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Sample records for 2004-2006 increasing incidence

  1. Semi-national surveillance of fungaemia in Denmark 2004-2006: increasing incidence of fungaemia and numbers of isolates with reduced azole susceptibility

    Arendrup, M.C.; Fuursted, K.; Gahrn-Hansen, B.;

    2008-01-01

    inhabitants. The annual number of episodes increased by 17% during the study period. Candida spp. accounted for 98% of the fungal pathogens. Although Candida albicans remained predominant, the proportion of C. albicans decreased from 66.1% in 2004 to 53.8% in 2006 (p <0.01), and varied considerably among...... participating departments, e.g., from 51.1% at a university hospital in Copenhagen to 67.6% in North Jutland County. Candida glabrata ranked second, and increased in proportion from 16.7% to 22.7% (p 0.04). Candida krusei was isolated rarely (4.1%), but the proportion doubled during the study period from 3...

  2. Incidence and surveillance of infections from Clostridium difficile: the experience at the Galliera of Genoa in the three-year period 2004-2006

    David Usiglio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive bacillus, anaerobic, sporogenous ,with oro-faecal transmission.The formation of the spores can persist in a long time, encouraging the transmission. Use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, age, alteration of intestinal flora are the most common risk factors that expose the subject to any subsequent colonization and infection. The hospital staff is the main vehicle of transmission and the probability of contracting an infection is proportional to the duration of hospitalization in patients infected with cohabitation. Objectives The infections surveillance of C. difficile is a instrument to monitor procedures for the control of hospital infections, and may be useful to highlight and point out shortcomings in the system. Materials and Methods The data are the results of tests for the detection of toxins on stools during the period 2004-2006, distributed quarterly to study the seasonal, divided by individual UO the hospital and later for area hospital. Results and conclusions The incidence of infection from C. difficile in the last three years has been in constant increase (from 7 to 12.5 case/1000 admissions. Much of increase is attributable to community infections 3 case/1000 admissions (2004 up to about 6 case/1000 admissions (2006. Substantially increasing content of hospital infections (5-6 case/1000 admissions.

  3. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Ardabil: Report of an Ongoing Population-Based Cancer Registry in Iran, 2004-2006

    M Babaei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Ardabil cancer registry is the first population-based cancer registry in Iran that was established in 2000. The first report from this registry revealed that Ardabil has one of the highest rate of gastric cardia cancer and the lowest rate of cer­vical cancer in the world. We aim to update the cancer incidence in this area by the second follow up report from this registry."nMethod: Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases between 2004 and 2006 were actively collected. CanReg4 software was used for data entry and the data of cancer-related death were obtained from the comprehensive death registry system."nResults: More than 4300 new cases were registered during 3 years. Diagnosis of cancer was based on histopathology in 69%, clinical investigation 8%, clinical only 5%, and Death Certificate Only (DCO in 18% of cases. In terms of age-stan­dardized rate (/100,000, the five leading cancers in men (excluding skin cancer were stomach (51.8, esophagus (19.5, blad­der (13.1, lung and bronchus (10.8, and colorectal (9.6; in women, they were stomach (24.9, esophagus (19.7, breast (11.9, colon and rectum (7.4, and brain tumors (6.9. According to death registration data, upper gastrointestinal can­cers constituted more than 43% of cancer-related death in Ardabil."nConclusions: The ASR for gastric cancer is among the highest rate for this cancer in male and female in the world. Most of the cancers, especially in female, have a significant increase compared to previous report from Ardabil. This is most likely due to the change in the registration practice.  

  4. Doppler images of DI Piscium during 2004-2006

    Lindborg, M.; Hackman, T.; Mantere, M. J.; Korhonen, H.; Ilyin, I.; Kochukhov, O.; Piskunov, N.

    2014-02-01

    Aims: DI Psc (HD 217352) is a Li-rich, rapidly rotating single K giant. We set out to study the spot configuration and activity level by calculating surface temperature maps of the star. Methods: We apply the Doppler imaging method on high-resolution optical spectroscopy obtained during 2004-2006. Results: In July-August 2004, no clear spot structures were visible, but the spot coverage increased in July 2005, and cool spots emerged, especially at intermediate latitudes. Later on in September 2006, the spot coverage increased and cool spots were visible on both sides of the equator. However, the map of 2006 suffers from bad phase coverage, meaning it is not possible to draw definite conclusions on the spot locations during that season. Conclusions: Compared with earlier Doppler maps of DI Psc and temperature maps obtained for other late-type stars with similar rotation rates, DI Psc seems to be in a low activity state especially during the observing season of July-August 2004. During the 2005 and 2006 observing seasons, the spot activity seen in the spectral line profiles and inferred from Doppler images increases, and the temperature contrast in our last map is more comparable to what was reported in an earlier study. Therefore, it can be concluded that the spot activity level of the star is variable over time. However, the present and previous Doppler images form too short a time series to draw conclusions about a possible activity cycle in DI Psc. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  5. Progress on Solar Physics in China During 2004 - 2006

    YAN Yihua; AI Guoxiang

    2006-01-01

    The solar physics studies in China during 2004-2006 from solar interior to solar atmospheres and solar-interplanetary space are summarized. These researches are arranged under the topics of solar interior, photosphere, chromosphere and transition region, corona, flares and CMEs (and the associated radio bursts, X-ray/γ-ray bursts and particle acceleration), solar wind, solar cycle, and ground-based instrumentation.

  6. Magnetospheric Physics in China During the Period of 2004 - 2006

    CAO Jinbin; LIU Zhenxing

    2006-01-01

    Their brief report presents the advances of the magnetospheric physics researches in China during the period of 2004-2006. During the past two years, China-ESA cooperation DSP (Double Star Program) satellites were successively launched. In addition, China also participated in the scientific research of ESA's Cluster mission. The DSP and Cluster missions provide Chinese space physicists high quality data to study multiscale physical process in the magnetosphere. The work made based on the data of DSP is presented in the paper of "Progress of Double Star Program" of this issue.

  7. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller;

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  8. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2004-2006

    None

    2006-01-01

    Confidence Commitment Cooperation These are words that spring to mind regarding Southwestern Power Administration’s performance during fiscal years (FY) 2004-2006 By offering innovative, customer-oriented service, working to improve system reliability and efficiency, and partnering with customers and other Federal power stakeholders, Southwestern has certainly exhibited all three of these qualities during these challenging yet productive years In fact, our cooperative working relationships were critical to our success during the severe and widespread drought conditions which prevailed throughout Southwestern’s marketing area for much of 2005-2006 When we proposed a temporary energy deferral program, our customers came on board by voluntarily taking less Federal hydropower than they were entitled to, enabling us to preserve system storage and fulfill our contract obligations during the crucial summer months of 2006 The U S Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) also helped improve our drought situation by allowing Southwestern more operational flexibility on a regional level Despite the challenges this critical drought period presented, Southwestern remained committed to fulfilling our mission and strategic goals From FY 2004 through FY 2006, we marketed and delivered all available Federal hydropower while meeting and even exceeding the reliability standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Our Power Operations Training Center in Springfield, Missouri, was cited as an “Example of Excellence” during a NERC readiness audit in October 2006; and as we have every year since NERC began measuring, Southwestern far exceeded the accepted NERC compliance ratings for power system operations reliability Our commitment to excellence and accountability has kept our repayment goals on target as well Revenues were sufficient to repay all annual expenses and the required principal investment in the Federal hydropower facilities Furthermore, the original

  9. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Dianne E. Godar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320 nm exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400 nm passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  10. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Andrea Major; Ariane Schweighauser; Thierry Francey

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of ...

  11. Increasing incidence of canine leptospirosis in Switzerland.

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes 90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  12. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Andrea Major

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  13. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes 90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  14. Congenital hypothyroidism: increased incidence in Asian families.

    Rosenthal, M; Addison, G. M.; Price, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    Screening in the North West health region of England showed a significantly higher incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in Asian families--1/918 compared with 1/3391 in non-Asians. This could only in part be explained by consanguinity. No differences were found in birth order, season of birth, gestational age, or birth weight between normal infants and those with congenital hypothyroidism. There was a significantly higher incidence of additional congenital abnormalities (9%) and a significa...

  15. Further Tests of Abortion and Crime: A Response to Donohue and Levitt (2001,2004, 2006)

    Theodore J. Joyce

    2006-01-01

    The association between legalized abortion and crime remains a contentious finding with major implications for social policy. In this paper, I replicate analyses of Donohue and Levitt (2001, 2004, 2006) in which they regress age-specific arrests and homicides on cohort-specific abortion rates. I find that the coefficient on the abortion rate in a regression of age-specific homicide or arrest rates has either the wrong sign or is small in magnitude and statistically insignificant when adjusted...

  16. INCREASED INCIDENCE OF THYROIDITIS IN RECENT YEARS

    McEnroe D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out on 123 patients with enlarged thyroid swelling between 16-65 years age group, attending Department of Surgery, Sree Gokulam Medical College and research foundation, Venjaramoodu, Trivandrum during the period of November 2011 to February 2013. All patients were examined clinically after taking a detailed history. Then, they were investigated by TFT, USG, X-ray neck, X-ray chest, Indirect Laryngoscopy, FNAC and anti-thyroid antibody tests and all the patients were subjected to surgery and histopathological examination (HPE of the specimen obtained. Finally, all the reports were analysed and the age distribution, sex distribution and the incidence of thyroiditis in study population was obtained. During the study period 123 cases of enlarged thyroid underwent surgery, out of which 115 were females and 8 male patients. The age of the patient in the study ranged from 16- 65 years, the youngest being 16 years old and oldest being 65 years. Maximum cases being in between 30-50 with mean age of 42.3 years. The study showed a female predominance. The incidence of thyroiditis in the present study was 38.21% (47 cases.

  17. Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Thyrotoxicosis in Denmark

    Kjær, R. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hansen, D.

    2015-01-01

    . Additional data were collected on children diagnosed with GD in 2008-2012. Results: In total, 237 patients with juvenile thyrotoxicosis (JT) were identified. The overall IR in 1998-2012 was 1.58/100,000 person-years and has increased significantly from 0.79/100,000 person-years in 1982-1988 (p <0.001). The...

  18. The Childhood Incidents That Increase Later Suicide Risk

    ... Incidents That Increase Later Suicide Risk Exposure to domestic violence, abuse cast a long shadow, study finds To ... 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Adults who witnessed parental domestic violence in childhood are at increased risk for suicide ...

  19. Supercomputer and cluster performance modeling and analysis efforts:2004-2006.

    Sturtevant, Judith E.; Ganti, Anand; Meyer, Harold (Hal) Edward; Stevenson, Joel O.; Benner, Robert E., Jr. (.,; .); Goudy, Susan Phelps; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Taylor, Mark A.; Malins, Robert Joseph; Scott, Ryan T.; Barnette, Daniel Wayne; Rajan, Mahesh; Ang, James Alfred; Black, Amalia Rebecca; Laub, Thomas William; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas; Franke, Brian Claude

    2007-02-01

    This report describes efforts by the Performance Modeling and Analysis Team to investigate performance characteristics of Sandia's engineering and scientific applications on the ASC capability and advanced architecture supercomputers, and Sandia's capacity Linux clusters. Efforts to model various aspects of these computers are also discussed. The goals of these efforts are to quantify and compare Sandia's supercomputer and cluster performance characteristics; to reveal strengths and weaknesses in such systems; and to predict performance characteristics of, and provide guidelines for, future acquisitions and follow-on systems. Described herein are the results obtained from running benchmarks and applications to extract performance characteristics and comparisons, as well as modeling efforts, obtained during the time period 2004-2006. The format of the report, with hypertext links to numerous additional documents, purposefully minimizes the document size needed to disseminate the extensive results from our research.

  20. Advances on Technology and Application of Ocean Color Remote Sensing in China (2004 - 2006)

    PAN Delu; BAI Yan

    2006-01-01

    China has great progress in the technology and application of ocean color remote sensing during 2004-2006. In this report, firstly, four major technical advances are displaying, including (1) the vector radiative transfer numerical model of coupled ocean-atmosphere system; (2) the atmospheric correction algorithm specialized on Chinese high turbid water; (3) systematical research of hyper-spectrum ocean color remote sensing; (4) local algorithms of oceanic parameters, like ocean color components, ocean primary productivity, water transparency, water quality parameters, etc. On the foundation of technical advances, ocean color remote sensing takes effect on ocean environment monitoring, with four major kinds of application systems, namely, (1) the automatic multi-satellites data receiving, processing and application system; (2) the shipboard satellite data receiving and processing system for fishery ground information; (3) Coastal water quality monitoring system, integrating satellite and airborne remote sensing technology and ship measurement; (4) the preliminary system of airborne ocean color remote sensing application system. Finally, the prospective development of Chinese ocean color remote sensing is brought forward. With Chinese second ocean color satellite (HY-1B) orbiting, great strides will take place in Chinese ocean color information accumulation and application.

  1. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  2. Effectiveness of interventions co-fi nanced by the EU structural funds in Wielkopolska in the years 2004-2006

    Churski, Paweł; Borowczak, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the effectiveness of interventions from the EU Structural Funds in Wielkopolska carried out for investments realised in the years 2004-2006, i.e. in the fi rst period of implementing Community regional policy in Poland. The research procedure is composed of two fundamental stages. In the fi rst, projects co-fi nanced from the EU Structural Funds within the framework of the Regional Component of the Integrated Regional Operational Programme wer...

  3. Persistent organic pollutants and stable isotopes in biopsy samples (2004/2006) from Southern Resident killer whales

    Krahn, Margaret M. [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA 98112 (United States)], E-mail: peggy.krahn@noaa.gov; Hanson, M. Bradley [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Baird, Robin W. [Cascadia Research, 218 1/2 W, 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501 (United States); Boyer, Richard H.; Burrows, Douglas G.; Emmons, Candice K. [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Ford, John K.B. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, BC, V9R 5K6 (Canada); Jones, Linda L.; Noren, Dawn P. [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Ross, Peter S. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Schorr, Gregory S. [Cascadia Research, 218 1/2 W, 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501 (United States); Collier, Tracy K. [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA 98112 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    'Southern Resident' killer whales include three 'pods' (J, K and L) that reside primarily in Puget Sound/Georgia Basin during the spring, summer and fall. This population was listed as 'endangered' in the US and Canada following a 20% decline between 1996 and 2001. The current study, using blubber/epidermis biopsy samples, contributes contemporary information about potential factors (i.e., levels of pollutants or changes in diet) that could adversely affect Southern Residents. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes indicated J- and L-pod consumed prey from similar trophic levels in 2004/2006 and also showed no evidence for a large shift in the trophic level of prey consumed by L-pod between 1996 and 2004/2006. {sigma}PCBs decreased for Southern Residents biopsied in 2004/2006 compared to 1993-1995. Surprisingly, however, a three-year-old male whale (J39) had the highest concentrations of {sigma}PBDEs, {sigma}HCHs and HCB. POP ratio differences between J- and L-pod suggested that they occupy different ranges in winter.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants and stable isotopes in biopsy samples (2004/2006) from Southern Resident killer whales

    'Southern Resident' killer whales include three 'pods' (J, K and L) that reside primarily in Puget Sound/Georgia Basin during the spring, summer and fall. This population was listed as 'endangered' in the US and Canada following a 20% decline between 1996 and 2001. The current study, using blubber/epidermis biopsy samples, contributes contemporary information about potential factors (i.e., levels of pollutants or changes in diet) that could adversely affect Southern Residents. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes indicated J- and L-pod consumed prey from similar trophic levels in 2004/2006 and also showed no evidence for a large shift in the trophic level of prey consumed by L-pod between 1996 and 2004/2006. ΣPCBs decreased for Southern Residents biopsied in 2004/2006 compared to 1993-1995. Surprisingly, however, a three-year-old male whale (J39) had the highest concentrations of ΣPBDEs, ΣHCHs and HCB. POP ratio differences between J- and L-pod suggested that they occupy different ranges in winter

  5. Dietary sugar intake increases liver tumor incidence in female mice

    Healy, Marin E.; Lahiri, Sujoy; Hargett, Stefan R.; Chow, Jenny D.Y.; Byrne, Frances L.; Breen, David S.; Kenwood, Brandon M.; Taddeo, Evan P.; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H.; Hoehn, Kyle L.

    2016-01-01

    Overnutrition can promote liver cancer in mice and humans that have liver damage caused by alcohol, viruses, or carcinogens. However, the mechanism linking diet to increased liver tumorigenesis remains unclear in the context of whether tumorigenesis is secondary to obesity, or whether nutrients like sugar or fat drive tumorigenesis independent of obesity. In male mice, liver tumor burden was recently found to correlate with sugar intake, independent of dietary fat intake and obesity. However, females are less susceptible to developing liver cancer than males, and it remains unclear how nutrition affects tumorigenesis in females. Herein, female mice were exposed to the liver carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and fed diets with well-defined sugar and fat content. Mice fed diets with high sugar content had the greatest liver tumor incidence while dietary fat intake was not associated with tumorigenesis. Diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemia and fasting hyperinsulinemia significantly correlated with tumor incidence, while tumor incidence was not associated with obesity and obesity-related disorders including liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, or elevated serum levels of estrogen, ALT, and lipids. These results simplify the pathophysiology of diet-induced liver tumorigenesis by focusing attention on the role of sugar metabolism and reducing emphasis on the complex milieu associated with obesity. PMID:26924712

  6. Acarological diagnostic research at the Diagnostic Centre for Plants during the period 2004-2006.

    Witters, J; De Bondt, G; Desamblanx, J; Casteels, H

    2007-01-01

    During the period 2004-2006, 1691 samples of different origin were examined at the Diagnostic Centre for Plants. We received 1046 samples of imported plant material for detection and identification of quarantine organisms. More than 200 samples were checked on mites and insects to get a phytosanitary certificate for export and 391 samples were investigated for diagnostic reason. The Berlese-funnel and dissecting microscopy technique were used to separate mites from the samples. For identification, the mites were slide mounted in Berlese-Hoyer's medium and examined by using phase-contrast microscopy. In 3% of the samples examined on the presence of quarantine organisms, phytophagous mites belonging to the superfamily Tetranychoidea were found, but none with the quarantine status in accordance with the EPPO A1/A2 list. Besides Tetranychus urticae detected on different crops, the cassava green mite Mononychellus progresivus was found on cassava (import Cameroon) in 2006. Tenuipalpus elegans (Tenuipalpidae) was found on cut foliage (import South Africa) in 2004. In 19.9% of the investigated samples for diagnostic reason mites were found. In 47.7% of the infested samples mites were definitely the reason for the damage; in 15.9% mites were secondary and in 36.4% the occurrence of mites was not relevant for the injury. An overview of the determined mites will be given. During this 3 years diagnostic research a few new pest mites belonging to families Tetranychidae and Eriophyidae can be reported. In 2006 Panonychus citri was found on Prunus laurocerasus and later on Eleaegnus sp. and Skimmia sp.. Aceria silvicola was determined on Rubus idaeus in 2006 and Aculus ulae and Aceria carpini on Carpinus betulus in 2005. Besides new pest mites, never seen problems with the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Fam. Tarsonemidae) occurred in tree-nurseries in 2005 and 2006. Also 20 samples coming from private persons were investigated. The main problems indoor were caused by

  7. Etiology of increased incidence of megaloblastic anaemia in district gilgit

    To identify the etiological factors responsible for increased incidence of megaloblastic anaemia in district Gilgit. A retrospective analysis of sixty one patients (n=61) was done who were diagnosed as patients of chronic anaemia. They were referred for bone marrow examination. Out of these, twenty two cases (n=22) were diagnosed as megaloblastic anaemia. Serum samples of all the patients were sent to AFIP for estimation of B12 and folate levels. A detailed history with special emphasis on dietary habits was noted. Patients included in the study were either retired Armed Forces personal (n=6) who had been living in district Gilgit for over period of five years. Other patients (n=16) were serving Army personal who had been serving in district Gilgit for over one year. Out of twenty two patients (n=22), only three (n=3, 13.6 %) had poor dietary history. A total of sixteen (n=16, 72.7%) patients had diarrhoea .Out of these sixteen, ten patients (n=10, 62.5%) had vegetative forms of gardia lamblia in their stools specimens. All (n=10) patients, who had giardiasis, had dyspeptic symptoms as their initial complaints. Twenty two serum samples were sent to AFIP for Vit B12 and folate level estimation. A total of seven patients (n=7, 31.8%) had low Vit B12 levels, while one patient (n=1, 4.5 %) had decreased level of both Vit B12 and folate. Chronic giardiasis and dietary insufficiency may be a major cause for increased incidence of megaloblastic anaemia in district Gilgit. (author)

  8. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone;

    2010-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...... assessed incidence trends of NMSC in Denmark from 1978 to 2007. Data for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Registry of Pathology. For both genders, age-specific incidence rates and overall incidence rates, age...

  9. [Nosocomial Legionnaires' disease--results from the analysis of Germany's surveillance data; 2004-2006].

    Stöcker, P; Brodhun, Bonita; Buchholz, U

    2009-02-01

    Legionella bacteria colonize drinking water systems and can cause severe pneumonia in humans (Legionnaires' disease (LD)). The German network for community-acquired pneumonia (CAPNETZ) estimates 15,000-30,000 new cases of LD per year in Germany. LD cases are divided into those that were acquired in the context of a stay in a hospital or nursing home (healthcare-associated; HCA), in the community (community-acquired (CA)) or during travel (travelassociated (TA)). According to the recommendations of the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC; UK) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC; USA) a single case of nosocomial LD should prompt an epidemiologic and, depending on its results, also technical investigation of the institution. In this study we present data from nosocomial cases of LD in the context of all cases of LD that were reported to the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) within the mandatory surveillance system from 2004 through 2006. We calculated the number of cases per population (incidence), the number of cases per person-days at risk (incidence rate) and case fatality. The analysis comprised 1,339 cases of LD. Among the 942 cases with one of the three categories of exposure CALD was reported in 58 % (547 cases), TALD in 29 % (270 cases) and HCA-LD in 13 % (125 cases). The incidence rate of TALD was 9-fold, but that of HCA-LD 15-fold higher than that of CALD. Case fatality of HCA-LD was 13 % and thus higher than that of CALD (9 %) and TALD (5 %). HCA-LD cases were reported from all states and included 77 different counties. Reporting counties represent the place of residence of the LD case-patients. German notification data show that cases of LD, and likely also HCALD, are underreported. Incidence rate and case fatality are highest in HCA-LD. HCA-LD occurs widespread. These results and the preventability of HCA-LD support the recommendation to thoroughly investigate single cases of HCA-LD in hospitals and nursing homes

  10. Safe Anesthesia for Radiotherapy in Pediatric Oncology: St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Experience, 2004-2006

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of anesthesia-related complications in children undergoing radiotherapy and the associated risk factors. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively investigated the incidence and types of anesthesia-related complications and examined their association with age, weight, oncology diagnosis, type of anesthetic (propofol vs. propofol and adjuncts), total propofol dose, anesthetic duration, type of radiotherapy procedure (simulation vs. radiotherapy) and patient position (prone vs. supine). Results: Between July 2004 and June 2006, propofol was used in 3,833 procedures (3,611 radiotherapy sessions and 222 simulations) in 177 patients. Complications occurred during 49 anesthetic sessions (1.3%). On univariate analysis, four factors were significantly associated with the risk of complications: procedure duration (p <0.001), total propofol dose (p <0.001), use of adjunct agents (vs. propofol alone; p = 0.029), and simulation (vs. radiotherapy; p = 0.014). Patient position (prone vs. supine) was not significantly associated with the frequency of complications (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.53; p = 0.38). On multivariate analysis, the procedure duration (p <0.0001) and total propofol dose (p ≤0.03) were the most significant risk factors after adjustment for age, weight, anesthetic type, and procedure type. We found no evidence of the development of tolerance to propofol. Conclusion: The rate of anesthesia-related complications was low (1.3%) in our study. The significant risk factors were procedure duration, total propofol dose, the use of adjunct agents with propofol, and simulation (vs. radiotherapy)

  11. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Ladd Marsh Wildlife Area, 2004-2006 Technical Report.

    Ashley, Paul; Wagoner, Sara

    2006-05-01

    The Regional HEP Team (RHT) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) staff conducted a follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis on the Ladd Marsh Wildlife Management Area (LMWA) in May 2005. The 2005 HEP assessment resulted in a total of 647.44 HUs, or 0.76 HUs/acre. This is an increase of 420.34 HUs (0.49 HUs/acre) over 2001 HEP survey results. The most significant increase in HUs occurred on the Wallender and Simonis parcels which increased by 214.30 HUs and 177.49 HUs respectively. Transects were established at or near 2001 HEP analysis transect locations whenever possible. ODFW staff biologists assisted the RHT re-establish transect locations and/or suggested areas for new surveys. Since 2001, significant changes in cover type acreage and/or structural conditions have occurred due to conversion of agriculture cover types to emergent wetland and grassland cover types. Agricultural lands were seeded to reestablish grasslands and wetlands were restored through active management and manipulation of extant water sources including natural stream hydrology/flood regimes and available irrigation. Grasslands increased on the Wallender parcel by 21% (65 acres), 23% (71 acres) at the Simonis site, and 39% (62 acres) at Conley Lake. The emergent wetland cover type also changed significantly increasing 60% (184 acres) at Wallender and 59% (184 acres) on the Simonis tract. Today, agriculture lands (crop and grazed pasture) have been nearly eliminated from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) mitigation project lands located on the LMWA.

  12. Increasing annual incidence of vestibular schwannoma and age at diagnosis

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Tos, Mirko; Caye-Thomasen, Per;

    2004-01-01

    During the last 26 years the annual number of diagnosed vestibular schwannomas (VS) has been increasing. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse this increase. Since 1976, 1446 new cases of VS have been diagnosed at the authors' centre. Special focus was on the age at diagnosis, the loca......During the last 26 years the annual number of diagnosed vestibular schwannomas (VS) has been increasing. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse this increase. Since 1976, 1446 new cases of VS have been diagnosed at the authors' centre. Special focus was on the age at diagnosis...

