the Variability of Southern Ocean Front Locations Between Southern Brazil and the Antarctic Peninsula

    Ikeda, Yoshimine; Siedler, Gerold; Zwierz, Marek

    1989-01-01

    A 4-year expendable bathythermograph data set (1984–1987) from the area between southern Brazil and the Antarctic Peninsula provides information on the interannual variability of front locations. Two boundaries of subtropical water at different depths are identified north and south of the Brazil Current-Falkland (Malvinas) Current confluence zone. The northern Subtropical Front is displaced over a large part of the Argentine Basin from one observational period to the other. The shallow southe...

  16. New Sycoracinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from southern Brazil.

    Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Bravo, Freddy; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Sycorax from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Sycorax canaanensis Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. and Sycorax tuberculata Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Male speci-mens were collected with CDC light traps in the Biological Reserve of Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding raises the number of described Western Hemisphere Sycorax species to 15. PMID:24699606

  17. Degradation and invasibility of subtropical grasslands in Southern Brazil

    Koch, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Grasslands in Southern Brazil suffer from degradation caused by conversion to other land uses and changes in management practices. The extent of non-native species’ invasion and possible interactions with processes of land-use changes are largely unknown. In order to develop comprehensive strategies for conservation and restoration of grasslands, these processes need to be quantified and priorities for managing non-native species need to be set.

  18. Colleges of Pharmacy in Southern Brazil Providing Disciplines of Radiopharmaceuticals

    Gabriella Roecker; Paula da Silva Cardoso; Patrícia de Aguiar Amaral

    2013-01-01

    Radiopharmacy is an essential and integral part of nuclear medicine. Preparation of reactive substances has to be carried out by competent professionals, who must be able to demonstrate knowledge of all areas of the specialty. Given the responsibilities of the pharmacist, this study aimed at analyzing the curriculum of the college of pharmacy at Universities of the Southern Brazil offering the discipline of radiopharmacy (or similar). The curriculum of pharmacy institutions in Paraná, Santa C...

  19. Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil

    Andre de Gasper; Alexander Christian Vibrans; Luis Adriano Funez; Morilo José Rigon-Jr.; Felipe Bittencourt; Carina Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the wh...

  20. Lake size and fish diversity in southern Brazil coastal lagoons

    Lucia Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, presents a series of shallow lagoons with diverse size and morphology. The objective of this study is to determine whether the size of the lagoon is an effective factor for structuring fish diversity. In this regard, nine lagoons with distinct areas were sampled: three with an area up to 40 hectares, three with area between 40 and 80 hectares, and three with an area of over 80 hectares. Each lagoon was sampled once on the littoral and p...

  1. Equine dermatopathies in southern Brazil: a study of 710 cases

    Nathalia Dode de Assis-Brasil; Clairton Marcolongo-Pereira; Adriana Lucke Stigger; Letícia Fiss; Bianca Lemos Santos; Ana Carolina Barreto Coelho; Eliza Simone Viégas Sallis; Cristina Gevehr Fernandes; Ana Lucia Schild

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective study of equine skin diseases diagnosed in the Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas was conducted between 1978 and 2013. The necropsy and biopsy protocols for horses received for diagnosis were reviewed to determine the prevalence of dermatopathies in southern Brazil. The most prevalent skin diseases in decreasing order were: sarcoid [234/710 (32.9%)], exuberant granulation tissue [81/710 (11.4%)], pythiosis [67/710 (9....

  2. Composition and structure of a riverine forest in southern Brazil

    Daniel Dutra Saraiva

    2011-01-01

    Riverine vegetation occupies one of the most dynamic areas of a landscape, and has species that are specialized and adapted to grow in a variety of disturbances. A phytosociological survey was conducted that aimed to describe the floristic and phytosociological structure of the tree component in a riverine forest on the Jaguarão River, in southern Brazil. We sampled all of the trees with DBH ≥ 5cm in 25 plots of 10 × 10m (0.25ha). The study recorded 725 live trees belonging to 27 species, 24 ...

  3. Equine dermatopathies in southern Brazil: a study of 710 cases

    Nathalia Dode de Assis-Brasil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of equine skin diseases diagnosed in the Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas was conducted between 1978 and 2013. The necropsy and biopsy protocols for horses received for diagnosis were reviewed to determine the prevalence of dermatopathies in southern Brazil. The most prevalent skin diseases in decreasing order were: sarcoid [234/710 (32.9%], exuberant granulation tissue [81/710 (11.4%], pythiosis [67/710 (9.4%], squamous cell carcinoma [55/710 (7.7%], papillomatosis [33/710 (4.6%] and habronemiasis [30/710 (4.2%]. Other skin lesions accounted for 25.3% of all cases studied. The Crioulo breed was the most prevalent [310/710 (43.6%]. Horses aged between 2-5 years old [230/710 (32.3%] were the most frequently affected. The data obtained in this study demonstrate the importance of skin diseases that affect horses in southern Brazil. The most of the dermatopathies observed in horses, although not resulting in death could cause aesthetic damage resulting in animal rejection, the inability to participate in collective sports activities and economic losses due to treatment and surgery costs

  4. Phosphorus fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil

    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P applications to vineyards can cause P accumulation in the soil and maximize pollution risks. This study was carried out to quantify the accumulation of P fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil. Soil samples (layers 0-5, 6-10 and 11-20 cm were collected from a native grassland area and two vineyards, after 14 years (vineyard 1 and 30 years (vineyard 2 of cultivation, in Santana do Livramento, southern Brazil, and subjected to chemical fractionation of P. Phosphorus application, especially to the 30-year-old vineyard 2, increased the inorganic P content down to a depth of 20 cm, mainly in the labile fractions extracted by anion-exchange resin and NaHCO3, in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH, and in the non-labile fraction extracted by 1 mol L-1 HCl, indicating the possibility of water eutrophication. Phosphorus application and grapevine cultivation time increased the P content in the organic fraction extracted by NaHCO3 from the 0-5 cm layer, and especially in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH, down to a depth of 20 cm.

  5. Income differential of female labor in Southern Brazil: dual approach

    Rita de Cassia Garcia Margonato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the formation and income differential of female labor in Southern Brazil in 2002 and 2009 based on microdata from the National Sample Survey (PNAD.The methodology is to estimate the selection and wages equations using the Heckman's Sample Selection Model (1979. For the measurement of the female income differential in commerce, industry and domestic service, compared to income of women in the service sector it is applied an adaptation of the Oaxaca-Blinder Decomposition (1973 adapted by Jann (2008. It was confirmed the hypothesis that segmentation occurs in the female labor market in Southern Brazil because the income differential cannot be explained only by personal attributes (productive or not and by formal work. There are specificities in the sectors (sector effect determining the income differential of women´s income in the labor market, moreover the sector effect explained 33% of the wage differential observed in industry, also explained 29% in the commerce and 35% of the female income gaps when compared to the service sector, which is considered as in advantage.

  6. Species of marine Isopoda (Crustacea, Peracarida from southern Brazil

    Plínio Soares Moreira

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species of marine Isopoda collected in southern Brazil mostly in shallow-water and amongst seaweeds are studied. Five species are discussed and illustrated. A diagnosis is given for each species. Idotea metallica and Synidotea marplatensis are new oc currences for the area, and both have had their geographical range extended to off Rio de Janeiro. The presence of Idotea balthica and Erichsonella filiformis in southern Brazil was definitely asserted. Illustrations of both sexes of Rocinela signata and details about its occurrence in the region surveyed were made.O presente trabalho relaciona algumas espécies de isopodes marinhos coletados na região centro-sul do Brasil, em águas razas, em algas, ou entre emaranhados de folhas e raizes. Cinco espécies são ilustradas e discutidas. Uma diagnose é dada para cada espécie. I. metallica e S. marplatensis, constituindo novas ocorrências para a região, tiveram sua distribuição geográfica consideravelmente ampliada ate o Rio de Janeiro. A presença de I. balthica e E. filiformes na região e seguramente confirmada. Finalmente, são figurados o macho e a fêmea da espécie R. signata, ao mesmo tempo em que são fornecidos detalhes sobre sua ocorrência.

  7. Composition and structure of a riverine forest in southern Brazil

    Daniel Dutra Saraiva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Riverine vegetation occupies one of the most dynamic areas of a landscape, and has species that are specialized and adapted to grow in a variety of disturbances. A phytosociological survey was conducted that aimed to describe the floristic and phytosociological structure of the tree component in a riverine forest on the Jaguarão River, in southern Brazil. We sampled all of the trees with DBH ≥ 5cm in 25 plots of 10 × 10m (0.25ha. The study recorded 725 live trees belonging to 27 species, 24 genera and 16 botanical families. Myrtaceae and Salicaceae had the highest species richness. The species with the highest values of cover (VC and importance (VI were Sebastiania commersoniana, Allophylus edulis, Eugenia uniflora and Pouteria salicifolia, which accounted for more than 80% of the total abundance. The diversity (H’ was estimated as 1.84nats.ind.-1 and the evenness (J’ as 0.56. We also found a high proportion of zoochorous species from initial and intermediate successional stages, which are mostly from the west contingent and widely distributed across southeastern and southern Brazil.

  8. Schistosomiasis in Southern Brazil 17 years after the confirmation of the first autochthonous case

    Demetrius da Silva Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease, is an important public health issue in Brazil, particularly Northern Brazil. Since the first recorded occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, it has spread to South Brazil. METHODS: Using the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN, we assessed the disease spread in Southern Brazil. RESULTS: In Rio Grande do Sul, nine localities had confirmed cases (n = 95, 2001-2013. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed disease expansion to Southern Brazil. We demonstrated the effectiveness of SINAN to monitor notifiable diseases. Our results are useful to develop preventive actions for schistosomiasis control.

  9. Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil

    Andreia Mauruto Chernaki-Leffer; Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez; Almeida, Lúcia M.; Ivani de Oliveira Negrão Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil. The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), is an important insect pest in poultry houses in Brazil. Susceptibility of the lesser mealworm collected from eight poultry houses in Paraná state, southern Brazil, was evaluated for cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron. Adult A. diaperinus were tested in bioassays with cypermethrin and dichlorvo...

  10. Schistosomiasis in Southern Brazil 17 years after the confirmation of the first autochthonous case

    Demetrius da Silva Martins; Mariana Fabris Xavier; Franciéle de Souza Masiero; Juliana Cordeiro; Patrícia Jacqueline Thyssen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease, is an important public health issue in Brazil, particularly Northern Brazil. Since the first recorded occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, it has spread to South Brazil. METHODS: Using the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), we assessed the disease spread in Southern Brazil. RESULTS: In Rio Grande do Sul, nine localities had confirmed cases (n = 95, 2001-2013). CONCLUSIONS...

  11. Molecular characterization of encephalitic bovine listeriosis from southern Brazil.

    Headley, Selwyn A; Fritzen, Juliana T T; Queiroz, Gustavo R; Oliveira, Rodrigo A M; Alfieri, Alice F; Di Santis, Giovana W; Lisbôa, Júlio A N; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2014-01-01

    Reports of bovine listeriosis in Brazil are uncommon, being restricted to citations within retrospective studies, resulting in scarce documented information of this important disease of cattle. This manuscript describes the molecular findings associated with spontaneous encephalitic listeriosis in two steers from distinct herds within the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Both animals demonstrated altered consciousness suggestive of brain stem dysfunctions and died a few days after the initial onset of disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were designed to target specific genes of infectious neurological agents of cattle. These included bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5), ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), Listeria monocytogenes, and Histophilus somni. Rabies virus was discarded in evaluations done at the official state diagnostic laboratory. Gross alterations were insignificant; histopathology demonstrated rhombencephalitis associated with macrophage-predominant, multifocal to coalescing microabscesses and extensive perivascular cuffings in both steers. The L. monocytogenes PCR assay amplified the 172-bp amplicon of the listeriolysin gene from the brain stem of both animals and from the telencephalon, thalamus, and cerebellum of one of them. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the strains derived from this study clustered with known strains of L. monocytogenes lineage I. The BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, OvHV-2, and H. somni PCR assays were negative. These results confirm the participation of L. monocytogenes lineage I in the etiopathogenesis of the neurological disease herein described and represent the first complete description of encephalitic listeriosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23832703

  12. Vitamin A status of young children in Southern Brazil.

    Favaro, R M; de Souza, N V; Batistal, S M; Ferriani, M G; Desai, I D; Dutra de Oliveira, J E

    1986-05-01

    A comprehensive survey was carried out to assess the vitamin A status of preschool children of poor migrant families in the periurban population of Ribeirao Preto, a typical agricultural town in the sugarcane and coffee region of the State of Sao Paulo in Southern Brazil. The intake of vitamin A and carotenoids from the rice and bean based diet of these children is considered low and appears to influence blood concentrations and liver reserves of this vitamin. With respect to plasma vitamin A, 1.8% of the children had a deficient level (less than 10 micrograms%), whereas 48.8% of the children had a low level (less than 20 micrograms%). Most children with inadequate plasma vitamin A (less than 20 micrograms%) responded positively to a massive dose of 200,000 IU vitamin A, suggesting that these children may be at risk of having low liver stores of vitamin A. Rose Bengal staining test and rapid dark adaptation time did not indicate definite signs of conjunctival xerosis and night blindness among these children. No ocular evidence of hypovitaminosis A was found in the children studied, but marginal or inadequate vitamin A status appears to be a common public health problem among young children in this region of Brazil. PMID:3706193

  13. Assessment of Broiler Chicken Welfare in Southern Brazil

    JF Federici

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific literature on broiler chicken welfare in Brazilian industrial systems is scarce. This study aimed at assessing broiler chicken welfare on industrial farms in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, using the Welfare Quality(r assessment protocol for poultry, to provide directly applicable scientific information. Results are presented as criteria scores ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better welfare; and percentages of prevalence. The scores classified as excellent (above 80 were absence of prolonged thirst, absence of prolonged hunger, litter quality, breast blister and touch test. Enhanced scores (between 55 and 80 were comfort around resting, plumage cleanliness and dust sheet test. Acceptable scores (between 20 and 55 were thermal comfort, stocking density, absence of injuries, footpad dermatitis and hock burn; and unacceptable scores (below 20 were lameness and qualitative behavioral assessment. The median percentage of mortality and culled birds were 5.2% and 0.6%, respectively. This study provides useful information to select priorities of action on assessed farms and may contribute for setting up legal standards and guiding decisions related to animal welfare issues in Brazil.

  14. Histophilus somni-induced infections in cattle from southern Brazil.

    Headley, Selwyn A; Oliveira, Victor H S; Figueira, Gustavo F; Bronkhorst, Dalton E; Alfieri, Alice F; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2013-10-01

    The sudden death of three calves, one diarrheic calf, and one aborted fetus from four farms in southern Brazil was investigated. Two Histophilus somni-associated syndromes were identified: systemic histophilosis (n = 4) and abortion (n = 1). The principal pathological findings included vasculitis, meningoencephalitis with thrombosis, necrotizing myocarditis, renal infarctions, hepatic abscesses, and bronchopneumonia. PCR assays were used to amplify specific amplicons of the ovine herpesvirus 2, bovine herpesvirus 1 and -5, Listeria monocytogenes, H. somni, and pestivirus; bovine group A rotavirus (BoRV-A) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) were investigated in calves with diarrhea. H. somni DNA was amplified in tissues from all calves and the brain of the aborted fetus with pathological alterations consistent with histophilosis. All other PCR assays were negative; BoRV-A and BCoV were not identified. These findings confirm the participation of H. somni in the pathological alterations observed in this study and represent the first description of histophilosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23526124

  15. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu; Claudio J.B. de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Ch...

  16. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Philipp Werner Hopp; Edilson Caron; Richard Ottermanns; Martina Roß-Nickoll

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment) and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage...

  17. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu; Claudio J. B. de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.

  18. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.

  19. A SURVEY OF SHEEP MASTITIS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Adil Knackfuss Vaz

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Ovine mastitis causes varying economic fosses in all countries where sheep are kept. A survey of 3128 breeding ewes in 22 farms in two areas with different management practices in Southern Brazil showed that the average prevalence of subclinical and chronic mastitis was 14.1% of ewes with at least one affected gland. From those, 4.49% were also bacteriologically positive. The prevalence in individual farms varied from 0 to 37% of ewes with clinical abnormalities of the udder. The overall prevalence was greater in Area II, where meat breeds predominate and animals are housed at night. It is concluded that subclinical and chronic mastitis is uniikely to be an economic problem in Area I, where wool production is the objective of the sheep industry. However, in individual farms with high prevalence of the disease lamb survival and development may be affected. In Area II, mastitis is more likely to be a problem because of the higher prevalence found in that area.

  20. [Race and inequality among women: an example in southern Brazil].

    Olinto, M T; Olinto, B A

    2000-01-01

    This study uses epidemiological data to investigate socioeconomic proportions of distinctions raised by "racism" in Brazilian society. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 2,779 women ages 14 through 49, living in a southern Brazilian city. Black and mixed-race women had less schooling, lower family income, and worse housing conditions than white women. They also used contraceptive methods less frequently, had more children, and had higher spontaneous abortion and stillbirth rates than white women. Virtually all of the results show a linear relationship between such categories, i.e., the "darker" the woman's skin color, the worse her socioeconomic and reproductive conditions. We also observed that black women were either separated, divorced, or widowed, another apparent factor for black women's impoverishment, related mainly to their limited employment opportunities. The results of the current study indicate that racial relations among women are an issue that should foster a discussion concerning citizenship in Brazil. PMID:11175538

  1. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  2. Case-control study on infant mortality in Southern Brazil

    Mendes Karina Giane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with infant mortality and, more specifically, with neonatal mortality. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in the municipality of Caxias do Sul, Southern Brazil. Characteristics of prenatal care and causes of mortality were assessed for all live births in the 2001-2002 period with a completed live-birth certificate and whose mothers lived in the municipality. Cases were defined as all deaths within the first year of life. As controls, there were selected the two children born immediately after each case in the same hospital, who were of the same sex, and did not die within their first year of life. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a reduction in infant mortality, the greatest reduction was observed in the post-neonatal period. The variables gestational age (<36 weeks, birth weight (<2,500 g, and 5-minute Apgar (<6 remained in the final model of the multivariate analysis, after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal conditions comprise almost the totality of neonatal deaths, and the majority of deaths occur at delivery. The challenge for reducing infant mortality rate in the city is to reduce the mortality by perinatal conditions in the neonatal period.

  3. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of marine needlefishes (Beloniformes) from southern Brazil.

    Cipriano, Roger Raupp; Noleto, Rafael Bueno; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; da Silva Cortinhas, Maria Cristina; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2016-08-01

    Cytogenetic studies have assisted in the taxonomic classification of organisms, especially those involving species with highly similar morphologic characteristics, or so-called cryptic species. Strongylura marina and Strongylura timucu collected from Paranaguá Bay, Paraná Coast in Southern Brazil are considered cryptic species, and the identification of interspecific variations based on the number and/or morphology of its chromosomes may serve as differentiating cytotaxonomic markers. Chromosomes of the two species were subjected to different banding and staining methods (C-, Ag-, and DAPI-CMA3), as well as chromosomal mapping of major rDNA (45S), revealed with an 18S probe by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The pattern of distribution of constitutive heterochromatin showed distinct features involving the pericentromeric and telomeric bands in both species. In S. marina, chromosome 1 represents the main species-specific marker, appearing almost entirely heterochromatic. In both species, the 45S rDNA is located at terminal region of the short arm of the chromosome 6, as detected by silver nitrate staining and FISH. Despite the apparent conserved diploid number of 48 chromosomes, data on the karyotype microstructure characterize the cytogenetic profile of the genus and may allow the establishment of cytotaxonomic and evolutionary inferences for these fishes. PMID:25388873

  4. Urban sediment particle size and pollutants in Southern Brazil

    Poleto, Cristiano; Merten, Gustavo H. [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (BR). Hydraulic Research Inst. (IPH); Bortoluzzi, Edson C. [Univ. of Passo Fundo - UPF, RS (Brazil); Charlesworth, Susanne M. [Coventry Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography, Environment and Disaster Management

    2009-08-15

    Background, aim and scope: Studies of particulate-associated pollutants, or PAPs, in urban areas have become necessary due to their potentially deleterious effects on the environment. However, it is not just the sediments themselves which are problematic but also their particle size composition, which has a great influence on their capacity to adsorb and transport pollutants. This paper presents the particle size distributions and concentrations of five metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) of urban sediments collected from paved streets and gully pots from 20 cities in southern Brazil. The cities have different characteristics and hence sources of PAPs associated with differing geologies, soil types and type of urbanisation. Studies of this nature enable elucidation of the relationship between diffuse sources such as streets and gully pots and the likelihood of PAPs to subsequently pollute the urban aquatic environment. Materials and methods: Sediment samples were taken at random from paved streets and gully pots in 20 cities in Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil by means of a portable vacuum cleaner to avoid loss of finer particles. The particle sizes of the samples were measured using a Cilas {sup registered} 1180 laser particle analyzer, and the concentrations of five metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by wet acid digestion (HCl-HF-HClO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3}) followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy on the <63-{mu}m fraction. Results: It was found that in comparison to sediments collected from the streets, gully pot sediments were more heterogeneous in terms of particle size and also that sediment samples from the gully pots were predominantly coarser than those originating on the streets. From the gully pot results, analysis of the modal particle diameter enabled the cities to be divided into three categories. The concentrations of metals in the street sediments were similar across all 20 cities, with all concentrations above

  5. Lake size and fish diversity in southern Brazil coastal lagoons

    Lucia Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, presents a series of shallow lagoons with diverse size and morphology. The objective of this study is to determine whether the size of the lagoon is an effective factor for structuring fish diversity. In this regard, nine lagoons with distinct areas were sampled: three with an area up to 40 hectares, three with area between 40 and 80 hectares, and three with an area of over 80 hectares. Each lagoon was sampled once on the littoral and pelagic zones. At each point, fish were captured through a set of gill nets with different mesh sizes. Captured specimens were identified, quantified and evaluated for weight and length. A total of 24 fish species belonging to 10 families was obtained, with Characidae presenting the highest species richness. Cyanocharax alburnus was the only species that occurred in all lagoons. Cyphocharax voga, Astyanax eigenmmaniorum, Oligosarcus jenynsii and O. robustus were also frequent species, present in most of the sampled lagoons. Lycengraulis grossidens was captured in just two lagoons with increased conductivity. The community structure showed the highest species richness in lakes with an area over 40 ha, however the highest mean diversity values were observed in ponds up to 40 ha. Cluster Analysis yielded the formation of two groups: a group formed by just one lagoon and a second one cluster grouping all the other lagoons. This pattern may be associated with the presence of Lycengraulis grossidens as a dominant species in this lagoon clustered apart. The results indicate that lagoons with up to 40 ha present greater homogeneity on the species composition and higher average values of diversity; while intermediate ponds (between 40 and 80 ha have lower average diversity for the fish fauna due to increased heterogeneity in species abundance.

  6. Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study

    Gigante Luciana P; Béria Jorge U.; Palazzo Lilian S; Bassani Diego G; Figueiredo Andréia CL; Aerts Denise RGC; Raymann Beatriz CW

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionna...

  7. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  8. Bird-habitat associations in coastal rangelands of southern Brazil

    Rafael A. Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all remnants of temperate grasslands in southeastern South America are used for livestock ranching and are subject to habitat degradation resulting from this activity. Exploring how habitat features affect the composition of grassland avifaunal communities is a first step to understand how current cattle-ranching management practices impact avian diversity. We used canonical ordination to test for relationships between five habitat variables and the composition of the bird community in coastal grasslands in southern Brazil. We sampled pastures with different heights, from overgrazed short-grass to tall herbaceous vegetation. We recorded 1,535 individuals and 27 species of birds. The first ordination axis indicated a strong contribution of mean vegetation height on the composition of the bird community, whereas the second axis revealed the influence of herbaceous vegetation patchiness and woody vegetation cover. Three groups of species were revealed by the ordination: one more diffuse associated with intermediate and tall herbaceous vegetation, another with short grass, and a third with vegetation patchiness and woody vegetation. Species restricted to tall herbaceous vegetation are negatively impacted from habitat degradation resulting from overgrazing and trampling by livestock, and mowing and burning of tall plants. Occurrence of these species in our study area is related with the presence of swales immediately behind the dune system and where remnants of tall vegetation persist. Birds of pastures with ample cover of short herbaceous plants, including one globally threatened species and six other restricted to short-grass habitat, apparently benefit from local livestock management practices. Woody vegetation possibly functions as a keystone structure, enabling the occurrence in grasslands of avian species that rely on shrubby habitat. Although livestock ranching promotes the diversity of habitats by creating distinct patches of

  9. Mathematical Modeling Applied to Prediction of Landslides in Southern Brazil

    Silva, Lúcia; Araújo, João; Braga, Beatriz; Fernandes, Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Mass movements are natural phenomena that occur on the slopes and are important agents working in landscape development. These movements have caused serious damage to infrastructure and properties. In addition to the mass movements occurring in natural slopes, there is also a large number of accidents induced by human action in the landscape. The change of use and land cover for the introduction of agriculture is a good example that have affected the stability of slopes. Land use and/or land cover changes have direct and indirect effects on slope stability and frequently represent a major factor controlling the occurrence of man-induced mass movements. In Brazil, especially in the southern and southeastern regions, areas of original natural rain forest have been continuously replaced by agriculture during the last decades, leading to important modifications in soil mechanical properties and to major changes in hillslope hydrology. In these regions, such effects are amplified due to the steep hilly topography, intense summer rainfall events and dense urbanization. In November 2008, a major landslide event took place in a rural area with intensive agriculture in the state of Santa Catarina (Morro do Baú) where many catastrophic landslides were triggered after a long rainy period. In this area, the natural forest has been replaced by huge banana and pine plantations. The state of Santa Catarina in recent decades has been the scene of several incidents of mass movements such as this catastrophic event. In this study, based on field mapping and modeling, we characterize the role played by geomorphological and geological factors in controlling the spatial distribution of landslides in the Morro do Baú area. In order to attain such objective, a digital elevation model of the basin was generated with a 10m grid in which the topographic parameters were obtained. The spatial distribution of the scars from this major event was mapped from another image, obtained immediately

  10. Body masses and measurements of birds from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Bianca L Reinert; Júlio C Pinto; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Mauro Pichorim; Miguel Â. Marini

    1996-01-01

    Five hundred and eigh body masses of 74 forest birds, and measurements of wing, tail, tarsus and beak of 14 poorly known species mist-netted at two sites in the Atlantic Forest of eastern Paraná State, southern Brazil, are presented.

  11. Nematodes of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil

    Marcelo Knoff

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New records for nematode species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established and new systematical arrangements proposed. Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 from the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena is referred for the first time in South America as a new host record. Procamallanus (S. pereirai Annereaux, 1946, from the spiral valve of Raja castelnaui is reported parasitizing an elasmobranch host. Nematode larvae of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are listed from the stomach and spiral valves of several hosts. Anisakidae larvae previously referred in Brazil in the genus Phocanema should be reallocated in Pseudoterranova. Nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranchs in Brazil.

  12. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, central plateau, southeastern, and southern Brazil.

    Figueiredo, Luiz T M; Moreli, Marcos L; de-Sousa, Ricardo L M; Borges, Alessandra A; de-Figueiredo, Glauciane G; Machado, Alex M; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Luiz E; de-Souza, Renato P; de-Souza, Luiza T M; Braconi, Carla T; Harsi, Charlotte M; de-Andrade-Zanotto, Paolo M

    2009-04-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an increasing health problem in Brazil because of encroachment of sprawling urban, agricultural, and cattle-raising areas into habitats of subfamily Sigmodontinae rodents, which serve as hantavirus reservoirs. From 1993 through June 2007, a total of 884 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil (case-fatality rate 39%). To better understand this emerging disease, we collected 89 human serum samples and 68 rodent lung samples containing antibodies to hantavirus from a 2,500-km-wide area in Brazil. RNA was isolated from human samples and rodent tissues and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR. Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara virus and Juquitiba virus lineages. The case-fatality rate of HPS was higher in the area with Araraquara virus. This virus, which may be the most virulent hantavirus in Brazil, was associated with areas that have had greater anthropogenic changes. PMID:19331732

  13. A new species of Dendrocerus (Hymenoptera, Megaspilidae) from southern Brazil

    Cleder Pezzini; Kássia Cristina Freire Zilch; Andreas Köhler

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the megaspiline genus Dendrocerus Ratzeburg is described and figured. Dendrocerus riograndensis sp. n., is known from a series of males from the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and were captured with Malaise traps from an agricultural tobacco field.

  14. Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita stock identification and incipient exploitation in southern Brazil

    Felipe M Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita is an essential species in the pelagic ecosystem of the southwest Atlantic Ocean, and a potentially important fishery resource. Exploitation has recently started in southern Brazil, so it requires a better understanding of their structure and population dynamics. This work aims to update the information on the population identification of E. anchoita. Parameters such as age and size composition, length-at-age data and other parameters using sagittae otoliths were used to compare anchovy of the continental shelf between 20° and 32°S. The results indicate the existence of different populations in the southeastern and southern regions of Brazil: the bonaerense stock in southern Brazil is shared with Argentina and Uruguay and exhibits migratory behavior, while in the southeast there is a population confined to this region and shows different population characteristics. This has implications for the management of this species and should be taken into account by the institutions responsible for the assessment and management of fisheries in Brazil.

  15. Child maltreatment: a survey of dentists in southern Brazil

    Marina Sousa Azevedo; Marília Leão Goettems; Adão Brito; Anna Paula Possebon; Juliana Domingues; Flávio Fernando Demarco; Dione Dias Torriani

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse is a serious public health problem and affects the victims' physical and mental health and development. The aims of this study were two-fold: to assess the attitudes and perceptions of dentists regarding child abuse, and to investigate professional characteristics associated with the identification of suspected child abuse. A questionnaire was sent to the 276 dentists of Pelotas, RS, Brazil , and 187 (68.0%) were returned. Demographic characteristics and profiles of the dentist...

  16. Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil

    La Scala Newton; Romão Rangel; Panosso Alan; de Figueiredo Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equiv...

  17. Verification of concentration time formulae accuracy in Southern Brazil

    Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    The time of concentration (TC) of an urban catchment is a fundamental watershed parameter used to compute the peak discharge and/or in the hydrological simulation of sewer systems. In the lack of hydrological data for its estimative, several empirical formulae are used, however, almost none of them have been verified in Brazil leading to large uncertainties in the correct value. In this light, were tested several formulae such as the proposed by Kirpich (and a modifications of this equation proposed by the National Transport Bureau of Brazil (DNIT)), U.S. Corps. Of Engineers, Pasini, Dooge , Johnstone , Ventura and Ven T Chow as they are used in Brazil. The verification was accomplished against measured data in 5 sub-basins situated in the Dilúvio basin, a semi urbanized watershed that contains the most developed area of the city of Porto Alegre. All the rainfall stations were active in the period from late 1970's until early 1980's due to the existence of Projeto Dilúvio but today, however, only two of them are still in operation. Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul with a population of approximately 1.6 million inhabitants, the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fourth largest metropolitan area, with almost 4,5 million inhabitants (IBGE, 2010). The city is situated in a humid subtropical climate with high and regular precipitation throughout the year. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and an occasional tropical storm, hurricane or cyclone. The results showed an error of around 70% for half of the formulas, with a tendency to underestimate TC values. Among the tested methods, Johnstone had the best overall result, with an average error of 25%, well far from the second, Dooge, with 43% of average error. The best results were obtained in only one basin, Dilúvio, the largest one, with an area of 25km², with an error of just 3% for Modified Kirpich, and

  18. Karyology of the Atlantic forest rodent Juliomys (Cricetidae): A new karyotype from southern Brazil

    Roberta Paresque; Alexandre Uarth Christoff; Valéria Fagundes

    2009-01-01

    Juliomys is a small rodent from the family Cricetidae which inhabits the Atlantic forest and forests from Argentina to eastern Brazil. The three species recognized so far have different karyotypes. In this paper, we describe a new karyotype with 2n = 32, FN = 48 found in Juliomys specimens from a high-altitude area in the Atlantic forest of southern Brazil. The karyotype was analyzed after G- and C-banding and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NOR) and its G-banding patte...

  19. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil

    Luana Olinda Tacuatiá; Lilian Eggers; Eliane Kaltchuk-Santos; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.

    2012-01-01

    Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses usin...

  20. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Kasper, C B; Schneider, A; Oliveira, T G

    2016-02-01

    Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus), margay (Lepardus wiedii) and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF) locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area. PMID:26871745

  1. FRAGMENT AGRICULTURAL PESTS OF SOME PARASITOIDS COLLECTED IN SOUTHERN GOIÁS AND SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    Carlos H MARCHIORI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different parasitoids of some insect pests in southern Goiás and southern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is reported in this article. The egg parasitoids obtained Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae were specimens of Anastatus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae, two specimens of Brasema sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae, 41 specimens Gryon gallardoi (Brethes (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae and six specimens of Trissolcus sp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae. The parasitoids obtained Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae were 03 specimens of Leptopilina boulardi Barbotin et al. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and 285 specimens of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae. The occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae were: 21 specimens of Bracon sp., (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, one specimen of Earinus sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and 13 specimens Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae. In Lonomia sp. were collected: 4 specimens of Anastatus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae and three specimens of Aprostocetus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae.

  2. Leprosy and hepatitis B coinfection in southern Brazil

    Cleverson Leitao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the association of leprosy with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, as yet unknown for South Brazil, we assessed hepatitis B virus coinfection in 199 South Brazilian leprosy patients (119 lepromatous, 15 tuberculoid, 30 borderline, 12 undetermined and 23 unspecified and in 681 matched blood donors by screening for the hepatitis B virus markers HBSAg and anti-HBc, using ELISA. Positive samples were retested and anti-HBc+ only samples were tested for the hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs. There was a strong association between leprosy and hepatitis B virus infection (OR = 9.8, 95% CI = 6.4–14.7; p = 0.004·E−30, as well as an association between HBV infection and lepromatous leprosy, compared to other forms (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2–4.8; p = 0.017. We also found that confinement due to leprosy was associated with hepatitis B virus infection (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 2.1–7.4; p = 0.015·E−3. Leprosy patients are susceptible to develop hepatitis B virus infection, especially lepromatous. Institutionalized patients, who probably present a stronger Th2 response, have higher risk of being exposed to hepatitis B virus. This clearly emphasizes the need for special care to leprosy patients in preventing hepatitis B virus coinfection in South Brazil.

  3. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz; Larissa Reifur; Márcia Kiyoe Shimada; Juciliane Haidamak; Regielly Caroline Raimundo Cognialli; Tatiane Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding ...

  4. Armadillo (Cingulata: Dasypodidae in the Diet Of the Neotropical Otter Lontra longicaudis in Southern Brazil

    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Claws, hairs and osteoderms of armadillo (Cingulata: Dasypodidae were found in a scat of a neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis in an edge of a pluvial channel near a peat forest in the southern Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. Due to the absence of carrion-eating invertebrates in the sample, it is suggested that the armadillo was actively preyed upon by the otter. This is the first record of armadillo in the diet of Lontra longicaudis.

  5. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  6. Digenea and acanthocephala of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil

    Knoff Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New records for helminth species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established. Digenean and acanthocephalan parasites of elasmobranch fishes are reported from the southern coast of Brazil: Otodistomum veliporum (Creplin, 1837 Stafford, 1904 (Digenea: Azygiidae in the stomach and spiral valve of Dipturus trachydermus and in the spiral valve of Squatina sp. Cystacanths and juveniles of the acanthocephalans Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937 and Corynosoma sp., in the spiral valve of Squatina sp., Galeorhinus galeus and Hexanchus griseus and in the stomach of Squalus megalops; a juvenile of Gorgorhynchus sp., in the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena. Dipturus trachydermus and Squatina sp. are new host records for O. veliporum. Digeneans and acanthocephalans are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranch fishes in Brazil.

  7. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil

    Renata C. Campos; Malva I. Medina Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung) or carcasses (carrion) and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the ...

  8. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha; Igor Soares de Oliveira; Marilia Teresinha Hartmann

    2010-01-01

    The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2), Bufonidae (2), Centrolenidae (1), Cycloramphidae (1), Hemiphractidae (1), Hylidae (18), Hylodidae (1), Leiuperidae (2), Leptodactylidae (3), and Microhylidae (1). Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while ...

  9. Factors associated with recurrence of alcohol-related traffic violations in southern Brazil

    Aurinez R. Schmitz; Goldim, José R; Luciano S. P. Guimarães; Lopes, Fernanda M.; Felix Kessler; Tanara Sousa; Veralice M. Gonçalves; Flavio Pechansky

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze variables associated with recurrence of blood alcohol content (BAC)-related traffic violations among drivers in southern Brazil. Method: This cross-sectional study included 12,204 driving-under-the-influence (DUI) offenders according to data provided by the Rio Grande do Sul state Transportation Department. Sociodemographic characteristics, license duration, license category, and psychological assessment results were analyzed. Drivers convicted of DUI more than once in...

  10. Essential oils of camphor tree (cinnamomum camphora nees & eberm) cultivated in Southern Brazil

    Caren D. Frizzo; Santos, Ana C; Natalia Paroul; Luciana A. Serafini; Eduardo Dellacassa; Daniel Lorenzo; Patrick Moyna

    2000-01-01

    The essential oils of two varieties of Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm, Lauraceae), known as Hon-Sho and Ho-Sho cultivated in experimental stands in Southern Brazil were studied. The essential oils were obtained from the leaves and twigs of young plants by hydrodistillation. The identification of the components was performed using GC, GC/MS and retention indexes on methyl silicone and carbowax phases. The main components identified were linalool in the Ho-Sho and camphor in the...

  11. Comparison between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive and Negative Patients with Tuberculosis in Southern Brazil

    Lucélia Henn; Fabiano Nagel; Felipe Dal Pizzol

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the different characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and negative patients treated for tuberculosis (TBC) in a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. We conducted a retrospective cohort study over a 5-year period, from January 1992 through December 1996. We reviewed medical charts of patients from our institution who received TBC treatment. We reviewed 167 medical charts of patients with confirmed TBC. HIV positivity was detec...

  12. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibody detection in blood donors in the Southern Brazil

    A.B. Araújo; E.E.S. Vianna; M.E.A. Berne

    2008-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas' Disease, is a widely spread protozoa in America. Blood transfusion is the secondly most important way of acquiring the infection. In blood banks, tests are performed to eliminate potentially infected blood. This study aimed to evaluate the positivity for T. cruzi in blood samples of donor's candidates in Southern Brazil. The study was based on a sampling containing all blood donors of Hemopel - a Pelotas City Blood Center, Rio Grande do Sul State...

  13. Aerobic fitness in adolescents in southern Brazil: Association with sociodemographic aspects, lifestyle and nutritional status

    D.A.S. Silva; D. Monteiro Teixeira; Oliveira, G; E.L. Petroski; J. Marcio de Farias

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose was to investigate the factors related to aerobic fitness levels of adolescents in southern Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 1081 students (545 males and 536 females), with mean age of 12.8 (± 1.2) years. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Aerobic fitness was assessed by the 9-min running test. The independent variables analyzed were: age, socioeconomic status, school system (public/private), sedentary behavior, physical activity level, nutritio...

  14. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil

    Mariana Maleronka Ferron; André Klafke de Lima; Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva; Nelson Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental eval...

  15. Childbearing during adolescence and offspring mortality: findings from three population-based cohorts in southern Brazil

    Barros Fernando C.; Matijasevich Alicia; Menezes Ana MB; Santos Iná S; Barros Aluísio JD; Restrepo-Méndez María C; Victora Cesar G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The role of young maternal age as a determinant of adverse child health outcomes is controversial, with existing studies providing conflicting results. This work assessed the association between adolescent childbearing and early offspring mortality in three birth cohort studies from the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Methods All hospital births from 1982 (6,011), 1993 (5,304), and 2004 (4,287) were identified and these infants were followed up. Deaths were monitored t...

  16. Scenario of research and intellectual production in the area of didactics in the southern of Brazil

    Orlando Fernández Aquino; Vânia Maria de Oliveira Vieira; Marilene Ribeiro Resende; Maria Célia Borges

    2016-01-01

    The text was drawn from results of research carried out between 2010 and 2012. The objective was to understand the state of research and intellectual production in the area of Didactic in Southern Brazil. The documentary analysis methodology, working with documents available online was applied. The research was carried out with 9 Postgraduate Program in Education, 12 research lines, 115 professors, 244 research projects and 1730 publications. It was concluded that there is a great number of r...

  17. On the diversity of mollusc intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Cespedes, 1971 in southern Brazil

    Carlos Graeff Teixeira

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Veronicellid slugs are considered the most important intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, an intra-arterial nematode of rodents. Studies undertaken in three localities in southern Brazil led to identification of molluscs other than veronicellid slugs as hosts of A. costaricensis: Limax maximus, Limax flavus and Bradybaena similaris. These data indicate a low host specificity of larval stages of A. costaricensis, as it has been reported to other congeneric species.

  18. Species diversity and community structure in trap-nesting bees in Southern Brazil

    Luisa Tunes Buschini, Maria

    2006-01-01

    International audience The species diversity and community structure of trap-nesting bees in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias in Southern Brazil was studied during 2 years. Three different habitats (Araucaria forest, swamp and grassland) were investigated in terms of abundance, richness, diversity and similarity of bee communicites. A total of 120 nests of 11 species were collected. The largest abundance of individuals and species richness was found for the family Megachilidae. The most...

  19. Hemoplasma prevalence and hematological abnormalities associated with infection in three different cat populations from Southern Brazil

    Andrea Pires dos Santos; Francisco de Oliveira Conrado; Joanne Belle Messick; Alexander Welker Biondo; Simone Tostes de Oliveira; Ana Marcia Sá Guimaraes; Naíla Cannes do Nascimento; Viviane Pedralli; Camila Serina Lasta; Félix Hilário Diaz González

    2014-01-01

    Three hemoplasma species are recognized in domestic cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. We report the prevalence and hematological abnormalities of hemoplasma infection in 369 domestic cats from three different populations (blood donors, hospitalized cats and shelter cats) from Southern Brazil. Complete blood counts were performed at the time of blood collection, and DNA was extracted and tested by conventional PCR for each...

  20. Carotenoid analysis of Cassava genotypes roots (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) cultivated in Southern Brazil using chemometric tools

    Moresco, Rodolfo; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Pereira, Aline; Tomazzoli, M. M.; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Manihot esculenta roots rich in -carotene are an important staple food for populations with risk of vitamin A deficiency. Cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A activity have been identified as a strategy to reduce the prevalence of deficiency of this vitamin, In this study, the metabolomics characterization focusing on the carotenoid composition of ten cassava genotypes cultivated in southern Brazil by UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromat...

  1. Elevated Toxoplasma gondii Infection Rates for Retinas from Eye Banks, Southern Brazil

    Commodaro, Alessandra G.; Chiasson, Melissa; Sundar, Natarajan; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Belfort, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    We found significantly higher incidence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in eye bank specimens from Joinville in southern Brazil (13/15, 87%) than in São Paulo (3/42, 7%; p = 2.1 × 10E–8). PCR DNA sequence analysis was more sensitive at locus NTS2 than at locus B1; a high frequency of mixed co-infections was detected. PMID:26982526

  2. Recognition characters and new records of two species of Phylloscyrtini (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Trigonidiinae from southern Brazil

    Luciano de P. Martins

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Phylloscyrtini occurs from eastern United States to Argentina and includes 21 valid species. It is a highly neglected group of crickets and little is known about its biology and distribution. Cranistus colliurides Stål, 1861 and Phylloscyrtus amoenus (Burmeister, 1880 were recorded for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and information on calling song, stridulatory file and recognition characters were provided.

  3. Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008

    Cardoso, Jáder da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F.C.

    2010-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosq...

  4. Chromosome studies in some Stevia. Cav. (Compositae) species from Southern Brazil

    Adriana P. Frederico; Paulo M. Ruas; Marin-Morales, Maria A.; Claudete F. Ruas; Jimi N. Nakajima

    1996-01-01

    Karyotypes of six species of the genus Stevia from Southern Brazil were studied, utilizing root tip metaphases. All species were diploid with 2n = 22 chromosomes. It was possible to identify each species by chromosome morphology. The basic chromosome number for Brazilian species of Stevia is X = 11. This number is also found in almost all South American species. We suggest that in Stevia there is an evolutionary trend toward chromosomal rearrangement, caused mainly by pericentric inversions. ...

  5. Seasonal variation of macromedusae (Cnidaria) at North Bay, Florianópolis, southern Brazil

    Miodeli Nogueira Júnior; Renato Mitsuo Nagata; Maria Angélica Haddad

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal variation of large medusae abundance and biomass was studied in the North Bay, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil (27°30'S, 48° 32'W), from February to December 2005. Collecting was conducted seasonally with the help of fishing bottom trawl in 30-minute sections (12 in summer, 18 in each of the remaining seasons) in six stations, totaling 66 samples. Eight species were found: the hydrozoans Aequorea sp., Olindias sambaquiensis Müller, 1861, and Rhacostoma atlantica L. Agassiz, 1850; the...

  6. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae) in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

    Vinícius Abilhoa; Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule; Hugo Bornatowski

    2010-01-01

    Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae), aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences i...

  7. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

    André Filipe Testoni; Sérgio Luiz Althoff; André Paulo Nascimento; Francisco Steiner-Souza; Ives José Sbalqueiro

    2010-01-01

    Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3 /DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nin...

  8. Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil

    Tiago Shizen Pacheco Toma; Milton de Souza Mendonça Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil. Diversity of galling insects is reported for the first time in an Araucaria Forest site. We address gall characteristics, host plant identification and the inducer identification and provide additional information about sites of gall occurrence in a mosaic of continuous forest and natural forest patches. After 40h of sampling we found 57 species of five insect orders, the majority of them Diptera (Cecidomyiidae), galling 43 host...

  9. Natural Sarcocystis gigantea infection in sheep from Southern Brazil

    Pedro Araujo Damboriarena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Protozoal diseases caused by species of Sarcocystis can cause serious damage in sheep flocks, inducing decreased growth conversion rates and partial or complete loss of carcasses at the slaughterhouse. This article describes an outbreak of Sarcocystis gigantea infection in sheep slaughtered in a farm in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Between July and September 2013, three sheep showed multiple nodules in the esophagus that were microscopically characterized as encapsulated cysts filled with elongated, basophilic, nucleated structures morphologically consistent with S. gigantea bradyzoites. Diagnosis was made based on the epidemiological, macroscopic, and microscopic findings. This is the first report of this infection in sheep in Rio Grande do Sul and should be recognized by veterinarians, especially during meat inspection.

  10. Metal contamination of vineyard soils in wet subtropics (southern Brazil)

    The vine-growing areas in Brazil are the dampest in the world. Copper maximum value registered in this study was as much as 3200 mg kg-1, which is several times higher than reported for vineyard soils in temperate climates. Other pesticide-derived metals accumulate in the topsoil layer, surpassing in the old vineyards the background value several times for Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd. Copper is transported to deeper soils' horizons and can potentially contaminate groundwater. The soils from basaltic volcanic rocks reveal the highest values of Cu extracted with CaCl2, demonstrating a high capacity of copper transference into plants. When evaluating the risks of copper's toxic effects in subtropics, the soils from rhyolitic volcanic rocks are more worrisome, as the Cu extracted with ammonium acetate 1 M surpasses the toxic threshold as much as 4-6 times. - Copper-based pesticide use in wet subtropics is environmentally more risky

  11. Pythiosis in sheep from Paraná, southern Brazil

    Fábio D. Bernardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper reports pythiosis in a sheep from southwestern Paraná, Brazil, confirmed by indirect ELISA (Enzime-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and immunohistochemistry, as well as it describes the macro and microscopic injuries, in order to understand the pathogenicity. A 4-year-old ewe from a flock of 30 Santa Inês sheep, raised semi-extensively with access to a weir, showed cachexia, bilateral enlargement in nasal region, a serous and bloody secretion with a fetid odor from its nose and swollen submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Blood collection was performed trough jugular vein puncture in order to make complete blood cell count (CBC and to obtain serum for the subsequent serological examination. As the hematological counts were within the normal range for sheep, the animal was euthanized and submitted to necropsy. Indirect ELISA resulted positive for pythiosis. Necropsy revealed necrosis of the hard palate with a diameter of 3.5cm and extending up to the nasal cavity, forming a fistula. Submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were enlarged and edematous on section. Microscopic findings for submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes consisted in moderate infiltration of eosinophils mainly in the subcapsular sinus, characterizing reactive eosinophilic lymphadenitis. The nasal cavity revealed rhinitis and oral cavity stomatitis with necro-eosinophilic and pronounced multifocal granulomatous infiltration and presence of hyphae. Hyphae found in palate and nasal cavity were positive for Pythium insidiosum by Grocott's method and immunohistochemistry, the last one considered to be confirmatory for the pathogen diagnostic. This report has an important epidemiological aspect, as it is the first case of pythiosis in sheep confirmed by serology in South Brazil and an alert of possible infection by the pathogen in floodplains.

  12. Child maltreatment: a survey of dentists in southern Brazil

    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a serious public health problem and affects the victims' physical and mental health and development. The aims of this study were two-fold: to assess the attitudes and perceptions of dentists regarding child abuse, and to investigate professional characteristics associated with the identification of suspected child abuse. A questionnaire was sent to the 276 dentists of Pelotas, RS, Brazil , and 187 (68.0% were returned. Demographic characteristics and profiles of the dentists, and information about their knowledge and attitudes regarding child abuse were collected. Descriptive analysis was performed, and associations were tested by chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. From all dentists surveyed, 123 (71.9% reported providing treatment for children. Most dentists believed they could detect cases of child abuse (78.7%, but 85.7% had never suspected it. Among those who did suspect, 76.0% did not report the cases to authorities. No differences were observed between sexes, years of graduation, types of licenses, and the frequency at which children were treated. A higher proportion of dentists working at university had suspected child abuse. Even though dentists considered themselves able to identify suspicious cases, only a small percentage reported those suspicions, indicating a lack of awareness by these professionals in the adoption of protective measures for victims of aggression. It is necessary that dental professionals receive interdisciplinary training to enhance their ability to care for and protect children.

  13. Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil

    La Scala Newton

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed. The major part of the total emission (44% resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning.

  14. Narrowing inequalities in infant mortality in Southern Brazil

    Goldani Marcelo Zubaran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the trends of infant mortality from 1995 to 1999 according to a geographic area-based measure of maternal education in Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: A registry-based study was carried out and a municipal database created in 1994 was used. All live births (n=119,170 and infant deaths (n=1,934 were considered. Five different geographic areas were defined according to quintiles of the percentage of low maternal educational level (<6 years of schooling: high, medium high, medium, medium low, and low. The chi-square test for trend was used to compare rates between years. Incidence rate ratio was calculated using Poisson regression to identify excess infant mortality in poorer areas compared to higher schooling areas. RESULTS: The infant mortality rate (IMR decreased steadily from 18.38 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1995 to 12.21 in 1999 (chi-square for trend p<0.001. Both neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates decreased although the drop seemed to be steeper for the post-neonatal component. The higher decline was seen in poorer areas. CONCLUSION: Inequalities in IMR seem to have decreased due to a steeper reduction in both neonatal and post-neonatal components of infant mortality in lower maternal schooling area.

  15. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-01

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time. PMID:27276374

  16. Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil

    Andreia Mauruto Chernaki-Leffer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil. The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, is an important insect pest in poultry houses in Brazil. Susceptibility of the lesser mealworm collected from eight poultry houses in Paraná state, southern Brazil, was evaluated for cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron. Adult A. diaperinus were tested in bioassays with cypermethrin and dichlorvos. Larvae were fed rabbit feed wetted with a triflumuron-water solution. Concentration-mortality regressions were estimated using Probit analysis and resistance ratios were calculated based on the susceptible population. Among the field populations evaluated, cypermethrin LC50 values for adults, ranged from 68.1 to 6,263 ng (AI/cm². LC50 values for adults challenged with dichlorvos ranged from 10.3 to 1,385 ng (AI/cm². One population from Pato Branco showed reduced susceptibility to triflumuron (LC50 = 272 µg (AI/ml of solution when compared to the most susceptible population (LC50 = 109.8 µg (AI/ml. Application of cypermethrin and dichlorvos analogues should be managed with caution to minimize insecticide resistance problems.

  17. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil.