  13. Semi-national surveillance of fungaemia in Denmark 2004-2006

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Fuursted, Kurt; Gahrn-Hansen, B;

    2008-01-01

    inhabitants. The annual number of episodes increased by 17% during the study period. Candida spp. accounted for 98% of the fungal pathogens. Although Candida albicans remained predominant, the proportion of C. albicans decreased from 66.1% in 2004 to 53.8% in 2006 (p <0.01), and varied considerably among...... participating departments, e.g., from 51.1% at a university hospital in Copenhagen to 67.6% in North Jutland County. Candida glabrata ranked second, and increased in proportion from 16.7% to 22.7% (p 0.04). Candida krusei was isolated rarely (4.1%), but the proportion doubled during the study period from 3...

  14. Increasing annual incidence of vestibular schwannoma and age at diagnosis

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Tos, Mirko; Caye-Thomasen, Per;

    2004-01-01

    During the last 26 years the annual number of diagnosed vestibular schwannomas (VS) has been increasing. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse this increase. Since 1976, 1446 new cases of VS have been diagnosed at the authors' centre. Special focus was on the age at diagnosis, the loca...

  15. Food Access, Availability, and Affordability in 3 Los Angeles Communities, Project CAFE, 2004-2006

    Vallianatos, Mark; Azuma, Andrea Misako; Gilliland, Susan; Gottlieb, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Racial/ethnic minority communities are at increasingly high risk for chronic diseases related to obesity. Access to stores that sell affordable, nutritious food is a prerequisite for adopting a healthful diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate food access, availability, and affordability in 3 nonoverlapping but similar low-income communities in urban Los Angeles, California. Methods Using a community-based participatory research approach, we trained community members to...

  16. Increased incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Norway 2011.

    Blystad, H; Ånestad, G; Vestrheim, D F; Madsen, S; Rønning, K

    2012-01-01

    Epidemics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae have recently been reported from England and Wales and from Denmark. A similar increase in M. pneumoniae infections was noted in Norway late autumn 2011.The epidemic has resulted in shortage of erythromycin and the use of alternative antibiotics has been recommended. PMID:22321136

  17. Occupational exposure in Greek industrial radiography laboratories (2004-2006) and comparison of doses with other industrial applications

    Full text: In this study the Mean Annual Dose (MAD) of all industrial radiography workers in Greece for the time period 2004-2006 is evaluated and correlated to the practice and type of equipment used. All data used in this study come from the National Dose Registry Information System of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission. The present study constitutes the follow up of two previous studies, where a Dose Constraint (DC) for industrial radiography in Greece, equal to 4.0mSv was introduced for the first time. The introduction and systematic use of a dynamic DC value aims to optimize common working practices through a continuous decrease of occupational doses. In the current work a further decrease in the industrial radiography personnel doses is observed and the factors leading to this result are analyzed. Finally, the estimated MAD value for exposed workers in industrial radiography is compared to the ones corresponding to workers in other industrial applications involving the use of ionizing radiation

  18. BET 2: Do fluoroquinolones increase the incidence of tendinopathy?

    Baombe, Janos P; Ford, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    A shortcut review of the literature was carried out to establish whether the use of fluoroquinolones was associated with an increased risk of tendinopathy in adult patients. 10 trials were found to be directly relevant to the three-part question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. The clinical bottom line is that there is an association between the use of fluoroquinolones and a broad range of tendinopathies. PMID:27330182

  19. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  20. AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources Sub-Committee on Diversity Program for the term 2004-2006

    Alexander, C. J.; Hiza, M.; Jenkins, G.; Karsten, J.; Molina, L.; Pyrtle, A.; Runyon, C.

    2004-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU) founded the Diversity Subcommittee in 2000 to address what the AGU felt were important issues for the future of the geoscience community. A recent AGU statement of commitment and concern about issues of diversity reads, in part: It is essential that new strategies for educating, recruiting, and retaining geoscientists from currently under-represented populations be developed (a) for individual investigators seeking students to fill classes or work in their research programs; (b) for institutions looking to replace faculty and researchers; (c) for the larger community looking to the public for continued research funding, and (d) for the future US membership of AGU. In an effort to fulfill its charge, the majority of the 2004-2006 sub-committee's activities will be directed towards: (1) Education of the AGU Membership, including the sub-committee itself, on the salient issues of Diversity; (2) Mentoring and supporting minority students in the pipeline of Earth and Space Science education as well as minority faculty seeking to establish successful collaborations; (3) Establishing a mechanism for quantitative assessment of (a) the AGU demographics, (b) member knowledge, and (c) success of programs in the area of Diversity; (4) Conducting the first ever Chapman Conference on the needs of investigators with disabilities (July, 2005); (5) Partnering with other agencies and societies to build bridges; (6) Creating mechanisms for marketing the Earth and Space sciences to minority audiences; (7) Nurturing of minority members already in the AGU; promoting these members for honors and awards within AGU. Details, goals, and milestones of this program will be presented.

  1. NIH Study Offers Insight into Why Cancer Incidence Increases with Age

    ... NIH study offers insight into why cancer incidence increases with age The accumulation of age-associated changes ... of many types of cancer, but why aging increases cancer risk remains unclear. Researchers suspect that DNA ...

  2. Increasing incidence of skin disorders in children? A comparison between 1987 and 2001

    van Suijlekom-Smit Lisette WA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing proportion of skin diseases encountered in general practice represents a substantial part of morbidity in children. Only limited information is available about the frequency of specific skin diseases. We aimed to compare incidence rates of skin diseases in children in general practice between 1987 and 2001. Methods We used data on all children aged 0–17 years derived from two consecutive surveys performed in Dutch general practice in 1987 and 2001. Both surveys concerned a longitudinal registration of GP consultations over 12 months. Each disease episode was coded according to the International Classification of Primary Care. Incidence rates of separate skin diseases were calculated by dividing all new episodes for each distinct ICPC code by the average study population at risk. Data were stratified for socio-demographic characteristics. Results The incidence rate of all skin diseases combined in general practice decreased between 1987 and 2001. Among infants the incidence rate increased. Girls presented more skin diseases to the GP. In the southern part of the Netherlands children consulted their GP more often for skin diseases compared to the northern part. Children of non-Western immigrants presented relatively more skin diseases to the GP. In general practice incidence rates of specific skin diseases such as impetigo, dermatophytosis and atopic dermatitis increased in 2001, whereas warts, contact dermatitis and skin injuries decreased. Conclusion The overall incidence rate of all skin diseases combined in general practice decreased whereas the incidence rates of bacterial, mycotic and atopic skin diseases increased.

  3. Climate variability and increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue incidence in Singapore

    Hii, Yien Ling; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Tang, Choon Siang; Pang, Fung Yin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Dengue is currently a major public health burden in Asia Pacific Region. This study aims to establish an association between dengue incidence, mean temperature and precipitation and further discuss how weather predictors influence the increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue in Singapore during the period 2000-2007. Materials and methods: Weekly dengue incidence data, daily mean temperature and precipitation and the midyear population data in Singapore during 2000-2007 were...

  4. Environment as a potential key determinant of the continued increase of prostate cancer incidence in martinique.

    Belpomme, Dominique; Irigaray, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980-2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer. PMID:22191038

  5. Do hotter temperatures increase the incidence of self-harm hospitalisations?

    Williams, Matt N; Hill, Stephen R; Spicer, John

    2016-01-01

    A relationship between air temperature and the incidence of suicide has been established in a number of previous studies. Interestingly, the relationship between geographical variation in temperature and suicide incidence has generally been found to be negative, while the relationship between temporal variation in temperature and suicide incidence has generally been found to be positive. It is less clear, however, how temperature relates to the incidence of self-harm. This topic is of particular importance given the presence of ongoing global warming. This study investigated the relationship between temperature and the incidence of self-harm resulting in hospitalisation in New Zealand. Self-harm hospitalisations by date and district for 1993-2009 were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Meteorological data was obtained from NIWA. Generalised linear mixed models were used to estimate the effects of three different components of variation in temperature: geographical, seasonal and irregular. Irregular (random) daily variation in temperature had a modest positive relationship with the incidence of acts of self-harm resulting in hospitalisation, with about 0.7% extra incidents for every 1 °C increase in temperature. However, there was no strong evidence for a positive effect of either seasonal or geographical variation in temperature. We conclude that temperature does appear to bear some relation to the incidence of self-harm, with irregular daily variation in temperature having a positive effect. However, inconsistencies in the effects of different components of variation in temperature make it challenging to accurately predict how global warming will influence the incidence of self-harm. PMID:25849087

  6. The large increase in incidence of Type I diabetes mellitus in Poland

    Kretowski, A.; Kowalska, I.; Peczynska, J.; Urban, M.; Green, Anders; Kinalska, I.

    sources. RESULTS: We found a significant rising trend in the incidence of Type I diabetes in children under 15 years of age (in 1998 the incidence was approximately twice as high as in 1994). Increasing incidence rates were observed in the rural areas but not in urban populations. Seasonal variation in...... annual incidence of Type I diabetes in a north-eastern region of Poland (Białystok region) and investigate if it is associated with age, sex, urban rural differences and the season of disease onset. METHODS: A register of patients with Type I diabetes using two independent sets of data sources was...... established in 1994 as part of the EURODIAB TIGER programme. The primary data sources were paediatric and internal medicine divisions of the hospitals in the Białystok province and the secondary were outpatient diabetic clinics in the region. The degree of ascertainment was 98.5 % for the combinated data...

  7. Stable incidence of HIV diagnoses among Danish MSM despite increased engagement in unsafe sex

    Cowan, Susan Alice; Gerstoft, Jan; Haff, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    Since introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the prevalence of Danish HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) has increased substantially. In contrast, the incidence of MSM diagnosed with HIV has not increased, and this paradox has been the focus of intensive debate....

  8. Changing epidemiology of malaria in Sabah, Malaysia: increasing incidence of Plasmodium knowlesi

    William, Timothy; Jelip, Jenarun; Menon, Jayaram; Anderios, Fread; Mohammad, Rashidah; Awang Mohammad, Tajul A; Grigg, Matthew J.; Tsin W Yeo; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Barber, Bridget E

    2014-01-01

    Background While Malaysia has had great success in controlling Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, notifications of Plasmodium malariae and the microscopically near-identical Plasmodium knowlesi increased substantially over the past decade. However, whether this represents microscopic misdiagnosis or increased recognition of P. knowlesi has remained uncertain. Methods To describe the changing epidemiology of malaria in Sabah, in particular the increasing incidence of P. knowlesi, a re...

  9. Rapid Increase in Scrub Typhus Incidence in Mainland China, 2006-2014.

    Wu, Yi-Cheng; Qian, Quan; Magalhaes, Ricardo J Soares; Han, Zhi-Hai; Haque, Ubydul; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Hu, Wen-Biao; Liu, Yun-Xi; Sun, Yan-Song; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Shen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne disease, which has recently reemerged in China. In this study, we describe the distribution and incidence of scrub typhus cases in China from 2006 to 2014 and quantify differences in scrub typhus cases with respect to sex, age, and occupation. The results of our study indicate that the annual incidence of scrub typhus has increased during the study period. The number of cases peaked in 2014, which was 12.8 times greater than the number of cases reported in 2006. Most (77.97%) of the cases were reported in five provinces (Guangdong, Yunnan, Anhui, Fujian, and Shandong). Our study also demonstrates that the incidence rate of scrub typhus was significantly higher in females compared to males (P age group, and that farmers had a higher incidence rate than nonfarmers (P < 0.001). Different seasonal trends were identified in the number of reported cases between the northern and southern provinces of China. These findings not only demonstrate that China has experienced a large increase in scrub typhus incidence, but also document an expansion in the geographic distribution throughout the country. PMID:26711517

  10. Increasing incidence of base of tongue cancers from 2000 to 2010 due to HPV

    Garnaes, E; Kiss, K; Andersen, L;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We assessed the development in the number of new base of tongue squamous-cell carcinoma (BSCC) cases per year in eastern Denmark from 2000 to 2010 and whether HPV may explain any observable increased incidence. METHODS: We performed HPV DNA PCR and p16 immunohistochemistry analysis...... for all (n=210) BSCCs registered in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) and the Danish Pathology Data Bank, and genotyped all HPV-positive specimens with amplicon-based next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: The overall crude incidence of BSCCs increased significantly significant increase...... in the number of HPV-positive BSCCs (8.1% per year), whereas the number of HPV-negative BSCCs did not increase significantly. The overall HPV prevalence was 51%, with HPV16 as the predominant HPV type.(5.4% per year) during the study period. This was explained by a CONCLUSIONS: The increased number of HPV...

  11. Increasing incidence of ophthalmic lymphoma in Denmark from 1980 to 2005

    Sjö, Lene D; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth Methner; Prause, Jan U;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate patient characteristics and incidence of ophthalmic lymphoma in Denmark during the period 1980 to 2005. METHODS: All patients in Denmark with a diagnosis of ophthalmic lymphoma during the period 1980 to 2005 were retrieved from three different population-based registries....... Specimens from all patients were collected and reclassified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Incidence rates were calculated by using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: A total of 228 patients with a histologically verified diagnosis of ophthalmic lymphoma were...... Danish population ophthalmic lymphoma consists primarily of orbital MALT lymphoma. Although it is a rare disease in mostly elderly patients, the incidence of ophthalmic lymphoma is increasing at a rapid pace....

  12. Increases in acute hepatitis C (HCV incidence across Europe: which regions and patient groups are affected?

    Rockstroh J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background In the last decade, several outbreaks of sexually acquired acute HCV have been described in men who have sex with men (MSM infected with HIV in Australia, Europe, and North America. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of acute HCV within the large EuroSIDA cohort and to explore possible regional differences throughout Europe and in different HIV transmission risk groups. Methods Baseline was defined as 1st Jan of 2002 or entry into EuroSIDA, whichever comes later. All patients from EuroSIDA who were HCV antibody-negative at baseline and had at least 2 HCV antibody test results available were included into the study. HCV seroconversion was defined as change from negative to positive HCV-antibody test within the observation period from 2002 onwards. Follow-up was counted from baseline to HCV antibody positivity for seroconverters and to the last HCV antibody-negative test result for those that did not seroconvert for HCV. Poisson regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for HCV seroconversion. Results A total of 150 HCV seroconversions (95 [63.3%] in MSM occurred in 4295 patients during 18,928 person years of follow-up (PYFU, overall incidence of 0.79 acute infections per 100 PYFU (95% CI: 0.67–0.92 (see figure. The incidence of HCV seroconversions increased from 0.47 (CI: 0.19–0.74 in 2002 to 2.34 (CI: 1.24–3.44 in 2010. Similar patterns were observed across all European regions (p=0.89, test for interaction. In multivariate analysis, IDU was associated with a higher incidence rate ratio (IRR than MSM: 4.59 (2.40–8.80; p<0.0001, South and East Europe both had higher IRR compared to Western Europe, respectively (1.98 [1.12–3.49]; p=0.018 and 2.41 [1.41–4.12]; p=0.0014. Calendar year per 2 years was also associated with a higher IRR (1.29 [1.19–1.39]; p<0.0001. Conclusion The incidence of acute HCV within EuroSIDA increased over time. Although, the incidence of seroconversion was

  13. Is Global Warming likely to cause an increased incidence of Malaria?

    Nabi SA; SS Qader

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: The rise in the average temperature of earth has been described as global warming which is mainly attributed to the increasing phenomenon of the greenhouse effect. It is believed that global warming can have several harmful effects on human health, both directly and indirectly. Since malaria is greatly influenced by climatic conditions because of its direct relationship with the mosquito population, it is widely assumed that its incidence is likely to increase in a future warmer wor...

  14. Increasing Dengue Incidence in Singapore over the Past 40 Years: Population Growth, Climate and Mobility

    Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Massad, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In Singapore, the frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics have increased significantly over the past 40 years. It is important to understand the main drivers for the rapid increase in dengue incidence. We studied the relative contributions of putative drivers for the rise of dengue in Singapore: population growth, climate parameters and international air passenger arrivals from dengue endemic countries, for the time period of 1974 until 2011. We used multivariable Poisson regression model...

  15. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in norway 1963–2011: increasing incidence and stable mortality

    The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rapidly increasing in white populations, causing high morbidity and health-care costs. Few studies, however, have described the trends for SCC, as population-based data with a long follow-up are limited. In Norway we have this opportunity and we aimed to describe SCC incidence, mortality and survival rates, according to sex, age, stage, primary anatomical location, and geographical region, for the period 1963–2011, for estimation of future health-care needs. Data were retrieved from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Age-adjusted SCC incidence and mortality rates and 5-year relative survival (in percent) were calculated for 5-year calendar periods. A joinpoint regression model identified the annual percentage change (APC) in rates over the 50-year period. The age-adjusted incidence rate increased ninefold in females and sixfold in males from 1963 to 2011, with APCs of 5.6% (95% confidence interval, CI 4.5, 7.3) and 3.3% (95% CI 1.3, 5.3) in females and males, respectively. SCC incidence rose in all age groups, anatomical locations (except ears in females), and geographical regions, though restricted to localized tumors. Most striking increase was seen in the age group 70–79, in face and head locations and among residents in southern Norway. SCC mortality and survival rates remained relatively stable. Our findings underline an increasing need for SCC treatment in Norway, especially considering the aging population. The findings also call for the creation of particular guidelines for primary prevention of SCC

  16. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes: a long-term follow-up in a Danish population

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller;

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  17. Increased incidence of acute kidney injury with aprotinin use during cardiac surgery detected with urinary NGAL

    Wagener, G.; Gubitosa, G.; Wang, S.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of aprotinin has been associated with acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel, very sensitive marker for renal injury. Urinary NGAL may be able to detect renal injury caused by aprotinin. This study determined if the...... use of aprotinin is associated with an increased incidence of acute kidney injury and increased levels of urinary NGAL. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study 369 patients undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled. 205 patients received aprotinin and 164 received epsilon amino-caproic acid...... intraoperatively. Urinary NGAL was measured before and immediately after cardiac surgery and 3, 18 and 24 h later. The association of aprotinin use with the incidence of acute kidney injury (increase of serum creatinine >0.5 mg/dl) and NGAL levels was determined using logistic and linear regression models. RESULTS...

  18. Trends in Terrorist Activity and Dynamics in Diyala province, Iraq, during the Iraqi Governmental Transition, 2004-2006

    Aaron L. Greenwald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study explores the evolution of the Iraqi insurgency in the dynamic strategic environment between 2004 and 2006. In these three years, insurgents in Iraq sought to exploit terrorism as a tactic to induce fear and advance their regional and political agenda in the volatile Iraqi province of Diyala. Their geopolitical agenda was primarily aimed towards derailing the interim political process and reconciliation efforts throughout Iraq. This article draws its analytical conclusions from quantitative data of terroristic incidents, focusing on insurgents' tactics, targeting of victims, and areas of activity. It examines trends of insurgent activity between 2004 and 2006 as well as the evolution of their strategy against the Iraqi Government and its people.

  19. Increasing Dengue Incidence in Singapore over the Past 40 Years: Population Growth, Climate and Mobility.

    Claudio Jose Struchiner

    Full Text Available In Singapore, the frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics have increased significantly over the past 40 years. It is important to understand the main drivers for the rapid increase in dengue incidence. We studied the relative contributions of putative drivers for the rise of dengue in Singapore: population growth, climate parameters and international air passenger arrivals from dengue endemic countries, for the time period of 1974 until 2011. We used multivariable Poisson regression models with the following predictors: Annual Population Size; Aedes Premises Index; Mean Annual Temperature; Minimum and Maximum Temperature Recorded in each year; Annual Precipitation and Annual Number of Air Passengers arriving from dengue-endemic South-East Asia to Singapore. The relative risk (RR of the increase in dengue incidence due to population growth over the study period was 42.7, while the climate variables (mean and minimum temperature together explained an RR of 7.1 (RR defined as risk at the end of the time period relative to the beginning and goodness of fit associated with the model leading to these estimates assessed by pseudo-R2 equal to 0.83. Estimating the extent of the contribution of these individual factors on the increasing dengue incidence, we found that population growth contributed to 86% while the residual 14% was explained by increase in temperature. We found no correlation with incoming air passenger arrivals into Singapore from dengue endemic countries. Our findings have significant implications for predicting future trends of the dengue epidemics given the rapid urbanization with population growth in many dengue endemic countries. It is time for policy-makers and the scientific community alike to pay more attention to the negative impact of urbanization and urban climate on diseases such as dengue.

  20. Increased Incidence of Early Onset Colorectal Cancer in Arizona: A Comprehensive 15-year Analysis of the Arizona Cancer Registry

    Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; DiGiovanni, Ryan M.; Ohlson, Eric; Gruessner, Angelika C.; Jandova, Jana; Nfonsam, Valentine N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze the incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer in Arizona, using the Arizona Cancer Registry. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with colorectal cancer reported in the Arizona Cancer Registry from 1995-2010. Outcome measure: incidence of CRC in patients younger than 50 years. Results 39,623 cases of colorectal cancer were reported to the Arizona Cancer Registry during a period of 15 years. Overall, there was a 17% decrease in the incidence of CRC. However, there was a 23% increase in incidence among patients in the age group 10-50. During the same time period, 15% and 41% increase in the incidence of colon and rectal cancer was observed, respectively. The most significant increase (102%) in overall CRC incidence was seen in the age group 10-29. The highest increase (110%) in incidence of colon cancer was observed in the same age group, while the most significant increase in incidence rates (225%) of rectal cancer was seen in the age group 30-34. Conclusion Although there is an overall decrease in incidence of colorectal cancer in Arizona, alarming increase in incidence of early-onset CRC was observed; mirroring the national trends.

  1. The incidence of melanoma is increasing in the susceptible young Australian population.

    Czarnecki, Douglas

    2014-09-01

    The number of melanomas removed from Australians is increasing. Despite this, it has been reported that the incidence of melanoma is decreasing in the young Australian population. However, the denominator for these estimates includes individuals at low risk of melanoma, and the proportion of such individuals has changed over recent decades due to immigration. In this study, the incidence was calculated for the susceptible young population. Data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics were analysed to determine the number of people younger than 30 years at low risk of developing melanoma in 1982 and 2009. Low risk people were defined as those born in Asia, the Pacific Islands, The Middle East, or Sub-Saharan Africa, or had parents born in these regions. There was a significant increase in the number of young Australians at low risk for melanoma. If these people are not included when calculating the crude rate of melanoma, the rate increased from 5.9 per 100,000 in 1982 to 6.3 in 2009. If the estimated number of young Maoris and young Aborigines is excluded from the susceptible population, the crude rate increased from 6.0 per 100,000 in 1982 to 6.8 in 2009. This is the first calculation of the rate of melanoma for the susceptible young Australian population. PMID:24889972

  2. ETIOLOGY OF SEASONAL INCREASING OF ENTEROVIRAL INFECTION INCIDENCE IN ARKHANGELSK OBLAST

    L. A. Shishko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The etiology of seasonal increasing of enteroviral infection incidence in Arkhangelsk oblast in 2008–2011 has been studied. The ECHO 6, ECHO 9 and ECHO 30 viruses were isolated and identified from patients with enteroviral infection in this period. The highest enteroviral infection incidence rate in Arkhangelsk oblast which was 5,1 times higher in compare with average country index was registered in 2008. It was proved by the virological and molecular biological methods that the main etiological agent caused enteroviral meningitis cases in the seasonal outbreak in 2008 was ECHO 30 virus which was very similar to the ECHO 30 strain identified in the Veliky Novgorod in 2008. In 2009 from patients in enteroviral meningitis epidemic focus the ECHO 9 viruses were isolated. These viruses were similar to the ECHO 9 strains circulated in Russia in 2009. It was established that in the period of seasonal increasing of enteroviral infection in Arkhangelsk oblast in 2010–2011 in general circulated ECHO 6 viruses which clustered in 3 separate phylogenetic groups. Viruses ECHO 6 detected in Arkhangelsk oblast in 2011 were different from viruses identified in 2010. Results of the study confirm that monitoring of viruses in case of enteroviral infection remains the one of the important types of additional measures in the frame of Global Program of poliomyelitis eradication. This monitoring is absolutely necessary to define characteristics of epidemic process of enteroviral infection.