    Tacuatiá, Luana Olinda; Eggers, Lilian; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T

    2012-01-01

    Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses using DNA molecular markers are inexistent for this species, in spite of its wide distribution and morphological variation. To study the genetic population structure of S. micranthum, five natural populations were accessed in a conservation park within the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome in southern Brazil. Here, the chromosome numbers 2n = 16 and 2n = 48 had already been described. Molecular analysis showed that the populations are highly structured with low gene flow among them. The population with 2n = 48 was genetically less variable than and distinct from the other populations. Population genetics in relation to cytogenetic data provided new insights regarding the genetic diversification and mating system of S. micranthum. PMID:22481881

  18. The diet of cubomedusae (cnidaria, cubozoa in southern Brazil

    Miodeli Nogueira Júnior

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The diet of cubomedusae Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859 (Carybdeidae and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 (Chirodropidae was examined in specimens collected on the Southern Brazilian coast (25º20' - 25º55'S; 48º10' - 48º35'W, between December 1998 and December 2004. This is the first study to analyze this biological aspect in cubomedusae from the South Atlantic. The gastrovascular cavities of most (55%; n = 29 specimens of T. haplonema were empty while the remainder had teleosteans parts such as scales, vertebrae and otoliths. In C. quadrumanus (n = 726, the most important items were the pelagic sergestid shrimp Peisos petrunkevitchi Burkenroad, 1945 and Brachyura larvae, mainly megalops. Small crabs, isopods, fish, fish eggs and nematodes were less common. A dietary shift was clearly observed during C. quadrumanus growth. Smaller individuals consumed a greater variety of prey, mostly Brachyura larvae, and they also had higher frequencies of empty stomachs. As their size increased, megalopas decreased and P. petrunkevitchi became the most important item in their diet.A dieta das cubomedusas Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859 (Carybdeidae e Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 (Chirodropidae foi analisada em espécimes coletados no litoral do Paraná (25º20' - 25º55'S; 48º10' - 48º35'W, sul do Brasil, entre dezembro de 1998 e dezembro de 2004, e é o primeiro estudo a abordar este aspecto da biologia de Cubozoa no Atlântico Sul. A cavidade gastrovascular da maioria (55% dos 29 exemplares de T. haplonema mostrou-se vazia, e dos demais continha partes corporais de peixes teleósteos, como escamas, vértebras e otólitos. Em 726 exemplares de C. quadrumanus os itens alimentares mais importantes foram o camarão sergestídeo Peisos petrunkevitchi Burkenroad, 1945 e larvas de Brachyura, principalmente megalopas. Pequenos caranguejos, isópodes, peixes, ovos de peixes e nematóides foram menos comuns. Mudanças na dieta evidenciaram

  19. Palynomorphs in Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon in the coastal plain of extreme southern Brazil

    Ebráilon Masetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative palynological analysis of a 140 cm-thick section of Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon, representing the last 2600 years, taken from an outcrop at Hermenegildo Beach (33º42'S; 53º18'W, located in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and potassium hydroxide, after which they were subjected to acetolysis and mounted on glycerin-coated slides for light microscopy analysis. Among the 48 palynomorphs identified were 25 fungi, eight algae, three bryophytes, and 12 pteridophytes. Brief descriptions and illustrations of each palynomorph are presented, together with ecological data from the organism of origin when possible. Our findings will serve as reference material for paleoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of southern Brazil.

  20. The Neotropical Otter Lontra Longicaudis Feeding Habits In A Marine Coastal Area, Southern Brazil

    Alarcon G.G.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of Lontra longicaudis have been studied in several areas in South America. In Brazil, the studies are concentrated on the species’ feeding habits in fresh water ecosystems. Different authors reported the use of marine waters by L. longicaudis, although fresh water ecosystems were found to be the main environment providing food for this species. In the Environmental Protection Area of Anhatomirim in Southern Brazil, the marine environment proved to be the main feeding habitat for L. longicaudis. Fish and crustaceans are the main prey groups. Four fish families were identified and the Scianidae represents 85% of the prey. Intensive use of the coastal areas and lack of knowledge on the otters’ use of these environments can compromise its conservation in Santa Catarina coastal habitats.

  1. Lymnaea rupestris sp. n. from Southern Brazil (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of South American lymnaeid snail, Lymnaea rupestris, is described. So far it has been found only in its type-locality, Nova TeuTõnia, a village in the municipality of Seara (27° 07' S, 52° 17' W, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is distinguishable, by characteristics of the shell and internal organs, from the other two lymnaeid species known to occur in the area, Lymnaea columella and L. viatrix. Its shell has 4 markedly shouldered whorls, deep suture, ovoid or rounded aperture occupying about half the length of the shell, and reaches about 6 mm in length in adults; in columella and viatrix the shell has 4-5 rounded whorls, shallow suture, and reaches over 10 mm in adults; the aperture is ovoid, occupying about half the length of the shell in viatrix, about two thirds in columella. Anatomically it is readily separated from L. columella by the shape of the ureter, straight in rupestris, with a double flexure in columella. Comparison with L. viatrix shows the following main differences: distalmost portion of the oviduct with a low, caplike lateral swelling in rupestris, with a well-developed pouch in viatrix; uterus bent abruptly caudalward in rupestris, only slightly curved rightward in viatrix; basal half of the spermathecal duct hidden by the prostate in rupestris, wholly visible or nearly so in viatrix; spermiduct sinuous and uniformly wide in rupestris, straight and gradually narrowing in viatrix; prostate more than half as long and nearly as wide as the nidamental gland, and with a slit-like lumen in cross-section in rupestris, less than half as long as and much narrower than the nidamental gland, and with an inward fold in cross-section in viatrix; penial sheath about as long and as wide as the prepuce in rupesris, shorter and narrower than the prepuce in viatrix. An important ecological characteristic of L. rupestris is its habitat on wet rocks most often outside bodies of water, although in close proximity to them

  2. Water End-Uses in Low-Income Houses in Southern Brazil

    Ana Kelly Marinoski; Abel Silva Vieira; Arthur Santos Silva; Enedir Ghisi

    2014-01-01

    Knowing water consumption patterns in buildings is key information for water planning. This article aims to characterize the water consumption pattern and water end-uses in low-income houses in the region of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Data were collected by interviewing householders, as well as by measuring the flow rate of existing water fixtures and appliances. The results indicated that the shower was the fixture with the largest water consumption in households, i.e., about 30%–36% of...

  3. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism among populations of Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Apidae: Meliponini) from southern Brazil.

    Torres, Rogelio R; Arias, Maria C; Moretto, Geraldo

    2009-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Brazilian endemic stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier ranges from Rio Grande do Sul to Minas Gerais states. The objective of the present study was to verify mtDNA polymorphisms among samples of M. q. quadrifasciata collected in southern Brazil. Twenty nine colonies from three localities (Blumenau and Mafra/SC and Prudentópolis/ PR) were sampled. Seven mtDNA regions were amplified and further digested with 15 restriction enzymes (PCR-RFLP). Five composite haplotypes were identified, with two unique to samples from Prudentópolis and the remaining three to samples from Mafra and/or Blumenau. PMID:19488509

  4. Some information on reproduction and embryonic development of the lesser guitarfish Zapteryx brevirostris in Southern Brazil

    Vinícius ABILHOA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of Zapteryx brevirostris were caught from August 2003 to September 2004 using bottom trawl nets in a bay located in Southern Brazil. Total length ranged from 42.8 to 47.3 cm in males and 44.1 to 52.2 cm in females. Females with early developing embryos were captured in August 2003 and September 2004, suggesting that gestation occurs mainly in the spring. Length- weight relationship of the 45 embryos was alometric, and embryos’ total length did not reach the estimated newborn length. The data suggested that the studied area is used by Z. brevirostris during the gestation period.

  5. Snakes killed on the roads in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.; Tobias Saraiva Kunz

    2009-01-01

    Roads cause diverse impacts to ecosystems, including habitat loss and fragmentation, alteration of the natural landscape and death of animals. However, little is known about the impact of this mortality on the animal populations. The snake fauna of the state of Santa Catarina is the least studied of southern Brazil. In this work we present data on 165 snakes of 38 species found dead on the roads of the state between 2003 and 2008, which corresponds to 50% of the snake species in relation to t...

  6. Breastfeeding and feeding patterns in three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil: trends and differentials

    Victora, Cesar G; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Aluisio J.D.; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C.

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding is fundamental for child health. Changes in the duration of breastfeeding are compared for three population-based cohorts of children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Samples of the 1982 and 1993 children and all of the children from the 2004 cohort study were sought at home when they were aged around 12 months. Both the duration of breastfeeding and the stage at which different kind of foods were regularly introduced were investigated. The me...

  7. Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection. PMID:19005679

  8. Chromosome studies in some Stevia. Cav. (Compositae species from Southern Brazil

    Adriana P. Frederico

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of six species of the genus Stevia from Southern Brazil were studied, utilizing root tip metaphases. All species were diploid with 2n = 22 chromosomes. It was possible to identify each species by chromosome morphology. The basic chromosome number for Brazilian species of Stevia is X = 11. This number is also found in almost all South American species. We suggest that in Stevia there is an evolutionary trend toward chromosomal rearrangement, caused mainly by pericentric inversions. It was found that, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, chromosomal rearrangements are common in the tribe Eupatorieae.

  9. Austrolebias varzeae, a new annual fish from the upper rio Uruguay basin, southern Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa; Reis, Roberto E.; Everton R. Behr

    2004-01-01

    Austrolebias varzeae n. sp. is described from rio da Várzea floodplains, upper rio Uruguay basin, southern Brazil. It seems to be closely related to A. carvalhoi (Myers), with which it shares a similar color pattern of male and an apomorphic morphology of the autopalatine. The new species differs from A. carvalhoi by having more anal-fin rays in males and more caudal-fin rays. Austrolebias varzeae is distinguished from all other species of the genus by a unique color pattern, in which there a...

  10. HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis prevalence and coinfection among sex workers in Southern Brazil

    Fabiana Schuelter-Trevisol; Geisiane Custodio; Ana Carolina Barreto da Silva; Mikely Byala de Oliveira; Audrei Wolfart; Daisson Jose Trevisol

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sex workers (SWs) are vulnerable to HIV, hepatitis, and syphilis coinfection. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tubarão, Laguna, and Imbituba, Southern Brazil. We surveyed 147 SWs using face-to-face interviews and blood sampling for serological evaluation. Results Prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) was 23.1%, syphilis 19.7%, hepatitis C (HCV) 8.8%, and HIV 8.8%. Of 13 HIV-infected patients, 3 were co-infected with HCV, 4 with syphilis, and 5 with HBV. Concl...

  11. Accidental capture of vertebrates in small mammal studies in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a list of vertebrate species caught accidentally by live-traps while conducting capture and recapture studies with small mammals in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. Twentytwo terrestrial vertebrate species were registered: two amphibians, four reptiles, thirteen birds and three mammals. The use of vegetable baits as attractive smells, for example banana and peanut butter, was of great value in terms of the capture of a great diversity of species belonging to a wide range of feeding habitats, including insectivores and carnivores, probably attracted by arthropods that had fed on the baits.

  12. Geophysical structures and tectonic evolution of the southern Guyana shield, Brazil

    Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2014-07-01

    Aerogeophysical data of an area located on the southern portion of the Guyana shield in Brazil was processed using a fine interpolating mesh, and a corresponding spatial data integration strategy which included the stacking of different high-resolution images, and interpretation following quality control of these. The selected images were correlated to the local known surface geologic units, and to the spatial distribution of the main geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton. The interpretation of the results also included the available geophysical information for the region, related to Moho depth values, and previously determined SKS shear-wave splitting direction. The observed magnetic regional trends may be strongly influenced by the Proterozoic crustal structure in the area, while radiometric anomalies correlate with the more detailed geologic features. Based on the parallelism among mapped geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton, and observed geophysical structures on the study area, a geotectonic model is proposed for southern Guyana shield at Proterozoic age.

  13. Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae, Apistogramma borellii (Regan, 1906): First record for state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Lanés, L. E. K.; L. Maltchik; Lucena, C. A. S.

    2010-01-01

    This note extends the distribution of the dwarf cichlid fish Apistogramma borellii, and is the first record of thespecies, and the genus for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, suggesting that the fish diversity of wetlands,although relatively high, is still poorly investigated in southern Brazil.

  14. Pisces, Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae,Austrolebias periodicus (Costa, 1999): Distribution extension in state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Volcan, M. V.; Lanés, L. E. K.; Gonçalves, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    The present note extends the distribution of annual killifish Austrolebias periodicus, a endangered species,endemic of the Pampas region, in Ibicuí River basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. This information is neededto develop conservation strategies for this species and its habitat, which are at high risk due to the expansion of riceproduction and exotic forests in southern Brazil.

  15. Amblyomma yucumense n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), a Parasite of Wild Mammals in Southern Brazil.

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Martins, Thiago F; Oliveira, Caroline S; Binder, Lina C; Costa, Francisco B; Nunes, Pablo H; Gregori, Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    During 2013-2014, adult ticks were collected on the vegetation and subadult ticks were collected from small mammals [Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, Sooretamys angouya (Fischer), Euryoryzomys russatus (Wagner), Akodon montensis Thomas, Oxymycterus judex Thomas] in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in southern Brazil. Analyses of the external morphology of the adult ticks revealed that they represent a new species, Amblyomma yucumense n. sp. Partial 16S rRNA sequences generated from males, females, and nymphs were identical to each other and closest (95% identity) to corresponding sequences of Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann. A. yucumense is morphologically and genetically closest related to A. dubitatum. Dorsally, male of these species can be separated by major longitudinal pale orange stripes associated with a pseudoscutum indicated by a pale stripe in A. yucumense, in contrast to pale creamy longitudinal stripes and absence of pseudoscutum in A. dubitatum. Ventrally, male coxal I spurs are separated by a space narrower than external spur width in A. yucumense, and wider than external spur width in A. dubitatum. Females of the two species can be separated by coxal I spurs, longer in A. yucumense than in A. dubitatum. In addition, the adult capitulum and ventral idiosoma of A. yucumense are generally dark brown colored, while A. dubitatum is yellowish or light brown colored. The nymph of A. yucumense differs from A. dubitatum by the scutal cervical groove length, slightly shorter in the former species. Currently, A. yucumense is restricted to southern Brazil. PMID:26336277

  16. Fruits and vegetables intake and characteristics associated among adolescents from Southern Brazil

    Rieth Marta A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased body weight has been associated with an unhealthy diet, low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Our objective was to investigate whether adolescents had low intake of fruits and vegetables, and whether gender, age and education could affect the feeding patterns. Methods A population-based sample of adolescents, aged 12–19 years, were randomly selected in southern Brazil and included in this cross-sectional study. The total daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, rice and beans were investigated in standardized household interviews, using a food frequency questionnaire and questions, being categorized as five or more servings per day as the five-a-day diet. ANOVA, ANCOVA, and modified Poisson regression were used in the analysis. Results Adolescents (n = 568 were included, 49.5% boys, 14.3% had overweight and 8.8% obesity. Approximately 23% of participants consumed five daily servings of fruits and vegetables. It was observed that 36.7% of boys and 31.0% of girls consumed less than one serving of fruit per day, and 58.4% and 44.6%, respectively, consumed less than one serving of vegetables. The consumption of vegetables, fruits, and rice and beans were not independently associated with gender. Overweight was associated with higher intake of five-a-day, independently of confounding factors. Conclusions Adolescents from southern Brazil have lower frequency of consumption of five servings a day of fruits and vegetables combined.

  17. RESISTANCE TO AMOXICILLIN, CLARITHROMYCIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN OF Helicobacter pylori ISOLATED FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL PATIENTS

    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1% H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9% to amoxicillin and three (5.5% to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil.

  18. Survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from Southern Brazil.

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil. PMID:19569487

  19. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  20. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Chave pictórica para a identificação das espécies de Sarcophagidae (Diptera de potencial importância forense do sul do Brasil. Espécies da subfamília Sarcophaginae são importantes para a entomologia forense devido ao seu hábito necrófago. Este trabalho apresenta uma chave pictórica para a identificação de 22 espécies de Sarcophaginae de 10 gêneros encontradas na região sul do Brasil. São fornecidas fotografias dos principais estruturas das espécies, principalmente da terminália masculina.

  1. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Jocimara Costa Mazzola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil.METHODS: The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region.RESULTS: The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024 with a higher incidence (74.7% in 18- to 24-year-old donors.CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population.

  2. Preliminary determination of the energy potential of ocean currents along the southern coast of Brazil

    Andrea Fischer, Alexandre Beluco, Luiz Emílio B. de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocean can be a strategic alternative for obtaining energy supplies, both from ocean waves as from sea currents and tides. Among these features, the power generation projects based on ocean currents are still under development. Generating energy from ocean can have great impact on the Brazilian energy grid, since Brazil has a vast coastline, with more than 9,000 km long, with potential for generating energy from ocean currents not fully estimated. This article presents a preliminary determination of the energy potential for power generation from ocean currents along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil, and also presents notes that contribute to the characterization of the system of ocean currents in the region. The data used were obtained in two areas near Tramandaí, allowing the determination of velocities and directions of the currents on a seasonal basis. The maximum speeds obtained rarely exceed 0.750 m/s, while the average speeds do not exceed 0.200 m/s. A relationship with the prevailing winds in the region was identified. Unfortunately, the results do not allow optimism about the power generation from ocean currents on the southern coast of Brazil, at least over the continental shelf.

  3. Preliminary determination of the energy potential of ocean currents along the southern coast of Brazil

    Fischer, Andrea; Beluco, Alexandre; de Almeida, Luiz Emilio B. [Inst. Pesquisas Hidraulicas, Univ. Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ocean can be a strategic alternative for obtaining energy supplies, both from ocean waves as from sea currents and tides. Among these features, the power generation projects based on ocean currents are still under development. Generating energy from ocean can have great impact on the Brazilian energy grid, since Brazil has a vast coastline, with more than 9,000 km long, with potential for generating energy from ocean currents not fully estimated. This article presents a preliminary determination of the energy potential for power generation from ocean currents along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil, and also presents notes that contribute to the characterization of the system of ocean currents in the region. The data used were obtained in two areas near Tramandai, allowing the determination of velocities and directions of the currents on a seasonal basis. The maximum speeds obtained rarely exceed 0.750 m/s, while the average speeds do not exceed 0.200 m/s. A relationship with the prevailing winds in the region was identified. Unfortunately, the results do not allow optimism about the power generation from ocean currents on the southern coast of Brazil, at least over the continental shelf.

  4. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapeco, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy.

    Carolina Souza Gusatti

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1, of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013, probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3 and D (n = 88. The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52% patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8% who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78% patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920.

  5. First record of partial albinism in two catfish species of Genidens (Siluriformes: Ariidae) in an estuary of Southern Brazil

    Mateus Evangelista Leal; Uwe Horst Schulz; Pablo Lehmann Albornoz; Rodrigo Machado; Paulo Henrique Ott

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the first occurrence of partial albinism in two species of Ariidae: Genidens barbus and Genidens planifrons from an estuary of Southern Brazil. Possible causes of the simultaneous occurrence of three specimens with partial albinism are discussed, including random genetic alterations, chronic contamination effects and small effective population size, which may favor the expression of the recessive albino gene.

  6. Denudation History and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Phanerozoic of southern Mantiqueira Province, Brazil

    Jelinek, A. R.; Chemale, F., Jr.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we deal with the Phanerozoic history of the Southern Mantiqueira Province and adjacent areas after the orogen-collapse of the Brasiliano orogenic mountains in southern Brazil and Uruguay, based on thermocronological data (fission track and U-Th/He on apatite) and thermal history modelling. During the Paleozoic intraplate sedimentary basins formed mainly bordering the orogenic systems, and thus, these regions have not been overprinted by younger orogenic processes. In the Mesocenozoic this region was affected by later fragmentation and dispersal due to the separation of South America and Africa. Denudation history of both margins quantified on the basis of thermal history modeling of apatite fission track thermocronology indicates that the margin of southeastern Brazil and Uruguay presented a minimum 3.5 to 4.5 Km of denudation, which included the main exposure area of the Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas. The Phanerozoic evolution of the West Gondawana is thus recorded first by the orogenetic collapses of the Brasiliano and Pan-African belts, at that time formed a single mountain system in the Cambrian-Ordovician period. Subsequentlly, formed the intraplate basins as Paraná, in southeastern Brazil, and Congo and some records of the Table Mountains Group and upper section of Karoo units, in Southwestern Africa. In Permotriassic period, the collision of the Cape Fold Belt and Sierra de la Ventana Belt at the margins of the West Gondwana supercontinent resulted an elastic deformation in the cratonic areas, where the intraplate depositional basin occurred, and also subsidence and uplift of the already established Pan-African-Brasiliano Belts. Younger denudation events, due to continental margin uplift and basin subsidence, occurred during the rifting and dispersal of the South America and Africa plates, which can be very well defined by the integration of the passive-margin sedimentation of the Pelotas and Santos basins and apatite fission

  7. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  8. Snakes killed on the roads in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Roads cause diverse impacts to ecosystems, including habitat loss and fragmentation, alteration of the natural landscape and death of animals. However, little is known about the impact of this mortality on the animal populations. The snake fauna of the state of Santa Catarina is the least studied of southern Brazil. In this work we present data on 165 snakes of 38 species found dead on the roads of the state between 2003 and 2008, which corresponds to 50% of the snake species in relation to the expected occurrence for the state of Santa Catarina. The four most frequent species were Philodryas patagoniensis (n = 22; 13.33%, Liophis miliaris (n = 21; 12.72%, P. aestiva (n = 13; 7.87% and Bothrops jararaca (n = 12; 7.27%, which represent together about 41% of the snakes found dead on the roads. We extend the known distribution of Imantodes cenchoa by about 60km southward.

  9. Shallow gas accumulation in sediments of the Patos Lagoon, Southern Brazil

    Weschenfelder, Jair; Corrrea, Iran C.S.; Pereira, Carla M.; Vasconcellos, Vinicius E.B. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Aliotta, Salvador [Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia Complejo CRIBABB, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2006-07-15

    A high resolution seismic survey was conducted in the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, aboard of the research vessel LARUS of the Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG). Around 400 km of 3.5 k Hz seismic profiles were collected, which provided acoustic signals of good penetration depth and resolution. Seismic anomalies, including turbidity and pocket gas, revealed that gas-charged sediments are common in several areas of the lagoon. The gas accumulations in the Patos Lagoon are controlled by the spatial distribution of the sedimentary facies. Either in 'curtains' or in 'acoustic turbid zones', the main gas accumulations occur in areas with paleotopographic lows related to fluvial channels and valleys developed in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal plain during regressive/transgressive events of the Quaternary. (author)

  10. The Montesbelos mass-flow (southern Amazonian craton, Brazil): a Paleoproterozoic volcanic debris avalanche deposit?

    Roverato, M.

    2016-07-01

    The present contribution documents the extremely well-preserved Paleoproterozoic architecture of the Montesbelos breccia (named here for the first time), which is interpreted as a rare example of a subaerial paleoproterozoic (>1.85 Ga) granular-dominated mass-flow deposit, few of which are recorded in the literature. Montesbelos deposit is part of the andesitic Sobreiro Formation located in the São Felix do Xingu region, southern Amazonian craton, northern Brazil. The large volume, high variability of textural features, presence of broken clasts, angular low sphericity fragments, mono- to heterolithic character, and the size of the outcrops point to a volcanic debris avalanche flow. Fluviatile sandy material and debris flows are associated with the deposit as a result of post-depositional reworking processes.

  11. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil.

    Bianchini, E; Emmerick, J M; Messetti, A V L; Pimenta, J A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree) and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree) for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23° 27'S and 51° 15'W), Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant. PMID:26602353

  12. Scenario of research and intellectual production in the area of didactics in the southern of Brazil

    Orlando Fernández Aquino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The text was drawn from results of research carried out between 2010 and 2012. The objective was to understand the state of research and intellectual production in the area of Didactic in Southern Brazil. The documentary analysis methodology, working with documents available online was applied. The research was carried out with 9 Postgraduate Program in Education, 12 research lines, 115 professors, 244 research projects and 1730 publications. It was concluded that there is a great number of research and publication on the investigative field of Didactics and on the dimension of its foundation, but very little on the disciplinary and professional fields and on the conditions and ways of teaching. It is noteworthy that only a transformative practice can help change the reality of the school, the quality of teacher formation, of learning and mental development of the students.

  13. The impact of coastal urbanization on the structure of phytobenthic communities in southern Brazil.

    Martins, Cintia D L; Arantes, Noele; Faveri, Caroline; Batista, Manuela B; Oliveira, Eurico C; Pagliosa, Paulo R; Fonseca, Alessandra L; Nunes, José Marcos C; Chow, Fungyi; Pereira, Sonia B; Horta, Paulo A

    2012-04-01

    The anthropogenic pressures on coastal areas represent important factors affecting local, regional, and even global patterns of distribution and abundance of benthic organisms. This report undertakes a comparative analysis of the community structure of rocky shore intertidal phytobenthos in both pristine like environments (PLE) and urbanized environments (UBE) in southern Brazil, characterizing variations on different spatial scales. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the PLE is characterized by a larger number of taxa and an increased occurrence of Rhodophyta species in relation to UBE. In contrast, UBE were dominated by opportunistic algae, such as Cladophora and Ulva spp. Significance tests further indicated higher species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity on the PLE in relation to UBE. Here we provide data showing the magnitude of seaweed biodiversity loss and discuss direct and indirect consequences of unplanned urbanization on these communities. PMID:22341882

  14. A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil.

    Costa, Henrique C; Resende, Flávia C; Teixeira, Mauro; Dal Vechio, Francisco; Clemente, Cinara A

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Amphisbaena is described from a semi-deciduous forest in Conceição do Mato Dentro, southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following combined characters can diagnose the new species from all congeners: head round-shaped; two or three precloacal pores sequentially arranged; 190-199 body annuli; 2-3 lateral annuli; 23-25 caudal annuli; autotomy sites on caudal annuli 7-9; 12-14 dorsal segments on midbody annulus; 14-16 ventral segments on midbody annulus; three supralabials; three infralabials; postmalar row present or absent; dorsum light brown, with cream intersegmental sutures; venter cream. To date, the new species is known only from the Espinhaço Range, highlighting the importance of conservation actions for these mountains. PMID:26131637

  15. On the wave energy potential along the southern coast of Brazil

    Assis, Leandro Eduardo; Beluco, Alexandre; de Almeida, Luiz Emilio B. [Inst. Pesquisas Hidraulicas, Univ. Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ocean wave energy resource is a real alternative to supply part of the energy demand in various countries, since some locations have a remarkable capacity to generate electricity. The objective of this study is to evaluate the energy resource of ocean waves in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul, the southern state of Brazil. This note presents the first results. The wave data used were collected in the sea area near the Port of Rio Grande during the years 1996 to 1999, amounting to sixteen months of monitoring. The data set was treated and grouped resulting information monthly, seasonal and annual basis. The annual average was found to be 8.6 kW per meter of wave front, reaching 14.0 kW per meter for the month of May and 4.0 kW per meter for the month of January. The results indicate good perspectives in obtaining power supplies.

  16. Feeding ecology and trophic comparisons of six shark species in a coastal ecosystem off southern Brazil.

    Bornatowski, H; Braga, R R; Abilhoa, V; Corrêa, M F M

    2014-08-01

    The diets of six shark species, Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna zygaena, Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus limbatus, Rhizoprionodon lalandii and Galeocerdo cuvier, were investigated in a subtropical coastal ecosystem of southern Brazil. Stomach content data were obtained to assess foraging niche segregation and ontogenetic shifts in the diets of these sharks. Five of the shark species off the Paraná coast were ichthyophagous, with the exception of S. zygaena, which was teutophagous. With the exception of G. cuvier, which had a generalist diet, the other five species displayed specialization in their feeding. Ontogenetic shifts were observed in C. obscurus and S. lewini with large individuals consuming elasmobranchs. Owing to the diet overlap between C. obscurus and S. lewini, C. obscurus and C. limbatus and R. lalandii and C. limbatus, future studies on the spatial and temporal distributions of these species are needed to understand the extent of competitive interactions. PMID:24919949

  17. Taxonomic reports of Otobothrioidea (Eucestoda, Trypanorhyncha from elasmobranch fishes of the southern coast off Brazil

    Marcelo Knoff

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of elasmobranch fishes, captured in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, of the southern coast off Brazil, represented by three families, four genera, and four species, were parasitized with otobothrioid trypanorhynch cestodes: Heptranchias perlo (Bonnaterre, 1788, Squalus sp. and Carcharhinus signatus (Poey, 1868 were parasitized with Progrillotia dollfusi Carvajal & Rego,1987; Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758 with Molicola horridus (Goodsir, 1841 Dollfus, 1942. Details of internal morphology and/or scolex and/or proglottids surface ultrastructure, that expanded the description of M. horridus, through observations with lightfield, and/or scanning eletronic microscopy, are provided. The known geographical distribution for the species M. horridus is enlarged. P. dollfusi is reported for the first time in elasmobranchs.

  18. Osteohistology of hyperodapedontine rhynchosaurs from the Upper Triassic of Southern Brazil

    Fábio Hiratsuka Veiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first osteohistological study focused exclusively on rhynchosaurs (non-archosauriform archosauromorphs, based on the hyperodapedontines Teyumbaita sulcognathus and Hyperodapedon sp., from the Upper Triassic of Southern Brazil, indicates a relatively rapid growth rate in early ontogeny shown by the fibrolamellar complex, with a change to slow intermittent growth during late ontogeny represented by parallel-fibred bone with several growth marks. Contrary to previous studies, which described a typical non-archosaur reptilian bone tissue pattern for rhynchosaurs, with growth marks extending across the entire cortex, we demonstrate that, in both studied taxa, the initial growth rate was faster in comparison to the later. This suggests that the ability of rapid growth at high rates was already present in basal non-archosauriform archosauromorphs.

  19. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from the Campos Gerais region of Southern Brazil

    Giovanna C. Steinbach-Padilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melanophryniscus is described from the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State,Southern Brazil. The Parque Estadual de Vila Velha is located in the Campos Gerais region, an environment dominated by natural grasslands with patches of Araucaria Forest. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its small size (12.8-14.0 mm snout-vent length in adult males and unique color pattern of copper brown dorsum covered with small spinulose black warts; ventral surface black finely spotted with white, posterior abdomen and ventral surfaces of the forearm, hand and foot with red stains. The new species is nocturnal and breeds in the water accumulated in the leaf-axils of phytotelmata.

  20. Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil

    Tiago Shizen Pacheco Toma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil. Diversity of galling insects is reported for the first time in an Araucaria Forest site. We address gall characteristics, host plant identification and the inducer identification and provide additional information about sites of gall occurrence in a mosaic of continuous forest and natural forest patches. After 40h of sampling we found 57 species of five insect orders, the majority of them Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, galling 43 host plant species, which in turn belonged to 18 host plant families. Stem and buds together, compared to leaves, harbored more galls, which were mostly glabrous, isolated, fusiform and green. Myrtaceae, Asteraceae and Melastomataceae were the most representative host families. Similarities in gall characteristics to what has been reported in the literature probably result from spatial correlation in a larger scale driven by ecological and evolutionary processes.

  1. Data on Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae Mortality in Southeast and Southern Brazil

    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present data on Lontra longicaudis mortality in Minas Gerais (n=12 and Rio Grande do Sul (n=14 states, Southeastern and Southern Brazil, respectively. In Minas Gerais most deaths were caused by entanglement and drowning in fishing gear (n=5; 42%, followed by roadkill (n=3; 25%, dog attack (n=2; 17%, hunting and undetermined cause (n=1; 8% each. In Rio Grande do Sul, the major cause of death was roadkill (n=10; 72%, followed by hunting (n=2; 14%, dog attack and undetermined cause (n=1; 7% each. The habitats associated with the highest number of deaths were reservoirs in Minas Gerais (n=8, 67% and pluvial channels in Rio Grande do Sul (n=7, 50%.

  2. Association between cytokine gene polymorphisms and outcome of hepatitis B virus infection in southern Brazil.

    Gusatti, Carolina de Souza; Costi, Cintia; de Medeiros, Rúbia Marília; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Silva, Márcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2016-10-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated associations between cytokine gene polymorphisms and outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, no general consensus has been reached, possibly due to differences between ethnic groups. In this study, 345 individuals living in southern Brazil, including 196 chronic HBV carriers and 149 subjects who had spontaneously recovered from acute infection, were enrolled to evaluate the influence of cytokine gene polymorphisms on the outcome of HBV infection. Most participants were of European descent. Genotyping of IL2-330 G/T, IL4-589C/T, IL6-174 G/C, IL10-592C/A, IL10-1082 A/G, IL17A-197 G/A, IL17A-692 T/C, TNF-α-238 G/A, and TNF-α-308 G/A single nucleotide polymorphisms was performed by using the minisequencing (single base extension) method. By multivariable analysis, a statistically significant association was found between genotypic profile AA + GA in TNF-α-308 and chronic HBV infection (OR, 1.82; 95%CI, 1.01-3.27; P = 0.046). In southern Brazil, the carriers of the -308A allele in the TNF-α gene promoter have a moderately higher risk of becoming chronic carriers in case of HBV infection. In addition, patients with chronic active hepatitis B (n = 60) exhibited a decreased frequency (3.3%) of the TNF-238A allele when compared to that (14.8%) found among asymptomatic HBV carriers (n = 136), suggesting that this could be a protective factor against liver injury (OR, 0.17; 95%CI, 0.04-0.076; P = 0.023). J. Med. Virol. 88:1759-1766, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26959287

  3. Association of the germline TP53 R337H mutation with breast cancer in southern Brazil

    The germline TP53-R337H mutation is strongly associated with pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT) in southern Brazil; it has low penetrance and limited tissue specificity in most families and therefore is not associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. However, other tumor types, mainly breast cancer, have been observed in carriers of several unrelated kindreds, raising the possibility that the R337H mutation may also contribute to breast tumorigenesis in a genetic background-specific context. We conducted a case-control study to determine the prevalence of the R337H mutation by sequencing TP53 exon 10 in 123 women with breast cancer and 223 age- and sex-matched control subjects from southern Brazil. Fisher's test was used to compare the prevalence of the R337H. The R337H mutation was found in three patients but in none of the controls (p = 0.0442). Among the carriers, two had familial history of cancer meeting the Li-Fraumeni-like criteria. Remarkably, tumors in each of these three cases underwent loss of heterozygosity by eliminating the mutant TP53 allele rather than the wild-type allele. Polymorphisms were identified within the TP53 (R72P and Ins16) and MDM2 (SNP309) genes that may further diminish TP53 tumor suppressor activity. These results demonstrate that the R337H mutation can significantly increase the risk of breast cancer in carriers, which likely depends on additional cooperating genetic factors. These findings are also important for understanding how low-penetrant mutant TP53 alleles can differentially influence tumor susceptibility

  4. Association of the germline TP53 R337H mutation with breast cancer in southern Brazil

    Srivastava Kumar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The germline TP53-R337H mutation is strongly associated with pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT in southern Brazil; it has low penetrance and limited tissue specificity in most families and therefore is not associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. However, other tumor types, mainly breast cancer, have been observed in carriers of several unrelated kindreds, raising the possibility that the R337H mutation may also contribute to breast tumorigenesis in a genetic background-specific context. Methods We conducted a case-control study to determine the prevalence of the R337H mutation by sequencing TP53 exon 10 in 123 women with breast cancer and 223 age- and sex-matched control subjects from southern Brazil. Fisher's test was used to compare the prevalence of the R337H. Results The R337H mutation was found in three patients but in none of the controls (p = 0.0442. Among the carriers, two had familial history of cancer meeting the Li-Fraumeni-like criteria. Remarkably, tumors in each of these three cases underwent loss of heterozygosity by eliminating the mutant TP53 allele rather than the wild-type allele. Polymorphisms were identified within the TP53 (R72P and Ins16 and MDM2 (SNP309 genes that may further diminish TP53 tumor suppressor activity. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the R337H mutation can significantly increase the risk of breast cancer in carriers, which likely depends on additional cooperating genetic factors. These findings are also important for understanding how low-penetrant mutant TP53 alleles can differentially influence tumor susceptibility.

  5. Absence of occult hepatitis B among blood donors in southern Brazil

    Fernando Herz Wolff

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is characterized by the detection of HBV DNA in serum and/or in liver in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. The reported prevalence of occult hepatitis B varies markedly among populations and according to the sensitivity of the HBV DNA assay. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of occult hepatitis B among HCV-infected and non-infected blood donors in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, using a highly sensitive real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. METHODOLOGY: Between 1995 and 1997 a sample of 178 blood donors with two positive anti-HCV ELISA tests were consecutively selected as cases, and 356 anti-HCV negative donors were selected as controls. Blood donors were randomly selected from eight blood centers in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, representative of the whole blood donor population. Blood samples were kept at 70ºC and defrosted for the first time for the analysis of this report. Tests previously performed in the laboratory using the same real time PCR for HBV DNA had sensitivity for detecting as low as 9 copies/mL. Among 158 blood samples from HBsAg-negative blood donors, five were anti-HBc positive, 53 tested positive for anti-HCV and 105 had anti-HCV negative. The samples analysis was performed in duplicate and all blood samples tested negative for HBV DNA. CONCLUSION: The result reflects a very low prevalence of occult hepatitis B in our setting.

  6. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil

    Renata C. Campos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung or carcasses (carrion and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the diversity of dung beetle communities inhabiting fragments of the Atlantic Forest, with the purpose of describing the ecology of the species in southern Brazil. This study was conducted in the region of Campos Novos, in Santa Catarina, where twenty sites of Atlantic forest fragments were sampled. Samplings of dung beetles were conducted using 200 pitfall traps, of which 100 were baited with human feces and another 100 with carrion. Size and environmental complexity were also measured for each forest fragment. A total of 1,502 dung beetles, belonging to six tribes, 12 genera and 33 species, were collected. Results of the Levin's index of niche breadth indicated that 11 species were categorized as being coprophagous, ten as generalists, and two as necrophagous. Most species are tunnelers (19, nine of rollers and four of dwellers. The great diversity of Scarabaeinae in the region of Campos Novos, including several rare species, adds important data to the Scarabaeinae fauna in the central-western region of Santa Catarina. It may also help choosing priority areas for conservation in the region, where human impact, with large areas of monoculture, increasingly threatens the fragments of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest.

  7. Prevalence of sun exposure and its associated factors in southern Brazil: a population-based study*

    Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. OBJECTIVE We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. METHODS We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. RESULTS Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. CONCLUSION Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index. PMID:24068126

  8. Divergent profile of emerging cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Brazil: new endemic areas in the southern frontier.

    Mariel Asbury Marlow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n = 401, 73.99% and occurring in urban zones (n = 422, 77.86%. Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56-21.09. Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania amazonensis cases (1.20%, majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia braziliensis (n = 248, 98.80%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V. braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.

  9. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil

    Mariana Maleronka Ferron

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental evaluation was carried out with direct analysis of soil and indirect analysis of air pollution with bioindicators to identify possible sources of contamination. To analyze lead concentrations from the different collection sites, for each type of material studied, ANOVA was performed with a Brown-Forsythe adjustment for heteroscedasticity and with Dunnett's T3 procedure for multiple comparisons of unequal variances. RESULTS: Blood lead levels > 10.0 µg/dL was found in 16.5% of children. Recycling of waste at home, low father's education level, and increased age of children were associated with increase blood lead levels. High lead levels were found in soil, and there was little indication of lead air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of lead poisoning was identified, and the potential sources of contamination in this community appear related to waste recylcing activities. Studies should be conducted with other populations of Brazilian children and evaluate potential sources of local and general contamination, to accurately characterize this issue in Brazil.

  10. Diversity and ecological aspects of aquatic insect communities from montane streams in southern Brazil

    Bruna Marmitt Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: In this study, the diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera communities was surveyed in the Toropi River basin, a watershed localized in a slope region, in southernmost Brazil. The influence of some local abiotic factors on the most common genera was also analyzed. METHODS: Samplings were conducted at 40 sites in 1st-4th order streams, along a short elevation gradient (70-500 m, with a Surber sampler. Water physico-chemical factors, as well as substrate type, were obtained at each site. RESULTS: At all, 5,320 specimens were collected, belonging to 18 families and 52 genera. The caddisflies Austrotinodes and Celaenotrichia, and an undescribed Elmidae, Genus M, are new records for the region. The caddisfly Smicridea was the most frequent genus in the study area. The mayflies Camelobaetidius, Paracloeodes and Americabaetis were influenced by stream order. Smicridea was related to air temperature, while the mayfly Thraulodes was influenced by high levels of electrical conductivity. CONCLUSIONS: The high diversity found in the study area, compared to other Brazilian regions, reflects the environmental heterogeneity in the region. These data show that hydrographic basins in slope areas from extreme Southern Brazil sustain high levels of diversity of aquatic insect communities.

  11. A FRACTIONATION STUDY OF MINERAL ELEMENTS IN RAW AND COOKED LEAF VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Luciane Mie KAWASHIMA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Five samplings of leaf vegetables widely consumed in Southern Brazil (lettuce, rucola, watercress, kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were taken during the period of a year in food markets of the city of Campinas, Brazil. A selective extraction of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc was conducted on the raw vegetables and four of the vegetables (kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were also cooked briefly under dry heat for three minutes and submitted to the selective extraction. The extraction separated the minerals into fractions containing mineral elements bound to soluble complexes, bound to ligands solubilized by mild acidic oxidizing conditions, and bound to insoluble ligands under mild acidic oxidizing conditions. The minerals concentrations in each fraction were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The amount of K, Na, Ca, and Mg extractable at pH 7.0 (soluble fraction from raw vegetables varied between 22 to 75 % of the total content of the mineral present. The soluble fractions of minor elements such as Mn, Zn, and Fe varied from 0 to 100% in the raw vegetables. The brief cooking used besides causing negligible losses of the minerals also increased the solubility of the minerals by 44% to 200%. KEYWORDS: Leaf vegetables; soluble mineral elements in vegetables.

  12. Adverse working conditions and mental illness in poultry slaughterhouses in Southern Brazil

    Claudio Simon Hutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness is one of the reasons for the great number of absences from work due to incapacity in Brazil. Recently, mental disorders were included in the list of occupational diseases of the International Labour Office. In spite of the difficulty in attributing a causal link between an inappropriate work environment and mental illness, studies have shown that workers exposed to high levels of stress are more likely to present psychopathological symptoms. The present study investigated the relationship between working conditions and the Neuroticism personality factor. Participants were 951 workers from southern Brazilian poultry slaughterhouses, who work in positions with varied levels of risk and stress. The neuroticism scores of such employees were compared with those of other samples. A scale which measures the Neuroticism factor in the model of the Big Five Personality Factor validated for use in Brazil was employed. The results showed that workers of the sectors in which the working conditions are highly stressful presented higher levels in all sub-factors of neuroticism than workers in other sectors and groups. These sectors also showed higher indexes of mental disorders.

  13. Local ecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen in southern Bahia, Brazil, about trophic interactions of sharks

    Márcio Luiz Vargas Barbosa Filho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the serious threats that affect shark species living along the central coast of Brazil, knowledge about the life history of these animals is still scarce. The present study describes the knowledge and perceptions of fishermen from southern Bahia, Brazil, on the trophic interactions of sharks. The objective of this work was to generate information that contributes to a better understanding of the life history of sharks from this poorly known region. In 2012, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 65 fishermen, with over 15 years of experience, about fisheries and aspects of shark feeding behavior. The study found that the participants have comprehensive ethno-ecological knowledge about shark feeding habits, describing 39 types of items as components of the diets of these animals. They are also able to recognize the favored items in the diet of each ethnospecies of shark. Similar studies about shark feeding habits along the Brazilian coast should be developed. This will generate more detailed knowledge and/or new scientific hypotheses about the interspecific relationships of these predators and their prey.

  14. Identification of organic and biodynamic grape and wine producers in southern Brazil

    Medeiros Narjara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern about health and environmental aspects are increasingly present in our society. In 1976 José Lutzemberger publishes the first Brazilian ecological manifesto. In 2003 the Law 10.831 is approved, which conceptualizes and defines organic agriculture. In 1982, the first Biodynamic Agriculture meeting in Brazil happens, where the construction of the basis for the implementation of biodynamic in Brazilian agriculture started. In 1995 the Brazilian Association of Biodynamic Agriculture is created. The search for organic products – that doesn't use artificial mineral and chemical fertilizers and exploits fertility as a way of fighting diseases and pests – and biodynamic products in the agricultural production unit is understood as a kind of organism also take place in the wine industry. But knowing which producers are involved in this type of activity is still a difficult task for the community, especially due to the informality of some agents. Thus, this paper proposes to identify organic and biodynamic wine producers in southern Brazil; as well as the tools and policies which have encouraged farmers to adopt these practices. Finally, understanding the main obstacles producers find dealing with certifications mechanisms. This region was chosen for being the largest grape and wine producing in the country.

  15. Metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in two hospitals from southern Brazil

    Fernanda W. Wirth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in two hospitals located in the Southern part of Brazil and compare the performance of two different phenotypic tests. Thirty-one non-repetitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from various clinical samples from patients admitted to two hospitals located in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (twenty-three from a hospital in Porto Alegre City and eight isolates from a hospital in Vale dos Sinos Region. All strains suggestive of possessing MBLs by phenotypic methods were included in this study. Phenotypic detection of MBLs was carried out simultaneously by using both the MBL Etest® and disk approximation test using 2-mercaptopropionic acid close to a ceftazidime disk. Strains positive were further confirmed using molecular techniques for blaVIM, blaIMP and blaSPM-1. The prevalence of MBLs from samplesof inpatients from the hospital located in Porto Alegre was 30.4% and that of inpatients from Vale dos Sinos hospital was only 3.1%. Only MBL type SPM-1 was detected in these samples by molecular analysis and all were detected by the Etest® MBL strips. The prevalence of P. aeruginosa that produce MBLs can be markedly different in distinct geographical areas, even among different hospitals in the same area. In our study, the EDTA-based method was the only method able to detect all strains harboring the SPM-1 enzyme.

  16. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km(2) with steep altitudinal gradients (200-950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  17. Survey of plants popularly used for pain relief in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Eveline D. Stolz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical data can be an important tool in the search for new drugs. The Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency accepts the registration of herbal medicines based on ethnopharmacological and ethnobotanical studies. With the purpose of increasing the knowledge of potentially useful plants for the treatment of painful conditions, we analyzed the ethnobotanical studies carried out in Rio Grande do Sul state (RS-Southern Brazil; we had access to nineteen studies.To our knowledge, this is the first compilation of ethnobotanical studies that focus on pain relief carried out in RS. The species native to RS cited in at least nine (about 50% of these studies were selected. The search retrieved 28 native species cited as used to alleviate painful conditions, which are distributed in eighteen botanical families, being Asteraceae the most mentioned. The species more frequently cited for pain relief were Achyrocline satureioides, Baccharis articulata, Baccharis crispa, Lepidium didymum, Eugenia uniflora and Maytenus ilicifolia. The only species not reported in any pre-clinical study associated with pain relief was B. articulata. Among the six species cited, no studies on clinical efficacy were found. In conclusion, the folk use of native plants with therapeutic purposes is widespread in RS State (Brazil, being pain relief an important property.

  18. Analysis of performance indicators in municipal districts in southern Brazil with more than 100 thousand people

    Delci Grapégia Dal Vesco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The theme for this study is focused on public choices theory, in order to detect differences in indicators of economic and financial performance, proposed by Brown (1993 in cities of southernBrazilwith more than 100.000 inhabitants. The theoretical framework includes the public choice theory first proposed by Buchanan and indicators of financial performance classified into: (1 revenue (2 expense, (3 operational structure and (4 debt structure. The theme is justified for the domain of scientific knowledge, with a view to choosing indicators and also the size of cities. We conducted an empirical study, with sectional view in the cities of southernBrazil. The methodology is characterized as descriptive, document and quantitative. The technique used was cluster analysis and linear regression. Among the results, it is emphasized that the analysis of Cluster results are consistent with the theory proposed by Brown (1993 indicating that there are limitations in interpreting the analyzes the financial condition of cities if not by comparisons with comparable cities. The distinction between sizes of cities brought reflections on the analysis of indicators. Future research should include other municipalities in other regions. It is also suggested to continue this research and develop a comparison between the Brazilian regions relating the results of Cluster (eigenvalues with cities above 100,000 inhabitants by means of regression.

  19. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.

  20. Dyke Swarms of the Paraná Triple Junction, Southern Brazil

    José Moacyr Vianna Coutinho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This work intends primarily to survey the field, mineralogical and petrographic characters of the mafic dykes which occuron a stretch of 650 km along the Southeastern coast of Brazil, between the city of São Sebastião, and the island of SantaCatarina. New chemical and geochronological data are also presented. The coastal dyke swarms are envisaged as the northernand southern arms of a plume-generated triple junction system centered on the Paraná State coast, and related to the initialopening of the South Atlantic. Mafic magma intruded as dyke swarms along three directions: N-S (the southern arm, along theParaná-Santa Catarina coast, NW-SE (Ponta Grossa arch and NE-SW (the northern arm along the São Paulo coast. Fiftytwo dykes, almost all tholeiitic diabases, were mapped and sampled along the south arm coast. The Ponta Grossa arch dykes are chiefly composed of tholeiitic diabases and lesser intrusions of andesitic to rhyolitic composition. Over 240 dykes were sampled and identified along the north arm west of São Sebastião. Lamprophyres are here abundant, followed by diabases, microdiorite porphyries and lesser amounts of trachy-andesite, carbonatite and Precambrian dykes. Special attention was given to the study of lamprophyres, their field appearance relative abundance, mineral and chemical composition, enclaves and relations to neighboring alkaline intrusions.

  1. Intertidal to subtidal distribution of benthic macrofauna in an estuarine beach of Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil

    Paulo Roberto Pagliosa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the spatial variation of a macrofaunal community along the intertidalsubtidal gradient of an estuarine beach located at the mouth of Babitonga Bay, in Southern Brazil. The fauna and sediment were sampled at 0, 5, 10, and 20 m depths in three transects. Differences in benthic assemblages among the depths were found to be significant and related to the major local processes of sediment changes. The analysis of taxa composition showed an impoverished community subject to wave action and erosionaccretion dynamics at landward stations (0 and 5 m depths. Seaward macrofauna (10 and 20 m depths inhabiting sediments with higher organic content and poorly-sorted sands were more diverse and numerically dominated by ophiuroids and by cirratulid (Tharyx sp. and maldanid (Clymenella brasiliensis polychaetes. A breakdown in the zonation patterns of environment and community was detected where sediments produced by a creek outlet enabled increasing stability and higher densities of the soft bottom anthozoa Edwardsia sp. and the polychaete Lumbrineris atlantica. Additionally, the sediments with an excessive amount of fine particles were densely colonized (mean of 22,400 individuals.m-2 by C. brasiliensis. The local sediment characteristics were related to maldanid sediment-reworking. The macrofaunal species compositions along the sandy beaches at the mouths of the southern Brazilian estuarine systems were compared.

  2. Genetic diversity of the Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis Olfers, 1818) in Southern and Southeastern Brazil.

    Trinca, C S; Waldemarin, H F; Eizirik, E

    2007-12-01

    The Neotropical otter is one of the least known otter species, and it is considered to be threatened to various degrees throughout its geographic range. Little information exists on the ecological characteristics of this species, and no genetic study has been published about it until now, hampering the design of adequate conservation strategies for its populations. To contribute with genetic information to comprehensive conservation efforts on behalf of L. longicaudis, we characterized the molecular diversity of the 5 portion of the mtDNA control region in samples from this species collected in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The sequence analysis revealed a high level of haplotype diversity (h=0.819; SE=0.0052) and nucleotide variability ranging from 0.0039 to 0.0067. One of the sampled haplotypes was the most common in both regions and, from this sequence, several other (locally occurring) haplotypes could be derived by single point mutations. No significant genetic differentiation was observed between the Southern and Southeastern regions. PMID:18278347

  3. Paraspidodera uncinata (Nematoda, Lauroiinae as parasite of Cavia magna and Cavia aperea (Rodentia, Caviidae in southern Brazil

    Ana Gabriela da Silva Rocha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Out of the 5 species of Guinea pig registered for Brazil, 4 (Cavia fulgida, C. porcellus, C. aperea, and C. magna have already been reported as hosts of Paraspidodera uncinata. The rodent species C. magna and C. aperea are small-sized mammals, with terrestrial habits, which occur from southern Brazil to eastern Uruguay. Guinea pig specimens donated for research were necropsied for the analysis of endoparasites, and the nematodes found were identified as P. uncinata. The microhabitats of this species were the small and large intestines in C. magna and the large intestine in C. aperea. The prevalence of P. uncinata in the hosts was 60% in C. magna (n = 5 and 14% in C. aperea (n = 7. The record of P. uncinata in different Guinea pig species allows inferring that the foraging mode is similar in the different locations where they occur in southern Brazil, because, perhaps, the infection of hosts has occurred through the ingestion of vegetables contaminated with P. uncinata eggs. This study contributes to knowledge on the helminth fauna of C. magna and C. aperea in southern Brazil.

  4. The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.

    Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

    2012-07-01

    Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

  5. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

    Vanessa Rech Wagner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37% were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%. Animal origin foods -especially eggs and meat products -were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%. The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81% and food services (12.1%, and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7% and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%. Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and PCR-ribotyping of Shigella responsible for foodborne outbreaks occurred in southern Brazil

    Cheila Minéia Daniel de Paula

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information about Shigella responsible for foodborne shigellosis is available in Brazil. The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance and PCR-ribotyping patterns of Shigella isolates responsible for foodborne outbreaks occurred in Rio Grande do Sul State (RS, Southern Brazil in the period between 2003 and 2007. Shigella strains (n=152 were isolated from foods and fecal samples of victims of shigellosis outbreaks investigated by the Surveillance Service. Identification of the strains at specie level indicated that 71.1% of them were S. flexneri, 21.5% S. sonnei, and 0.7% S. dysenteriae. Ten strains (6.7% were identified only as Shigella spp. An increasing occurrence of S. sonnei was observed after 2004. Most of the strains were resistant to streptomycin (88.6%, followed by ampicillin (84.6%, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (80.5 %. Resistant strains belonged to 73 patterns, and pattern A (resistance to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and intermediate resistance to kanamycin grouped the largest number of isolates (n=36. PCR-ribotyping identified three banding patterns (SH1, SH2, and SH3. SH1 grouped all S. flexneri and SH2 grouped all S. sonnei. The S. dysenteriae strain belonged to group SH3. According to the results, several Shigella isolates shared the same PCR-rybotyping banding pattern and the same resistance profile, suggesting that closely related strains were responsible for the outbreaks. However, other molecular typing methods need to be applied to confirm the clonal relationship of these isolates.

  7. Modeling sugarcane ripening as a function of accumulated rainfall in Southern Brazil

    Cardozo, Nilceu P.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.; Panosso, Alan R.; Palhares, Antonio L.; Ide, Bernardo Y.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of weather variables on sugarcane ripening is a process still not completely understood, despite its huge impact on the quality of raw material for the sugar energy industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of weather variables on sugarcane ripening in southern Brazil, propose empirical models for estimating total recoverable sugar (TRS) content, and evaluate the performance of these models with experimental and commercial independent data from different regions. A field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, considering eight sugarcane cultivars planted monthly, from March to October 2002. In 2003, at the harvest, 12 months later, samples were collected to evaluate TRS (kg t-1). TRS and weather variables (air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall) were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical analysis to understand their interactions. From these correlations, variables were selected to generate empirical models for estimating TRS, according to the cultivar groups and their ripening characteristics (early, mid, and late). These models were evaluated by residual analysis and regression analysis with independent experimental data from two other locations in the same years and with independent commercial data from six different locations from 2005 to 2010. The best performances were found with exponential models which considered cumulative rainfall during the 120 days before harvest as an independent variable ( R 2 adj ranging from 0.92 to 0.95). Independent evaluations revealed that our models were capable of estimating TRS with reasonable to high precision ( R 2 adj ranging from 0.66 to 0.99) and accuracy ( D index ranging from 0.90 to 0.99), and with low mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE ≤ 5 %), even in regions with different climatic conditions.

  8. Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study

    Gigante Luciana P

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5] was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]. Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3] and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7] ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.

  9. Reproductive biology of the stingrays, Myliobatis goodei and Myliobatis ridens (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatidae), in southern Brazil.

    Araújo, P R V; Oddone, M C; Velasco, G

    2016-07-01

    This study, carried out between spring 2012 and winter 2014, characterized the sexual development and reproductive cycle of Myliobatis goodei and Myliobatis ridens in the extreme south of Brazil to support future management and conservation plans. Ninety-five specimens of M. goodei (24 males and 71 females) and 175 M. ridens (24 males and 151 females) were sampled. Female M. goodei attained disc-width-at-50% maturity (WD50 ) at 683 mm. Uterine fecundity was four to five embryos. The largest male recorded, a mature individual, had a disc width of 650 mm. In M. ridens, WD50 was 662 mm. Uterine fecundity varied from one to eight embryos. The largest male on record was a maturing 590 mm WD individual. The hepato-somatic index was higher in autumn in females of M. goodei, and in the summer in M. ridens. The gonado-somatic index and the largest vitellogenic follicle diameter were higher in spring in both species. Pregnant females of both species were recorded during spring, although for M. ridens, these females also occurred in summer. Embryos had WD of 61-218 and 40-236 mm for M. goodei and M. ridens, respectively. The incidence of pregnant females in southern Brazil in spring-summer coincides with the small-scale beach artisanal fisheries season peak, when M. goodei and M. ridens suffer fishing mortality, while using the coastal shallow areas in the warmer periods (spring-summer) to give birth. PMID:27221505

  10. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals.

  11. Cesium-137 and natural radionuclides in soils from southern Brazil and soils and others environmental samples from Antarctic

    This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from the Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples form Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 which is a 30.1 year half-life man-made radionuclide produced in the past by atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Natural radioactivity was determined by measuring some radionuclides belonging to Th-232 and U-238 natural radioactive families, and of K-40 concentrations. Several types of soils from Southern Brazil; and soil samples, marine sediments, lichens, mosses and algae collected at King George and other nearby islands (South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica) were analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to measure radioactivity levels of the collected samples and its overall characteristics are analyzed in this work. (author)

  12. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. PMID:27199595

  13. Diatom associations in shelf waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil: annual variation in relation to environmental factors

    Luciano Felício Fernandes; Frederico Pereira Brandini

    2004-01-01

    The seasonal variation of diatoms in the inshore waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil was investigated to analyse their temporal dynamics and to detect the main environmental constraints of the planktonic community. Biomass peaks occurred from May to August and from December to March. Among the microplanktonic diatoms, Cerataulina pelagica, Chaetoceros spp., Dactyliosolen fragilissimus, Guinardia striata, Lauderia annulata, Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudo-nitzschia cf. delicatissima, P. austr...

  14. Population dynamics of Euryoryzomys russatus and Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia, Cricetidae) in an Atlantic forest area, Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil

    Maurício Eduardo Graipel; Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues Oliveira-Santos; Marilena Altenfelder Arruda Campos; Pâmela Castro Antunes

    2009-01-01

    The population dynamics and reproductive issues of two species of rodents of the family Cricetidae, Rice Rats (Euryoryzomys russatus) and Pygmy Rice Rats (Oligoryzomys nigripes), were studied for 24 months in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil. Euryoryzomys russatus presented density-dependent population fluctuation, and recruitment was positively associated with temperature. Oligoryzomys nigripes displayed the lowest abundance, greatest population fluctuation and shortest permanence ...

  15. Seasonal production and spatial distribution of Melipona bicolor schencki (Apidae; Meliponini) castes in brood combs in southern Brazil

    Jr, Ney; Blochtein, Betina; Serrão, José

    2013-01-01

    Melipona bicolor schencki is currently considered a threatened stingless bee in southern Brazil, and studies about its ecology may provide new insights to enable its conservation. This study evaluated the seasonal variability in the sex/caste proportion, numbers of combs and brood cells, and spatial distribution of the individuals present in emerging combs in five polygynous colonies of M. bicolor schencki for 1 year. Throughout the year, the colonies showed similar variations. Individual com...

  16. Thermomagnetic Features of Crust in Southern Parts of the Structural Provinces of Tocantins and São Francisco, Brazil

    Suze Nei P. Guimaraes; Hamza, Valiya M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work we report results of a regional scale investigation of the thermal and magnetic characteristics of the crust in the southern sector of the geologic provinces of Tocantins and São Francisco, Brazil. Updated compilations of aeromagnetic and geothermal data sets were employed for this purpose. Use of such techniques as vertical derivative, analytic signal, and Euler deconvolution in analysis of aeromagnetic data has allowed precise locations of the sources of magnetic anomali...

  17. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Barbosa Filho Valter; de Campos Wagner; Bozza Rodrigo; Lopes Adair da

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess...

  18. Use of the palm Euterpe edulis martius in landscape units managed by migrants of German origin in Southern Brazil

    Milanesi, Lucas de Souza; Peroni, Nivaldo; dos Reis, Maurício Sedrez

    2013-01-01

    Background People influence their environments through the manipulation of landscapes and species. Human influence on the landscape may lead to the development of differentiated landscape units that originate from past use and may be related to the presence of certain species. This study investigated the presence of the palm Euterpe edulis and its current and past importance in landscape units established by a community of German descendants located in southern Brazil. The objectives of this ...

  19. Mechanical ventilation in patients in the intensive care unit of a general university hospital in southern Brazil: an epidemiological study

    Léa Fialkow; Maurício Farenzena; Iuri Christmann Wawrzeniak; Janete Salles Brauner; Sílvia Regina Rios Vieira; Alvaro Vigo; Mary Clarisse Bozzetti

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics, the frequency and the mortality rates of patients needing mechanical ventilation and to identify the risk factors associated with mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a general university hospital in southern Brazil. METHOD: Prospective cohort study in patients admitted to the ICU who needed mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours between March 2004 and April 2007. RESULTS: A total of 1,115 patients admitted to the ICU needed mecha...

  20. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil

    Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Marinho, Jorge R.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2009-01-01

    The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene f...

  1. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil.

    Gonçalves, Gislene L; Marinho, Jorge R; Freitas, Thales R O

    2009-10-01

    The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high. PMID:21637469

  2. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil

    Gislene L. Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high.

  3. Mechanical ventilation in patients in the intensive care unit of a general university hospital in southern Brazil: an epidemiological study

    Fialkow, Léa; Farenzena, Maurício; Wawrzeniak, Iuri Christmann; Brauner, Janete Salles; Vieira, Sílvia Regina Rios; Vigo, Alvaro; Bozzetti, Mary Clarisse

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics, the frequency and the mortality rates of patients needing mechanical ventilation and to identify the risk factors associated with mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a general university hospital in southern Brazil. METHOD: Prospective cohort study in patients admitted to the ICU who needed mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours between March 2004 and April 2007. RESULTS: A total of 1,115 patients admitted to the ICU needed mechani...

  4. Comparative morphology and identification key for females of nine Sarcophagidae species (Diptera) with forensic importance in Southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo; Mauricio Osvaldo Moura; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe identification of female flesh flies was always considered a difficult task since morphological descriptions and keys for females are rare. Even in a forensic entomology framework, where females play a major role, female flesh flies are usually not identified. In order to fill this gap in Southern Brazil fauna we provide detailed descriptions and key for the female of nine species included in four genera: Microcerella halli (Engel), Oxysarcodexia paulistanensis (Mattos), Oxysarcod...

  5. Factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV/AIDS patients: a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil

    C.A.T. Pinheiro; J.C. de-Carvalho-Leite; M.L. Drachler; V.L. Silveira

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV-infected adults being treated with antiretroviral drugs at a reference service in Southern Brazil. Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and were tested by scales assessing sociocognitive variables. Adherence to treatment was assessed by a self-report inventory developed for the study. Clinical information was obtained from the patients' records. Significance tests were conducted using univariate logistic regressions followed by mu...

  6. Childhood overweight and obesity in a region of Italian immigration in Southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Geremia, Renata; Cimadon, Hosana Maria Speranza; de Souza, William Brasil; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Background The main modifiable risk factors for obesity are related to lifestyle and significantly influenced by the family, environment and culture. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight/obesity and associated lifestyle factors in children from Bento Gonçalves, a southern Brazil city with strong Italian immigration influence. Italian traditional foods were locally adapted since the immigrants’ arrival in the XIX century, to include more fat and fewer vegetables, and physical acti...

  7. A new microendemic species of Tropidurus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) from southern Brazil and revalidation of Tropidurus catalanensis Gudynas & Skuk, 1983.

    Kunz, Tobias Saraiva; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    The South American and cis-andean lizard genus Tropidurus has a complex taxonomic history. Most species were recently described and previous revisions included few specimens from the southern part of the continent. Tropidurus torquatus has the broadest geographic distribution in the genus and several morphological and ecological differences were described within its distribution. We analyzed the geographic variation in external morphological characters of Tropidurus torquatus, including large number of samples from southern Brazil. Tropidurus catalanensis is revalidated and Tropidurus imbituba sp. nov., with a restrict distribution in the southern coast of Brazil, is described. The new species is distinguished from Tropidurus catalanensis by the number of dorsal scales. It can be distinguished from T. catalanensis and T. torquatus by a distinct orange ventral coloration in adults, which can reach the lateral portion of the body in adult males. Our analysis also suggests that at least two other undescribed species could be recognized under the name Tropidurus torquatus in southeastern and central Brazil. PMID:25232619

  8. Conventional serological performance in diagnosis of Chagas' disease in southern Brazil

    Anelise Bergmann Araújo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of Chagas' disease diagnosis show disagreement. The aim of this study was to compare commercial tests for Chagas' disease serodiagnosis in southern Brazil. A total of 161 samples were evaluated. Three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, one indirect hemagglutination and one indirect immunofluorescence were assessed. Trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen-blot was a confirmatory method. From 161 samples, 65.84% were positive in all tests, while 34.16% presents mismatch result in at least one of the tests. All techniques tested presented false-positive and/or false-negative results as follows: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 1 had more false-positive results (lower specificity, indirect immunofluorescence had the highest rate of false-negative results (lower sen sitivity, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays had fewer false-negative results (higher sensitivity, while indirect hemagglutination showed no false-positive result (higher specificity. Knowing the characteristics of techniques make it possible to combine them and obtain more reliable diagnosis. Therefore, it seems useful to combine techniques for diagnosing this infection.

  9. Factors associated with recurrence of alcohol-related traffic violations in southern Brazil

    Aurinez R. Schmitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze variables associated with recurrence of blood alcohol content (BAC-related traffic violations among drivers in southern Brazil. Method: This cross-sectional study included 12,204 driving-under-the-influence (DUI offenders according to data provided by the Rio Grande do Sul state Transportation Department. Sociodemographic characteristics, license duration, license category, and psychological assessment results were analyzed. Drivers convicted of DUI more than once in 2009/2010 were considered recidivists. Variables were evaluated using descriptive statistical analysis and Poisson regression, adjusted by sex, age, and education level. Results: A total of 538 (4.41% drivers were considered recidivists. The following variables showed the strongest associations with recidivism: being aged 41-50 years (prevalence ratio [PR] = 3.41, being licensed for ≥ 12 years (PR = 1.86, being licensed for motorcycles, cars and trucks (PR = 1.36, having a license with psychological restrictions (PR = 1.33, and driving a truck or a similar vehicle at the moment of notification (PR = 1.08. Conclusions: In the age group with the highest risk for recurrence, drivers showed a higher probability of having a diagnosis of alcohol dependence and other psychiatric comorbidities that hinder the control of alcohol use. Psychological assessments seem to be important in predicting repeat offenses, especially when limited aptitudes are suspected, and should therefore be better investigated.

  10. Phaeohyphomycoses in a free-ranging loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) from Southern Brazil.

    Domiciano, Isabela Guarnier; Domit, Camila; Trigo, Cariane Campos; de Alcântara, Brígida K; Headley, Selwyn A; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2014-08-01

    This report describes the occurrence of mycotic infection in a loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, found on Mostardas beach in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. The specimen was observed alive, emaciated, and died the following day. A necropsy was performed soon after death and tissue samples routinely processed for histopathological and molecular evaluation. Significant pathological alterations included multifocal to coalescing, 0.5-4 cm in diameter nodules were observed throughout the peritoneum and kidneys that revealed caseous, grayish content when sectioned; histopathological evaluation revealed severe peritonitis and nephritis associated with intralesional fungi. Fungal PCR that targeted the internal transcribed spacer region of fungi revealed three different species of fungi: Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternata arborescens within the kidneys while Ampelomyces sp. was identified within peritoneal granulomas. C. cladosporioides and A. arborescens are melanized fungi that produce phaeohyphomycosis in a wide range of species. However, the importance of the identification of the mycoparasite Ampelomyces sp. DNA within the peritoneal granulomas remains unclear. PMID:24947171

  11. Karyotype morphology and evolution in some Lathyrus (Fabaceae species of southern Brazil

    Klamt Adriane

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of Lathyrus nervosus Lam., L. pubescens Hook. et Arn., L. paranensis Burk. and L. crassipes Gill ap. Hook et Arn., native to Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil, are described in detail for the first time. All taxa have 2n = 14 chromosomes. The karyotypic formulae were 2 m + 12 sm for L. nervosus, L. pubescens and L. paranensis and 4 m + 10 sm for L. crassipes. In all species, the smallest chromosome pair bore a secondary constriction with a satellite in the long arm. Intraspecific variability in the position and number of secondary constrictions was observed in L. nervosus and L. pubescens. All of the species had a conservative and similar karyotype morphology, but differed in total complement size by as much as 20% between the highest (L. nervosus and lowest (L. crassipes values. These results suggest that changes in chromosome size during evolution have been similar for all the chromosomes of the complement. Together with data on the life cycle and mode of reproduction, these results also indicate that L. crassipes is a derived taxon, if an evolutionary trend towards a decrease in chromosome size is accepted.

  12. Factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents in Southern Brazil

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents.METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study involving 601 adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, enrolled in public schools in the western region of Santa Catarina State - Southern Brazil. Lumbar strength was analyzed by the lumbar extension test developed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology, which proposes different cutoffs for boys and girls. Independent variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and aerobic fitness. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with significance level of 5%.RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of lumbar strength was 27.3%. The population subgroups most likely to present low levels of lumbar strength were females (OR: 1.54, 95% CI : 1.06 to 2.23, adolescents with low levels of aerobic fitness (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.41 to 3.11 and the overweight (OR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35 to 3.81.CONCLUSION: Almost one-third of the studied students have low levels of lumbar strength. Interventions in the school population should be taken with special attention to female adolescents, those with low levels of aerobic fitness, and those with overweight, as these population subgroups were most likely to demostrate low levels of lumbar strength.

  13. The association of health and income in the elderly: experience from a southern state of Brazil.

    Gerda G Fillenbaum

    Full Text Available In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50(th-66(th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions.Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ≥ 60 (N=6963, in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status, depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures.In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status. For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association, and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes.Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled.

  14. Hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis applied to understand fluoride provenance in the Guarani Aquifer System, Southern Brazil.

    Marimon, Maria Paula C; Roisenberg, Ari; Suhogusoff, Alexandra V; Viero, Antonio Pedro

    2013-06-01

    High fluoride concentrations (up to 11 mg/L) have been reported in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer System (Santa Maria Formation) in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. In this area, dental fluorosis is an endemic disease. This paper presents the geochemical data and the combination of statistical analysis (Principal components and cluster analyses) and geochemical modeling to achieve the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater and discusses the possible fluoride origin. The groundwater from the Santa Maria Formation is comprised of four different geochemical groups. The first group corresponds to a sodium chloride groundwater which evolves to sodium bicarbonate, the second one, both containing fluoride anomalies. The third group is represented by calcium bicarbonate groundwater, and in the fourth, magnesium is the distinctive parameter. The statistical and geochemical analyses supported by isotopic measurements indicated that groundwater may have originated from mixtures of deeper aquifers and the fluoride concentrations could be derived from rock/water interactions (e.g., desorption from clay minerals). PMID:23149723

  15. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R.; Alvares, Clayton A.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2016-06-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model ( R 2 = 0.99, p control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease.

  16. Holocene dynamics of vegetation change in southern and southeastern Brazil is consistent with climate forcing

    Rodrigues, Jackson Martins; Behling, Hermann; Giesecke, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    At mid to high northern latitudes postglacial vegetation change has often occurred synchronously over large regions triggered mainly by abrupt climate change. Based on 19 pollen diagrams from southern and southeastern Brazil we explore if similar synchronicities in vegetation change were also characteristic for the vegetation dynamics in low latitudes. We used sequence splitting to detect past vegetation change in the pollen diagrams and computed principal curves and rates of change to visually evaluate the changes in composition and dynamics. The results show that vegetation change occurred mostly during the second half of the Holocene with distinct episodes of change. The character of vegetation change is generally consistent with shifts to wetter conditions and agrees with inferred shifts of the South American Monsoon. Speleothems as well as the titanium record from the Cariaco Basin indicate several episodes of rapid shifts in the precipitation regime, which are within the dating uncertainty of the here detected periods of vegetation change (8900, 5900, 2800, 1200 and 550 cal yrs BP). Our results indicate that low latitude vegetation composition follows precession forcing of the hydrology, while change is often triggered and synchronized by rapid climate change much like in high and mid latitudes. Pollen diagrams document changes in the abundance of individual taxa and changes in the amount of woodland cover, while small compositional changes indicate a regional stability of vegetation types during the Holocene.

  17. Risk Communication Concerning Welding Fumes for the Primary Preventive Care of Welding Apprentices in Southern Brazil

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ≤ 0.05 significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049, the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023, and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001. Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2. The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships.

  18. Clinical and pathological study of an outbreak of obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot cattle in southern Brazil

    Loretti Alexandre Paulino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology, clinical picture and pathology of an outbreak of urolithiasis in cattle in southern Brazil are described. The disease occurred in August 1999 in a feedlot beef cattle herd. Five out of 1,100 castrated steers were affected. Clinical signs included colic and ventral abdominal distension. White, sand-grain-like mineral deposits precipitated on the preputial hairs. Affected cattle died spontaneously 24-48 hrs after the onset of the clinical signs. Only one animal recovered after perineal urethrostomy. Necropsy findings included calculi blocking the urethral lumen of the distal portion of the penile sigmoid flexure, urinary bladder rupture with leakage of urine into the abdominal cavity and secondary fibrinous peritonitis. Daily water intake was low since water sources were scarce and not readily available. The animals were fed rations high in grains and received limited amounts of roughage. Biochemical analysis revealed that the calculi were composed of ammonium phosphate. A calcium-phosphorus imbalance (0.4:0.6 was detected in the feedlot ration. For the outbreak, it is suggested that contributing factors to urolith formation include insufficient fiber ingestion, low water intake and high dietary levels of phosphorus. No additional cases were observed in that feedlot after preventive measures were established. Similar dietary mismanagement in fattening steers has been associated with obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot beef cattle in other countries.

  19. Non-volant mammals recorded in environmental evaluation studies in southern Brazil

    Jorge J. Cherem

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies to evaluate environmental impacts have become both a need and a requirement of environmental agencies due to great alteration of the native environments provoked by man. Many of these studies are short-termed, but reporting the acquired data is very important in order to increase knowledge about specific biotic groups. Thus, this paper presents the results of the non-volant mammal surveys arising from seven environmental studies in southern Brazil. The following methodologies were employed: (1 interviews with local residents; (2 visual observations and recording; (3 identification of vestiges; and (4 capture with live traps. A total of 46 mammal species were recorded (5 marsupials, 4 xenarthrans, 2 primates, 13 carnivores, 2 artiodactylans, 2 lagomorphs and 18 rodents. Some species, such as the jaguar (Panthera onca, giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis, Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris and white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, are possibly extinct or seriously threatened. The records obtained and the possibilities of the occurrence of other species are discussed.

  20. Risk Factors for Infection with Different Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Southern Brazil

    Marisa Lúcia Romani Paraboni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the proportion of different genotypes in countryside microregions in southern Brazil, and their association with risk factors. Methods. Cross-sectional study including a convenience sample of patients who tested positive for HCV-RNA and were referred to a regional health center for genotyping, from December 2003 to January 2008. Data were obtained through the National Disease Surveillance Data System, from laboratory registers and from patient charts. Identification of genotypes was carried out using the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism “in house” technique. Independent associations with genotypes were evaluated in multinomial logistic regression and prevalence rates of genotypes were estimated with modified Poisson regression. Results. The sample consisted of 441 individuals, 41.1±12.0 years old, 56.5% men. Genotype 1 was observed in 41.5% (95% CI 37.9–48.1 of patients, genotype 2 in 19.3% (95% CI 15.0–23.6, and genotype 3 in 39.2% (95% CI 35.6–43.0. HCV genotype was significantly associated with gender and age. Dental procedures were associated with higher proportion of genotype 2 independently of age, education, and patient treatment center. Conclusions. The hepatitis C virus genotype 1 was the most frequent. Genotype 2 was associated with female gender, age, and dental procedure exposition.

  1. Taking pills for developmental ails in Southern Brazil: The biologization of adolescence?

    Béhague, Dominique P.

    2015-01-01

    In the late 1990s researchers in Pelotas Southern Brazil began documenting what they considered to be unacceptably high rates of licensed psychotropic use among individuals of all ages, including youth. This came as a surprise, since the vast majority of psychiatrists in Pelotas draw on psychoanalytic theory and approach pharmaceutical use, especially for children and adolescents, in a consciously tempered way. Drawing from a longitudinal ethnographic sub-study, part of a larger 1982 birth cohort study, this paper follows the circuitous trajectories of emergent pharma-patterns among “shantytown” youth over a ten-year period, exploring the thickly layered and often moralized contingencies in which psychodynamic psychiatrists' intention to resist excessive pharmaceuticalization both succeed and crumble. I juxtapose these trajectories with the growing salience of an “anti-biologizing” explanatory framework that psychiatrists and researchers are using to pre-empt the kind of diagnostics-driven “biopsychiatrization” so prevalent in North America. My analysis suggests that psychiatrists' use of this framework ironically contributes to their failed attempts to “resist” pharmaceuticalization. PMID:25533870

  2. Hemoplasma prevalence and hematological abnormalities associated with infection in three different cat populations from Southern Brazil

    Andrea Pires dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three hemoplasma species are recognized in domestic cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. We report the prevalence and hematological abnormalities of hemoplasma infection in 369 domestic cats from three different populations (blood donors, hospitalized cats and shelter cats from Southern Brazil. Complete blood counts were performed at the time of blood collection, and DNA was extracted and tested by conventional PCR for each hemoplasma species. A total of 79 samples (21.40% were positive for at least one species. The most prevalent hemoplasma was ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, with 50/369 (13.55% positive cats, followed by ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’, 10/369 (2.71%, and Mycoplasma haemofelis, 8/369 (2.16%. Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ coinfection was observed in 4/369 (1.08%, whereas ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ in 5/369 (1.35%. Three cats (0.81% were infected with all three hemoplasmas. There was no association between infection and the different populations. Anemia was associated with Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, but not with ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. Male cats and cats with outdoor access were more likely to be infected. Although ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ is believed to cause minimal or no hematological alterations, the infected cats studied herein were more likely to be anemic.

  3. Prevalence of hearing problems and associated factors in an agricultural company in southern Brazil

    Rafael Haeffner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and to analyze the factors associated with hearing problems in an agricultural company.METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, and the participants consisted entirely of employees of an agricultural company in southern Brazil. The workforce of the company was composed of several different occupations. The research instrument was a semi-structured questionnaire administered by interview.RESULTS: Of the 326 workers of the company, there were 273 (83.8% respondents, and the prevalence of hearing problems was n = 42 (15.4% among the participants of the study. The hearing problems were associated with lower schooling, with the operating occupational group, the technical assistance group and the general services group. The self-reported health conditions associated with hearing problems were depression and nervousness or irritation. The occupational exposures associated with hearing problems were noise, dust, vibration, oils and solvents, and toxic gases.CONCLUSION: There was an intermediate prevalence of hearing problems in relation to other studies. It was possible to observe the need to implement strategies aiming at the prevention of hearing problems that primarily contemplate modifiable aspects, such as the use of personal protective equipment, as well as improvements in the conditions, organization and work environment.

  4. Ecological risk analysis of pesticides used on irrigated rice crops in southern Brazil.

    Vieira, Danielle Cristina; Noldin, José Alberto; Deschamps, Francisco C; Resgalla, Charrid

    2016-11-01

    Based on studies conducted in the past decade in the southern region of Brazil to determine residue levels of the pesticides normally used on irrigated rice crops, changes can be observed in relation to the presence of pesticides in the waters of the main river basins in Santa Catarina State. In previous harvests, the presence of residues of 7 pesticides was determined, with the herbicide bentazon and the insecticide carbofuran being the products showing highest frequency. Following toxicological tests conducted with 8 different test organisms, deterministic and probabilistic risk analysis was performed to assess the situation of the river basins in areas used for the production of irrigated rice. Of the species tested, the herbicide bentazon showed greatest toxicity toward plants, but did not present an ecological risk because in the worst-case scenario the highest concentration of this pesticide in the environment is 37 times lower than the lowest EC50/LC50 value obtained in the tests. The insecticide carbofuran, which had the highest toxicity toward the organisms used in the tests, presented an ecological risk in the deterministic analysis, but without any associated probability. The results highlight the need for increased efforts in training farmers in crop management practices and for the continual monitor of water bodies for the presence of pesticide residues. PMID:27479455

  5. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil.

    Becker, F G; De Fries, L C C; Ferrer, J; Bertaco, V A; Luz-Agostinho, K D G; Silva, J F P; Cardoso, A R; Lucena, Z M S; Lucena, C A S

    2013-02-01

    The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis), as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado). Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis), restricted range species (21.7% of total species) should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:23644791

  6. Comparison between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive and Negative Patients with Tuberculosis in Southern Brazil

    Lucélia Henn

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the different characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive and negative patients treated for tuberculosis (TBC in a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. We conducted a retrospective cohort study over a 5-year period, from January 1992 through December 1996. We reviewed medical charts of patients from our institution who received TBC treatment. We reviewed 167 medical charts of patients with confirmed TBC. HIV positivity was detected in 74 patients. There were statistically significant difference between HIV positive and negative patients in sex and age. HIV-infected patients showed significantly more signs of bacteremia than HIV-negative patients. Extra-pulmonary TBC was present respectively in 13 (17.6% and 21 (22.6% HIV positive and negative patients. There was a significant difference between chest radiograph presentation in HIV positive and negative patients. There were significantly lower hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocyte and lymphocyte levels in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative patients. Outcome was significantly different in the two groups with a death rate of 36.5% and 10.8% in HIV-positive and in HIV-negative patients. The difference between HIV positive and negative patients may have importance in the diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with TBC.

  7. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE: SYSTEMIC MODEL PROPOSAL FOR ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE FOR HOSPITALS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Marcelo Jorge, Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of an organization depends increasingly on its business strategy. A structural component of the strategy is the fittting between their primary activities and support activities. And as in industry, in a hospital, a new strategy to be implemented in general involves reviewing business processes or introduce new ways to run the operations of the company. However, organizations that have problems of alienation between the business strategy with its Information Technology infrastructure will have difficulties to implement a systemic model of the competitive intelligence process. It is believed that the private hospital sector has problems of synchronization between the business strategy with information technology infrastructure. Therefore, one can question: A systemic model of Competitive Intelligence for the private hospital sector can be a conceptual model of the change process, liable to be implemented in this type of organization? The main objective of this research is to propose a systemic model of Competitive Intelligence process version 2 in private hospitals in the southern region of Brazil.

  8. Breastfeeding and feeding patterns in three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil: trends and differentials

    Victora, Cesar G.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Barros, Fernando C.

    2009-01-01

    Breastfeeding is fundamental for child health. Changes in the duration of breastfeeding are compared for three population-based cohorts of children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Samples of the 1982 and 1993 children and all of the children from the 2004 cohort study were sought at home when they were aged around 12 months. Both the duration of breastfeeding and the stage at which different kind of foods were regularly introduced were investigated. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 3.1 to 6.8 months in this period. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months was practically non-existent in 1982 and had reached one third of infants by 2004. The increase was faster after 1993, suggesting an important impact made by promotion activities. Up to about 6-9 months, breastfeeding was more prevalent in high-income families, but after this age it became more common among the poor. Low birth weight babies were breastfeed for shorter durations. The duration of breastfeeding is still far short of international recommendations, justifying further campaigns. Special attention should be given to low birth weight babies and those from low-income families. PMID:18797716

  9. Application of agrometeorological spectral model in rice area in southern Brazil

    Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; Bolfe, Edson L.

    2015-10-01

    The southern region is responsible for 70% of rice production in Brazil. In this study, rice areas of Rio Grande do Sul were selected, using the land use classification, scale 1: 100,000, provided by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). MODIS Images were used and meteorological data, available by National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). The period of analysis was crop season 2011/2012, October to March. To obtain evapotranspiration was applied agrometeorological-spectral model SAFER (Simple Algorithm For Retrieving Evapotranspiration). From the analysis of the results, on planting and cultivation period , the average evapotranspiration (ET) daily was 1.93 +/- 0.96 mm.day-1. In the vegetative development period of rice, the daily ET has achieved 4.94 mm.day-1, with average value 2,31+/- 0.97 mm.day-1. In the period of harvest, evapotranspiration daily average was 1.84 +/- 0.80 mm.day-1. From results obtained, the estimation of evapotranspiration from satellite images may assist in monitoring the culture during the cycle, assisting in estimates of water productivity and crop yield.

  10. Nucleation procedures in the restoration of riverine areas of the Mixed Rain Forest, Southern Brazil

    Ademir Reis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its significant importance in the history of the occupation of Southern Brazil, the mixed rain forest, particularly in the Planalto Norte Catarinense, was subjected to intense exploitation as well as the replacement of its original vegetation cover by pasture and agricultural areas. Nowadays, it suffers another great impact which is the homogeneous reforestation with species of Pinus. The present situation is characterized by the need for restoration of the local landscape’s connectivity, which means restoring degraded riverine areas by repairing the connectivity between original fragments and areas to be restored. This study investigated the role of the seed bank and seed rain of preserved adjacent riverine fragments and the efficiency of nucleation procedures in the restoration of degraded riverine areas in Pinus taeda L. producing farms. Samples of the seed bank and seed rain of preserved fragments were collected and techniques of soil transposition and artificial perches were applied in the open degraded areas. The riverine areas demonstrated the potential to initiate the secondary succession process, allowing the formation of initial succession stages. The use of nucleation procedures showed the possibility of accelerating the succession process and indicated the importance of establishing linkage points between open areas and conserved remnants.

  11. [Dietary patterns in menopausal women receiving outpatient care in Southern Brazil].

    Hoffmann, Maichelei; Mendes, Karina Giane; Canuto, Raquel; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Theodoro, Heloísa; Rodrigues, Alice Dalpicolli; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-05-01

    The scope of this paper is to identify dietary patterns and the relationship with menopausal status. It involved a cross-sectional study with 646 women in outpatient care in southern Brazil. Dietary intake was assessed by a frequency questionnaire and five dietary patterns were identified by main component analysis. The menopausal status was classified as premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Five dietary patterns were identified: fruit and vegetables; Brazilian fare (rice, beans and milk); snacks (cake, burgers, pizza and sweetbread); health diet (fish, fruit juice, bread and vegetable soup), and regional (typical food in the Serra Gaucha, like red meat, pasta and yams). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, there was no significant association between menopausal status and dietary patterns. Only age, education and income were associated with dietary patterns. Five dietary patterns that described the food consumption of the population studied were identified, which are similar to those indicated as ideal for the Brazilian population. The findings reveal that the dietary pattern of women in menopause are significantly influenced by age, education and income but are not influenced by the menopausal status per se. PMID:26017958

  12. Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents: A Study of Gas Station Workers in Southern Brazil

    Letícia Silveira Cardoso

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%, physical (88.2%, physiological (64.3% and biological (62.4%. In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p < 0.05. It is concluded that workers perceive risks, and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment.

  13. Ammonia volatilization from nitrogen fertilizers in no-till wheat and maize in southern Brazil

    Fernando Viero

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues on the soil surface of no-till systems can intensify ammonia volatilization from N fertilizers applied to cereal crops. This study assessed the magnitude of N losses through ammonia volatilization from urea applied to no-till winter (wheat and summer crops (maize on a Typic Hapludox in the south-central region of Paraná, southern Brazil. In addition, the potential of alternative N sources (urea with urease inhibitor, liquid fertilizer, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate and different urea managements (fertilizer applied in the morning or afternoon were evaluated. Two experiments with maize and wheat were carried out for two years, arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Nitrogen volatilization losses were assessed with a semi-open static collector until 21 days after fertilization. In winter, the losses were low (<5.5 % of applied N for all N sources, which were not distinguishable, due to the low temperatures. In the summer, volatilization rates from urea were higher than in the winter, but did not exceed 15 % of applied N. The main factor decreasing N losses in the summer was the occurrence of rainfall in the first five days after fertilization. Urea with urease inhibitor, nitrate and ammonium sulfate were efficient to decrease ammonia volatilization in maize, whereas the application time (morning or afternoon had no influence.

  14. Genotypic and antimicrobial characterization of pathogenic bacteria at different stages of cattle slaughtering in southern Brazil.

    Loiko, Márcia R; de Paula, Cheila M D; Langone, Ana C J; Rodrigues, Rochele Q; Cibulski, Samuel; Rodrigues, Rogério de O; Camargo, Anderson C; Nero, Luís A; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Tondo, Eduardo C

    2016-06-01

    Meat can be contaminated in different stages of the slaughtering process and the identification of these stages is the starting point to implement adequate control measures. The objectives of this study were to assess the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in cattle carcasses, to identify the most important contamination points of the slaughtering process, and to evaluate the possible risk factors related to them in a cattle slaughterhouse. To this aim, 108 cattle carcasses were sampled at three stages of the slaughtering process: Point 1 (hides after bleeding); Point 2 (carcasses after hide removal); and Point 3 (carcasses immediately after division). Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Livingstone were isolated from the carcasses. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicated that there was cross-contamination among animals, since bacteria with identical genotypic and phenotypic profiles were isolated from different animals at the same sampling day. Furthermore, this is the first report about the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in a bovine slaughterhouse from southern Brazil. PMID:26896744

  15. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF BOWL TRAPPING BEES (HYMENOPTERA, APOIDEA IN A SOUTHERN BRAZIL FOREST FRAGMENT

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years bowl traps have gained attention as a useful method for sampling bees and are now commonly used across the world for this purpose. However, specific questions about the method itself have not yet been tested on different regions of the globe. We present the preliminary results of bowl trapping in a Semidecidual Seasonal forest fragment in southern Brazil, including the test of two different color bowls, two different habitats, and the interaction of these variables in bee species number and composition. We used blue and yellow bowls in the border and in the core trails of the forest fragment. In five sampling days between October to December bowl traps captured 745 specimens of 37 morphospecies, with Halictinae bees being the richest and most abundant group. Non parametrical statistical analyses suggested that different colors of bowl traps influenced bee richness and composition and thus, they should be used together for a more complete sampling. Different trails influenced only the composition, while the interaction with different colors did not have a significant effect. These results, as well as the higher taxonomic composition of the inventoried bees, are similar to other studies reported in the literature.

  16. Breastfeeding and breast cancer: a case-control study in Southern Brazil

    Tessaro Sérgio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and breast cancer in Southern Brazil, a case-control design was employed, with two age-matched control groups. A total of 250 cases of breast cancer were identified in women from 20 to 60 years of age, with 1,020 hospital and community controls. The main study variables were occurrence of breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding. A multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was employed. According to the results, breastfeeding did not have a protective effect against breast cancer. The odds ratio (OR for women who breastfed was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8-1.2 compared to women who did not breastfeed. For women who breastfed for six months or less, the OR was 1.0 (95% CI: 0.6-1.8. In pre-menopausal women who breastfed for more than 25 months, the OR was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.5-3.5, and in post-menopausal women OR was 1.27 (95% CI: 0.5-3.1, compared to women who had not breastfeed.

  17. Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the Atlantic Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary

    Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.

    2001-11-01

    Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 37,500 and ca. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; ca. 27,500 to ca. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after ca. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the Atlantic lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene period until ca. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed Atlantic rain forest then developed at the study site.

  18. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.

  19. Running over of mammals on roads of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    Anderson Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Road deaths represent a factor of great impact on fauna. This is probably one of the main causes of mortality, even for threatened species. However, studies on this subject are unknown in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. Considering this lack, the present study presents records of medium to large-sized mammals killed by vehicles on the roads of this state between August 2000 and November 2005. In total, 257 records were made from 20 mammal species, most of which were obtained from the BR 116, BR 282 and BR 470 highways. Cerdocyon thous was the commonest species (82 records; 31.9%, followed by Didelphis albiventris (44; 17.1%, Procyon cancrivorus (21; 8.2%, Conepatus chinga (19; 7.4%, Dasypus novemcinctus (14; 5.4%, Tamandua tetradactyla (14; 5.4% and Sphiggurus villosus (13; 5.1%. Leopardus tigrinus (5; 1.9%, L. wiedii (1; 0.4% and one unidentified Leopardus individual were recorded as threatened species. This indicates a high number of mammals run over on the roads of Santa Catarina state, and hence the necessity of specific studies on this subject and the construction of tunnels and fences for animal passage.

  20. Ion microprobe (SHRIMP dates complex granulite from Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    HARTMANN LÉO A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex polymetamorphic granulites have been dated in the Santa Catarina granulite complex of southern Brazil through SHRIMP study of zircon. This complex is dominated by intermediate-acid plutonic rocks and contains small volumes of mafic and ultramafic rocks, and minor quartzite and banded iron formation. Porphyroblasts of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and plagioclase in mafic and acid rocks are interpreted as magmatic remnants in a volumetrically dominant granoblastic aggregate (M1 of the same minerals and hornblende. Hornblende formed during a later M2 metamorphic event constitutes rims around pyroxene, but the hornblende is also rimmed by granoblastic simplectites of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, hornblende and plagioclase in a second granulite facies event (M3. Chlorite and epidote occur in shear zones (M4. This granulite terrain is part of a Neoproterozoic craton, because it was little affected by the Brasiliano Cycle. The two granulite-facies events (M1 and M3 are dated by U/Pb zircon SHRIMP at about 2.68 and 2.17 Ga, while the magmatic protoliths formed at about 2.72 Ga. The amphibolite facies event (M2 probably occurred close to the 2.17 Ga granulitic metamorphism.

  1. Residence patterns and site fidelity in bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu (Cetacea, Delphinidae off Southern Brazil

    Paulo C Simões-Lopes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Residence patterns, habitat use, range, and some population estimate of the coastal bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821, were documented in two coastal sites in southern Brazil: Laguna (Santa Catarina (28º30'S; 48º55'W, and Imbe/Tramandai (Rio Grande do Sul (29º58'S; 50º07'W. Regular observations were carried out at the Laguna system for 27 months (August 1989 to December 1991. The dolphins were photo-identified using natural permanent marks. Over 4,500 photograps were taken from shore grounds 6 to 14 meters away. Up to 51 dolphins have used the estuaries of Laguna's canal and Imarui-Santo Antonio's lagoon system in 1991. A stable group of nine animals has inhabited the Imbe/Tramandai area for over 13 years. Both sites were considered distinctive geographical communities, with 5.7% interchange within their individuals. In Laguna 88.5% of the individuals were resident and the rest were nonresident. Four cases of movement along the coastline were followed and females were more resident than males.

  2. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

    André Filipe Testoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3/DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8 and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17. CMA3/DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time.

  3. Microbial, physical and chemical properties of irrigation water in rice fields of Southern Brazil.

    Reche, Maria Helena L R; Machado, Vilmar; Saul, Danilo A; Macedo, Vera R M; Marcolin, Elio; Knaak, Neiva; Fiuza, Lidia M

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of microbiological, physical and chemical parameters related to the quality of the water used in rice fields in Southern Brazil. Data were collected during three consecutive crop years, within structure of a comprehensive monitoring program. The indicators used were: potential hydrogen, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, total and fecal coliforms. Principal Component and Discriminant Analysis showed consistent differences between the water irrigation and drainage, as the temporal variation demonstrated a clear reduction in the concentration of most of the variables analyzed. The pattern of this reduction is not the same in the two regions - that is, the importance of each of the different variables in the observed differentiation is modified in two locations. These results suggested that the variations in the water quality utilized for rice irrigation was influenced by certain specific aspects of each rice region in South Brazilian - such as anthropic action or soil/climate conditions in each hydrographic basin. PMID:26959326

  4. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

    Thais Collet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  5. Essential oils of camphor tree (cinnamomum camphora nees & eberm cultivated in Southern Brazil

    Caren D. Frizzo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of two varieties of Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm, Lauraceae, known as Hon-Sho and Ho-Sho cultivated in experimental stands in Southern Brazil were studied. The essential oils were obtained from the leaves and twigs of young plants by hydrodistillation. The identification of the components was performed using GC, GC/MS and retention indexes on methyl silicone and carbowax phases. The main components identified were linalool in the Ho-Sho and camphor in the Hon-Sho.Os óleos essenciais de duas variedades da árvore canforeira (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm, Lauraceae, conhecidas como Hon-Sho e Ho-Sho cultivadas em canteiros experimentais no sul do Brasil foram estudados. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos das folhas e ramos de plantas jovens por hidrodestilação. A identificação dos componentes foi feita por GC, GC/MS e índices de retenção nas fases metil silicone e carbowax. Os principais componentes foram linalol no Ho-Sho e cânfora no Hon-Sho.

  6. Paleoproterozoic felsic volcanism of the Tapajós Mineral Province, Southern Amazon Craton, Brazil

    Roverato, M.; Giordano, D.; Echeverri-Misas, C. M.; Juliani, C.

    2016-01-01

    Amazonian rocks record one amongst the most complete and best-preserved Paleoproterozoic magmatic episodes on Earth. The present contribution documents the extremely well preserved paleoproterozoic architecture of a series of felsic rocks found in the Tapajós Mineral Province (TMP), located in the western part of Pará State, southern Amazon Craton, north of Brazil. These rocks are the first to be investigated to comprehend, based on their textural evidences, their emplacement mechanisms. Textural characterization allowed to identify three main facies with, as following reported, 1) chaotic ("Breccia") group, 2) eutaxitic ("Eutax") group and 3) parataxitic ("Paratax") group vitrophyric textures. Given the superb preservation of our samples, the investigated rocks are grouped, according to their grade of welding, into a wide variety of lithofacies from very low-grade to high-grade and rheomorphic ignimbrites. In the "Paratax group" strong similarities with banding in lava flows are observed. Based on the presented data we discuss the effusive or explosive origin of the observed flow mechanisms.

  7. Identification of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats from Southern Brazil.

    Malheiros, J; Costa, M M; do Amaral, R B; de Sousa, K C M; André, M R; Machado, R Z; Vieira, M I B

    2016-07-01

    Dogs and cats are often infected with vector-borne pathogens and play a crucial role as reservoirs and hosts in their life cycles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens among dogs and cats in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. One hundred and ten blood samples were collected from dogs (n=80) and cats (n=30). Laboratory analysis were carried out through stained blood smears, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis (only for dogs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) aiming the detection of pathogens. The following pathogens were screened by PCR among dogs and cats: Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA gene), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA gene), and Ehrlichia spp. (dsb gene for dogs and 16S rRNA gene for cats) and Bartonella spp. (nuoG gene only for cats). Using blood smears structures morphologically compatible with piroplasms were found in 5.45% (6/110) of the samples. Anti-B. vogeli and anti-E. canis antibodies were detected in 91% (73/80) and 9% (7/80) of the dogs, respectively. All the seropositive dogs to E. canis were also to B. vogeli. Nineteen (17.3%) animals were positive to hemoparasites by PCR. After sequencing Rangelia vitalii 6/80 (7.5%), B. vogeli 3/80 (4%), Hepatozoon spp. 1/80 (1%), and Anaplasma spp. 1/80 (1%) were found in the dogs, and B. vogeli 2/30 (7%) and Bartonella spp. 6/30 (20%) were detected in the screened cats. No sample was positive for genes dsb and 16S rRNA of Ehrlichia spp. Only those animals which were positive for R. vitalii showed findings compatible with rangeliosis, such as anemia (100%), thrombocytopenia (67%), jaundice (50%), external bleeding (50%), and anorexia (50%). This is the first time that B. vogeli detected among cats in Southern Brazil. PMID:27266811

  8. Childbearing during adolescence and offspring mortality: findings from three population-based cohorts in southern Brazil

    Barros Fernando C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of young maternal age as a determinant of adverse child health outcomes is controversial, with existing studies providing conflicting results. This work assessed the association between adolescent childbearing and early offspring mortality in three birth cohort studies from the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Methods All hospital births from 1982 (6,011, 1993 (5,304, and 2004 (4,287 were identified and these infants were followed up. Deaths were monitored through vital registration, visits to hospitals and cemeteries. The analyses were restricted to women younger than 30 years who delivered singletons (72%, 70% and 67% of the original cohorts, respectively. Maternal age was categorized into three groups ( Results There were no interactions between maternal age and cohort year. After adjustment for confounding, pooled ORs for mothers aged 12-19 years were 0.6 (95% CI = 0.4; 1.0 for fetal death, 0.9 (0.6; 1.3 for perinatal death, 1.0 (0.7; 1.6 for early neonatal death, 1.6 (0.7; 3.4 for late neonatal death, 1.8 (1.1; 2.9 for postneonatal death, and 1.6 (1.2; 2.1 for infant death, when compared to mothers aged 20-29 years. Further adjustment for mediating variables led to the disappearance of the excess of postneonatal mortality. The number of mothers younger than 16 years was not sufficient for most analyses. Conclusion The slightly increased odds of postneonatal mortality among children of adolescent mothers suggest that social and environmental factors may be more important than maternal biologic immaturity.

  9. Three-dimensional interpolation of soil data: fertility and pedomorphological features in southern Brazil

    Tales de Campos Piedade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The graphical representation of spatial soil properties in a digital environment is complex because it requires a conversion of data collected in a discrete form onto a continuous surface. The objective of this study was to apply three-dimension techniques of interpolation and visualization on soil texture and fertility properties and establish relationships with pedogenetic factors and processes in a slope area. The GRASS Geographic Information System was used to generate three-dimensional models and ParaView software to visualize soil volumes. Samples of the A, AB, BA, and B horizons were collected in a regular 122-point grid in an area of 13 ha, in Pinhais, PR, in southern Brazil. Geoprocessing and graphic computing techniques were effective in identifying and delimiting soil volumes of distinct ranges of fertility properties confined within the soil matrix. Both three-dimensional interpolation and the visualization tool facilitated interpretation in a continuous space (volumes of the cause-effect relationships between soil texture and fertility properties and pedological factors and processes, such as higher clay contents following the drainage lines of the area. The flattest part with more weathered soils (Oxisols had the highest pH values and lower Al3+ concentrations. These techniques of data interpolation and visualization have great potential for use in diverse areas of soil science, such as identification of soil volumes occurring side-by-side but that exhibit different physical, chemical, and mineralogical conditions for plant root growth, and monitoring of plumes of organic and inorganic pollutants in soils and sediments, among other applications. The methodological details for interpolation and a three-dimensional view of soil data are presented here.

  10. Nutritional status, physical performance and functional capacity in an elderly population in southern Brazil

    Ana Lúcia Danielewicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the association between nutritional status and functional limitation and disability in an elderly population in southern Brazil. Methods: epidemiological, cross-sectional household-based study carried out with 477 elderly of both sexes (60 to 100 years. Body mass index (BMI served to assess the nutritional status: underweight (BMI 27 kg/m2. The sum score (0-5 obtained in three tests: "chair stand" and "pick up a pen" (measured by time and standing balance (four static measurements assessed the functional limitation. The disability was evaluated by the difficulty in performing one or more self-reported tasks related to basic activities of daily living (ADLs and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs. Crude and adjusted analyzes (3 models were carried out using Poisson regression; prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results: crude analyzes showed a positive association between underweight and functional limitation (PR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.63 to 4.51; overweight and disability in ADLs (PR = 2.20, CI 95% = 1.44 to 3.35; overweight and disability in IADLs (PR = 1.56, CI 95% = 1.20 to 2.03. The additional adjustments for gender, age, level of education, living arrangements, current work, cognitive function and number of morbidities reduced the strength of the associations, without changing the statistical strength. Conclusion: nutritional status is a factor that is independently and positively associated with functional limitation and disability. We recommend the use of this indicator to monitor the health of the elderly.