  3. High intakes of protein and processed meat associate with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes.

    Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Gullberg, Bo; Hellstrand, Sophie; Hindy, George; Wirfält, Elisabet; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2013-03-28

    Diets high in protein have shown positive effects on short-term weight reduction and glycaemic control. However, the understanding of how dietary macronutrient composition relates to long-term risk of type 2 diabetes is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine intakes of macronutrients, fibre and protein sources in relation to incident type 2 diabetes. In total, 27 140 individuals, aged 45-74 years, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, were included. Dietary data were collected with a modified diet history method, including registration of cooked meals. During 12 years of follow-up, 1709 incident type 2 diabetes cases were identified. High protein intake was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 1.27 for highest compared with lowest quintile; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.49; P for trend = 0.01). When protein consumption increased by 5 % of energy at the expense of carbohydrates (HR 1.20; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.33) or fat (HR 1.21; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.33), increased diabetes risk was observed. Intakes in the highest quintiles of processed meat (HR 1.16; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.36; P for trend = 0.01) and eggs (HR 1.21; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.41; P for trend = 0.02) were associated with increased risk. Intake of fibre-rich bread and cereals was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (HR 0.84; 95 % CI 0.73, 0.98; P for trend = 0.004). In conclusion, results from the present large population-based prospective study indicate that high protein intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Replacing protein with carbohydrates may be favourable, especially if fibre-rich breads and cereals are chosen as carbohydrate sources. PMID:22850191

  4. ¿Inversionistas o especuladores? evidencia de burbuja especulativa en el mercado accionario Colombia, 2004-2006 ¿Inversionistas o especuladores? evidencia de burbuja especulativa en el mercado accionario Colombia, 2004-2006

    Diego Alonso Agudelo Rueda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ¿Experimentó el mercado accionario colombiano una burbuja especulativa deprecios en los últimos años? Los resultados del presente estudio así lo señalan, enparticular para el período desde inicios de 2004 hasta el momento de conclusión deeste trabajo, Julio de 2006. Durante dicho lapso, un portafolio que replique el índiceaccionario colombiano tendría un rendimiento proyectado a largo plazo similar alde los TES en pesos a 10 años, sin compensación por el riesgo adicional asumido.Este análisis se basa en una estimación del rendimiento proyectado en el largo plazopara un inversionista colombiano, mediante el modelo de Gordon, y es respaldadopor dos pruebas econométricas. De otro lado, aunque los resultados indican que nohubo sobrevaloración para los inversionistas extranjeros, la evidencia también señalaque la actividad de estos agentes no es suficiente explicación para la formación de laburbuja. Se examinan a continuación argumentos alternativos que se han ofrecidopara explicar racionalmente los dramáticos incrementos en los precios pero queaparecen inconsistentes con la evidencia. En general, los resultados de este estudioconfirman la conclusión de Vélez-Pareja (2000 de que la especulación, y no lainversión a largo plazo, ha predominado en el mercado accionario colombiano.This study provides evidence that part of the spectacular price increase of the Colombian Stock Market in the last five years corresponds to a speculative bubble. Since early 2004, the estimated return for the Colombian stock index in the long term is just 0% to 2% annually over the return of the 10 year-TES (Colombian government bond. This analysis is based on the Gordon model and tolerates reasonable adjustments in the assumptions. Additionally, we examined alternative explanations to the dramatic rise in prices over the last five years, but found them inconsistent with the evidence. On the contrary, we found evidence of speculative

  5. Proximal risk factors and suicide methods among suicide completers from national suicide mortality data 2004-2006 in Korea.

    Im, Jeong-Soo; Choi, Soon Ho; Hong, Duho; Seo, Hwa Jeong; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine differences in proximal risk factors and suicide methods by sex and age in the national suicide mortality data in Korea. Data were collected from the National Police Agency and the National Statistical Office of Korea on suicide completers from 2004 to 2006. The 31,711 suicide case records were used to analyze suicide rates, methods, and proximal risk factors by sex and age. Suicide rate increased with age, especially in men. The most common proximal risk factor for suicide was medical illness in both sexes. The most common proximal risk factor for subjects younger than 30 years was found to be a conflict in relationships with family members, partner, or friends. Medical illness was found to increase in prevalence as a risk factor with age. Hanging/Suffocation was the most common suicide method used by both sexes. The use of drug/pesticide poisoning to suicide increased with age. A fall from height or hanging/suffocation was more popular in the younger age groups. Because proximal risk factors and suicide methods varied with sex and age, different suicide prevention measures are required after consideration of both of these parameters. PMID:21497215

  6. IL-10 polymorphism is associated with increased incidence of severe sepsis

    SHU Qiang(舒 强); FANG Xiangming(方向明); CHEN Qixing(陈齐兴); Frank Stuber

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether three biallelic polymorphisms at positions -592, -819 and -1082 in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene are associated with increased incidence of severe sepsis.Methods The IL-10 -592, -819 and -1082 polymorphisms were typed using polymerase chain reaction followed by digestion with the restriction enzymes RsaⅠ, MaeⅢ and MnlⅠ, respectively.Results Patients with severe sepsis were more likely to have IL-10 -1082 allele 1, compared with controls (P0.05). No significant differences in the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the IL-10 -592 and IL-10 -819 polymorphisms were observed between patients with severe sepsis and heathy controls, nor between surviving and dead patients (P> 0.05). Conclusions The polymorphism at position -1082 in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene may be associated with susceptibility to severe sepsis. In constrast, the other two highly linked IL-10 polymorphisms are not associated with incidence or the outcome of severe sepsis.

  7. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: aspirin increases the incidence of minor bleeding complications

    Halliwell, O.T. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hallo99@doctors.org.uk; Yadegafar, G. [Public Health Sciences and Medical Statistics Division, School of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton University, Southampton (United Kingdom); Lane, C.; Dewbury, K.C. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Aim: To assess whether patients taking aspirin were more likely to experience bleeding complications after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and methods: Three hundred and eighty-seven patients taking aspirin who underwent prostate biopsy over a 3.5 year period and 731 patients not taking aspirin over a 2 year period returned a questionnaire assessing the incidence and severity of bleeding complications. Results: Patients taking aspirin had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of haematuria and rectal bleeding, but not of haemospermia. They also had a longer mean duration of bleeding, but no increase in bleeding severity. Severe bleeding was very uncommon in both groups and no patients required intervention for bleeding complications. Conclusion: Aspirin exacerbates minor bleeding complications in patients undergoing TRUS guided biopsy of the prostate, but in this large group of aspirin-taking patients no dangerous bleeding complications were encountered. It may be that the risks associated with aspirin cessation outweigh the risks of haemorrhagic complications.

  8. Trends in the quality of health care for children aged less than 5 years in Afghanistan, 2004-2006

    Anbrasi Edward

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study trends in the quality of the health care provided to children aged less than 5 years in Afghanistan between 2004 and 2006. In particular, to determine the effect on such quality of a basic package of health services (BPHS, including Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI, introduced in 2003. METHODS: In each year of the study, 500-600 health facilities providing the BPHS were selected by stratified random sampling in 29 provinces of Afghanistan. We observed consultations for children aged less than 5 years, interviewed their caretakers, interviewed health-care providers and measured adherence to case management standards for assessment and counselling in a random sample. FINDINGS: The quality of the assessment and counselling provided to sick children aged less than 5 years improved significantly between 2004 and 2006. A 43.4% increase in the assessment index and a 28.7% increase in the counselling index (P < 0.001 were noted. Assessment quality improved significantly every year and was statistically associated with certain characteristics of the provider (being a doctor, having a higher knowledge score, being trained in IMCI, being part of a "contracting-in" mechanism and providing a longer consultation time and the child (being younger and having a female caretaker. Counselling quality was also significantly associated with these characteristics, except for provider cadre and child age. The presence of clinical guidelines and the frequency of supervision were significantly associated with improved quality scores in 2006 (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively. CONCLUSION: Quality of care improved over the study period, but performance remained suboptimal in some areas. Continued investments in Afghanistan's health system capacity are needed.

  9. Increasing incidence of hypotension in the emergency department; a 12 year population-based cohort study

    Holler, Jon G; Henriksen, Daniel P; Mikkelsen, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    ,000 person years at risk (pyar) and etiological characteristics by means of the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), as well as 7-day, 30-day, and 90-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: We identified 3,268 of 438,198 (1 %) cases with a mean overall IR of 125/100,000 pyar (95 % CI...... %) and cardiovascular diseases (15 %) as the most common. The overall 7-day, 30-day and 90-day mortality rates were 15 % (95 % CI: 14-16), 22 % (95 % CI: 21-24) and 28 % (95 % CI: 27-30) respectively. CONCLUSION: During 2000-2011 the overall incidence of ED hypotension increased and remained highest among the elderly...

  10. Increased incidence of preterm delivery in mothers residing in an industrialized area in Taiwan.

    Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Yu, Hsin-Su; Liu, Chia-Chia; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2003-06-13

    The objective of this study was to determine whether women living in the vicinity of industrial districts where emission levels of air contaminants from multiple sources including petrochemical, petroleum, steel, and shipbuilding industries are highly correlated with increased incidence of preterm births. The prevalence of delivery of preterm-birth infants was significantly higher in mothers living in the industrial study area compared to control regions of Taiwan. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, infant gender, and birthplace), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.11 (95% CI = 1.02-1.21) for delivery of preterm infants in the industrial area. Data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy, although a semiecological study cannot confirm a direct causal relationship. PMID:12775512

  11. Cryptosporidium hominis genotypes involved in increased incidence and clusters of cases, Navarra, Spain, 2012.

    Fuentes, I; Martín, C; Beristain, X; Mazón, A; Saugar, J M; Blanco, A; García Cenoz, M; Valle-Cristia, M; Ezpeleta, C; Castilla, J

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Two clusters of confirmed cryptosporidiosis infections were detected in Navarra, Spain, in the summer of 2012, in the context of an increased incidence in the region. Molecular subtyping of Cryptosporidium hominis determined that one cluster, occurring in an urban area, was due to the predominant circulating subtype IbA10G2R2 and the other cluster, with cases occurring in a rural area, was due to a rare subtype IaA18R3. No single exposure was associated with infection, although exposure to certain children's pools was reported by a majority of patients interviewed in each cluster. Genotyping tools were useful in the investigation and could aid investigation of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Spain in the future. PMID:25017000

  12. HURL's 2003 OE and NURP Deep Submergence Science Program in the NW and Main Hawaiian Islands and Projects Planned for 2004-2006.

    Crook, K. A.

    2003-12-01

    This presentation will emphasise the advantages of using manned submersibles in conjunction with ROV pre-surveys during UH's NOAA-funded Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory 64-day Ocean Exploration research cruise in the NW Hawaiian Islands scheduled for Sept 3-Nov 6, 2003. The up-leg to Kure Atoll will focus on "Submarine Canyon and Scavenger Communities" (PIs Craig Smith & Eric Vetter) and "Characteristics of Deepwater Fish and Precious Corals on the Seamounts Neighboring Hawaii's Most Remote Seal Colonies" (PI: Frank Parrish). Two projects for PIs Amy Baco-Taylor & Timothy Shank are scheduled for the down-leg: "Seamount Surveys of Deep-Water Corals as Related to Geological Setting in the NWHI" and "Reproductive Biology and population genetics of Precious Corals in Hawaii". For 2004 -2006, HURL has 18 peer-reviewed projects approved. These include 45 submersible dives for projects in US Flag Waters SE of Hawaii, during a joint NURP-OE Expedition to American Samoa, scheduled for late 2004 and early 2005. Dives for most projects in the Main and nearer NW Hawaiian Islands will be scheduled for 2006, with a few exceptions. The scope and rationale of this planned program exemplifies the synergy between NOAA's Ocean Exploration and Undersea Research Program objectives.

  13. Increased T2 signal intensity in the distal clavicle: incidence and clinical implications

    Objective. The objectives of the current study were (1) to quantify the incidence of increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle and (2) to assess the clinical significance of this finding in patients with chronic acromioclavicular (AC) joint pain.Design and patients. Eight patients (five male and three female, 15-41 years of age) with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint and marked increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle are presented. These eight patients underwent MR examination over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998). The dictated reports of all shoulder MR examinations conducted over this same time period were reviewed retrospectively for the presence of signal abnormality in the distal cla-vicle. Clinical data and, in five patients, findings at shoulder arthroscopy or open surgery, were correlated with the results of MR imaging. One patient underwent arthroscopy on both shoulders.Results. The selected eight patients each presented clinically with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint. One patient is presented twice, as both shoulders were symptomatic (n=9). Plain film examination (9/9) failed to indicate a structural cause of shoulder pain in any of the patients. MR examination demonstrated abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle in all nine cases and no other cause for AC joint pain. Three patients responded to a course of conservative therapy. Six experienced refractory pain despite conservative therapy. Resection of the distal clavicle was performed in five of the six cases. All patients who underwent resection of the distal clavicle experienced complete resolution of AC joint pain. A retrospective review of the dictated reports for all shoulder MR imaging examinations performed at out institution over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998; n=761) demonstrated a 12.5% incidence of abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clav-icle.Conclusions. Increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle

  14. Increasing incidence of Geomyces destructans fungus in bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Natália Martínková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme.

  15. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection

    Maes Piet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE, an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Results Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034. NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P Conclusion NE peaks in year 0 are induced by abundant mast formation in year-1, facilitating bank vole survival during winter, thus putting the local human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.

  16. Essential and non-essential elements in tissues of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded on the coasts of the North and Baltic Seas between 2004-2006.

    Fahrenholtz, Svea; Griesel, Simone; Pröfrock, Daniel; Kakuschke, Antje

    2009-05-01

    This study on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded along the coasts of the Eastern North and Western Baltic Sea as well as in the river Elbe during 2004-2006, evaluated concentrations of 20 essential and non-essential elements (Ag, Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, V, Zn) in liver and muscle samples. Tissue samples of 22 porpoises were taken during post-mortem investigations at the Research and Technology Centre (FTZ) in Büsum, Germany. A multi element method utilizing microwave accelerated acid digestion for sample preparation and collision/reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CC-ICP-MS) was used for element quantification. All 20 elements investigated could be determined in liver and muscle tissues except for Al in muscle samples. Furthermore the concentrations in liver tissues were higher compared to muscle tissues. While sex specific differences were observed only for Cu concentrations in liver tissue, age-dependent relationships were obtained for nine elements. Differences between juveniles and adults were found for Ag, Al, Co, Mn, Mo, Se, Sn, Pb, and V concentrations in liver, as well as Sn concentrations in muscle tissues. Furthermore, As and Sn concentrations in liver and muscle showed differences between the stranding locations. This multi-element study on harbour porpoises gives baseline information to concentrations of essential and non-essential elements in tissue to develop reference ranges for health status determination as well as the assessment of the pollutant body burden. PMID:19436872

  17. THE SEASONAL INCREASE OF ENTEROVIRAL INFECTION INCIDENCE IN THE NOVGOROD OBLAST

    M. A. Bichurina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The analysis of epidemic process and definition of the etiology of the seasonal increase of serosal meningitis incidence in the Novgorod oblast in September-November, 2008 has been carried out. It was shown that in the specified period 73 persons had enteroviral meningitis. The proportion of children under 17 years old in the group of patients was 89.9%. The etiological agents of disease (enteroviruses ECHO 6 и ECHO 30 were detected by the virological and molecular-biological methods. It was established that two genetic variants of ECHO 6 and one variant of ECHO 30 co-circulated in the Novgorod oblast. The last virus variant was closely related to the strain isolated from enteroviral meningitis patients in Nizhniy Novgorod in 2007. The obtained data support the idea about necessity of systematic epidemiological and virological surveillance on enteroviral infection to get new information about circulation of non-poliomyelitis enteroviruses in the population and to define peculiarities of epidemic process development.

  18. Increased Incidence of Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmunity in Patients with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Stefano Stagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormones may play a role in the pathophysiology of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC. An increased incidence of thyroid autoantibodies was recently observed in VKC, although there were no data on thyroid function. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients (202 males, 86 females; range 5.5 to 16.9 years with VKC were evaluated and compared with 188 normal age- and sex-matched subjects. In all subjects, serum concentrations of free T4, TSH, thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin, and TSHr autoantibodies were evaluated. In VKC, the family history of thyroid diseases showed no significant differences compared to the controls (9.4 versus 8.6%, whereas the family history of autoimmune diseases was significantly higher (13.2% versus 6.3%; P<0.05. Subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 6.6% (versus 1.6% of the controls; P<0.05 and overt hypothyroidism in 0.7% (versus 0.0% of the controls; P=NS. Finally, 5.2% of patients were positive for thyroid autoantibodies, which were significantly higher with respect to the controls (0.5%, P<0.05. In the patients positive for thyroid autoantibodies, 80% showed a sonography pattern that suggested autoimmune thyroiditis. Thyroid function and autoimmunity abnormalities are frequently present in children with VKC. Children with VKC should be screened for thyroid function and evaluated for thyroid autoimmunity.

  19. Investigation of the possible increased incidence of leukaemia in young people near the Dounreay Nuclear Establishment, Caithness, Scotland. 2. report

    A report is given by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment investigating the possible increased incidence of leukaemia in young people near the Dounreay Nuclear Establishment in Scotland. After describing the environment in which the site is situated, subsequent chapters examine the known epidemiological data available on leukaemia incidence in young people in the area, the radioactive discharges and the radiation doses to the population calculated from these discharges and recommendations for further studies. On present knowledge, the report is unable to ascribe the observed incidence of leukaemia to specific causes. (U.K.)

  20. Increasing thyroid cancer incidence in Canada, 1970–1996: time trends and age-period-cohort effects

    Liu, S; Semenciw, R; Ugnat, A-M; Mao, Y.(State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing, China)

    2001-01-01

    We examined time trends in thyroid cancer incidence in Canada by age, time period and birth cohort between 1970 and 1996. Age-specific incidence rates by time period and birth cohort were calculated and age-period-cohort modelling used to estimate effects underlying the observed trends. Overall age-adjusted incidence rates of thyroid cancer doubled, from 3.3 and 1.1 per 100 000 in 1970–72 to 6.8 and 2.2 per 100 000 in 1994–96, among females and males respectively. Almost all the increase betw...

  1. Rapid Increase in Diabetes Incidence Among Chinese Canadians Between 1996 and 2005

    Alangh, Avreet; Chiu, Maria; Shah, Baiju R

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine trends in diabetes incidence among Ontario residents with Chinese and European origins. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Respondents to population-based health surveys in 1996, 2001, 2003, and 2005 who were aged ≥30 years, who did not have diabetes, and who self-identified as having European (n = 76,285) or Chinese (n = 1,041) origins were followed for diabetes incidence through a validated administrative data–derived diabetes registry. RESULTS Age- and sex-standardized diabet...

  2. Dialysate interleukin-6 predicts increasing peritoneal solute transport rate in incident peritoneal dialysis patients

    Cho, Yeoungjee; Johnson, David W.; Vesey, David A; Hawley, Carmel M; Pascoe, Elaine M.; Clarke, Margaret; Topley, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Background Repeated exposure to peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions contributes to cumulative intraperitoneal inflammation and peritoneal injury. The present study aimed to explore the capacity of dialysate interleukin-6(IL-6) to a) predict peritoneal membrane function and peritonitis in incident PD patients, and b) to evaluate the influence of neutral pH, low glucose degradation product (GDP) PD solution on dialysate IL-6 levels. Methods The study included 88 incident participants from the ba...

  3. The increasing incidence of young-onset colorectal cancer: a call to action.

    Ahnen, Dennis J; Wade, Sally W; Jones, Whitney F; Sifri, Randa; Mendoza Silveiras, Jose; Greenamyer, Jasmine; Guiffre, Stephanie; Axilbund, Jennifer; Spiegel, Andrew; You, Y Nancy

    2014-02-01

    In the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common and second most lethal cancer. More than one-tenth of CRC cases (11% of colon cancers and 18% of rectal cancers) have a young onset (ie, occurring in individuals younger than 50 years). The CRC incidence and mortality rates are decreasing among all age groups older than 50 years, yet increasing in younger individuals for whom screening use is limited and key symptoms may go unrecognized. Familial syndromes account for approximately 20% of young-onset CRCs, and the remainder are typically microsatellite stable cancers, which are more commonly diploid than similar tumors in older individuals. Young-onset CRCs are more likely to occur in the distal colon or rectum, be poorly differentiated, have mucinous and signet ring features, and present at advanced stages. Yet, stage-specific survival in patients with young-onset CRC is comparable to that of patients with later-onset cancer. Primary care physicians have an important opportunity to identify high-risk young individuals for screening and to promptly evaluate CRC symptoms. Risk modification, targeted screening, and prophylactic surgery may benefit individuals with a predisposing hereditary syndrome or condition (eg, inflammatory bowel disease) or a family history of CRC or advanced adenomatous polyps. When apparently average-risk young adults present with CRC-like symptoms (eg, unexplained persistent rectal bleeding, anemia, and abdominal pain), endoscopic work-ups can expedite diagnosis. Early screening in high-risk individuals and thorough diagnostic work-ups in symptomatic young adults may improve young-onset CRC trends. PMID:24393412

  4. Adjuvant enoxaparin therapy may decrease the incidence of postoperative thrombotic events though does not increase the incidence of postoperative intracranial hemorrhage in patients with meningiomas.

    Cage, Tene A; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Ware, Marcus L; Frankfurt, Anna; Chakalian, Lenna; Berger, Mitchell S; McDermott, Michael W

    2009-05-01

    Patients with brain tumors including intracranial meningiomas are at increased risk for developing deep vein thrombosis (DVTs) and suffering thromboembolic events (VTEs). Many surgeons are concerned that early use of low dose enoxaparin may increase the risk of intracranial hemorrhage which outweighs the benefit of DVT/VTE reduction. We aimed to address concerns around the use of enoxaparin after meningioma resection in the development of postoperative intracranial hemorrhages and DVT/VTEs. This is a retrospective review of 86 patients with intracranial meningiomas who underwent craniectomy and surgical resection of the mass, treated by one attending surgeon at UCSF Medical Center between 2000 and 2005. Within 48 h after surgery patients treated 2003-2005 routinely received enoxaparin therapy unless there was documented intracranial hemorrhage, lumbar subarachnoid drain, enoxaparin hypersensitivity, or thrombocytopenia (n = 24). These were compared to a cohort treated 2000-2002 who did not receive the drug (n = 62). Exclusion criteria were prior VTEs or coagulopathies. The groups were similar in tumor and surgical characteristics. Enoxaparin therapy did not increase the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage following surgical meningioma resection and the incidence of DVTs/VTEs was 0% (n = 0) versus 4.8% (n = 3) in the non-enoxaparin group. Results did not reach statistical significance. In this retrospective study, postoperative administration of enoxaparin following meningioma resection does not increase the risk of intracranial hematoma though enoxaparin administration may slightly decrease the incidence of post-surgical thromboembolic events. Due to study design and power, we were not able to demonstrate DVT/VTE reduction with statistical significance. PMID:19430892

  5. The incidence of capital income taxes: does capital benefit from increased factor mobility?

    González-Páramo Martínez-Murillo, José Manuel

    1992-01-01

    We characterize the role of capital and labor mobility in the shifting of capital taxes in a 2x2 general-equilibrium model with partially-mobile factors. This is done by means of an intuitive decomposition of the incidence of a selective capital tax into a "specificity effect" and a "mobility effect".

  6. Increasing incidence of hypothyroidism within one year after radioiodine therapy for toxic diffuse goiter. [/sup 131/I

    Von Hofe, S.E.; Dorfman, S.G.; Carrette, R.F.; Young, R.L.

    1978-02-01

    Patients treated with 10 mCi of I-131 for toxic diffuse goiter in the period January 1974--June 1976 were evaluated for development of hypothyroidism. Fifty percent were hypothyroid within 3 months and 69 percent within 1 year of treatment. Our data suggest that there is a higher incidence of hypothyroidism after standard doses of I-131 in the 1970s as contrasted with treatment groups in the 1950s and 1960s. The pathophysiology of this increased incidence is not known with certainty; however, infrequent use of thionamide medication, together with recent increases in dietary iodine, may render the gland more radiosensitive.

  7. Real increasing incidence of hysterectomy for placenta accreta following previous caesarean section.

    Higgins, Mary F

    2013-11-01

    Placenta accreta, morbid adherence to the uterus to the myometrium, is commonest in association with placenta previa in women previously delivered by caesarean section (CS). It has become proportionally a greater cause of major maternal morbidity and mortality as the frequency of other serious obstetric complications has declined. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of placenta accreta in the context of a rising caesarean delivery rate.

  8. Decreases in dengue transmission may act to increase the incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Nagao, Yoshiro; Koelle, Katia

    2008-01-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a potentially fatal manifestation of an infection with the mosquito-borne dengue virus. Because of the social and economic costs of DHF, many countries in Asia and South America have initiated public health measures aimed at vector control. Despite these measures, DHF incidence rates do not appear to be declining. The effectiveness of vector control in reducing dengue transmissibility has thereby been questioned. Here, we revisit this conclusion using epidemi...