  11. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards. PMID:26987643

  12. Assessing Disease and Mortality among Small Cetaceans Stranded at a World Heritage Site in Southern Brazil.

    Domiciano, Isabela G; Domit, Camila; Broadhurst, Matt K; Koch, Mariana S; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2016-01-01

    Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1%) of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7%) animals and most (30 or 65.2%) were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30) and trauma (2/30). The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16), emaciation (3/16), septicemia (1/16), neonatal pathology (1/16) and choking via food obstruction (1/16). Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience. PMID:26871703

  13. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do peixe anual Rivulus luelingi em um riacho de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. Oito amostragens foram realizadas entre abril de 2003 e janeiro de 2004. A dieta, avaliada através de uma matriz de similaridade com os valores de contribuição estimados para os itens alimentares, inclui microcrustáceos, insetos imaturos aquáticos, insetos aquáticos e terrestres, fragmentos de insetos, aranhas e fragmentos de plantas. Diferenças relacionadas ao período amostral (meses foram registradas, mas mudanças na dieta em função das classes de tamanho avaliadas e o período de alta/baixa precipitação não foram observadas. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar insetívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por itens autóctones (principalmente insetos imaturos aquáticos e alóctones (principalmente fragmentos de insetos.

  14. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in captive Neotropical felids from Southern Brazil.

    Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Hoffmann, Juliano Leônidas; Moreira, Nei; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Montaño, Patrícia; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2010-08-27

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative intracellular protozoan of toxoplasmosis in human being and animals. Members of the Felidae family are considered the single definitive host for the infection; both wild and domestic cats are able to excrete oocysts in the environment. Wild cats maintained in captivity may serve as source of infection for other clinically susceptible animals in the same environment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of T. gondii IgG antibodies in 57 neotropical felids (1 Leopardus geoffroyi; 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 17 Leopardus wiedii; 22 Leopardus tigrinus; and 14 Leopardus pardalis) kept at the Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary, Itaipu Binacional, Southern Brazil, by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using titer 16 as cut-off point. Seropositivity was observed in 38/57 (66.67%; 95% CI 53.66-77.51%) samples, with higher frequency in ocelots (71.43%). Wild-caught felids were three times more likely to be infected when compared to zoo-born animals (P

  15. Evaluation of two recommended disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services of southern Brazil

    Sabrina Bartz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Southern Brazil, a good manufacturing practices regulation was published recommending two disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of those methods. Cleaning cloths were sampled without prior notice at food services, on common working days. For the analyses, the cloths were divided in two sub-samples, being one of them microbiologically analyzed. The second sub-sample was further divided in two pieces and submitted to hand washing for two minutes. After that, one piece was boiled in water for 15 min and the other one was soaked in a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min. Both pieces of cloth were submitted to microbiological analyses. Cleaning cloths presented total aerobic mean counts of 6.9 ± 6.7 log/cm². All cleaning cloths presented coliform contamination, and 40% demonstrated mean counts of 6.2 ± 5.6 log/cm². Presumptive S. aureus mean counts of 5.5 ± 4.9 log/cm² were found. No statistic correlation was observed among the number of meals served daily in the food services and the microbiological contamination levels. After washing and disinfection, microbiological counts were significantly (p < 0.05 reduced by both methods, achieving an approximately 5 log reduction. The reductions achieved by the sodium hypochlorite soaking method and the boiling method were not significantly different. Thus, it was possible to conclude that both recommended methods were suitable to disinfect cleaning cloths used in food services.

  16. Positive serology for viral hepatitis and donor self-exclusion in Southern Brazil

    Julia De Luca Maccarini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the great advances in serological testing for transfusion-transmitted infections, the selection of blood donors by blood bank operators remains the only way to avoid transmission within the testing window period. Part of this selection is the self-exclusion form, on which the donors can exclude their blood from donation without any explanation. This study assessed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to positivity for viral hepatitis and to the use of the confidential self-exclusion (CSE form. Methods This transversal study analyzed the data collected from blood donors' files in a hospital in Southern Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the clinical and epidemiological variables related to positive serologies of viral hepatitis and to whether the donor was self-excluded. Results Of the 3,180 donors included in this study, 0.1% tested positive for HBsAg, 2.1% for anti-HBc, and 0.9% for anti-HCV. When the 93 donors with positive serologies for viral hepatitis were compared with those who were negative, a greater proportion of the positive serology group was found to have had a history of blood transfusions (OR=4.908; 95%CI=1.628 - 14.799; p<0.01, had repeatedly donated (OR=2.147; 95%CI=1.236 - 3.729; p<0.01, and used the CSE form for self-exclusion (OR=7.139; 95%CI=2.045 - 24.923; p<0.01. No variables were independently associated with self-exclusion. Conclusions A history of blood transfusion, repeated donations, and self-exclusion are factors that should be considered during viral hepatitis screenings in blood banks.

  17. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil.

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R; Alvares, Clayton A; Sentelhas, Paulo C

    2016-06-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model (R (2) = 0.99, p map the PFD climatic favorability for the state through a Geographical Information System using linear models based on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The obtained map showed a trend of PFD incidence increasing from the northwest of the state of São Paulo towards the south and the coastal region, with medium to very high favorability in the center of the state. The results of this study can be used by growers as a guide for disease control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease. PMID:26493198

  18. Chronic diseases, multimorbidity, and handgrip strength among older adults from Southern Brazil

    Júlia PESSINI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the association between various chronic diseases, multimorbidity, and handgrip strength in community dwelling older adults in Southern Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out with 477 older adults (60 years and older who resided in Antônio Carlos, Santa Catarina state. Subjects aged 60-79 years were selected by probability sampling (n=343 and all subjects aged 80 years or older (n=134 were evaluated. Chronic diseases were identified by self-report. A mechanical dynamometer verified handgrip strength (i.e., the outcome. Adjustments variables were age, literacy, living arrangement, smoking, body mass index, cognitive function, and comorbid chronic diseases. Sex-stratified analyses were conducted with simple and multiple linear regression. Results: A total of 270 women (73.2±8.8 years and 207 men (73.3±9.0 years were assessed. In the adjustment analysis, cancer (β=-3.69; 95%CI=-6.97 to -0.41 and depression (β=-1.65; 95%CI=-3.20 to -0.10 were associated with lower handgrip strength in women. For men, diabetes (β=-5.30; 95%CI=-9.64 to -0.95, chronic lung disease (β=-4.74; 95%CI=-7.98 to -1.50, and coronary heart disease (β=-3.07; 95%CI=-5.98 to -0.16 were associated with lower handgrip strength values. There was an inverse trend between number of diseases and handgrip strength for men only. Conclusion: The results showed an independent association between chronic diseases and handgrip strength. As such, handgrip strength is a valid measure to use for prevention or intervention in chronic disease and multimorbidity.

  19. SOIL QUALITY IN RELATION TO FOREST CONVERSION TO PERENNIAL OR ANNUAL CROPPING IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many forested areas have been converted to intensive agricultural use to satisfy food, fiber, and forage production for a growing world population. There is great interest in evaluating forest conversion to cultivated land because this conversion adversely affects several soil properties. We examined soil microbial, physical, and chemical properties in an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho distrófico of southern Brazil 24 years after forest conversion to a perennial crop with coffee or annual grain crops (maize and soybeans in conventional tillage or no-tillage. One goal was to determine which soil quality parameters seemed most sensitive to change. A second goal was to test the hypothesis that no-tillage optimized preservation of soil quality indicators in annual cropping systems on converted land. Land use significantly affected microbial biomass and its activity, C and N mineralization, and aggregate stability by depth. Cultivated sites had lower microbial biomass and mineralizable C and N than a forest used as control. The forest and no-tillage sites had higher microbial biomass and mineralizable C and N than the conventional tillage site, and the metabolic quotient was 65 and 43 % lower, respectively. Multivariate analysis of soil microbial properties showed a clear separation among treatments, displaying a gradient from conventional tillage to forest. Although the soil at the coffee site was less disturbed and had a high organic C content, the microbial activity was low, probably due to greater soil acidity and Al toxicity. Under annual cropping, microbial activity in no-tillage was double that of the conventional tillage management. The greater microbial activity in forest and no-tillage sites may be attributed, at least partially, to lower soil disturbance. Reducing soil disturbance is important for soil C sequestration and microbial activity, although control of soil pH and Al toxicity are also essential to maintain the soil microbial activity

  20. Seasonal variation of macromedusae (Cnidaria at North Bay, Florianópolis, southern Brazil

    Miodeli Nogueira Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation of large medusae abundance and biomass was studied in the North Bay, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil (27°30'S, 48° 32'W, from February to December 2005. Collecting was conducted seasonally with the help of fishing bottom trawl in 30-minute sections (12 in summer, 18 in each of the remaining seasons in six stations, totaling 66 samples. Eight species were found: the hydrozoans Aequorea sp., Olindias sambaquiensis Müller, 1861, and Rhacostoma atlantica L. Agassiz, 1850; the cubozoans Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 and Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859, and the scyphozoans Aurelia sp., Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829 and Lychnorhiza lucerna Haeckel, 1880. Capture rates were low, up to 38 indiv. ha-1, and only ~47% of the samples were positive for jellyfish, comprising 206 individuals. Medusae abundance and species richness clearly changed from one season to another, but did not vary between the sites. Higher species richness (7 out of 8 and greater abundances were recorded during the fall (~60% and 72% of all medusae individuals and biomass respectively. Specific frequency of capture varied from 1.5 to 29% and C. lactea was the only species found in more than 25% of the samples. The three most common species dominated in different periods of the year: C. lactea during fall (78% of individuals and 60% of biomass, R. atlantica during winter (90% of individuals and 17% of biomass, and O. sambaquiensis in spring (78% of individuals and 40% of biomass. Only two individuals were caught during summer, one C. lactea and one R. atlantica. The results offer a general picture of the distribution of the macromedusae in the North Bay, but a continuous monitoring is desirable for a more detailed knowledge on the jellyfish dynamics in the Brazilian coastal waters.

  1. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of Pedras Grandes Suite, southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Andréa R. Jelinek

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Two major magmatic pulses of the granitic Florianópolis Batholith in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, occurred between 613±5Ma and 595±5 Ma, during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Cycle. These ages were obtained by U-Pb isotopic determinations with the sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe on igneous zircons from Pedras Grandes Suite in Santa Catarina State. Euhedral zircons remained unaltered close to a fluorite vein deposited at 180?C or more. These ages suggest a northern limit for the Pedras Grandes Suite, explaining the spatial relationship between the fluorite veins and the source rock.Dois dos principais pulsos da atividade granítica no Batólito Florianópolis em Santa Catarina ocorreram entre 613 ±5 Ma e 595 ±5 Ma, durante o Neoproterozóico do Ciclo Brasiliano. Estas idades foram obtidas a partir dedeterminações isotópicas U-Pb em cristais de zircão da Suite Pedras Grandes por "Sensitive high-resolution íon microprobe" - SHRIMP II. Os cristais de zircão permaneceram inalterados mesmo mediante condições hidrotermais com temperaturas iguais e, até mesmo, superiores a 180ºC. Estas idades sugerem a delimitação norte do Maciço Pedras Grandes, explicando a relação espacial existente entre os filões de fluorita e a rocha fonte destas mineralizações.

  2. Austrolebias varzeae, a new annual fish from the upper rio Uruguay basin, southern Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Austrolebias varzeae n. sp. is described from rio da Várzea floodplains, upper rio Uruguay basin, southern Brazil. It seems to be closely related to A. carvalhoi (Myers, with which it shares a similar color pattern of male and an apomorphic morphology of the autopalatine. The new species differs from A. carvalhoi by having more anal-fin rays in males and more caudal-fin rays. Austrolebias varzeae is distinguished from all other species of the genus by a unique color pattern, in which there are three distinctively darker and narrower bars on the anterior portion of male flank. Putative close relationships between A. varzeae and A. carvalhoi suggest a closely related biogeographic history between upper Uruguay and upper Iguaçu River basins, corroborated by a biogeographic pattern of the anablepid genus Jenynsia.Austrolebias varzeae sp. n. é descrita da várzea do rio da Várzea, bacia do rio Uruguai superior, sul do Brasil. Ela parece estar estreitamente aparentada a A. carvalhoi, com a qual compartilha um padrão de colorido similar e uma morfologia apomórfica do autopalatino. A nova espécie difere de A. carvalhoi por possuir mais raios na nadadeira anal de machos e mais raios na nadadeira caudal. Austrolebias varzeae se distingue de todas as espécies do gênero por um padrão de colorido exclusivo, no qual há três barras distintivamente mais estreitas e mais escuras na porção anterior do flanco do macho. As supostas estreitas relações de parentesco entre A. varzeae e A. carvalhoi sugerem uma história biogeográfica intimamente relacionada entre as bacias do rio Uruguai e do rio Iguaçu superiores, corroborada por um padrão biogeográfico do gênero anablepídeo Jenynsia.

  3. Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Jaqueline Dario Capobiango

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2% of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0% were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was <2500 g in 37.9% of the infants. During the first month of life, physical examination was normal in 34.5%, and for those with clinical signs and symptoms, the main manifestations were hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (62.1%, jaundice (13.8%, and microcephaly (6.9%. During ophthalmic examination, 74.2% of the children exhibited injuries, 58.1% chorioretinitis, 32.3% strabismus, 19.4% microphthalmia, and 16.2% vitreitis. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in 48.3% of the children. Imaging brain evaluation was normal in 44.8%; brain calcifications, hydrocephaly, or both conditions were observed in 27.6%, 10.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the patients. Patients with cerebrospinal fluid protein ≥ 200 mg/dL presented more brain calcifications (p = 0.0325. Other sequelae were visual impairment (55.2% of the cases, developmental delay (31.0%, motor deficit (13.8%, convulsion (27.5%, and attention deficit (10.3%. All patients were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid, and 55.2% of them exhibited adverse effects. The results demonstrate the significance of the early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences.

  4. Dipteran fauna associated with decaying organic matter in semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás, Brazil

    José Eduardo Neto de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran diversity was studied in four seasonal, semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás state, Brazil. Species richness of Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae families was analyzed. The insects were collected each two months over the course of one year, using traps with decaying bait. The traps were kept in the field for five days each sampling period. A total of 1,956 individuals belonging to 13 families were collected. 29 species were identified belonging to the main families. Muscidae had the highest abundance, while Sarcophagidae presented the greatest number of species. We also report the occurrence of Philornis schildi (Muscidae for the first time in Brazil. These data reinforce the importance of preserving these areas, and indicate the need for new studies to improve knowledge of the biodiversity associated with these fragments. This information may also be useful in future studies regarding the impact of human activity on insect fauna associated with this environment.

  5. Situated knowledge and biodiversity: tensions between organic smallholders from Southern Brazil and the international intellectual property regime

    Guilherme Francisco Waterloo Radomsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches knowledges and biodiversity maintenance among ecological farmers in the west of Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The intellectual property rights have had direct effects onseed production. Between patents and other systems of control, family farmers deny treating life as a «resource». This paper has adouble aim: firstly, to analyze the intellectual property international panorama over biodiversity and knowledge; secondly, to examine practices of organic smallholders engaged to Rede Ecovida de Agroecologia (an organic farming network born in the southern Brazil related to alternative forms of knowledge management and production of patent-free seeds. The result is the action which parallels the critique of the decrease on the availability of crop varieties and the effort to multiply seeds and knowledges throughout networks and agro-biodiversity centres.

  6. Multiplier of employment and wages: A comparative study for southern region and the rest of Brazil in 1999 and 2004

    Angel dos Santos Fachinelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the multiplier effect of jobs and income for the formal and informal categories, in an inter-regional input-output system. Therefore, it was used the array in the Southern Region and the Rest of Brazil, estimated for the years 1999 and 2004 organized in 23 sectors, with microdata from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD in the same years. Consider one, the individuals’ characterization according to educational level, age, income, gender and employment category (formal and informal. The main results include a decrease of the contribution from the macros sectors of Agricultural and Services in the regions. The State of Paraná, Santa Catarina and the Rest of Brazil decreased multipliers wages in formal and informal categories for most sectors, which was not observed in Rio Grande do Sul. The largest employment multipliers for both formal and informal categories were to sectors linked to Industry.

  7. Occurrence of Prosthenorchis elegans in Free-living Primates from the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil.

    Catenacci, Lilian S; Colosio, Adriana C; Oliveira, Leonardo C; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel M; Munhoz, Alexandre D; Deem, Sharon L; Pinto, Jaqueline M S

    2016-04-28

    Parasite prevalence and abundance are important factors affecting species' conservation. During necropsies on a free-living golden-headed lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas ) and two Wied's marmosets ( Callithrix kuhlii ) in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil, we collected a large number of adult intestinal parasites that we identified as Prosthenorchis elegans. This parasite is pathogenic for neotropical primates. Prosthenorchis spp. infestation is influenced by diet with increased risk of exposure from ingesting invertebrate intermediate hosts. The biological similarities and sympatric nature of these two nonhuman primates support that they may harbor similar infectious and parasitic agents. PMID:26981688

  8. First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in southern Brazil

    Matheus Hillard Farret

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. This is the first report this protozoa in blue macaw.

  9. Macroinvertebrate fauna associated to the bromeliad Vriesea inflata of the Atlantic Forest (Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Mestre Luiz Augusto M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated water inside the bromeliad leaf rosette is a microhabitat for several animal and plant species. In this study, the associated fauna of bromeliad Vriesea inflata was analyzed related to seasons, bromeliad height in relation to the ground and environmental factors. The samples were seasonally collected in Quatro Barras (a municipality of Paraná State, southern Brazil between March 1996 and March 1997. The associated fauna was very rich and it was grouped in 23 taxonomic groups, with a dominance of Coleoptera Scirtidae, Diptera and Hymenoptera Formicidae. We found higher abundance of macroinvertebrates in terrestrial bromeliads during the spring/1996 and in epiphyte bromeliads in the autumn/1997.

  10. Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract of swine in southern of Brazil

    da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Drescher, Guilherme; Maboni, Franciele; Weber, Shana; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Schrank, Irene Silveira; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2008-01-01

    The present study determined the molecular and resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from urinary tract of swine in Southern of Brazil. Molecular characterization of urinary vesicle samples was performed by PCR detection of virulence factors from ETEC, STEC and UPEC. From a total of 82 E. coli isolates, 34 (38.63%) harbored one or more virulence factors. The frequency of virulence factors genes detected by PCR were: pap (10.97%), hlyA (10.97%), iha (9.75%), lt (8.53%), sta (7.31%) sfa (6.09...

  11. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Hamada Neusa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season.

  12. Prevalence of serum antibodies to hantavirus in a rural population from the southern state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Gregório Wrublevski Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause severe human diseases. We completed a serological survey of hantavirus infection in rural inhabitants of Turvo County, in the southern State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in which seropositivity for hantavirus was correlated to previous disease in the participants. METHODS: The levels of IgG antibodies to hantavirus Araraquara in the sera of 257 individuals were determined using an immunoenzymatic assay. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were found in 2.3% of the participants. All seropositive participants reported previous disease with symptoms suggestive of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Human infections causing unreported cardiopulmonary syndrome probably occur in the southern State of Santa Catarina.

  13. Source correlation of biomarkers in a mangrove ecosystem on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil

    Cesar A. Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative distribution of several compounds identified in four samples of recently deposited sediments of the Itacorubi Mangrove located on the Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was compared with similar data on compounds extracted from fresh leaves of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, the dominant species in the area, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa and the Gramineae Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenols, previously identified in mangrove species in northern Brazil, were also found. A. schaueriana mainly contains β-amyrin (90.6 μg g-1 of extractable organic matter; low amounts of friedelin, betulin and germanicol were detected only in the leaf extract of this species. R. mangle also contained a significant amount of β-amyrin and it was the only species where taraxerol was detected. In contrast to the leaves, sediment extracts were dominated by germanicol, α-amyrin and campesterol. Despite its chemical lability, betulin was also detected. Two homologous series of α and ω-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in the acid-alkaline fraction. In spite of being reported in the literature as components of terrigenous plants, saturated ω-hydroxy acids were not identified. Our results indicate that although triterpenols may be used as biomarkers for mangrove-derived organic matter, their relative distribution can change according to the region.A distribuição relativa de vários compostos identificados em quatro amostras de sedimentos recentemente depositados no manguezal do Itacorubi, localizado na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no sul do Brasil, foi comparada a dos diversos compostos extraídos de folhas frescas de três espécies de mangues: Avicennia schaueriana, espécie dominante na região, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, e a gramínea Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenóis identificados previamente em espécies de mangues no norte do Brasil também foram encontrados. A espécie A. schaueriana cont

  14. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Reveals a New Species in the Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis Group (Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae) from the Atlantic Forest of the Highlands of Southern Brazil

    Bruschi, Daniel P.; Lucas, Elaine M.; Garcia, Paulo C. A.; Shirlei M Recco-Pimentel

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of a disjunctive population of Phyllomedusa from southern Brazil was diagnosed using molecular, chromosomal, and morphological approaches, which resulted in the recognition of a new species of the P. hypochondrialis group. Here, we describe P. rustica sp. n. from the Atlantic Forest biome, found in natural highland grassland formations on a plateau in the south of Brazil. Phylogenetic inferences placed P. rustica sp. n. in a subclade that includes P. rhodei + all the high...

  15. Lycophytes and ferns composition of Atlantic Forest conservation units in western Paraná with comparisons to other areas in southern Brazil

    Mayara Lautert; Lívia Godinho Temponi; Raquel S. Viveros; Alexandre Salino

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed lycophyte and fern species in four forest fragments in western Paraná, Brazil, and compared them to 15 other fragments with different plant formations from the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. In total, five lycophyte species (in two families and two genera) and 98 species and two varieties of ferns (in 16 families and 38 genera) were registered in the four fragments. The most represented families were Pteridaceae (23 spp.), Polypodiaceae (18 spp.), Aspleniaceae (...

  16. Seasonal flight and resource collection patterns of colonies of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor schencki Gribodo (Apidae, Meliponini) in an Araucaria forest area in southern Brazil

    Ney Telles Ferreira Junior; Betina Blochtein; João Feliz de Moraes

    2010-01-01

    Melipona bicolor schencki occurs in southern Brazil and at high elevations in southeastern Brazil. It has potential for use in meliponiculture but this stingless bee species is vulnerable to extinction and we have little knowledge about its ecology. In order to gather essential information for species conservation and management, we made a study of seasonal flight activities in its natural environment. We sampled bees entering the nests with pollen, nectar/water and resin/mud, in five colonie...

  17. Gamma-ray spectrometry of granitic suites of the Paranaguá Terrane, Southern Brazil

    Weihermann, Jessica Derkacz; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; Cury, Leonardo Fadel; da Silveira, Claudinei Taborda

    2016-09-01

    The Paranaguá Terrane, located in the coastal portion of the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná and São Paulo in Southern Brazil is a crustal segment constituted mainly by an igneous complex, with a variety of granitic rocks inserted into the Serra do Mar ridge. The average altitude is approximately 1200 m above sea level, with peaks of up to 1800 m. Due to the difficulty of accessing the area, a shortage of outcrops and the thick weathering mantle, this terrane is understudied. This research aims to evaluate the gamma-ray spectrometry data of the granitic suites of the Paranaguá Terrane, in correspondence with the geological, petrographical, lithogeochemical, relief and mass movement information available in the literature. Aerogeophysical data were acquired along north-south lines spaced at 500 m, with a mean terrain clearance of 100 m. These data cover potassium (K, %), equivalent in thorium (eTh, ppm) and equivalent in uranium (eU, ppm). After performing a critical analysis of the data, basic (K, eU, eTh) and ternary (R-K/G-eTh/B-eU) maps were generated and then superimposed on the digital elevation model (DEM). The investigation of the radionuclide mobility across the relief and weathering mantle consisted of an analysis of the schematic profiles of elevation related with each radionuclide; a comparison of the K, eU and eTh maps with their 3D correspondents; and the study of mass movements registered in the region. A statistical comparison of lithogeochemical (K, U, Th) and geophysical (K, eU, eTh) data showed consistency in all the granitic suites studied (Morro Inglês, Rio do Poço and Canavieiras-Estrela). Through gamma-ray spectrometry, it was possible to establish relationships between scars (from mass movements) and the gamma-ray responses as well as the radionuclide mobility and the relief and to map the granitic bodies.

  18. Vertical and lateral particle and element fluxes across soil catenas in southern Brazil

    Schoonejans, Jerome; Vanacker, Veerle; Opfergelt, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    At the Earth's surface, mechanical disaggregation and chemical weathering transform bedrock into mobile regolith and soil. Downslope translocation of weathering products by lateral transport of soil particles and elements are determinant for the development of soil catenas. To grasp the rates of soil formation and development along catenas, we need better constraints on the vertical and lateral fluxes of particles and nutrients along hillslopes. Our study aims to analyze soil catena development in a spatio-temporal framework. The data are collected in the central part of the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. The sampling area is located on the Serra Geral plateau composed by rhyodacite rocks (˜700 m.a.s.l). The climate is humid subtropical (Cfa), and the natural vegetation is characterized by deciduous tropical forest and native Araucaria angustifolia forests. Two soil catenas with different slope morphology were selected: a steep slope of 190m long with maximum slope angle of 24° , and a gentle one of 140m long with a maximum slope angle of 11° . In total, eight soil profiles were sampled and 67 soil and 8 saprock or bedrock samples have been analysed for total element composition. Bulk densities were determined on undisturbed soil samples. The soil thickness varies along catenas with soil depths of about 90 cm on the ridge top, 30 cm on the convex nose of the steep slope and >2 m on the foot slope. Chemical mass balance techniques are used to constrain chemical weathering intensities (CDF) and absolute chemical mass losses or gains (δj,w). In each one of the eight soil profiles, we notice important absolute chemical mass losses for the most mobile elements (Na, K and Ca). The mass transfer coefficients of Al and Fe do not show a clear pattern, and largely depend on soil depth and position along the soil catena. The weathering intensity of the soil and the absolute chemical mass transfer are correlated with the residence time of the soil. Our data

  19. Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    Busnello Ellis DA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND show rates ranging from 5% to 36.7%. The investigation of age, race, educational levels, religion and income as risk factors for PND has yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of PND in women residing in Southern Brazil and the associated risk factors. Methods This is population-based cross-sectional study of women residing in Porto Alegre who delivered in June 2001. A sample of 271 participants were selected from the Record of Living Newborn Infants of the State Health Department (the official Brazilian database and stores the name and address of all women who give birth to living newborn infants using a process based on pseudo-random numbers which choose a random sample from 2.000 records. Once the addresses were identified, the women were visited at their place of residence (home, hotel, boarding house and prison, with the interviews taking place between the 6th and the 8th week after delivery. The association between the risk factors and PND was investigated through bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square test. Student's t-test was used to analyze the continuous variables. To identify independent risk factors, multivariate analysis was performed using hierarchical levels with a predefined model that took into account the time relationship between PND and the risk factors. Cox's regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios. Results The PND prevalence rate found was 20.7% (CI 95% 15.7 – 25.7. After adjusting for confounding variables, per capita income was found to have a significant association with PND. Conclusion The prevalence of PND is higher than the figures found in most developed countries and similar to the figures found in developing countries. Differences in PND by regions or countries can be partially explained by the effect of income on the mediation of risk factors. In low income

  20. Sheep Excreta as Source of Nitrous Oxide in Ryegrass Pasture in Southern Brazil

    Michely Tomazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Livestock urine and dung are important components of the N cycle in pastures, but little information on its effect on soil nitrous oxide (N2O emissions is available. We conducted a short-term (39-day trial to quantify the direct N2O-N emissions from sheep excreta on an experimental area of ryegrass pasture growing on a Typic Paleudult in southern Brazil. Four rates of urine-N (161, 242, 323, and 403 kg ha-1 N and one of dung-N (13 kg ha-1 N were applied, as well as a control plot receiving no excreta. The N2O-N emission factor (EF = % of added N released as N2O-N for urine and dung was calculated, taking into account the N2O fluxes in the field, over a period of 39 days. The EF value of the urine and dung was used to estimate the emissions of N2O-N over a 90-day period of pasture in the winter under two grazing intensities (2.5 or 5.0 times the herbage intake potential of grazing lambs. The soil N2O-N fluxes ranged from 4 to 353 µg m-2h-1. The highest N2O-N fluxes occurred 16 days after application of urine and dung, when the highest soil nitrate content was also recorded and the water-filled pore space exceeded 60 %. The mean EF for urine was 0.25 % of applied N, much higher than that for dung (0.06 %. We found that N2O-N emissions for the 90-day winter pasture period were 0.54 kg ha-1 for low grazing intensity and 0.62 kg ha-1 for moderate grazing intensity. Comparison of the two forms of excreta show that urine was the main contributor to N2O-N emissions (mean of 36 %, whereas dung was responsible for less than 0.1 % of total soil N2O-N emissions.

  1. Nest site selection by Hypsiboas faber(Anura, Hylidae in Southern Brazil

    André L. Luza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male gladiator frogs of Hypsiboas Wagler, 1830 build nests on available substrate surrounding ponds and streams where female spawn eggs during the breeding period. Although gladiator frogs seem to show plasticity in the way they construct their nests, there is no study reporting if these species present preferences about microhabitat conditions for nest-building (mainly under subtropical climate. Predation pressure and environmental conditions have been considered major processes shaping the great diversity of reproductive strategies performed by amphibians, but microhabitat conditions should explain where to build a nest as well as how nest looks. This study aimed to test nest site selection for nest-building by Hypsiboas faber(Wied-Neuwied, 1821, determining which factors are related to nest site selection and nest features. The survey was conducted at margins of two permanent ponds in Southern Brazil. Habitat factors were evaluated in 18 plots with nest and 18 plots in the surrounding without nest (control, describing vegetation structure and heterogeneity, and substrate characteristics. Water temperature was measured inside the nest and in its adjacency. Nest features assessed were area, depth and temperature. Habitat characteristics differed between plots with and without nest. Microhabitat selected for nest-building was characterized by great vegetation cover and height, as well as shallower water and lower cover of organic matter in suspension than in plots without nest. Differences between temperature inside nest and in its adjacency were not observed. No relationship between nest features and habitat descriptors was evidenced. Results revealed that Hypsiboas faber does not build nests anywhere. Males seem to prefer more protected habitats, probably avoiding predation, invasion of conspecific males and inclement weather. Lack of differences between temperature inside- and outside-nest suggest that nest do not improve this

  2. Nycteribiidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea no Sul do Brasil Nycteribiidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea in the Southern Region of Brazil

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um levantamento taxonômico das espécies de Nycteribiidae e de seus hospedeiros foi realizado na Região Sul do Brasil, utilizando material depositados em coleções e dados de literatura. Foram encontradas um total de 12 espécies de Basilia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1903 sobre oito espécies de morcegos pertencentes as famílias Phyllostomidae e Vespertilionidae. Considerando o número de espécies por estado, houve um decréscimo no sentido norte-sul. No Paraná, foram encontradas nove espécies, em Santa Catarina oito e no Rio Grande do Sul quatro. Basilia speiseri (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907 é registrada pela primeira vez nos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. Basilia juquiensis Guimarães, 1943 e B. producta Maa, 1968 são novos registros para Santa Catarina e B. plaumanni Scott, 1940 é registrada pela primeira vez no Rio Grande do Sul. Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 é registrado pela primeira vez como hospedeiro de B. producta e Myotis riparius Handley, 1960 de B. juquiensis. O macho de Basilia lindolphoi Graciolli, 2001 é descrito. Chave para as espécies de Basilia encontradas é disponibilizada.A survey of nicteribiid bat flies was carried out in the Southern Region of Brazil. Twelve species of Basilia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1903 were recorded on eight species of bats. The number of species of Basilia decreased north to south. In the State of Paraná nine species were found, eight in Santa Catarina and four in Rio Grande do Sul. Basilia juquiensis Guimarães, 1943 and B. producta Maa, 1968 were recorded for the first time from Santa Catarina and B. plaumanni Scott, 1940 from Rio Grande do Sul. Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 is been reported as a new host for B. producta and Myotis riparius Handley, 1960 for B. juquiensis. The male of Basilia lindolphoi Graciolli, 2001 is described. Key for the collected species of Basilia is given.

  3. Petrology, geochemistry and geochonology of the Jacupiranga ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic complex (southern Brazil)

    Chmyz, Luanna; Arnaud, Nicolas; Biondi, João Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian carbonatitic complexes are located at the edges of the Paleozoic basins and are usually associated to tectonic crustal flexuring or deep fault zones. The Jacupiranga Complex is a 65 km² ultrabasic-alkaline carbonatitic intrusive body outcroping at the northeastern border of the Paraná Basin, South of São Paulo State (Brazil). The northern portion of the unit is mostly composed of peridotitic rocks, while the southern part contains ijolites, melteigites, clinopyroxenites and carbonatites which host a phosphate deposit, mined since 1966. Even though the carbonatites only represent 1% of the Complex's area, they have concentrated most of the historical petrogenetic studies, leaving almost unknown the petrogenetic and the geochronological characteristics of other rocks. This explains why the few petrogenetic models from the literature are very partial and mostly unsatisfactory. While the peridotitic rocks are largely hindered by the absence of fresh outcrops, the regolith thickness and the high serpentinization degree, field observations and petrographic data notably show a heterogeneous zone around the peridotitic body. That zone is composed of a large variety of lithotypes over a relatively small area (~9 km²), comprising diorites, monzodiorites, alkali feldspar syenites, trachytes, lamprophyres and syenites. Moreover, these rocks present a restricted lateral continuity (decametric) and a lack of the magmatic bedding characteristic of the ijolitic and clinopyroxenitc rocks. The southern clinopyroxenitic zone (~20 km²) is composed of clinopyroxenite and melteigite with prominent magmatic layering, probably of cumulative origin, and a body of carbonatites which outcrops over less than 1 km2 essentially composed of sovite and beforsite, with abundant apatite. The Jacupiranga Complex characteristics indicate that its formation possibly comprises at least five magmatic events which cannot at present be surely ordinated in time: a) the emplacement of the

  4. “Buying a Pig in a Poke”: The Problem of Elasmobranch Meat Consumption in Southern Brazil

    Hugo Bornatowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the demand for sustainably certified seafood is increasing and retailers have promised to source all seafood from sustainable sources by 2015. In the southern portion of the country, elasmobranch meat is sold as cação, and consumers are often unaware that cação refers to any type of elasmobranch. The present study used questionnaires to investigate the lay public’s knowledge of elasmobranch meat sold in a Brazilian city. Shoppers were surveyed at supermarkets in Curitiba, the largest city in southern Brazil. The study revealed that people do not link commercialized cação meat to sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii, with more than half of respondents who claimed to have already eaten cação did not think they had ever eaten shark or ray. The educational profile of interviewees suggests that this lack of knowledge may be even more common in other segments of Brazilian society. Therefore, we suggest that ecological information about elasmobranchs should be included in Brazilian elementary and high school curricula. Such a measure has the potential to modify behavior, create awareness, and stimulate responsibility throughout society, with the primary goal of reducing shark meat consumption and, ultimately, guaranteeing the long term conservation of marine resources.

  5. Longitudinal clinical and serological survey of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in Guaporé, southern Brazil, from 1995 to 1999

    Graeff-Teixeira Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a nematode with an intra-vascular location in the mesentery. Our objective was to address several aspects of the natural history of this parasitosis, in a longitudinal clinical and seroepidemiological study. A total of 179 individuals living in a rural area with active transmission in southern Brazil were followed for five years (1995-1999 resulting in yearly prevalence of 28.2%, 4.2%, 10%, 20.2% and 2.8% and incidences of 0%, 5.9%, 8% and 1.5%, respectively. Both men and woman were affected with higher frequencies at age 30-49 years. In 32 individuals serum samples were collected at all time points and IgG antibody reactivity detected by ELISA was variable and usually persisting not longer than one year. Some individual antibody patterns were suggestive of re-infection. There was no association with occurrence of abdominal pain or of other enteroparasites and there was no individual with a confirmed (histopathologic diagnosis. Mollusks were found with infective third-stage larvae in some houses with an overall prevalence of 16% and a low parasitic burden. In conclusion, abdominal angiostrongyliasis in southern Brazil may be a frequent infection with low morbidity and a gradually decreasing serological reactivity.

  6. Swine Influenza Virus and Association with the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Pig Farms in Southern Brazil.

    Schmidt, C; Cibulski, S P; Andrade, C P; Teixeira, T F; Varela, A P M; Scheffer, C M; Franco, A C; de Almeida, L L; Roehe, P M

    2016-05-01

    Despite the putative endemic status of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infections, data on the occurrence of swine influenza outbreaks are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to detect and subtype swIAVs from six outbreaks of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in southern Brazil. Nasal swabs were collected from 66 piglets with signs of respiratory disease in six herds. Lung tissue samples were collected from six necropsied animals. Virus detection was performed by PCR screening and confirmed by virus isolation and hemagglutination (HA). Influenza A subtyping was performed by a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect the A(H1N1)pdm09; other swIAV subtypes were determined by multiplex RT-PCR. In lung tissues, the major bacterial and viral pathogens associated with PRDC (Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and PCV2) were investigated. In some affected pigs, clinico-pathological evaluations were conducted. Influenza A was detected by screening PCR in 46 of 66 swab samples and from five of six lungs. Virus was recovered from pigs of all six herds. Subtype A(H1N1)pdm09 was detected in four of six herds and H1N2 in the other two herds. In lung tissues, further agents involved in PRDC were detected in all cases; Pasteurella multocida was identified in five of six samples and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in three of six. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (1/6), Haemophilus parasuis (1/6) and PCV2 (1/6) were also detected. These findings indicate that subtypes A(H1N1)pdm09 and H1N2 were present in pigs in southern Brazil and were associated with PRDC outbreaks. PMID:26302164

  7. Effects of body size on the diet of Rivulus haraldsiolii (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae) in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, southern Brazil

    Vinícius Abilhoa; Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule; Hugo Bornatowski; Fagner Breda de Lara; Glauco Ubiratan Kohler; Luciana Festti; Wanessa Priscila David do Carmo; Igor Kintopp Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    The effect of body size on the feeding habits of the little-known killifi sh Rivulus haraldsiolii, collected in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, was investigated. Samples were collected during a study trip on 13 July 2009 in a brackish stream located in the northern part of Ilha do Mel Island, one of the most important southern Atlantic Forest areas in southern Brazil. The diet included aquatic immature insects (Diptera pupae and Chironomidae), aquatic insects (Hemiptera – Vellida...

  8. First assessment of the avifauna of Araucaria forests and other habitats from extreme southern Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil, with notes on biogeography and conservation

    Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos; Santos D'Angelo Neto

    2009-01-01

    The avifauna of the Araucaria forests in the higher reaches of the Serra da Mantiqueira massif is little known and poorly documented. This region is recognized as an important area of differentiation of birds in southeastern Brazil. Here, we present the first ornithological survey of the Araucaria forests and associated habitats in the mountains of extreme southern Minas Gerais state, near the southern tip of the Serra da Mantiqueira. The study area comprises the Serra do Juncal region and se...

  9. Evolution of Tourism in the Rural Area of the Southern of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Eurico de Oliveira Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural property owners open their doors to tourism for several reasons. In part it is due to the failure in achieving agricultural profits. Thus, receiving tourists can increase income, add value to the property, and diversify economic activity. On the other hand, agritourism and rural tourism create new opportunity which does not depend exclusively on agricultural production. Furthermore, this reflects a new agrarian reality, a transition from an ‘agricultural’ to a ‘rural’ economy.  The goal of this study is to identify the potential of rural properties in the southern of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in order to develop agritourism and rural tourism as an economic alternative. More specifically, we propose to identify the characteristics of tourism activities at several properties and evaluate the economic viability, employment opportunities and salary growth between 1997 and 2006. There has been ongoing research in this area since 2006 and new studies are being carried out, especially regarding rural tourism property turnover, although they are not the object of the current study. The results of this study infer that the southern of the state presented unfavorable outcomes regarding income and job creation on the farms that practiced agritourism and rural tourism. Current trends emphatically focus on these kinds of tourism as alternatives for developing the services sector in the Southern Half rural areas and, while there is visible potential, it is necessary to develop projects and procure the participation of the government and private sector in order to make tourism in rural areas more effective. There are many activities that can be carried out, such as promoting events and attempting to change the mentality related to living in the rural areas as well as the good use of the properties in order to create a new framework. Evolução do Turismo na Área Rural do Sul do Rio Grande do Sul - Os proprietários rurais abrem suas portas ao

  10. Prevalência e determinantes precoces dos transtornos mentais comuns na coorte de nascimentos de 1982, Pelotas, RS Prevalencia y determinantes precoces de los trastornos mentales comunes en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Prevalence and early determinants of common mental disorders in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Luciana Anselmi

    2008-12-01

    adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional study nested in a 1982 birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In 2004-5, 4,297 subjects were interviewed during home visits. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Report Questionnaire. Risk factors included socioeconomic, demographic, perinatal, and environmental variables. The analysis was stratified by gender and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of common mental disorders was 28.0%; 32.8% and 23.5% in women and men, respectively. Men and women who were poor in 2004-5, regardless of their poor status in 1982, had nearly 1.5-fold increased risk for common mental disorders (p<0.001 when compared to those who have never been poor. Among women, being poor during childhood (p<0.001 and black/mixed skin color (p=0.002 increased the risk for mental disorders. Low birth weight and duration of breastfeeding were not associated to the risk of these disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Higher prevalence of common mental disorders among low-income groups and race-ethnic minorities suggests that social inequalities present at birth have a major impact on mental health, especially common mental disorders.

  11. Population structure of Rudgea parquioides (Rubiaceae, a shade-tolerant shrub species, in Southern Brazil

    Fernanda C.G. Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The expectations that shade-tolerant forest species show 1 a population structure composed by a high amount of small individuals, and 2 biomass allocation for diameter higher than for height growth, were tested for Rudgea parquioides, a typical shrub in Southern Brazil. We described the size structure (height and stem diameter and allometrical relations of a R. parquioides population by counting and measuring all the individuals in a 725m² area in the municipality of Curitiba (25"25'S; 49"19'W. A total of 916 individuals (12,634 ind.ha-1 were recorded in the area. The firstexpectation was supported, since distribution by height and diameter classes showed a predominance of small individuals (skewness coefficients > 1. On the other hand, the regression between height and stem base diameter showed slope β Foram testadas duas hipóteses relativas a espécies florestaistolerantes à sombra em uma população de Rudgea parquioides, um arbusto característico do sul do Brasil: 1 espécies tolerantes à sombra possuem uma estrutura populacional composta por um grande número de indivíduos pequenos e 2 a alocação de biomassa para o crescimento em diâmetro é maior que para o crescimento em altura. Foram descritas as estruturas de tamanho (altura e diâmetro do tronco e relações alométricas através da contagem e medição de todos os indivíduos de R. parquioides em uma área de 725m² no município de Curitiba (25"25'S; 49"19'W. Um total de 916 indivíduos(12.634 ind.ha-1 foi medido nesta área. A primeira hipótese foi aceita, uma vez que a distribuição em classes de altura e de diâmetro mostrou um predomínio de indivíduos pequenos (coeficiente de assimetria > 1. Por outro lado, a regressão entre altura e diâmetro na base do caule mostrou inclinação β < 1, o que indica que o crescimento em altura é maior que em diâmetro, não suportando a segunda hipótese. Esses resultados mostram que as estratégias de crescimento em esp

  12. Discovery of the Critically Endangered annual killifish Austrolebias wolterstorffi (Ahl, 1924 (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae in Lagoa do Peixe National Park, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    L.E.K. Lanés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the discovery of the rare and Critically Endangered annual killifish Austrolebias wolterstorffi in temporary wetland of Lagoa do Peixe National Park, an important conservation unit of southern Brazil protected under the Ramsar Convention and recognized Biosphere Reserve.

  13. Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program

    Centeno da Silva, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being recorded. T

  14. First records of Casiornis rufus (Vieillot, 1816) (Aves, Tyrannidae) for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Bellagamba-Oliveira, Danielle; Bellagamba, Gina; de Oliveira, Ricardo Oliveira; Jacobs, Fernando; Ritter, Rafael; Dias, Rafael Antunes

    2015-01-01

    The Rufous Casiornis, Casiornis rufus (Vielliot, 1916), is widespread in central South America, reaching its southernmost distribution in northern Argentina and Uruguay. Here we present the first nine records of the species for Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. The records were documented...

  15. New and additional records of Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955 (Decapoda, Caridea, Alpheidae from Brazil, with a key to the southern Atlantic species

    Arthur Anker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the alpheid shrimp genus Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955, are reported from shallow waters of São Sebastião (SP, southeastern Brazil. Salmoneus depressus Anker, 2011 is recorded for the first time in Brazil and the southwestern Atlantic; this species was previously known only from the Caribbean region. Salmoneus ortmanni (Rankin, 1898 is recorded for the first time in southern Brazil (23°S, being previously known in Brazilian waters from a single confirmed record from Atol das Rocas (03°S, with older records referring to Salmoneus carvachoi Anker, 2007. A hitherto unknown morphological variation in S. depressus is discussed and illustrated. Both species are shown in colour to facilitate their identification in the field. A key to the southern Atlantic species of Salmoneus is also provided.

  16. Ownership of fishing areas and use of fishing resources by artisanal fishermen in a pond in southern Brazil

    Jackes Mancke dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mangueira Lagoon located in southern Brazil, has its northern portion included in the Taim Ecological Station, a federal conservation unit. The fishing practice is among the activities at this region. It has its own characteristics due to environmental conditions and specific physiography of the area. A field protocol based on geographic information was used to characterize the occupation process and the use of fishing resources. Socio-economic information was collected through interviews of the fishermen and also based on fishing data. After compiling the data a statistical descriptive analyses was completed. The average catch per fisherman in the region is 4,766.5 kg per year. The Loricariichthys anus showed the highest catch volume, ensuring the economic viability of the local activity. The constant increase of the activity may be compromising the reproductive cycle of the local ichthyological fauna, thus compromising the fishery sustainability.

  17. An evaluation of quality of life and its determinants among people living with HIV/AIDS from Southern Brazil

    Susane Müller Klug Passos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study evaluated the quality of life and its associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS at a regional reference center for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil. WHOQOL-HIV Bref, ASSIST 2.0, HAD Scale, and a questionnaire were used to assess 625 participants on quality of life, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, depression and anxiety. Multivariate analysis was performed through linear regression. The lowest results for quality of life were associated with being female, age (< 47 years, low education levels, low socioeconomic class, unemployment, not having a stable relationship, signs of anxiety and depression, abuse or addiction of psychoactive substances, lack of perceived social support, never taking antiretroviral medication, lipodystrophy, comorbidities, HIV related hospitalizations and a CD4+ cell count less than 350. Psychosocial factors should be included in the physical and clinical evaluation given their strong association with quality of life domains.

  18. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Bornschein, Marcos R; Firkowski, Carina R; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A A; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:26630281

  19. Seasonal and organ variations in antioxidant capacity, detoxifying competence and oxidative damage in freshwater and estuarine fishes from Southern Brazil.

    Da Rocha, A M; Salomão de Freitas, D P; Burns, M; Vieira, J P; de la Torre, F R; Monserrat, J M

    2009-11-01

    This study analyzed biochemical biomarkers of freshwater and estuarine fish species from Southern Brazil. It analyzed three organs (muscle, liver and gills), in four fish species (Micropogonias furnieri, Pimelodus pintado, Loricariichthys anus and Parapimelodus nigribarbis) in order to perform an environmental diagnosis. Obtained results showed that liver of L. anus and gills of M. furnieri presented higher total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals during fall, whereas a clear seasonality was found for gill reduced glutathione (GSH) levels of all studied species, with higher concentration during spring. In terms of oxidative damage (TBARS), liver of M. furnieri and gills of P. nigribarbis showed higher TBARS levels during fall, whereas P. pintado showed the lowest TBARS value. Finally, a conspicuous seasonal effect was observed for purified and non-purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST), where minimum values were registered during fall, pointing to this season as one where fish species are less competent to perform detoxifying reactions. PMID:19665578

  20. K-Ar ages of alkaline rock from Southern Brazil and Eastern Paraguay: compilation and adaptation of new decay constants

    A compilation of 295 geochronological data of 52 alkaline occurrences from Southern Brazil and Eastern Paraguay is presented. These data, mostly available in previous publications, were recalculated, using the new constants recommended by STEIGER and JAEGER (1977) for the K-Ar method. The estimated analytical error of the age determined using experimental parameters is also indicated (COX and DALRYMPLE, 1967). This paper aims, specifically, at making ages published prior to 1977 compatible with recent data, allowing, for example, comparisons between ages obtained from a single alkaline massif or from neighbouring massifs. By calculating K-Ar ages using the constants recommended by STEIGER and JAEGER (op. cit.), there occurs an increase of 2.1 to 2.4% in the value of the age calculated with the previous constants. (author)

  1. Comparative morphology and identification key for females of nine Sarcophagidae species (Diptera with forensic importance in Southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe identification of female flesh flies was always considered a difficult task since morphological descriptions and keys for females are rare. Even in a forensic entomology framework, where females play a major role, female flesh flies are usually not identified. In order to fill this gap in Southern Brazil fauna we provide detailed descriptions and key for the female of nine species included in four genera: Microcerella halli (Engel, Oxysarcodexia paulistanensis (Mattos, Oxysarcodexia riograndensis (Lopes, Peckia (Euboettcheria australis (Townsend, Peckia(Euboettcheria florencioi (Prado and Fonseca, Peckia (Pattonella intermutans (Walker, Peckia(Pattonella resona (Lopes, Peckia (Sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann, and Sarcophaga(Bercaea africa (Wiedemann. These species are distinguished mainly by genital characters as tergite 6 divided or undivided, presence of tergite 8, spermatheca morphology and vaginal plate shape.

  2. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae in three limnic systems in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the diet of Lontra longicaudis in three limnic systems (anthropogenic shallow lakes, pluvial channel and coastal stream in Rio Grande do Sul State coastal plain, southern Brazil. Fishes were the most consumed item in all the three systems, being Mugilidae the most representative family in the pluvial channel and coastal stream and Cichlidae in the shallow lakes. Other identified items were mollusks, insects, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and vegetal fragments. The high frequency of birds in the shallow lakes was remarkable, considering the lower frequencies of this item in previous investigations on the species diet. There was a high frequency of swamp eels (Synbranchidae, Synbranchus marmoratus in the pluvial channel and shallow lakes, which were usually absent or found in low frequencies in previous studies.

  3. Uranium content of coal ashes from Southern Brazil coal fueled power stations, by the fission track registration technique

    The feasibility of the application of the fission track registration technique for the determination of uranium in coal ashes was shown. The wet method was employed using as detector the Makrofol KG=10 μm, manufactured by Bayer. The coal ashes were originated from coal-fueled power stations localized in Southern Brazil. The results obtained ranged from 10 to 27 mg U/kg. Since the total error variation was from 18,4% to 23,8%, the method used was considered excellent. The determination of the uranium content in coal ashes is of considerable interest in environmental control in power stations, in their vicinity and wherever these ashes are used or stored. The technique used is the work proved to be very appropriate for the purpose aimed at. (Author)

  4. Accumulation patterns of organochlorines in juveniles of Arctocephalus australis found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the specific distributions of organochlorine (OC) compounds in various tissues and organs of juveniles of the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) found stranded on beaches in southern Brazil. The OC residue concentrations occurred in the following order: PCBs > DDTs > CHLs > HCHs > HCB. OC concentrations in blubber were higher than other tissues (e.g. PCBs, 2480 ng g-1 wet weight; DDTs, 660 ng g-1 wet weight) indicating a positive association with lipid content (except for HCB). However, the poor nutritional status of these animals, possibly following a starvation period, is likely to have allowed the remobilization of organochlorines stored in lipids to other tissues throughout the body, increasing their vulnerability to toxic effects and possibly affecting their survival capability. - Analysis of tissues of juveniles of the South American fur seal suggests organochlorines are remobilized during their poor nutritional status, increasing their vulnerability to toxic effects

  5. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with leaf diseases on Eucalyptus globulus in southern Brazil

    Teodoro, M.G.; Ferreira, M.A.; Guimarães, L.M.S.; Mafia, R.G.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Alfenas, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf blight and defoliation caused by Teratosphaeria species is one of the most important leaf diseases of Eucalyptus globulus. Due to the importance of this tree species for the production of pulp and paper, and recent reports of severe leaf disease symptoms in Brazil, the present study was conduct

  6. [Inadequate dietary micronutrient intake in men and women in southern Brazil: the EpiFloripa Adults Study, 2012].