  9. 广东和香港地区2004-2006年输入性登革热病例流行病学分析%Epidemiological analysis of imported cases of dengue fever in Guangdong province and Hong Kong during 2004-2006 in China

    杨芬; 马绍强; 何剑峰; 麦兆娟; 梁文佳; 蔡敏欣; 罗会明

    2009-01-01

    目的 对广东和香港(粤港)地区2004-2006年报告的输入性登革热病例情况进行流行病学分析及比较.方法 通过广东省登革热疫情监测报告系统收集广东省输入性登革热的流行资料,香港的资料由香港卫生署卫生防护中心提供;对收集到的两地资料进行描述性流行病学分析.结果 2004-2006年广东省报告输入性登革热病例数44例,香港报告93例;广东省病例的输入国主要是新加坡(13例)、印度尼西亚(9例)、柬埔寨(6例),香港病例的输入国主要是印度尼西亚(31例)、菲律宾(16例)、泰国(15例);两地发病高峰期均为7-9月,非高峰期香港的病例数高于广东省;两地病例的男女性别比:广东省1.2:1,香港1.1:1;广东省病例年龄从6~80岁,大部分为20~39岁(占63.6%,28/44),职业以商业及服务业、家务及待业为主(占40.9%,18/44);香港病例年龄从10~72岁,大部分为20~39岁(占58.1%,54/93),职业以商业及服务业、工人为主(占47.3%,44/93);广东省入境前发病的病例比入境后发病多(27:17),而香港入境前发病的病例比入境后发病少(35:57);两地病例从发病到诊断的平均时间间隔分别为7 d和9 d.结论 造成粤港两地登革热输入的主要原因是旅游及商务人员在夏季与东南亚国家之间的频繁往来.%Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of imported cases of dengue fever in Guangdong province (GD) and in I-long Kong (HK) during 2004-2006 to provide evidence for further cooperation in the prevention and control programs on dengue fever in the two places.Methods Descriptive statistical analysis was performed on data obtained from dengue fever surveillance and reporting network in GD and from Centre for Health Protection,Department of Health,HK.Results Both from GD and HK 44 and 93 imported cases of Dengue fever were reported during 2004-2006.Most patients from GD acquired their infection from Singapore (13 cases

  10. Cancer incidence in children and young adults did not increase relative to parental exposure to atomic bombs.

    Izumi, S; Koyama, K; Soda, M; Suyama, A

    2003-11-01

    We have examined whether parental exposure to atomic bomb radiation has led to increased cancer risks among the offspring. We studied 40,487 subjects born from May 1946 through December 1984 who were cancer-free in January 1958. One or both parents were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombing and for childbirth. Using population-based tumor registry data we analyzed cancer incidence data from 1958 to 1997 by Cox regression models, and we examined the effects of both paternal and maternal irradiation with adjustment for city, sex, birth year, and migration. During follow-up, 575 solid tumor cases and 68 hematopoietic tumor cases were diagnosed. Median age at diagnosis was 39.7 years. Median doses were 143 millisierverts for 15,992 exposed (5+ millisierverts or unknown dose) fathers and 133 millisierverts for 10,066 exposed mothers. Cancer incidence was no higher for subjects with exposed parents than for the reference subjects (0-4 millisierverts), nor did the incidence rates increase with increasing dose. For 3568 subjects with two exposed parents, the adjusted risk ratio for all cancer was 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.70-1.36). Because of the small number of cases, however, we cannot exclude an increase in cancer incidence at this time. PMID:14583774

  11. High eggshell temperatures during incubation decrease growth performance and increase the incidence of ascites in broiler chickens

    Molenaar, R.; Hulet, R.; Meijerhof, R.; Maatjens, C.M.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2011-01-01

    High eggshell temperatures (EST; 38.9°C) during the second half of incubation are known to decrease the body and organ development of broiler hatchlings. In particular, relative heart weights are decreased by a high EST, and this may increase the incidence of metabolic disorders that are associated

  12. Increased growth and incidence of lymph node metastases due to the angiogenesis inhibitor AGM-1470.

    HORI, K.; Li, H.C.; Saito, S.; Sato, Y

    1997-01-01

    Using the rat tumour cell line LY80, a subline of Yoshida sarcoma, the effects of AGM-1470 on the growth of primary tumour and the incidence of regional lymph node metastasis were evaluated. AGM-1470 (30 mg kg(-1)) was administered subcutaneously or intravenously. Subcutaneous (s.c.) and intravenous (i.v.) injections were repeated for 8 days and 7 days respectively. Tumour growth of a primary region tended to be suppressed by AGM-1470. The s.c. tumours after sacrifice were much smaller in the...

  13. Proportionate increase in incidence of colorectal cancer at an age below 40 years: An observation

    Pal Madhumay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Colorectal cancer is particularly a disease affecting individuals above 40 years of age and 90% of cases occur in persons over the age of 50. Genetic and familial factors, viz, HNPCC and FAP, contribute to less than 20% and environmental or acquired factors are the cause of the rest. The aim of this study is to find out the relative proportion of patients Materials and Methods: Colorectal cancers registered in the calendar years of 2003 and 2004 in our institute were analyzed in this study. Data from Population Based Cancer Registry (P.B.C.R. for Bangalore, Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai for the year 1988 were taken for comparison. Results: The results show that our institute′s figures exceed the generally accepted figure for ′incidence of the disease below the age of 40 years′ by less than 10% of both the total incidence of the disease and those of P.B.C.R. for Bangalore, Mumbai and Chennai. The corresponding figure for females in Delhi P.B.C.R. shows a little similarity to our institute′s figure. Conclusion: This observation indicates a changing pattern of colorectal cancer occurrence. This change may be a regional one or may be a result of genetic or environmental changes.

  14. Early adolescent pregnancy increases risk of incident HIV infection in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: a longitudinal study

    Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Dunkle, Kristin L.; Mzikazi Nduna; Nwabisa Jama Shai; Claire Sterk

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents having unprotected heterosexual intercourse are at risk of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to indicate whether pregnancy in early adolescence increases the risk of subsequent HIV infection. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that adolescent pregnancy (aged 15 or younger) increases the risk of incident HIV infection in young South African women. Methods: We assessed 1099 HIV-negative women, aged 15–26 years, who were volunt...

  15. Shelter crowding and increased incidence of acute respiratory infection in evacuees following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and tsunami.

    Kawano, T; Tsugawa, Y; Nishiyama, K; Morita, H; Yamamura, O; Hasegawa, K

    2016-03-01

    Although outbreaks of acute respiratory infection (ARI) at shelters are hypothesized to be associated with shelter crowding, no studies have examined this relationship. We conducted a retrospective study by reviewing medical records of evacuees presenting to one of the 37 clinics at the shelters in Ishinomaki city, Japan, during the 3-week period after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and tsunami in 2011. On the basis of a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing technique, we categorized 37 shelters into crowded (mean space <5·5 m2/per person) and non-crowded (⩾5·5 m2) shelters. Outcomes of interest were the cumulative and daily incidence rate of ARI/10 000 evacuees at each shelter. We found that the crowded shelters had a higher median cumulative incidence rate of ARI [5·4/10 000 person-days, interquartile range (IQR) 0-24·6, P = 0·04] compared to the non-crowded shelters (3·5/10 000 person-days, IQR 0-8·7) using Mann-Whitney U test. Similarly, the crowded shelters had an increased daily incidence rate of ARI of 19·1/10 000 person-days (95% confidence interval 5·9-32·4, P < 0·01) compared to the non-crowded shelters using quasi-least squares method. In sum, shelter crowding was associated with an increased incidence rate of ARI after the natural disaster. PMID:26243450

  16. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated. PMID:26438396

  17. Increasing incidence of hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated bacteremia in northeast Thailand: a multicenter surveillance study.

    Maliwan Hongsuwan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections in public hospitals in developing countries. We evaluated trends in incidence of hospital-acquired bacteremia (HAB and healthcare-associated bacteremia (HCAB and associated mortality in a developing country using routinely available databases. METHODS: Information from the microbiology and hospital databases of 10 provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand was linked with the national death registry for 2004-2010. Bacteremia was considered hospital-acquired if detected after the first two days of hospital admission, and healthcare-associated if detected within two days of hospital admission with a prior inpatient episode in the preceding 30 days. RESULTS: A total of 3,424 patients out of 1,069,443 at risk developed HAB and 2,184 out of 119,286 at risk had HCAB. Of these 1,559 (45.5% and 913 (41.8% died within 30 days, respectively. Between 2004 and 2010, the incidence rate of HAB increased from 0.6 to 0.8 per 1,000 patient-days at risk (p<0.001, and the cumulative incidence of HCAB increased from 1.2 to 2.0 per 100 readmissions (p<0.001. The most common causes of HAB were Acinetobacter spp. (16.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.9%, and Staphylococcus aureus (13.9%, while those of HCAB were Escherichia coli (26.3%, S. aureus (14.0%, and K. pneumoniae (9.7%. There was an overall increase over time in the proportions of ESBL-producing E. coli causing HAB and HCAB. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a high and increasing incidence of HAB and HCAB in provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand, increasing proportions of ESBL-producing isolates, and very high associated mortality.

  18. An increased incidence of overt hypothyroidism after iodine fortification of salt in Denmark: A prospective population study

    Pedersen, Inge Bulow; Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils;

    2007-01-01

    Context: Iodine fortification (IF) of salt was introduced in Denmark in 1998. Little is known about the effect of a minor increase in iodine intake on the incidence of hypothyroidism. We prospectively identified all new cases of overt hypothyroidism in two areas of Denmark before and for the first...... 7 yr after IF had been introduced. Methods: A computer- based register was used to identify continuously all new cases of overt hypothyroidism in two subcohorts with previous moderate and mild iodine deficiency (ID), respectively (Aalborg, n = 310,124, urinary iodine = 45 mu g/liter; and Copenhagen......, n = 225,707, urinary iodine = 61 mu g/liter). Data were obtained 1) before IF (1997-1998), 2) during voluntary IF (1999-2000), 3) during early (2001-2002) and 4) during late (2003-2005) period with mandatory IF. Results: The overall incidence rate of hypothyroidism increased during the study period...

  19. Increased Incidence of Loco-Regional Recurrences Among African American Women with Terminal Stage Breast Cancer

    Gerardo Colón-Otero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR. Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses for LRR presence via chest wall examination. 80% of them (107 were Caucasian, 17% (23 were AA and 3% (4 were of other ethnicities. Evidence of LRR were noted in 13% of the women (17/134. The pro- portion of patients with LRR was higher in AA women than Caucasian women (26% vs. 10%, 6/23 vs. 11/107, respectively, although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08. The majority of Caucasian women with LRR consented to a medical record review, but a minority of AA women consented (8/11 vs. 2/6, respectively, p = 0.16.Conclusion: Evaluating disparities in breast cancer care outcomes is possible by reviewing data from patients served by hospice programs that aid a majority of patients within a community. This pilot data suggests that AA women with breast cancer have a higher incidence of loco-regional failure as a component of their terminal breast cancer disease than Caucasian women. A smaller proportion of AA patients and families agreed to participate in a medical record review study than Caucasians. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings, to elucidate factors contributing to disparities and to develop potential solutions.

  20. Early adolescent pregnancy increases risk of incident HIV infection in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: a longitudinal study

    Nicola J Christofides

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents having unprotected heterosexual intercourse are at risk of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to indicate whether pregnancy in early adolescence increases the risk of subsequent HIV infection. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that adolescent pregnancy (aged 15 or younger increases the risk of incident HIV infection in young South African women. Methods: We assessed 1099 HIV-negative women, aged 15–26 years, who were volunteer participants in a cluster-randomized, controlled HIV prevention trial in the predominantly rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. All of these young women had at least one additional HIV test over two years of follow-up. Outcomes were HIV incidence rates per 100 person years and HIV incidence rate ratios (IRRs estimated by Poisson multivariate models. Three pregnancy categories were created for the Poisson model: early adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 15 years or younger; later adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 16 to 19 years; and women who did not report an adolescent pregnancy. Models were adjusted for study design, age, education, time since first sexual experience, socio-economic status, childhood trauma and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Results: HIV incidence rates were 6.0 per 100 person years over two years of follow-up. The adjusted IRR was 3.02 (95% CI 1.50–6.09 for a pregnancy occurring at age 15 or younger. Women with pregnancies occurring between 16 and 19 years of age did not have a higher incidence of HIV (IRR 1.08; 95% CI 0.64–1.84. Early adolescent pregnancies were associated with higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners. Conclusions: Early adolescent pregnancies increase the incidence of HIV among South African women. The higher risk is associated with sexual risk behaviours such as higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners rather than a

  1. Linfogranuloma venério: aumento na incidência sugere surto mundial da doença Lymphogranuloma venereum: increased incidence suggests diseases world outbreak

    Bruno de Lucia Hernani

    2007-06-01

    , this disease has been notified by other European countries, North America and Australia. This increased incidence seems like an outbreak and common features in these reports were: MSM, Caucasian race / ethnicity, mean age above 35 years, predominantly (>70% co-infected with HIV. Complaints included anorectal pain, tenesmus and constipation. After these reports, many countries started doing active research in their people. The lack of a specific diagnostic test has complicated LGV case ascertainment. In the absence of laboratory confirmation of L serovars, patients with symptoms suggestive of LGV should be presumptively treated with antibacterial therapy for 3 weeks. If routine LGV serovar typing is unavailable, most authors proposed administration of syndromic LGV treatment for MSM with anorectal chlamydia and either proctitis detected by proctoscopic examination, more than 10 white blood cells/high-power field detected on an anorectal smear specimen, or HIV seropositivity. We believed the incidence of LGV is also increasing in Brazil, and new cases are not being diagnosed because the ignorance about this world outbreak. We suggest that anal ulcer or proctitis in anal sex practitioners must have a high suspicious of LGV infection.

  2. Increased incidence of glucose disorders during pregnancy is not explained by pre-pregnancy obesity in London, Canada

    Campbell M Karen; Davenport Margie H; Mottola Michelle F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing incidence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), gestational diabetes (GDM) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) during pregnancy was hypothesized to be associated with increases in pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). The aims were to 1) determine the prevalence of IGT/GDM/T2 D over a 10 year period; 2) examine the relationship between maternal overweight/obesity and IGT/GDM/T2D; and 3) examine the extent to which maternal metabolic complications impact maternal and fet...

  3. Unchanged incidence and increased survival in children with neuroblastoma in Denmark 1981-2000: a population-based study

    Schroeder, H.; Wacher, J.; Larsson, H.; Rosthoej, S.; Rechnitzer, C.; Petersen, B.L.; Carlsen, N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment results for neuroblastoma in Denmark have been poorer than in other Nordic countries, so we investigated whether a change in incidence, stage distribution and survival had occurred between 1981 and 2000. Clinical data were retrieved from the medical charts of 160 children <15 years of a...... survival was also seen in children with metastatic disease. Participation in international studies, better supportive care and possibly postoperative autologous stem cell transplantation may have contributed to the increased survival Udgivelsesdato: 2009/3/10......Treatment results for neuroblastoma in Denmark have been poorer than in other Nordic countries, so we investigated whether a change in incidence, stage distribution and survival had occurred between 1981 and 2000. Clinical data were retrieved from the medical charts of 160 children <15 years of age...

  4. Increased incidence of postoperative infections during prophylaxis with cephalothin compared to doxycycline in intestinal surgery

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Nilsen, Roy M; Svensen, Rune;

    2009-01-01

    controls. The registration included time periods when the regimen was changed from doxycycline to cephalothin and back again. RESULTS: The SSI in the colorectal department increased from 19% to 30% (p=0.002) when doxycycline was substituted with cephalothin and decreased to 17% when we changed back...... to doxycycline (p=0.005). In the gynaecology department the surgical site infection rate did not increase significantly. Subgroup analysis showed major changes in infections in rectal resections from 20% to 35% (p=0.02) and back to 12% (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Doxycycline combined with metronidazole...

  5. Does Religion Increase the Prevalence and Incidence of Obesity in Adulthood?

    CLINE, KRISTA M. C.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research reveals that religion in America is related to variations in body weight. This article examines the relationships between religion and both body mass index (BMI) and obesity, which have increased in prevalence in the United States over the past two decades. Using longitudinal data from a national sample of adults, this study prospectively examines whether dimensions of religious life are associated with weight gain and the development of obesity during eight years of follow-...

  6. Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in Sweden 2000–2003, increasing incidence and regional differences

    Olsson-Liljequist Barbro

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has gradually become more frequent in most countries of the world. Sweden has remained one of few exceptions to the high occurrence of MRSA in many other countries. During the late 1990s, Sweden experienced a large health-care associated outbreak which with resolute efforts was overcome. Subsequently, MRSA was made a notifiable diagnosis in Sweden in 2000. Methods From the start of being a notifiable disease in January 2000, the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI initiated an active surveillance of MRSA. Results The number of reported MRSA-cases in Sweden increased from 325 cases in 2000 to 544 in 2003, corresponding to an overall increase in incidence from 3.7 to 6.1 per 100000 inhabitants. Twenty five per cent of the cases were infected abroad. The domestic cases were predominantly found through cultures taken on clinical indication and the cases infected abroad through screening. There were considerable regional differences in MRSA-incidence and age-distribution of cases. Conclusion The MRSA incidence in Sweden increased over the years 2000–2003. Sweden now poises on the rim of the same development that was seen in the United Kingdom some ten years ago. A quarter of the cases were infected abroad, reflecting that international transmission is now increasingly important in a low-endemic setting. To remain in this favourable situation, stepped up measures will be needed, to identify imported cases, to control domestic outbreaks and to prevent transmission within the health-care sector.

  7. Increased incidence of glucose disorders during pregnancy is not explained by pre-pregnancy obesity in London, Canada

    Campbell M Karen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing incidence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, gestational diabetes (GDM and type 2 diabetes (T2D during pregnancy was hypothesized to be associated with increases in pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI. The aims were to 1 determine the prevalence of IGT/GDM/T2 D over a 10 year period; 2 examine the relationship between maternal overweight/obesity and IGT/GDM/T2D; and 3 examine the extent to which maternal metabolic complications impact maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes. Methods Data arose from a perinatal database which contains maternal characteristics and perinatal outcome for all singleton infants born in London, Canada between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009. Univariable and multivariable odds ratios (OR were estimated using logistic regression with IGT/GDM/T2 D being the outcome of interest. Results A total of 36,597 women were included in the analyses. Population incidence of IGT, GDM and T2 D rose from 0.7%, 2.9% and 0.5% in 2000 to 1.2%, 4.2% and 0.9% in 2009. The univariable OR for IGT, GDM and T2 D were 1.65, 1.52 and 2.06, respectively, over the ten year period. After controlling for maternal age, parity and pre-pregnancy BMI the OR did not decrease. Although there was a positive relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and prevalence of IGT/GDM/T2 D, this did not explain the time trends in the latter. Diagnosis of IGT/GDM/T2 D increased the risk of having an Apgar score Conclusions We found a significant increase in the incidence of IGT/GDM/T2 D for the decade between 2000-2009 which was not explained by rising prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity.

  8. Schizophrenia among ethnic minorities: Social and cultural explanations for the increased incidence of schizophrenia among first- and second-generation immigrants in the Netherlands

    Veling, Willem Anne

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe incidence of schizophrenia is high among several immigrant groups in Western Europe, but the explanation for this finding is unknown. The research presented in this thesis shows that the incidence of schizophrenia in the Netherlands is increased among first- and second-generation immigrants from Morocco, Surinam and other non-Western countries, and that this increase is strongly influenced by the social and cultural context in which immigrants live. The incidence varied among ...

  9. Increased caries-incidence by oral inoculation of cariogenic bacteria in rats after dietary fluoride

    Clark, W.B.; Kreitzman, S.N.; Howell, T.H.

    1976-04-01

    The authors had previously observed that dietary NaF administered to rats during the formative and eruptive stages of tooth development does not significantly reduce the enamel solubility in acid buffer solution. They hypothesized that NaF reduces the cariogenicity of the bacterial flora. In order to test this hypothesis, rats from the same litter were divided into three groups all of which received a cariogenic diet. Group one received no fluoride. Groups two and three were supplemented with 50 ppm NaF, from day 1 to day 21. In the first study, one of the 21-day-old NaF-supplemented groups was inoculated by smears of fecal material from the control animals that did not receive NaF supplement. The second NaF group was not inoculated and served as control. In a second study, cariogenic Strep. mutans 6715 was used as the inoculum in place of the fecal smear. In both studies, the inoculation of a NaF group increased the caries to about 70% of the control group, while the mean scores on the non-inoculated NaF group were about 50% of the control group. These results indicate that alteration of the transmissible flora may be an important factor in the cariostatic action of dietary fluoride in experimental animals. This observation supports the suggestion that fluoride may alter the cariogenic flora.

  10. An increasing incidence of VDRL serononreactors in an eldery, T. pallidum infected population.

    Muić, V; Ljubicić, M; Vodopija, I

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the proportion of VDRL nonreactors among the people who had come into contact with Treponema pallidum in the course of their lifetime were assessed within the frame of the Diagnostic Proficiency Program covering serologic laboratories for the detection of syphilis in Croatia. Based on the analysis of the CNIPH serologic laboratory records the paper shows a clear increase in the above share over the past 22 years. Data on 491 infected persons (those reactive to the reference TPHA test), mean age 52.87 years, were analyzed. During 22 years of observation (1976-1998), this proportion rose from 21.92% (1976-1979) through 51.79% (1980-1989) to 64.86% (1990-1998). At the same time, this tendency reveals a considerable decrease in the number of infected persons exhibiting VDRL reaction (i.e. with potentially active late syphilis), which could be ascribed to the ever more effective detection of the infected and to their ever earlier and more efficient treatment. PMID:10437273

  11. [Increased incidence of multiple melanoma in sporadic and familial dysplastic nevus cell syndrome].

    Sigg, C; Pelloni, F; Schnyder, U W

    1989-09-01

    In 280 melanoma patients all data concerning familial and personal history, histology, and therapy were verified. All patients underwent total-body skin examination to check for the presence of dysplastic nevus syndrome (DNS). In 257/280 patients (91.8%) solitary melanomas were found, while in 23/280 patients (8.2%) multiple melanomas occurring simultaneously or consecutively were ascertained. Surprisingly, among the 12/280 patients (4.2%) with familial variants of melanoma, multiple melanomas were not found in a increased frequency. In patients with DNS (regardless of whether sporadic or familial) the frequency of multiple melanomas is higher: in patients with solitary melanomas DNS was found in 27/257 (10.5%), while in patients with multiple melanomas DNS was diagnosed in 11/23 (47.8%) (P less than 0.0005). In both groups (solitary and multiple melanomas) the mean age of patients with DNS was around 10 years lower. The frequency of additional primary malignancies in patients with cutaneous melanomas was 8.6%, and did not vary according as whether patients had solitary or multiple melanomas with or without DNS. PMID:2807914

  12. Increasing incidence but decreasing in-hospital mortality of adult Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia between 1981 and 2000

    Benfield, Thomas; Espersen, F; Frimodt-Møller, N;

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacteraemia. This study analysed temporal trends from 18,702 adult cases of S. aureus bacteraemia in Denmark between 1981 and 2000. After stratification for mode of acquisition, 57% of cases were hospital-acquired (HA), 28% were community-acquired (CA...... associated with S. aureus bacteraemia declined significantly between 1981 and 2000, but incidence rates doubled, so that the total number of deaths increased. These data emphasise the public health importance of S. aureus bacteraemia and the need for further preventive measures and improved care in order...

  13. Potential association between the recent increase in campylobacteriosis incidence in the Netherlands and proton-pump inhibitor use : an ecological study

    Bouwknegt, M.; van Pelt, W.; Kubbinga, M. E.; Weda, M.; Havelaar, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands saw an unexplained increase in campylobacteriosis incidence between 2003 and 2011, following a period of continuous decrease. We conducted an ecological study and found a statistical association between campylobacteriosis incidence and the annual number of prescriptions for proton pu

  14. Increase in incidence of hyperthyroidism predominantly occurs in young people after iodine fortification of salt in Denmark

    Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils;

    2006-01-01

    Context: To prevent goiter and nodular hyperthyroidism, iodine fortification ( IF) of salt was introduced in Denmark in 1998. We prospectively registered all new cases of overt hyperthyroidism in two areas of Denmark before and for the first 6 yr after iodine fortification. Methods: We used a...... computer-based register of all new cases of hyperthyroidism in two population subcohorts with moderate iodine deficiency ( Aalborg, n = 310,124) and mild iodine deficiency ( Copenhagen, n = 225,707), respectively. Data were obtained 1) before IF ( 1997 - 1998); 2) during voluntary IF ( 1999 - 2000); 3......) during the early ( 2001 - 2002) period of mandatory IF; and 4) during the late ( 2003 2004) period with mandatory IF. Results: The overall incidence rate of hyperthyroidism increased [ baseline, 102.8/100,000/year; voluntary IF, 122.8; early mandatory IF, 140.7; late mandatory IF, 138.7 ( P for trend <0...

  15. Increasing incidence of early onset type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: a study of Danish male birth cohorts

    Green, A; Andersen, P K; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen;

    1992-01-01

    To provide information of the incidence trends of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus we performed a cohort study of a series of Danish male birth cohorts. All male livebirths in Denmark between 1 January 1949 and 31 December 1964, were investigated regarding the development of Type 1...... 1705 diabetic subjects were identified of whom 23 were not representative of idiopathic Type 1 diabetes. The cumulative rate of Type 1 diabetes development during the first 20 years of life increased from 2.37 to 2.90 per 1000 for the first eight and last eight birth cohorts, respectively. A log...... diabetes during the first 20 years of life using the files of the Danish Conscript Board, supplemented by a search in the Danish National Registry of Deaths. Diagnosis was verified and clinical information obtained from medical records. The material is estimated to be more than 95% complete. A total of...

  16. The Incidence of Senile Cataract and Glaucoma is Increased in Patients with Plasma Cell Dyscrasias: Etiologic Implications.

    Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Tuuminen, Raimo; Hemminki, Otto; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Li, Xinjun

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cell dyscrasias, including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), multiple myeloma (MM), Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) and light chain AL amyloidosis, are characterized by clonal expansion of plasma cells which produce a vast amount of an immunoglobulin-derived M-protein. We noted that MGUS diagnosis often coincided with diagnoses of senile cataract and glaucoma and tested the associations of MGUS, MM, WM and AL amyloidosis with subsequent eye diseases identified from the Swedish patient registers between 1997 and 2012. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for senile cataract was significantly increased to 1.80 after MGUS, 1.70 after MM, 1.85 after WM and 2.31 after AL amyloidosis. The SIR for glaucoma was 1.60 after MGUS, 1.76 after WM and 2.18 after AL amyloidosis. All SIRs decreased systematically from age below 60 years to over 79 years, but most risks were also significant in age group over 79 years. The M-protein and the related increase in blood viscosity could be a novel etiologic discovery for these common eye diseases. As MGUS prevalence is around 3% at 60 years and close to 10% at age over 80 years, its contribution to the eye disease burden is expected to be remarkably high. PMID:27328652

  17. Increased incidence of penile cancer and high-grade penile intraepithelial neoplasia in Denmark 1978-2008

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Munk, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    To assess the trends in incidence of penile cancer during 1978-2008 and high-grade penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN2/3) during 1998-2008 in Denmark.......To assess the trends in incidence of penile cancer during 1978-2008 and high-grade penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN2/3) during 1998-2008 in Denmark....

  18. Follow-up on the problem of increased incidence of thyroid carcinoma from the effects of childhood irradiation

    There has been widespread concern in both the medical and lay community on how to deal with the problem of the increased incidence of thyroid cancer in patients irradiated in the head and neck during childhood, including the difficult question of whether all of these patients should be recalled and screened. Such an approach is not deemed logistically feasible and the desired benefits of the program which hinge on treatment through early detection are nullified by the protracted nature of the disease. The iatrogenic nature of the problem has raised ethical questions concerning professional duty and responsibility. The principle of similar treatment for similar cases seems fairest and most justifiable in pursuit of the goal of equal access to health care. The most effective plan appears to be a carefully devised public education campaign. Informing practicing physicians not already aware of the problem should be an important part of this effort. The responsibility for seeking treatment would be left to the patient who would see his personal physician or be recommended to a previously designated physician in his area

  19. SERDP ER-1376 Enhancement of In Situ Bioremediation of Energetic Compounds by Coupled Abiotic/Biotic Processes:Final Report for 2004 - 2006

    Szecsody, James E.; Comfort, Steve; Fredrickson, Herbert L.; Boparai, Hardiljeet K.; Devary, Brooks J.; Thompson, Karen T.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Crocker, Fiona H.; Girvin, Donald C.; Resch, Charles T.; Shea, Patrick; Fischer, Ashley E.; Durkin, Lisa M.

    2007-08-07

    This project was initiated by SERDP to quantify processes and determine the effectiveness of abiotic/biotic mineralization of energetics (RDX, HMX, TNT) in aquifer sediments by combinations of biostimulation (carbon, trace nutrient additions) and chemical reduction of sediment to create a reducing environment. Initially it was hypothesized that a balance of chemical reduction of sediment and biostimulation would increase the RDX, HMX, and TNT mineralization rate significantly (by a combination of abiotic and biotic processes) so that this abiotic/biotic treatment may be a more efficient for remediation than biotic treatment alone in some cases. Because both abiotic and biotic processes are involved in energetic mineralization in sediments, it was further hypothesized that consideration for both abiotic reduction and microbial growth was need to optimize the sediment system for the most rapid mineralization rate. Results show that there are separate optimal abiotic/biostimulation aquifer sediment treatments for RDX/HMX and for TNT. Optimal sediment treatment for RDX and HMX (which have chemical similarities and similar degradation pathways) is mainly chemical reduction of sediment, which increased the RDX/HMX mineralization rate 100 to150 times (relative to untreated sediment), with additional carbon or trace nutrient addition, which increased the RDX/HMX mineralization rate an additional 3 to 4 times. In contrast, the optimal aquifer sediment treatment for TNT involves mainly biostimulation (glucose addition), which stimulates a TNT/glucose cometabolic degradation pathway (6.8 times more rapid than untreated sediment), degrading TNT to amino-intermediates that irreversibly sorb (i.e., end product is not CO2). The TNT mass migration risk is minimized by these transformation reactions, as the triaminotoluene and 2,4- and 2,6-diaminonitrotoluene products that irreversibly sorb are no longer mobile in the subsurface environment. These transformation rates are increased

  20. Aumento da incidência de carcinoma basocelular em hospital universitário: 1999 a 2009 Increase in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma in a university hospital between 1999 and 2009

    Juliano Vilaverde Schmitt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A incidência do carcinoma basocelular vem aumentando em todos os países. Realizou-se estudo ecológico de 5169 laudos de carcinoma basocelular, da FMB-Unesp, entre janeiro/1999 e dezembro/2009. O incremento médio da incidência para o período foi de 90,6%, projetando-se um diagnóstico para cada 15 pacientes encaminhados à dermatologia. Tal tendência se manteve, mesmo quando indexada pelo número de laudos histopatológicos, movimento hospitalar, atendimentos da dermatologia e população de Botucatu.The incidence of basal cell carcinoma is increasing worldwide. An ecological study was conducted using the pathology reports from 5169 cases of basal cell carcinoma diagnosed at the Botucatu School of Medicine, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP between January 1999 and December 2009. The mean increase in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma over this period was 90.6%, suggesting that one case of basal cell carcinoma could be expected for every 15 patients referred to dermatology. This trend was also found when the incidence was indexed according to the absolute number of histopathology exams, the total number of hospital consultations, the total number of dermatological consultations and the population of the town of Botucatu

  1. Analysis of the behavior and characteristics of thyroid lesions identified by biopsy fine needle aspiration and gammagraphic diagnosis: Hospital Calderon Guardia: period 2004-2006

    Thyroid lesions have meant one of the most important pathological entities in the Costa Rican population for many years, which have been increased by new diagnostic examinations and early detection and timely thanks to the preventive medicine that is exerted on the security of the country. After the nuclear accident Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union for several decades ago has shown an increase in neoplastic lesions as well as was appreciated after the implementation of the first atomic bomb in World War II, this behavior is the interest to see how thyroid pathology develops in the environment and what have been the Costa Rican experiences in correlation with the expected time to the global statistics. The behavior pattern observed of the lessons of the thyroid gland and based on clinical findings and in some cases together with scintigraphy have allowed to study the development seen through the ultrasound and cytopathological result. The behavior of the patients was similar to global statistics, being most frequent the benign lesions than malignant, and the scintigraphy correlation with lesions were found to be cold was significant for determination of malignant or suspicious for malignancy. Some of these lesions that were suspicious for malignancy scintigraphy and ultrasound were benign have been found to fall within the expected rate for this type of injury. The study consisted of sampling in 2023 noted that the prevalence was 9:1 in women compared with men, which agrees as thyroid diseases are more common in women than in men as well as the expected results in malignant lesions that remained the same behavior. As expected in the age ranges of suffering from thyroid lesions remained between the fifth and sixth decade of life, which has allowed to observe the frequency of different benign and malignant lesions that occurred during this study in the decades and periods covered. While before the study of thyroid lesions was occupied by scintigraphy and

  2. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Golaleh Asghari

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6-18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef, and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02-8.63; P for trend<0.001, 2.82 (95% CI: 1.01-7.87; P for trend = 0.037, and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01-6.61; P for trend = 0.009 for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents.

  3. Increasing Incidence of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease in Allogeneic Transplantation – A Report from CIBMTR

    Arai, Sally; Arora, Mukta; Wang, Tao; Spellman, Stephen R.; He, Wensheng; Couriel, Daniel R.; Urbano-Ispizua, Alvaro; Cutler, Corey S.; Bacigalupo, Andrea A.; Battiwalla, Minoo; Flowers, Mary E.; Juckett, Mark B.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Loren, Alison W.; Klumpp, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Although transplant practices have changed over the last decades there is no information on trends in incidence and outcome of cGVHD over time. This study utilized the central database of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) to describe the time trends for cGVHD incidence, non-relapse mortality, and the risk factors for cGVHD. The 12-year period was divided into three intervals: 1995-1999, 2000-2003, 2004-2007, and included 26,563 patients with acute leuk...

  4. WISE 2005-2006: 60-days of Head-Down Bed Rest Increases the Incidence of Menstrual Cycle Disruption

    Wade, Charles

    Objective: It has been suggested that acute bed rest of short duration (11 days) disrupts the menstrual cycle of healthy subjects. Furthermore, use of countermeasures such as heavy exercise or dietary manipulations may adversely effect the menstrual cycle. We hypothesized that bed rest of 60 days and the use of countermeasures would increase the incidence of disruption of the menstrual cycle (MC). Methods: Twenty-four healthy subjects with a mean age of 32±0.8 yr, body mass of 59±0.8 kg and MC lengths of 25-32 days were enrolled. Three months prior to the study subjects did not use hormonal birth control methods. Subjects were assigned to one of three groups (n=8 per group): control, exercise countermeasures, and dietary countermeasures. MC lengthening was defined as an increase in duration of 10 or more days. Analysis was performed accounting for the effects of bedrest as well as treatment group. Results: Effects of countermeasures were not significant in the present analysis. After the conclusion of the study, subjects were classified as either normal (N; n=16) or oligomenorrhea (O; n=8) as determined by MC length during the pre-bed rest (PB) and bed rest (BR) periods. During the control period prior to bed rest one subject (4%) had an increase MC length. During the control period the average MC length was 31±0.8 days with a leutinizing hormone (LH) surge 12±0.8 days prior to menses. The duration of menses was 4±0.4 days. During BR there was an increase to 33% (p¡0.05) in the number of subjects having MC lengthening. In these subjects the mean length was increased from 31±0.9 to 62±8.2 days (p¡0.05). There was no change in the period from the LH surge prior to the next menses, 11±0.8 days, or duration of menses, 4±0.2 days. Plasma LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolacin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), aldosterone (Aldo), testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were measured during PB, BR, early

  5. 2004-2006 activity report of Dapnia

    This document presents the research programs of the Department of Astrophysics, Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and the related Instrumentation (Dapnia) of the French atomic energy commission (CEA). These programs deal with: 1 -the ultimate constituents of matter (standard model, physics at the LHC, neutrinos, hadrons structure); 2 - the energy content of Universe (dark matter, dark energy, antimatter and CP violation); 3 - the Universe's structuration (cosmology and structures formation in the Universe, formation and evolution of galaxies); 4 - structure and evolution of stars (formation of stars and planets, stellar and laboratory plasmas, compact objects, cosmic ray sources); 5 - nuclear matter in its extreme states (quarks and gluons plasma, exotic nuclei); 6 - innovation for detection systems (development of detectors, signal processing and real-time systems, intensive calculation and simulation); 7 - magnets and accelerators (particle accelerators, superconducting magnets, test facilities, new developments for magnets and accelerators instrumentation); 8 - physics for nuclear energy (nuclear data and modeling, fusion research technology); 9 - Dapnia's expertise for the society (physics and health, dismantling and aid to the design of nuclear facilities, light sources, environment). A list of publications completes the document. (J.S.)

  6. Microbiology of Olkiluoto Groundwater 2004 - 2006

    The microbiology of shallow and deep groundwater in Olkiluoto, Finland, was analysed for almost three years from 2004 to 2006. The extensive sampling and analysis programme produced a substantial database, including 60 analytical datasets on the microbiology of Olkiluoto groundwater, which is described and interpreted here. One part of this database comprises 39 complete analytical datasets on microbiology, chemistry, and dissolved gas composition assembled on four sampling campaigns from measurements from 16 shallow observation tubes and boreholes ranging in depth from 3.5 to 24.5 m. The second part of the database contains 21 datasets on microbiology and chemistry covering 13 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 35 to 450 m. In addition, the database contains 33 completed analyses of gas covering 14 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 40 to 742 m. Most of these analyses were completed before the onset of ONKALO construction, and the remaining samples were collected before ONKALO construction had extended below a depth of 100 m; therefore, this dataset captures the undisturbed conditions before the building of ONKALO. Shallow groundwater in Olkiluoto contained dissolved oxygen at approximately 10% or less of saturation. The presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, including methane-oxidizing bacteria, has been documented. The data confirm earlier suggested processes of oxygen reduction in the shallow part of the bedrock. These microbial processes reduce intruding oxygen in the shallow groundwater using dissolved organic carbon and methane as the main electron donors. Microbiological and geochemical data strongly suggest that the anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane (ANME) is active at a depth down to approximately 300 m in Olkiluoto, as has been suggested previously, based on interpretations of geochemical data. However, proof of the presence and activity of ANME microorganisms is needed before the existence of active ANME processes in Olkiluoto groundwater can be accepted. It appears as though ANME is limited to the 0-300 m depth interval due to a lack of sulphate at depths below 300 m. This implies that the rate of sulphide production by ANME processes at depths of 300 m and above is limited by the rate of methane transport from deeper layers. The construction of ONKALO will probably influence the ANME processes. These processes may, therefore, need detailed modelling when there are applicable data regarding how the ANME processes react to the construction of ONKALO. Future sampling and analysis will reveal whether ONKALO construction has influenced biogeochemical conditions in the surrounding groundwater. If such an influence is found, it will, hopefully, be possible to model the underlying reasons for this influence and to predict its continuation, based on the obtained data. (orig.)

  7. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6-18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02-8.63; P for trendobesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents. PMID:26447855

  8. Rising incidence of Enterococcus species in microbiological specimens from orthopedic patients correlates to increased use of cefuroxime

    Siesing, Peter Christian; Alva-Jørgensen, Jens Peter; Brodersen, Jakob; Arpi, Magnus; Jensen, Poul Einar

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are emerging causes of severe infections, including wound and bone infections in orthopedic patients. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the incidence of enterococci in tissue samples (biopsies) from orthopedic patients and...... consumption of cefuroxime in the orthopedic department....

  9. Increased pelvic incidence may lead to arthritis and sagittal orientation of the facet joints at the lower lumbar spine

    Jentzsch, Thorsten; Geiger, James; Bouaicha, Samy; Slankamenac, Ksenija; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan; Werner, Clément M. L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Correct sagittal alignment with a balanced pelvis and spine is crucial in the management of spinal disorders. The pelvic incidence (PI) describes the sagittal pelvic alignment and is position-independent. It has barely been investigated on CT scans. Furthermore, no studies have focused on the association between PI and facet joint (FJ) arthritis and orientation. Therefore, our goal was to clarify the remaining issues about PI in regard to (1) physiologic values, (2) age, (3) gende...

  10. The incidence of bilateral cryptorchidism is increased and the fertility potential is reduced in sons born to mothers who have smoked during pregnancy

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Cortes, D; Petersen, B L

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of cryptorchidism, decreasing semen quality and increasing incidence of testicular cancer. These changes seem to be interrelated, and may be symptoms of a common underlying entity with foundations in fetal life. We investigated the influence of...

  11. Pretreatments, conditioned medium and co-culture increase the incidence of somatic embryogenesis of different Cichorium species

    Couillerot, Jean-Paul; Windels, David; Vazquez, Franck; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Blervacq, Anne-Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) in Cichorium involves dedifferentiation and redifferentiation of single cells and can be induced by specific in vitro culture conditions. We have tested the effect of various treatments on the incidence of SE (ISE) of an interspecific embryogenic hybrid (C. endivia x C. intybus) and of different commercial chicories (C. endivia and C. intybus) that are typically recalcitrant to SE in standard culture conditions. We found that the ISE of the hybrid is significantly i...

  12. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; MIRMIRAN, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6–18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was ca...

  13. Avoidance of nitrous oxide and increased isoflurane during alfentanil based anesthesia decreases the incidence of postoperative nausea.

    Bloomfield, E.; Porembka, D.; Grimes-Rice, M.

    1997-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting have been associated with the use of nitrous oxide. Alfentanil, when combined with nitrous oxide, also results in a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. To further define this emesis-potentiating effect of N2O, 119 patients were chosen for study and divided into two groups: group A (n = 59) was administered a mixture of alfentanil, N2O, and O2 with 0.25% isoflurane, group B (n = 60) was administered a mixture of oxygen, room air, isofluorane, ...

  14. Increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infections: results from a 5-year retrospective study in a large teaching hospital in the Italian region with the oldest population.

    Alicino, C; Giacobbe, D R; Durando, P; Bellina, D; DI Bella, A M; Paganino, C; Del Bono, V; Viscoli, C; Icardi, G; Orsi, A

    2016-09-01

    Limited information is available on the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in Italian hospitals. In this study, we assessed the changes in the incidence of CDI over a 5-year period in a teaching hospital in Liguria, the Italian region with the oldest population. Secondary endpoints were the development of severe CDI and 30-day mortality. The annual incidence of CDI/10000 patient-days significantly increased from 0·54 in 2010 to 3·04 in 2014 (χ 2 for trend, P < 0·001). The median age of patients with CDI was 81 years. As many as 81% and 89% of these patients had comorbid conditions and previous exposure to antibiotics, respectively. In the multivariate analysis of risk factors for severe CDI, previous therapy with histamine 2 blockers and low serum albumin were associated with severe CDI, while diabetes appeared to be protective. In the multivariate model of risk factors for 30-day mortality, high leukocyte count, low serum albumin, and increased serum creatinine were unfavourably associated with outcome. Strict adherence to infection control measures was of utmost importance to counteract the increasing incidence of CDI in our hospital, particularly because of the advanced age of the patients and their very high frequency of chronic conditions and use of antibiotics, which readily predispose them to the development of CDI. PMID:27193828

  15. Increasing prevalence despite decreasing incidence of ischaemic heart disease and myocardial infarction. A national register based perspective in Denmark, 1980-2009

    Koch, M. B.; Davidsen, M.; Andersen, Lisbeth V.; Juel, K.; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2015-01-01

    these changes on the prevalence of IHD is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in incidence and prevalence in 2000-2009 are presented, using nationwide data from public registers. An incident case is defined as a subject registered with a diagnosis of IHD/AMI and without a prior diagnosis for the...... past 20 years (beginning in 1980). A prevalent case is defined as a subject surviving the first year after the incident diagnosis. Regarding IHD, age-standardised incidence rates declined significantly from 2000 to 2009 for both sexes (females 445 to 340/100,000, males 822 to 678/100,000), reflecting a...... reduction in the annual number of new cases from 19.345 to 16.757. In contrast, prevalence rates increased slightly (females 2389 to 2616/100,000, males 5447 to 5579/100,000). Due to an increased proportion of elderly in the population, the number of prevalent cases increased from 125,000 in 2000 to 150...

  16. Increasing Incidence in Relapsing-Remitting MS and High Rates among Young Women in Finland: A Thirty-Year Follow-Up

    Marja-Liisa Sumelahti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Object. Gender and disease course specific incidences were studied in high- and medium-risk regions of MS in Finland. Methods. Age- and gender-specific incidences with 95% CIs were calculated in 10-year periods from 1981 to 2010. Poser diagnostic criteria were used and compared with the McDonald criteria from 2001 to 2010. Association between age and diagnostic delay over time was assessed by using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results. 1419 (89% RRMS and 198 (11% PPMS cases were included. RRMS incidence increased with the female to male ratio (F/M from 4,2/105 (F/M 1.9 to 9,7 (2.3, while that of PPMS decreased from 1,2 (1.6 to 0,7 (1.2. The use of McDonald criteria did not change the conclusion. The decreasing diagnostic delay and age at diagnosis in RRMS were associated within the 10-year periods and contrasted those in PPMS. Increasing female risk in RRMS was observed in the high-risk region. Conclusion. Increasing RRMS incidence and high female ratios shown in each age group indicate gender-specific influences acting already from childhood. A more precise definition of the risk factors and their action in MS is needed to provide a better understanding of underlying pathological processes and a rationale for the development of new preventive and treatment strategies.

  17. Treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in Denmark in a ten-year period (1996-2005): Is the incidence increasing?

    Slidsborg, C.; Olesen, H.B.; Jensen, Peter Koch;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to analyze the population incidence of retinopathy of prematurity treatment in Denmark in the 10-year period from 1996 to 2005. METHODS. Patient charts of infants treated for retinopathy of prematurity and the national birth registry provide information...... about neonatal parameters. These parameters, along with birth in the latter half of the period (2001-2005), were analyzed as risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity. The national registry for blind and visually impaired children was accessed to obtain information about visual impairment attributable...... to retinopathy of prematurity in both treated and untreated infants. RESULTS. The study population consisted of 5467 Danish preterm infants born in 1996 to 2005, with a gestational age of <32 weeks, who survived for >= 5 postnatal weeks; 2616 were born in 1996 to 2000, and 2851 were born in 2001 to...

  18. Increased incidence rate of trauma and stressor related disorders in Denmark following the 9/11 attacks

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt; Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar;

    2016-01-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but effects beyond the US are largely unknown. To understand its wider aftermath we examined the consequences of 9/11 for mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. With population...... the etiology of trauma and stressor related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack, but may also affect...... data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used time series intervention analysis to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders following the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the...

  19. Antibiotics in early life alter the gut microbiome and increase disease incidence in a spontaneous mouse model of autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes.

    Sophie Candon

    Full Text Available Insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes is a prototypic autoimmune disease whose incidence steadily increased over the past decades in industrialized countries. Recent evidence suggests the importance of the gut microbiota to explain this trend. Here, non-obese diabetic (NOD mice that spontaneously develop autoimmune type 1 diabetes were treated with different antibiotics to explore the influence of a targeted intestinal dysbiosis in the progression of the disease. A mixture of wide spectrum antibiotics (i.e. streptomycin, colistin and ampicillin or vancomycin alone were administered orally from the moment of conception, treating breeding pairs, and during the postnatal and adult life until the end of follow-up at 40 weeks. Diabetes incidence significantly and similarly increased in male mice following treatment with these two antibiotic regimens. In NOD females a slight yet not significant trend towards an increase in disease incidence was observed. Changes in gut microbiota composition were assessed by sequencing the V3 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Administration of the antibiotic mixture resulted in near complete ablation of the gut microbiota. Vancomycin treatment led to increased Escherichia, Lactobacillus and Sutterella genera and decreased members of the Clostridiales order and Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae and Rikenellaceae families, as compared to control mice. Massive elimination of IL-17-producing cells, both CD4+TCRαβ+ and TCRγδ+ T cells was observed in the lamina propria of the ileum and the colon of vancomycin-treated mice. These results show that a directed even partial ablation of the gut microbiota, as induced by vancomycin, significantly increases type 1 diabetes incidence in male NOD mice thus prompting for caution in the use of antibiotics in pregnant women and newborns.

  20. Type 2 diabetes increases and metformin reduces total, colorectal, liver and pancreatic cancer incidences in Taiwanese: a representative population prospective cohort study of 800,000 individuals

    Tsai Hsin-Ni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metformin protection against cancer risk in Orientals is uncertain. We examined the possible metformin effect on total, esophageal, gastric, colorectal (CRC, hepatocellular (HCC and pancreatic cancers in a Taiwanese cohort. Methods A representative sample of 800,000 was drawn from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance data of 2000. A cohort of 480,984 participants 20 years or older, diabetes-cancer-free on 1st January 2000 was formed and categorized as four groups by DM and metformin usage status. Eligible incident cancer events had to occur one year after the index date until the end of 2007. The Cox proportional-hazards model evaluated relative risk of cancer for treated DM patients with or without metformin. The covariates included age, gender, other oral anti-hyperglycemic medication, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI score and metformin exposure dosage and duration. Results With diabetes but no anti-hyperglycemic medication, cancer incidence density increased at least 2-fold for total, CRC and HCC. On metformin, total, CRC and HCC incidences decreased to near non-diabetic levels but to varying degrees depending on gender and cancer type (CRC in women, liver in men. Adjustment for other oral anti-hyperglycemic agents usage and CCI made the benefit of metformin more evident [hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals: total 0.12 (0.08-0.19, CRC 0.36 (0.13-0.98, liver 0.06 (0.02-0.16, pancreas 0.15 (0.03-0.79]. There was a significant gender interaction with metformin in CRC which favored women. Metformin dosage for a significant decrease in cancer incidence was ≤500 mg/day. Conclusions Metformin can reduce the incidences of several gastroenterological cancers in treated diabetes.

  1. Long-Termendurance Sport Practice Increases The Incidence Of Lone Atrial Fibrillation Inmen: A Follow-Up Study

    Michela Madalosso

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to determine the incidenceof lone atrial fibrillation in males according to sport practice levels and toidentify possible clinical markers that increase the risk of lone atrialfibrillation (LAF among marathon runners.

  2. GIS Based Study of Probable Causes of Increase in Cancer Incidences in Iraq After Gulf War 1991

    Muhammad, Hassan

    2006-01-01

    The use of banned toxic weapons in Iraq during Gulf War 1991 started new debates. The increase in cancer cases was the main focus of these issues. The gap in literature motivated this study to find out the correlation between use of DU weapons and its effects on human health. The different probable causes of increase in cancer cases, in Iraq after Gulf War 1991, have been discussed in this study. Three causes; DU, brick kilns smoke near Basra and Kuwait oil fire smoke have been selected. The ...

  3. Increased incidence of nitroimidazole-refractory giardiasis at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London: 2008-2013.

    Nabarro, L E B; Lever, R A; Armstrong, M; Chiodini, P L

    2015-08-01

    Giardia intestinalis is the commonest gastrointestinal protozoal pathogen worldwide, and causes acute and chronic diarrhoea with malabsorption. First-line treatment is with a nitroimidazole, with a reported efficacy rate of 89%. Failure of treatment can occur in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or be due to nitroimidazole-resistant organisms. There is little evidence to guide the clinical management of nitroimidazole-refractory disease. We performed a retrospective audit of nitroimidazole-refractory giardiasis in returned travellers at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London between 2011 and 2013. Seventy-three patients with microscopy-proven or PCR-proven giardiasis in whom nitroimidazole treatment had failed were identified, and their management was investigated. In 2008, nitroimidazole treatment failed in 15.1% of patients. This increased to 20.6% in 2011 and to 40.2% in 2013. Patient demographics remained stable during this period, as did routes of referral. Of patients with giardiasis, 39.0% had travelled to India; this rose to 69.9% in patients with nitroimidazole-refractory disease. Of the patients with refractory disease, 44.6% had HIV serological investigations performed and 36.5% had immunoglobulin levels determined. Patients with refractory disease were treated with various agents, including albendazole, nitazoxanide, and mepacrine, alone or in combination. All 20 patients who received a mepacrine-containing regimen were cured. This data shows a worrying increase in refractory disease, predominantly in travellers from India, which is likely to represent increasing nitroimidazole resistance. Improved tools for the diagnosis of resistant G. intestinalis are urgently needed to establish the true prevalence of nitroimidazole-resistant giardiasis, together with clinical trials to establish the most effective second-line agent for empirical treatment regimens. PMID:25975511

  4. Is vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7) associated with an increased incidence of hip fracture? An explanation for the calcium paradox.