    Cembranel, Francieli; González-Chica, David Alejandro; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate dietary intake of micronutrients among adults in a city in Southern Brazil according to sex and age, and to measure the prevalence of inadequate dietary micronutrient intake according to sex. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with 1,222 adults 22 to 63 years of age living in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Data on dietary intake were obtained from two 24-hour recalls (one in the total sample and the other in a subsample of 40% of the research subjects). Micronutrient intake and prevalence rates for inadequate intake were estimated according to the guidelines of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. High prevalence rates of inadequate intake in the entire sample were seen for vitamins A, C, D, and E (range, 52%-100%). Calcium and iron intake were more inadequate in women (87.3% and 13.7%, respectively), as was zinc in men (25.1%). Adults in Florianópolis, showed high prevalence rates of inadequate intake of essential micronutrients. PMID:27580235

  7. INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE AND MIGRATION ROUTES OF TREE SPECIES ON THE PHYTOGEOGRAPHY PATTERNS OF FORESTS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Pedro Higuchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812338This study aimed to evaluate the influence of bioclimatic variables and tree species migration routes onthe phytogeographic pattern of different forest physiognomy in southern Brazil. For this proposal, floristiccheck-lists of tree species of Araucaria Forest (AF, Subtropical Rain Forest (SRF, Seasonal DeciduousForest (SDF and Seasonal semi-deciduous Forest (SSF were extracted from the scientific literature.The vegetation matrix went through a detrended correspondence analysis (DCA and, subsequently, theenvironmental matrix was adjusted to the ordination axes. The significant environmental variables (p ≤0.001 were plotted as vectors in the ordination diagram. A Multivariate Regression Tree (MRT was used inorder to analyze the floristic relationship among areas in function of bioclimatic variables. The eigenvaluesfor axis 1 and 2 of the DCA were, respectively, 0.49 and 0.25, which indicated high species turnover alongaxis 1, strongly associated with mean temperature of the wettest quarter, minimum temperature of thecoldest month, altitude and annual average temperature. The results allowed the conclusion that (i thereis greater floristic similarity between Araucaria Forest and Seasonal Forests, and (ii the tree component ofsouthern Brazil forests shows physiognomic and floristic variation in response to bioclimatic heterogeneityand migration routes.

  8. SOIL-PLANT NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS IN TWO MANGROVE AREAS AT SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Ana Paula Lang Martins Madi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMangrove forests have a simple architecture. They shelter a few number of arboreal species that grow in a saline environment subject to tidal activity. The research objective was to evaluate possible interactions between physical-chemical soil attributes and plant-leaf nutrient concentrations of different mangrove species. Different mangrove species growing in the same soil, and the same mangrove species growing in two different soil classes were evaluated as to their leaf nutrient concentration patterns. The study was carried out in mangrove areas of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, in two distinct soil classes: HISTOSOL THIOMORPHIC Salic sodic and GLEYSOL THIOMORPHIC Salic sodic; and three different species: Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle. Two subareas were delimited within each area from which soil and leaf samples were collected. Samplings from five individuals of each dominant mangrove species were taken from the soil (0-10 cm deep under each tree crown projection. The data was submitted to statistical analysis using a set of simple and multivariate analysis in order to determine possible differences among mangrove species leaf nutrient concentrations, and whether these differences might be correlated with the soil attributes or not. The results exposed that the nutritional state of the mangrove species is different and independent form the soil attributes in which they grow. Few correlations were found among leaf nutrient concentrations and soil attributes, suggesting differential selective nutrient uptake among species.RESUMENLos manglares son bosques de arquitectura simple que albergan pocas especies arbóreas, creciendo en un ambiente salino sometido a la influencia de las mareas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las posibles interacciones entre las propiedades fisicoquímicas del suelo y la concentración de nutrientes en hojas de diferentes especies de mangle. Se investigó si

  9. Diet of the lizard Liolaemus occipitalis in the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil (Squamata-Liolaemidae).

    Verrastro, L; Ely, I

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of a species' diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard's diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, "sit-and-wait" or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often. PMID:26132010

  10. Contributions to the Dart versus Arrow Debate: New Data from Holocene Projectile Points from Southeastern and Southern Brazil

    Mercedes Okumura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithic bifacial points are very common in the southern and southeastern regions of the Brazilian territory. Dated from Early to Late Holocene, these artifacts have not been studied in terms of their propulsion system. Given the characteristics of the bow and arrow compared to the atlatl and dart, there are important differences in the size and weight of arrowheads and dart points. Applying the techniques proposed by Shott (1997, Bradbury (1997, Fenenga (1953, Hughes (1998, and Hildebrandt and King (2012 to specimens recovered from eight sites dating from the early to the late Holocene, this work aims to present preliminary results to better understand the potential presence of darts and arrows in southeastern and southern Brazil. There was a variation in the results according to the application of different techniques. At least one set of points, dated from the Early Holocene, presented quite a high proportion of specimens classified as arrows, indicating the presence of points that could be used as arrowheads.

  11. Cytisus scoparius (Fam. Fabaceae) in southern Brazil - first step of an invasion process?

    Cordero, Rodrigo León; Torchelsen, Fábio P; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Anand, Madhur

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Fabaceae), is reported for the first time in Brazil. The species has been registered in the species-rich Campos Sulinos grasslands, in the Campos de Cima da Serra, and in the Serra do Sudeste. Naturalizing populations were frequently formed in natural habitats near to human settlements, where prevailing land uses and disturbances facilitate dispersal and establishment. The plant is an invasive species that has globally caused significant damage to biodiversity and economic losses. In Brazil, the species has a strong potential for spreading into a wide range of ecosystems. The Atlantic Forest biome and part of the Pampa biome, together known as the Campos Sulinos, represent optimal areas for the species. Features of the observed populations and recommendations for management are presented. PMID:26871495

  12. Polymorphic variants of UGT1A1 in neonatal jaundice in southern Brazil.

    Carvalho, Clarissa Gutiérrez; Castro, Simone Martins; Santin, Ana Paula; de Azevedo, Laura Alencastro; Pereira, Maria Luiza Saraiva; Giugliani, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    Alterations in the hepatic conjugation of bilirubin due to uridyl-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) polymorphisms have been proposed as risk factors to neonatal jaundice. Herein, we estimated the frequency of genotypes of the promoter region of UGT1A1 gene in newborns and evaluated its association with severe hyperbilirubinemia. Prospective study of cases and controls including all newborns admitted for phototherapy at HCPA, Brazil, during 9 months; 490 babies were enrolled and PCR was performed. Polymorphic genotypes were detected in 16% of the patients and 7 of the 10 possible genotypes were identified with higher prevalence of polymorphisms in Afro-descendants. In this sample, the variants of UGT1A1 were not associated to severe hyperbilirubinemia; other genic factors should be sought in this high miscegenation area of Brazil. PMID:20061399

  13. Clinical survey of hantavirus in southern Brazil and the development of specific molecular diagnosis tools.

    Raboni, Sonia M; Rubio, Gisélia; DE Borba, Luana; Zeferino, Aurélio; Skraba, Irene; Goldenberg, Samuel; Dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte

    2005-06-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an emerging disease caused by an increasing number of distinct hantavirus serotypes found worldwide. It is also a very severe immune disease. It progresses quickly and is associated with a high mortality rate. At the prodrome phase, hantavirosis symptoms can resemble those of other infectious diseases such as leptospirosis and influenza. Thus, prognosis could be improved by developing a rapid and sensitive diagnostic test for hantavirus infection, and by improving knowledge about clinical aspects of this disease. This study describes clinical features and laboratory parameters throughout the course of HPS in 98 patients. We report the seasonality and regional distribution of this disease in Paraná State, Brazil during the last seven years. In addition, we evaluated a specific molecular diagnostic test based on a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for the detection of hantaviruses circulating in Brazil. PMID:15964966

  14. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil.

    Gallas, Moisés; da Silveira, Eliane Fraga; da Silvera, Eliane Fraga

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5) were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:23070447

  15. Diet and reproductive dynamics of Trachelyopterus lucenai (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) in subtropical coastal lagoons in southern Brazil

    Renata Maia; Luiz G. S. Artioli; Hartz, Sandra M.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the diet and reproductive dynamics of Trachelyopterus lucenai Bertoletti, Pezzi da Silva & Pereira, 1995, an allochthonous fish species in the subtropical coastal lagoons of the Tramandaí River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The fecundity of the species is described for the first time. Specimens were captured in the interconnected lagoons Itapeva, Quadros and Malvas, on a monthly basis, from November 2008 to April 2010, with gillnets of different mesh sizes. The food items id...

  16. Environmental water quality assessment in Guaratuba bay, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    Byanka Damian Mizerkowski; Eunice da Costa Machado; Nilva Brandini; Mariana Gallucci Nazario; Kleber Vieira Bonfim

    2012-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the estuarine waters of Guaratuba bay, Paraná State, Brazil, is provided through the analysis of physical-chemical, biological and hydrographic dynamics. Twelve stations with a bi-monthly frequency (from October/2002 until August/2003) were sampled during spring and neap tides for the determination of pH, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, suspended particulate matter and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosph...

  17. Evaluation of different methods to estimate daily reference evapotranspiration in ungauged basins in Southern Brazil

    Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance and land surface energy balance. Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing data uncertainty, simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. This is especially important in Brazil, where the monitoring of meteorological data is precarious. In this study were compared different methods for estimating evapotranspiration for Rio Grande do Sul, the Southernmost State of Brazil, aiming to suggest alternatives to the recommended method (Penman-Monteith-FAO 56) for estimate daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) when meteorological data is missing or not available. The input dataset included daily and hourly-observed data from conventional and automatic weather stations respectively maintained by the National Weather Institute of Brazil (INMET) from the period of 1 January 2007 to 31 January 2010. Dataset included maximum temperature (Tmax, °C), minimum temperature (Tmin, °C), mean relative humidity (%), wind speed at 2 m height (u2, m s‑1), daily solar radiation (Rs, MJ m‑ 2) and atmospheric pressure (kPa) that were grouped at daily time-step. Was tested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith method (PM) at its full form, against PM assuming missing several variables not normally available in Brazil in order to calculate daily reference ETo. Missing variables were estimated as suggested in FAO56 publication or from climatological means. Furthermore, PM was also compared against the following simplified empirical methods: Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, Mccloud, McGuiness-Bordne, Romanenko, Radiation-Temperature, Tanner-Pelton. The statistical analysis indicates that even if just Tmin and Tmax are available, it is better to use PM estimating missing variables from syntetic data than

  18. Identification of organic and biodynamic grape and wine producers in southern Brazil

    Medeiros Narjara; Machado Lays; da Silva Lisboa Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The concern about health and environmental aspects are increasingly present in our society. In 1976 José Lutzemberger publishes the first Brazilian ecological manifesto. In 2003 the Law 10.831 is approved, which conceptualizes and defines organic agriculture. In 1982, the first Biodynamic Agriculture meeting in Brazil happens, where the construction of the basis for the implementation of biodynamic in Brazilian agriculture started. In 1995 the Brazilian Association of Biodynamic Agriculture i...

  19. Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program

    Centeno da Silva, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being recorded. The rice production sector of Rio Grande do Sul is responsible for 240.000 jobs [production, industrialization and commercialization] and contributes 1,6 billion US dollar to Brazils' economy per ye...

  20. The Diatom Anorthoneis dulcis Hein from Southern Brazil: Morphology and Ecology

    A new geographic locality for Anorthoneis dulcis is reported. The paper describes the distribution and relative abundance of A. dulcis in Lagoa dos Patos lagoon (a lagoon in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil) from samples collected between 2004 and 2005, and shows that this rare species is present all year round. This study extends the species distribution to South America indicating that the species can thrive on sand grains in lentic estuarine, and freshwater areas. It widens the range of tolerance to environmental parameters. The valve fine structure, morphology, and dimensions are in agreement with the original diagnosis.

  1. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus in southern Brazil

    Camila Marx

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The neuraminidase (NA genes of A(H1N1pdm09 influenza virus isolates from 306 infected patients were analysed. The circulation of oseltamivir-resistant viruses in Brazil has not been reported previously. Clinical samples were collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS from 2009-2011 and two NA inhibitor-resistant mutants were identified, one in 2009 (H275Y and the other in 2011 (S247N. This study revealed a low prevalence of resistant viruses (0.8% with no spread of the resistant mutants throughout RS.

  2. ISOLATION OF Ricket tsia bellii FROM Amblyomma ovale AND Amblyomma incisum TICKS FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Richard Pacheco; Simone Rosa; Leonardo Richtzenhain; Szabó, Matias P. J.; Marcelo B Labruna

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo. Aislar Rickettsias mediante cultivo celular a partir de muestras de garrapatas Amblyomma ovale y Amblyomma incisum del estado de São Paulo Materiales y métodos. A. ovale y A. incisum adultas de vida libre fueron colectadas en una área de selva tropical Atlántica en el estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Cada garrapata fue sometida a la prueba de hemolinfa, las garrapatas positivas en esta prueba fueron evaluadas con la técnica de shell vial con el propósito de aislar rickettsias en cultivo...

  3. GNATHOPLEURA SEMIRUFA (BRULLÉ, 1846 PARASITOID OF DIPTEROUS SYNANTHROPIC IN SOUTHERN OF GOIÁS, BRAZIL

    Carlos H MARCHIORI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the occurrence of parasitoid Gnathopleura semirufa (Brullé, 1846 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitizing Oxysarcodexia thornax (Walker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae and Sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae in Brazil. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. The percentage of parasitism of O. thornax, P. chrysostoma and S. lambens was 24.6%, 35.7% and 17.0%, respectively.

  4. Variants of the HNF1α gene: a molecular approach concerning diabetic patients from southern Brazil

    Naieli Bonatto; Viviane Nogaroto; Svidnicki, Paulo V.; Milléo, Fábio Q.; Sabrina Grassiolli; Almeida, Mara C.; Marcelo R. Vicari; Artoni, Roberto F.

    2012-01-01

    Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) presents monogenic inheritance and mutation factors which have already been identified in six different genes. Given the wide molecular variation present in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α gene (HNF1α) MODY3, the aim of this study was to amplify and sequence the coding regions of this gene in seven patients from the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Brazil, presenting clinical MODY3 features. Besides the synonymous variations, A15A, L17L, Q141Q, ...

  5. Austrolebias paucisquama (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), a new species of annual killifish from southern Brazil

    Juliano Ferrer; Luiz R. Malabarba; Wilson J. E. M. Costa

    2008-01-01

    Austrolebias paucisquama is described from the rio Vacacaí drainage, a tributary to the rio Jacuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The new species belongs to the Austrolebias alexandri species-group, by sharing the apomorphic bright blue iridescence and dark gray pectoral fins in males. It is distinguished from other species of this group by having fewer scales around caudal peduncle (12) and fewer dorsal-fin rays in males (17-21). The lack of contact organs on the inner surface of the pectoral fi...

  6. Dental Anomalies in Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae collected in Southern Brazil

    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the occurrence of dental anomalies in a specimen of Lontra longicaudis from the extreme south of Brazil. The specimen examined (MCNU-1584 underwent radiographic and macroscopic analysis of the dental number, shape and structure. Anomalies were observed in the alveoli of the right PM1 and PM2, which were obstructed by bone tissue and tooth loss was possibly due to trauma or pathogenesis. The presence of a supernumerary tooth, not erupted, inclined and incisiform, was also observed on the midline of the palate. Its position and null functionality suggest that it originated because of the hyper development of the dental lamina.

  7. Discovery of the Critically Endangered annual killifish Austrolebias wolterstorffi (Ahl, 1924) (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) in Lagoa do Peixe National Park, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Lanés, L. E. K.; L. Maltchik

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the discovery of the rare and Critically Endangered annual killifish Austrolebias wolterstorffi in temporary wetland of Lagoa do Peixe National Park, an important conservation unit of southern Brazil protected under the Ramsar Convention and recognized Biosphere Reserve.

  8. Vegetation and pollen rain relationship from the tropical Atlantic rain forest in Southern Brazil

    Hermann Behling; Raquel R.B. Negrelle

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the southern Brazilian tropical Atlantic lowland rain forest and modern pollen rain was studied by pollen traps. The study was carried out on a one hectare plot undisturbed rain forest of the reserve Volta Velha and two secondary forests, ± 50 and 7 years old. About 248 identified tree, shrub and herb species (excluding epiphytes) of 50 families were represented by 126 different pollen and spore types (including non-local taxa). The calculated average influx of...

  9. [Cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil].

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Caleffi, Maira; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer mammographic screening program implemented in Porto Alegre (Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of NMPOA compared to current BC diagnosis and care in the Brazilian public health system, in a hypothetical cohort of women aged 40-69 years at risk of developing breast cancer. Model parameters were collected from NMPOA and the national literature. In the NMPOA strategy, effectiveness was modeled taking into account the actual observed screening adherence. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case was R$ 13,426 per QALY. This result was not sensitive to variation in the main model parameters in sensitivity analyses. Considering the threshold usually suggested as highly attractive in Brazil, breast cancer screening as performed in NMPOA is cost-effective in cities with high incidence of breast cancer. PMID:25402242

  10. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.La selección de áreas prioritarias es un enorme desafío para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Métodos biogeográficos se han utilizado para identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación, como la panbiogeografía. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo el empleo de herramientas panbiogeográficas, para identificar los patrones de distribución de los géneros de insectos acuáticos, en los sistemas de humedales de una extensa área de la región Neotropical (~280 000km², y así comparar la distribución de las

  11. O perfil dos cirurgiões de catarata no sul do Brasil The profile of cataract surgeons in Southern Brazil

    Rafael Faustini Loeff

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o perfil e as preferências dos cirurgiões de catarata que atuam na região sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Um questionário sobre a rotina da cirurgia de catarata foi elaborado pelos autores e enviado a 1.000 oftalmologistas dos três estados que compõem essa região do país (Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul. Ao questionário foi anexada uma carta explicando os propósitos do trabalho, e um envelope pré-selado. A avaliação dos dados colhidos foi realizada por meio do pacote estatístico SPSS 8.0 for Windows®. RESULTADOS: Apenas 210 questionários (21% foram remetidos pelos entrevistados, devidamente preenchidos. Pela análise dos itens nele contidos, observou-se que fazem parte das preferências desses cirurgiões: o uso da anestesia peribulbar e a extração da catarata pela técnica extracapsular, com implantação de lentes de 5 e 6 milímetros de área óptica e sutura por meio de pontos separados. A facoemulsificação só é usada por 39% desses cirurgiões, em cerca de 60% das suas operações. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar dos constantes avanços tecnológicos observados nessa área da medicina, viu-se que técnicas modernas, como a facoemulsificação, não são ainda utilizadas rotineiramente pelos oftalmologistas da região sul do Brasil que participaram da presente pesquisa.PURPOSE: To evaluate the profile and preferences of cataract surgeons working in southern Brazil. METHODS: A questionnaire about the routines of cataract surgery was elaborated by the authors and sent to 1,000 ophthalmologists of the three states of southern Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. A presentation letter signed by the authors and a pre-sealed envelope were attached to the questionnaire. Data analysis was done using the statistical package SPSS 8.0 for Windows®. RESULTS: Only 210 completely filled out questionnaires were sent back by the interviewees. Through the analysis of the gathered data, one could observe

  12. Comparative Assessment of Genetic and Morphological Variation at an Extensive Hybrid Zone between Two Wild Cats in Southern Brazil

    Trigo, Tatiane C.; Tirelli, Flávia P.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Increased attention towards the Neotropical cats Leopardus guttulus and L. geoffroyi was prompted after genetic studies identified the occurrence of extensive hybridization between them at their geographic contact zone in southern Brazil. This is a region where two biomes intersect, each of which is associated with one of the hybridizing species (Atlantic Forest with L. guttulus and Pampas with L. geoffroyi). In this study, we conducted in-depth analyses of multiple molecular markers aiming to characterize the magnitude and spatial structure of this hybrid zone. We also performed a morphological assessment of these species, aiming to test their phenotypic differentiation at the contact zone, as well as the correlation between morphological features and the admixture status of the individuals. We found strong evidence for extensive and complex hybridization, with at least 40% of the individuals sampled in Rio Grande do Sul state (southernmost Brazil) identified as hybrids resulting from post-F1 generations. Despite such a high level of hybridization, samples collected in this state still comprised two recognizable clusters (genetically and morphologically). Genetically pure individuals were sampled mainly in regions farther from the contact zone, while hybrids concentrated in a central region (exactly at the interface between the two biomes). The morphological data set also revealed a strong spatial structure, which was correlated with the molecular results but displayed an even more marked separation between the clusters. Hybrids often did not present intermediate body sizes and could not be clearly distinguished morphologically from the parental forms. This observation suggests that some selective pressure may be acting on the hybrids, limiting their dispersal away from the hybrid zone and perhaps favoring genomic combinations that maintain adaptive phenotypic features of one or the other parental species. PMID:25250657

  13. Diel and seasonal movements of grumatã Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1836) (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) in the Sinos River, Southern Brazil.

    Pesoa, N A; Schulz, U H

    2010-12-01

    Prochilodus lineatus is a reophilic migratory species of economical importance for local fisheries which is widely distributed in Brazil. The present study investigated diel and seasonal movement patterns, spawning migration and habitat use of P. lineatus in the Sinos River, Southern Brazil. Between August 2002 and March 2004, 19 grumatãs were tagged internally with digitally coded radio transmitters. Tracking was conducted weekly by boat or aircraft, and six fixed data loggers recorded movements of tagged fish. Results showed that the mean distance covered per fish and day was positively related with fish weight (p = 0.03; n = 19). Grumatã showed preference for river streches surrounded by wetlands (p < 0.001; n = 286). Their diel activity pattern displayed one peak at 7 hours, and a second at 15 hours. During the night, activity was significantly reduced (p = 0.01). The seasonal movements pattern showed increased activity in October 2002 - March 2003 and from October 2003 to January 2004. Multiple regression analysis did not show a significant relationship between distance covered and temperature or water level (p = 0.116; n = 19). No synchronized long distance spawning migrations were observed. The mean distance covered by the individuals/day showed a negative significant relationship with number of tracking days (p = 0.022; n = 19), indicating a higher probability of being captured for more mobile individuals. The preservation of the still existing wetlands and reduction of the fishing pressure are essential for the future conservation of the grumatã population of the Sinos River. PMID:21225158

  14. Nine thousand years of upper montane soil/vegetation dynamics from the summit of Caratuva Peak, Southern Brazil

    Scheer, Maurício B.; Pereira, Nuno Veríssimo; Behling, Hermann; Curcio, Gustavo R.; Roderjan, Carlos V.

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity loss, climate change, and increased freshwater consumption are some of the main environmental problems on Earth. Mountain ecosystems can reduce these threats by providing several positive influences, such as the maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, and carbon storage, amongst others. The knowledge of the history of these environments and their response to climate change is very important for management, conservation, and environmental monitoring programs. The genesis of the soil organic matter of the current upper montane vegetation remains unclear and seems to be quite variable depending on location. Some upper montane sites in the very extensive coastal Sea Mountain Range present considerable organic matter from the late Pleistocene and other from only the Holocene. Our study was carried out on three soil profiles (two cores in grassland and one in forest) on the Caratuva Peak of the Serra do Ibitiraquire (a sub-range of Sea Mountain Range - Serra do Mar) in Southern Brazil. The δ13C isotopic analyses of organic matter in soil horizons were conducted to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities. Complementarily, we performed a pollen analysis and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. Except for a short and probably drier period (between 6000 and 4500 cal yr BP), C3 plants, including ombrophilous grasses and trees, have dominated the highlands of the Caratuva Peak (Pico Caratuva), as well as the other uppermost summits of the Serra do Ibitiraquire, since around 9000 cal yr BP. The Caratuva region represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands (campos de altitude altomontanos or campos altomontanos) and upper montane rain/cloud forests with soils that most likely contain some organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as has been reported in Southern and Southeastern Brazil for other sites. However, our results indicate that the studied deposits (near the summit) are from the early

  15. Epilithic community development on artificial reefs deployed along a cross-shelf environmental gradient off Paraná state, southern Brazil

    Frederico Brandini; Ariel Scheffer da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Concrete modules were deployed on the bottom of the 11, 18 and 30 meters isobaths along a cross-shelf hydrographic gradient off Paraná State, Southern Brazil, with the purpose of studying the colonization of sessile epilithic macroinvertebrates on artificial surfaces. After one year of submersion a total of 63 species of epilithic organisms were identified, dominated by Ostrea puelchana, Chthamalus bisinuatus, Balanus cf spongicola, Astrangia cf rathbuni, Didemnum spp, poryphers and bryozoans...

  16. Investigation on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and Avian Poxvirus (APV) in magellanic penguins in Southern region of Brazil

    Cristina Freitas Nunes; Fabiane Fonseca; Alice Teixeira Meirelles Leite; Rodolfo Pinho da Silva Filho; Paula Fonseca Finger; Clarissa Caetano Castro; Geferson Fischer; Gilberto D'Avila Vargas; Silvia de Oliveira Hübner

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and avian poxvirus (APV) in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELI...

  17. A Record of Invasive Black Catfish (Trachelyopterus lucenai Predation by the Neotropical River Otter (Lontra longicaudis in Restinga of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil

    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trachelyopterus lucenai (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae is an invasive fish in restinga of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. In April 2007 remains of T. lucenai were found in the stomach of an individual of Lontra longicaudis which was run over near a pluvial channel in the restinga area. The present record contributes to the knowledge on otters predation on exotic/invasive species in aquatic environments.

  18. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  19. Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the Southern Amazonas Basin and Central Brazil

    Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project Brushfire 1979 took place based in Brasilia, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, H2, CH3CL, COS, NO, NO2, O3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. (orig./RW)

  20. Assessment of inorganic contaminants in golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) in Southern Brazil

    Pereira, Ederson R.; Soares, Bruno M.; Duarte, Fabio A., E-mail: fabioand@gmail.com [Escola de Quimica e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande-RS (Brazil); Vieira, Joao P.; Mai, Ana C.G. [Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande-RS (Brazil); Picoloto, Rochele S.; Muller, Edson I.; Flores, Erico M.M. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria-RS (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Major and trace element content was determined in golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) collected in the Sao Goncalo Channel (Rio Grande City, Brazil). A microwave-assisted digestion procedure in closed vessels was applied to mussel decomposition and subsequent determination of elements by spectrometric techniques. Results showed that the mussel tissue contains Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, P, Pb, S, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn, while the same elements (except Ag and Hg) were quantified in its shell, demonstrating its potential as a biomarker. In this sense, these results can be used to establish an initial view and to contribute to further studies related to element contamination in the area under study (author)

  1. Diet of Iheringichthys labrosus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae in the Ibicuí River, Southern Brazil

    Camila K. Fagundes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the benthic-feeding fish Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken, 1874 was analyzed. Samples were taken bimonthly from December 1999 to January 2002, in three sites of the Ibicuí River, a tributary of Uruguay River basin (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each sampling point the specimens were collected in lentic and lotic environments. Gillnets and trammel nets were examined every 6 hours (6h, 12h, 18h and 24h. Diet description was based on the frequency of occurrence and the volume of each food item to obtain the Alimentary Index (IAi. The average stomach fullness was adopted to detect variations in the feeding activity according to the season, the circadian rhythm and the environment. Chironomids were the most important food item, followed by mollusks, and feeding activity was highest in summer, during daylight (6h and 12h, and in the lotic environment of the second sampling point.

  2. Edentulism, Severe Tooth Loss and Lack of Functional Dentition in Elders: A Study in Southern Brazil.

    Ribeiro, Camila Garcez; Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Silva, Alexandre Emídio Ribeiro; Seerig, Lenise Menezes; Nascimento, Gustavo Giacomelli; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate self-reported prevalence of edentulism, severe tooth loss and lack of functional dentition in elders, and to identify potential associated factors. A population based cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,451 elders (≥60 years), in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regressions. The prevalence of edentulism, severe tooth loss and lack of functional dentition was 39.3%, 60.9% and 82.7%, respectively. The factors positively associated with tooth loss in the three-degree severity were sex (females), older individuals, low familial income, low level of schooling and having the last dental visit longer than 24 months ago. The high prevalence of tooth loss in its different degrees of severity and the association with preventable factors highlight the need of programs focused on elders, emphasizing the prevention of tooth loss and need for prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:27224572

  3. Enterovirus and herpesviridae family as etiologic agents of lymphomonocytary meningitis, Southern Brazil

    Luine Rosele Renaud Vidal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Viral meningitis is a common infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS that occurs worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify the etiologic agent of lymphomonocytary meningitis in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. During the period of July 2005 to December 2006, 460 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples with lymphomonocytary meningitis were analyzed by PCR methodologies. Fifty nine (12.8% samples were positive. Enteroviruses was present in 49 (83% samples and herpes virus family in 10 (17%, of these 6 (10% herpes simplex virus, 1 (2% Epstein Barr virus, 2 (3% human herpes virus type 6 and 1 (2% mixed infection of enterovirus and Epstein Barr virus. As conclusion enterovirus was the most frequent virus, with circulation during summer and was observed with higher frequency between 4 to 17 years of age. PCR methodology is an important method for rapid detection of RNA enterovirus and DNA herpesvirus in CSF.

  4. Avian pox virus infection in a common barn owl (Tyto alba in southern Brazil

    Gilberto D. Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A young common barn owl (Tyto alba was referred to the Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre (Nurfs, Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel, after been found in a barn of a brick factory in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The bird was apathic, weak and with crusty lesions in the featherless areas (eyes, beak, legs, and died soon after arrival at Nurfs. Necropsy and histopathological examination of the lesions were carried out. The hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the cutaneous lesions, several eosinophilic intracyto-plasmic inclusion bodies in epithelial cells (Bollinger bodies, as well as particles characteristic of poxvirus, observed by electronic microscopy, confirmed the infection by avian poxvirus, what highlights the importance of Tyto alba as carrier of the virus in the wild.

  5. Dolphin interactions with the mullet artisanal fishing on Southern Brazil: a qualitative and quantitative approach

    Paulo C. Simões-Lopes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the interactions between Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821 and the artisanal fishing of mullets (Mugil spp. is presented at two localities in the south of Brazil: Laguna (Santa Catarina and Inibé/Tramandaí (Rio Grande do Sul. Its behavioral strategies and the advantages of their association are re-described and quantified based on the success of the capture and on the selectivity of the prey sizes. The mullets are the main resource involved (92% to 75% both at numerical level and as biomass. Twenty individuals of Tursiops truncatus participated in the interactions in Laguna and 9 in Imbé/Tramandaí. The participation and learning of calves is also reported.

  6. Sequential extraction and availability of copper in Cu fungicide-amended vineyard soils from Southern Brazil

    The continuous use of cupric fungicides in vineyards, mainly copper sulfate (as a component of the bordeaux mixture), has increased Cu concentration in soils to levels near or even above the maximum established by the Commission of Soil Chemistry and Fertility of the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Besides the total content, the fractions of the element along the soil profile must be known, because the total content of Cu in the soil is not sufficient to express its environmental impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of Cu contentes along the soil profile and its speciation and partitioning in 29 soil samples from vineyards in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were collected in areas cropped with vineyards older than 15 years that had been frequently treated with the bordeaux mixture. These samples were from Nitosols, Acrisols, Cambisols and Leptosols and were analysed by sequential extractions and several chemical extractors. Soils had diverse chemical and physical attributes: clay content in the plowed layer (0-0.2 m) ranged from 120 to 610 g kg-1, pH ranged from 5.3 to 7.3 and organic carbon contents varied from 2.9 to 51 g dm-3. Among the 29 samples, 16 had the total Cu above the maximum limit allowed by the European Community regulations (140 mg kg-1). The average amount of Cu bonded to the oxide fraction accounted for 49.5% of the total Cu.

  7. The burrows of Parastacus defossus (Decapoda: Parastacidae, a fossorial freshwater crayfish from southern Brazil

    Clarissa K. Noro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parastacus defossus Faxon, 1898 is a fossorial crayfish species, which constructs its burrows in swampy areas in southeast Uruguay and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The present field study was carried out in Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May 2003 through August 2005. Environmental measurements (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and water-table depth of the water in the galleries were made monthly. Burrow morphology was analyzed by means of resin and gypsum casts. The spatial distribution and changes in the number and shape of the surface openings over time were observed in a 100 m² area. To estimate the spatial distribution of the openings, the observed distribution was compared with the expected distribution predicted by the Poisson and Negative Binomial frequency-distribution models. The adult population density was estimated by direct observation of burrows and counts in the study area. Inside the burrows of P. defossus, the water temperature ranged between 16.6°C (autumn 2004 and 23°C (spring 2003. The water was hypoxic and slightly acidic, and the dissolved oxygen content was very low (mean 1.43 mg/l (18.2% saturation. The soil with burrows had higher percentages of coarse sand, fine sand, and silt. The spatial distribution of the openings showed a significant fit to the Negative Binomial distribution, indicating that the distribution of the openings is aggregated, as confirmed from the burrow morphology. The galleries are always formed by a central tunnel with multiple branchings that connect the underground water to the soil surface by one or more openings, which can be recognized by the chimneys. From knowledge of the burrow morphology, the population density was estimated to be about 120 individuals/100 m².

  8. Habitat use and seasonal activity of insectivorous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the grasslands of southern Brazil

    Marília A. S. Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.

  9. Mapping flood prone areas in southern Brazil: a combination of frequency analysis, HAND algorithm and remote sensing methods

    Fabris Goerl, Roberto; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Marcel Pellerin, Joel Robert; Altamirano Flores, Juan Antonio; Josina Abreu, Janete; Speckhann, Gustavo Andrei; Mattos Sanchez, Gerly

    2015-04-01

    Floods disaster damages several people around the world. There is a worldwide increasing trend of natural disasters frequency and their negative impacts related to the population growth and high urbanization in natural hazards zones. In Santa Catarina state, such as almost all southern Brazilian territory, floods are a frequent hydrological disaster. In this context, flood prone areas map is a important tool to avoid the construction of new settlements in non-urbanizations areas. The present work aimed to map flood prone areas in Palhoça City, Southern Brazil combining high resolution digital elevations data, remote sensing information, frequency analysis and High Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm. We used 17 years of daily discharge and stage data to calculate flood probability and return period. Remote Sensing (RS) with CBERS HRC image with 2,7m resolution was used. This image was taken one day after one flood occurrence and a band difference was used to extract the flood extent. HAND using DEM to calculate the altimetric difference between channel pixel and adjacent terrain values. All morphometric attributes used in HAND were extracted directly from the high resolution DEM (1m). Through CBERS image areas where flood level was higher than 0.5m were mapped. There is some kind of uncertain in establish HAND classes, since only distance to the channel was take in account. Thus, using other hydrological or spatial information can reduce this uncertain. To elaborate the final flood prone map, all this methods were combined. This map was classified in three main classes based on return period. It was notices that there is a strong spatial correlation between high susceptibility flood areas and geomorphological features like floodplains and Holocene beach ridges, places where water table emerges frequently. The final map was classified using three different colors (red, yellow and green) related to high, medium an law susceptibility flood areas. This mapping

  10. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Cláudio E.F. Cruz; Djeison L. Raymundo; Cristine Cerva; Saulo P. Pavarini; André G.C. Dalto; Luís G. Corbellini; David Driemeier

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 20...

  11. Brazil

    Technological advances by newly industrialized countries (NICs) have become a central concern of the recent literature on the political economy of development. Striking a fatal blow to dependency thinking, in so far as it had diagnosed a structural barrier to technological development, these countries have absorbed foreign technology and have developed a very impressive domestic technological capacity. Moreover, their exports have evolved from a traditional reliance on raw materials and unprocessed goods to include increasingly sophisticated manufactured goods and technology itself. The capabilities, motivations, and structures behind nuclear exports must be examined in light of these secular trends. This paper reports on this exploratory analysis of the country's emergence as a nuclear supplier which focuses on six major areas: the balance of motivations and constraints underlying Brazil's nuclear export potential; areas of extant capabilities that would allow the country to play a significant role as a nuclear supplier; formal and informal structures beneath nuclear export policy; patterns of nuclear trade as reflected in past transactions; prospects for continuity and change; generalizability of findings to other emerging suppliers

  12. Use of bioindicators to evaluate air quality and genotoxic compounds in an urban environment in Southern Brazil

    Biological indicators are widely used to monitor genotic compounds and air quality in urban environments. Parmotrema tinctorum and Teloschistes exilis have been used to verify the presence of pollutants and analyze morphophysiological alterations in the thallus of species caused by their action. Species were exposed for seven months, in an urban area, in southern Brazil. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of PM10 organic extracts were assessed in the Salmonella/microsome assay at two stations. High concentrations of S, Pb, Cr, Zn and Hg were registered in the last period of exposure and more significant morphophysiological damages were verified in the lichens. Generally a higher mutagenic activity is observed in organic extracts of airborne particulate matter during the first months and in the third period of exposure of lichens. In addition, nitro compounds was detected through nitro-sensitive strains. Lichens and mutagenic biomarkers enabled the evaluation of air quality and the presence of environmentally-aggressive compounds. - Highlights: ► Biological indicators are widely used to monitor genotic compounds and air quality in urban environments. ► High concentrations of S and metals were registered in the last period of exposure. ► More significant morphophysiological damages were verified in the lichens in the last period of exposure. ► The results reveals that a set of factors contributed to the morphophysiological alterations of lichens. - Bioindicators are valuable monitors of genotoxic compounds and atmospheric pollution.

  13. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    Edenir I. Palmero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9% reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8% had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ³ 20% and 214 (23.7% had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%. The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65. These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3% indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers.

  14. Dental pain, use of dental services and oral health-related quality of life in southern Brazil.

    Cavalheiro, Charles Henrique; Abegg, Claides; Fontanive, Victor Nascimento; Davoglio, Rosane Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the relationship between dental pain and the reason for using dental services and oral health quality of life in people aged 50 to 74 years in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 720 individuals aged 50 to 74 years, living in three health districts in the city of Porto Alegre. Dental impacts on daily life and sociodemographic data were assessed using structured interviews. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance - OIDP instrument was used to measure oral impacts. The information was analyzed by Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment, taking into account cluster sampling. Dental pain was present in 32.5% of those reporting an oral impact on their daily activities. Dental pain most frequently affected talking (37.6%), cleaning teeth and gums (37.0%) and enjoying the companionship of people (36.5%). After adjustments to the multivariate analysis, the reason for dental visits due to dental pain was found to have a high impact on daily activities [RP 1.68 (1.11 - 2.54]. PMID:27556550

  15. Ecological guilds of epiphytic diatoms (Bacillariophyta on Acrostichum danaeifolium Längst. & Fisch in a subtropical wetland in southern Brazil

    Vanessa Corrêa da Rosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Seasonal patterns diatom community on Acrostichum danaeifolium were examined in a wetland in southern Brazil. Methods The adhered diatoms were removed from the plant, species identification and growth forms were performed, and determined physical-chemical parameters of water. Results In total, 96 taxa belonging to 46 genera were identified. Nitzschia frustulum, Pseudostaurosira brevistriata and Plagiogramma tenuissimum were abundant species. Distinct growth forms that formed low-and high-profile ecological guilds and a mobile guild were observed. Navicula and Nitzschia were the genera with the greatest number of species, and these diatoms formed mucilage tubes. The water temperature varied from 10-26 °C, the depth from 0.35-0.80 m, the transparency from 0.20-0.23 m, the flow from 9.4-42.12 m3 s–1, the pH from 7.08-8.89, the electrical conductivity from 0.65-15.83 mS cm–1, the total organic phosphorus from 0.03-0.11 mg L–1, and the total organic nitrogen from 0.29-0.49 mg L–1. In summer, marine species such as Thalassiosira eccentrica and Rhaphoneis castracanii were also present. Conclusions The high-profile guild prevailed in all seasons of the year, with higher number of growth forms in the guild in winter. The richness found on A. danaeifolium shows that this plant provide a favorable habitat for epiphytic diatoms in wetlands such as Lagoa Pequena.

  16. Clinical failure of vancomycin treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infection in a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil

    Larissa Lutz

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of clinical failure of vancomycin treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infection and the laboratory characteristics of the organism in a tertiary referral university hospital in southern Brazil. An 11-month-old male patient presented with pneumonia and S. aureus was isolated from his respiratory tract. Initial treatment with oxacillin and gentamicin was ineffective. Vancomycin was added to the regimen as the patient worsened, but after the 30th day of vancomycin treatment S. aureus was isolated from the blood. This isolate had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for vancomycin of 4 µg/mL. After pre-incubation with vancomycin the isolate displayed an increase in the expression of vancomycin resistance and colonies grew in the presence of up to 12 µg/mL vancomycin. Based on these results, and considering that the patient had not responded to vancomycin, the isolate was considered to be S. aureus heteroresistant to vancomycin (SAHV. The SAHV proved to be similar, based on DNA macrorestriction analysis, to methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA isolates from other patients in the hospital who had responded to vancomycin treatment. Our findings underline the need to improve methods in the clinical laboratory to detect the emergence of S. aureus clinically resistant to vancomycin . The fact that the isolate emerged in the blood 30 days after vancomycin treatment was initiated suggests that the organism was originally an MRSA that had acquired the ability to circumvent the mechanism of action of vancomycin.

  17. Molecular detection of bovine coronavirus in a diarrhea outbreak in pasture-feeding Nellore steers in southern Brazil.

    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide diarrhea outbreaks in cattle herds are more frequently detected in calves being that diarrhea outbreaks in adult cattle are not common. Winter dysentery (WD) is a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infection that is more reported in Northern hemisphere. Seasonal outbreaks of WD in adult cattle occur mainly in dairy cows. WD has not been described in beef cattle herds of tropical countries. This study describes the molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in beef cattle steers (Nellore) raised on pasture in Parana, southern Brazil. During the outbreak, the farm had about 600 fattening steers. Watery and bloody diarrhea unresponsive to systemic broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy reveals a morbidity rate of approximately 15 %. The BCoV N gene was identified in 42.9 % (6/14) of the diarrheic fecal samples evaluated by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (SN-PCR) technique. Other enteric microorganisms occasionally identified in adult cattle and evaluated in this study such as bovine groups A, B, and C rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, aichivirus B, and Eimeria sp. were not identified in the fecal samples. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first description of the BCoV diagnosis in fecal samples collected in a diarrhea outbreak in adult beef cattle grazing in the grass in a tropical country. PMID:26712361

  18. Temporal and ontogenetic variations in feeding habits of Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Teleostei: Characidae in coastal Atlantic rainforest streams, southern Brazil

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the characin Hollandichthys multifasciatus were investigated. Samplings were made between March 2004 and February 2005 in two black water streams of the coastal Atlantic rainforest in southern Brazil. The diet, evaluated by qualitative and quantitative methods, included aquatic and terrestrial insects, decapods, oligochaetes, plants and spiders. Large individuals feed mainly on plants, terrestrial insects, and spiders, whereas small fish feed basically on plants and oligochaetes. The species showed an omnivorous feeding habit, and its diet was composed of autochthonous (mainly oligochaetes and allochthonous (plants and terrestrial insects material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do caracídeo Hollandichthys multifasciatus. Amostras foram obtidas entre março de 2004 e fevereiro de 2005, em dois riachos de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. A dieta, avaliada por métodos quantitativos e qualitativos, inclui insetos aquáticos e terrestres, decápodes, oligoquetos aquáticos, plantas e aranhas. Os maiores indivíduos alimentaram-se principalmente de plantas, insetos terrestres e aranhas, enquanto que os menores indivíduos alimentaram-se basicamente de plantas e oligoquetos aquáticos. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar onívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por material autóctone (principalmente oligoquetos aquáticos e alóctone (plantas e insetos terrestres.

  19. Ethnobotanical and ethnoecological study of Butia catarinensis Noblick & Lorenzi: contributions to the conservation of an endangered area in southern Brazil

    Leonardo Kumagai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Butia catarinensis Noblick & Lorenzi is a small palm (approximately 2 m high when full-grown endemic to the southern coast of Brazil. Local farmers use the fruit and pulp for various purposes, and this extractive activity complements their income. The objective of this study was to understand the relationships between local people and B. catarinensis in its natural environment. Ethnobotanical and ethnoecological data were collected through participant observation, participatory research tools and semi-structured interviews. The density of B. catarinensis was measured in two areas, each containing twelve 10 m × 20 m plots. Interviewees recognized different varieties of the palm, its phenological stages, as well as potential pollinators and seed dispersers. Eighteen different uses for the palm were registered and three different collection practices were observed, depending on the purpose for which the fruit was used. The mean density in the two areas studied ranged from 38.6 to 7.9 adults per plot. The rate of production (per hectare can be as high as 927 kg of fruit and 190 kg of pulp. The local community can contribute to the conservation of this coastal ecosystem through extractive activities of some scale, with potential environmental, economic and socio-cultural sustainability.

  20. DETECTION OF Leishmania (Viannia IN Nyssomyia neivai AND Nyssomyia whitmani BY MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION, IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Herintha Coeto Neitzke-Abreu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies transmit pathogens of leishmaniasis. The natural infection of sandflies by Leishmania (Viannia was assessed in municipalities, in the state of Paraná, in Southern Brazil. Sandflies were collected with Falcão and Shannon traps. After dissection in search of flagellates in digestive tubes and identification of the species, female sandflies were submitted to the Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (multiplex PCR for detection of the fragment of the kDNA of Leishmania (Viannia and the fragment from the IVS6 cacophony gene region of the phlebotomine insects. The analysis was performed in pools containing seven to 12 guts from females of the same species. A total of 510 female sandflies were analyzed, including nine Migonemyia migonei, 17 Pintomyia fischeri, 216 Nyssomyia neivai, and 268 Nyssomyia whitmani. Although none of the females was found naturally infected by flagellates through dissection, the fragment of DNA from Leishmania (Viannia was shown by multiplex PCR in one sample of Ny. neivai (0.46% and three samples of Ny. whitmani (1.12%. It was concluded that Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani are susceptible to Leishmania infection, and that multiplex PCR can be used in epidemiological studies to detect the natural infection of the sandfly vector, because of its sensitivity, specificity and feasibility.

  1. Impact of human metapneumovirus infection on in and outpatients for the years 2006-2008 in Southern Brazil.

    Debur, Maria C; Vidal, Luine Rr; Stroparo, Elenice; Nogueira, Meri B; Almeida, Sérgio M; Takahashi, Gislene A; Rotta, Indianara; Pereira, Luciane A; Silveira, Clyete S; Delfraro, Adriana; Nakatani, Sueli M; Skraba, Irene; Raboni, Sonia M

    2010-12-01

    The human metapneumovirus (hMPV), member of the Paramyxoviridae family, has been reported as an important agent involved with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). The aim of this study is to identify hMPV as the etiological agent of ARIs on in and outpatients in the city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, and describe clinical data of hMPV subtyping. A retrospective study was performed in 1,572 respiratory samples over a period of three years. hMPV was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subtyping was performed by nucleotide sequencing. hMPV was present in 61 (3.9%) samples and subtypes A1, A2a, B1 and B2 were detected. The incidence of hMPV was higher in outpatients (5.9%), whose mean age was 19.7 years (range 6 months-75 years old), than in inpatients (3%), whose mean age was 7.6 months (range 1 month-26 years old). The outpatients had upper respiratory tract infections with flu-like symptoms and all hospitalized children had lower respiratory tract infections. A pediatric patient died from complications associated with hMPV A2a infection. hMPV has been reported as a respiratory pathogen in all age groups. No correlation was observed between viral subtype and disease severity in the samples of this study. PMID:21225198

  2. Impact of human metapneumovirus infection on in and outpatients for the years 2006-2008 in Southern Brazil

    Maria C Debur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The human metapneumovirus (hMPV, member of the Paramyxoviridae family, has been reported as an important agent involved with acute respiratory infections (ARIs. The aim of this study is to identify hMPV as the etiological agent of ARIs on in and outpatients in the city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, and describe clinical data of hMPV subtyping. A retrospective study was performed in 1,572 respiratory samples over a period of three years. hMPV was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subtyping was performed by nucleotide sequencing. hMPV was present in 61 (3.9% samples and subtypes A1, A2a, B1 and B2 were detected. The incidence of hMPV was higher in outpatients (5.9%, whose mean age was 19.7 years (range 6 months-75 years old, than in inpatients (3%, whose mean age was 7.6 months (range 1 month-26 years old. The outpatients had upper respiratory tract infections with flu-like symptoms and all hospitalized children had lower respiratory tract infections. A pediatric patient died from complications associated with hMPV A2a infection. hMPV has been reported as a respiratory pathogen in all age groups. No correlation was observed between viral subtype and disease severity in the samples of this study.

  3. Dioxins and furans in breast milk: a case study of mothers from southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 primiparous mothers living in 12 locations in the meso-region industrial area of southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2013. Questionnaires with questions regarding food habits, social and economic conditions and places of dwelling were applied. Milk was collected between four and six weeks after delivery from mothers were breast-feeding only one infant. The toxic equivalency (TEQ of PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for applying better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It is important for pregnant women to have a diet that is as free as possible from chemical contaminants. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. The background contamination by PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs in mothers living at industrial area in Rio de Janeiro is lower than that generally found in industrialized countries.

  4. Wilson's disease in Southern Brazil: genotype-phenotype correlation and description of two novel mutations in ATP7B gene

    Ricardo Schmitt de Bem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Wilson's disease (WD is an inborn error of metabolism caused by abnormalities of the copper-transporting protein encoding gene ATP7B. In this study, we examined ATP7B for mutations in a group of patients living in southern Brazil. METHODS: 36 WD subjects were studied and classified according to their clinical and epidemiological data. In 23 subjects the ATP7B gene was analyzed. RESULTS: Fourteen distinct mutations were detected in at least one of the alleles. The c.3207C>A substitution at exon 14 was the most common mutation (allelic frequency=37.1% followed by the c.3402delC at exon 15 (allelic frequency=11.4%. The mutations c.2018-2030del13 at exon 7 and c.4093InsT at exon 20 are being reported for the first time. CONCLUSION: The c.3207C>A substitution at exon 14, was the most common mutation, with an allelic frequency of 37.1%. This mutation is the most common mutation described in Europe.

  5. High genetic differentiation of Aegla longirostri (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) populations in southern Brazil revealed by multi-loci microsatellite analysis.

    Bartholomei-Santos, M L; Roratto, P A; Santos, S

    2011-01-01

    Species with a broad distribution rarely have the same genetic make-up throughout their entire range. In some cases, they may constitute a cryptic complex consisting of a few species, each with a narrow distribution, instead of a single-, widely distributed species. These differences can have profound impacts for biodiversity conservation planning. The genetic differentiation of four populations of Aegla longirostri, a freshwater crab found in two geographically isolated basins in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, was investigated by analyzing pentanucleotide multi-loci microsatellites in a heteroduplex assay. Although no morphological differences were evident, we found significant genetic differentiation among the four populations, based on F(ST) values and clustering analysis. This high level of differentiation may be indicative of cryptic species in these populations. If this hypothesis is correct, then the species occurring in the Ibicuí-Mirim River, at the southern limit of the Atlantic Rain Forest, would be under threat, considering its very restricted distribution. PMID:22179994

  6. Spatial distribution and enteroparasite contamination in peridomiciliar soil and water in the Apucaraninha Indigenous Land, southern Brazil.

    da Silva, Joseane Balan; Piva, Camila; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and distribution of soil and water samples contaminated with enteroparasites of humans and animals with zoonotic potential (EHAZP) in Apucaraninha Indigenous Land (AIL), southern Brazil, was evaluated. An environmental survey was conducted to evaluate the presence of parasitic forms in peridomiciliary soil and associated variables. Soil samples were collected from 40/293 domiciles (10 domiciles per season), from November 2010 to June 2011, and evaluated by modified methods of Faust et al. and Lutz. Analyses of water from seven consumption sites were also performed. The overall prevalence of soil samples contaminated by EHAZP was 23.8 %. The most prevalent parasitic forms were cyst of Entamoeba spp. and eggs of Ascaris spp. The highest prevalence of contaminated soil samples was observed in winter (31 %). The probability map obtained with geostatistical analyses showed an average of 47 % soil contamination at a distance of approximately 140 m. The parasitological analysis of water did not detect Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. and showed that all collection points were within the standards of the Brazilian law. However, the microbiological analysis showed the presence of Escherichia coli in 6/7 sampled points. Despite the low level of contamination by EHAZP in peridomiciliar soil and the absence of pathogenic protozoa in water, the AIL soil and water (due to the presence of fecal coliforms) are potential sources of infection for the population, indicating the need for improvements in sanitation and water treatment, in addition periodic treatment of the population with antiparasitic. PMID:26960764

  7. Land suitability for final waste disposal with emphasis on septic systems installation in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Jeani Moreira de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Environmental pollution is a problem that has been noted due to changes in the environment, affecting natural resources. Regarding the soil, it may offer great potential for waste disposal. Thus, this study aims to propose criteria for evaluating local suitability for waste disposal, according to soil and terrain attributes for southern Minas Gerais State, and to apply those criteria to define the most appropriate locations for installation of septic systems in a pilot watershed. Literature and the authors' experience were used to propose the more important criteria regarding the suitability of sites for waste disposal. The set of attributes taken into account was grouped into four suitability classes: Adequate, Regular, Restricted and Inadequate. The defined criteria and considered limiting were: soil depth, texture, textural gradient, structure, natural drainage, water infiltration, type of surface horizon, water table depth, depth of perched water table, distance from water bodies, relief, stoniness, rockiness and risk of flooding. From these, soil depth, natural drainage, water table depth, relief and distance from water bodies were adopted for the installation of septic systems. From the total area of the watershed, 5.29% fit in the Adequate suitability class. The Regular, Restricted, and Inadequate sites accounted for, respectively, 19.72%, 41.99% and 33% of the wathershed. Factors such as soil and terrain attributes provide a basis for defining more appropriate places for waste disposal. Future work should involve the refinement of these propositions, since there are rare studies in this research line in Brazil.

  8. Wasting and mortality in beef cattle parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil.

    Ilha, M R S; Loretti, A P; Reis, A C F

    2005-10-10

    A sporadic wasting syndrome affecting beef cattle herds parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum is described in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The disease was characterized by progressive weight loss, poor body condition despite plenty of good quality forage available, and death. Annual losses ranged from 1 to 3%. The clinical course of the disease varied from 2 to 10 months after the onset of the first clinical signs. At necropsy, one of the three distinct following patterns of lesions were observed: the pancreas was of normal size and color; small, shrunken, white and markedly and diffusely firm (fibrosis); or slightly enlarged and dark with a shriveled capsular surface. Myriads of leaf-shaped trematodes of the genus Eurytrema were packed inside multiple dilated ducts with thickened, whitish fibrous walls, or the flukes were embedded in the remaining pancreatic parenchyma. Microscopic findings included extensive loss of the pancreatic parenchyma with replacement fibrosis, intralesional flukes and eggs, and ductal hyperplasia. Inflammatory reaction varied from absent to severe with the presence of a granulomatous reaction around the trematode eggs. One affected animal had high plasma amylase concentration (1580U/L) suggesting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Glucose blood levels were not significantly increased. We suggest that diffuse and marked fibrosis of the pancreas induced by the presence of large amounts of pancreatic flukes is the cause of the sporadic cases of chronic wasting and death of cattle in this geographic area. PMID:16046069

  9. Clay content drives carbon stocks in soils under a plantation of Eucalyptus saligna Labill. in southern Brazil

    Tanise Luisa Sausen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil carbon accumulation is largely dependent on net primary productivity. To our knowledge, there have been no studies investigating the dynamics of carbon accumulation in weathered subtropical soils, especially in managed eucalyptus plantations. We quantified the seasonal input of leaf litter, the leaf decomposition rate and soil carbon stocks in an commercial plantation of Eucalyptus saligna Labill. in southern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate, through multiple linear regression, the influence that certain chemical characteristics of litter, as well as chemical and physical characteristics of soil, have on carbon accumulation in soil organic matter fractions. Variables related to the chemical composition of litter were not associated with the soil carbon stock in the particulate and mineral fractions. However, certain soil characteristics were significantly associated with the carbon stock in both fractions. The concentrations of nutrients associated with plant growth and productivity, such as phosphorus, sulfur, copper and zinc, were associated with variations in the labile carbon pool (particulate fraction. Clay content was strongly associated with the carbon stock in the mineral fraction. The carbon accumulation and stabilization in weathered subtropical Ultisol seems to be mainly associated with the intrinsic characteristics of the soil, particularly clay content, rather than with the quantity, chemical composition or decomposition rate of the litter.

  10. A new record of species of Serolis (Crustacea, Isopoda, Flabellifera from off southern Brazil

    Plínio Soares Moreira

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine isopod species Serolis foresti Bastida & Torti, 1970, is reported from the southern Brazilian continental shelf. It is described the up to date unknown male. Few additional morphological informations are given on the female. The geographical distribution of the species is considerably extended northernwards, being the Lat. 23º S the new northernmost limit of occurrence of the species.O isópode marinho Serolis foresti Bastida & Torti, 1970, e pela primeira vez assinalado ao longo da plataforma continental centro-sul do Brasil. Descreve-se o macho, até então desconhecido, e redescreve-se parcialmente a fêmea, com algumas observações morfologicas inéditas. A distribuição geográfica da espécie é consideravelmente ampliada, passando a Lat. 23º S a ser agora o seu limite mais setentrional de ocorrência.

  11. Social wasp communities (Hymenoptera Vespidae at different altitudinal levels in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Carlos Humberto Bueno de Albuquerque

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have described changes in richness and abundance of insect groups along altitudinal gradients, but there is little information about social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae in this regard. This study evaluated the influence of altitude on the diversity of these insects in fragments of semideciduous forest in a tropical altitude climate. Three different elevations in southern Minas Gerais, from 997 to 2080 meters, were studied. Sampling was carried out on 24 days in a ten-month period by active collection. A total of 34 species were found, distributed in 11 genera. At Level 01, 27 species were recorded, and at Level 02, there were 19 species, while Level 03 showed 11 species. The most frequent genus in the sudy area was Polybia, This study showed that in high-altitude tropical climate areas above 1800 meters, diversity decreases substantially and that the number of species that nest by swarming and build nests with protective cover increases.

  12. Evidences of Holocene transgression on Domingos Petrolini Swamp, southern coastal plain, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    2005-01-01

    The Domingos Petrolini Swamp, located on the Southern Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul, near the town of Rio Grande, constitutes an ample holocene lagoonal deposit. Events related to the holocene transgression and their diverse phases of glacial-eustatic ocillations were found through palynological analysis. Bases on these palynological data, four distinct phases to the paleoenvironmental evolution of the ecosystem were identified. It has also shown a transgressive restricted marine sequence on the base, which suggests the existence of a coastal brackish lagoon or a marisme type of environment. Later, there was a gradation for continentality conditions along with a scarce pollinical record. The third phase is characterized by the presence of marine components and halophyte vegetation, showing another transgressive event in that place. Lastly, the end of direct marine influence over the swamp was recorded and also the vegetation development as it appears these days.

  13. Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba spp. from thermal swimming pools and spas in Southern Brazil.

    Fabres, Laura Fuhrich; Rosa Dos Santos, Sayonara Peixoto; Benitez, Lisianne Brittes; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2016-06-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed in soil and water. A few number of them are implicated in human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia diploidea. Species of Acanthamoeba can cause keratitis and brain infections. In this study, 72 water samples were taken from both hot tubs and thermal swimming pools in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba in the water as well as perform the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolates. The identification of the isolates was based on the cysts morphology and PCR amplification using genus-specific oligonucleotides. When the isolates were submitted to PCR reaction only 8 were confirmed as belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba. The sequences analysis when compared to the sequences in the GenBank, showed genotype distribution in group T3 (12,5%), T5 (12,5%), T4 (25%) and T15 (50%). The results of this study confirmed the presence of potentially pathogenic isolates of free living amoebae in hot swimming pool and spas which can present risks to human health. PMID:27078644

  14. Interflow, overland flow and leaching of natural nutrients on an Alfisol slope of southern Bahia, Brazil

    De Oliveira Leite, J.

    1985-09-01

    Two experimental plots for hydrologic studies, 3595 and 7060 m 2, were delimited on a slope of Alfisol planted with cacao in Bahia, Brazil. Volumes of overland flow and interflow were measured daily and samples of collected water were taken monthly for analysis of Ca, Mg, Na, K, N, P and Fe. The highest overland-flow volumes represented 24% and the highest interflow 53% of the rainfall but on the average the volumes of overland flow and interflow were found to represent 1 and 14% of the annual rainfall. The percentage of interflow increases with increasing rainfall. In winter, it is higher than in summer, except during the highest rains observed. The mean annual loss for calcium was 85.8 kg ha -1 yr -1; for magnesium 18.2; potassium 17.0; sodium 23.5; nitrogen 22.1; iron 5.5 and phosphorus 0.9. In relative terms, considering the chemical components of the soils, the K losses are highest, indicating that this element is most leachable. The interflow volumes and the amounts of Na, K, N and P correlated at the 1% significance level in both plots. A general conclusion is that the leaching of nutrients varied with the intensity of the interflow, especially for Na, K, N and P, the leaching of nutrients through overland flow being of less importance.

  15. Incidence of Acute Diarrhea Among Children Aged 0 - 1 Year in Southern Brazil, 2012

    Nascimento

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence rate of acute diarrheal disease in children is a health indicator, and the estimation of these data can help guide public health policies. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and risk factors for acute diarrheal disease in children aged 0 - 1 year. Patients and Methods An observational prospective cohort study was conducted on 210 children recruited at Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceicao, in Tubarao, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Children born between July and September 2012 were followed up for 12 months. The presence of three or more liquid or loose stools during a 24-hour period was considered acute diarrhea. The categories of variables evaluated were comprised of sociodemographic characteristics (per capita income, maternal education, maternal age, access to medical care [public or private], and housing and living conditions [sanitation and hygiene, water supply, daycare attendance, and domestic animal] and characteristics of the child (gender, birth weight, and breastfeeding. Results The incidence of acute diarrhea among the 0 - 1-year-old children was 26.7 cases per 1,000 children per month. Independent risk factors for the occurrence of diarrhea were maternal age under 20 years and health care services provided by the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. Conclusions The high incidence density of diarrhea among the children recruited in this study indicates the need for educational programs directed at people who are involved in this issue.

  16. Evaluation of metals and hydrocarbons in sediments from a tropical tidal flat estuary of Southern Brazil

    Highlights: • Metals and hydrocarbons in estuary mouth showed indication of anthropogenic input. • Metals in estuary mouth were associated with petroleum-derivative hydrocarbons. • Metals were possibly associated with activities that use oil and its derivatives. • Copper was associated with domestic sewage. - Abstract: Although the Passagem Channel estuary, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, is located in an urbanized and industrialized region, it has a large mangrove system. Here we examined natural and anthropogenic inputs that may influence trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sc, Pb and Zn) and hydrocarbon (n-alkane and terpane) deposition in three sediment cores collected in the tidal flat zone of the estuary. The cores were also analyzed for carbonate, grain size and stable isotopic composition (δ13Corg. and δ15Ntotal). Metal enrichment and its association to petroleum hydrocarbons in the surficial sediments of one of the cores, indicate crude oil and derivative inputs, possibly from small vessels and road run-off from local heavy automobile traffic. At the landward sites, the major contributions for metals and hydrocarbons are from natural sources, but in one case, Cu may have been enriched by domestic effluent inputs

  17. Geochemical assessment of a subtropical reservoir: a case study in curitiba, Southern Brazil

    Godoi, Ricardo Henrique Moreton; Hirata, Patricia Y.; Godoi, Ana F.L.; Cunha, Cynara L.N.; Soares, Ana P.K.; Gobbi, Eduardo F. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana/UFPR, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Bitterncourt, Andre V.L. [Department of Geology, Federal University of Parana/UFPR, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Jafelicci, Miguel Jr.; Santos, Francisco J. dos; Bini, Rafael [Chemistry Institute, Sao Paulo State University UNESP, Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Zara, Liuz F.; Gardolinski, Jose E.F.C.; Reis Neto, Jose M. [University of Brasilia, Planaltina, DC (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Rotondo, Giuliana Gatto; Grieken, Rene van [Department of Chemistry, Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    Suspended particles and dissolved substances in water provide reactive surfaces, influence metabolic activity and contribute to the net sediment deposition. It therefore plays an important part in the ecology and quality of the water mass. The water quality in reservoirs is crucial and it is naturally maintained by flushing and sedimentation, which continuously remove phosphorus from the water. In some reservoirs, however, these removal processes are countered by recycling of ions which could play a key role to start and/or maintain the eutrophic state. The combination of macro-, trace- and microanalysis techniques can be useful to trace pollution sources through a chemical fingerprint, whether be during an acute environmental disaster or a long-term release of pollutants. The water quality and total metal content of reservoir sediments were assessed in a reservoir, situated in the capital of the Parana State, in the South-Eastern part of Brazil. The goal of this paper was to determine the metal presence in the sediment and metal and ionic speciation in the Green River reservoir water. Water and bed sediment samples, collected from various sites during 2008 and 2009, were investigated using XRF, ICP-OES, ICP-MS, XRD and zeta potential measurements. Based on the results, the heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the suspended matter in the water samples, as well as the sediment's chemical composition will be discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Radiological impact of phosphogypsum surface application in a no-till system in Southern Brazil

    Nivea Maria Piccolomini Dias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the impact of phosphogypsum application on 226Ra and 228Ra activities in the soil and on their accumulation in soybean grains. A field experiment was carried out in Paraná state, Brazil, on a loamy Typic Hapludox, under no-till system, with increasing phosphogypsum rates: 4, 8, and 12 Mg ha-1. GammA ray spectrometry was carried out using HPGe detectors with 45 and 10% relative efficiencies, for soybean grains and soil, respectively. No increment of 226Ra and 228Ra activities was observed due to the increase in phosphogypsum rates in the soil, and a small reduction was noticed in the grains. Average values found for 226Ra and 228Ra activities were 37 and 57 Bq kg-1 in the soil and 1.44 and 3.19 Bq kg-1 in soybean grains. The application of phosphogypsum for no-till soybean production is a safe practice regarding the risks of radiation damage to human health

  19. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    João Luiz Dornelles Bastos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  20. Mercury bioaccumulation in fishes of a paddy field in Southern of Brazil

    Vinicius Tavares Kütter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of present study was to evaluate the Hg concentration in two species of fish (Astyanax sp and Corydoras paleatus and its potential use as a biomonitor, in order to know if the use of pesticides and fertilizers in paddy can enhance the Hg contamination to adjacent aquatic environment.MethodsSoil, suspended particulate matter and fish samples were sampled in a paddy field in South Brazil. A cold vapor system, coupled with a GBC 932 atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for total Hg determinations in samples.ResultsThe paddy soil shows Hg concentration 2-fold higher (mean 31 ng g-1 in comparison to background areas (not cultivated. Suspended particle matter Hg concentration in paddy channels (mean 232.5 ± 44.2 ng g–1 are 1.5 times higher than the regional background. The analyzed fish specimens Astyanax sp in paddy showed Hg concentration 4-fold higher and significant different to background area. The mean Hg concentration in fish was: 51.7 ± 19.5 ng g–1 in Astyanax sp and 156.8 ± 44.0 ng g–1 in Corydoras paleatus.ConclusionsConsidering the linear regression and Man whitney test hypothesis to Hg concentration in fish tissue from paddy suggests that Astyanax sp. can be a good biomonitor of Hg contamination, whereas Corydoras paleatus is a potential biomonitor. However, more studies with Corydoras are necessary in order to aggregate consistency to this hypothesis.

  1. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  2. The beliefs of mothers in southern Brazil regarding risk-factors associated with congenital abnormalities

    Gilberto de Lima Garcias

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We describes a study in which conventional wisdom about congenital malformations was investigated, the two main objectives being to list mothers' ideas by comparing six well-known causes of congenital abnormalities (ingestion of alcoholic beverages, smoking tobacco, drug use, marriage between relatives (consanguinity, rubella infection, maternal age with explanations current in the general population and to discover the most common fallacies held by the general population concerning such abnormalities. The data were collected from 1 January to 31 December 1995 during a population study in which mothers were interviewed in hospitals in the city of Pelotas (population 400,000, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. On each day of the study, the first three mothers to give birth were interviewed, resulting in 3,219 interviewed mothers out of 6,048 births. Our conclusion is that even though conventional wisdom is non-scientific it cannot be ignored because it is the source of a lot of suffering for the mother and can interfere with how she cares for her health . Although erroneous ideas about the causes of congenital abnormalities were more common among mothers from families receiving less than one minimum wage such ideas were found in all socioeconomic groups. In our discussion we emphasize that both mothers and the general public should be made aware of those risk-factors, especially maternal age and consanguinity, that really can cause congenital abnormalities.

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Kaingang native americans in southern Brazil

    Heloisa Nakai Kwabara dos Anjos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and obesity among a Brazilian indigenous population. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 among Kaingang native Americans from the central region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Eighty two of the inhabitants aged 15 or older were selected. Height, weight, blood pressure, waistline circumference, and hip circumference were measured. After fasting, the blood was collected for the measurement of glucose, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, total cholesterol, AI and B apolipoprotein, and hemoglobin. The prevalences found were: fasting hyperglycemia (9.8%, hypercholesterolemia (4.9%, reduced HDL cholesterol (13.4%, hypertriglyceridemia (11%, abdominal obesity (37.8%, generalized obesity (26.8%, arterial hypertension (26.8%, and anemia (46.3%. The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among the Kaingang was 11%, all in females 20 to 49 years of age. The results suggested that the changes in the indigenous lifestyle, especially in eating habits and physical activity, have occurred.

  4. ISOLATION OF Rickettsia bellii FROM Amblyomma ovale AND Amblyomma incisum TICKS FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Richard Pacheco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To isolate and characterize rickettsiae from the ticks Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma incisum collected in the state of São Paulo. Materials and methods. Adult, free-living A. ovale and A. incisum were collected in an Atlantic rainforest area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Each tick was tested using the hemolymph assay; samples from positive ticks were placed in shell vials in order to isolate rickettsiae and subsequently grown in Vero cells. Amplification of three rickettsial genes (gltA, htrA and ompA was attempted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for each isolate obtained. Amplicons were subsequently sequenced. Results. A total of 388 A. incisum and 50 A. ovale were collected. Only one A. incisum and one A. ovale were hemolymph-test positive. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated from these ticks; however establishment in Vero cell culture was successful only for the isolate from A. ovale. Bacterial contamination in the first cell passage of the A. incisum isolate precluded successful isolation of the organism. PCR products were obtained with the gltA and htrA primers for the two isolates, but no product was obtained with the ompA primers. By BLAST analysis, partial gltA and htrA sequences of isolates from A. ovale and A. incisum were similar to the corresponding sequences of R. bellii. Conclusions. This is the first report of R. bellii infecting A. incisum and the first successful isolation from A. ovale.

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Didelphis marsupialis in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, southern Brazil

    Edmundo C Grisard

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis was studied in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The association of the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by T. cruzi was also studied. Thirteen different locations were studied in Santa Catarina Island (SCI, in which 137 D. marsupialis were collected. Sixty two opossums were collected at the Arvoredo Island (AI, located 12 miles north from SCI. All captured animals were submitted to parasitological examinations that revealed the presence of T. cruzi in 21.9% of the opossums captured in SCI and 45.2% among opossums captured in the AI. The presence of P. megistus was detected in most of the D. marsupialis nests collected in the SCI, however, in the non-inhabited AI only eight triatomines were collected during the whole study. The presence of T. cruzi-infected D. marsupialis associated with P. megistus in human dwellings in the SCI, and the high infection rate of D. marsupilais by T. cruzi in the absence of a high vector density are discussed.

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Didelphis marsupialis in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, southern Brazil.

    Grisard, E C; Carvalho-Pinto, C J; Scholz, A F; Toma, H K; Schlemper, B R; Steindel, M

    2000-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) was studied in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The association of the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by T. cruzi was also studied. Thirteen different locations were studied in Santa Catarina Island (SCI), in which 137 D. marsupialis were collected. Sixty two opossums were collected at the Arvoredo Island (AI), located 12 miles north from SCI. All captured animals were submitted to parasitological examinations that revealed the presence of T. cruzi in 21.9% of the opossums captured in SCI and 45.2% among opossums captured in the AI. The presence of P. megistus was detected in most of the D. marsupialis nests collected in the SCI, however, in the non-inhabited AI only eight triatomines were collected during the whole study. The presence of T. cruzi-infected D. marsupialis associated with P. megistus in human dwellings in the SCI, and the high infection rate of D. marsupilais by T. cruzi in the absence of a high vector density are discussed. PMID:11080763

  7. Acute gastroenteritis and enteric viruses in hospitalised children in southern Brazil: aetiology, seasonality and clinical outcomes

    Sonia Maria Raboni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral acute gastroenteritis (AG is a significant cause of hospitalisation in children younger than five years. Group A rotavirus (RVA is responsible for 30% of these cases. Following the introduction of RVA immunisation in Brazil in 2006, a decreased circulation of this virus has been observed. However, AG remains an important cause of hospitalisation of paediatric patients and only limited data are available regarding the role of other enteric viruses in these cases. We conducted a prospective study of paediatric patients hospitalised for AG. Stool samples were collected to investigate human adenovirus (HAdV, RVA, norovirus (NoV and astrovirus (AstV. NoV typing was performed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. From the 225 samples tested, 60 (26% were positive for at least one viral agent. HAdV, NoV, RVA and AstV were detected in 16%, 8%, 6% and 0% of the samples, respectively. Mixed infections were found in nine patients: HAdV/RVA (5, HAdV/NoV (3 and HAdV/NoV/RVA (1. The frequency of fever and lymphocytosis was significantly higher in virus-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of NoV indicated that all of these viruses belonged to genotype GII.4. The significant frequency of these pathogens in patients with AG highlights the need to routinely implement laboratory investigations.

  8. Some aspects of the epidemiology of Babesia bovis in Santana do Livramento, Southern Brazil

    Some aspects of the epidemiology of Babesia bovis were studied in Santana do Livramento, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by analysing cattle raising practices applied to 101 herds and by diagnosing B. bovis antibodies in cattle of about 11 months old using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Herds with prevalence of antibodies ranging between 15% to 80% were considered at risk of babesiosis outbreaks of economic importance (enzootic instability). 53% of herds were found in enzootic instability to B. bovis. The proportion of Bos taurus and B. indicus x B. taurus herds in instability were similar (P=0.771, qui square) and the number of acaricides treatments applied yearly had no influence in the instability to B. bovis (P=0.866, chi square). Herds maintained along with sheep in a ratio < 1.5 (P=0.012, chi square); this probability was further increased in herds maintained on properties greater than 500 ha (P=0.057, chi square). High B. bovis antibody prevalence was found in B. taurus x B. indicus herds subjected to an average of 5.8 tick treatments yearly with long residual period acaricides, indicating misuse of the chemicals or tick resistance to them. The epidemiological situation to B. bovis seems to justify vaccination to avoid economic losses in herds in enzootic instability and those in enzootic stability due to low antibody prevalence. (author)

  9. Green microfinance: the case of the Cresol System in Southern Brazil

    Lauro Gonzalez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change which until recently seemed a luxury for the microfinance sector, now appears to be crucial for the future of the sector. Due to their low adaptive capacity, the millions of MF clients worldwide happen to be the most vulnerable to a changing climate. Adapting previous analysis conducted in Nepal and Bangladesh by Agrawala and Maëlis (2010 to the Brazilian context, in this inductive qualitative study we aim to assess potential synergies between MF and CC actions and what strategies can be harnessed to better respond to CC vulnerabilities at client/MF level. To do so, we investigated the case of the second largest rural microcredit programme in Brazil, Sistema Cresol de Cooperativas de Crédito Rural com Interação Solidária. Albeit important overlaps between Cresol's product envelope and CC strategies exist, there is still room to realise synergies to both mitigate a new potential source of risk to Cresol's portfolio and to increase clients' adaptive capacity.

  10. Dietary patterns and hypertension: a population-based study with women from Southern Brazil

    Bianca Del Ponte da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between dietary pattern and hypertension using the rank reduced regression (RRR. It was a cross-sectional population-based study with a representative sample of 1,026 women living in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. In order to identify dietary patterns, dietary variables from a dietary frequency questionnaire were used as predictors and sodium, potassium and saturated fat consumption were selected as response variables. The RRR identified three dietary patterns: Factor 1, Factor 2 and Factor 3. The association between hypertension and factors 1, 2 and 3, after adjustment for socio-demographic, behavioral and obesity variables, was not significant. After stratification by age, the association between hypertension and factor 2 was present in 40-60 year-old women (tertile 2 compared to 3 RP = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.43-0.91; p = 0,05. The new statistical method (RRR, proved to be a useful tool for identifying dietary patterns. In this study, healthier dietary pattern was directly associated with hypertension in women between 40 and 60 years of age.

  11. Diet and reproductive dynamics of Trachelyopterus lucenai (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae in subtropical coastal lagoons in southern Brazil

    Renata Maia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the diet and reproductive dynamics of Trachelyopterus lucenai Bertoletti, Pezzi da Silva & Pereira, 1995, an allochthonous fish species in the subtropical coastal lagoons of the Tramandaí River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The fecundity of the species is described for the first time. Specimens were captured in the interconnected lagoons Itapeva, Quadros and Malvas, on a monthly basis, from November 2008 to April 2010, with gillnets of different mesh sizes. The food items identified were assessed for abundance and frequency of occurrence. The sex ratio, reproductive period for males and females, for mature females, fecundity, were estimated. These results were analyzed with respect to seasonal variation. We captured 135 individuals, including 82 females and 53 males, especially in months with high temperatures (October 2009 to March 2010. Females were more abundant than males in all months. There was no difference between the mean size of females and males, and both sexes showed allometric growth. The feeding analysis showed a generalist-opportunist food habit; 26 items were consumed, with a predominance of autochthonous items (insects and fish. Temporal variations in diet were associated with variations in water and air temperature and rainfall in the region, but these variations did not differ between males and females. The sex ratio differed significantly from 1:1, with 1.5 females per male. The reproductive period occurred from October to March, with most activity in November and December, and showing no variation between the peaks of gonadal development of males and females. The mean fecundity of mature females was 1,536 oocytes per spawning (n = 17. The feeding habits and reproductive behavior of the species in the study site are similar to those described for where the species is native. Although clearly seasonal, the reproductive period was long, in spite of the low fecundity. These features facilitate the

  12. Telenursing in primary health care: report of experience in southern Brazil.

    Dias, Valesca Pastore; Witt, Regina Rigatto; Silveira, Denise Tolfo; Kolling, João Henrique Godinho; Fontanive, Paulo; de Castro Filho, Eno Dias; Harzheim, Erno

    2009-01-01

    The Rio Grande do Sul Telematics and Telehealth kernel in Brazil, aims to enhance the quality of the Unified Health System (UHS) in support of primary health care (PHC) services, most of them engaged in the Family Health Program (FHP). Among the initiatives of the TeleHealth Rio Grande do Sul, there is consulting via e-mail and videoconference. They are requested and answered using specific forms available on TeleHealth's intranet. This study registers the experience on supporting and answering demands using clinical evidence, and presents professional characteristics and some results reached until now. Data related to professional characteristics were extracted from a questionnaire prepared by the program execution team, and applied during training sessions in 2007 and 2008. Consults sent by nurses, technicians and community health agents were analyzed considering its number and content. The analyzed sample of nurses showed that 89.1% were female, 40% younger than 30 years old and the majority graduated within the past 5 years. Most of them (97) work for the FHP and 51.61% have a pos graduate degree. Most of the interviewed nurses use e-mail to communicate and the internet at least once a week. So far, the program TeleHealth Rio Grande do Sul have received 498 consult requests, 111 related to the nursing field. The nurses answer nursing related doubts, sent by nursing technicians and community health agents. The consults involve several different subjects, mainly on wounds, woman health, drugs and medicines. Considering the consults demanded, the group decided to create health care protocols, starting with the most requested subjects, such as the wounds, which is about to be released on the Rio Grande do Sul TeleHealth website. PMID:19592835

  13. Volcanic stratigraphy of intermediate to acidic rocks in southern Paraná Magmatic Province, Brazil

    Liza Angélica Polo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first map in detail scale for an area covered by Palmas type volcanic rocks in the south border of the eocretaceous Paraná Magmatic Province, south Brazil. The study of the structural features coupled with petrography and geochemistry made it possible to separate these rocks into three main volcanic sequences and recognize their stratigraphy. The older Caxias do Sul sequence rests directly over the first low-Ti basalt flows (Gramado type, and corresponds to the stacking of lobated lava flows, laminar flows and lava domes, mostly emitted as continuous eruptions; only the latest eruptions are intercalated with thin sandstone deposits. These rocks have dacitic composition (~ 68 wt% SiO2 with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and subordinate pyroxenes and Ti-magnetite immersed in glassy or devitrified matrix. A second volcanic sequence, named Barros Cassal, is composed of several lava flows of basaltic andesite, andesitic and dacitic composition (~ 54; ~ 57 and ~ 63 wt% SiO2 , respectively, with microphenocrysts of plagioclase, pyroxenes and Ti-magnetite. The frequent intercalation of sandstone between the flows attests to the intermittent behaviour of this event. The upper sequence, Santa Maria, is made up of more silica-rich (~ 70 wt% SiO2 rocks occurring as laminar flows, lobated flows and lava-domes. These rocks have rhyolitic composition with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and Ti-magnetite set in a glassy or devitrified matrix with microlites. The structures and textures of all three silicic sequences favor the interpretation that they had a predominantly effusive character, which is thought to be a reflection of the remarkably high temperatures of the lavas (~ 1,000 ºC.

  14. Isolation and identification of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus in Southern Brazil

    Andréia Henzel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Feline calicivirus (FCV and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1 are the two primary causes of upper respiratory tract disease in cats. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the distribution of FCV and FHV-1 among the feline population of several counties in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. To this end, conjunctival and nasal swabs were collected from 302 cats from different locations, including households, breeding catteries, veterinary clinics, animal hospitals and experimental research facilities. The samples were collected between July 2006 to June 2009. The virus isolation was performed in CRFK cells and, subsequently, the identification was confirmed by PCR. FCV, FHV-1, or both were isolated from 55 cats from 28 different locations. FCV alone was isolated from 52.7% (29/55 of the animals that tested positively, FHV-1 alone was isolated from 38.2% (21/55 of the animals that tested positively, and co-infection were detected in 9.1% (5/55 of the animals that tested positively. Virus detection was more prevalent in cats that were less than 1 year old, among animals that shared a living space with other cats, and females. FCV and FHV-1 were isolated from vaccinated cats. In addition, both viruses were isolated from cats that showed no signs of disease. The results suggest that a carrier state is common for both viruses in the evaluated population. A search for other causes of respiratory disease in that population is necessary; and further studies relating to the molecular characterization of viruses and vaccine efficacy are also necessary.

  15. Tectonic evolution of the Brusque Group, Dom Feliciano belt, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil

    Basei, M. A. S.; Campos Neto, M. C.; Castro, N. A.; Nutman, A. P.; Wemmer, K.; Yamamoto, M. T.; Hueck, M.; Osako, L.; Siga, O.; Passarelli, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Dom Feliciano Belt constitutes the main geotectonic unit of the southeastern portion of Brazil and Uruguay. It was formed by the end of the Neoproterozoic as a result of the interaction among the Rio de La Plata, Paranapanema, Congo and Kalahari cratons during the formation of Western Gondwana. The Brusque Group represents the supracrustal units of the Dom Feliciano Belt that occur in its northernmost part, which ends in the Brazilian coast and probable continuity in the Kaoko Belt in southwestern Africa. It is possible to constrain the evolution of the Brusque Group paleobasin to the Neoproterozoic, with the rift phase starting in the Tonian (940-840 Ma) and the main sedimentation occurring until 640 Ma, as indicated by the ages of the acid volcanic rocks intercalated with the metasedimentary sequence. The supracrustal rocks can be grouped in three main units lithostratigraphically organized from the oldest to the youngest: Rio Oliveira Formation (rift phase, predominating metavolcanic units), Botuverá Formation (metasedimentary) and Rio da Areia Formation (metavolcano-carbonatic). Between 640 and 600 Ma several metamorphism and deformation phases affected the Brusque Group. Around 600 ± 10 Ma the three granitic suites (São João Batista, Valsungana and Nova Trento) were emplaced within regional metamorphites, producing post-foliation S2 metamorphic aureoles. S2 represents the main foliation observed in the metavolcanosedimentary rocks that constitute the Brusque Group. The tectonic model for the evolution of Brusque Group can be better achieved only when the geochemical, isotopic and geochronologic information available for the Dom Feliciano Belt in Santa Catarina, is considered as a whole. Therefore it is here suggested that the Brusque Group initially evolved in an independent peri-cratonic basin setting separated from the Florianópolis - Pelotas-Aiguá magmatic arc by the Adamastor ocean, having been juxtaposed to it only around 600 Ma, when Brusque

  16. Austrolebias paucisquama (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae, a new species of annual killifish from southern Brazil

    Juliano Ferrer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Austrolebias paucisquama is described from the rio Vacacaí drainage, a tributary to the rio Jacuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The new species belongs to the Austrolebias alexandri species-group, by sharing the apomorphic bright blue iridescence and dark gray pectoral fins in males. It is distinguished from other species of this group by having fewer scales around caudal peduncle (12 and fewer dorsal-fin rays in males (17-21. The lack of contact organs on the inner surface of the pectoral fin in males and the color pattern of females - ground color light brownish, sides of body with a variable number of relatively large dark black spots distributed mostly on posterior portion of body - distinguish A. paucisquama from all other species of the genus.Austrolebias paucisquama, uma nova espécie de peixe anual é descrita da bacia do rio Vacacaí, tributário do rio Jacuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A nova espécie pertence ao grupo Austrolebias alexandri, que apresenta duas apomorfias, pontos azuis claros e nadadeiras peitorais cinza escuro nos machos. Distingue-se das outras espécies do grupo pelo reduzido número de escamas ao redor do pedúnculo caudal (12 e pelo menor número de raios na nadadeira dorsal dos machos (17-21. A ausência de órgãos de contato na superfície interior das nadadeiras peitorais nos machos e o padrão de colorido das fêmeas - flancos marrom claro com variável número de pontos pretos relativamente alongados distribuídos principalmente na porção posterior - distinguem A. paucisquama das outras espécies do gênero.

  17. New species of titi monkey, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903 (Primates, Pitheciidae, from Southern Amazonia, Brazil

    Julio César Dalponte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Callicebus is one of the most diverse Neotropical primate groups, with 31 recognized species. However, large knowledge gaps still exist regarding the diversity of this genus. Such gaps are gradually being filled due to recent intensification of sampling efforts. Several geographic distributions have been better delimited, and six new species have been described in the last 15 years. The goal of the present study is to describe a new species of Callicebus belonging to the Callicebus moloch species group, recently discovered in an area previously considered to be part of the geographic distribution of C. cinerascens. Data collection was conducted through direct observations, specimen collection and interviews with local residents during four expeditions. Specimens were deposited in the mammalian collection of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi.. For a comparative evaluation, we examined specimens of the other species of the Callicebus moloch species group, especially the geographically neighboring forms, C. bernhardi and C. cinerascens. We examined 10 chromatic characters of the fur. In addition to body mass, we verified the conventional external variables and 26 craniometric variables. The new species differs from all other Amazonian Callicebus by an exclusive combination of characters, being easily distinguished by the light gray line of the forehead, dark ocher sideburns and throat, dark gray portions of the torso and flanks, and uniformly orange tail. The geographic distribution of the new species is limited by the Roosevelt and Aripuanã rivers, in the states of Mato Grosso and Amazonas, Brazil. Approximately 25% (1,246.382 ha of this area falls within conservation areas, with five areas of sustainable use (746,818 ha and three of integral protection (499,564 ha. Furthermore, a considerable portion of the distribution area is located within indigenous lands (1,555.116 ha - 32%. Therefore, 57% (2,801.498 ha of the occurrence area of

  18. A new species of flea-toad (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Condez, Thais Helena; Monteiro, Juliane Petry De Carli; Comitti, Estevão Jasper; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus that is morphologically similar to the flea-toads B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, and B. pulex. The new species occurs from the sea level up to 1000 m and it is widely distributed throughout southern Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus sulfuratus sp. nov. is distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) small body size (SVL of adults: 7.4-8.5 mm for males and 9.0-10.8 mm for females); (2) "leptodactyliform" body; (3) pectoral girdle arciferal and less robust compared to the Brachycephalus species with "bufoniform" body; (4) procoracoid and epicoracoid fused with coracoid but separated from the clavicle by a large fenestrae; (5) toe I externally absent; toes II, III, IV, and V distinct; phalanges of toes II and V reduced; (6) skin smooth with no dermal ossifications; (7) in life, general background color brown with small dark-brown spots; skin of throat, chest, arms, and forearms with irregular yellow blotches; in ventral view, cloacal region of alive and preserved specimens surrounded by a dark-brown inverted v-shaped mark outlined with white; (8) advertisement call long, composed of a set of 4-7 high-frequency notes (6.2-7.2 kHz) repeated regularly. PMID:27394218

  19. Epidemiology of leisure-time physical activity: a population-based study in southern Brazil

    Dias-da-Costa Juvenal Soares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to measure the prevalence of physical inactivity (PI during leisure time and to identify variables associated with it in a southern Brazilian adult population. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out, covering a multiple-stage sample of 1,968 subjects aged 20-69 years. Weekly participation in leisure-time physical activity was addressed. For each activity, energy expenditure was calculated using data on duration, metabolic equivalent, and body weight. Energy expenditures of individual activities were summed to give a weekly total. PI was defined as fewer than 1,000 kilocalories per week. The prevalence of PI was 80.7% (95%CI: 78.9-82.4. After adjusted analyses, the following variables were positively associated with the outcome: female gender, age, living with a partner, and smoking. Schooling and economic status were inversely associated with PI. Chronically undernourished individuals were significantly more likely to be inactive. We found no differences according to skin color or alcohol consumption. In conclusion, the prevalence of PI in this adult population was higher than in populations from developed countries, but the associated variables were similar.

  20. Paleoproterozoic andesitic volcanism in the southern Amazonian craton (northern Brazil); lithofacies analysis and geodynamic setting

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano; Capra, Lucia; Dias Fernandes, Carlos Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    Precambrian volcanism played an important role in geological evolution and formation of new crust. Most of the literature on Precambrian volcanic rocks describes settings belonging to subaqueous volcanic systems. This is likely because subaerial volcanic rocks in Proterozoic and Archean volcano-sedimentary succession are poorly preserved due to erosive/weathering processes. The late Paleoproterozoic Sobreiro Formation (SF) here described, seems to be one of the rare exceptions to the rule and deserves particular attention. SF represents the subaerial expression of an andesitic magmatism that, linked with the upper felsic Santa Rosa F., composes the Uatumã Group. Uatumã Group is an extensive magmatic event located in the Xingú region, southwestern of Pará state, Amazonian Craton (northern Brazil). The Sobreiro volcanism is thought to be related to an ocean-continent convergent margin. It is characterized by ~1880 Ma well-preserved calc-alkaline basaltic/andesitic to andesitic lava flows, pyroclastic rocks and associated reworked successions. The superb preservation of its rock-textures allowed us to describe in detail a large variety of volcaniclastic deposits. We divided them into primary and secondary, depending if they result from a direct volcanic activity (pyroclastic) or reworked processes. Our study reinforces the importance of ancient volcanic arcs and rocks contribution to the terrestrial volcaniclastic sedimentation and evolution of plate tectonics. The volcanic activity that produced pyroclastic rocks influenced the amount of detritus shed into sedimentary basins and played a major role in the control of sedimentary dispersal patterns. This study aims to provide, for the first time, an analysis of the physical volcanic processes for the subaerial SF, based in field observation, lithofacies analysis, thin section petrography and less geochemical data. The modern volcanological approach here used can serve as a model about the evolution of Precambrian

  1. Biology of Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey, 1867 (Clupeiformes: Pristigasteridae in a continental shelf region of southern Brazil

    Carlos Eduardo Corrêa

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information on the biology of C. bleekerianus from Paraná State coast, Brazil, assembling data about its abundance, size structure, diet and reproduction. Monthly collections were accomplished in 1999 and 2000 in the internal continental shelf, with trawl net. The catch-per-unit-effort did not vary significantly among the seasons. In the summer, the individuals were larger, followed by autumn, spring and winter. C. bleekerianus was predominantly planktivorous and the most frequent items in its diet were copepods followed by diatomaceous algae. Seasonal variation in the frequency values of the gonad maturation stages, gonadossomatic index and gonadal condition factor indicated that the reproductive period encompassed spring and summer. The mean total length at first maturity of females was estimated to be 76 mm.Este trabalho fornece dados sobre a biologia de C. bleekerianus do litoral do Estado do Paraná, reunindo dados sobre sua abundância, estrutura em tamanho, dieta e reprodução. Coletas mensais foram realizadas em 1999 e 2000 na plataforma continental interna, com rede de arrasto de fundo com portas. A captura por unidade de esforço não variou significativamente entre as estações do ano. No verão os indivíduos eram maiores, seguido do outono, primavera e inverno. C. bleekerianus é predominantemente planctívora, sendo copépodos seguidos de algas diatomáceas os itens alimentares mais freqüentes em sua dieta. As variações sazonais de valores da freqüência de estádios de maturação gonadal, do índice gonadossomático e do fator de condição gonadal indicam que o período reprodutivo compreende primavera e verão. O comprimento total médio de primeira maturação das fêmeas é estimado em 76 mm.

  2. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  3. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  4. HYDRODYNAMICS AND BIO-OPTICAL ASSESSMENT OF TWO PRISTINE SUBTROPICAL ESTUARIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Mauricio Almeida Noernberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring small-scale physical processes and how they affect the spatial patterns of sea water's optical constituents plays a key role in understanding the functioning of complex coastal ecosystems such as estuaries. The spatial variations of physical and bio-optical water properties were investigated during one spring tidal cycle in austral summer, on two transects across the channel of the Medeiros and Itaqui sub-estuaries. These sub-estuaries are a biosphere reserve, and part of the Paranaguá Estuarine System, located on the Southern Brazilian coast. Both sub-estuaries were classified as Type 1a, wellmixed with low stratification. The salinity variations are in phase with the water level, and the tidal propagation is well represented by a standing wave. The vertical velocity profiles showed little vertical shear, and the intensity of the u-component of the velocity varied semi-diurnally. The upper estuary salt transport was dominated by tidal diffusion in an unstable water column. The optical environment presented a mixed dominance of optically active substances, as indicated by the absorption coefficients of dissolved and particulate matter. The colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM showed overall conservative behavior and was dominant in light absorption below 550 nm in the Medeiros, while nonalgal particles play the most important role in light absorption in the Itaqui in the blue absorption band. The phytoplanktonic contribution is prominent in the red domain and increases as a function of saline intrusion. However, due to the influence of freshwater discharge and the re-suspension of bottom sediments induced by physical processes, the concentrations of the optical components in the water column do not generally have any simple relationships between them.

  5. Neotropical Monogenoidea 59. Polyonchoineans from Characidium spp. (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from southern Brazil.

    Boeger, Walter A; Ferreira, Renata C; Vianna, Rogério T; Patella, Luciana

    2014-04-01

    Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae (Monogenoidea) are described or reported from three species of Characidium Reinhardt (Crenuchidae), small species of Characiformes, from streams located in southern Brazilian states. Gyrodactylus carolinae sp. n. (Gyrodactylidae) is described from the body surface of Characidium lanei Travassos (type host), C. pterostictum Gomez, and Characidium sp. from streams in the states of Paraná and São Paulo. This new species closely resembles species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 described from species of Poeciliidae, from which it differs by the morphology of the hooks and nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. Gyrodactylus inesperatus sp. n. is described from the body surface of Characidium sp. from a stream in the State of São Paulo. The latter new species is characterised by lacking a shield on the superficial bar and by the morphology of the hooks, both unique characteristics for Neotropical species of Gyrodactylus. Marumbius gen. n. (Dactylogyridae) is proposed to accommodate two species, M. dorsivaginatus sp. n. from the gills of Characidium pterostictum (type host) and C. lanei, and M. amplexus sp. n. from the gills of C. lanei (all from the state of Paraná). Both species are characterised by having dorsal vagina, hook pairs 2-4, 6 and 7 composed by two subunits, hook pairs 1 and 5 lacking proximal subunit, and by the length of proximal subunits (when present) varying among hook pairs, completely or partially overlapping gonads, and male copulatory organ (MCO) represented by an incomplete coil of a sclerotized tube articulated to the accessory piece by a copulatory ligament. Cacatuocotyle paranaensis Boeger, Domingues et Kritsky, 1997 is reported from C. lanei at low prevalence in the Rio Marumbi (state of Paraná). The Monogenoidea that parasitize species of Characidium are members of several independent lineages, some of distant evolutionary relationships, suggesting a complex origin for this parasitic fauna. PMID

  6. Local ecological knowledge on the goliath grouper epinephelus itajara (teleostei: serranidae in southern Brazil

    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara is a large sized (> 400 kg and critically endangered marine fish, which is protected in many countries, including Brazil. Through the application of semi-structured interviews, we investigated the local ecological knowledge of seven fishermen specialist on catching E. itajara from the Babitonga bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Local long-line fisheries for E. itajara seemed to be a disappearing tradition in the studied site, with a detailed inherent local ecological knowledge system, which is also being lost. Our study also showed that fishermen engaged in recent fisheries, such as spear-fishing, can also possess a detailed local ecological knowledge system. Through the analysis of fishermen local ecological knowledge, several aspects of E. itajara life history were registered. This species is found in the inner and outer Babitonga bay, from saline waters to areas with a large input of freshwater, and inhabits submerged wooden substrates and artificial reefs such as shipwrecks, mooring pillars and cargo containers. It is known to spawn in December and subsequent summer months in the studied area. Spawning aggregations are usually seen in December (during full moon, being also eventually observed in January and February by our informants. While lobsters, spadefishes and octopuses seem to constitute the most important food items of inner bay E. itajara, outer bay individuals may feed on catfishes, crustaceans and other fish species. The goliath grouper is regarded as pacific and curious fish, but frequently display agonistic behavior in the presence of divers. Based on the perception of well experienced spear fishermen, we hypothesize that E. itajara undertakes seasonal migrations from the inner to the outer bay during summer, and that the studied population is suffering from growth over-fishing. Our data provides a practical evidence of how joining scientific and local ecological knowledge will likely benefit E

  7. Evaluation of the Swat Model in a Small Watershed Representative of the Atlantic Forest Biome in Southern Brazil

    Marcon, I. R.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Beling, F. A.; Heatwole, C.

    2011-12-01

    This study presents the results of simulations with the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model in a small watershed in Southern Brazil (latitude 29°38'37.5 " and longitude 53°48'2.2"), representative of the Atlantic Forest Biome. This area was monitored by two sequential stations, each with one rain gauge and one stage gauge, having contributing areas of 4.5 km2 and 12 km2 respectively. The altitudes in the basins range from 316 m to 431 m and vegetation is predominantly composed of native forest (55%) and native pasture (39%). The simulated period was from August 2007 to July 2011, corresponding to the period of monitoring. The temperature ranged from -2.2°C to 39.2°C, and annual rainfall ranged between 2005 mm and 2250 mm. For this application, a modification in the SWAT 2000 model algorithm was made, as proposed by Paiva and Paiva (2006), to adjust the rate of leaf area during the winter season of the region. The quality of the results was characterized by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index (NSE) and by the coefficient of determination (R2). The model was evaluated in a monthly and daily scale. At the monthly scale, the values obtained for NSE in the calibration phase, were 0.73 and 0.81, respectively for the two sections. The values obtained for R2 were 0.77 and 0.83 in the same sections. At the daily scale, in the calibration phase NSE values were -0.44 and -0.31, respectively, for the two sections, while for R2, the values were 0.27 and 0.38 in the same sections. These results show that the fit was good for monthly values, but for daily values a proper adjustment was not possible. Due to the short period of monitoring, the validation of the model results was made with the observed data from first station with an area of 4.5 km2. The values obtained for the NSE in the validation phase were 0.73 and -0.33 for the monthly and daily scales respectively, and for R2, 0.77 and 0.27 for the monthly and daily values, thus confirming the quality of the fit

  8. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    Sabrina Nunes do Nascimento

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb levels (BLLs. Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni in blood and increase of aluminum (Al levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05. Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05. Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  9. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil

    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation < 2 m were quantified. The relationship between landscape changes and changes in abundance diversity of forest birds, open-area birds, forest-edge birds, and bamboo specialists was evaluated. Richness estimates were run for each year studied. The richness recorded in the study area comprised 96 species. The richness estimates were 114, 118 and 110 species for Chao 1, Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap, respectively. The bird community varied in species richness, abundance and diversity from year to year. As for species diversity, 1991, 1993 and 1994 were significantly different from the other years. Changes in the landscape contributed to the increase in abundance and richness for the groups of forest, open-area and bamboo-specialist species. An important factor discussed was the effect of the flowering of "taquara" (Poaceae, which contributed significantly to increasing richness of bamboo seed eaters, mainly in 1992 and 1993. In general, the results showed that landscape changes affected the dynamics and structure of the bird community of this forest fragment over time, and proved to have an important role in conservation of the avian community in areas of intensive forestry and agricultural activities.

  10. Diversity, composition and phenology of araneid orb-weavers (Araneae, Araneidae associated with riparian forests in southern Brazil

    Everton N. L. Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Araneidae is a speciose family including web-spinning spiders that are very abundant in various terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies demonstrate that changes in vegetation surrounding rivers, streams and brooks affect the associated araneofauna. The aim of this research was to compare differences found in diversity (abundance and richness, composition and phenology of Araneidae spiders sampled in different habitats in four riparian forest catchments in southern Brazil. Samples were taken from riparian forests in four rivers of Rio Grande do Sul State: Piratini, Camaquã, Sinos and Maquiné rivers, each in a different hydrographic basin. Samples were taken twice seasonally on each basin during two years, sampling the araneofauna of the tree-shrub strata with beating tray. Six transects were employed on each basin, two per habitat: edge with grassland, forest interior and river edge. Araneids totalled 20 genera and 65 species. Comparing riparian forests significant differences are found. Spider abundance differed among riparian forests as well as species richness. Overall, Piratini river riparian forest had the higher abundance and richness for Araneidae; the lower values were in Sinos river forest. The stronger degradation and fragmentation of the riparian forests of Sinos river probably influenced the results, with human disturbance gradients associated negatively to web building. We present data on the diversity of these spiders, which were very abundant in the riparian forest interior and very rich in species in the grassland/riparian forest edge. Species composition also differs among the studied habitats (the above plus river/riparian forest edge. For the most abundant species the phenological pattern across the seasons was also analysed.

  11. Cabacal belt, southern Amazon craton in Mato Grosso-Brazil: Implications for the tectonic evolution (more complications)

    The Amazon Craton covers an area of about 250000Km2 on the northern part of the South America. The Precambrim time history of the craton has been divided in geochronological provinces (Cordani et al. 1979; Teixeira et al. 1989; Tassinari et al. 1996; Tassinari and Macambira, 1999; and Santos et al. 2000). The Cabacal Belt covers an area of approximately 350 square kilometers in the southern region of the Amazon Craton, Mato Grosso-Brazil. It is a narrow NNW trending belt of greenchist to amphibolite grade volcano-sedimentary rocks intruded by plutonic rocks of tonalitic to granitic composition and mafic sills/dikes (Pinho et al., 1997). To the East it is bounded by Mesoproterozoic sediments of the Aguapei Group. To the West it is separated from the Araputanga Belt by a metamorphic complex, chiefly made of orthogneisses. The Cabacal Belt is one of the three NNW trending belts from the Alto Jauru Greenstone Belt. As a whole, the supracrustal rocks of the Cabacal Belt consist of three units: a basal unit comprising mafic lavas and breccias; a middle unit of felsic to intermediate metavolcanics rocks with interlayered tuffs and sediments; and a top unit of dacite-rhyodacit lavas, tuffs, and sediments (clastic and chemical). Monteiro et al. (1986) named these units as Mata Preta (MPF), Manuel Leme (MLF) and Rancho Grande (RGF) formations respectively. Leite et al. (1986) used the name Quatro Meninas Complex for the basic unit We analyzed zircons from seven samples in the Cabacal Belt, including samples from the volcano-sedimentary sequence, from intrusive bodies, and from the gneiss that separates the Cabacal Belt from the Araputanga Belt (au)

  12. Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.

    Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2012-09-10

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime. PMID:22571833

  13. Clinical and epidemiological features of respiratory virus infections in preschool children over two consecutive influenza seasons in southern Brazil.

    Giamberardin, Heloisa I G; Homsani, Sheila; Bricks, Lucia F; Pacheco, Ana P O; Guedes, Matilde; Debur, Maria C; Raboni, Sonia M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the results of a systematic screening for respiratory viruses in pediatric outpatients from an emergency department (ED) in southern Brazil during two consecutive influenza seasons. Children eligible for enrollment in this study were aged 24-59 months and presented with acute respiratory symptoms and fever. Naso- and oropharyngeal swabs were collected and multiplex reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to identify the respiratory viruses involved. In total, 492 children were included in this study: 248 in 2010 and 244 in 2011. In 2010, 136 samples (55%) were found to be positive for at least one virus and the most frequently detected viruses were human rhinovirus (HRV) (18%), adenovirus (AdV) (13%), and human coronavirus (CoV) (5%). In 2011, 158 samples (65%) were found to be positive for at least one virus, and the most frequently detected were HRV (29%), AdV (12%), and enterovirus (9%). Further, the presence of asthma (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.86-5.46) was independently associated with HRV infection, whereas fever was associated with AdV (OR, 3.86; 95% CI, 1.31-16.52) and influenza infections (OR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.26-16.06). Ten patients (2%) were diagnosed with pneumonia, and six of these tested positive for viral infection (4 HRV, 1 RSV, and 1 AdV). Thus, this study identified the most common respiratory viruses found in preschool children in the study region and demonstrated their high frequency, highlighting the need for improved data collection, and case management in order to stimulate preventive measures against these infections. J. Med. Virol. 88:1325-1333, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26773605

  14. Asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil: popular myths and features

    Cristian Roncada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the frequency of popular myths about and features of asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil. Methods: The parents or legal guardians of public school students (8-16 years of age completed a specific questionnaire regarding their understanding of asthma, asthma control, and treatment characteristics. The sample included parents or legal guardians of students with asthma (n = 127 and healthy controls (n = 124. Results: The study involved 251 parents or legal guardians, of whom 127 (68.5% were the mothers and 130 (51.8% were White. The mean age of these participants was 38.47 ± 12.07 years. Of the participants in the asthma and control groups, 37 (29.1% and 26 (21.0%, respectively, reported being afraid of using asthma medications, whereas 61 (48% and 56 (45.2%, respectively, believed that using a metered dose inhaler can lead to drug dependence. However, only 17 (13.4% and 17 (13.7% of the participants in the asthma and control groups, respectively, reported being afraid of using oral corticosteroids. In the asthma group, 55 students (43.3% were diagnosed with uncontrolled asthma, only 41 (32.3% had a prescription or written treatment plan, and 38 (29.9% used asthma medications regularly. Conclusions: Popular myths about asthma treatment were common in our sample, as were uncontrolled asthma and inappropriate asthma management. Further studies in this field should be conducted in other developing countries, as should evaluations of pediatric asthma treatment programs in public health systems.

  15. SEROVARS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM TURKEY AND BROILER CARCASSES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006.

    Palmeira, Andre; Santos, Luciana Ruschel Dos; Borsoi, Anderlise; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Calasans, Max; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. SalmonellaEnteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning. PMID:27007562

  16. Stocks and sources of carbon buried in the salt marshes and seagrass beds of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil

    Patterson, Elizabeth; Johnson, Beverly; Dostie, Philip; Copertino, Margareth

    2016-04-01

    This project investigates carbon stocks in salt marshes and seagrass beds in the Patos Lagoon estuary, the largest choked lagoon in the world, located in Southern Brazil. The study was conducted in the mesohaline region, at three shallow shoals. At each shoal, three sediment cores (50 cm deep) and plant biomass samples (above and belowground) were collected along a transect line, spanning from the marsh to seagrass beds (total = 9 sediment cores). The 50cm cores were subsampled and analyzed for organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, C/N ratios, and the isotope ratios of 13C/12C, and 15N/14N. The organic carbon content of these sediments ranged between 10% (in surface sediments) and 1% (deeper in the core), suggesting that both the salt marshes and seagrass beds in this region are sequestering carbon. Early results indicate that cores taken in marsh dominated by C3 plants (Scirpus maritimus) tended to be the most depleted in 13C with δ13C values around -25‰. Cores taken in marsh dominated by C4 plants (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora), seagrass beds (Ruppia maritima) , and non vegetated areas were generally isotopically heavier with δ13C values ranging -20‰ to -15‰, indicating a mix of organic sources in the sediments. The δ15N values and C/N ratios both varied with most values falling in a range of 2-8‰ and 7-20 respectively. Analysis of the δ 34S isotope composition of the sediments is currently underway and may provide better information on the relative contributions of macro and micro algae in the sediments. The present data will reveal the carbon stock size, as well as the types and history of organic matter deposition in Patos Lagoon estuary.

  17. Assessing the epidemiological data of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Gustavo Costalunga Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most frequent foodborne illnesses worldwide and it is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with enterotoxins produced by some strains of Staphylococcus (S. aureus. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Southern Brazil, S. aureus has been identified as the second most frequent agent of foodborne illnesses in the last two decades. The aim of the present study was to assess and analyse the epidemiological data of S. aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of RS during the years of 2000 to 2002. The official records of epidemiological investigations carried out by the Sanitary Surveillance Services of the State of RS were analysed. Among foodborne outbreaks for which aetiology was determined, S. aureus was identified as the responsible agent of 57 foodborne outbreaks, being 42 (74% confirmed by microbiological analyses and 15 (26% confirmed by clinical symptoms and/or epidemiological data. Staphylococcal outbreaks were responsible for the exposition of 5,991 persons, of which 1,940 (32% were interviewed by the Sanitary Surveillance officers. The most affected age group corresponded to people with 20 to 49 years old (48%, where men (48% and women (52% were affected similarly. The main involved food vehicles were meats servings (35%, followed by pastries (25%, cheese (23%, pasta (11% and potato salad with homemade mayonnaise (11%. The majority of the outbreaks occurred inside private homes (33% followed by commercial food establishments (28%. Inadequate control of temperature and failures in general hygiene practices were identified as the main factors responsible for the outbreaks. In conclusion, S. aureus was an important food poisoning etiological agent in the State of RS during 2000 to 2002 and its prevention depends on control measures involving different parts of the food chain.

  18. Factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV/AIDS patients: a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil

    C.A.T. Pinheiro

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV-infected adults being treated with antiretroviral drugs at a reference service in Southern Brazil. Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and were tested by scales assessing sociocognitive variables. Adherence to treatment was assessed by a self-report inventory developed for the study. Clinical information was obtained from the patients' records. Significance tests were conducted using univariate logistic regressions followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 195 patients participated in the study and 56.9% of them reported > or = 95% adherence on the previous two days. In univariate analysis, the odds of adherence increased with self-efficacy (a person's conviction that he/she can successfully execute the behavior required to produce a certain desired outcome in taking medications as prescribed (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 1.90-6.55, and decreased with perception of negative affect and physical concerns (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.95. The odds were lower for taking antiretroviral medications >4 times a day (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.94 and higher for patients with 8 years of schooling (OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.12-4.66. In the multivariate analysis, self-efficacy (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.69-6.56 and taking medication >4 times a day (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.80 were independently associated with adherence. Self-efficacy was the most important predictor of adherence, followed by number of times antiretroviral medication was taken per day. Among sociodemographic and clinical variables, only the number of years of schooling was associated with adherence. Motivational interventions based on self-efficacy may be useful for increasing treatment adherence.

  19. SEROVARS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM TURKEY AND BROILER CARCASSES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006

    PALMEIRA, Andre; dos SANTOS, Luciana Ruschel; BORSOI, Anderlise; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; CALASANS, Max; do NASCIMENTO, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. SalmonellaEnteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning. PMID:27007562

  20. New data on Echinococcus spp. in Southern Brazil Novos dados sobre Echinococcus spp. no sul do Brasil

    Mário L. de La Rue

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available 40 Echinococcus isolates from sheep and cattle in Southern Brazil were genetically analysed in order to obtain further data on the presence of different taxa of the Echinococcus granulosus complex. Differentiation was done using a PCR technique and sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1. Most samples (38 could be allocated to the sheep strain (G1 of E. granulosus, while two samples belonged to E. ortleppi, previously known as cattle strain (G5 of E. granulosus. Due to the shorter prepatent period in dogs of the latter taxon, this records have important implications for the design of control measures in this endemic region.Quarenta isolados de Echinococcus provenientes de ovinos e bovinos do sul do Brasil foram analisados geneticamente com o objetivo de obter dados a respeito das diferentes cepas dentro do gênero Echinococcus granulosus. A diferenciação foi feita empregando-se a técnica de PCR a o seqüenciamento da subunidade 1 da citocromo c oxidase (CO1. A maior parte das amostras (38 pôde ser alocada na cepa ovina (G1 enquanto duas amostras pertenceram ao gênero E. ortleppi, anteriormente conhecido como cepa bovina (G5 do E. granulosus. Devido ao menor período pré-patente em cães deste último gênero ressalta-se a importância do presente registro devido às implicações no delineamento de medidas de controle nesta região endêmica.

  1. Environmental water quality assessment in Guaratuba bay, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    Byanka Damian Mizerkowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An environmental assessment of the estuarine waters of Guaratuba bay, Paraná State, Brazil, is provided through the analysis of physical-chemical, biological and hydrographic dynamics. Twelve stations with a bi-monthly frequency (from October/2002 until August/2003 were sampled during spring and neap tides for the determination of pH, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, suspended particulate matter and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. Based on the evaluation of six parameters (chlorophyll, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and dissolved oxygen, Guaratuba Bay shows a low to medium trophic status, i.e. from meso- to oligotrophic, and a predominant heterotrophic metabolism, meaning that respiration overcomes primary production. Horizontal stratification was observed during the rainy season, while during the dry season the system showed more homogeneous conditions. Inorganic and/or organic matter in Guaratuba Bay seem to be controlled mainly by the seasonality of precipitation and/ also by ebb and flood tidal phase variations.A dinâmica das variáveis físico-químicas, biológicas e hidrográficas, em escalas temporal e espacial, sua variabilidade e tendências, permite avaliar a qualidade ambiental de estuários. Esse trabalho descreve as flutuações da qualidade de água da Baía de Guaratuba, sul do Estado do Paraná. Foram amostrados doze pontos em campanhas bimensais (outubro/2002 a agosto/2003, em situação de sizígia e de quadratura, para a análise das variáveis pH, transparência, saturação de CO2, oxigênio dissolvido, clorofila-a, material particulado em suspensão e nutrientes inorgânicos dissolvidos (nitrato, nitrito, amônio, fosfato e silicato. Considerando as seis variáveis descritoras da qualidade de água (clorofila-a, profundidade de Secchi, saturação de CO2, fósforo e nitrogênio inorg

  2. Analysis of the marine shrimp culture production chain in Southern Brazil

    Rodrigo R. Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was elaborated to identify and describe the main links of the sea shrimp productive chain in the municipal district of Laguna, historically known as the main sea shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei production area in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The study, held from April to July 2005, previously identified the local productive process through observation, interviews and bibliographical research. Afterwards, specific questionnaires were elaborated for each of the several segments connected to the local activity. A total of 90 interviews were conducted, intending to map out the procedures and functionality of the productive chain, from the necessary inputs for production to the moment of shrimp acquisition by final consumers. Results indicated that the entire productive chain requires actions that range from improvement of sanitary and genetic conditions of larvae to product commercialization. Reduction of bureaucracy in public organs, better investment credit conditions, improvement in productive practices, training of technical and productive labor, and reduction of production costs will not occur until industrialization politics and commercialization of local production are standardized.O presente estudo foi elaborado para identificar e descrever os principais elos da cadeia produtiva no município de Laguna, região que historicamente constitui-se em principal área de produção de camarão marinho (Litopenaeus vannamei em Santa Catarina, Brasil. O estudo foi desenvolvido de abril a julho de 2005, a partir de uma prévia identificação do processo produtivo local, através de observação, entrevistas e busca bibliográfica. Foram elaborados questionários específicos para os vários segmentos atrelados à atividade local. Foi realizado um total de 90 entrevistas, pretendendo-se fazer um acompanhamento do desempenho e funcionalidade da cadeia produtiva desde os insumos necessários à produção até o momento da aquisição do

  3. Seasonal variability of hydro-physical conditions in Faxinal system subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

    Antoneli, Valdemir; Thomaz, Edivaldo; Berdnaz, João

    2015-04-01

    The Faxinal System is a form of peasant organization, existing in the Center-South region of Paraná State which is subject to extensive livestock breeding in a common breeding site; forest harvesting within the common breeding site and subsistence feeding polyculture out of faxinal limits. The organization of Faxinal occurs through the fencing of the entire area of faxinal, without boundaries between the properties where the common breeding works. All owners have the right to raise their animals (bovine, equine, etc.) roaming free. The breeding site consists of outdoor areas (natural pastures) and secondary forest areas. The form of creation without properties restriction (roaming free) is identified as the main factor of soil erosion and land degradation due to constant grazing. The trampling ends up compacting and influencing the physical conditions of the soil which lead to the reduction of leakage and increasing the erosive processes. Based on the above considerations, the objective of this study was to evaluate the compression and water infiltration to the soil in a Faxinal in the South Central Region of Paraná - Brazil. The presented data was collected in a pasture site and secondary forest, both with constant grazing (breeding area) and an area with uncounted animals (control area) out of Faxinal limits. Two collection campaigns were carried out as follows: August (winter) and January (summer). In each collection campaign ten (10) infiltration repetitions were made in each area. In each infiltration test 15 compression collections were performed in each infiltration area, totaling 150 repetitions in each campaign. For the evaluation of water infiltration into the soil, a manual concentric cylindrics infiltrometer was used with readings each 5 minutes during one hour. The Compression was collected with the aid of a pocket penetrometer with a value of 4.5 kgf / cm2. The Infiltration in August was of 26.7 cm / h in secondary forest, 19.1 cm / h in grassland

  4. Community structure and carbonate production of a temperate rhodolith bank from Arvoredo Island, southern Brazil

    Douglas F. M. Gherardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A small (100,000 m² rhodolith bank located at the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (Santa Catarina, Brazil has been surveyed to determine the main bank components, the community structure, and carbonate production rates. Data from five photographic transects perpendicular to Arvoredo Island shore were complemented with sediment samples and shallow cores, all collected by scuba diving. The main bank component is the unattached, nongeniculate, coralline red algae Lithophyllum sp., used as substrate by the zoanthid Zoanthus sp. Percentage cover of living and dead coralline algae, zoanthids and sediment patches account for nearly 98% of the investigated area. Classification and ordination of samples showed that differences in the proportion of live and dead thalli of Lithophyllum sp. determine the relative abundances of zoanthids. Results also indicate that similarity of samples is high and community gradients are subtle. Significant differences in percentage cover along transects are concentrated in the central portion of the bank. Low carbonate content of sediments from deeper samples suggests low rates of recruitment and dispersal of coralline algae via fragmentation. However, carbonate production of Lithophyllum sp ranging from 55-136.3 g m-2 yr-1 agrees with production rates reported for other temperate settings. In the long run, rhodolith density at Arvoredo Is. is likely to be dependent upon random dispersal of spores and/or fragments from other source areas.Investigou-se um pequeno (100,000 m² banco de rodolitos localizado na Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (Santa Catarina, Brasil para se determinar os pricipais componentes do banco, a estrutura da comunidade e a produção de carbonato de cálcio. Dados de cobertura relativa foram obtidos ao longo de cinco transectos fotográficos perpendiculares à ilha do Arvoredo, e complementados com amostras de sedimento superficial e testemunhos rasos. O principal componente do banco é a

  5. Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the southern Amazon Craton (Brazil): insight into its origin and deposit textures

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano

    2014-05-01

    style that produced them. The aim of this work is to provide a preliminary detailed description of the textural facies of this old volcanic units that outcrop in the southern region of Tapajós to better understand its origins, mechanisms of genesis, and, even possible, stratigraphic relationships. Acknowledgments: we acknowledge the CNPq/CT-Mineral (Proc. 550.342/2011-7) and the INCT-Geociam (573733/2008-2) - CNPq/MCT/FAPESPA/PETROBRAS).

  6. Paleomagnetic constraints on the age of the Botucatu Formation in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Endale Tamrat

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic data are reported for the aeolian Botucatu Formation, in the southern Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. Oriented samples were taken from a section located between the cities of Jaguari and Santiago. After thermal and alternating field demagnetization, both normal and reversed characteristic remanent magnetizations were found. These results yielded 13 reversed and 5 normal polarity sites, composing a magnetostratigraphic column displaying a sequence of reversed-normal-reversed polarity events. The paleomagnetic pole calculated for 18 sites is located at 114.7ºE, 78.5ºS (dp=8.1º; dm=1.2º, after restoring the strata to the paleohorizontal. This paleomagnetic pole indicates a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous age to the Botucatu Formation in the investigated area, and places the sampling sites at paleolatitudes as low as 21ºS.Dados paleomagnéticos e de magnetismo de rochas dos sedimentos eólicos da Formação Botucatu, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, obtidos de uma seção localizada entre as cidades de Jaguari e Santiago, permitiram definir a idade dessa formação. Direções de magnetização características com polaridades normal e reversa foram obtidas após desmagnetizações térmicas e por campos magnéticos alternados. Do total de sítios amostrados 13 apresentaram polaridade reversa e 5, polaridade normal, compondo uma coluna magnetoestratigráfica onde se identificam três horizontes de polaridade, na ordem, reverso-normal-reverso. O pólo paleomagnético baseado em 18 sítios está localizado a 114.7ºE, 78.5ºS (dp = 8.1º; dm = 1.2º, depois de restaurada a paleohorizontal dos sítios de amostragem. Este pólo paleomagnético indica idade do Jurássico Superior-Cretáceo Inferior para a Formação Botucatu na área estudada, e indica que as paleolatitudes ocupadas eram da ordem de 21ºS.

  7. The immunogenetics of multiple sclerosis. The frequency of HLA-alleles class 1 and 2 is lower in Southern Brazil than in the European population

    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To study the HLA of class 1and 2 in a multiple sclerosis (MS population to verify the susceptibility for the disease in the Southern Brazil. Methods We analyzed patients with MS and controls, by direct sequencing of the genes related to HLA DRB1, DQB1, DPB1, A, B and C alleles with high resolution techniques. Results We found a lower frequency of all HLA alleles class 1 and 2 in MS and controls comparing to the European population. Several alleles had statistical correlation, but after Bonferroni correction, the only allele with significance was the HLA-DQB1*02:03, which has a positive association with MS. Conclusions Our data have different frequency of HLA-alleles than the previous published papers in the Southeast Brazil and European population, possible due to several ethnic backgrounds.

  8. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes.

    Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Reisser, Júlia Wiener; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

  9. Cat infected by a variant of bat rabies virus in a 29-year disease-free urban area of southern Brazil

    Vivien Midori Morikawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: After 29 years, rabies was detected in a cat in Curitiba, southern Brazil. METHODS: The fluorescent antibody test (FAT and mouse inoculation test (MIT were performed on central nervous system (CNS samples. RESULTS: Direct immunofluorescence was negative, but the biological test was positive and rabies virus was characterized as variant 4 (from Tadarida brasiliensis. CONCLUSIONS: Reappearance of rabies in domestic animals warns of sylvatic-aerial risk of infection and the necessity of monitoring bats in historically rabies-free areas.

  10. Orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the coastal forests of southern Brazil: diversity, efficiency of sampling methods and comparison with other Atlantic forest surveys

    Vanessa C. Mattozo; Luiz R. R. Faria; Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of orchid bees at the Brazilian Atlantic forest have been restricted to a few regions, making difficult to understand latitudinal patterns of distribution and diversity of these bees. For this reason we sampled the euglossine fauna at Atlantic forest areas at the coastal region of São Paulo (Sete Barras, Faz. Morro do Capim: SP3) and state of Paraná (Antonina, Reserva Natural do Rio Cachoeira: PR3), in southern Brazil. In PR3, we also evaluated the efficiency of collecting methods for...

  11. Pollen resources and trophic niche breadth of Apis mellifera and Melipona obscurior (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in a subtropical climate in the Atlantic rain forest of southern Brazil

    Hilgert-Moreira, Suzane; Nascher, Carla; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia; Blochtein, Betina

    2013-01-01

    Pollen sources that comprise the trophic niche of native bee species Melipona obscurior and introduced Apis mellifera and the breadth of this niche were studied in two areas in the Atlantic rain forest of southern Brazil. Pollen obtained from the forager bees during a period of 12 months showed that the richness of pollen types found in each sample varied from 5 to 21 for A. mellifera and from 1 to 10 for M. obscurior. In both areas, A. mellifera had higher niche breadth. M. obscurior demonst...

  12. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality

    Shirley Kuhnen; Rudinei Butka Stibuski; Luciana Aparecida Honorato; Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado Filho

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This study provides the characteristics of the conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based production systems used in Southern Brazil, and its consequences on production and milk quality. C-HI farms had larger farms and herds, annual pasture with higher inputs and milk yield, whereas O-LI had smaller farms and herds, perennial pastures with lowest input and milk yields; C-LI was in between. O-LI farms may contribute ...

  13. Provenance of the Passo Feio complex, Dom Feliciano Belt: Implications for the age of supracrustal rocks of the São Gabriel Arc, southern Brazil

    Lopes, Carina Graciniana; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Gruber, Leonardo; Armstrong, Richard; Junges, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The Passo Feio complex (PFC) is a sequence of metapelite, amphibolite, metavolcanic/metavolcanoclastic rocks, marble, calc-silicate rocks, quartzite and magnesium schist. It is part of the São Gabriel Terrane, a Neoproterozoic juvenile arc formed during the early stages of evolution of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB), in southern Brazil. This belt corresponds to the southernmost portion of the Mantiqueira Province, an important Neoproterozoic orogenic system exposed in the NNE direction along the southeastern coast of Brazil. The geotectonic significance of the original Passo Feio basin in the tectonic evolution of São Gabriel Terrene is not well understood. It has been considered as part of a passive margin sequence or as a back-arc sequence. Geochronological and isotopic data are very scarse for the Passo Feio rocks and this has hampered the better understanding of its significance in the Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of southern Brazil. In the present study the age and significance of metasedimentary rocks of the PFC were investigated. The provenance study was carried out in four metapelite samples from the southern and northern Passo Feio complex, using U-Pb dating of detrital zircon. The results showed varied provenance patterns and zircon ages range from 3637 to 803 Ma. Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon grains are present in all samples, but an important Neoproterozoic population has been identified in one of them. 3.5 Ga old zircon grains form the oldest population of detrital zircon ever reported in southern Brazil. Paleoproterozoic/Archean terranes within the Rio de la Plata Craton may represent the main source of detrital sediments and this suggests that part of the Passo Feio complex might have been a passive margin sequence, developed along the northeastern margin of that paleocontinent. However, the presence of a Neoproterozoic zircon population is not consistent with derivation solely from the craton and indicates

  14. Sighting of an Interaction Between a Neotropical Otter, Lontra longicaudis and a Teju Lizard, Tupinambis merianae in a Lagoon Ecosystem of Southern Brazil

    Rossi-Santos M. R.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Otters are opportunistic feeders in that they feed upon whatever available prey. Sightings of live otters in their natural environment are uncommon, mainly because otters are known to have shy habits, avoiding human presence. Despite the fact that reptiles are listed in the neotropical otter´s diet, they just constitute a small part of it. This paper aims to report an unusual sighting of interaction between a neotropical otter, Lontra longicaudis, and a Teju lizard, Tupinambis merianae, in a lagoon environment of southern Brazil, characterized as predation.

  15. Geochronological data from the Faxinal coal succession, southern Parana Basin, Brazil: A preliminary approach combining radiometric U-Pb dating and palynostratigraphy

    Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; Menegat, R.; Formoso, M.L.L.; Basei, M.A.; Barboza, E.; Simas, M.W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    A radiometric zircon age of 285.4 {+-} 8.6 Ma (IDTIMS U-Pb) is reported from a tonstein layer interbedded with coal seams in the Faxinal coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Calibration of palynostratigraphic data with the absolute age shows that the coal depositional interval in the southern Parana Basin is constrained to the Sakmarian. Consequently, the basal Gondwana sequence in the southern part of the basin should lie at the Carboniferous-Permian boundary, not within the Sakmarian as previously considered. The new results are significant for correlations between the Parana Basin and the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 {+-} 6 Ma and 288 {+-} 7 Ma) and with the Karoo Basin, specifically with the top of the Dwyka Tillite (302 {+-} 3 Ma and 299.2 {+-} 3.2 Ma) and the lowermost Ecca Group (288 {+-} 3 Ma and 289.6 {+-} 3.8 Ma). The evidence signifies widespread latest Carboniferous volcanic activity in western Gondwana.

  16. Effects of body size on the diet of Rivulus haraldsiolii (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, southern Brazil

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of body size on the feeding habits of the little-known killifi sh Rivulus haraldsiolii, collected in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, was investigated. Samples were collected during a study trip on 13 July 2009 in a brackish stream located in the northern part of Ilha do Mel Island, one of the most important southern Atlantic Forest areas in southern Brazil. The diet included aquatic immature insects (Diptera pupae and Chironomidae, aquatic insects (Hemiptera – Vellidae, microcrustaceans (Cladocera, aquatic ticks (Acarina, gastropods (Pomacea sp., terrestrial insects (Coleoptera, Formicidae and Isoptera, insect fragments, and plant fragments. The species presented an omnivorous feeding habit, and differences in diet could be related to variations in body sizes. Adults (large individuals feed mainly on Formicidae, plant fragments and aquatic ticks, whereas juveniles (small individuals feed basically on aquatic immature insects (Chironomidae and aquatic ticks.

  17. Diatom associations in shelf waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil: annual variation in relation to environmental factors

    Luciano Felício Fernandes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation of diatoms in the inshore waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil was investigated to analyse their temporal dynamics and to detect the main environmental constraints of the planktonic community. Biomass peaks occurred from May to August and from December to March. Among the microplanktonic diatoms, Cerataulina pelagica, Chaetoceros spp., Dactyliosolen fragilissimus, Guinardia striata, Lauderia annulata, Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudo-nitzschia cf. delicatissima, P. australis, Rhizosolenia spp., Skeletonema costatum and Thalassionema nitzschioides were dominant species. Nanoplanktonic diatoms were dominated by Naviculaceae, Nitzschia spp., Thalassiosira spp. and Chaetoceros cf. tenuissimus. Concentrations of most of the species decreased during and just after the blooms of Phaeocystis pouchetii in September and of Coscinodiscus wailesii in April. Based on cluster analysis and interpretations of the environmental parameters monitored, six diatom associations were discerned. Four main environmental factors were attributed as the determinants for the grouping: (a the stronger influence of the tropical oligotrophic waters of the Brazil Current in spring/summer, (b the alternation between dry and rainy (nutrient-richer seasons, (c the influence of subantarctic waters mixed with coastal ones in fall/winter, bringing cold species and promoting the growth of autochthonous species, and (d the blooms of nanoplanktonic (Phaeocystis and microplanktonic (C. wailesii species.A variação sazonal das diatomáceas em águas neríticas do estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil, foi investigada para analisar sua dinâmica temporal e detectar as principais forçantes ambientais da comunidade planctônica. Picos de biomassa ocorreram de Maio a Agosto e de Dezembro a Março. As espécies dominantes foram Cerataulina pelagica, Chaetoceros spp., Dactyliosolen fragilissimus, Guinardia striata, Lauderia annulata, Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudo-nitzschia cf

  18. Freshwater temperature in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, and its implication for fish culture

    Luciano de Oliveira Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we verified data of water temperatures collected by CORSAN-RS from 1996 to 2004 in several cities of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and analyzed the possibility of raising the most cultivated fish species in Brazil. The water temperature from 1996 to 2004 was 16 to 28ºC in summer, 17 to 23ºC in fall, 14 to 17ºC (down to 9ºC in the coldest months in winter and 14 to 21ºC in spring. Native species of this state, such as silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus, dorado (Salminus brasiliensis, pintado (Pimelodus maculatus, as well as carps (family Cyprinidae, are resistant to the low winter temperatures. These species have a lower growth rate in coldest months (winter/spring but a good development in warmer months (summer/fall, reaching a satisfactory performance throughout the year. In the periods of more intense cold, mortality of some introduced species, such as surubim from Amazon Basin (Pseudoplatystoma sp., pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus, pirarucu (Arapaimas gigas, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus may occur. In addition, as most tropical species have a thermal range for growth and reproduction between 20 to 28ºC, some species may have poor development even in fall. Therefore, water temperature in this state should be considered in the choice of fish species to be cultivated.Neste estudo verificaram-se dados de temperaturas de água coletados pela CORSAN-RS de 1996 a 2004, em várias cidades do estado do Rio Grande Sul, sul do Brasil, e analisou-se a possibilidade de criação das principais espécies de peixe cultivadas no Brasil. A temperatura da água de 1996 a 2004 foi de 16 a 28ºC no verão, de 17 a 25ºC no outono, 14 a 17ºC (chegando a 9ºC nos meses mais frios no inverno e 14 a 21ºC na primavera. Espécies nativas deste estado, como o jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus, dourado

  19. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Barbosa Filho Valter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9 and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0. Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class

  20. An observed database to characterize the weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclogenesis over southern-southeastern Brazil

    Yamamoto, R.; Porfirio da Rocha, R.

    2012-04-01

    A project to study the climatic, dynamic and synoptic aspects of subtropical cyclones that develop in southern-southeastern coast of Brazil is in development. The weather conditions associated with such cyclones is an important question that must be answered in this project. However, for such characterization it is necessary to use the local meteorological observations of wind, wind gust, rainfall, air temperature, etc. The NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis have spatial and time resolutions that provide elements to study the synoptic and dynamics of meteorological events (cyclone, anticyclones, troughs, ridges, monsoons circulations, etc) until the production of complex climatology. However, this analysis has coarse horizontal resolution (~250 Km) that often does not allow the identification of intense meteorological phenomena. A more precise characterization of location and intensity of weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclones would be performed using local observations. Therefore, this work describes the methodology to construct a database of surface weather observations using a relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL. The data source are SYNOP (Surface Synoptic Observations), METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) and CETESB (Environmental Agency of Sao Paulo State) that are available online through dynamic web page. An iterative algorithm robot was developed to automate the data extraction. Most of the data source are encoded or at non-standard format, hence was developed an algorithm in C++, using the REGEX library, an engine of text pattern search, for decode and handle the exception (erroneous and corrupted data). After the data decoding and formatting it is stored into the MySQL database. The structure of database was divided into categories of tables: a table with the source of data definition, a table with stations information and two sets of tables (for hourly

  1. The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

    Marcel G. Hermes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The structure of flower-visiting social wasps' assemblages in the CPCN Pró-Mata of São Francisco de Paula and in the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, are characterized. A total of 879 polistine wasps were collected, of which 475 (11 spp. in the CPCN and 404 (21 spp. in the Green Belt, from September 1997 to April 2001 and from September 2001 to April 2004, respectively. Foraging social wasps were observed on flowers of 36 species of angiosperms (20 families in the Green Belt, and on flowers of 54 species of angiosperms (21 families in the CPCN. Asteraceae was the most visited plant family on both studied localities. A list of pant species visited by the polistines is provided.Vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae visitantes de flores em duas áreas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A estrutura da assembléia de vespas sociais que visitam flores no CPCN Pró-Mata de São Francisco de Paula e no Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, são caracterizadas. Do total de 879 polistíneos, 475 (11 spp. foram coletados no CPCN, e 404 (21 spp. no Cinturão Verde entre Setembro de 1997 a Abril de 2000 e Setembro de 2001 a Abril de 2004, respectivamente. Vespas sociais foram observadas em flores de 36 espécies de angiospermas (20 famílias no Cinturão Verde, e em flores de 54 espécies de angiospermas (21 famílias no CPCN. Asteraceae foi a família de planta que mais recebeu visitas por parte das vespas nas duas localidades estudadas. Uma lista com as espécies de plantas visitadas pelos polistíneos é apresentada.

  2. Metacercárias livres (Digenea: Diplostomidae em Rhinella fernandezae (Anura: Bufonidae no Sul do Brasil Free metacercariae (Digenea, Diplostomidae in Rhinella fernandezae (Anura: Bufonidae in southern Brazil

    Viviane Gularte Tavares dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Metacercárias livres de uma espécie não determinada de trematódeo digenético (Diplostomidae foram encontradas nos rins de anuros da espécie Rhinella fernandezae coletados no Município de Imbé, Litoral Norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em uma amostra de 90 anuros, as metacercárias apresentaram prevalência de 3,3% e intensidade de infecção de 8,7 helmintos/hospedeiro. Este é o primeiro registro de metacercárias livres de diplostomídeos em anuros da região Sul do Brasil e do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.Free metacercariae of an undetermined species of digenetic (Diplostomidae were found over in the kidneys of anurans of the species Rhinella fernandezae collected in the in the municipality of Imbé, on the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. In a sample of 90 anurans, the prevalence of free metacercariae was 3,3, and the mean intensity of infection was 8,7 helminths/host. This is the first record of free metacercariae in anurans from Southern Brazil and from the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  3. Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil

    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied, 1826 (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil. The space use of the marsupial Didelphis aurita was studied in a forest fragment of southern Brazil from February 1995 to January 1996. The method used was the 'distribution utilization' in which each trap was set in 38 x 38 m quadrats. Captures of each marked individual in each point give information on its habitat use. Food availability was searched and compared to the habitat utilization and to the food consumption of opossums. Distribution patterns of captures (aggregated to random and spatial overlap between individuals were searched. Results showed aggregated distributions of individuals, particularly females, in the fragment. Females used exclusively the fragment during the drier season. Opossums tend to not choose the sites with highest food availability to establish home ranges. Spatial overlap was usually low between forest resident and neighbouring resident females, but much lower during the breeding season (only forest resident females in an apparently pattern of territoriality. Hence, core areas of females decreased in size during the breeding season. Males probably searched primarily for mates during the breeding season being less opportunistic than females in feeding habits, yet their space use did not correlate to food consumption.

  4. Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (Sagittae of Southeastern - Southern Brazil Part I: Gadiformes (Macrouridae, Moridae, Bregmacerotidae, Phycidae and Merlucciidae; Part II: Perciformes (Carangidae, Sciaenidae, Scombridae and Serranidae

    Carmen Lucia Del Bianco Rossi-Wongtschowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The drawings, detailed pictures, precise descriptions and measurements that characterize otoliths must be made available for studies in various areas, including taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology, fisheries, paleontology, diversity, predator-prey relationships and modeling. The Collection of Teleostei Fish Otoliths of Southeastern-Southern Brazil (COSS-Brasil of IOUSP contains 45,000 pairs of otoliths from 210 species. This publication is the first in a series that will constitute an atlas of Teleostei otoliths for southeastern-southern Brazil and presents the results of the morphologic and morphometric analyses of 11 Gadiformes and 36 Perciformes species by means of the most commonly used features, measurements and indices. Three otoliths of each species were illustrated and photographed whenever possible. The frequency of occurrence was calculated for each characteristic by total length classes (TL, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed (multiple χ2 test; significance 0.05. Morphometric analyses were conducted for each characteristic per total length (TL class and for the whole sample, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed.

  5. 1-methylcyclopropene effects on volatile profile and quality of 'Royal Gala' apples produced in Southern Brazil and stored in controlled atmosphere

    Fabio Rodrigo Thewes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Apple volatile aroma depends of complex interaction among organic compounds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP application on volatile profile and quality on 'Royal Gala' apples produced in Southern Brazil and stored under controlled atmosphere condition (CA; 1.0kPa O2+1.2kPa CO2; 0.5±0.1°C; 94±1% relative humidity. Volatile profile was determined after eight month of CA storage plus 7 days of shelf life via solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. In the volatile profile were identified 8 esters, 11 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 6 acids, 2 ketones, 1 ether and 1 terpene. 1-MCP application reduced significantly the main volatile compounds production by 'Royal Gala' apples produced in Southern Brazil. Its application decreases significantly the esters production, especially 2-methyl-butyl acetate and hexyl acetate, compared to 'Royal Gala' apples storage under CA. 1-methylcyclopropene application decrease ethylene production and respiration rate. Apples treated with 1-MCP exhibit higher hexanal and 2(E-hexenal production.

  6. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863 (Squamata: Dipsadidae in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  7. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863) (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho; Luciano Leandro Plombon

    2014-01-01

    Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae) occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  8. Runoff response for a peri-urban watershed in the Atlantic Forest Biome, southern Brazil, using the Kineros2 model

    Beling, F. A.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Heatwole, C.

    2011-12-01

    Simulating the hydrologic response of a watershed for different scenarios is an important tool for assessing the rational use of the land and natural resources, especially in environments where urbanization is not ever an organized procedure. This study used the Kineros2 event oriented hydrological model to simulate the runoff response of a 4.9 km2 peri-urban basin located in the Atlantic Forest biome in Southern Brazil, with 47% of the area being impermeable. The goal of the simulations was to estimate the characteristic parameters of the soils and land cover of the watershed to then enable the prediction of basin response for different land uses. To acheive this objective, the responses of ten measured rainfall-runoff events were used to calibrate five parameters of the model. The PEST (Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis) package was used for automatic calibration of the model parameters. The quality of results is shown in Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index values varying from 0.64 up to 0.98, with an average value of 0.88. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow was 4.5% and 20.7% in the simulated runoff volume. A cross-validation using the same events used in the calibration and using average values of the calibrated parameters. gave Nash-Sutcliffe index values varying from 0.26 up to 0.92, with an average value of 0.73. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow and runoff volume were 22.7% and 25.6%, respectively. We used two validated events to simulate distinct scenarios, being representative of a wet and of dry antecedent moisture conditions. For a scenario of a totally forested land cover, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -53% and -46% respectively, and for a wet condition, -63% and -41% respectively, relatively to the present land use. For a complete pasture land use, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -31% and -27% respectively and

  9. The Late Holocene upper montane cloud forest and high altitude grassland mosaic in the Serra da Igreja, Southern Brazil

    MAURÍCIO B. SCHEER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many soils of the highlands of Serra do Mar, as in other mountain ranges, have thick histic horizons that preserve high amounts of carbon. However, the age and constitution of the organic matter of these soils remain doubtful, with possible late Pleistocene or Holocene ages. This study was conducted in three profiles (two in grassland and one in forest in Serra da Igreja highlands in the state of Paraná. We performed δ13C isotope analysis of organic matter in soil horizons to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. C3 plants seem to have dominated the mountain ridges of Serra da Igreja since at least 3,000 years BP. Even though the Serra da Igreja may represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands in soils containing organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as reported elsewhere in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, our results indicate that the sites studied are at least from the beginning of the Late Holocene, when conditions of high moisture enabled the colonization/recolonization of the Serra da Igreja ridges by C3 plants. This is the period, often reported in the literature, when forests advanced onto grasslands and savannas.Muitos solos dos picos da Serra do Mar, como em muitas outras serras, apresentam horizontes hísticos espessos com elevados estoques de carbono. No entanto, a idade e constituição da matéria orgânica destes solos ainda é pouco conhecida e não se sabe se é predominantemente proveniente de comunidades de plantas do final do Pleistoceno ou do Holoceno. Este estudo foi realizado em três perfis, dois em campos altomontanos sobre Organossolos (1.335 m s.n.m e um em um colo (ponto de sela, onde a floresta altomontana sobre Gleissolos alcança seu patamar mais alto (1.325 m s.n.m. Foram realizadas análises isotópicas (δ13C da matéria orgânica de horizontes do solo para saber se plantas C3 ou C4 dominaram

  10. Thermal biology, activity, and population parameters of Cnemidophorus vacariensis (Squamata, Teiidae, a lizard endemic to southern Brazil

    Rodrigo Caruccio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the following aspects of the biology of a population of Cnemidophorus vacariensis Feltrim & Lema, 2000 during the four seasons: thermal biology, relationship with the thermal environment, daily and seasonal activity, population structure and growth rate. Cnemidophorus vacariensis is restricted to rocky outcrops of the "campos de cima da serra" grasslands on the Araucaria Plateau, southern Brazil, and is currently listed as regionally and nationally threatened with extinction. Data were collected from October 2004 through September 2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Sampling was conducted randomly from 08:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. The capture-mark-recapture method was employed. The lizards were captured by hand, and their cloacal temperature, sex, snout-ventral length (SVL, mass, and the temperature of their microhabitat (substrate temperature and air temperature were recorded. Individuals were then marked by toe-clipping and released at the site of capture. Body temperatures were obtained for 175 individuals, activity data for 96 individuals, and data on population structure and growth for 59 individuals. All data were obtained monthly, at different times of the day. Cnemidophorus vacariensis average body temperature was 23.84ºC, ranging between 9.6 and 38.2ºC. Temperatures ranged between 21 and 29ºC. The correlation between external heat sources, substrate and air were positive and significant and there was a greater correlation between lizard's temperature and the temperature of the substrate (tigmothermic species. The relatively low body temperatures of individuals are associated with the climate of their environment (altitude up to 1,400 m, with large variations in temperature throughout the day and the year, and low temperatures in winter. The average body temperature observed for C. vacariensis was low when compared with that of phylogenetically related species, suggesting that the thermal biology of this species

  11. LEAF TRAITS AND PLASTIC POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES IN A LIGHT-EDAPHIC GRADIENT FROM RESTINGA IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    João Carlos Ferreira Melo Júnior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTRestinga formations grow on sandy spits of coastal plains, an environment whose conditions limit the growth and development of vegetal species. Studies on restinga gradients are good examples of how plants acclimate to restrictive environments. This work compares three woody species co-occurring in four vegetations of a restinga from Southern Brazil. It pinpoints morpho-anatomical attributes that favor the survival of species faced with spatial variability of soil and light conditions. Results indicate that they respond differently to environmental variables on different scales. The plastic response of morphological attributes is more marked than that of anatomical ones. Varronia curassavica and Dodonaea viscosa showed more xeromorphic features on the more stressful restinga formations while Symphyopappus casarettoi varied between xerophyte to mesophyte forms along the gradient. Individual height, fresh and dry leaf masses, leaf area, specific leaf mass and area, leaf density, and water content are particularly noteworthy. These responses are strategies allowing the studied species to survive in restinga environment with highly variable soil nutrient, water availability, and light conditions. The environmental conditions are important features that modulate de plant morphology along the gradient. Keywords: coastal vegetation, leaf morphology, leaf anatomy, light and soil conditions.RESUMENRestinga (o cordón litoral es una formación que se desarrolla en cordones arenosos de planícies litorales. Este ambiente presenta condiciones limitantes al crecimiento y desarrollo de las especies vegetales. Estudios en gradientes de restinga son buenos ejemplos de como las plantas se aclimatan a las condiciones ambientales restrictivas. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo comparar tres especies leñosas co-ocurrentes en cuatro fisonomías de una restinga del sur de Brasil, buscando conocer los atributos morfo-anatómicos que favorecen la sobrevivencia

  12. Alternative method to trace sediment sources in a subtropical rural catchment of southern Brazil by using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Tiecher, Tales; Caner, Laurent; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Ciotti, Lucas; Antônio Bender, Marcos; dos Santos Rheinheimer, Danilo

    2014-05-01

    Conventional fingerprinting methods based on geochemical composition still require a time-consuming and critical preliminary sample preparation. Thus, fingerprinting characteristics that can be measured in a rapid and cheap way requiring a minimal sample preparation, such as spectroscopy methods, should be used. The present study aimed to evaluate the sediment sources contribution in a rural catchment by using conventional method based on geochemical composition and on an alternative method based on near-infrared spectroscopy. This study was carried out in a rural catchment with an area of 1,19 km2 located in southern Brazil. The sediment sources evaluated were crop fields (n=20), unpaved roads (n=10) and stream channels (n=10). Thirty suspended sediment samples were collected from eight significant storm runoff events between 2009 and 2011. Sources and sediment samples were dried at 50oC and sieved at 63 µm. The total concentration of Ag, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were estimated by ICP-OES after microwave assisted digestion with concentrated HNO3 and HCl. Total organic carbon (TOC) was estimated by wet oxidation with K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The near-infrared spectra scan range was 4000 to 10000 cm-1 at a resolution of 2 cm-1, with 100 co added scans per spectrum. The steps used in the conventional method were: i) tracer selection based on Kruskal-Wallis test, ii) selection of the best set of tracers using discriminant analyses and finally iii) the use of a mixed linear model to calculate the sediment sources contribution. The steps used in the alternative method were i) principal component analyses to reduce the number of variables, ii) discriminant analyses to determine the tracer potential of the near-infrared spectroscopy, and finally iii) the use of past least square based on 48 mixtures of the sediment sources in various weight proportions to calculate the sediment sources

  13. Biomarkers responses in fish (Atherinella brasiliensis of paranaguá bay, southern Brazil, for assessment of pollutant effects

    Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paranaguá bay is a complex estuary located in southern Brazil containing three protected areas listed by UNESCO. Historically, the estuary has been affected by urban, industrial, agricultural and harbor activities, and occasional accidents. Specifically, the explosion of the Chilean ship Vicuña in December 2004 spilled methanol and crude and fuel oils which affected both protected and non-protected areas. The present study sought to investigate the pollution threat to aquatic organisms in order to evaluate the potential effects of pollutants. One hundred and twenty adult fish Atherinella brasiliensis were collected from different sites within Paranaguá estuary, including the harbor and open ocean, during summer, autumn and winter of 2005. Among the biomarkers, the somatic index, chemical analysis of bile, biochemical, genetic and morphological parameters were considered. Chemical analysis of bile showed a continuous bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs according to proximity to the harbor site. The histopathological findings have demonstrated aconsiderable incidence of severe pathologies in the liver and gills, corroborated by biochemical disturbances and genetic damage. These findings indicate that more studies are necessary to evaluate both water quality and fish health so as to permit a better analysis of the impact of pollution in Paranaguá estuary.A Baia de Paranaguá é um complexo estuarino localizado no sul do Brasil constituído de três áreas de proteção ambiental listadas pela UNESCO. Historicamente, o estuário tem sido afetado por atividade urbana, industrial, agricultura e portuária, e eventualmente por acidentes. Particularmente a explosão do navio Chileno Vicuña em dezembro de 2004 derramou metanol, óleo cru e combustível atingindo áreas protegidas e não protegidas. O presente estudo tem por objetivo investigar a poluição em organismos aquáticos. Cento e vinte indivíduos adultos do peixe

  14. Temporal variation of sandy beach macrofauna at two sites with distinct environmental conditions on Cassino Beach, extreme southern Brazil

    Pedro de Sá Rodrigues da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variations of the macrofauna of sandy beaches have been related to variations in the beach morphodynamics and also to the population dynamics of dominant species. The aim of this article is to describe the temporal variation of the intertidal macrofauna at two sites with distinct environmental condition on Cassino Beach, extreme southern Brazil. At each site three transect lines 50 m apart were defined perpendicular to the shore line, from which samples were collected monthly in triplicate at 4 intertidal levels (10 m apart from June 2004 to May 2005. During winter a generally low density was observed, due to the absence of recruitments and to the mud deposition, which occurred just before sampling (in April 2004, and to low intensity stranding events. Spring witnessed a population explosion of Scolelepis gaucha, a migration of Mesodesma mactroides adults from the subtidal zone, and a strong stranding event. In the summer, recruitment of M. mactroides, Donax hanleyanus and Emerita brasiliensis was observed. Fall was characterized by low densities, except for D. hanleyanus recruitment. The macrofauna at both sites showed a striking seasonal variation in density and diversity, perhaps attributable to the recruitment of numerically dominant species and physical disturbances (stranding and mud deposition.Variações sazonais da macrofauna bentônica de praias arenosas têm sido relacionadas com variações da morfodinâmica da praia e também aos recrutamentos das espécies dominantes. Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a variabilidade temporal da macrofauna da zona entremarés de dois locais com distintas características ambientais na praia do Cassino, extremo sul do Brasil. Em cada local foram demarcadas três transversais (separadas por 50m perpendiculares à linha de água, nas quais amostras foram coletadas em triplicata em 4 níveis entremarés (separados por 10 m, entre junho/2004 e maio/2005. Durante o inverno ocorreram baixas

  15. Late sodic metasomatism evidences in bimodal volcanic rocks of the Acampamento Velho Alloformation, Neoproterozoic III, southern Brazil

    Delia Del Pilar M. de Almeida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mineralogical study was carried out in mafic and felsic volcanic rocks of the Acampamento Velho Alloformation at Cerro do Bugio, Perau and Serra de Santa Bárbara areas (Camaquã Basin in southern Brazil. The Acampamento Velho bimodal event consists of two associations: lower mafic at the base and upper felsic at the top. Plagioclase and alkali-feldspar were studied using an electronic microprobe, and magnetite, ilmenite, rutile, illite and alkali-feldspar were investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The rocks were affected by a process of late sodic autometasomatism. In mafic rocks, Ca-plagioclase was transformed to albite and pyroxenes were altered. In felsic rocks, sanidine was partially pseudomorphosed, generating heterogeneous alkali-feldspar. In this association, unstable Ti-rich magnetite was replaced by rutile and ilmenite. In mafic rocks, the crystallization sequence was: (1 Ti-rich magnetite (?, (2 pyroxene and Ca-plagioclase, (3 albite (alteration to Ca-plagioclase, (4 sericite, chlorite and calcite (alteration to pyroxene, and kaolinite (alteration to plagioclase/albite. In felsic rocks: (1 zircon, (2 Ti-rich magnetite, (3 sanidine, (4 quartz. The introduction of late Na-rich fluids, generated the formation of (5 heterogeneous alkali-feldspar, (6 ilmenite and rutile from the Ti-rich magnetite, (7 albite in the spherulites. Finally, alteration of sanidine, vitroclasts and pumice to (8 illite.Um estudo mineralógico de detalhe foi realizado nas rochas vulcânicas da Aloformação Acampamento Velho nos Cerros do Bugio, Perau e Serra de Santa Bárbara (Bacia do Camaquã, sudeste do Brasil. Este evento bimodal é constituído por duas associações: máfica inferior na base e félsica superior no topo. Foram estudados grãos de plagioclásio e feldspato alcalino com o uso de microssonda eletrônica, sendo que, magnetita,ilmenita, rutilo e ilita além de feldspato alcalino foram pesquisados através do microscópio eletr

  16. Revisión zoogeográfica marina del sur del Brasil A marine zoogeographical revision of southern Brazil

    Francisco J Palacio

    1982-01-01

    ", que contiene una proporcion significativa de elementos endemicos y algunos miembros de las faunas adjacentes, Caribe y Patagónica, ademas de organismos circuntropicales. Los límites de la provincia Paulista se hallan, en el norte en la isoterma de los 23ºC, y en el sur, en la isocrima (temperaturas mas frías durante 30 días consecutivos, definidas por Dana, 1853 de los 23ºC.The zoogeography of the Tropical/Subtropical region of Southern Brazil is reviewed through a detailed analysis of numerous studies by different authors. Transition zones are established in the global patterns of zoological provinces (Dana, 1853. The Province "Paulista" is proposed between the States of Espírito Santo and Rio Grande do Sul, limited north and south by the 23ºC isotherm.

  17. Energy intake and requirements of infants in southern Brazil - the influence of breast feeding pattern and socio-economic status

    , energy requirements of breast-fed infants in southern Brazil are well below existing international recommendations (20-25%), but similar to the new and recently published American estimated energy requirements (FNB), and values likely to emerge from recent WHO/FAO/UNU consultations. The higher total energy intake of infants receiving cows' milk, their higher fat mass index at 8 months, and the low activity energy expenditure of high SES babies with a tendency towards a higher prevalence of obesity may have implications in relation to the current epidemic of obesity later life in Latin America and elsewhere. High SES babies receiving cows' milk may be a population group that particularly need attention in this respect. (author)

  18. Fatores associados ao uso de drogas entre adolescentes escolares Factors associated with drug use among adolescent students in southern Brazil

    Beatriz Franck Tavares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar fatores associados ao uso de drogas entre adolescentes de escolas com ensino médio. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal, em 1998, em Pelotas, RS. Um questionário anônimo, auto-aplicado em sala de aula, foi respondido por uma amostra proporcional de estudantes com idade entre 10 e 19 anos, matriculados no ensino fundamental (a partir da quinta série e no ensino médio, em todas as escolas públicas e particulares na zona urbana do município que tinham ensino médio. Realizaram-se até três revisitas para aplicação aos alunos ausentes. Os resultados foram expressos como razão de prevalências (RP. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 2.410 estudantes e o índice de perdas foi de 8%. A prevalência do uso de drogas (exceto álcool e tabaco no último ano foi 17,1%. Após controle para fatores de confusão, permaneceu a associação entre uso de drogas e separação dos pais (RP=1,46; IC 95%: 1,18-1,80, relacionamento ruim ou péssimo com o pai (RP=1,67; IC 95%: 1,17-2,38, relacionamento ruim ou péssimo com a mãe (RP=2,71; IC 95%: 1,64-4,48, ter pai liberal (RP=1,36; IC 95%: 1,08-1,72, presença em casa de familiar usuário de drogas (RP=1,61; IC 95%: 1,17-2,18, ter sofrido maus tratos (RP=1,62; IC 95%: 1,27-2,07, ter sido assaltado ou roubado no ano anterior (RP=1,38; IC 95%: 1,09-1,76 e ausência de prática religiosa (RP=1,31; IC 95%: 1,07-1,59. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo indica que diversas características familiares estão associadas ao uso de drogas pelos adolescentes, fornecendo informações úteis para a compreensão integral desse problema em nosso País.OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with drug use among adolescent students from schools providing secondary education. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1998. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was answered by a proportional sample of 10-19-year-old students, enrolled in primary (5th grade and

  19. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  20. Food and feeding habits of king weakfish, Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 caught in the southern coast of Brazil (lat, 29º to 32ºs

    Anastácio Afonso Juras

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrodon ancylodon was obtained from landings in Santos Port (São Paulo State of fish caught monthly by commercial vessels, on the southern coast of Brazil during September 1976 to August 1977. The measurements of total lenght, total weight determination of sex and maturity stages were made. The food items found in stomach contents were: shrimp (Artemesia longinaris, fishes (Paralonchurus brasiliensis, Macrodon ancylodon, Trichirus lepturus, Gadidae, Engraulidae, molluscs (Loliginidae, Bivalvia and Stomatopoda. Widening of food spectrum was observed in winter. The index of preponderance showed that immature females, immature and mature males fed predominantly on shrimp, while mature females fed mainly on fishes. During spring and summer (spawning season M. ancylodon exhibited relatively low percentage of full stomachs. Cannibalism was encountered more intensively for mature fish.

  1. Investigation on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV and Avian Poxvirus (APV in magellanic penguins in Southern region of Brazil

    Cristina Freitas Nunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV and avian poxvirus (APV in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELISA kit for the IBDV made in the chickens in 50 samples. This reactivity also was demonstrated in 42 samples using agar gel immunodiffusion. No clinical signs related to IBDV infection were observed. The results indicated the absence of infection by NDV and APV but suggested IBDV exposure in the population of penguins studied.

  2. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    Jahnke, Simone M.; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Soglio, Fabio K. Dal [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade; Diefenbach, Lucia M.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Producao e Pesquisa em Saude (FEPPS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Biologicas. Lab. Central do Estado (LACEN)

    2007-09-15

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  3. Reproduction and population dynamics of Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia in the periurban environment of Santa Catarina Island, in southern Brazil

    Manoel dos Santos Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The various aspects of reproduction and population dynamics of Didelphis aurita were studied through capture-recapture on Santa Catarina Island, in southern Brazil. Surveys were carried out from April 1996 to March 1997. The study area was located near the stream of a swamp in a disturbed Atlantic Forest area. On 880 trap-nights, 31 opossums were captured on 108 occasions during one year. The results of this paper indicate a seasonal polyestrous reproduction pattern. Autumn-winter population levels grew on account of juvenile recruitment. The sex ratio favored females in first captures and total captures. Emigration was discussed as being the main reason for the female bias. The effects of sampling procedures over deviation in the pouch young sex ratio of resident females were also discussed.

  4. Effect of the implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP prerequisite program in an institutional foodservice unit in Southern Brazil

    Kelly Lameiro Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the hygienic practices in the food production of an institutional foodservice unit in Southern Brazil and to evaluate the effect of implementing good food handling practices and standard operational procedures using microbiological hygiene indicators. An initial survey of the general operating conditions classified the unit as regular in terms of compliance with State safety guidelines for food service establishments. An action plan that incorporated the correction of noncompliance issues and the training of food handlers in good food handling practices and standard operational procedures were then implemented. The results of the microbiological analysis of utensils, preparation surfaces, food handlers' hands, water, and ambient air were recorded before and after the implementation of the action plan. The results showed that the implementation of this type of practice leads to the production of safer foods.

  5. Composition of mixed flocks of understory forest birds in areas of the Atlantic coast and lowlands of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    Marcos Antonio Guimarães Azevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An accompaniment of forest mixed flocks was carried in two localities of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, one on a forest hillside of the Atlantic on the Island of Santa Catarina (June to September, 2000 and another in a quaternary plain forest of the Volta Velha Reserve, Itapoá (June to November, 2000. Sixty-four species of birds were registered from the 79 identified flocks, 33 of which showed a frequency of occurrence above 10%. The flocks had an average number of six species. The nuclear species responsible for the aggregation and compacting of the flocks, for the two localities was Basileuterus culicivorus. The mixed flocks presented little difference in their composition in the two areas. This is probably due to the history of the colonization and the distinct forest formations of the two areas involved.

  6. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella Pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil.

    Jahnke, Simone M; Redaelli, Luiza R; Diefenbach, Lúcia M G; Dal Soglio, Fábio K

    2007-01-01

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leafminer, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 degrees 68'S and 51 degrees 46'W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. PMID:18060301

  7. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  8. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

    Maíra Carneiro Proietti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64% and CM-A5 (22% were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies ( 0.05. Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively. These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

  9. Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil

    Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lamblia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lambia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.

  10. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system. PMID:25466055

  11. The influence of fire and livestock grazing on the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland-Araucaria Forest ecotones, southern Brazil

    Ezequiel Pedó

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Grazing and fire, used in pasture regeneration practices, are inter-related activities in livestock management. Both activities affect habitat characteristics by changing the structure of the herbaceous and shrubby vegetation, reducing their biomass and litter cover. This study evaluated the effect of fire and livestock grazing on the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland-Araucaria forest ecotones in southern Brazil. We compared four areas frequently affected by livestock management with four protected areas. Surveys were carried out in four sampling periods, one in each season of 2004. We captured a total of 325 individuals from 12 species of rodents - Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Akodon paranaensis Christoff, Fagundes, Sbalqueiro, Mattevi e Yonenaga-Yassuda, 2000, Akodon sp. 1, Akodon sp. 2 (2n = 34, Brucepattersonius iheringi (Thomas, 1896, Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872, Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837, Scapteromys sp. (2n = 34, Sooretamys angouya (Fischer, 1814 and Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829 - and two species of marsupials - Monodelphis dimidiata (Wagner, 1847 and Philander frenatus (Olfers, 1818 -, in a total effective effort of 5254 traps.day-1. The abundance, biomass and diversity of non-flying small mammals were significantly higher in the protected areas than in those affected by fire and livestock grazing. Species strictly associated with grassland habitats were not found in the impacted area. These results indicate that the presence of herds of domestic ungulates negatively affect the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland and Araucaria forest areas in southern Brazil.

  12. Mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) parasitizing mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil with a new mite genus country record.

    Dos Santos, Emili Bortolon; Favretto, Mario Arthur; Dos Santos Costa, Samuel Geremias; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antonio

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a total of 4146 culicids collected in an Atlantic Forest area in Paraná state, southern Brazil were examined for the presence of mites. Forty larval Parasitengone mites (Arrenurus spp., Arrenuridae; Durenia spp., Trombellidae; Microtrombidium spp., Microtrombidiidae) parasitized 25 specimens of mosquitoes, with the intensity varying from one to nine mites attached. Most mites were found on Aedes serratus/nubilus, Culex vomerifer, Cx. pedroi and Cx. sacchettae. The overall percentage of parasitized mosquitoes was 0.6 %. The highest intensity of mites encountered was in an individual of Cx. pedroi with nine attached mites. Regarding the attachment site, most mite specimens were attached to the abdomen (n = 25), whereas 15 were located on the thorax. Specimens of Arrenurus spp. were only found on the abdomen of mosquitoes, and the same was observed for Microtrombidium spp., while Durenia spp. attached to both the thorax (n = 15) and abdomen (n = 4). This is the first record for the genus Durenia in Brazil. Additionally, some species of mosquitoes were, for the first time, reported as being parasitized by mites. PMID:27085719

  13. Beach ridges, foredunes or transgressive dunefields? Definitions and an examination of the Torres to Tramandaí barrier system, Southern Brazil

    Hesp Patrick A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many prograded barriers and some dunefields in theworld have been termed 'beach ridge' plains, but the actual genesis of the 'ridges' is often unknown. Use of the terms, berms, beach ridges and foredunes is also confusing in the literature because their definitions are highly variable and are commonly used interchangeably. Thus, the formation and definition of sand berms, beach ridges and foredunes is briefly reviewed. Beach ridges are re-defined as entirely wave formed deposits which are most commonly formed during high wave conditions and/or elevated water levels (e.g. storm surges. Foredunes are formed by aeolian sand deposition in vegetation on the backshore. Some dunefields in Brazil have been called beach ridge plains when they are, in fact, foredune plains, transgressive dunefields, or complex barriers (i.e. barriers comprising two types of dunes. The Holocene barrier extending from Torres to Tramandaí in southern Brazil has been regarded as a beach ridge plain. The landforms of this Holocene barrier comprise wide, relatively linear, widely spaced (400-600m, shore parallel ridges on the landward half, and more closely spaced (80-400m, lobate and crescentic, discrete ridges on the seaward half. Low, rolling dunefields, sand sheets, nebkha fields and deflation plains occur between the ridges. The barrier is re-interpreted as a prograded, transgressive dunefield barrier.

  14. Seasonal flight and resource collection patterns of colonies of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor schencki Gribodo (Apidae, Meliponini in an Araucaria forest area in southern Brazil

    Ney Telles Ferreira Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Melipona bicolor schencki occurs in southern Brazil and at high elevations in southeastern Brazil. It has potential for use in meliponiculture but this stingless bee species is vulnerable to extinction and we have little knowledge about its ecology. In order to gather essential information for species conservation and management, we made a study of seasonal flight activities in its natural environment. We sampled bees entering the nests with pollen, nectar/water and resin/mud, in five colonies during each season. In parallel, we analyzed the influence of hour of the day and meteorological factors on flight activity. Flights were most intense during spring and summer, with daily mean estimates of 2,100 and 2,333 flights respectively, while in fall and winter the daily flight estimate was reduced to 612 and 1,104 flights, respectively. Nectar and water were the most frequently-collected resources, followed by pollen and building materials. This preference occurred in all seasons, but with variations in intensity. During spring, daily flight activity lasted over 14 hours; this period was reduced in the other seasons, reaching eight hours in winter. Meteorological factors were associated with 40.2% of the variation in flight and resource collection activity. Apparently, other factors that we did not measure, such as colony needs and availability of floral resources, also strongly influence the intensity of resource collection.

  15. Use of the X-ray computed microtomography technique for the comparative morphological characterization of Proceratophrys bigibbosa species from Southern Brazil

    Ahmann, Francielle da Silva; Evseev, Ivan G.; Lingnau, Rodrigo [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Francisco Beltrao, PR (Brazil); Ievsieieva, Ievgeniia; Assis, Joaquim T. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico; Alves, Haimon D. L. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The Proceratophrys bigibbosa species group is characterized by the presence of post ocular swellings and absence of hornlike palpebral appendages. A new member of this group was described recently from southern Brazil: Proceratophrys brauni. Its body size is between the smaller Proceratophrys avelinoi and the larger Proceratophrys bigibbosa species, both living in the same region. As the external appearance of these three members of the group is very similar to each other, it is interesting to discover a specific morphological categorization through internal as the craniums proportions. In this paper, we report the preliminary results for comparative craniums morphological characterization of Proceratophrys bigibbosa species from Brazil using the X-ray computed microtomography technique through Skyscan 1174 system. Five samples of each three species, i.e. fifteen samples in total, were scanned. The data have been obtained were reconstructed and analyzed using Skyscan software. The reconstructed images were used to create a 3D head model and measure the craniums proportions. The main results are that some visible differences in the craniums proportions were observed, however a more detailed study is necessary to separate the species characteristics from the individual variations. We are working hard on this and will report the results as soon as possible. (author)

  16. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus among users attending a voluntary testing centre in Rio Grande, southern Brazil: predictive factors and hepatitis C virus genotypes.

    Germano, F N; dos Santos, C A; Honscha, G; Strasburg, A; Gabbi, B; Mendoza-Sassi, R A; Soares, E A; Seuánez, H N; Soares, M A; Martínez, A M B

    2010-07-01

    We estimated the prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection and associated risk factors in 750 individuals attending the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center of Rio Grande (VCT/RG), in Southern Brazil, and identified viral genotypes. Demographic data and risk factors for HCV transmission were also collected and analysed. Anti-HCV antibody-positive individuals were tested for HCV-RNA and genotyped by sequencing the 5' untranslated region of the viral genome. Prevalence estimates of anti-HCV and HCV-RNA were 6% and 5.5%, respectively. We identified genotypes 1 (67%), 2 (2%) and 3 (31%); the latter was more prevalent than in other regions of Brazil. Anti-HCV prevalence in VCT/RG users was similar to previous reports. Age, previous blood transfusion, sexual orientation and injecting drug use were independent predictors of HCV infection. The presence of multiple risk factors was also associated with a higher risk for HCV infection. HCV genotype was not associated with any variable analysed in this study. PMID:20852195

  17. Water-rock-CO2 interactions in saline aquifers aimed for carbon dioxide storage: Experimental and numerical modeling studies of the Rio Bonito Formation (Permian), southern Brazil

    Mineral trapping is one of the safest ways to store CO2 underground as C will be immobilized in a solid phase. Carbon dioxide will be, therefore, sequestered for geological periods of time, helping to diminish greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate global warming. Although mineral trapping is considered a fairly long process, owing to the existence of kinetic barriers for mineral precipitation, it has been demonstrated both experimentally and by numerical modeling. Here the results of experimental and numerical modeling studies performed in sandstones of the saline aquifer of the Rio Bonito Formation, Parana Basin, are presented. The Rio Bonito Formation consists of paralic sandstones deposited in the intracratonic Parana Basin, southern Brazil, during the Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian). These rocks have the largest potential for CO2 storage because of their appropriated reservoir quality, depth and proximity to the most important stationary CO2 sources in Brazil. Here it is suggested that CO2 can be permanently stored as carbonates as CO2 reacts with rocks of the Rio Bonito Formation and forms CaCO3 at temperatures and pressures similar to those encountered for CO2 storage in geological formations. Results of this work will be useful for studies of partitioning mechanisms for C trapping in CO2 storage programs.

  18. Dynamics of microalgal communities in the water-column/sediment interface of the inner shelf off Parana State, Southern Brazil

    Ricardo Luiz Queiroz; Frederico Pereira Brandini; Franciane Maria Pellizzari

    2004-01-01

    The composition and biomass of the microalgal community at the water-column/sediment interface on the continental shelf off Parana State (Brazil) were studied every 2 months during 1999. Samples for cell identification and determination of chlorophyll a were taken from the interface layer and at discrete depths up to 4 m above the sediment. Results showed a community mainly formed by benthic and planktonic diatoms >30 µm, benthic diatoms 30 µm, which accounted for most of the pigment biomass,...

  19. Effect of sugarcane residue management (mulching versus burning) on organic matter in a clayey Oxisol from southern Brazil

    Razafimbelo, Tantely; Barthès, Bernard; Larré Larrouy, Marie-Christine; De Luca, E. F.; Laurent, Jean-Yves; Cerri, C. C.; Feller, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Changes in residue management may help sustain land productivity, and may have noticeable consequences in the global carbon budget when large areas are involved. The effects of sugarcane residue management on topsoil carbon were assessed in a clayey Oxisol of Brazil, largest world's producer of sugarcane. The carbon concentration of the whole soil and particle-size fractions were determined in a long-duration sugarcane plantation (50 years), with either a pre-harvest residue burning (BUR) or ...

  20. Design, randomization and methodology of the TriAtiva Program to reduce obesity in school children in Southern Brazil

    Friedrich, Roberta R; Caetano, Lisandrea C; Schiffner, Mariana D; Mário B. Wagner; Schuch, Ilaine

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of child obesity in Brazil has increased rapidly in recent decades. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop effective strategies to prevent and control child obesity. In light of these considerations, an intervention program with a focus on nutrition education and physical activity was developed for to prevent and control obesity in schools. The intervention was called the TriAtiva Program: Education, Nutrition and Physical Activity. This article describes the...

  1. Situated knowledge and biodiversity: tensions between organic smallholders from Southern Brazil and the international intellectual property regime

    Guilherme Francisco Waterloo Radomsky

    2013-01-01

    The article approaches knowledges and biodiversity maintenance among ecological farmers in the west of Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The intellectual property rights have had direct effects onseed production. Between patents and other systems of control, family farmers deny treating life as a «resource». This paper has adouble aim: firstly, to analyze the intellectual property international panorama over biodiversity and knowledge; secondly, to examine practices of organic smallholders engage...

  2. Enzyme Polymorphism in Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763 and Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in southern Brazil

    Danielle das Neves Bespalhok

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beetles of the species Sitophilus oryzae and S. zeamais are pests of great economic importance since they attack not only rice and maize but also several other cereals. In fact, these beetles are one of the most visible threats to sustainable food production. Current study estimated the genetic variability of S. oryzae in two samples, one from the State of Paraná (PR, Brazil, and another from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil, and a sample of S. zeamais from the State of Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil. Isozyme electrophoresis in starch gel technique was employed to analyze eight enzyme systems (AAT, ACP, GDH, GPI, IDH, MDH, PGM and ME. Average heterozygosity rates were 0.0091, 0.0100 and 0.0000 and expected heterozygosity rates were 0.0419, 0.0452 and 0.0000 respectively for the samples of PR, SC and RS samples. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 30% in the PR sample, 0% in the RS sample and 30% in the SC sample. Genetic identity rates were I=0.9983 between samples from PR and RS; I = 0.6892 between PR and SC, and I = 0.6925 between SC and RS. Nei´s (1978 genetic distance rates  were 0.0017, 0.3722 and 0.3675. Samples presented low genetic variability.

  3. A systematic review of diapoma (teleostei: characiformes: characidae: stevardiinae: diapomini with descriptions of two new species from southern Brazil

    Naércio A. Menezes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diapoma is reviewed and four species are recognized: (1 Diapoma thauma, new species, from streams of the rio Jacuí basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul; (2 D. pyrrhopteryx, new species collected from the rio Canoas and streams flowing into this basin in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Brazil; (3 Diapoma terofali, from streams flowing into rio Uruguay in Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and streams flowing into rio de la Plata, Argentina; and (4 Diapoma speculiferum, from lowland coastal streams in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Uruguay. Diapoma pyrrhopteryx possess the posteroventral opercular elongation typical of D. speculiferum, type species of the genus, but which is absent in D. thauma and D. terofali. Nonetheless, all the diapomin species have the caudal pouch organ about equally developed in both sexes and the dorsal portion of the pouch opening bordered by a series of 3 to 8 elongated scales, the two derived features that characterize the group. The two previously described species, D. speculiferum and D. terofali, are redescribed. Previous hypotheses of relationships among the diapomin genera Planaltina, Diapoma and Acrobrycon are discussed on the basis of preliminary morphological information. It is proposed that the Diapomini is a monophyletic group. An identification key, information on sexual dimorphism, gonad anatomy, reproductive mode and distribution of the species of Diapoma are provided.

  4. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n = 29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species. - Highlights: •Juvenile female and male green sea turtles have similar concentrations of metals. •Kidney accumulated more Cd, Pb and Zn while liver accumulated more Ag and Cu. •Cu and Pb concentrations are elevated in liver of sea turtles from southern Brazil. •Concentrations of Cd and Cu in

  5. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda [Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Bianchini, Adalto, E-mail: adaltobianchini@furg.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n = 29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species. - Highlights: •Juvenile female and male green sea turtles have similar concentrations of metals. •Kidney accumulated more Cd, Pb and Zn while liver accumulated more Ag and Cu. •Cu and Pb concentrations are elevated in liver of sea turtles from southern Brazil. •Concentrations of Cd and Cu in

  6. El-Niño southern oscillation and rainfall erosivity in the headwater region of the Grande River Basin, Southeast Brazil

    C. R. Mello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between regional climate and oceanic and atmospheric anomalies are important tools in order to promote the development of models for predicting rainfall erosivity, especially in regions with substantial intra-annual variability in the rainfall regime. In this context, this work aimed to analyze the rainfall erosivity in headwaters of Grande River Basin, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This study considered the two most representative environments, the Mantiqueira Range (MR and Plateau of Southern Minas Gerais (PSM. These areas are affected by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO indicators Sea Surface Temperature (SST for Niño 3.4 Region and Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI. Rainfall erosivity was calculated for individual rainfall events from January 2006 to December 2010. The analyses were conducted using the monthly data of ENSO indicators and the following rainfall variables: rainfall erosivity (EI30, rainfall depth (P, erosive rainfall depth (E, number of rainfall events (NRE, number of erosive rainfall events (NEE, frequency of occurrence of an early rainfall pattern (EP, occurrence of late rainfall pattern (LP and occurrence of intermediate rainfall patter (IP. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the relationships between the rainfall variables and SST and MEI. The coefficients of correlation were significant for SST in the PSM sub-region. Correlations between the rainfall variables and negative oscillations of SST were also significant, especially in the MR sub-region, however, the Person's coefficients were lesser than those obtained for the SST positive oscillations. The correlations between the rainfall variables and MEI were also significant but lesser than the SST correlations. These results demonstrate that SST positive oscillations play a more important role in rainfall erosivity, meaning they were more influenced by El-Niño episodes. Also, these results have shown

  7. Qualitative and semiquantitative interpretation of aeromagnetic data over the Lancinha Shear Zone, Southern Ribeira Belt, in Paraná State, Southern Brazil

    Luís Gustavo de Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of shear zones at the southern portion of the Ribeira Belt, PR, BR, as well as its recognition in depth is a major challenge. Despite the lack of subsurface information, the influence of such structures on the installation and evolution of the Paraná Basin during the Phanerozoic is widely accepted. Therefore, in this paper, are applied methods of anomaly enhancement (qualitative analysis and estimative of the sources depth (semiquantitative analysis, on the aeromagnetic coverage of the Lancinha Shear Zone area (LSZ in the Paraná state, in order to verify its spatial arrangement in subsurface. The processing resulted in the interpretation of magnetic-structural framework of the study area, which was validated by the depth estimative of the magnetic sources (Euler solutions. The results indicated the extension of the Lancinha, Morro Agudo and Itapirapuã shear zones under the Paraná Basin coverage.

  8. Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in feces and slurry from swine farms, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Vasconcelos, J; M.C. Soliman; R Staggemeier; L. Heinzelmann; L. Weidlich; R. Cimirro; P.A. Esteves; Silva, A. D.; F.R. Spilki

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly disseminated among swine herds worldwide. HEV is also a threat to public health, since particularly genotypes 3 and 4 may cause acute hepatitis in human beings. No previous studies were done on the occurrence of HEV in environmental samples in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the present study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to detect the presence of HEV in swine feces and in effluents from slurry lagoons in farms located i...

  9. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Tiago José Canali; Sylvia Marina Soares de Oliveira; Deivid Montero Reduit; Daniele Botelho Vinholes; Viviane Pessi Feldens

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9%) had high self-...

  10. The W (Sn-Mo)-specialized catinga suite and other granitoids of the Brusque Group, neo proterozoic of the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil

    The petrographic, geochemical and isotopic data on the granitoids intrusive in the Brusque Group, State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, are presented in this paper. These are late-to post-tectonic rocks, being the most evolved ones those that constitute the Catinga Suite. The granitoids intrusive in the southern domain of the Brusque Group are grayish rocks, in which biotite (when present) is practically the only mafic mineral. They are rather reduced, slightly alkalic, transitional between meta-and peraluminous. An acid subvolcanic pluton, the Ribeirao da Velha pluton, has similar petrographic and geochemical characteristics, and seems to be genetically related to these granitoids. LREE fractionation relative to HREE is incipient for the Catinga suite, and the REE patterns showing strong negative Eu anomaly. Initial 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios, from the literature for these granitoids are around 0.721 (Sao Joao Batista granitoid) and the only available tDM model age (Valsungana granitoid) points to a genesis from a continental crust of ca. 2020 Ma old. Gneiss-migmatitic rocks such as those that occur in the eastern portion of Brusque Group domain and as enclaves in the Nova Italia granitoid are strong candidates for protoliths of these granitoids. Little available information on the granitoids intrusive in the northern domain of the Brusque Group reports the presence of pink K-feldspar hornblende granitoids (Faxinal pluton) and light pink K-feldspar biotite granitoid (Guabiruba pluton). These granitoids are more enriched in K and more oxidized than those in the southern domain, and the LREE fractionation relative to HREE is strong, with the REE patterns showing incipient negative Eu anomaly. It is suggested that part of the Au concentrations found in the northern domain may be genetically associated with the granitoids, since they present characteristics favorable to promote Au mineralizations than the granitoids in the southern domain. Distinct protoliths and

  11. Nutrition, mental health and violence: from pregnancy to postpartum Cohort of women attending primary care units in Southern Brazil - ECCAGE study

    Nunes Maria A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Woman's nutritional status, before and during pregnancy, is a strong determinant of health outcomes in the mother and newborn. Gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention increases risk of overweight or obesity in the future and they depend on the pregestational nutritional status and on food consumption and eating behavior during pregnancy. Eating behavior during pregnancy may be the cause or consequence of mood changes during pregnancy, especially depression, which increases likelihood of postpartum depression. In Brazil, a study carried out in the immediate postpartum period found that one in three women experienced some type of violence during pregnancy. Violence and depression are strongly associated and both exposures during pregnancy are associated with increased maternal stress and subsequent harm to the infant. The main objectives of this study are: to identify food intake and eating behaviors patterns; to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders and the experience of violence during and after pregnancy; and to estimate the association between these exposures and infant's health and development. Methods/Design This is a cohort study of 780 pregnant women receiving care in 18 primary care units in two cities in Southern Brazil. Pregnant women were first evaluated between the 16th and 36th week of pregnancy at a prenatal visit. Follow-up included immediate postpartum assessment and around the fifth month postpartum. Information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, living circumstances, food intake, eating behaviors, mental health and exposure to violence, and on infant's development and anthropometrics measurements. Discussion This project will bring relevant information for a better understanding of the relationship between exposures during pregnancy and how they might affect child development, which can be useful for a better planning of health actions aiming to enhance available

  12. Causes of drug-related problems in the emergency room of a hospital in southern Brazil Problemas relacionados con medicamentos en el servicio de urgencias de un hospital en el sur de Brasil

    Roberta Simone Andreazza; Mauro Silveira de Castro; Patrícia Sippel Köche; Isabela Heineck

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the frequency and types of drug-related problems (DRPs) in patients seeking emergency care in a teaching hospital in southern Brazil and to identify the possible causes and drugs involved in these problems. Method: A cross-sectional study was performed, using a structured questionnaire for data collection. Multivariate logistic regression was used to control for possible confounding factors and to establish an independent association between the presence of DRPs and the a...

  13. Status taxonômico e distribucional do complexo Eumops bonariensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae) no sul do Brasil Distibutional and taxonomic status of the Eumops bonariensis species complex (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in southern Brazil

    Itiberê P. Bernardi; João M. D. Miranda; Fernando C. Passos

    2009-01-01

    The taxonomic status and the geographical distribution of the specimens from southern Brazil previously identified as members of the Eumops bonariensis (Peters, 1874) species complex are here reviewed based on specimens deposited in collections of the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. The results of an investigation of diagnostic morphological characters and a multivariate morphometrics analysis suggest the recognition of two forms, E. bonariensis and E. patagonicus Thomas, 1924, thus a...

  14. Gender differences in self-reported morbidity: evidence from a population-based study in southern Brazil Diferenças na morbidade referida entre sexos: evidências de um estudo de base populacional no Sul do Brasil

    Raúl A. Mendoza-Sassi; Jorge U Béria

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to assess variations in self-reported morbidity between men and women using six different measures of reported illness. The cross-sectional study was conducted in the municipality of Rio Grande, southern Brazil. Demographic, socioeconomic, and morbidity data were collected from a probabilistic sample of 1,260 persons aged 15 years or over, using a specific questionnaire. Statistical analysis included a multivariate Poisson regression analysis. Prevalence Ratios (PR) with 95% c...

  15. Biomass and fishing potential yield of demersal resources from the outer shelf and upper slope of southern Brazil Biomasa y rendimiento potencial pesquero de recursos demersales de la plataforma externa y talud superior del sur de Brasil

    Manuel Haimovici; Luciano Gomes Fischer; Carmem L.D.B.S Rossi-Wongtschowski; Roberto Ávila Bernardes; Roberta Aguiar dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    The relative abundance and fishing potential of the commercially valuable fishes and cephalopods with marketable size was assessed using two seasonal bottom trawl surveys performed in 2001 and 2002 on the outer shelf and upper slope (100-600 m depth) off the coast of southern Brazil. These surveys were part of REVIZEE, a national program designed to assess the fishery potential within the Economic Exclusive Zone. Of the 228 fish and cephalopod species caught during the surveys, only 27 specie...

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency and its correlation with other risk factors in jaundiced newborns in Southern Brazil

    Clarissa Gutirrez Carvalho; Simone Martins Castro; Ana Paula Santin; Carina Zaleski; Felipe Gutirrez Carvalho; Roberto Giugliani

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the correlation between glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and neonatal jaundice.Methods: Prospective, observational case-control study was conducted on490 newborns admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre for phototherapy, who all experienced35 or more weeks of gestation, from March to December2007. Enzymatic screening ofG6PD activity was performed, followed byPCR.Results:There was prevalence of4.6% and a boy-girl ratio of3:1 in jaundiced newborns. No jaundiced neonate withABO incompatibility presented G6PD deficiency, and no Mediterranean mutation was found. A higher proportion of deficiency was observed in Afro-descendants. There was no association withUGT1A1 variants. Conclusions:G6PD deficiency is not related to severe hyperbilirubinemia and considering the high miscegenation in this area of Brazil, other gene interactions should be investigated.

  17. Spatial distribution pattern of Mezilaurus itauba (Meins. Taub. Ex mez. in a seasonal forest area of the southern Amazon, Brazil

    Ebert A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analysis of forest tree distribution is a powerful tool to respond to basic ecological questions, and represent a useful support to strategies of genetic conservation and sustainable management practices of forest resources. Spatial analysis techniques combined with the use of Geographical Information Systems have been commonly applied to the study of stochastic processes in order to determine the existence of clusters to be related to microenviromental conditions and/or genetic factors. The present study focused on the distribution patterns of individuals of Mezilaurus itauba in a seasonal forest of the southern Amazon, with the aim of providing information about the spatial arrangement of these species at the juvenile and adult stages. Ripley’s K function with radius of 10, 20 and 30 m was used to describe spatial distribution patterns. The hypothesis of complete spatial randomness (CSR of individuals was tested by constructing confidence envelopes for the Ripley’s K function through Monte Carlo simulations using a Poisson homogeneous process. The results obtained suggest a general random distribution of individuals, though a tendency to clustering at close distances was detected for individuals classified as adults (DBH > 50 cm. Contrastingly, a completely randomized spatial pattern was found for juveniles trees (DBH < 50 cm. Our results provide a useful baseline for the development of sustainable management plans and conservation of Mezilaurus itauba, as well as for other economically-exploited, native tree species in the southern Amazon forest.

  18. Gastrointestinal parasites and prey items from a mass stranding of false killer whales, Pseudorca crassidens, in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    Andrade, A L; Pinedo, M C; Barreto, A S

    2001-02-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of 14 false killer whales, 6 males and 8 females, stranded in June 1995 in southern Brazil, with total standard lengths from 338 to 507 cm, were analysed for endoparasites and food items. A pregnant female had a male foetus of 77.5 cm. Parasites were found in all 14 false killer whales. The nematode Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) was found in the stomach of 57% of the animals and the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma capitatum (Linstow, 1889) Porta, 1908 was present in the intestine of all specimens and showed densities up to 600 m-1. An unidentified cestode (Tethrabothridae) was found also in the intestines of 14% of the individuals. The high infections of B. capitatum and A. simplex were not directly related with the cause of death. In the stomachs of four females, beaks of at least eight specimens of the oceanic and epipelagic species Ommastrephes bartramii (Lesueur, 1821) were found, with mantle lengths ranging from 189.8 to 360.9 mm. The distribution of O. bartramii in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul is consistent with false killer whales feeding in continental shelf waters. PMID:11340462

  19. Seasonal variation in the leaf-litter frog community (Amphibia: Anura from an Atlantic Forest Area in the Salto Morato Natural Reserve, southern Brazil

    Manuela Santos-Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we provide the first data regarding community parameters of leaf-litter anurans inhabiting a forest floor in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, including information on community species richness, composition, specific density and biomass. Our study was conducted at Salto Morato Natural Reserve using forty plots of 4 x 4 m for each one of the four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn, totaling 2.560 m² of forest floor sampled. We sampled a total of 96 frogs inhabiting the forest floor, belonging to seven species: Brachycephalus hermogenesi (Giaretta & Sawaya, 1998, Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864, Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824, Leptodactylus gr. marmoratus, Physalaemus spiniger (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Proceratophrys boiei (Wied-Neuwied, 1824, and Rhinella abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004. The overall frog density in the forest floor was 3.73 ind/100m², with I. guentheri (1.37 ind/100 m² being the most common species and R. abei (0.19 ind/100 m², the rarest. The estimated overall frog mass in the community was 3.29 g. The abundance, richness and density varied consistently among the four seasons sampled, with the highest values occurring in the spring and summer seasons.

  20. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality.

    Kuhnen, Shirley; Stibuski, Rudinei Butka; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; Filho, Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado

    2015-01-01

    Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type). C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha), greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%), largest number of lactating animals (26.2) and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day(-1)). O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%), with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R² = 0.74). Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability. PMID:26479369

  1. Anomalias congênitas em fetos bovinos abortados no Sul do Brasil Congenital anomalies in aborted bovine fetuses in Southern Brazil

    Saulo P. Pavarini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abortos e mortes neonatais são causas importantes de perdas reprodutivas na bovinocultura. Abortos causados por anomalias congênitas são esporádicos, mas podem ocorrer de forma epidêmica. Um levantamento retrospectivo realizado no setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul incluiu 307 casos de aborto bovino submetidos de setembro de 2001 a março de 2007. Em dez casos (3,5%, foram observadas anomalias congênitas, das quais, artrogripose, Amorphus globosus e fenda palatina (palatosquise foram as mais freqüentes. Causas infecciosas foram investigadas, mas somente infecção por BVDV foi detectada por imunoistoquímica em um aborto com porencefalia.Abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death are important causes of production losses to the livestock industry. Abortions caused by congenital anomalies may occur sporadically, or appear in epidemics. This retrospective study was conducted at Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology of Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, and included 307 cases of bovine abortion submitted for diagnosis from September 2001 to March 2007. Most of them were from southern Brazil. Ten cases (3.25% of congenital anomalies were seen. The most frequent congenital anomalies were artrogryposis, Amorphous globosus, and cleft palate (palatoschisis. Infectious causes were investigated, but only BVDV infection was detected by immunohistochemistry in one case, which was affected with porencephalia.

  2. Sepse por Staphylococus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirida na comunidade no sul do Brasil Sepsis due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil

    Luciane Cristina Gelatti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina foi inicialmente descrito como um típico microrganismo adquirido em infecções nosocomiais. No entanto, nos últimos anos Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirido na comunidade é causa de infecções de pele e tecidos moles, mas infecções graves como pneumonia e sepse podem ocorrer. Este relato descreve um caso de sepse em criança, complicado com pneumonia secundária a lesão em partes moles por Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirido na comunidade no Sul do Brasil. O paciente foi atendido em Unidade de Emergência com história de ferimento provocado por trauma em membro inferior que evoluiu para celulite, pneumonia e sepse.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was initially described as a typical microorganism acquired in nosocomial infections. However, over recent years, community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been a cause of skin and soft-tissue infections. Serious infections such as pneumonia and sepsis can also occur. This report describes a case of sepsis in a child that was complicated by pneumonia secondary to soft tissue lesions that were due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil. The patient was attended at the Emergency Unit with a history of injury caused by lower-limb trauma that evolved to cellulitis, pneumonia and sepsis.

  3. At risk of population decline? An ecological and genetic approach to the threatened palm species Butia eriospatha (Arecaceae) of Southern Brazil.

    Nazareno, Alison G; dos Reis, Maurício S

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the risk of population decline for the threatened palm species Butia eriospatha, we investigated the patterns of demography, natural regeneration, herbivory, and the levels of genetic diversity using 9 microsatellite loci from both adults and seedlings sampled from 4 populations in Southern Brazil (n = 330). Our results indicate that cattle grazing in B. eriospatha population areas severely affect their demographic structure. Three B. eriospatha populations showed a bimodal age structure made up of adult plants and seedlings and high rates (>77%) of livestock herbivory. For 1 population, we describe and quantify for the first time the occurrence of 6 ontogenetic stages for this threatened palm species. Populations of B. eriospatha showed high levels of genetic differentiation (F ST adult plants = 0.287, F ST seedlings = 0.175). The amount of observed heterozygosity differed significantly between small (H O = 0.329) and large populations (H O = 0.461), indicating that small populations can be more susceptible to genetic drift. With no recruitment and a mortality rate of 2.0%, we show that the populations investigated in this study would be at an extremely high risk of local extinction, with a greater than 50% reduction in the effective population size, in the next 40 years. Although this study highlights the importance of analyzing both population ecology parameters and genetic data to better understand the level of risk facing threatened species, we emphasize that policy actions are urgently needed for effective conservation of this vulnerable biological resource. PMID:24078681

  4. Feeding of the Neotropical River Otter (Lontra longicaudis in the Coastal Region of the Rio Grande Do Sul State, Southern Brazil

    Colares E.P.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, in southern Brazil, three areas were monitored to study the feeding habits of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis using spraint analysis. The National Park of the Peixe Lagoon was monitored seasonally between August 1995 and July 1996, in the Senandes Creek five samplings were done between June and December 1995 and in the Estiva Creek monthly samplings were done between May 1995 and July 1996. In each of these areas spraints were collected and stored. In the laboratory they were washed, separated and identified. The only area where it was possible to do a seasonal analysis of the feeding habits was the Estiva Creek. In all areas fish was the item found in the great number of spraints and crustaceans also had a considerable importance in areas with salt-water influence. The other items found were present in few samples, being them mollusks, insect, reptiles, birds and mammals. The differences observed in the feeding habits of the species between seasons and areas probably reflects the availability of different preys, agreeing the species opportunism.

  5. Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in relation to human development in northern Paraná, southern Brazil.

    Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N

    2012-08-01

    Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human

  6. A new isosporoid coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae)from the southern house wren Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823 (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) from Brazil.

    doBomfim Lopes, Bruno; Rodrigues, Mariana Borges; da Silva, Lidiane Maria; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2016-06-01

    A new isosporoid coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is reported from the southern house wren Troglodytes musculus, a very well distributed species in South and Central America. Isospora corruirae sp. nov. oocysts are subspherical to ovoidal, 24.1 × 21.4 μm, with smooth, bilayered wall. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but small spherules and splinter-like granules are frequently present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to piriform, 14.0 × 9.5 μm. Stieda body is prominent knob-like and substieda body is delicate. Sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered fragments of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with posterior refractile bodies, anterior striations and a nucleus. This is the second description of an isosporoid coccidium infecting a New World wren. PMID:27078670

  7. Effect of personal and microclimatic variables on observed thermal sensation from a field study in southern Brazil

    Krueger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba PR (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    Urban climate, which is influenced by land use patterns, heat-generating activities, and the physical texture of urban fabric, has a great impact on outdoor comfort as well as on a building's energy consumption. A climate-responsive urban planning can provide optimal, comfortable thermal conditions not only for the permanence of humans in outdoor spaces but also reducing the need of air conditioning systems in buildings. The purpose of this article is to present results of an outdoor comfort research with passers-by in downtown Curitiba, Brazil (25 31'S, 917m elevation). Urban locations have been monitored regarding standard comfort variables: air temperature and humidity, wind speed and globe temperature. Alongside the quantitative assessment of comfort conditions, a survey of pedestrian's thermal comfort perception according to ISO 10551 was carried out on each monitoring campaign by means of questionnaires with the local population. As a whole, from fourteen monitoring campaigns using a couple of weather stations, beginning on January 9 through August 12, 1654 valid comfort votes were obtained. In this paper, we perform a data consistency check, evaluating the relationship between personal (gender and age of respondents) and objective, microclimatic (comfort variables) factors on observed thermal sensation. (author)

  8. PREVALENCE OF RISK FACTORS FOR HEPATITIS C AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS: a population-based study in southern Brazil

    David Timm KVITKO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The hepatitis C is a severe public health problem worldwide because its consequences. Studies which aim at determining the prevalence of risk factors are really important to understand the problem. Objective To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with some risk factors for the disease in a community, called Restinga, located in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Method This paper is based on a population-based cross-sectional study, with systematic sampling and proportional to the size of census tracts in which 3,391 adults answered a standardized questionnaire. Results The prevalence of blood transfusion among the people who were interviewed was 14.98%, 60.83% of those had it before 1993. A total of 16.16% of the people had a tattoo, 7.23% wore a piercing, 1.09% said they had already injected illicit drugs and 12.39% reported previous hospitalization. Prevalence ratios showed that tattoos were more common among young people, piercings among women and illicit drugs among men. Conclusions To summarize, the recognition of risk factors for hepatitis C enables proper screening of possible carriers of the hepatitis C virus, thus enabling a reduction in virus shedding. However, being only possible if health services are prepared to deal with hepatitis C virus, through education and public awareness.

  9. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF Ehrlichia SPECIES IN DOGS, HORSES AND HUMANS: ZOONOTIC SCENERY IN A RURAL SETTLEMENT FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. and risk factors for exposure in a restricted population of dogs, horses, and humans highly exposed to tick bites in a Brazilian rural settlement using a commercial ELISA rapid test and two indirect immunofluorescent assays (IFA with E. canis and E. chaffeensis crude antigens. Serum samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were used. Fifty-six out of 132 (42.4% dogs were seropositive for E. canis. Dogs > one year were more likely to be seropositive for E. canis than dogs ≤ one year (p = 0.0051. Ten/16 (62.5% and 8/16 (50% horses were seropositive by the commercial ELISA and IFA, respectively. Five out of 100 (5% humans were seropositive for E. canis and E. chaffeensis. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n = 291, 97.98% on dogs and Amblyomma cajennense (n = 25, 96.15% on horses were the most common ticks found. In conclusion, anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies were found in horses; however, the lack of a molecular characterization precludes any conclusion regarding the agent involved. Additionally, the higher seroprevalence of E. canis in dogs and the evidence of anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies in humans suggest that human cases of ehrlichiosis in Brazil might be caused by E. canis, or other closely related species.

  10. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    Hallal Pedro C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births. In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3 and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9, respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children.

  11. Prevalence of comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders: associated factors in a population sample of young adults in southern Brazil

    Mariane Ricardo Acosta Lopez Molina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate factors associated with the presence of comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders in young adults aged 18 to 24 years, from Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study with a probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used to assess mood and anxiety disorders. The prevalence of mental disorders in the sample (n = 1,561 was of 26.8% of which 9.7% had comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. The prevalence of comorbidities on mood and anxiety disorders is almost three times higher among women than men (p < 0.001. Lower education levels, socioeconomic status (p < 0.001 and a history of divorced parents (p < 0.050 was associated with comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. The main conclusion is that social factors are highly associated with comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. Prevention strategies on mental health should focus particularly on women in vulnerable social conditions.

  12. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  13. Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil

    Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

  14. A multibiomarker evaluation of urban, industrial, and agricultural exposure of small characins in a large freshwater basin in southern Brazil.

    Freire, Carolina A; Souza-Bastos, Luciana R; Chiesse, Juliana; Tincani, Flávio H; Piancini, Laercio D S; Randi, Marco A F; Prodocimo, Viviane; Cestari, Marta M; Silva-de-Assis, Helena C; Abilhoa, Vinícius; Vitule, Jean R S; Bastos, Leonardo P; de Oliveira-Ribeiro, Ciro A

    2015-09-01

    Iguaçu River is the second most polluted river of Brazil. It receives agrochemicals and contaminants of urban and industrial sources along its course. A multibiomarker approach was employed here to evaluate the health of a small characin (Astyanax spp.) at two sites along the river, sampled during a dry (autumn) and a rainy (spring) season. Biomarkers were condition factor and somatic indices (gonads and liver); genetic damage (comet assay and micronucleus test); enzyme activities such as hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), lipoperoxidation (LPO), branchial and renal carbonic anhydrase (CA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the muscle and the brain, histopathology of the liver and gills, and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile. There were no consistent differences in biomarker responses between the two study sites. Some biomarkers revealed greater potential impact in the rainy season, when increased amounts of contaminants are washed into the river (combined CAT inhibition and LPO increase, CA upregulation). Other biomarkers, however, revealed potential greater impact in the dry season, when contaminants potentially concentrate (GST induction, AChE inhibition, and liver histopathological alterations). Although of a complex nature, field experiments such as this provide rich data for monitoring protocols and assessment of general risk of exposure to pollutants of river systems. PMID:25940483

  15. Evidence of Gondwana early rifting process recorded by Resende-Ilha Grande Dike Swarm, southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Guedes, Eliane; Heilbron, Monica; de Morisson Valeriano, Claudio; de Almeida, Julio César Horta; Szatmari, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Continental flood basalts and dike swarm have been related to continental breakup process through geological time. The Resende - Ilha Grande Dike swarm (RIGDS) located in the southeast Brazil, is related the Gondwana breakup and composed of dikes/sills intruded in Precambrian gneiss. The dikes have three distinguish orientations: NNW more inland; NS-NNE in the central segment and NE orientation in the coast line, consistent with Precambrian structural lineaments. The swarm comprises high-TiO2 tholeiitic basalts divided into three suites based on REE and Sr and Nd isotope data. The Resende and Volta Redonda suites present higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.7077 and 0.7065, while Angra dos Reis suite presents values of 0.7066 to 0.7057. Geochemical and isotopic data support the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) as the main source for the high-TiO2 basalts. The suites heterogeneities are explained by different compositions of SCLM in accreted Precambrian terranes and/or different degree of partial melting and fractional. 40Ar/39Ar data indicate age interval between ca. 156 to 144 Ma for the swarm, older than the average for Gondwana breakup (ca. 130-120 Ma). The age interval places the RIGDS between the Karoo magmatism (181-178 Ma) and the Paraná-Etendeka magmatism (133-134 Ma) and indicates that extensional process affected the supercontinent prior the break-up.

  16. PREVALENCE OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THIS INFECTION IN WOMEN IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Thais Duquia Moraes Caldeira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The herpes simplex virus type 2 (HVS-2 is the most prevalent infection worldwide. It is a cofactor in the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and the persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV. This study evaluated the prevalence of HSV-2, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and associated factors in patients treated at the Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG and Basic Health Units (BHU in Rio Grande, Brazil. The observed prevalence of HSV-2 was 15.6%. Among the 302 women studied, 158 had received assistance in BHU and 144 were treated at FURG. The prevalence of HSV-2 in these groups was 10.8% and 20.8%, respectively, RR 1.9 and p = 0.012. Knowledge about the Pap smear, and the presence of lesions showed no association with HSV-2 infection. Multivariate analysis showed that the variable that most influenced the risk of HSV-2 infection was the presence of HIV infection, with a relative risk of 1.9 and p = 0.04. Discussion: Genital ulcers are an important entry point for HIV, and condom use is an important strategy to reduce transmission of HIV and HSV-2.

  17. Abdominal Angiostrongylosis in Southern Brazil - Prevalence and Parasitic Burden in Mollusc Intermediate Hosts from Eighteen Endemic Foci

    Rambo Paulo R

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Nocturnal collection of molluscs and search for infective third stage larvae of A. costaricensis was carried out in 18 endemic foci identified by the notification of a confirmed diagnosis in human biopsies or surgical specimens. Molluscs were digested in acidic solution and isolation of larvae eventually present was done in a Baermann funnel. Larvae identified by the presence of a delicate groove in the tail were counted to assess the individual parasitic burden. Four species were found infected, with ranges of prevalence in parenthesis: Phyllocaulis variegatus (7% to 33.3%; Bradybaena similaris (11.7% to 24.1%; Belocaulus angustipes (8.3% and Phyllocaulis soleiformis (3.3% to 14.2%. Parasitic burden varied from 1 to 75 with P. variegatus, 1 to 98 with B. similaris, 1 to 13 with B. angustipes and 1 larvae in each of two specimens of P. soleiformis. P. variegatus was present in all sites and was found infected with the highest prevalence figures and the highest individual parasitic burdens. These data stress the importance of veronicellid slugs as intermediate hosts for A. costaricensis in the endemic areas in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

  18. Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI—a case study in Southern Brazil

    Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A.; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions.

  19. Soil and crop residue CO2-C emission under tillage systems in sugarcane-producing areas of southern Brazil

    Luís Gustavo Teixeira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate management of agricultural crop residues could result in increases on soil organic carbon (SOC and help to mitigate gas effect. To distinguish the contributions of SOC and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. residues to the short-term CO2-C loss, we studied the influence of several tillage systems: heavy offset disk harrow (HO, chisel plow (CP, rotary tiller (RT, and sugarcane mill tiller (SM in 2008, and CP, RT, SM, moldboard (MP, and subsoiler (SUB in 2009, with and without sugarcane residues relative to no-till (NT in the sugarcane producing region of Brazil. Soil CO2-C emissions were measured daily for two weeks after tillage using portable soil respiration systems. Daily CO2-C emissions declined after tillage regardless of tillage system. In 2008, total CO2-C from SOC and/or residue decomposition was greater for RT and lowest for CP. In 2009, emission was greatest for MP and CP with residues, and smallest for NT. SOC and residue contributed 47 % and 41 %, respectively, to total CO2-C emissions. Regarding the estimated emissions from sugarcane residue and SOC decomposition within the measurement period, CO2-C factor was similar to sugarcane residue and soil organic carbon decomposition, depending on the tillage system applied. Our approach may define new emission factors that are associated to tillage operations on bare or sugarcane-residue-covered soils to estimate the total carbon loss.

  20. Variations in ecosystem structure, carbon, and nutrient storage along a fertility gradient in tropical savanna of southern Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Lobo, F. D.; Lawrence, S.; Holt, K.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Nogueira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Brazilian savanna (cerrado) is composed of vegetation and soil types that are spatially variable, and links between cerrado physiognomy and soil properties are poorly understood. To reduce this uncertainty, we measured the plant community structure and carbon (C) and nutrient (N, P, K, and Ca) stocks in aboveground wood, foliage, and litter, and soil (0-50 cm) pools in a variety of cerrado vegetation types located in the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We hypothesized that aboveground and surface soil C and nutrient stocks would be correlated with soil fertility and vegetation structure (including tree species composition, density and tree species diversity). Our results indicate that aboveground woody (AGW), foliage, and soil C stocks were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with indices of soil fertility but not texture. Since AGWC was the largest C pool, total ecosystem C stocks increase significantly as a function of soil fertility. Similarly, AGWC and foliage C stocks were significantly correlated with tree species diversity (H'), but not soil texture. These data suggest that small-scale (m2-ha) variations in soil fertility are important controls on ecosystem C storage in Brazilian cerrado, and that ecosystem C and nutrient storage is positively related to tree species diversity. These results are qualitatively similar to those reported for tropical forests across regional fertility gradients in the Amazon Basin. These results have implications for the maintenance of soil C storage and fertility and tree species diversity in cerrado.