    Hamazaki, Kei; Suzuki, Nobuo; Kitamura, Kei-Ichiro; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Nagasawa, Tetsuro; Itomura, Miho; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2016-06-01

    High calcium intake may increase hip fracture (HF) incidence. This phenomenon, known as the calcium paradox, might be explained by vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7, VA), the highly specific trans fatty acid (TFA) present in dairy products. First, we ecologically investigated the relationship between 18:1 TFA intake and HF incidence using data from 12 to 13 European countries collected before 2000; then we measured the effects of VA and elaidic acid (18:1t n-9, EA) on osteoblasts from goldfish scales (tissues very similar to mammalian bone), with alkaline phosphatase as a marker; and finally we measured the effect of VA on mRNA expression in the scales for the major bone proteins type I collagen and osteocalcin. HF incidence was significantly correlated with 18:1 TFA intake in men (r=0.57) and women (r=0.65). Incubation with 1μmol/L VA and EA for 48h significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase activity by 25% and 21%, respectively. Incubation of scales with 10μmol/L VA for 48h significantly decreased mRNA expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin (by about 50%). In conclusion, VA may be causatively related to HF and could explain the calcium paradox. It may be prudent to reduce 18:1 TFA intake, irrespective of trans positions, to prevent HF. PMID:27269708

  5. Excessive Atrial Ectopy and Short Atrial Runs Increase the Risk of Stroke Beyond Incident Atrial Fibrillation

    Larsen, Bjørn Strøier; Kumarathurai, Preman; Falkenberg, Julie;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of ischemic strokes have an unknown cause. Increased atrial ectopy (AE) increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the risk of stroke in patients with increased AE is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine whether increased AE and short atrial runs.......3% had diagnosed AF before their stroke. The incidence of stroke in subjects with ESVEA and a CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age 75 years or older, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, female) score of ≥2 was 2...... electrocardiography, fasting blood tests, and clinical examination. Excessive supraventricular ectopic activity (ESVEA) was defined as the presence of either ≥30 premature atrial contractions (PACs)/hour daily or any runs of ≥20 PACs. RESULTS: Ninety-nine subjects (15%) demonstrated ESVEA. After adjusting for...

  6. Towards integrated control of varroa: effect of variation in hygienic behaviour among honey bee colonies on mite population increase and deformed wing virus incidence

    Toufailia, Hasan M Al; Amiri, Esmaeil; Scandian, Luciano;

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic behaviour in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is the uncapping and removal of dead, diseased or infected brood from sealed cells by worker bees. We determined the effect of hygienic behaviour on varroa population growth and incidence of deformed wing virus (DWV), which can be transmitted by...... varroa. We treated 42 broodless honey bee colonies with oxalic acid in early January 2013 to reduce varroa populations to low levels, which we quantified by extracting mites from a sample of worker bees. We quantified varroa levels, again when the colonies were broodless, 48 weeks later. During the...... summer the hygienic behaviour in each colony was quantified four times using the Freeze Killed Brood (FKB) removal assay, and ranged from 27.5 % to 100 %. Varroa population increased greatly over the season, and there was a significant negative correlation between varroa increase and FKB removal. This...

  7. Increased incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia following breast cancer treatment with radiation alone or combined with chemotherapy: a registry cohort analysis 1990-2005

    Our objective was to measure myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) risk associated with radiation and/or chemotherapy breast cancer (BC) treatment. Our study cohort was composed of BC patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2005 and followed up for blood disorders, mean length of follow up = 7.17 years, range 2-18 years. 5790 TNM stage 0-III patients treated with surgery alone, radiation and/or chemotherapy were included. Patients without surgery (n = 111), with stem cell transplantation (n = 98), unknown or non-standard chemotherapy regimens (n = 94), lost to follow up (n = 66) or 'cancer status unknown' (n = 67) were excluded. Rates observed at our community based cancer care institution were compared to SEER incidence data for rate ratio (RR) calculations. 17 cases of MDS/AML (10 MDS/7 AML) occurred during the follow up period, crude rate .29% (95% CI = .17, .47), SEER comparison RR = 3.94 (95% CI = 2.34, 6.15). The RR of MDS in patients age < 65 comparing our cohort incidence to SEER incidence data was 10.88 (95% CI = 3.84, 24.03) and the RR of AML in patients age < 65 was 5.32 (95% CI = 1.31, 14.04). No significant increased risk of MDS or AML was observed in women ≥ 65 or the surgery/chemotherapy-only group. A RR of 3.32 (95% CI = 1.42, 6.45) was observed in the surgery/radiation-only group and a RR of 6.32 (95% CI = 3.03, 11.45) in the surgery/radiation/chemotherapy group. 3 out of 10 MDS cases died of disease at an average 3.8 months post diagnosis and five of seven AML cases died at an average 9 months post diagnosis. An elevated rate of MDS and AML was observed among breast cancer patients < 65, those treated with radiation and those treated with radiation and chemotherapy compared to available population incidence data. Although a small number of patients are affected, leukemia risk associated with treatment and younger age is significant

  8. Patients affected with Fabry disease have an increased incidence of progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness: an investigation of twenty-two hemizygous male patients

    Chassaing Augustin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabry disease (FD, OMIM 301500 is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to the deficient activity of alpha-galactosidase A, a lysosomal enzyme. While the progressive systemic deposition of uncleaved glycosphingolipids throughout the body is known to have protean clinical manifestations, few data are available regarding the cochlear involvement. Methods We non-invasively investigated cochlear functions in 22 consecutive hemizygous males (age 19–64 years, mean 39 affected with classic FD. Conventional audiometry, tympanometry, ABR audiometry, otoacoustic emissions were performed in all patients, together with medical history record and physical examination as part of an exhaustive baseline evaluation prior to enzyme replacement therapy. Results A total of 12 patients (54.5% with classic FD were found to have abnormal audition. Five patients had progressive hearing loss and seven patients (32% experienced sudden deafness. In addition, a hearing loss on high-tone frequencies was found in 7 out of the 10 remaining patients without clinical impairment, despite their young age at time of examination. The incidence of hearing loss appeared significantly increased in FD patients with kidney failure (P tinnitus aurium was also found in six patients (27%. Conclusion This is the first evidence of a high incidence of both progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness in a cohort of male patients affected with classic Fabry disease. The exact pathophysiologic mechanism(s of the cochlear involvement deserves further studies.

  9. Low-Level Cadmium Exposure Is Associated With Decreased Bone Mineral Density and Increased Risk of Incident Fractures in Elderly Men: The MrOS Sweden Study.

    Wallin, Maria; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Lundh, Thomas; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Mellström, Dan

    2016-04-01

    One risk factor for osteoporosis that has attracted increasing attention in recent years is exposure to cadmium. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between low-level cadmium exposure, from diet and smoking, and bone mineral density (BMD) and incident fractures in elderly men. The study population consisted of 936 men from the Swedish cohort of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, aged 70 to 81 years at inclusion (years 2002 to 2004), with reliable data on cadmium in urine (U-Cd) analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in baseline samples. The participants also answered a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and medical history. BMD was measured at baseline using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the total body, hip, and lumbar spine. During the follow-up period (until 2013), all new fractures were registered by date and type. Associations between BMD and U-Cd were assessed using multiple linear regression, and associations between incident fractures and baseline U-Cd were analyzed using Cox regression. In both cases, a number of potential confounders and other risk factors (eg, age, smoking, body mass index [BMI], and physical activity) were included in the models. We found significant negative associations between U-Cd and BMD, with lower BMD (4% to 8%) for all sites in the fourth quartile of U-Cd, using the first quartile as the reference. In addition, we found positive associations between U-Cd and incident fractures, especially nonvertebral osteoporosis fractures in the fourth quartile of U-Cd, with hazard ratios of 1.8 to 3.3 in the various models. U-Cd as a continuous variable was significantly associated with nonvertebral osteoporosis fractures (adjusted hazard ratio 1.3 to 1.4 per μg Cd/g creatinine), also in never-smokers, but not with the other fracture groups (all fractures, hip fractures, vertebral fractures, and other fractures). Our results indicate that even relatively low cadmium exposure

  10. Increase in Incidence of Medically-Treated Thyroid Disease in Children with Down Syndrome Following Re-release of American Academy of Pediatrics Health Supervision Guidelines

    Carroll, Kecia N.; Arbogast, Patrick; Dudley, Judith A.; Cooper, William O.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence of medically treated thyroid disease in children with Down syndrome enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid (TennCare) during 1995–2005 and determine whether rates increased following re-release of American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines in 2001. PATIENTS AND METHODS We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study in which we identified children with Down syndrome using TennCare files and birth certificates. We included 1–18 year olds who were continuously enrolled in TennCare and did not fill a prescription for thyroid medication during a 90-day pre-study period. The rate of medically treated thyroid disease (a prescription filled for thyroid medication) was the main outcome. We determined rates of medically treated thyroid disease by study year, age, sex, race, region of residence, and payer type. We used Poisson regression to estimate predictors. RESULTS During the eleven year study period, 1257 children with Down syndrome (28% black, 72% white) met inclusion criteria. Overall, 10.8% filled a new prescription for thyroid medication. Rates of medically treated thyroid disease per 1000/child years were 13.25 (1995–1997), 13.34 (1998–1999), 13.62 (2000–2001), 22.34 (2002–2003) and 22.51 (2004–2005). In multivariable analyses, there was an increased rate of medically treated thyroid disease in 2002–03 (adjusted IR 1.73, 95% CI 1.02–2.93) and 2004–05 (adjusted IR 1.72, 95% CI 1.01–2.91) compared to 1995–1997. In a comparison cohort of children without Down syndrome, there was a smaller increase in the rate of medically treated thyroid disease when comparing 2002–03 (adjusted IR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03–1.53) and 2004–05 (adjusted IR 1.22, 95% CI 0.99–1.49) to 1995–1997. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of medically treated thyroid disease in children with Down syndrome in the TennCare cohort from 1995 to 2005 was 10.8%. A 73% increase in rate occurred following re-release of American Academy of Pediatrics

  11. Aumento da incidência de carcinoma basocelular em hospital universitário: 1999 a 2009 Increase in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma in a university hospital between 1999 and 2009

    Juliano Vilaverde Schmitt; Valquíria Pessoa Chinem; Mariângela Esther Alencar Marques; Hélio Amante Miot

    2011-01-01

    A incidência do carcinoma basocelular vem aumentando em todos os países. Realizou-se estudo ecológico de 5169 laudos de carcinoma basocelular, da FMB-Unesp, entre janeiro/1999 e dezembro/2009. O incremento médio da incidência para o período foi de 90,6%, projetando-se um diagnóstico para cada 15 pacientes encaminhados à dermatologia. Tal tendência se manteve, mesmo quando indexada pelo número de laudos histopatológicos, movimento hospitalar, atendimentos da dermatologia e população de Botucat...

  12. Increasing Incidence of Ehrlichiosis in the United States: A Summary of National Surveillance of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii Infections in the United States, 2008-2012.

    Nichols Heitman, Kristen; Dahlgren, F Scott; Drexler, Naomi A; Massung, Robert F; Behravesh, Casey Barton

    2016-01-01

    Human ehrlichiosis is a potentially fatal disease caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii. Cases of ehrlichiosis are reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through two national surveillance systems: Nationally Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) and Case Report Forms. During 2008-2012, 4,613 cases of E. chaffeensis infections were reported through NNDSS. The incidence rate (IR) was 3.2 cases per million person-years (PYs). The hospitalization rate (HR) was 57% and the case fatality rate (CFR) was 1%. Children aged < 5 years had the highest CFR of 4%. During 2008-2012, 55 cases of E. ewingii infection were reported through NNDSS. The national IR was 0.04 cases per million PY. The HR was 77%; no deaths were reported. Immunosuppressive conditions were reported by 26% of cases. The overall rate for ehrlichiosis has increased 4-fold since 2000. Although previous literature suggests E. ewingii primarily affects those who are immunocompromised, this report shows most cases occurred among immunocompetent patients. This is the first report to show children aged < 5 years with ehrlichiosis have an increased CFR, relative to older patients. Ongoing surveillance and reporting of tick-borne diseases are critical to inform public health practice and guide disease treatment and prevention efforts. PMID:26621561

  13. CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms increase lung cancer risk in a high-incidence region of Spain: a case control study

    A rural region in south-west Spain has one of the highest lung cancer incidence rates of the country, as revealed by a previous epidemiological 10-year follow-up study. The present work was undertaken to ascertain the role of CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and their interaction with tobacco smoking in the development of the disease in this location. One-hundred-and-three cases of lung cancer and 265 controls participated in the study. The participants were screened for the presence of four CYP1A1 polymorphisms, namely MspI, Ile462Val, T3205C, and Thr461Asn. Lung cancer risk was estimated as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, and smoking. The distribution of the variant CYP1A1 alleles was different from that described for other Caucasian populations, with CYP1A1*2A showing an uncommonly high frequency (p < 0.01). The CYP1A1*2B allele (carrying MspI and Ile462Val mutations) was strongly associated with high lung cancer risk (OR = 4.59, CI:1.4-12.6, p <0.01). The Ile462Val polymorphism was also shown to increase the risk for the disease (OR = 4.51, CI:1.8-11.9; p <0.01) and particularly for squamous-cell (OR = 5.01; CI: 1.6-14.3, p < 0.01) and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) (OR = 6.97, CI: 1.2-81.3; p = 0.04). Moreover, the Thr461Asn polymorphism was found to be associated with SCLC in a Caucasian population for the first time to our knowledge (OR = 8.33, CI: 1.3-15.2, p = 0.04). The results suggest that CYP1A1 polymorphisms contribute to increase lung cancer susceptibility in an area with an uncommon high incidence rate

  14. Administration of granulocyte colony stimulating factor after liver transplantation leads to an increased incidence and severity of ischemic biliary lesions in the rat model

    Olaf Dirsch; Haidong Chi; Yuan Ji; Yan Li Gu; Christoph E Broelsch; Uta Dahmen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Recently it has been reported that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) can induce hypercoagulability in healthy bone marrow donors. It is conceivable that the induction of a prothrombotic state in a recipient of an organ graft with already impaired perfusion might cause further deterioration in the transplanted organ. This study evaluated whether G-CSF treatment worsens liver perfusion following liver transplantation in the rat model.METHODS: A non-arterialized rat liver transplantation model was employed to evaluate the effect of G-CSF treatment on the liver in a syngeneic and allogeneic strain combination. Study outcomes included survival time and liver damage as investigated by liver enzymes and liver histology. Observation times were 1 d, 1 wk and 12 wk.RESULTS: Rats treated with G-CSF had increased incidence and severity of biliary damage following liver transplantation. In these animals, hepatocellular necrosis was accentuated in the centrilobular region. These lesions are indicative of impaired perfusion in G-CSF treated animals.CONCLUSION: G-CSF should be used with caution in recipients of liver transplantation, as treatment might enhance preexisting, undetected perfusion problems and ultimately lead to ischemia induced biliary complications.

  15. Increasing incidence of recent hepatitis C virus infection among persons seeking voluntary counselling and testing for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Taiwan

    Tsai, Jen-Chih; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Liu, Wen-Chun; Wu, Cheng-Hsin; Su, Yi-Ching; Wu, Pei-Ying; Luo, Yu-Zhen; Chang, Lan-Hsin; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) is rarely investigated in the Asia-Pacific region. We aimed to estimate the incidence rate of and factors associated with recent HCV infection among the clients seeking voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services for HIV in Taiwan. Methods During 2006–2013, 12 143 clients sought VCT services for HIV. Clients with subsequent follow-up tests at an interval of 6 months or longer ...

  16. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  17. Increased Incidence of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia in Adult Patients following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan.

    Yi-Ching Tung

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to estimate the incidences of herpes zoster (HZ and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN in patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Furthermore, we aimed to explore the risk factors of the development of HZ and PHN in patients after TBI. This population-based, longitudinal analysis was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (consisting of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from 1996 to 2010. Using the longitudinal National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study to evaluate the incidence of HZ and PHN in adult TBI patients and controls. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were used to compare differences in the development of HZ and PHN. The effects of gender, comorbidity and surgery on the risk of HZ and PHN development were assessed by subgroup analyses. Over a 15-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of HZ in 28,234 TBI patients (604.00/100,000 person-years was significantly higher than 34,085 controls (322.21/100,000 person-years (P<0.0001, by log-rank test. Females showed a significantly higher incidence of HZ than males (p for interaction = 0.0010. The time to HZ development in the follow-up period was 5.9 years in TBI patients compared to 9.9 years in the control set (p <0.0001. TBI patients were 2.93 and 2.11 times likely to develop HZ and PHN, respectively, than the general population. The incidences of HZ and PHN in TBI patients were also significantly greater than for controls in the CCI = 0 subgroup. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based cohort study to reveal that TBI is an independent risk factor for HZ and PHN in TBI patients, especially in females. Physician should pay attention to the possibility of HZ and PHN in TBI patients and be aware that HZ vaccination early after brain trauma may lower the incidence of HZ and PHN.

  18. Towards integrated control of varroa: effect of variation in hygienic behaviour among honey bee colonies on mite population increase and deformed wing virus incidence

    Al Toufailia, Hasan M; Amiri, Esmaeil; Scandian, Luciano; Kryger, Per; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic behaviour in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is the uncapping and removal of dead, diseased or infected brood from sealed cells by worker bees. We determined the effect of hygienic behaviour on varroa population growth and incidence of deformed wing virus (DWV), which can be transmitted by varroa. We treated 42 broodless honey bee colonies with oxalic acid in early January 2013 to reduce varroa populations to low levels, which we quantified by extracting mites from a sample of worker ...

  19. Incidents analysis

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  20. Increasing incidences of inflammatory bowel disease and decreasing surgery rates in Copenhagen City and County, 2003-2005: a population-based study from the Danish Crohn colitis database

    Vind, Ida; Riis, L; Jess, T;

    2006-01-01

    extensive involvement. Twelve percent of CD patients and 6% of UC patients underwent surgery during the year of diagnosis, significantly less than earlier reported. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of IBD in Copenhagen increased noticeably during the last decades. Time from onset of symptoms until diagnosis...

  1. Increasing incidences of inflammatory bowel disease and decreasing surgery rates in Copenhagen City and County, 2003-2005: a population-based study from the Danish Crohn colitis database

    Vind, Ida; Riis, L; Jess, T;

    2006-01-01

    interventions, cancer, and death, were registered. RESULTS: Five-hundred sixty-two patients were diagnosed with IBD, resulting in mean annual incidences of 8.6/10(5) for CD, 13.4/10(5) for UC, and 1.1/10(5) for IC. Time from onset to diagnosis was 8.3 months in CD and 4.5 months in UC patients. A family history...... extensive involvement. Twelve percent of CD patients and 6% of UC patients underwent surgery during the year of diagnosis, significantly less than earlier reported. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of IBD in Copenhagen increased noticeably during the last decades. Time from onset of symptoms until diagnosis...

  2. Seismicity and infrasound associated with explosions at Mount St. Helens, 2004-2005: Chapter 6 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    Moran, Seth C.; McChesney, Patrick J.; Lockhart, Andrew B.

    2008-01-01

    Six explosions occurred during 2004-5 in association with renewed eruptive activity at Mount St. Helens, Washington. Of four explosions in October 2004, none had precursory seismicity and two had explosion-related seismic tremor that marked the end of the explosion. However, seismicity levels dropped following each of the October explosions, providing the primary instrumental means for explosion detection during the initial vent-clearing phase. In contrast, explosions on January 16 and March 8, 2005, produced noticeable seismicity in the form of explosion-related tremor, infrasonic signals, and, in the case of the March 8 explosion, an increase in event size ~2 hours before the explosion. In both 2005 cases seismic tremor appeared before any infrasonic signals and was best recorded on stations located within the crater. These explosions demonstrated that reliable explosion detection at volcanoes like Mount St. Helens requires seismic stations within 1-2 km of the vent and stations with multiple acoustic sensors.

  3. A 38-year study on Trichinella spp. in wild boar (Sus scrofa) of Latvia shows a stable incidence with an increased parasite biomass in the last decade

    Kirjušina, Muza; Deksne, Gunita; Marucci, Gianluca; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Jahundoviča, Inese; Daukšte, Anžela; Zdankovska, Aleksandra; Bērziņa, Zanda; Esīte, Zanda; Bella, Antonino; Galati, Fabio; Krūmiņa, Angelika; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked meat of different animal species. The most common source of infection for humans is meat from pigs and wild boar (Sus scrofa). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the incidence of Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar hunted in Latvia over a 38 year interval (1976 to 2013). Methods A total 120,609 wild boars were individually tested for Trichinella spp. by tri...

  4. Both serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels may increase the risk of incident prostate cancer in Caribbean men of African ancestry

    Jackson, Maria D; Marshall K. Tulloch-Reid; Lindsay, Carole M; Smith, Garrett; Bennett, Franklyn I.; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Aiken, William; Coard, Kathleen C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with both higher and lower risk of prostate cancer (PCa), whereas elevated levels of circulating calcium has been related to higher risks. However, there are few studies that account for effects of both calcium and 25(OH)D concentrations on incident PCa in a black population. We examined these relationships in a case–control study of men 40–80 years old with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed PCa in Jamaica, ...

  5. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: Increasing incidence, decreasing surgery rate, and compromised nutritional status: A prospective population-based cohort study 2007-2009

    Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Munkholm, Pia;

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate the incidence, treatment, surgery rate, and anthropometry at diagnosis of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: Patients diagnosed between January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 in Eastern Denmark, Funen, and Aarhus were included from a...... with IBD: 65 with Crohn's disease (CD), 62 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and three with IBD unclassified (IBDU) were included. The mean incidence rates per 106 in 2007–2009 were: IBD: 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.4–7.7), CD: 3.2 (2.5–4.1), UC: 3.1 (2.4–4.0) and IBDU: 0.2 (0.05–0.5). Comparing...... the rate of initiating immunomodulators (IM) within the first year (29.0/100 person-years versus 69.2, P < 0.001). IM use was associated with a trend towards a decreased surgery risk (relative risk [RR] 0.38; 0.15–1.0). Children with CD had poor nutritional status at diagnosis compared with the...

  6. Long-term, low-dose azithromycin treatment reduces the incidence but increases macrolide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in Danish CF patients

    Hansen, C.R.; Pressler, T.; Høiby, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 2001, long-term, low-dose azithromycin treatment has been used for CF patients chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Copenhagen CF centre. Our study investigates changes in incidence of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophi......BACKGROUND: Since 2001, long-term, low-dose azithromycin treatment has been used for CF patients chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Copenhagen CF centre. Our study investigates changes in incidence of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae......, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis and changes in macrolide sensitivity in these microorganisms during azithromycin treatment. METHODS: CF patients treated continuously with azithromycin for at least 3 months were included. Results of microbiological examination, including phage typing results...... of S. aureus, obtained during treatment were compared to results obtained 2 years before treatment. RESULTS: 70 patients (median age 29.1 years) treated for a median of 4 years (range 0.7-5.1) were included. Before treatment, 44 patients had at least one culture positive for S. aureus compared to 25...

  7. Hazard information management during the autumn 2004 reawakening of Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington: Chapter 24 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    Driedger, Carolyn L.; Neal, Christina A.; Knappenberger, Tom H.; Needham, Deborah H.; Harper, Robert B.; Steele, William P.

    2008-01-01

    The 2004 reawakening of Mount St. Helens quickly caught the attention of government agencies as well as the international news media and the public. Immediate concerns focused on a repeat of the catastrophic landslide and blast event of May 18, 1980, which remains a vivid memory for many individuals. Within several days of the onset of accelerating seismicity, media inquiries increased exponentially. Personnel at the U.S. Geological Survey, the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network, and the Gifford Pinchot National Forest soon handled hundreds of press inquiries and held several press briefings per day. About one week into the event, a Joint Information Center was established to help maintain a consistent hazard message and to provide a centralized information source about volcanic activity, hazards, area closures, and media briefings. Scientists, public-affairs specialists, and personnel from emergency-management, health, public-safety, and land-management agencies answered phones, helped in press briefings and interviews, and managed media access to colleagues working on science and safety issues. For scientists, in addition to managing the cycle of daily fieldwork, challenges included (1) balancing accurate interpretations of data under crisis conditions with the need to share information quickly, (2) articulating uncertainties for a variety of volcanic scenarios, (3) minimizing scientific jargon, and (4) frequently updating and effectively distributing talking points. Success of hazard information management during a volcanic crisis depends largely on scientists’ clarity of communication and thorough preplanning among interagency partners. All parties must commit to after-action evaluation and improvement of communication plans, incorporating lessons learned during each event.

  8. Racist Incident-Based Trauma

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ocampo, Carlota

    2005-01-01

    Racist incidents are potentially traumatizing forms of victimization that may lead to increased psychiatric and psychophysiological symptoms in targets. The magnitude of the problem of racist incidents in the United States is difficult to estimate; however, data from several sources permit the inference that the prevalence of racist incidents,…

  9. Hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease in Brazil, 2004 - 2006

    Hillegonda Maria Dutilh Novaes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease based on the Brazilian Hospital Information System (SIH. METHODS: Descriptive study based on the Hospital Information System of Brazilian National Health System data from January 2004 to December 2006: number of hospitalizations and deaths for pneumococcal meningitis, pneumococcal sepsis, pneumococcal pneumonia and Streptococcus pneumoniae as the cause of diseases reported in Brazil. Data from the 2003 Brazilian National Household Survey were used to estimate events in the private sector. Pneumococcal meningitis cases and deaths reported to the Notifiable Diseases Information System during the study period were also analyzed. RESULTS: Pneumococcal disease accounted for 34,217 hospitalizations in the Brazilian National Health System (0.1% of all hospitalizations in the public sector. Pneumococcal pneumonia accounted for 64.8% of these hospitalizations. The age distribution of the estimated hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease showed a "U"-shape curve with the highest rates seen in children under one (110 to 136.9 per 100,000 children annually. The highest hospital case-fatality rates were seen among the elderly, and for sepsis and meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: PD is a major public health problem in Brazil. The analysis based on the SIH can provide an important input to pneumococcal disease surveillance and the impact assessment of immunization programs.

  10. Energy balances of OECD countries 2003-2004. 2006 ed.

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste. Figures are expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Historical tables summarise key energy and economic indicators as well as production, trade, and final consumption data. The book also includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on individual country data and conversion factors from original units to tonnes of oil equivalent. More detailed data in original units are published in 'Energy statistics of OECD countries 2003-2004'. Multilingual glossaries are included. Data from 1960 to 2004 are available on CD-ROM or as a PDF and a data service is available on the internet at www.iea.org

  11. Kaliningrad regional district heating network 2004-2006. Final report

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This report concerns: Kaliningrad Regional District Heating Network project which was implemented from 2004 to 2006. The task of the project was to establish and operate an association for district heating companies in the region in order to transfer and distribute district heating know-how to the sector and through activities strengthen the sector. The long term aim was to contribute to establishment of an association to continue as a real association for the heat supply companies in the region. (au)

  12. Bibliographie rurale 2004-2006 (L-Z)

    Mayaud, Jean-Luc; Charcosset, Gaëlle

    2008-01-01

    Cleophas LADO, « Sustainable environmental resource utilisation: a case study of farmers’ ethnobotanical knowledge and rural change in Bungoma district, Kenya », dans Applied Geography, volume 24, n° 4, octobre 2004, pp. 281-302. Christian LAESSER, voir Thomas BIEGER. Gilles LAFERTÉ, La bourgogne et ses vins : image d’origine contrôlée, collection Socio-histoire, Paris, Éditions Belin, 2006, 320 p. Gilles LAFERTÉ, voir Olivier JACQUET. Pierre-Yves LAFFONT [dir.], Transhumance et estivage en O...

  13. Penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Great Britain, 1977-81: alarming increase in incidence and recent development of endemic transmission.

    McCutchan, J. A.; Adler, M W; Berrie, J R

    1982-01-01

    Since penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae appeared five years ago in West Africa and South-east Asia reported cases have doubled annually in Great Britain, primarily as a result of increasing importation. Importation of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae has increased exponentially because dramatic expansion of these strains in their regions of origin has led to increasing infection of male air travellers. From 1977 to 1980 infections acquired in Great Britain played only...

  14. 2004-2006 activity report of Dapnia; Rapport d'activite 2004-2006 du Dapnia

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the research programs of the Department of Astrophysics, Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and the related Instrumentation (Dapnia) of the French atomic energy commission (CEA). These programs deal with: 1 -the ultimate constituents of matter (standard model, physics at the LHC, neutrinos, hadrons structure); 2 - the energy content of Universe (dark matter, dark energy, antimatter and CP violation); 3 - the Universe's structuration (cosmology and structures formation in the Universe, formation and evolution of galaxies); 4 - structure and evolution of stars (formation of stars and planets, stellar and laboratory plasmas, compact objects, cosmic ray sources); 5 - nuclear matter in its extreme states (quarks and gluons plasma, exotic nuclei); 6 - innovation for detection systems (development of detectors, signal processing and real-time systems, intensive calculation and simulation); 7 - magnets and accelerators (particle accelerators, superconducting magnets, test facilities, new developments for magnets and accelerators instrumentation); 8 - physics for nuclear energy (nuclear data and modeling, fusion research technology); 9 - Dapnia's expertise for the society (physics and health, dismantling and aid to the design of nuclear facilities, light sources, environment). A list of publications completes the document. (J.S.)

  15. Both serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels may increase the risk of incident prostate cancer in Caribbean men of African ancestry.

    Jackson, Maria D; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Lindsay, Carole M; Smith, Garrett; Bennett, Franklyn I; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Aiken, William; Coard, Kathleen C M

    2015-06-01

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with both higher and lower risk of prostate cancer (PCa), whereas elevated levels of circulating calcium has been related to higher risks. However, there are few studies that account for effects of both calcium and 25(OH)D concentrations on incident PCa in a black population. We examined these relationships in a case-control study of men 40-80 years old with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed PCa in Jamaica, a tropical country. Mean serum calcium concentrations was higher among cases (2.32 ± 0.19 mmol/L) than controls, (2.27 ± 0.30 mmol/L) (P = 0.023) however, there were no differences in 25(OH)D by cancer status (cases, 33.67 ± 12.71 ng/mL; controls (32.25 ± 12.59 ng/mL). Serum calcium was not correlated with 25(OH)D (partial correlation: r, 0.06; P = 0.287). Multivariable-adjusted models showed a positive linear relationship between PCa and serum calcium (OR, 1.12; CI, 1.00-1.25 per 0.1 nmol/L). Serum 25(OH)D concentration also showed a positive association with PCa (OR, 1.23; CI, 1.01-1.49 per 10 ng/mL). The odds of PCa in men with serum 25(OH)D tertile 2 was OR, 2.18; CI, 1.04-4.43 and OR, 2.47 CI, 1.20-4.90 for tertile 3 (P(trend) = 0.013). Dietary intakes of calcium showed no relationship with PCa. Despite the strong relationship between serum calcium and vitamin D the mechanism by which each affects prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry needs additional investigation. PMID:25858172

  16. Increased incidence of antiretroviral drug discontinuation among patients with viremic hepatitis C virus coinfection and high hyaluronic acid, a marker of liver fibrosis

    Grint, Daniel; Peters, Lars; Rockstroh, Juergen K;

    2014-01-01

    Most antiretroviral drugs are metabolized by the liver; hepatic disease or liver damage as a result of hepatitis C virus (HCV) could impair this metabolism leading to an increased risk of drug toxicity. This study aimed to determine the risk of antiretroviral drug discontinuation among HCV/HIV co...

  17. Increasing Incidence of Degenerative Spinal Diseases in Japan during 25 Years: The Registration System of Spinal Surgery in Tohoku University Spine Society.

    Aizawa, Toshimi; Kokubun, Shoichi; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Kusakabe, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasuhisa; Hoshikawa, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Ko; Kanno, Haruo; Morozumi, Naoki; Koizumi, Yutaka; Sato, Tetsuro; Hyodo, Hironori; Kasama, Fumio; Ogawa, Shinji; Murakami, Eiichi; Kawahara, Chikashi; Yahata, Jun-Ichiro; Ishii, Yushin; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Spinal disorders affect mainly older people and cause pain, paralysis and/or deformities of the trunk and/or extremities, which could eventually disturb locomotive functions. For ensuring safe and high-quality treatment of spinal disorders, in 1987, the Tohoku University Spine Society (TUSS) was established by orthopedic departments in Tohoku University School of Medicine and its affiliated hospitals in and around Miyagi Prefecture. All spine surgeries have been enrolled in the TUSS Spine Registry since 1988. Using the data from this registration system between 1988 and 2012, we demonstrate here the longitudinal changes in surgical trends for spinal disorders in Japan that has rushed into the most advanced "aging society" in the world. In total, data on 56,744 surgeries were retrieved. The number of spinal surgeries has annually increased approximately 4-fold. There was a particular increase among patients aged ≥ 70 years and those aged ≥ 80 years, with a 20- to 90-fold increase. Nearly 90% of the spinal operations were performed for degenerative disorders, with their number increasing approximately 5-fold from 705 to 3,448. The most common disease for surgery was lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) (35.9%), followed by lumbar disc herniation (27.7%) and cervical myelopathy (19.8%). In 2012, approximately half of the patients with LSS and cervical myelopathy were ≥ 70 years of age. In conclusion, the number of spinal operations markedly increased during the 25-year period, particularly among older patients. As Japan has a notably aged population, the present study could provide a near-future model for countries with aging population. PMID:26876801

  18. True incidence of vestibular schwannoma?

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Tos, Mirko; Thomsen, Jens;

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging.......The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging....

  19. The effect of climate variability on urinary stone attacks: increased incidence associated with temperature over 18 °C: a population-based study.

    Park, Hyoung Keun; Bae, Sang Rak; Kim, Satbyul E; Choi, Woo Suk; Paick, Sung Hyun; Ho, Kim; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Lho, Yong Soo

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seasonal variation and climate parameters on urinary tract stone attack and investigate whether stone attack is increased sharply at a specific point. Nationwide data of total urinary tract stone attack numbers per month between January 2006 and December 2010 were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The effects of climatic factors on monthly urinary stone attack were assessed using auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression method. A total of 1,702,913 stone attack cases were identified. Mean monthly and monthly average daily urinary stone attack cases were 28,382 ± 2,760 and 933 ± 85, respectively. The stone attack showed seasonal trends of sharp incline in June, a peak plateau from July to September, and a sharp decline after September. The correlation analysis showed that ambient temperature (r = 0.557, p urinary stone attack cases. However, after adjustment for trends and seasonality, ambient temperature was the only climate factor associated with the stone attack cases in ARIMA regression test (p = 0.04). Threshold temperature was estimated as 18.4 °C. Risk of urinary stone attack significantly increases 1.71% (1.02-2.41 %, 95% confidence intervals) with a 1 °C increase of ambient temperature above the threshold point. In conclusion, monthly urinary stone attack cases were changed according to seasonal variation. Among the climates variables, only temperature had consistent association with stone attack and when the temperature is over 18.4 °C, urinary stone attack would be increased sharply. PMID:25407800

  20. Childhood asthma management pre- and post-incident asthma hospitalization.

    Marina Bianchi

    Full Text Available Many hospitalizations for asthma could potentially be avoided with appropriate management. The aim of this study was to analyze data on disease management of a paediatric population with a hospitalization for asthma. The study population comprised 6-17 year old subjects belonging to three local health units of the Lombardy Region, northern Italy. Regional administrative databases were used to collect data on: the number of children with an incident hospitalization for asthma during the 2004-2006 period, anti-asthma therapy, specialist visit referrals, and claims for spirometry, released in the 12 months before and after hospitalization. Each patient's asthma management profile was compared with GINA guideline recommendations. Among the 183 hospitalized subjects, 101 (55% received therapy before hospitalization and 82 (45% did not. 10% did not receive any therapy either before or after hospital admission and in 13% the therapy was discontinued afterward. Based on GINA guidelines, asthma management adhered to recommendations only for 55% of subjects. Results may suggest that for half of hospitalized subjects, inaccurate diagnosis, under-treatment/scarce compliance with asthma guidelines by physicians, and/or scarce compliance to therapy by patients/their parents occurred. In all these cases, hospitalization would be a proxy indicator of preventable poor control of disease, rather than a proxy indicator of severity.

  1. A coordinated cross-disciplinary research initiative to address an increased incidence of narcolepsy following the 2009-2010 Pandemrix vaccination programme in Sweden.

    Feltelius, N; Persson, I; Ahlqvist-Rastad, J; Andersson, M; Arnheim-Dahlström, L; Bergman, P; Granath, F; Adori, C; Hökfelt, T; Kühlmann-Berenzon, S; Liljeström, P; Maeurer, M; Olsson, T; Örtqvist, Å; Partinen, M; Salmonson, T; Zethelius, B

    2015-10-01

    In response to the 2009-2010 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, a mass vaccination programme with the AS03-adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1) vaccine Pandemrix was initiated in Sweden. Unexpectedly, there were a number of narcolepsy cases amongst vaccinated children and adolescents reported. In this review, we summarize the results of a joint cross-disciplinary national research effort to investigate the adverse reaction signal from the spontaneous reporting system and to better understand possible causative mechanisms. A three- to fourfold increased risk of narcolepsy in vaccinated children and adolescents was verified by epidemiological studies. Of importance, no risk increase was observed for the other neurological and autoimmune diseases studied. Genetic studies confirmed the association with the allele HLA-DQB1*06:02, which is known to be related to sporadic narcolepsy. Furthermore, a number of studies using cellular and molecular experimental models investigated possible links between influenza vaccination and narcolepsy. Serum analysis, using a peptide microarray platform, showed that individuals who received Pandemrix exhibited a different epitope reactivity pattern to neuraminidase and haemagglutinin, as compared to individuals who were infected with H1N1. Patients with narcolepsy were also found to have increased levels of interferon-gamma production in response to streptococcus-associated antigens. The chain of patient-related events and the study results emerging over time were subjected to intense nationwide media attention. The importance of transparent communication and collaboration with patient representatives to maintain public trust in vaccination programmes is also discussed in the review. Organizational challenges due to this unexpected event delayed the initiation of some of the research projects, still the main objectives of this joint, cross-disciplinary research effort were reached, and important insights were acquired for future, similar

  2. Increased Incidence and Altered Risk Demographics of Childhood Lead Poisoning: Predicting the Impacts of the CDC’s 5 µg/dL Reference Value in Massachusetts (USA)

    Daniel Brabander; Phoebe Handler

    2012-01-01

    In May 2012, the CDC adopted a new sliding scale reference value for childhood lead poisoning, reducing the former 10 µg/dL benchmark by half. Using Massachusetts (MA) as a model state, we estimated the change in the population of 9–47 month-olds at risk for lead poisoning. We then examined the impact of the 5 µg/dL reference value on the demographic characteristics of lead risk in MA communities. We find that the new CDC benchmark will lead to a 1470% increase in ...

  3. Methotrexate Reduces the Incidence of Severe Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease without Increasing the Risk of Relapse after Reduced-Intensity Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation from Unrelated Donors.

    Vigouroux, Stéphane; Tabrizi, Reza; Melot, Cyril; Coiffard, Joelle; Lafarge, Xavier; Marit, Gérald; Bouabdallah, Krimo; Pigneux, Arnaud; Leguay, Thibaut; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Schmitt, Anna; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Milpied, Noël

    2011-01-01

    Optimized prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after unrelated reduced-intensity allogeneic transplantation when preceded by a conditioning regimen utilizing antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is poorly defined. To investigate the effects of methotrexate (MTX) in this treatment setting, we conducted a retrospective analysis. Sixty-three patients were selected based on the administration of a total dose of 5 mg/kg of ATG in the conditioning regimen and then separated into either group M+ (n = 39), which received MTX or group M- (n = 24), which did not. All patients received cyclosporine. In the M- and M+ groups, cumulative incidences (CI) of grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were 43% and 10%, respectively (P = .002). Multivariate analysis indicated that grade III-IV aGVHD was favored by both the absence of MTX and the provision of a female donor for a male recipient. At 2 years, the M+ and M- groups exhibited, respectively: overall survival of 69% and 40% (P = .06), disease-free survival of 57% and 43% (P = .2), nonrelapse mortality of 20% and 44% (P = .1), and incidence of relapse of 27% and 35% (P = .6). These data suggest that MTX reduces the incidence of severe aGVHD without increasing the risk of relapse but with an accompanying trend toward improved survival after unrelated reduced-intensity transplantation with ATG in the conditioning regimen. PMID:20601038

  4. Genetic and pharmacological inactivation of the purinergic P2RX7 receptor dampens inflammation but increases tumor incidence in a mouse model of colitis-associated cancer.

    Hofman, Paul; Cherfils-Vicini, Julien; Bazin, Marie; Ilie, Marius; Juhel, Thierry; Hébuterne, Xavier; Gilson, Eric; Schmid-Alliana, Annie; Boyer, Olivier; Adriouch, Sahil; Vouret-Craviari, Valérie

    2015-03-01

    Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is a complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Binding of extracellular ATP to the purinergic receptor P2RX7 has emerged as a critical event in controlling intestinal inflammation, acting to limit elevation of proinflammatory mast cells and cytokines and promote survival of regulatory T cells (Treg) and enteric neurons. In this study, we investigated the effect of P2RX7 blockade in an established mouse model of CAC. Using genetic and pharmacologic tools, we found unexpectedly that while P2RX7 mediated inflammatory responses, it also acted at an early time to suppress CAC development. P2RX7 blockade enhanced proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and protected them from apoptosis. The proliferative effects of P2RX7 blockade were associated with an increased production of TGFβ1 that was sufficient to stimulate the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, P2RX7 blockade also altered immune cell infiltration and promoted Treg accumulation within lesions of the digestive system. Taken together, our findings reveal an unexpected role for P2RX7 in preventing CAC, suggesting cautions in the use of P2RX7 inhibitors to treat IBD given the possibility of increasing risks CAC as a result. PMID:25564520

  5. Increased doublecortin (DCX expression and incidence of DCX-immunoreactive multipolar cells in the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb system of suicides

    Marissa E Maheu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Postmortem studies have confirmed the occurrence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in humans and implicated this process in antidepressant response, yet neurogenesis in other regions remains to be examined in the context of depression. Here we assess the extent of subventricular zone-olfactory bulb (SVZ-OB neurogenesis in adult humans having died by suicide. Protein expression of proliferative and neurogenic markers Sox2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and doublecortin (DCX were examined in postmortem SVZ and OB samples from depressed suicides and matched sudden-death controls. In the SVZ, DCX-immunoreactive (IR cells displayed phenotypes typical of progenitors, whereas in the olfactory tract (OT, they were multipolar with variable size and morphologies suggestive of differentiating cells. DCX expression was significantly increased in the OB of suicides, whereas SVZ DCX expression was higher among unmedicated, but not antidepressant-treated, suicides. Although very few DCX-IR cells were present in the control OT, they were considerably more common in suicides and correlated with OB DCX levels. Suicides also displayed higher DCX-IR process volumes. These results support the notion that OB neurogenesis is minimal in adult humans. They further indicate that the differentiation and migration of SVZ-derived neuroblasts may be altered in unmedicated suicides, leading to an accumulation of ectopically-differentiating cells in the OT. Normal SVZ DCX expression among suicides receiving antidepressants suggests a potentially novel mode of action of antidepressant medication. Given the modest group sizes and rarity of DCX-IR cells assessed here, a larger-scale characterization will be required before firm conclusions can be made regarding the identity of these cells.

  6. Incidence of anogenital warts in Germany: a population-based cohort study

    Mikolajczyk Rafael T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papilloma virus (HPV types 6 and 11 account for 90 percent of anogenital warts (AGW. Assessment of a potential reduction of the incidence of AGW following introduction of HPV vaccines requires population-based incidence rates. The aim of this study was to estimate incidence rates of AGW in Germany, stratified by age, sex, and region. Additionally, the medical practitioner (gynaecologist, dermatologist, urologist etc. who made the initial diagnosis of AGW was assessed. Methods Retrospective cohort study in a population aged 10 to 79 years in a population-based healthcare insurance database. The database included more than 14 million insurance members from all over Germany during the years 2004-2006. A case of AGW was considered incident if a disease-free period of twelve months preceded the diagnosis. To assess regional variation, analyses were performed by federal state. Results The estimated incidence rate was 169.5/100,000 person-years for the German population aged 10 to 79 years. Most cases occurred in the 15 to 40 years age group. The incidence rate was higher and showed a peak at younger ages in females than in males. The highest incidence rates for both sexes were observed in the city-states Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen. In females, initial diagnosis of AGW was most frequently made by a gynaecologist (71.7%, whereas in males, AGW were most frequently diagnosed by a dermatologist (44.8% or urologist (25.1%. Conclusions Incidence of AGW in Germany is comparable with findings for other countries. As expected, most cases occurred in the younger age groups. The frequency of diagnoses of AGW differs between sexes and women and men receive treatment by doctors of different specialties.

  7. Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e rendimento de grãos em híbridos de milho submetidos ao aumento na densidade de plantas Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize hybrids submitted to the increase in plant density

    Ricardo Trezzi Casa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A adequada combinação entre a escolha da densidade de plantas e do híbrido é um dos fatores que contribuem para o aumento da produtividade do milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do incremento na densidade de plantas sobre a incidência de podridões do colmo, de grãos ardidos e o rendimento de grãos de dois híbridos de milho contrastantes quanto a tolerância ao adensamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, nas safras agrícolas 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de semeadura direta e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta constituída de aveia preta+ervilhaca. Estudou-se a combinação de dois fatores: híbrido e densidades, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com parcela sub-dividida. Na parcela principal avaliaram os híbridos: Speed (simples, tolerante ao adensamento e AG 303 (duplo, intolerante ao adensamento. Nas sub-parcelas testaram-se cinco densidades de plantas: 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mil plantas ha-1. O aumento da densidade de plantas, proporcionou incremento linear na incidência das podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos para os dois híbridos e duas safras avaliadas. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o mais detectado em colmos doentes, seguido do Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides e Stenocarpella sp. Nos grãos ardidos, os fungos predominantes foram F. verticillioides, F. graminearum e Penicillium spp. O híbrido AG 303 demonstrou menor resposta no rendimento do que o híbrido Speed com o aumento da população de plantas. Não foi observada associação direta entre o maior rendimento de grãos do híbrido simples em estandes adensados e a menor incidência de doenças de colmo e de grãos ardidos.The combination between plant density and hybrid choice is an important factor to enhance maize grain yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the increasing of plant density on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of two maize hybrids with

  8. Quality incidents in projects

    Eren, Serkan

    2010-01-01

    A quality incident is an occurrence that has a negative consequence on time, cost and quality.These incidents are important for quality management in the projects. Similar to Health,Safety and Environment Incidents (HSE incidents) which are widely used in organizations allaround the world and in their projects, quality incidents should also be reported. For thepurpose of this, quality incident reporting systems can be used.The main purpose of this project is to define and explain the current ...

  9. Incident users of antipsychotics

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...... polypharmacy (HR 1.38; 95 % CI 1.32-1.45), whereas antipsychotic discontinuation was associated with decreased hospitalization risk in most off-label conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The brief duration of most antipsychotic prescriptions suggests that antipsychotics are prescribed more liberally than recommended. As a...

  10. Changing incidence of thyroid cancer

    The incidence of thyroid cancer was examined temporally and geographically by age and sex from data provided by tumor registries in the United States and abroad. The temporal trends in Connecticut showed an increase in annual incidence after 1945, with an especially sudden increase in incidence in females. The increase occurred predominantly in older males and younger females. The increase in young females was confirmed by cohort analysis. The rates rose with age in both sexes, but recently females have developed a secondary peak in the fourth decade of life. The same phenomenon was observed in other U.S. data but not as clearly in data from ten foreign registries. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that radiation therapy for benign conditions of the head and neck in childhood was a factor in the increased incidence of thyroid cancer in U.S. females, but some other etiologic or modifying factor should be sought to explain the increased incidence in U.S. males

  11. Effect of increase of hand disinfectants dosage on incidence of nosocomial infections in ICU%增加手消毒剂用量对ICU医院感染率影响的研究

    徐敏; 许川; 熊杰; 江燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价增加手消毒剂用量对综合 ICU 医院感染发生率的影响,以提高医务人员手卫生依从率。方法2009年1月-2012年12月入住综合 ICU >48 h 的全部住院患者进行医院感染前瞻性监测,并进行干预前后对照研究,2009年1-12月为基线调查,前瞻性、主动监测相关指标,不主动推行干预;2010年为过渡期,逐步推广干预措施;2011年1月-2012年12月全面实施干预措施;包括加强手卫生培训、配备方便充足的手消毒剂、监督检查、每季度从药剂科调阅手消毒剂的使用并向临床反馈结果等。结果共收集2577例患者资料,感染211例,感染率8.19%;基线调查阶段综合 ICU 医院感染率为10.75%,实施干预措施后,医院感染发病率下降至4.17%,干预前后医院感染率比较差异有统计学意义(R =2.771,P< 0.05);手消毒剂领用量及每病床手消毒剂使用量从2009年的5900 ml 、4.75 ml/d 提高至2012年的106800 ml 、41.88 ml/d ,分别上涨了17.10倍及 7.82倍。结论 ICU 是医院感染的高危科室,通过干预措施提高手消毒剂用量可以降低医院感染的发生。%OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of increase of hand disinfectants dosage on the incidence of nosocomi -al infections in the general ICU so as to improve the hand hygiene compliance of health care workers .METHODS The prospective surveillance of the nosocomial infections was carried out for all the patients who were hospitalized the general ICU for more than 48 hours from Jan 2009 to Dec 2012 ,then the controlled study was conducted be-fore and after the intervention ;the baseline survey ,prospective ,and initiative surveillance were performed from Jan 2009 to Dec 2009 ,and the intervention was not actively carried out ,while the intervention measures were gradually promoted during the transitional period of 2010 and were fully implemented from Jan 2011 to

  12. Incident Information Management Tool

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  13. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  14. Declining incidence of acromioplasty in Finland

    Paloneva, Juha; Lepola, Vesa; Karppinen, Jaro; Ylinen, Jari; Äärimaa, Ville; Mattila, Ville M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose An increased incidence rate of acromioplasty has been reported; we analyzed data from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register. Patients and methods During the 14-year study period (1998–2011), 68,877 acromioplasties without rotator cuff repair were performed on subjects aged 18 years or older. Results The incidence of acromioplasty increased by 117% from 75 to 163 per 105 person years between 1998 and 2007. The highest incidence was observed in 2007, after whic...

  15. Carcinoma de células escamosas da cavidade oral em pacientes jovens e sua crescente incidência: revisão de literatura Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in young patients and its increasing incidence: literature review

    Beatriz R. M. Venturi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste estudo é rever o carcinoma de células escamosas oral na população jovem. A literatura mostra um comportamento diferente neste tipo de doença, que parece ser mais agressivo. Existe uma forte relação entre alguns hábitos (tabaco e consumo de álcool e o desenvolvimento do carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE oral, mas nestes casos os pacientes normalmente não relatam hábitos considerados de risco. Existe um pequeno número de relatos de casos de CCE oral em pacientes com menos de 40 anos de idade, então é difícil de provar o aumento da incidência do CCE da cavidade oral como dito na literatura. Outros estudos são necessários para entendermos melhor esta entidade. A identificação das características desta população jovem se faz necessária, pois pode refletir problemas no controle do câncer e pode possibilitar o desenvolvimento de um programa de prevenção primária para o CCE oral em pacientes jovens.The purpose of this study was to review the squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in young population. The literature shows a different behavior in this type of disease; it seems to be more aggressive. There is a close relationship between some habits (tobacco and alcohol consumption and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, but in this case the patients normally relate no risk factors. There is a little number of case report of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in patients under 40 years old, so it's difficult to prove the increasing of the squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity as said in the literature. Further studies are necessary to know better this entity. The identification of the characteristics of this young population is necessary, because it might reflect problems in cancer control and can enable the development of a primary prevention program for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in young patients.

  16. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p < .001), the incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p < .001) and the...... incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p < .001). The incidence rate of healthcare-associated bacteremia remained stable. The most common microorganisms were Escherichia coli (28.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.3%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (10...

  17. Analysis on the cause and preventive strategy for increased measles incidence in infants%婴儿麻疹发病率升高的原因及其控制策略分析

    成骢; 赵红; 陆培善; 周乙华

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨婴幼儿对麻疹易感的原因并提出控制的策略.方法 采集本院47例小于12月龄麻疹患儿的咽拭子和患儿及母亲的血清,同时采集13位幼年患过麻疹的育龄妇女血清作为对照.通过细胞培养测定血清中和抗体滴度,使用ELISA诊断试剂定量检测麻疹IgG和IgM抗体.根据抗体检测结果再分组进行统计学分析.结果 (1)47例患儿中,45例(95.7%)麻疹IgG抗体阴性;(2)麻疹IgM(一)组患儿母亲IgG抗体均值为1108 mIU/ml,明显低于对照组的2793 mIU/ml(P<0.05);(3)麻疹IgM(一)组患儿母亲麻疹中和抗体几何平均滴度(GMT)为1∶30,明显低于对照组的1:182(P<0.05);(4)8例患儿母亲麻疹IgG抗体及中和抗体水平异常升高.结论 1岁以下幼儿患麻疹的主要原因是患儿没能从母体中获得足够的麻疹抗体;育龄妇女在怀孕前加强接种麻疹疫苗,是可行而又有效的提高婴幼儿对麻疹免疫力的方法.%Objective To analyze the cause and preventive strategy for increased measles incidence in infants. Methods Forty-seven infants(≦12 months of age) with a clinical diagnosis of measles and their mothers were recruited. Blood samples from their mothers and 13 women who had the histories of clinical measles were collected for detecting the neutralizing antibody levels by cell cultures and meales IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA The results were statistically analyzed. Results (1)The measles IgG antibodies were negative in 45(95. 7%) ill infants. (2)The average level of the measles IgG antibody in the mothers with negative IgM was significantly lower than that in the comparable women(il08 mIU/ml vs. 2793 mIU/ml) ( P< 0. 05 ). (3)The GMT of the measles neutralizing antibody titers in the 47 mothers with negative IgM was 1 : 30,which was lower than 1 :182 in the comparable women(P<0. 05). (4)The positive measles IgM antibody and extremely high levels of measles IgG underwent subclinical infection were seen in 8

  18. Linux Incident Response Volatile Data Analysis Framework

    McFadden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Cyber incident response is an emphasized subject area in cybersecurity in information technology with increased need for the protection of data. Due to ongoing threats, cybersecurity imposes many challenges and requires new investigative response techniques. In this study a Linux Incident Response Framework is designed for collecting volatile data…

  19. Large whale incident database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  20. Incident Report - Legacy

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Incident Report is a mandatory post trip legal document observers fill out to report any enforcement related situations they have encountered on an observed...

  1. [Incidence of cancer in Navarre].

    Ardanaz, E; Moreno, C; Pérez de Rada Arístegui, M E; Ezponda, C; Navaridas, N

    2004-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2000 an annual average of 3,303 cases of invasive cancer were registered in Navarre, 58% of them in men. If we except non melanoma skin tumours, the annual number of cases was 2,495, with gross incidence rates of 559 and 372 per 100,000 in men and women, and rates adjusted to the world population of 312 and 203 per 100,000 respectively. Amongst men, the four most frequently diagnosed tumoural localisations were the prostate, lung, colorectal and bladder, accounting for 57% of all cases. The most notable due to their frequency amongst women were tumours of the breast, colorectal, uterus body and ovary, accounting for 54% of all cases. With respect to the five year period from 1993 to 1997, the global incidence of cancer in the three year period from 1998 to 2000 has increased 4.2% in men and 7.4% in women. The incidence of lung cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in both sexes and of breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men are notable. There continues to be a fall in the incidence rates of stomach cancer in both sexes, following the tendency begun in the 1970s. PMID:15644889

  2. NRC Incident Response Plan

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates civilian nuclear activities to protect the public health and safety and to preserve environmental quality. An Incident Response Plan had been developed and has now been revised to reflect current Commission policy. NUREG-0728, Rev. 2 assigns responsibilities for responding to any potentially threatening incident involving NRC licensed activities and for assuring that the NRC will fulfill it statutory mission. This report has also been reproduced for staff use as NRC Manual Chapter 0502

  3. Lunar Tractive Forces and Renal Stone Incidence

    Spyridon Arampatzis; Thalmann, George N.; Heinz Zimmermann; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2011-01-01

    Background. Several factors are implicated in renal stone formation and peak incidence of renal colic admissions to emergency departments (ED). Little is known about the influence of potential environmental triggers such as lunar gravitational forces. We conducted a retrospective study to test the hypothesis that the incidence of symptomatic renal colics increases at the time of the full and new moon because of increased lunar gravitational forces. Methods. We analysed 1500 patients who atten...

  4. [Future cancer incidents in Germany].

    Haberland, J; Bertz, J; Görsch, B; Dölle, R; Kurth, B-M

    2006-05-01

    The future as well as the past development of cancer incidents in Germany is of continuous importance for health policy. Cancer incidence data observed over more than 20 years are analysed by log-linear models with polynomial trend components. The estimated trend models are used for a trend extrapolation until the year 2020. Since cancer registration in Germany is not complete yet and does not cover the whole area of the country national incidences are estimated by the data of the existing complete regional cancer registries. In this way it can be assessed that the number of new cancer diseases increased from 270,000 cases in 1980 to 420,000 cases in 2002. Extrapolating the trends and taking into account the demographic prognosis of the German Federal Statistical Office 570,000 (version 1) or 590,000 (version 9) annual cancer cases are predicted for the year 2020. From 1980 to 2002 a decrease of cancer mortality was observed. If this trend continues until 2020, the number of deaths caused by cancer would decrease from 209,000 in 2002 to 153,000 (or 158,000) in 2020, although the number of cancer cases are predicted to increase. Assuming constant mortality rates the number of deaths caused by cancer would be much higher. PMID:16596362

  5. Psychological Trauma in the Workplace: Variation of Incident Severity among Industry Settings and between Recurring vs Isolated Incidents

    GS DeFraia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents occur within various work environments, with workgroups in certain industries vulnerable to multiple incidents. With the increasing prevalence of incidents in the USA, incident response is a growing practice area within occupational medicine, industrial psychology, occupational social work and other occupational health professions.Objective: To analyze a measure of incident severity based on level of disruption to the workplace and explore whether incident severity varied among different industry settings or between workgroups experiencing multiple vs single traumatic incidents.Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring incident severity level varied among industry settings or between workgroups impacted by multiple vs isolated events.Results: Incident severity level differed among various industry settings. Banks, retail stores and fast food restaurants accounted for the most severe incidents, while industrial and manufacturing sites reported less severe incidents. Workgroups experiencing multiple incidents reported more severe incidents than workgroups experiencing a single incident.Conclusion: Occupational health practitioners should be alert to industry differences in several areas: pre-incident resiliency training, the content of business recovery plans, assessing worker characteristics, strategies to assist continuous operations and assisting workgroups impacted by multiple or severe incidents.

  6. Leukaemia incidents after Chernobyl accident

    Romania and especially its Eastern territory were among the most heavily affected area after Chernobyl accident. The objective of our study was to investigate whether or not the nuclear accident determined an increased number of leukaemia cases. The specific rates of leukaemia incidents by age group were calculated in 588167 children aged 0-6 years in April 1986 and 99917 children which have been exposed 'in utero'. The rates of 1989-1994 period were compared with the rates of 1980-1985 period. The incidence rates were lower in the exposed group than that in controls for children under 1 year (20.52/105 inh vs 23.11/105 inh), 1-3 years (13.26/105 inh vs 16.11/105 inh) and 4-6 years (9.58/105 inh vs 10.58/105 inh). The cohort of 'in utero' exposed children presented a leukaemia incidences insignificantly higher than that before the accident (23.10/105 inh vs 15.93/105 inh)

  7. Simultaneity of Crime Incidence in Mindanao

    Madanlo, Lalaine; Murcia, John Vianne; Tamayo, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The study simulated the predictive relationships of regional monthly crime rates for a period covering January 2009 to July 2013. A six-equation model representing the six regions in Mindanao was estimated using the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR). The SUR estimation shows that the increase of incidences of crimes in Southern Mindanao Region and SOCCSKSARGEN tended a 1.73% rise and 0.85% reduction in crime incidences in Zamboanga Peninsula. Monthly crime rates in Northern Mindanao in...

  8. Incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy

    Abelmann, Walter H.

    1985-01-01

    Full reliable data on the incidence and prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy are not available. In the United States, at least 0.7% of cardiac deaths are attributable to cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy probably contributes the great majority of these cases. The mortality rate for cardiomyopathy in males is twice that of females, and for blacks it is 2.4 times that of whites. Cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in 0.67% of patients discharged from hospitals in 1979 with diagnoses of disease of...

  9. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552.

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled "Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012" [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept "prevalence" is not correctly used.[...]. PMID:27376318

  10. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  11. Cancer incidence among waiters

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...

  12. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  13. Leukaemia incidence in Somerset

    Analysis I confirms two previous studies. There is a high rate of leukaemia incidence (all ages) in the MPH catchment area, compared with rates found by the Leukaemia Research Fund (LRF) for a large part of the country. LRF rates are only available for 1984-1986. For 1971-1987, local rates are 24% higher than LRF rates for 1984-1986. Limiting analysis to the three-year period for which LRF rates are available reveals a local rate for 1984-1986 that is 61% higher than the LRF rate. Analysis II thus identifies an unusual pattern of leukaemia and non-Hodgkins Lymphoma incidence in the vicinity of Hinkley Point. A relatively high rate exists for the period 1964-1986 but excess cases are concentrated in the period 1964-1973; after 1973, the rate is unremarkable. There is no ready explanation for this pattern. If radioactive emissions from Hinkley Point are responsible, large unreported releases would need to have occurred in the 1960's. This possibility needs to be explored. There are other possible explanations but current knowledge about causes of leukaemia is insufficient to offer definite answers. (Author)

  14. Road Congestion and Incident Duration

    Adler, Martin W.; van Ommeren, Jos; Rietveld, Piet

    2013-01-01

    Non-recurrent congestion is frequently caused by accidents and other incidents. We estimate the causal effect of incident duration on drivers’ time losses through changes in non-recurrent road congestion on Dutch highways. We demonstrate that incident duration has a strong positive, but concave, effect on non-recurrent congestion. The duration elasticity of non-recurrent congestion is about 0.40 implying that a one minute duration reduction generates a €60 gain per incident. We also show that...

  15. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  16. Financial standing of counties in the Wielkopolskie province in the years 2004-2006

    Anna Majchrzak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a selection of indexes describing financial standing of local government units based on counties of the Wielkopolskie province. On the basis of their values analysed local government units were classified using Ward’s method to form classes with a similar financial situation.

  17. Benthic Habitat of Lanai Derived From IKONOS and Quick Bird Satellite Imagery, 2004-2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  18. Shoreline of Niihau Derived From IKONOS and Quick Bird Satellite Imagery, 2004-2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  19. Benthic Habitats of Kauai Derived From IKONOS and Quick Bird Satellite Imagery, 2004-2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  20. A Volcano Rekindled: The Renewed Eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Mount St. Helens began a dome-building eruption in September 2004 after nearly two decades of quiescence. Dome growth was initially robust, became more sluggish with time, and ceased completely in late January 2008. The volcano has been quiet again since January 2008. Professional Paper 1750 describes the first 1 1/2 years of this eruptive activity, chiefly from September 2004 until December 2005. Its 37 chapters contain contributions of 87 authors from 23 institutions, including the U.S. Geological Survey, Forest Service, many universities, and local and State emergency management agencies. Chapter topics range widely - from seismology, geology, geodesy, gas geochemistry, and petrology to the human endeavor required for managing the public volcanic lands and distributing information during the hectic early days of a renewed eruption. In PDF format, the book may be downloaded in its entirety or by its topical sections, each section including a few prefatory paragraphs that describe the general findings, recurrent themes, and, in some cases, the unanswered questions that arise repeatedly. Those readers who prefer downloading the smaller files of only a chapter or two have this option available as well. Readers are directed to chapter 1 for a general overview of the eruption and the manner in which different chapters build our knowledge of events. More detailed summaries for specific topics can be found in chapter 2 (seismology), chapter 9 (geology), chapter 14 (deformation), chapter 26 (gas geochemistry), and chapter 30 (petrology). The printed version of the book may be purchased as a hardback weighty tome (856 printed pages) that includes a DVD replete with the complete online version, including all chapters and several additional appendixes not in the printed book.

  1. eroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in trade cattle slaughtered in Ibadan, Nigeria, from 2004-2006

    S. I.B. Cadmus

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A seroprevalence study was carried out among trade cattle slaughtered at Bodija Municipal Abattoir, Ibadan (southwestern Nigeria over a period of 3 consecutive years from 2004 to 2006 with a view to determining the breed, sex and age distribution in the seropositivity of bovine brucellosis. In total, 1642 animals were examined for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Seroprevalences of 6.00 %, 6.17 % and 5.31 % were obtained in the years 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively but a decrease in 2006 shows no significant difference (P>0.05. The role of the breed (P>0.05, sex (P>0.05 and age (P>0.05 in the occurrence of the infection was not statistically significant at 5 %, although higher rates were obtained for females and older animals. The trend in the disease over the 3-year period showed that it is endemic in trade cattle slaughtered in Ibadan and the public health implications of this are discussed.

  2. Whipple Telescope Observations of LS I +61 303: 2004-2006

    Smith, A

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the past two years' observations on the galactic microquasar LS I +61 303 with the Whipple 10m gamma-ray telescope. The recent MAGIC detection of the source between 200 GeV and 4 TeV suggests that the source is periodic with very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission linked to its orbital cycle. The entire 50-hour data set obtained with Whipple from 2004 to 2006 was analyzed with no reliable detection resulting. The upper limits obtained in the 2005-2006 season covered several of the same epochs as the MAGIC Telescope detections, albeit with lower sensitivity. Upper limits are placed on emission during the orbital phases of 0->0.1 and 0.8->1, phases which are not included in the MAGIC data set.

  3. Ground Validation GPS of the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands UTM Zone 4, 2004-2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  4. Benthic Habitat of Oahu Derived From IKONOS and Quick Bird Satellite Imagery, 2004-2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  5. Benthic Habitat of Maui Derived From IKONOS and Quick Bird Satellite Imagery, 2004-2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  6. Shoreline of Kauala Derived From IKONOS and Quick Bird Satellite Imagery, 2004-2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  7. Northern fur seal foraging strategies, Bogoslof and St. Paul Islands 2004-2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are part of North Pacific Research Board Project 414 and Project 514. Project 514 provided a second year of data collection to the study detailed in...

  8. Eesti maaelu arengukava 2004-2006 toetused / Ülle Puusta

    Puusta, Ülle

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk. 71-72. Eesti maaelu arengukava meetmete rahastamisallikateks on EL-i eelarve (80%) ning Eesti riigieelarve (20%)

  9. Accuracy Assessment Field Data for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands UTM Zone 4, 2004-2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  10. Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: summary of data collection 2004-2006

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Eshleman, Jodi; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, contains a persistent erosional section in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta and south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. Coastal managers have been discussing potential mediation measures for over a decade, with little scientific research available to aid in decision making. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study in April 2004 to provide the scientific knowledge necessary for coastal managers to make informed management decisions. This study integrates a wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling techniques to document nearshore sediment transport processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, with emphasis on how these processes relate to erosion at Ocean Beach. The Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study is the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay.

  11. Cohortstudie arbeid, verzuim en gezondheid (AVG) : methodologie en eerste resultaten 2004-2006

    Ybema, J.F.; Sanders, J.; Vroome, E. de

    2006-01-01

    De cohortstudie Arbeid, Verzuim en Gezondheid (AVG) is een onderzoek dat TNO verricht in samenwerking met het ministerie van VWS. De AVG is een longitudinaal studie met drie jaarlijkse metingen (in 2004, 2005 en 2006) onder werknemers. Het doel is te onderzoeken hoe het gedrag van werknemers, werkge

  12. Cohortstudie arbeid, verzuim en gezondheid (AVG) : methodologie en eerste resultaten 2004-2006

    Ybema, J.F.; Sanders, J.; Vroome, E. de

    2006-01-01

    De cohortstudie Arbeid, Verzuim en Gezondheid (AVG) is een onderzoek dat TNO verricht in samenwerking met het ministerie van VWS. De AVG is een longitudinaal studie met drie jaarlijkse metingen (in 2004, 2005 en 2006) onder werknemers. Het doel is te onderzoeken hoe het gedrag van werknemers, werkgevers en zorgverleners van invloed is op de gezondheid en het ziekteverzuim van werknemers. Vooral de effecten van werkgeversbeleid staan hierbij centraal. Dit rapport bevat een methodologische vera...

  13. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  14. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this...... study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS: A...... total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4.52) and...

  15. Statement of nuclear incidents

    Eight incidents were reported. Three mothers (two at BNFL's Sellafield Reprocessing Plant and one at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories) had been contaminated and received more than the annual dose limit. At the Winfrith Atomic Energy Establishment, Cs124 and Cs137 had been washed off the outside of a flask onto the ground. At the BNFL Springfields works a discharge of a solution of natural uranium had occurred to the site foul drain. At the Drigg storage and disposal site a leak from a storage tank was reported. In the other three cases no radioactive release occurred. There was a loose coupling on a tiebar of a fuel stringer at Heysham-I reactor, water beneath a pipeline discharging from Harwell Laboratory was found not to be contaminated and at Dungeness-B a fuel assembly was dropped to the bottom of the reactor during refuelling. (UK)

  16. Incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in Denmark

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Marianne G;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To estimate the occurrence of epilepsy in Denmark between 1977 and 2002, taking gender, age, and secular trends into consideration. METHODS: We used the Danish Civil Registration System to identify all persons born in Denmark and the Danish National Hospital Register to identify persons...... registered with epilepsy between 1977 and 2002. RESULTS: Between 1977 and 2002 the average incidence of epilepsy was 68.8 new epilepsy patients per 100,000 person-years at risk. However, the incidence changed with calendar time and increased steeply from 1990 to 1995, probably due to changes in diagnostic...... declined from a high level in children to a low level between 20 and 40 years of age, and thereafter a gradual increase was seen. The incidence rate was slightly higher in men than in women except for the age range 10-20 years. About 2% of the population was diagnosed with epilepsy at some point during the...

  17. Increased incidence of stings in venom-sensitive patients.

    Stone, B D; Hutcheson, P S; Evans, R G; Slavin, R G

    1992-11-01

    We compared the histories of 29 venom-sensitive and 28 control subjects who were selected from our venom referral and general allergy clinics respectively. The variables in the study included insect avoidance knowledge, the number of stings during the previous 2 years, insects involved, and time spent out of doors per week. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to age. All venom-sensitive patients were well versed in avoidance techniques while only 3 of 28 controls (11%) claimed such knowledge. Venom-sensitive subjects were stung almost ten times more frequently than control subjects. Wasp stings were the most common, followed by yellow jacket, honey bee, and hornet. The venom-sensitive patients also reported spending a greater amount of time outdoors (x 17.4 hours versus x 11.8, P < .05). An analysis of covariance showed that this difference in outdoor exposure was insufficient to account for the disparity in the number of stings. We conclude that other factors such as intrinsic attractants must be responsible for this phenomenon. PMID:1456488

  18. Early childhood leukemia incidence trends in Brazil.

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; de Camargo, Beatriz; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of childhood leukemia vary between different regions of the world. The objective of this study was to test possible trends in incidence rate of early childhood leukemia (children leukemia was 61 per million. The AAIR for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) was 44 per million and nonlymphoid acute leukemia (NLAL) was 14 per million. The median ALL/NLAL ratio was 3.0, suggesting higher incidence rate of NLAL in these settings. The joinpoint analysis demonstrated increased leukemia incidence rate in João Pessoa (AAPC = 20; 95% CI: 3.5, 39.4) and Salvador (AAPC = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.9), respectively, whereas incidence rate in São Paulo PBCR decreased (AAPC = -4.02%; 95% CI: -6.1%, -1.9%). Correlation between ALL AAIR and selected variables of socioeconomic (SES) factors was not observed. Increased AAIR regionally overtime was observed. However, the interpretation for such phenomenon should be cautious because it might reflect the access to health care, diagnosis procedures, and improvement of PBCR´s quality. The observed trend supports the necessity of further ecological studies. PMID:26925506

  19. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  20. Precursor incident program at EDF

    The precursor program was started by EDF in 1994, after an investigation of the US NRC's Accident Sequence Precursor Program. Since then, reported operational events identified as Safety Outstanding Events have been analyzed whenever possible using probabilistic methods based on PSAs. Analysis provides an estimate of the remaining protection against core damage at the time the incident occurred. Measuring the incidents' severity enables to detect incidents important regarding safety. Moreover, the most efficient feedback actions can be derived from the main accident sequences identified through the analysis. Therefore, incident probabilistic analysis provides a way to assess priorities in terms of treatment and resource allocation, and so, to implement countermeasures preventing further occurrence and development of the most significant incidents. As some incidents cannot be analyzed using this method, probabilistic analysis can only be one among the methods used to assess the nuclear power plants' safety level. Nevertheless, it provides an interesting complement to classical methods of deterministic studies. (author)

  1. Incident Dispatching, Clearance and Delay

    Hall, Randolph

    2000-01-01

    This report models response times and delays for highway incidents, according for spacing between interchanges and the time penalty for changing directions, enabling a response vehicle to reach an incident on the opposite side of the highway. A fundamental question in dispatching incident crews is whether to send the closest vehicle that is currently available or to wait for another to become available that is even closer. Waiting for a closer one is advantageous because service time is effec...

  2. Incident reporting in general practice

    Zwart, D.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and aim An incident reporting procedure (IRP) is an important part of patient safety management in healthcare. Currently, patient safety efforts are mainly guided by the ‘systems approach’: incidents, defined as ‘unintended or unexpected events which could have led or did lead to harm for patients’, may teach healthcare providers about the risks and possible flaws of their healthcare system. Hence, incidents should not only be detected and recorded, but also profoundly analysed, in...

  3. Problematika incident managementu v podniku

    Vašák, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Diploma thesis is dedicated to network management principles, mainly focused on incident management. It begins with a definition of incident management followed by an explanation in corresponding to ISO standards. Later in this theoretical prologue are introduced all functional elements of incident management including relations between them. Prologue also consists of detailed description of the TMN model and method of alarm correlation. The second, practical part of this thesis describes the...

  4. Goiania incident case study

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  5. Integrating incident investigation into the management system

    In the last 10 yr, the size and frequency of incidents affecting the communities and environment surrounding chemical processing facilities has increased. The chemical process industry, which has always concerned itself with the safety of its facilities, has responded by committing to stricter standards of operation and management. A critical element of these management practices is the use of a structured incident investigation program. Many facilities have implemented and disciplined themselves to perform good investigation of incidents. However, most of these facilities maintain incident investigation as part of their safety management programs. This allows the process to be disconnected from the management system that deals with the day-to-day business of the facility. The first step of integration is understanding the objectives and functions of the management system into which the integration is to occur. To begin, a common definition of management is needed. Management, for the purposes of this discussion, is defined as the system of activities used to control, coordinate, and improve the flow of work within a facility or organization. This definition refers to several concepts that need further development in order to understand how incident investigation can be integrated into a management system, including (a) flow of work, (b) control, and (c) improvement. Application can be made to the nuclear industry

  6. Incidence of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil

    Anie Savi Serafim; Gustavo Pasquali Moretti; Guilherme Savi Serafim; Cintia Vieira Niero; Maria Inês da Rosa; Maria Marlene de Souza Pires; Priscyla Waleska Targino de Azevedo Simões

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to establish the incidence rates of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil from 2001 to 2009. Methods Temporal ecological and descriptive study based on the cases recorded by the System of Information of Notifiable Diseases. Results The incidence of congenital syphilis has been increasing in the South Region of Brazil since 2004; the highest incidence rates were in women who received prenatal care (113.5 new cases per 100,000 births, p

  7. Information Security Incident Management : An Empirical Study of Current Practice

    Hove, Cathrine; Tårnes, Marte

    2013-01-01

    An increasing use of digital solutions suggests that organizations today are more exposed to attacks than before. Recent reports show that attacks get more advanced and that attackers choose their targets more wisely. Despite preventive measures being implemented, incidents occur occasionally. This calls for effective and efficient information security incident management. Several standards and guidelines addressing incident management exist. However, few studies of current practices have bee...

  8. EYE DISEASES: INCIDENCE AND PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET OF OPHTHALMOLOGICAL DRUGS

    Antropova, G.; Okonenko, T.

    2011-01-01

    Incidence evaluation of eye and its appendicular apparatus diseases (EAAD) among urban population of Novgorod region has been performed. The tendencies of high incidence of ocular organs particularly in children and teenagers have been investigated. Growth of incidence leads to an increase of ophthalmological medicines (OMs) use. The analysis of OMs sale at the pharmaceutical market retail segment of Novgorod region has been carried out.

  9. Obliquely incident ion beam figuring

    Zhou, Lin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Shengyi

    2015-10-01

    A new ion beam figuring (IBF) technique, obliquely incident IBF (OI-IBF), is proposed. In OI-IBF, the ion beam bombards the optical surface obliquely with an invariable incident angle instead of perpendicularly as in the normal IBF. Due to the higher removal rate in oblique incidence, the process time in OI-IBF can be significantly shortened. The removal rates at different incident angles were first tested, and then a test mirror was processed by OI-IBF. Comparison shows that in the OI-IBF technique with a 30 deg incident angle, the process time was reduced by 56.8%, while keeping the same figure correcting ability. The experimental results indicate that the OI-IBF technique is feasible and effective to improve the surface correction process efficiency.

  10. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Jamie E McFadden-Hiller

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents. We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula, primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99, with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping