WorldWideScience

Sample records for 2000-2001 pesticide market

  1. Progress report 2000 / 2001

    The 2000-2001 period has seen many facts of importance for the EURATOM-Cea association. The first outstanding fact is the positive evolution of the ITER project because of both the willingness of the partners and the French proposition to the European Union to consider the Cadarache site as the European site. The second outstanding fact is both the installation on Tore-Supra of a new generation of plasma-facing component: the Ciel project and the launch of the Cimes project whose aim is to allow Tore-Supra to reach discharge up to 1000 s. The third outstanding fact is the continuation of experiments in Jet after 1999, end date of the Jet Joint Undertaking. These new provisions aim at maintaining in activity the spearhead of the European program, waiting for a clarification of the ITER situation. Among the results obtained in Jet operations, we can quote those having a direct influence on the ITER performances: - the beneficial effect of a high triangularity on the ELM (edge localized modes) and on the confinement factor at high density, - the real time control of advanced tokamak discharges at quasi steady state, and the theoretical explanation of the current hole (in lower hybrid advanced scenarios, a region with vanishing current density that appears in the plasma centre). (A.C.)

  2. Annual Report 2000-2001

    The annual report for the year 2000-2001 has been compiled, which offers concise description of tasks achieved and status of on going efforts pertaining to PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Commission) programme. The tasks description are as: highlights of various projects, nuclear power plants, physical sciences and engineering, biosciences, nuclear minerals, human resource development, projects, international relations. At the end of this report financial position of PAEC and list of publication is also available. (A.B.)

  3. Influenza activity 2000/2001

    Pechirra, Pedro; Rebelo-de-Andrade, Helena; Guiomar, Raquel; Ribeiro, Carlos; Coelho, Anabela; Pedro, Sónia; George, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    As infecções por vírus influenza são uma importante causa de morbilidade em todos os grupos etários e estão associados a uma elevada mortalidade nos idosos e nos indivíduos pertencentes a grupos de risco. No presente estudo analisaram-se os dados da vigilância epidemiológica da gripe durante o Inverno de 2000/2001. Os dados clínicos, epidemiológicos e virológicos referentes aos casos de síndroma gripal foram recolhidos através do Programa Nacional de Vigilância da Gripe que ...

  4. Annual review 2000-2001

    This report reviews the activities of the LAPP (particle physics laboratory of Annecy-le-Vieux) for the years 2000-2001. The central themes of research are: 1) the standard model and its extension, 2) the study of CP violation (contribution to the experiments BABAR and LHCb), 3) the search for the Higgs'boson (contribution to the experiments ALEPH, L3, ATLAS and CMS), 4) physics of neutrinos (contribution to the experiments NOMAD and OPERA), 5) the study of anti-matter and cosmic radiation (contribution to the experiment AMS and to the project EUSO embarked on the international spatial station), and 6) the search for gravitational waves (contribution to the experiment VIRGO)

  5. Progress report 2000-2001

    This document reports the activities of the ISN (nuclear sciences institute of Grenoble) for the 2 last years 2000, 2001. ISN's teams are involved in 3 research axis: elementary particles and hadrons, astro-particles and new systems for producing nuclear energy. In this document the activities have been classified into 18 topics: 1) the ATLAS experiment (detector for LHC), 2) the D0 experiment (electron identification and b-tagging), 3) the DELPHI experiment (R-parity violation), 4) the AMS experiment (embarked cosmic ray detector), 5) the cosmic microwave background (CMB), 6) the MUNU experiment (magnetic moment of antineutrinos), 7) the EUSO experiment (detection of the extreme energy cosmic rays), 8) 2 parity violation experiments (GO and SAMPLE), 9) the photo-production of mesons on proton (GRAAL), 10) a new isomeric state for Sb136, 11) a new shape isomer for Kr72, 12) new μs isomers near Sn132, 13) laser spectroscopy measurements for very neutron-rich tin isotopes, 14) hybrid demonstrator, 15) hadron-therapy (Etoile project), 16) positron emission tomography, 17) theories and models, and 18) technological work on accelerators and ion sources. (A.C.)

  6. SPACE LIFE SCIENCE IN 2000-2001

    2002-01-01

    Chinese scientists studied some of the problems in the field of space life science and achieved success in the area during 2000-2001. Space biological experi ments were carried out in the orbit and the results of ground studies on protein crystallization, space radiation, space motion sickness were introduced in this paper. The influences of simulated weightlessness on the brain-function, the car diovascular, endocrine hormones, immunity, skeletal and muscle systems were presented. In addition, gravity medicine and space environment medicine, as well as countermeasures to space deconditioning, such as the traditional Chinese medicine, were also reported.

  7. Annual review 2000-2001; Rapport d'activite 2000-2001

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report reviews the activities of the LAPP (particle physics laboratory of Annecy-le-Vieux) for the years 2000-2001. The central themes of research are: 1) the standard model and its extension, 2) the study of CP violation (contribution to the experiments BABAR and LHCb), 3) the search for the Higgs'boson (contribution to the experiments ALEPH, L3, ATLAS and CMS), 4) physics of neutrinos (contribution to the experiments NOMAD and OPERA), 5) the study of anti-matter and cosmic radiation (contribution to the experiment AMS and to the project EUSO embarked on the international spatial station), and 6) the search for gravitational waves (contribution to the experiment VIRGO)

  8. Progress report 2000 / 2001; Rapport d'activite 2000 / 2001

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The 2000-2001 period has seen many facts of importance for the EURATOM-Cea association. The first outstanding fact is the positive evolution of the ITER project because of both the willingness of the partners and the French proposition to the European Union to consider the Cadarache site as the European site. The second outstanding fact is both the installation on Tore-Supra of a new generation of plasma-facing component: the Ciel project and the launch of the Cimes project whose aim is to allow Tore-Supra to reach discharge up to 1000 s. The third outstanding fact is the continuation of experiments in Jet after 1999, end date of the Jet Joint Undertaking. These new provisions aim at maintaining in activity the spearhead of the European program, waiting for a clarification of the ITER situation. Among the results obtained in Jet operations, we can quote those having a direct influence on the ITER performances: - the beneficial effect of a high triangularity on the ELM (edge localized modes) and on the confinement factor at high density, - the real time control of advanced tokamak discharges at quasi steady state, and the theoretical explanation of the current hole (in lower hybrid advanced scenarios, a region with vanishing current density that appears in the plasma centre). (A.C.)

  9. Progress report 2000-2001; Rapport d'activite 2000-2001

    Albrand, S.; Carbonell, J.; Chauvin, J.; Compara, V.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Conto, J.M. de; Favro, C.; Lleres, A.; Merle, E.; Quemener, G.; Renault, C.; Tur, C

    2001-07-01

    This document reports the activities of the ISN (nuclear sciences institute of Grenoble) for the 2 last years 2000, 2001. ISN's teams are involved in 3 research axis: elementary particles and hadrons, astro-particles and new systems for producing nuclear energy. In this document the activities have been classified into 18 topics: 1) the ATLAS experiment (detector for LHC), 2) the D0 experiment (electron identification and b-tagging), 3) the DELPHI experiment (R-parity violation), 4) the AMS experiment (embarked cosmic ray detector), 5) the cosmic microwave background (CMB), 6) the MUNU experiment (magnetic moment of antineutrinos), 7) the EUSO experiment (detection of the extreme energy cosmic rays), 8) 2 parity violation experiments (GO and SAMPLE), 9) the photo-production of mesons on proton (GRAAL), 10) a new isomeric state for Sb{sup 136}, 11) a new shape isomer for Kr{sup 72}, 12) new {mu}s isomers near Sn{sup 132}, 13) laser spectroscopy measurements for very neutron-rich tin isotopes, 14) hybrid demonstrator, 15) hadron-therapy (Etoile project), 16) positron emission tomography, 17) theories and models, and 18) technological work on accelerators and ion sources. (A.C.)

  10. Estonie 2000-2001 : La fin des consensus politiques? / Celine Bayou, Matthieu Chillaud

    Bayou, Celine

    2001-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti poliitikast ja majandusest aastal 2000-2001. Tabelid: Eesti majandusnäitajad 1993-2000; poliitiliste sündmuste kronoloogia 2000-2001 mai; Eesti erakonnad; valitsuse koosseis juuni 2001

  11. ARE. Regional energy supplies - progress report 2000-2001; ARE. Regionale Energieversorgung 2000-2001. Taetigkeitsbericht

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    The ARE progress report discusses the following issues: Economic development and its effects on power supply; Deregulation of the electricity and gas market; Competition between regional utilities; Energy policy of the new German government; European regulations; Legislation on energy supply; Energy supply and cartel law; Regional supply in the East German states. [German] Der Taetigkeitsbericht der ARE befasst sich mit folgenden Themen: Gesamtwirtschaftliche Entwicklung und ihre Auswirkung auf die Energiewirtschaft, Oeffnung des Monopoles fuer Strom und Gas, Wettbewerb der regionalen Energieversorger, Energiepolitik der neuen Bundesregierung, Europaeische Richtlininen, energiewirtschaftsrecht, Versorgungswirtschaft und Kartellrecht und der Regionalversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern.

  12. LESSONS FROM THE CRISIS – TURKISH BANKING CRISIS OF 2000-2001

    Gabriela PICIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades or so the Turkish banking system has experienced many changes especially with the liberalization of the financial markets, financial inovations, inovations in the information technology and the increase in the number of financial transactions. With consolidations, competition has grown among banks and they are now competing for smaller profit margins. With all these changes, there has also been a change in the type of risks to which banks are now exposed. If the banking system in Turkey is following the right path as the authorities in Turkey claim then how did the country get into the grip of the banking crisis of 2000-2001? What went wrong and why bank loans turned into bad debts must be examined. The Turkish Experience resulting from the financial crisis of 2000-2001 shows that the country has learned the lesson. The financial crisis of 2008 hadn't an impact so great in Turkey compared with other countries.

  13. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor

  14. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  15. Intercomparison of radionuclides in environmental samples 2000-2001

    An intercomparison exercise on radionuclides in environmental samples was carried out during 2000-2001 as part of a Nordic NKS project. The exercise included six sample types (aerosols, dry milk, soil, seawater, seaweed and lake water) and a range of man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides, mainly gamma-emitters but also beta- and alpha-emitters. A total of 25 Nordic and Baltic laboratories participated. The analytical quality across participants was generally good with about two thirds of the results in close agreement with estimated mean values. The exercise has demonstrated improved agreement between the results and more realistic analytical uncertainties submitted by the participants compared with a previous exercise carried out during 1998-1999 in the same NKS project. (au)

  16. Wind River Watershed Restoration : 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-02-01

    This report focuses on work conducted in 2000 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project. The project started in the early 1990s, and has been funded through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) since 1998. The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the Wind River subbasin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. In addition to USGS-CRRL, other BPA-funded entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). To describe the activities and accomplishments of the USGS-CRRL portion of the project, we partitioned the 2000-2001 annual report into two pieces: Report A and Report B. In Report A, we provide information on flow, temperature, and habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Personnel from CRRL monitored flows at 12 sites in 2000 and 17 sites in 2001. Flow measurements were generally taken every two weeks during June through October, which allowed tracking of the descending limb of the hydrograph in late spring, through the base low flow period in summer, and the start of the ascending limb of the hydrograph in fall. We maintained a large array of water-temperature sites in the Wind River subbasin, including data from 25 thermographs in 2000 and 27 thermographs in 2001. We completed stream reach surveys on 14.0 km in 2000 and 6.1 km in 2001. Our focus for these reach surveys has been on the upper Trout Creek and upper Wind River watersheds, though some reach surveys have occurred in the Panther Creek watershed. Data generated by these reach surveys include stream width, stream gradient, large woody debris frequency, pool frequency, canopy

  17. IAEA Board for 2000-2001 elects chairman: Mr. I.H. Umar, Governor of Nigeria

    The document informs about the election of the Governor from Nigeria as Chairman of the IAEA Board of Governors for 2000-2001, and of the Governors from Austria and Poland as Vice-Chairmen. The Member States represented on the IAEA Board for 2000-2001 are also listed

  18. Telecommunication and Technology Infrastructure Program (TTIP) Certification for Expenditures, Fiscal Year 2000-2001.

    Williams, Lindy

    This document presents the guidelines for the California Community College 2000-2001 State-Funded Telecommunication and Technology Infrastructure Program (TTIP) Program. The 2000-2001 State Budget Act contains $44.3 million for expenditures on the TTIP. The Act provides that $31,600,000 be allocated to colleges for the following purposes: (1) data…

  19. Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets

    The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, α-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, β-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly γ-HCH, δ-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

  20. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.; Babalola Folaranmi D.; Asogwa Uche E.; Idris Ndagi; Aderolu Ismail A.; Mokwunye Francis C.; Idrisu Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100%) were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers ...

  1. Chlorinated organic pesticides in marketed food: Barcelona, 2001-06

    Fontcuberta, M. [Agencia de Salut Publica de Barcelona, ASPB, Public Health Agency of Barcelona, Av Drassanes 13, 08001 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: mfontcub@aspb.es; Arques, J.F.; Villalbi, J.R.; Martinez, M.; Centrich, F.; Serrahima, E.; Pineda, L.; Duran, J.; Casas, C. [Agencia de Salut Publica de Barcelona, ASPB, Public Health Agency of Barcelona, Av Drassanes 13, 08001 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    This paper reports concentration levels of 22 chlorinated organic compounds (both primary compounds and metabolites) in food marketed in the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in 2001-06. Samples included meat products, fish and seafood, eggs, milk and dairy, vegetal oils, cereal products and derivates, vegetables, fresh fruits, dry fruits, spices, formula and baby food, tea and wine. Levels of chlorinated organic compounds were determined by gas chromatography with selective detectors: electron capture (ECD), flame photometric (FPD) and confirmation with mass-spectrometry. Chlorinated organic pesticides were detected in 7 of the 1,484 samples analyzed in the 2001-06 period (0.5%): 1 dairy product, 1 fruit, 1 olive oil and 4 vegetables. Specific pesticides detected are lindane and endosulfan {alpha}, {beta} or sulphate. A decrease in both the proportion of samples with detectable residues and in the variety of chlorinated pesticides found is visible when comparing these results with those of the previous 1989-2000 period. These results suggest the gradual disappearance of regulated chlorinated organic pesticides as a consequence of the growing worldwide implementation of current regulatory agreements.

  2. Chlorinated organic pesticides in marketed food: Barcelona, 2001-06

    This paper reports concentration levels of 22 chlorinated organic compounds (both primary compounds and metabolites) in food marketed in the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in 2001-06. Samples included meat products, fish and seafood, eggs, milk and dairy, vegetal oils, cereal products and derivates, vegetables, fresh fruits, dry fruits, spices, formula and baby food, tea and wine. Levels of chlorinated organic compounds were determined by gas chromatography with selective detectors: electron capture (ECD), flame photometric (FPD) and confirmation with mass-spectrometry. Chlorinated organic pesticides were detected in 7 of the 1,484 samples analyzed in the 2001-06 period (0.5%): 1 dairy product, 1 fruit, 1 olive oil and 4 vegetables. Specific pesticides detected are lindane and endosulfan α, β or sulphate. A decrease in both the proportion of samples with detectable residues and in the variety of chlorinated pesticides found is visible when comparing these results with those of the previous 1989-2000 period. These results suggest the gradual disappearance of regulated chlorinated organic pesticides as a consequence of the growing worldwide implementation of current regulatory agreements

  3. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100% were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers in Osun state and 58.8% in Ogun state stated that they did not receive information on the banned pesticides from government agencies but through other channels. More than half of the marketers (52.9% in Ogun, 55% in Kwara and 47.1% in Osun strongly disagreed that government should place a ban on pesticides. Availability of banned pesticides in their stock, insufficient information from the concerned government agricultural agencies, and fear of short supply of approved pesticides are among the reasons proffered by the marketers for not supporting the ban of pesticides. Relevant government regulatory agencies should conduct a comprehensive inventory of pesticides offered for sale by the marketers of agrochemicals. There should be massive public awareness programme, and wellcoordinated association for all the marketers of agrochemicals. Agrochemical manufacturers should translate instructions and warnings on pesticide labels to local languages understood by the farmers.

  4. Progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, 2000-2001

    This paper is the progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section for the years 2000-2001. The paper comprises the following topics: Budget and staff summary, nuclear data compilations, nuclear data services, development of new generation databases, the network co-ordination of the nuclear reaction data centres and of the nuclear structure and decay data evaluators. (a.n.)

  5. The 2000-2001 Financial Crisis in Turkey: A Crisis for Whom?

    Dufour, Mathieu; Orhangazi, Ozgur

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the consequences of the 2000-2001 financial crisis in Turkey to identify the impacts of the crisis on capital and labor. We uncover three significant empirical effects of this crisis. First, international capital benefited from the crisis by both increasing its total assets in Turkey and income flows from these assets, while large domestic financial capitalists also increased their profits in the aftermath of the crisis. Second, industrial capital benefited via a repre...

  6. A European survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in 2000-2001

    The background, administration and current status of the monitoring programme 'European Survey of Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition' is described. All European states are invited to join the survey 2000- 2001. The co-ordination and responsibility for the survey will gradually be transferred from the Nordic Council of Ministers to the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation). (author)

  7. Pesticides

    ... rodents, noxious weeds, and insects. Pesticides help prevent crop loss and, potentially, human disease. According to the ... pesticides. DO NOT mix pesticides. DO NOT set traps or place bait in areas where children or ...

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2000-2001 NASA "Why?" Files Program

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; Ashcroft, Scott B.; Williams, Amy C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA 'Why?' Files, a research and standards-based, Emmy-award winning series of 60-minute instructional programs for grades 3-5, introduces students to NASA; integrates mathematics, science, and technology by using Problem-Based Learning (PBL), scientific inquiry, and the scientific method; and motivates students to become critical thinkers and active problem solvers. All four 2000-2001 NASA 'Why?' Files programs include an instructional broadcast, a lesson guide, an interactive web site, plus numerous instructional resources. In March 2001, 1,000 randomly selected program registrants participated in a survey. Of these surveys, 185 (154 usable) met the established cut-off date. Respondents reported that (1) they used the four programs in the 2000-2001 NASA 'Why?' Files series; (2) series goals and objectives were met; (3) programs met national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level; and (5) programs enhanced/enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  9. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain; Md. Alamgir Hossain; Md. Abdur Rahman; Md Mainul Islam; Md Atiqur Rahman; Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three comm...

  10. Cardiac Complication Rate In Emergent Vascular Procedures Tehran Sina Hospital (2000-2001

    Ahmadi H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Complications of Coronary artery disease remain the most common cause of morbidity and mortality after vascular surgical procedures. Goldman risk factor analysis has been suggested as peri-operative noninvasive screening method to detect significant coronary artery disease in emergent vascular procedures."nMethods and Materials: In this study, the accuracy of the Goldman scale was assessed with regard to the development of cardiac complications such as asymptomatic ischemic change in ECG, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction and cardiac death. We studied 100 patients that were required emergent vascular procedures from 2000-2001. Data about perioperative complications were extracted and analyzed using SPSS computer program."nResults: Our study indicated there is not statistical correlation between cardiac death, infarction, arrythmia, ECG change, age, sex and cardiac class."nConclusion: We concluded that Goldman scale could not be regarded as a screening method to predict peri-operative cardiac complications in emergent vascular procedures.

  11. Research, development and demonstration in the energy area in Switzerland - List of projects 2000/2001

    This report prepared by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews research, development and demonstration projects in the energy area that were partly or wholly supported by the Swiss Federation in the years 2000/2001. A list of over 1,000 projects is presented, whereby many projects supported by the Swiss Cantons and local authorities are not included in the statistics. The report also contains figures on the efforts made by the private economy in these areas. The classification of the projects in the four main areas 'efficient use of energy', 'renewable energy sources', 'nuclear energy' and 'energy economics' is presented. This allows comparison with other publications such as the Federal Energy-Research Concept or the Overviews of the Energy-Research Programme Managers. The classification system is also compared with that used by the International Energy Agency (IEA). The Network for Information and Technology Transfer (ENET) is also presented, which has a comprehensive data base at its disposal and which maintains a systematic collection of energy-relevant publications. Details on these projects can be obtained from the appropriate heads of programmes and SFOE departmental heads, whose addresses are given in the report

  12. Household risk factors associated with dengue-like illness, Republic of Palau, 2000-2001.

    Umezaki, Masahiro; Sengebau-Kinzio, Maireng J; Nakamura, Keiko; Ridep, Eden; Watanabe, Masafumi; Takano, Takehito

    2007-08-01

    The authors investigated the association between household hygiene status and the occurrence of dengue-like illness (DLI) during the 2000-2001 outbreak in the Republic of Palau. Hygiene status was compared between 55 households with DLI patients and 55 households without DLI patients during the period of the outbreak. Shower facilities with hygienic problems and potential breeding sites of mosquitoes were more frequently found in the lots of households with DLI patients than in those without (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.3-7.2; OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.02-9.4, respectively). The total number of hygienic problems was higher for households with DLI patients than for those without (t-test, p = 0.016). Results indicated that the overall household hygiene status, and particularly the existence of inappropriate shower facilities and mosquito breeding sites, was the predictor of the prevalence of DLI during the outbreak; this status will be considered in the prevention of future outbreaks of DLI in Palau and in other tropical island nations as well. PMID:20103864

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of NASA's Destination Tomorrow(Trademark) 2000-2001 Program

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Perry, Jeannine

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Destination Tomorrow(trademark) series consists of 30-minute educational television programs that focus on NASA research, past, present, and future and are designed for educators, parents, and adult (lifelong) learners. Programs in this award-winning series follow a magazine style format with segments ranging from 3-5 minutes to 6-8 minutes. An associated web site provides summaries of stories and links to related program material. The development of the programs is based on educational theory, principles, and research as they pertain to how adults learn and apply knowledge. The five programs in the 2000-2001 season were produced in English and dubbed in Spanish. Telephone interviews with managers of cable access television stations were conducted in January 2002. NASA's Destination Tomorrow(trademark) interviewees reported that (1) from a programming standpoint, the most appealing aspects of the series are its production quality and educational value, (2) programs in the series are 'better than average' when compared to other education programming, (3) the programs are very credible, (4) the programs are successful in educating people about what NASA does, and (5) the programs have been 'very well received' by their audiences.

  14. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  15. Monitoring pesticides residues and contaminants for some leafy vegetables at the market level

    Pesticide residues and contaminants in selected leafy vegetables, namely (lettuce, garden rocket and salad onion) were monitored at market level in Riyadh City in Saudi Arabia, during the period june to july 2001. Fifteen samples of vegetables from the City vegetable market of Riyadh were collected and subjected to multi-pesticide residue detection and analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometer and electron capture detectors (GC/MS,ECD). Results of sample extracts analysis showed that the two vegetables of: garden rocket and salad onion contain pesticide residues and contaminants which have no Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) collaborate with World Health and Food and Agriculture Organizations (WHO/FAO). Whereas lettuce vegetable was found free of any identified pesticide residues or contaminants. Garden rocket was shown to contain dibutyl phthalate (0.04 ppm)-steryl chloride (0.02 ppm) tridecane (0.06 ppm)-hexadecane (0.07 ppm)-BIS (ethylhexyl) phthalate (0.006 ppm) and pyridinium, 1-hexyl chloride (0.01 ppm). The salad onion was found to contain 9-octadecanamide (0.13 ppm)-tridecane (0.15 ppm) and tetradecane (0.16 ppm). There are no established MRL s for these pesticides and contaminants detected in garden rocket and salad onion, although when impacts on human health were reviewed some of them were found probably hazardous. (Author)

  16. Borehole Data Package for Calendar Year 2000-2001 RCRA Wells at Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area T

    This document compiles information of the drilling and construction, well development, pump installation, and sediment and groundwater sampling applicable to the installation of five new RCRA wells in calendar year 2000 - 2001. Appendix A contains the Well Summary Sheets (as-built diagrams); the Well Construction Summary Reports, and the geologist's logs; Appendix B contains physical properties data; and Appendix C contains the borehole geophysical logs

  17. Evaluation of selected wild plants flowering season 1991 - 2009 (1991 - 2000 & 2001 - 2009)

    Hajkova, L.; Nekovar, J.; Novak, M.; Richterova, D.

    2009-09-01

    The subsequent wild plants are observed by volunteer observers at CHMI phenological network: CALTHA palustris L., ANEMONE nemorosa L., HEPATICA nobilis Mill., RANUNCULUS acer L., FRAGARIA vesca L., TRIFOLIUM repens L., HYPERICUM perforatum L., CHAMAENERION angustifolium L. Holub, VACCINIUM myrtillus L., LAMIUM album L., CHRYSANTHEMUM leucanthemum L., TUSSILAGO farfara L., PETASITES albus (L.) Gaert., PETASITES hybridus (L.) G. M. Sch., CONVALLARIA majalis L., GALANTHUS nivalis L., DACTYLIS glomerata L., ALOPECURUS pratensis L. and others. Some of them start to blossom in early spring, some others in the summer. Part of them belong to very important allergens, part of them have medicinal effects. Phenophases first leaves (FL - BBCH11), inflorescence emergence (IE - BBCH 51), beginning and end of flowering (BF - BBCH 61, EF - BBCH 69) are observed by these species. Statistical parameters (average, median, lower quartile, upper quartile, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, variation range and variation coefficient) of phenophase onset are computed from all of phenological stations in Czechia for the period 1991 - 2009. The phenophase onset and phenophase duration depend not only on genetic base but also on external effects such as weather. We have compiled dynamics of temperature to phenophase onset according CHMI meteorological stations for the same period 1991 - 2009 (especially sums of active temperatures above biological minimum 5°C and progression of extreme temperatures). We have also compared results between two periods (1991 - 2000, 2001 - 2009). Phenological stations are at different altitude. At this case study were used results from 4 phenological stations at altitude ( 500 m asl). GALANTHUS nivalis L. Station: Lednice (165 m n. m.) Period: 1991 - 2000 Statistical parameter/phenophase BBCH 61 BBCH 69 Average 62 94 Median 60 97 Lower quartile 57 86 Upper quartile 66 101 Minimum 51 70 Maximum 79 116 Variation range 28 46 Standard deviation 8,6 12

  18. Regional inventory of soil surface nitrogen balances in Indian agriculture (2000-2001).

    Prasad, V Krishna; Badarinath, K V S; Yonemura, S; Tsuruta, H

    2004-11-01

    Nitrogen regulates several ecological and biogeochemical processes and excess reactive nitrogen in the environment can lead to pollution problems, including the deterioration of air quality, disruption of forest processes, acidification of lakes and streams, and degradation of coastal waters. Much of the excess nitrogen inputs are related to food and energy production. An important step to understanding the sources of nitrogen and ultimately defining solutions to excess nitrogen is to describe the geographic distribution of agricultural nitrogen contributions from different regions. In this study, soil surface nitrogen loads were quantified for different states of India for the period 2000-2001. Nearly 35.4 Tg of nitrogen has been estimated as inputs from different sources, with output nitrogen from harvested crops of about 21.20 Tg. The soil surface nitrogen balance, estimated as inputs minus outputs, is found to be about 14.4 Tg surplus from the agricultural land of India. Livestock manure constituted a major percentage of total inputs (44.06%), followed by inorganic fertilizer (32.48%), atmospheric deposition (11.86%) and nitrogen fixation (11.58%). Nitrogen balance varied from deficit to surplus for different states. The highest nitrogen surplus was found in Uttar Pradesh (2.50 Tg) followed by Madhya Pradesh (1.83 Tg), Andhra Pradesh (1.79 Tg), etc. A negative nitrogen balance was found in Orissa (-0.01 Tg), Andaman Nicobar Islands (-0.32 Tg) and for some of the northeastern states. Major fertilizer consumption states were found to be Tamilnadu (204 kg/ha), Haryana (132 kg/ha), Punjab (148 kg/ha), followed by others. Similarly, nitrogen inputs from total livestock excretions were found to be high for Kerala (616 kg/ha), Jammu and Kashmir (389 kg/ha), Tamil Nadu (338 kg/ha), etc. The average nitrogen surplus of about 54 kg/ha observed for the agricultural land of the entire country of India is comparatively higher than the average surplus of about 31 kg

  19. Evaluation of carcinogenic modes of action for pesticides in fruit on the Swedish market using a text-mining tool

    Ilona eSilins; Anna eKorhonen; Ulla eStenius

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity caused by chemical mixtures has emerged as a significant challenge for toxicologists and risk assessors. Information on individual chemicals’ modes of action is an important part of the hazard identification step. In this study, an automatic text mining-based tool was employed as a method to identify the carcinogenic modes of action of pesticides frequently found in fruit on the Swedish market. The current available scientific literature on the 26 most common pesticides found in appl...

  20. Evaluation of carcinogenic modes of action for pesticides in fruit on the Swedish market using a text-mining tool

    Silins, Ilona; Korhonen, Anna; Stenius, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity caused by chemical mixtures has emerged as a significant challenge for toxicologists and risk assessors. Information on individual chemicals' modes of action is an important part of the hazard identification step. In this study, an automatic text mining-based tool was employed as a method to identify the carcinogenic modes of action of pesticides frequently found in fruit on the Swedish market. The current available scientific literature on the 26 most common pesticides found in appl...

  1. Effect of environment on extremely severe road traffic crashes:retrospective epidemic analysis during 2000-2001

    覃华丽; 赵新才; 周继红; 邱俊; 杨在亮; 蒋志泉; 朱秉忠

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To make an epidemiological analysis of the effect of environment on extremely severe road traffic crashes (RTCs). Methods: Epidemiologic data of extremely severe RTCs associated with environmental factors, including weather, topography, road conditions and other traffic conditions in Mainland China during 2000-2001, were collected and analyzed. Results: (1) During 2000-2001, there were 3 365 extremely severe RTCs with 13 666 deaths, 12 204 injuries and a direct economical loss of 136 million RMB. (2) Most extremely severe RTCs occurred in fine weather days and in the daytime. The high occurrence sites were plain areas, horizontal and straight roads, Grade B and C roads, ordinary road segment, and asphalt, smooth and mixed roads. (3) Compared with other RTCs, extremely severe RTCs were more likely to happen under following conditions: on cloudy, snowing, misty and blustering days; in hill and mountainous areas; on crooked and sloping roads; on freeway, Grade A, B, and C roads; mixed roads; ordinary, bridge, narrow and transitional roads; sand and dirt-roads; without traffic control measures; night without lighting. (4) Extremely severe RTCs of mountainous area or crooked and sloping roads were most severe in terms of deaths and injures per crash. Conclusions: Extremely severe RTCs are closely related with environmental factors. Rational road programming, enhancing road establishment and improving road conditions are probably effective measures to reduce the road traffic injuries.

  2. U.S. ORGANIC FARMING IN 2000-2001: ADOPTION OF CERTIFIED SYSTEMS

    Greene, Catherine R.; Kremen, Amy

    2003-01-01

    U.S. farmland managed under organic farming systems expanded rapidly throughout the 1990s, and that pace has continued as farmers strive to meet consumer demand in both local and national markets. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) implemented national organic standards on organic production and processing in October 2002, following more than a decade of development, and the new uniform standards are expected to facilitate further growth in the organic farm sector. USDA's organic stand...

  3. National program to fight against the climatic change 2000/2001

    Some great principles have given directions for this report. balance between internal measures and market mechanisms, the energy control and saving at production and consumption, the setting up of incentive economical tools, the necessity of a precise information about the consequences, in term of greenhouse gases emissions for any public or private investment decision. A big uncertainty assigns the interactions between the climate warming and its modifications. The policy duty is to take into account the scientific statements by implementing the caution principle. (N.C.)

  4. White Paper No 37 (2000-2001). On the hydroelectric power and the power balance

    This White Paper from The Norwegian Government discusses various aspects of a development of the Saltfjellet - Svartisen area, suggests how to treat development issues more efficiently and elucidates why the energy policy must place stronger emphasis on the dangers involved in a minimum run-off year. The Government proposes that further hydropower development of the Saltfjellet-Svartisen area should not take place since the best projects have already been completed. The Government is prepared to show more consideration for untouched nature than has been customary in planning new hydropower development. To secure a safe supply of energy, the Government concentrates on (1) Simplifying the executive work on new development projects, (2) Preparing construction of gas power plants, (3) Domestic use of natural gas for energy, (4) Intensifying the work on improving the efficiency of energy production and energy use, (5) Providing for a well-functioning power market

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans stress related gene responses to selected pesticides

    Antoniou-Kourounioti, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are used widely and more than 2 million tons are released in the environment annually (data for 2000-2001, Kiely 2004). Details of their toxicity towards non-target organisms, are not complete for many of these pesticides and serious environmental issues have previously arisen as a result (e.g. effects of DDT on reproduction of wild birds). Unfavourable conditions, including the presence of toxicants, can induce the stress response pathways through which an organism attempts t...

  6. Dependence of biologically active UV radiation on the atmospheric ozone in 2000 - 2001 over Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

    This study investigates how the changes in simultaneously measured ozone columns influence the biologically active UV irradiance. Spectral ground-based measurements of direct solar ultraviolet radiation performed at Stara Zagora (42oN, 25oE), Bulgaria in 2000 - 2001 are used in conjunction with the total ozone content to investigate the relation to the biologically active UV radiation, depending on the solar zenith angle (SZA) and the ozone. The device measures the direct solar radiation in the range 290 - 360 nm at 1 nm resolution. The direct sun UV doses for some specific biological effects (erythema and eyes) are obtained as the integral in the wavelength interval between 290 and 330 nm of the UV solar spectrum weighted with an action spectrum, typical of each effect. For estimation of the sensitivity of biological doses to the atmospheric ozone we calculate the radiation amplification factor (RAF) defined as the percentage increase in the column amount of the atmospheric ozone. The biological doses increase significantly with the decrease of the SZA. The doses of SZA=20o are about three times larger than doses at SZA=50o. The RAF derived from our spectral measurements shows an increase of RAF along with the decreasing ozone. For example, the ozone reduction by 1% increases the erythemal dose by about 2%. (authors)

  7. Resistencia a penicilina y otros antimicrobianos en 103 aislamientos clínicos de Streptococcus pneumoniae (2000-2001 Resistance to penicillin and other antimicrobials in 103 clinical isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae (2000-2001

    J.J. García-Irure

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos. Conocer en nuestro hospital la sensibilidad a penicilina de aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, así como analizar la asociación de resistencia a penicilina y otros antimicrobianos y la actividad de cefotaxima y cefepima en cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes a penicilina. Métodos. Se determinó la sensibilidad de 103 aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, procedentes de muestras clínicas durante los años 2000-2001, a penicilina, eritromicina, cloramfenicol, tetraciclina, cotrimoxazol, cefotaxima, cefepima y levofloxacino. Resultados. El 68% de los aislamientos fueron sensibles a penicilina, mientras que un 32% de las cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae aisladas fueron resistentes a penicilina, presentando el 7,7% resistencia de alto grado a la misma. La resistencia a eritromicina, cloramfenicol, tetraciclina, cotrimoxazol y levofloxacino fue del 38,8; 9,7; 20,4; 25,2 y 2,9% respectivamente, incrementándose a valores del 66,6; 30,3; 48,5; 72,7 y 9,1% en las 33 cepas con resistencia a penicilina. La resistencia a cefotaxima y cefepima fue del 9,7 y 10,6% respectivamente. Conclusiones. Un alto porcentaje de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae presentaron algún grado de resistencia a penicilina, pero con cifras menores que las presentadas en otros estudios de ámbito nacional. Asimismo, se demostró que la resistencia a penicilina se asociaba significativamente (p Background. To determine in our hospital the sensitivity of isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin, as well as to analyse the association of resistance to penicillin and other antimicrobials and the activity of cefotaxime and cefepime in pencillin resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods. The sensitivity was determined on 103 isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae, from clinical samples from the years 2000-2001, to penicillin, eritromycine, cloramfenicol, tetracycline, cotrimoxazol, cefotaxime, cefepime and levofloxacine

  8. Verification of Short-Term Predictions of Solar Soft X-ray Bursts for the Maximum Phase (2000-2001) of Solar Cycle 23

    Cui-Lian Zhu; Jia-Long Wang

    2003-01-01

    We present a verification of the short-term predictions of solar Xray bursts for the maximum phase (2000-2001) of Solar Cycle 23, issued by two prediction centers. The results are that the rate of correct predictions is about equal for RWC-China and WWA; the rate of too high predictions is greater for RWC-China than for WWA, while the rate of too low predictions is smaller for RWC-China than for WWA.

  9. Organochlorine pesticide in fresh and pasteurized cow's milk from Kampala markets.

    Kampire, Edwige; Kiremire, Bernard T; Nyanzi, Steven A; Kishimba, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Fresh and pasteurized milk samples from Kampala markets were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Five organochlorine pesticides, namely; aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, lindane, DDT and its metabolites were detected in the milk samples and confirmed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer [GC-MS]. The mean values are expressed in mgkg(-1) milk fat (mf) basis. The mean concentration in the fresh milk (n=54) were: 0.026 ± 0.003 mg kg(-1) mf; 0.002 ± 0.0003 mg kg(-1), below the detection limit; 0.007 ± 0.003 mg kg(-1), 0.009 ± 0.002 mg kg(-1) milk fat for lindane, endosulfan dieldrin and aldrin, respectively. The mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE; p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT were 0.009 ± 0.002 mg kg(-1); 0.033 ± 0.007 mg kg(-1) and 0.008 ± 0.001 mg kg(-1) mf, respectively in the fresh milk samples. In the pasteurized milk samples (n=47), the mean concentrations recorded were: 0.008 ± 0.003 mg kg(-1), 0.025 ± 0.004 mg kg(-1), and 0.007 ± 0.001 mg kg(-1), respectively for p,p'-DDE; p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT. Alpha and beta-endosulfan recorded the concentration below the detection limit and the mean of 0.022 ± 0.001 mg kg(-1) mf, 0.005 ± 0.002 mg kg(-1) mf, and 0.006 ± 0.0002 mg kg(-1) mf, respectively for lindane, dieldrin and aldrin. Although, most of the residues detected were above the residue limits set by the FAO/WHO (2008), bioaccumulation of these residues is likely to pose health risks to the consumers of milk in Uganda. PMID:21737114

  10. 2000-2001 creation of expertise and engineering technology of environment and energy project for anaerobic digestion of multiple kinds of organic industrial wastewater in China

    Wu Libin [China Biogas Society (CBS) (China). Dept. of International Affairs

    2001-07-01

    Environmental protection is the basic policy of China. It has been proved by both of Chinese and world's development practice that the contradictions between development and environment must be well solved so as to realize sustainable development. Much concern has been paid on the research and development of technology on biogas (anaerobic digestion) to treat wastewater by China in last two decades, in addition with international influence and promotion from environment and development, the trend of anaerobic digestion development shows rapidly sign. Biogas technology has a wide field and good market for its implementation in China. Some environment and energy projects for anaerobic digestion of multiple kinds of organic industrial wastewater obtained fine benefits in pollution control, cleaner energy recovery and sustainable economic growth. However, the potentiality for market exploration is still higher. This paper presented the Chinese explorative research and successive design and anaerobic digestion project case studies on some 50 sorts of organic industrial wastewater, which are hard to biodegrade, hazardous, non-hygienic and chemical, e.g. alkali method straw pulp and chemical pulp-paper making wastewater, wastewater form medical industry, biopharmaceutical production, antibiotics as penicillin, erythromycin etc. Chinese medical herbs processing, antibiotics, tanning, brewery, distillery, agricultural chemicals, pesticide and insecticide, animal medicine, dyeing production, textile and printing industry, petroleum-chemical processing (PTA-phenyl terephthalic acid), coke processing, explosive production as RDX, hospitals, can and food processing, sugar-processing, municipal sewage with mixed industrial and domestic wastewater etc. All the mentioned research and practice show that both Chinese people and Chinese government have made great efforts in the last two decades in purifying the environment of water, soil and atmosphere via combining good

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wild, farmed, and frozen marine seafood marketed in Campania, Italy.

    Cirillo, T; Viscardi, V; Fasano, E; Farina, A; Amodio-Cocchieri, R

    2009-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in fresh-catch, farmed, and frozen marine fish marketed in Campania, Italy. Additionally, polychlorobiphenyl congeners were found: six were non-dioxin-like (NDL-PCB) (IUPAC no. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180), and one was dioxin-like (DL-PCB) (IUPAC no. 118). In all, 93% of fresh-catch, 100% of aquaculture, and 74% of the frozen specimens contained PCBs at concentrations varying from 0.12 to 35.11 ng/g, wet weight; NDL-PCBs ranged between 0.12 and 32.44 ng/g. Penta-, hexa-, and heptachlorobiphenyls were predominant. Regarding organochlorine pesticides, hexachlorobenzene was detected in 35% of fresh catch, 36% of farmed, and 46% of the frozen fish specimens, in a range between catch, and 24% of the frozen species, at concentrations varying from 0.03 to 9.18 ng/g. On the basis of annual fish consumption, an average daily intake of NDL-PCBs of 6.02 ng/kg of body weight was estimated. Calculated daily hexachlorobenzene and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane intakes were, respectively, 0.11 and 0.90 ng/kg of body weight per day. The contribution of fish to the daily consumption of the noncarcinogenic PAHs can be considered low; for benzo[a]pyrene, the estimated daily intake is considerably lower than the doses considered carcinogenic for experimental animals by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food. PMID:19722400

  12. Variability of pesticide residues in cauliflower units collected from a field trial and market places in Greece.

    Prodhan, M D H; Papadakis, Emmanouil-N; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the variability of pesticide residue levels present in cauliflower units, a total of 142 samples were collected from a field trial of a cooperative farmer, and 120 samples were collected from different market places in Thessaloniki, Greece. The collected samples were extracted using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction technique, and the residues were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated by evaluating the accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). The average recoveries for all the analytes, derived from the data of control samples fortified at 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg, ranged from 74 to 110% with a relative standard deviation of ≤8%. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) was ≥0.997 for all the analytes using matrix-matched calibration standards. The LOD values ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 mg/kg, and the LOQ was determined at 0.01 mg/kg for all the sought analytes. The matrix effect was found to be at a considerable level, especially for cypermethrin and deltamethrin, amounting to +90% and +145%, respectively. For the field samples, the unit-to-unit variability factors (VFs) calculated for cypermethrin and deltamethrin were 2.38 and 2.32, respectively, while the average VF for the market basket samples was 5.11. In the market basket samples, residues of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, and indoxacarb were found at levels ≥LOQ and their respective VFs were 7.12, 5.67, 5.28, and 2.40. PMID:27229457

  13. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Connor, William P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2003-02-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2000, 2001, and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into sections and self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2001. The Journal Manuscripts section includes complete copies of papers submitted or published during 2000 and 2001 that were not included in previous annual reports. Publication is a high priority for this project because it provides our results to a wide audience, it ensures that our work meets high scientific standards, and we believe that it is a necessary obligation of a research project. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 199102900 that were published from 1998 to 2001.

  14. Post-release attributes and survival of hatchery and natural fall chinook salmon in the Snake River : annual report 2000-2001

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2000, 2001, and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into sections and self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2001. The Journal Manuscripts section includes complete copies of papers submitted or published during 2000 and 2001 that were not included in previous annual reports. Publication is a high priority for this project because it provides our results to a wide audience, it ensures that our work meets high scientific standards, and we believe that it is a necessary obligation of a research project. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 199102900 that were published from 1998 to 2001

  15. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    ... US EPA US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us You are here: EPA Home » Pesticides » Antimicrobial Pesticides Antimicrobial Pesticides News and Highlights Disinfection Hierarchy Workshop - October 7 ...

  16. Book Reviews 2000-2001.

    Grauer, Barbara Ellman, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Contains reviews of 41 books on career management, job search strategies, entrepreneurship, the Internet job search, self-improvement; specific careers, women and careers, and career development e-business. Eight guides and workbooks are also reviewed. (JOW)

  17. Environmental taxes 1991 - 2000 (2001)

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1991-2000 (and budget figure for 2001). Environmental taxes is a collective concept for pollution, energy, transportation and resource related taxes. Income of the government from environmental taxes have increased from 30,0 billions DDK in 1991 to 60,6 billions DDK in 2000 - a little more than a doubling. The environmental taxes' part of the total taxes has increased from 7,5% in 1991 to 9,7% in 2000. In 2000 the energy taxes are 55%, the transportation taxes 38% and the pollution and resource taxes 7% of the environmental taxes. (EHS)

  18. Pesticide exposure in children.

    2012-12-01

    This statement presents the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on pesticides. Pesticides are a collective term for chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Children encounter pesticides daily and have unique susceptibilities to their potential toxicity. Acute poisoning risks are clear, and understanding of chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure are emerging. Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates associations between early life exposure to pesticides and pediatric cancers, decreased cognitive function, and behavioral problems. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Recognizing and reducing problematic exposures will require attention to current inadequacies in medical training, public health tracking, and regulatory action on pesticides. Ongoing research describing toxicologic vulnerabilities and exposure factors across the life span are needed to inform regulatory needs and appropriate interventions. Policies that promote integrated pest management, comprehensive pesticide labeling, and marketing practices that incorporate child health considerations will enhance safe use. PMID:23184103

  19. Control of Pesticides 2006

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... in the products comply with the labelled content. The tolerance of deviation from the labelled content of active ingredient is set by the Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. In addition to the examination of the content of active ingredients, all collected samples are examined for the content of octylphenol...... ethoxylates (OPEO) and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO). The industry and the Danish authorities have agreed on removing these compounds from all Danish-sold pesticide formulations produced after June 2000. Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2006...

  20. Control of Pesticides 2001

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...... comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1....... Satisfactory results were found among herbicides containing pendimethalin and methabenzthiazuron, among fungicides containing azaconazole, tolylfluanid, propamocarb and cyprodinil, and among insecticides containing amitraz, phosalone and diflubenzuron. Thus, the twelve analysed samples of these pesticides...

  1. Results from the monitoring of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables on the Danish market 1998-99

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Poulsen, Mette Erecius

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the Danish pesticide monitoring programme for fruit and vegetables was to check for compliance with the maximum residue levels in foods and to monitor the residue levels to assess the pesticide exposure of the Danish population. Sampling plans were designed based on previous...... findings and on food consumption data. Approximately 60% of the samples were selected on the basis of positive findings in samples from the previous 5 years. The remaining samples reflected the pattern of food consumption in Denmark. In addition, a rolling programme is maintained for commodities with a low...

  2. Biological activities of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles: comparison between the cities of Teplice and Prague during the summer and winter seasons 2000-2001

    Binkova, Blanka; Cerna, Milena; Pastorkova, Anna; Jelinek, Richard; Benes, Ivan; Novak, Jiri; Sram, Radim J

    2003-04-09

    The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, appears today to be one of the most polluted residential areas in the country, whereas air pollution in the Northern Bohemia region (the former 'Black Triangle Region') has substantially decreased during the last decade, especially with respect to the gaseous pollutant SO{sub 2}. This study evaluated the biological activities of complex mixtures of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles (PM10) collected during the summer and winter seasons of 2000-2001 at three monitoring sites - Teplice (TP), Prague-Smichov (PRG-SM) (city centre) and Prague-Libus (PRG-LB) (suburban area). The following short-term in vitro assays with strikingly different endpoints were used: a bacterial mutagenicity test using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 and YG1041, an acellular assay (CT DNA) combined with {sup 32}P-postlabelling to evaluate DNA adduct-forming potency and the chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST). The results of the mutagenicity test with the YG1041 strain, the acellular genotoxicity (DNA adducts) and the embryotoxicity tests responded to the amount of eight carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysed in the EOM (dichloromethane extractable organic matter) samples tested. Nevertheless, the biological effects of the EOM did not differ between locations. The highest biological activity of the ambient air in terms of organic compounds associated with particles (per unit volume of air) was seen in the Prague city centre during both summer and winter seasons. At this location, B[a]P concentration ranged from 0.1 to 8.9 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 0.3 and 3.6 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively), 13 PAHs ranged from 11 to 343 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 52 and 160 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively). Generally, using in vitro tests, higher ambient air activity was found in the winter season as compared with the summer season at all three monitoring sites

  3. A comparative study on the effectiviness of three different shampooes in treatment of head lice (pediculus capitis) in primery school-children in Hamadan province, IRAN 2000-2001

    A.H. Zahirnia; Taherkhani, H; J. Bathaii

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Head lice infestation caused by Pediculus capitis and its treatment is a worldwide and historical concern.Materials and methods: This study has been done with cooperation with the health’s deputy of medical sciences university in different cities of Hamadan province in 2000-2001. Screening was done in 120 girl’s elementary schools during which 7291 students were examined for head lice infestation. About 13.5% (975) of the girls were detected with head lice. The infeste...

  4. Results from the monitoring of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables on the Danish market 1998-99

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Poulsen, Mette Erecius

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the Danish pesticide monitoring programme for fruit and vegetables was to check for compliance with the maximum residue levels in foods and to monitor the residue levels to assess the pesticide exposure of the Danish population. Sampling plans were designed based on previous...... consumption and no detected residues. Within each commodity, the sampling was random. Samples (n = 4150) of mainly fresh, conventionally grown fruit and vegetables were taken throughout the chain of suppliers including foodprocessing companies. Of the samples, 3% were frozen products and 2% were organically....... Residues were found in 54% of the samples of fruit but only in 13% of the vegetables. Residues above the MRL were found in 4% of all samples of fruit and in 1% of vegetables....

  5. Microbial pesticides [data requirements for environmental risk assessment

    Mensink BJWG; Linders JBHJ; CSR

    1997-01-01

    The market for microbial pesticides is, though slowly, expanding. Therefore more research with these pesticides will be carried out in the near future, not only for agronomical and economical, but also for environmental reasons. As more chemical pesticides are going to be banned, microbial pesticid

  6. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico

  7. National program to fight against the climatic change 2000/2001; Programme national de lutte contre le changement climatique 2000/2010

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Some great principles have given directions for this report. balance between internal measures and market mechanisms, the energy control and saving at production and consumption, the setting up of incentive economical tools, the necessity of a precise information about the consequences, in term of greenhouse gases emissions for any public or private investment decision. A big uncertainty assigns the interactions between the climate warming and its modifications. The policy duty is to take into account the scientific statements by implementing the caution principle. (N.C.)

  8. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  9. Pesticides and Human Health

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  10. Requisitos ambientais e acesso a mercados: o setor de defensivos agrícolas Environmental requirements and market access: the pesticide sector

    Ricardo K.S. Fermam

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os requisitos ambientais do comércio internacional são freqüentemente usados pelos países desenvolvidos como barreiras técnicas ao acesso a mercados pelos países em desenvolvimento. Conhecer estes requisitos é especialmente importante para o setor de defensivos agrícolas (pesticidas. Assim, este artigo busca identificar os principais requisitos ambientais relativos aos defensivos agrícolas, mostrando a importância dos mesmos para os comércio exterior dos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente o Brasil.The environmental requirements of the international trade are frequently used for the developed countries as technical barriers to the market access for the developing countries. To know these requirements is especially important for the sector of agricultural defensives (pesticides. Thus, this Article seeks to identify the main environmental requirements regards to the agricultural defensives, showing the importance of the same ones for the foreign trade of the developing countries, especially Brazil.

  11. Pesticide Movement

    Pesticides generally include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides that play an important role in maintaining worldwide food and fiber production by controlling weeds that compete for water and nutrients or by eliminating pests that reduce yields. In the future, the role of pesticides and fertili...

  12. 批发市场蔬菜农药残留调查及风险评估%Pesticide Residue Investigation and Risk Assessment of Vegetables from Vegetable Wholesale Markets

    温雅君; 高景红; 李玲; 崔洁静

    2011-01-01

    [目的]调查北京市批发市场蔬菜的农药残留情况并进行风险评估.[方法]对北京市9个大型蔬菜批发市场6类蔬菜中的16种农药残留进行抽样检测.[结果]北京市蔬菜农药残留超标率全年呈先下降后上升的趋势;不同种类蔬菜的农药残留超标率依次为豆类>绿叶类>白菜类>茄果类>甘蓝类、瓜类;毒死蜱和克百威2种农药造成蔬菜农药残留超标的比例较高;全年的蔬菜农药安全指数均小于1,说明所检测的农药残留量没有安全风险.[结论]该研究为批发市场蔬菜质量安全监管提供了理论依据.%[Objective] The aim was to investigate and estimate risk of pesticide residue in vegetables from vegetable wholesale markets in Beijing. [Method] Sixteen pesticides residues in 6 kinds of vegetables from 9 large marketplaces in Beijing were detected by random sampling. [ Result] The results showed that over standard rate of pesticide residue tended to increase first then decrease. Over standard rate of pesticide residue in different kinds of vegetables was investigated as follows; legumes > leaf vegetables>Chinese cabbages>eggplants> cabbages and cucurbits. Pesticide residues over standard in vegetables were mainly caused by chlorpyrifos and carbofuran. Safety indexes of all pesticides were lower than 1 in each sample during a whole year,showing that pesticide residues were safe. [Conclusion] The paper provides a theoretical basis for supervising vegetable safety of vegetable wholesale markets.

  13. Type and Toxicity of Pesticides Sold for Community Vector Control Use in the Gambia

    Sanderson, W T; M. W. Murphy; E. Sanyang; M. Canteh; Cook, T. M.; F. Liang; Birch, M. E.; S. C. Murphy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to identify the types of pesticides in circulation at local markets in The Gambia and to determine the proportion of products that were sold as unlabeled pesticides. Methods. One hundred twenty-eight samples sold as pesticides were collected from four local markets throughout The Gambia. Pesticides in the samples were identified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Findings. Of the 128 samples collected, 115 were unlabeled. Pesticid...

  14. Comportamiento de las variables meteorológicas para el monitoreo del moho azul del tabaco durante las campañas 1999-2000, 2000-2001, 2001-2002, en la Provincia de Matanzas

    Milagros Alfonso Cabrera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La provincia de Matanzas, al igual que muchos lugares del país, tiene poca  experiencia en el manejo del cultivo del tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L., por lo que la incorporación de todos los sectores, a su manejo integrado es decisiva, especialmente ante la presencia  de plagas y enfermedades en las que su aparición, establecimiento y diseminación se relacionan directamente con el comportamiento  de las variables meteorológicas;  tal es el caso del Moho Azul del tabaco (Peronospora hioscyami de Bary f. Sp tabacina Adam, por lo que nuestro monitoreo diario es importante para la protección del cultivo. En el presente trabajo se monitorearon las variables meteorológicas durante las campañas 1999-2000, 2000-2001 y 2001-2002, comparándose a su vez los valores obtenidos con su  comportamiento histórico, estableciendo los días de actividad meteorológica favorable para la aparición de la enfermedad, por una parte,  y por otra definiendo el comportamiento climático de las zonas en que se ha venido cultivando, lo que ha permitido realizar recomendaciones precisas para incorporarlas como estrategia al manejo integrado del cultivo en nuestra  provincia.

  15. Energy from waste. State-of-the-art report. Statistics 1996-1999. Data 2000/2001. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USA

    This is the 4. edition of the report on waste to energy plants in the member countries of the ISWA Working Group on Thermal Treatment of Waste. This edition presents information on the plants by year 2000/2001 and includes operational data covering the years 1996-1999. The report is based on a questionnaire that was distributed to the waste to energy plants in the member countries in 2000. Only normal MSW incineration plants with a capacity of more than 15 tonnes/day or 10,000 tonnes/year are included, which means that special plants for hazardous waste, sludge, agricultural and hospital wastes are not included. Most, but not all, plants have answered a questionnaire, and this report is mainly based on the questionnaires received and the information provided by the questionnaires. In the first section the report presents a comparison of the situation of waste to energy in: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The statistics in this section present the number of plants, the national capacity and flue gas cleaning systems. The section also presents the amount of waste incinerated, the energy recovered and the residues generated in 1999 in the 14 countries. The second section presents the national data on the incineration plants. For the USA the figures are listed in the second part of the report. (BA)

  16. Hazardous pesticides in Central America.

    Wesseling, C; Aragón, A; Castillo, L; Corriols, M; Chaverri, F; de la Cruz, E; Keifer, M; Monge, P; Partanen, T J; Ruepert, C; van Wendel de Joode, B

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides are an extensively documented occupational and environmental hazard in Central America. Yet, severe problems persist. Toxic pesticide use in the Region increased during 1985-1999. High exposure levels and ineffectiveness of personal protective equipment evidence the difficulties for risk reduction. Acute poisonings remain a severe problem. Delayed and/or long-lasting health effects include dermatoses, cancer, and genotoxic, neurotoxic, and respiratory effects. The use of hazardous pesticides persists through deficiencies in government-driven assessment and risk management; excessive focus on regional harmonization; short-term economic interests; strong links between industry and governments; aggressive marketing; weak trade unions; and failure of universities to reach decision makers. Regulation based on local data is lacking. An agreement of the Ministries of Health for restricting the most toxic pesticides in Central America has potential for progress. The most effective way to reduce risk is to greatly reduce pesticide use. Actions needed include development of multidisciplinary strategies for local studies on health and environmental impact of pesticides; development of sustainable nonchemical agricultural technologies; evaluation of interventions; extending and sharing of expertise within the Region; strengthening of unions and communities; and redefining the role of industry toward development of safer products, with responsible marketing and reliable information. PMID:11783858

  17. Distribution of pesticide residues within homes in central New York State.

    Obendorf, S K; Lemley, A T; Hedge, A; Kline, A A; Tan, K; Dokuchayeva, T

    2006-01-01

    Residues for 17 pesticides were analyzed in 41 households in central New York State that represented farm, rural, and urban houses. Samples were taken in both summer and winter of 2000-2001 from the same households from four locations; family room carpet; adjacent smooth floor; flat tabletop surface; and settled dust collected in a Petri dish on a tabletop. Pesticide residues were analyzed to identity factors that influence both the transport into and the redistribution of pesticides in the indoor environment. Differences were observed between the various pesticides and pesticide classifications relative to location within and between households as well as by season. Variations in the pesticide residues were related to a number of factors. Higher residues were observed in the farm households, particularly in summer, with the highest amount observed for chloropyrifos in carpet (33 microg/m2). For many pesticides, the frequency of detection and the amount of residues were higher in summer, which relates to usage patterns in agriculture and horticulture; however, larger amounts of insecticides such as mecoprop, resmethrin, and tetramethrin were found on flat surfaces in winter, indicating household use and possible redistribution within the home. Distribution patterns suggest that routines within a household may cause high variation in residues; these practices include indoor pets and treatment for fleas and ticks, use of termiticides, and fastidiousness of occupants. Frequency of pesticide detection was highest in carpet for both summer and winter for all households, indicating that carpets hold pesticides over time. Adsorbent fibrous materials such as textiles hold pesticides by macro- and micro-occlusion in their complex structures. Amounts of pesticide residue were higher in carpets than on smooth floors, particularly for rural farm households where the farmer was a certified pesticide applicator. The maximum amount of pesticide residue on a smooth floor surface

  18. What Is a Pesticide?

    ... Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Basic Information about Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide products contain both "active" and "inert" ingredients: What is a Pesticide? A pesticide is any substance or mixture of ...

  19. Jiangsu Pesticide Research Institute Company Ltd.

    2007-01-01

    @@ Jiangsu Pesticide Research Institute Company Ltd. was established on June 22, 2005, with the registered capital of RMB 40.4 million. Its business includes R&D, manufacture and market of agrochemicals.

  20. Informe MERCOSUL No. 7 (2000-2001)

    Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento (BID)

    2001-01-01

    A despeito das manifestações governamentais de que nos próximos anos o MERCOSUL deverá continuar desempenhando um papel protagônico na estratégia de inserção internacional dos países membros, o que se constata atualmente é uma perda de funcionalidade do processo. É obvio que a crise atual está longe de ser superada. Também é imprescindível salientar que as enormes dificuldades enfrentadas pelo MERCOSUL não decorrem apenas de mudanças nas condições de competitividade promovidas pela desvaloriz...

  1. World Development Report 2000/2001

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This report focuses on the dimensions of poverty, and how to create a better world, free of poverty. The analysis explores the nature, and evolution of poverty, and its causes, to present a framework for action. The opportunity for expanding poor people's assets is addressed, arguing that major reductions in human deprivation are indeed possible, that economic growth, inequality, and poverty reduction, can be harnessed through economic integration, and technological change, dependent not only...

  2. 2000-2001 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    2000-01-01

    2nd Term : 15 January to 30 March 2001 LECTURE SERIES       Experimentation in Space by M. Spiro, CEA, France 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 February 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Tracking at the LHC by K. Safarik, CERN-EP 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Issues in Arms Control by F. Calogero, Univ. Roma, It. 12. 13, 14, 15, 16 February 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Telecommunication for the future by R. Parker, CERN-IT 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Introduction to Cryogenic Engineering by J. G. Weisend, Stanford, USA 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 February 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 ­ 19, 20, 21 February, Council Chamber 22, 23 February Heavy Ion Physics at the CERN SPS by M. Gonin, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, F. 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Recent Results on CP Violation and B Physics by P.F. Harrison, QMW, London, GB 26, 27, 28 February 1, 2 March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 ...

  3. Selected Reference Books of 2000/2001.

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject categories of archives; literature; music; psychology; sociology; black studies; women's studies; history and area studies; and new editions and supplements. (LRW)

  4. The Administrator's Annual Report 2000-2001

    This annual report of the Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund (SOPF) describes the compensation regime of the Fund which may include claims for oil pollution damage; claims for costs and expenses of oil spill clean-up, including the cost of preventive measures; and claims for oil pollution damage and clean-up costs where the identity of the ship that caused the discharge cannot be established, the so-called 'mystery spills'. The main body of the report consists of descriptions of the status of oil pollution incidents brought to the attention of the Administrator. It does not include incidents which were settled directly with ship owners, hence not requiring intervention by the SOPF Administrator. The current status of recovery action by the Administrator against ship-owners is also discussed, along with the issue of port of refuge for damaged ships at sea; the continuing challenge for classification societies, and others in the marine industry to ensure construction, staffing and management of well-founded ships, so that they can be operated safely to preclude environmental damage; and international safety management principles and guidelines for the safe operation of ships and pollution prevention. Also discussed are various actions by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to review the effectiveness and impact of the ISM code to date, the IMO's timetable for the accelerated phasing out of single hull oil tankers, the differences in handling compensation for environmental damage under the CSA (Canada Shipping Act), the IOPC (International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund) regime, and the US OPA (Oil Pollution Act). SOPF's liabilities to the International Fund, and SOPF's outreach activities during the reporting period are also discussed. A financial summary is provided. Full financial statement is said to available on request. Seven appendices contain various relevant documentation, including summaries of the proceedings of the 1971 and 1992 IOPC Fund executive committee and assembly sessions, and a list of changes introduced by the 1992 protocols and European Community proposals for a COPE (Compensation for Oil Pollution in European Waters) regime

  5. Supervising Scientist, Annual Report 2000-2001

    The year under review has seen the resolution of the major issue that has dominated the work of the Supervising Scientist Division over the past three years the review of scientific uncertainties associated with the environmental assessment of the proposal to mine uranium at Jabiluka. The Supervising Scientist prepared a comprehensive report on the risks associated with mining at Jabiluka, which has been under various stages of peer review by an Independent Science Panel (ISP) appointed by the WHC since May 1999. This process culminated in a visit to Australia by the ISP in July 2000 for detailed discussion and assessment and the submission of the final report of the ISP to the World Heritage Committee in September 2000. The report of the ISP was considered at the meeting of the World Heritage Committee in Cairns in December 2000. The Committee reached the conclusion that 'the currently approved proposal for the mine and mill at Jabiluka does not threaten the health of people or the biological and ecological systems of Kakadu National Park that the Mission believed to be at risk'. As a result, the WHC decided not to register Kakadu National Park on the World Heritage List in Danger. But the people of Kakadu themselves remain to be convinced. A major challenge is to gain the confidence of Aboriginal people in the integrity and independence of our scientific assessments and to reduce the concerns that they have for the future of their people and their country. Monitoring of the Jabiluka project was extensive throughout the reporting period. Chemical and biological monitoring programmes of Energy Resources of Australia (ERA) and the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) demonstrated that no adverse impact occurred in downstream aquatic ecosystems. Similarly, radiological measurements close to the nearest population centre demonstrated that radiation exposure of the public due to current operations at Jabiluka is not detectable. Operations at the Ranger mine during 2000-01 were dominated by two principal issues: water management and the implementation of the recommendations in our report on the leak of tailings water at the mine during the previous year. The Advisory Committee for the National Centre for Tropical Wetland Research (nctwr) was established during the year and held its first two meetings. Members of this Committee include representatives of the governments of the Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia and the Commonwealth, and industry and community groups. The Committee provides advice to the Board on the setting of priorities for research and training. Successful nctwr projects completed during the year included risk assessments for land use in the Daly River basin for the Northern Territory Government and, on behalf of Parks Australia North, on the impact of cane toads on ecosystems of Kakadu National Park

  6. U.S. nuclear plant decommissioning funding adequacy - by individual funds, utilities, reactors, and industry-wide - assessed by Monte Carlo and baseline trend methods: 1998, 2000, 2001, and 2004

    This paper assesses, over years 1998, 2000, 2001, and 2004 - using varying sets of assumption values - the adequacy of decommissioning funding (year-end) for United States' nuclear electric power plants. I assess each of the 222 individual trust funds and 99 utility owners (as of August 2003), as well as each of the 122 reactors, and industry-wide. Individual trust fund results are the most important because, in general, dollars may not be transferred from one fund to another to strengthen a less-adequately financed fund. Using stochastic (Monte Carlo) analysis (20,000 iterations) to incorporate risk, or uncertainty, in my simulation modeling, I assess funding adequacy for 2004, but with estimated balances and contributions data for 2004. The paper also assesses the baseline (most likely) trends in funding adequacy, using 'point' estimates for years 1998, 2000, 2001, and stochastic medians for 2004. I compute two measures of funding adequacy relative to two respective benchmark levels: (1) adequacy of 'current year' fund balances; and (2), adequacy of 'recent-year' fund contributions. The former is a more 'looking-backward' measure relative to a benchmark (i.e., current balance embodies all past year contributions and rates of return on fund assets); the latter, more 'looking-forward' relative to a forward benchmark. I use decommissioning fund balances data for 2000 and 1998, as reported by the utilities to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as additional balances, yearly contributions, rates of return, and cost escalation data over 1997-2001 obtained in a 2002 survey of owners by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). The most fundamental conclusion that one should draw from my simulation modeling results - whether using Monte Carlo or baseline trend analysis - is that these decommissioning adequacy percentages for the 222 funds are extremely variable, although a sizable majority of funds are likely above benchmark. Reduced variability

  7. Obsolete pesticides

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  8. Tuberculose nos imigrantes : análise comparativa entre os biénios 2000-2001 e 2008-2009 das características sóciodemográficas e clínicas dos casos de tuberculose em Portugal Continental

    Gomes, Rute

    2011-01-01

    RESUMO - Objectivos: Este estudo pretende caracterizar os casos de Tuberculose notificados em Portugal Continental, em função das suas características sociodemográficas e clínicas, aferir a sua evolução através da comparação dos biénios 2000/2001 e 2008/2009 e a possibilidade de existência de diferenças entre os casos de Tuberculose na população imigrante e não imigrante. Métodos: Foi desenvolvido um estudo descritivo de casos notificados nos biénios 2000/2001 (n= 9182) e 2008/2009 (n= 608...

  9. Factors associated with the decline in suicide by pesticide poisoning in Taiwan

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Eddleston, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    the workforce involved in agriculture and unemployment. We compared pesticide products banned by the Taiwanese government with products that remained on the market and pesticides that accounted for the most poisoning deaths in Taiwan. Results. Age-standardised rates of pesticide suicide showed a 67...... trends in pesticide suicide in Taiwan. Targeted bans on pesticides should focus on those products that account for most deaths....

  10. 绵阳市市售蔬菜有机磷农药残留检测结果分析%Detection of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetabies in markets of Mianyang City

    文献英; 张代友; 吴晓红; 黄婷婷; 李晓涛; 唐果

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解绵阳市市售蔬菜有机磷农药残留情况.方法 全部样品按照GB/T5009.20-2003的方法进行6种有机磷农药的残留检测.结果 2009~2010共检测蔬菜138份,有机磷农药残留总超标率为37.68%,其中叶菜类、根茎类、瓜果蔬菜类和食用菌类超标率分别为51.85%、41.67%、28.13%和25%.不同种类蔬菜超标率差异有统计学意义(x2=8.68,P< 0.01).结论 绵阳市蔬菜中有机磷农药残留情况较为严重,应加强农药残留的监测工作,推广无公害水果蔬菜.%OBJECTIVE To research organophosphorus pesticide residues in the vegetables sold in markets of Mianyang. METHODS The method of GB/T5009.20-2003 was applied to determine the contents of seven organophosphorus pesticide in samples selected randomly. RESULTS The organophosphorus pesticide residues in 108 vegetable samples were monitered During 2009 to 2010, The total unqualified rate was 37.86%. While the unqualified rate of the leaf, The root-stem, the fruits vegetables and delicacies of mushroom was 51.85%, 41.67%, 28.13% and 25%, respectively. The unquality rated of all kinds of vegetables had a significant difference (χ2= 8.68, P< 0.01). CONCLUSION In Mianyang city, organophosphorus pesticide residues are relatively serious in vegetabies. It is necessary to strengthen the survellance of pesticide residuss and spread green nuisance-free vegetables.

  11. A comparative study on the effectiviness of three different shampooes in treatment of head lice (pediculus capitis in primery school-children in Hamadan province, IRAN 2000-2001

    A.H. Zahirnia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Head lice infestation caused by Pediculus capitis and its treatment is a worldwide and historical concern.Materials and methods: This study has been done with cooperation with the health’s deputy of medical sciences university in different cities of Hamadan province in 2000-2001. Screening was done in 120 girl’s elementary schools during which 7291 students were examined for head lice infestation. About 13.5% (975 of the girls were detected with head lice. The infested girls were divided into three treatment groups with three kinds of shampooes containing pediculicide and one control group with ordinary shampoo (placebo. In a randomized evaluator, blind clinical trial to compare pediculicidal and ovicidal effects of shampooes against head lice, the participants assigned to groups to use the shampooes based on manufacture’s instructions and followed up three weeks after treatment. Statistical analyses were done by X2 test and line logarithmic procedure. Results: The results show that cure rates (no live adult and nymph of lice were seen on physical re-examination of scalp(, at the end of the first week were 29,36, 34 and 15 percent for d-phenothrin 0.2%, lindane 1% , permethrin1% and placebo respectively. These cure rates for treatment shampooes showed significant differences when compared to placebo (0.0010.05. but at the end of the third week, the cure rates for the three mentioned shampooes were 88, 88 and 87 percent and also there is no statisticall differences in their efficacy. It should be noted that the results of ordinary shampoo is just for the first week after usage. Line logarithmic analysis of results shows that efficacy of different pediculicide shampoo (p value=0.58 in different times (p value=0.25 have no difference. but the cure rate of cases varied three weeks after treatment. (p value<0.0001. This shows the residual effect of pediculicides on new hatched nymphs.Conclusion: According to the results

  12. National Pesticide Information Center

    National Pesticide Information Center npic@ace.orst.edu 1.800.858.7378 Index A B C D E F ... Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Ingredients Active Ingredients Other/Inert Ingredients Pesticide Products ...

  13. Applying Pesticides Safely

    Latimer, Joyce G.

    2009-01-01

    Proper use of pesticides is essential for your safety and for that of the environment. Pesticides must be used correctly to be effective. This publication reviews the key factors in the proper use of pesticides.

  14. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  15. Strategic analysis of a semiconductor company’s migration into consumer markets

    Itcush, Robert Larry

    2006-01-01

    SemiconInc is a Canadian fabless semiconductor company, who has been successful developing innovative, high-margin semiconductor devices for the telecom industry. The company was affected by the slowdown in telecom spending that followed the crash of the technology sector in 2000/2001, but has since recovered and is pursuing new areas for growth. The rapidly growing consumer electronics industry is one potential market that SemiconInc should explore, as SemiconInc’s core competencies in ...

  16. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions. PMID:27367607

  17. Pesticides poisoning

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  18. Pesticide Instrumental Analysis

    This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

  19. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  20. Pesticide Product Label System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  1. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  2. Pesticides And Farmer Health In Nicaragua: A Willingness To Pay Approach

    Waibel, Hermann; Garming, Hildegard

    2007-01-01

    This study presents an economic valuation of health risks of pesticides among Nicaraguan vegetable farmers. A comprehensive valuation of market and non-market value components of human health is established through farmers? willingness to pay (WTP) for low toxicity pesticides. Results show, that farmers are willing to spend about 28% of current pesticide expenditure for avoiding health risks. The validity of results is established in scope tests and a two-step regression model. WTP depends on...

  3. Pesticides and children

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

  4. Rural Marketing in India –Challenges, Opportunities and Strategies

    Abhisek Kumar Tripathi

    2012-01-01

    The rural market in Indian economy can be classified under two broad categories. These are the market for consumer goods that comprise of both durable and non-durable goods and the market for agricultural inputs that include fertilizers, pesticides, seeds Key words: rural marketing, marketing, challenges in rural marketing, rural marketing environment

  5. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  6. Marketing marketing

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede branding en onderscheidende zichtbaarheid juist van belang. Met de groei van big data en het belang van onbewust gedrag, zullen vooral die marketeers in de toekomst succesvol zijn die de consument het b...

  7. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    ... Pesticides Climate Change Climate Change Home What is Climate Change ... Pesticides The Basics Pesticides are substances we use to control or kill pests. Pests can be weeds, insects, rodents, or bacteria — anything we don’t want ...

  8. Pesticides and childhood cancer.

    Zahm, S H; Ward, M H

    1998-01-01

    Children are exposed to potentially carcinogenic pesticides from use in homes, schools, other buildings, lawns and gardens, through food and contaminated drinking water, from agricultural application drift, overspray, or off-gassing, and from carry-home exposure of parents occupationally exposed to pesticides. Parental exposure during the child's gestation or even preconception may also be important. Malignancies linked to pesticides in case reports or case-control studies include leukemia, n...

  9. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A.F.; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  10. Control of Pesticides 2000

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2000 analytical chemical authority control: 1) herbicides containing aclonifen, clopyralid, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, ioxynil, simazine, and terbuthylazine. 2) Fungicides containing fenpropidin......, fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin...

  11. Enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment of modern chiral pesticides

    Ye Jing [MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhao Meirong [Research Center of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Liu Jing [MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu Weiping, E-mail: wliu@zju.edu.c [MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Research Center of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Chiral pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. With the development of industry, more and more chiral pesticides will be introduced into the market. But their enantioselective ecotoxicology is not clear. Currently used synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids and imidazolinones often behave enantioselectively in agriculture use and they always pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological risks on non-target organisms or human. It is necessary to explore the enantioselective toxicology and ecological fate of these chiral pesticides in environmental risk assessment. The enantioselective toxicology and the fate of these currently widely used pesticides have been discussed in this review article. - Chiral pesticides could pose unpredictable enantioselective toxicity on non-target organisms.

  12. Enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment of modern chiral pesticides

    Chiral pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. With the development of industry, more and more chiral pesticides will be introduced into the market. But their enantioselective ecotoxicology is not clear. Currently used synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids and imidazolinones often behave enantioselectively in agriculture use and they always pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological risks on non-target organisms or human. It is necessary to explore the enantioselective toxicology and ecological fate of these chiral pesticides in environmental risk assessment. The enantioselective toxicology and the fate of these currently widely used pesticides have been discussed in this review article. - Chiral pesticides could pose unpredictable enantioselective toxicity on non-target organisms.

  13. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  14. Pesticider 2 i overfladevand

    Nyeland, B.; Kvamm, B. L.

    DMU har den 29. september 1999 afholdt en metodeafprøvning: Pesticider 2 i overfladevand. Der var tilmeldt 17 danske og udenlandske laboratorier i metodeafprøvningen. Prøvningen omfattede 32 pesticider i overfladevand fra en sjællandsk sø. Koncentrationsniveauet for hver komponent var på 0,025 - 0...

  15. Pesticides in Ground Water

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  16. Screening Pesticides for Neuropathogenicity

    Doherty, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides are routinely screened in studies that follow specific guidelines for possible neuropathogenicity in laboratory animals. These tests will detect chemicals that are by themselves strong inducers of neuropathogenesis if the tested strain is susceptible relative to the time of administration and methodology of assessment. Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is the only known human neurodegenerative disease associated with pesticides and the existing...

  17. Pesticide Sector Performed Well

    Wang Lvxian

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Further output growth in the first half of 2007 According to data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the output of pesticides (usually refering to pure pesticide technical) in China was 856 thousand tons in the first half of 2007, an increase of 25.6% over the same period of 2006.

  18. Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable

    Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

  19. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    Crentsil Kofi Bempah; Archibold Buah-Kwofie; Dzifa Denutsui; Jacob Asomaning; Anita Osei Tutu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present research study was to assess the concentration of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from markets in Kumasi and to generate awareness about the lethal effects of these pesticides on human beings as well as to estimate the potential health risks associated with the pesticide residue with regard to consumers. A total of 350 locally produced fruits and vegetables were purchased from six main markets in Kumasi and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with elec...

  20. PESTICIDES: BENEFITS AND HAZARDS

    Ivan Maksymiv

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an integral part of modern life used to prevent growth of unwanted living  organisms. Despite the fact that scientific statements coming from many toxicological works provide indication on the low risk of the pesticides and their residues, the community especially last years is deeply concerned about massive application of pesticides in diverse fields. Therefore evaluation of hazard risks particularly in long term perspective is very important. In the fact there are at least two clearly different approaches for evaluation of pesticide using: the first one is defined as an objective or probabilistic risk assessment, while the second one is the potential economic and agriculture benefits. Therefore, in this review the author has considered scientifically based assessment of positive and negative effects of pesticide application and discusses possible approaches to find balance between them.

  1. Assessing the environmental impact of changes in pesticide use on transgenic crops

    Kleter, G.A.; Kuiper, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Two main traits that have been introduced into genetically modified crops that are currently on the market, viz., herbicide and insect resistance, likely affect pesticide use on these crops. Various surveys have been carried out, such as those of the USDAERS and NCFAP, comparing the pesticide use on genetically modified versus conventional crops. Environmental indicators for pesticides may aid in comparing the outcomes of such assays in terms of environmental impact. Previously we applied one...

  2. Control of pesticides in certain countries of South-East Asia

    Control of pesticides in some countries of South-East Asia, namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand, is discussed. All these countries have implemented pesticide registration and control schemes. The information required to register pesticides and the details of pesticides labels in all the countries are somewhat similar to those provided in Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) guidelines. Certain pesticides are not registered because of their toxic properties, while others may be placed under severe handling and application restrictions. Advertising of pesticides is also controlled in these countries. The importance of licensing pesticide companies, and their post-registration activities, including enforcement of the law, monitoring of the environmental effects, control of the residue levels in food, and determination of the quality of the pesticides on the market, are highlighted. Wearing protective clothing that is suitable for applying pesticides in a temperature climate is not practical under tropical conditions. Records from hospital cases and surveys demonstrate that pesticide poisoning is a serious problem. Recognizing the problem, FAO issued a circular advising small farmers against using pesticides that fall into Class Ia or Ib of the World Health Organization hazard classification. FAO and the United Nations Environment Programme are implementing the prior informed consent (PIC) procedure. All the countries under discussion are participating in PIC and have prohibited the import of most of the pesticides currently subject to this procedure. The level of pesticide residues, particularly in vegetables, is of concern. It was found that a rather high proportion of pesticide products in Malaysia and Thailand did not comply with FAO specifications. Most countries do not appear to have the necessary resources to carry out analyses of an adequate number of formulation and residue samples, and representatives of FAO

  3. Pesticide Registration Information System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  4. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  5. Method Development for Simultaneous Determination of 41 Pesticides in Rice Using LC-MS/MS Technique and Its Application for the Analysis of 60 Rice Samples Collected from Tehran Market

    Shakouri, Attaollah; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Shojaee, Mohammad Hossein; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    A multi-residue method for simultaneous determination of 41 LC-amenable pesticides in rice, belonging to different chemical classes has been developed in Iran by LC-MS/MS. For the first time the pesticides were analyzed simultaneously in a single run using positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) after extraction with slightly modified QuEChERS method. The calibration curve for each analyte was linear over the concentration range of 0.02–1.0 μg/g with a correla...

  6. The Mississippi Social Climate of Tobacco Control, 2000-2001

    McMillen, Robert C PhD; Frese, Wolfgang; Cosby, Arthur G.

    2001-01-01

    The Social Climate Survey provides a method to monitor changes in social and environmental objectives, as well as an institutional framework to organize and interpret these results. This approach operationalizes the concept of social climate into a set of quantifiable social and environmental indicators - organized within an institutional framework. Social scientists typically conceptualize societal changes as oc...

  7. Center for Geometrical Metrology Annual Report 2000-2001

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bariani, Paolo

    involved in it's daily operation. In particular, I would like to thank my colleagues here at the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management (IPL) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and at the Institute for Product Development (IPU), as well as those external consultants who during...

  8. Multiple-race mortality data for California, 2000-2001.

    Heck, Katherine E.; Parker, Jennifer D.; McKendry, C. Jane

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine mortality rates and quality of race reporting for multiple-race individuals in California using the new multiple-race data available on the death certificate. METHODS: Death date were drawn from California vital statistics for 2000 and 2001. Denominator data were drawn from the 2000 census Modified Race Data Summary File. The authors calculated mortality rates and relative standard errors for multiple-race individuals as a whole and by county, and for the three largest ...

  9. Vildtudbyttet i Danmark i jagtsæsonen 2000 / 2001

    Asferg, T.

    -udbytte-statistik end normalt. Usikkerheden skyldes især at en del jægere er registreret for usandsynligt store udbytter af især kronvildt, dåvildt og sika. Direkte henvendelse til en del af disse jægere bekræftede at der i næsten alle tilfælde var tale om fejlregistrering. Fejlene er opstå-et i forbin-del-se med den...

  10. Sport Injuries in Iranian Skiers (Shemshak Slope 2000-2001

    M Motamedy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sport medicine is a relatively new scientific branch in Iran. In order to evaluate sport injuries in Iranian skiers we examined and followed all ski players who was injured while skiing in Shemshak slope during a skiing season (January to April 2000. Materials and Methods: During a period of 3 months, a total of 32050 persons skied in Shemshak slope and 76 case of injuries were identified; the injury rate was calculated as 2.3/1000 skiers. Among the injured organs knee (32% and head and neck region (20% were respectively the most common sites of injury. Sprain of the medial collateral ligament was the most frequent knee injury (28% of the cases. 26.7% of the injured cases were amateurs and 21% of them used hired ski instruments. Results: In this study such factors as lack of exercise before skiing, fatigue and time of skiing (beginning or end of the season were not found to be related to the injury rate. However, head and neck injuries in contrast to knee injuries were most frequent in the end of the season (P<0.01. Conclusion: This study confirms the necessity of greater care of knee joints during skiing and probable need of wearing helmet for head protection in the end of skiing season. More studies are necessary to clarify other details regarding sport injuries in skiers.

  11. ANSTO Strategic Plan 2000/2001 - 2004/2005

    This new five-year plan outlines strategies to prepare ANSTO for the opportunities provided by the replacement research reactor, building on the successes of its predecessor plan in reforming the organisation.The Strategic Plan focuses on the innovation process itself as a driver of future prosperity. It embodies the Commonwealth Government's emphasis on an outputs and outcomes framework to deliver results, and to further strengthen accountability in light of the significant research investment at ANSTO. A balanced Scorecard approach of driving strategic and business processes through four different perspectives will ensure the efficient achievement of relevant results. ANSTO is responsible for delivering specific scientific services and products to government, industry, academia and other research organisations. Activities are grouped into five externally focused core business areas.These are the areas through which ANSTO will develop new knowledge, deliver quality services, support business opportunities and ensure that nuclear science and technology and related capabilities provide an innovative impetus to benefit society. A separate internal stream provides support for organisational development. The challenge of the next five years is to streamline the innovation process to improve delivery of results. ANSTO is a knowledge-based organisation with the major strengths being its people, a multidisciplinary approach to its operation, and its facilities.Through a collaborative effort driven by this strategic plan, ANSTO will be able to deliver new and exciting outcomes that can be put into practice by participants and clients across Australia. ANSTO's strategic direction, as presented in this plan, is owned by the Board and staff

  12. Attacking Poverty. World Development Report, 2000/2001.

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report seeks to expand the understanding of poverty and its causes and sets out actions to create to create a world free of poverty in all its dimensions. The report both builds on past thinking and strategy and substantially broadens and deepens what is judged to be necessary to meet the challenge of reducing poverty. It argues that major…

  13. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a devastating impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas were completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, causing the native people who's number one food resource was salmon to rely entirely upon resident fish to replace lost fisheries resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the ''Blocked Area'' above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 as a resident fish substitution measure and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout. To achieve this quota the Colville Tribal Hatchery was scheduled to produce 174,000 fingerling rainbow trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 sub-yearling rainbow trout (15 grams/fish), 80,000 legal size rainbow trout (90 grams/fish), 196,000 fingerling brook trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 subyearling brook trout (15 grams/fish) and 60,000 lahontan cutthroat trout (15 grams/fish) in 2001. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence /recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members as well as a successful non-member sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to provide a ''carry-over'' fishery. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be capable of contributing to the natural production component of the reservation fish populations. Contribution to the natural production component will be achieved by producing and releasing fish of sufficient quality and quantity for fish to survive to spawning maturity, to spawn naturally in existing and future available habitat (i.e. natural supplementation), while meeting other program objectives. In addition to the hatchery specific goals detailed above, hatchery personnel will actively participate in the Northwest Power Planning Council program, participate in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Foundation, Resident Fish Committee, and other associated committees and Ad Hoc groups that may be formed to address resident fish issues in the blocked area above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams.

  14. SPACE CHEMISTRY RESEARCHES IN CHINA DURING 2000-2001

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two years, significant progress in space chemistry has been made in China. The research fields include meteorites, pre-solar materials, science researches of the moon, effects of the space debris on space environment, and heterogeneity of the Earth. Chinese Lunar Exploration Project Some studies are also dedicated to one important space mission "Chinese Lunar Exploration Project". In this paper, the main achievements are outlined, and some concepts and hypotheses are briefly revised.

  15. Critical slowing down associated with regime shifts in the US housing market

    Tan, James Peng Lung; Cheong, Siew Siew Ann

    2014-02-01

    Complex systems are described by a large number of variables with strong and nonlinear interactions. Such systems frequently undergo regime shifts. Combining insights from bifurcation theory in nonlinear dynamics and the theory of critical transitions in statistical physics, we know that critical slowing down and critical fluctuations occur close to such regime shifts. In this paper, we show how universal precursors expected from such critical transitions can be used to forecast regime shifts in the US housing market. In the housing permit, volume of homes sold and percentage of homes sold for gain data, we detected strong early warning signals associated with a sequence of coupled regime shifts, starting from a Subprime Mortgage Loans transition in 2003-2004 and ending with the Subprime Crisis in 2007-2008. Weaker signals of critical slowing down were also detected in the US housing market data during the 1997-1998 Asian Financial Crisis and the 2000-2001 Technology Bubble Crisis. Backed by various macroeconomic data, we propose a scenario whereby hot money flowing back into the US during the Asian Financial Crisis fueled the Technology Bubble. When the Technology Bubble collapsed in 2000-2001, the hot money then flowed into the US housing market, triggering the Subprime Mortgage Loans transition in 2003-2004 and an ensuing sequence of transitions. We showed how this sequence of couple transitions unfolded in space and in time over the whole of US.

  16. Method Development for Simultaneous Determination of 41 Pesticides in Rice Using LC-MS/MS Technique and Its Application for the Analysis of 60 Rice Samples Collected from Tehran Market.

    Shakouri, Attaollah; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Shojaee, Mohammad Hossein; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    A multi-residue method for simultaneous determination of 41 LC-amenable pesticides in rice, belonging to different chemical classes has been developed in Iran by LC-MS/MS. For the first time the pesticides were analyzed simultaneously in a single run using positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) after extraction with slightly modified QuEChERS method. The calibration curve for each analyte was linear over the concentration range of 0.02-1.0 μg/g with a correlation coefficient range between 0.993 and 0.999. The LOQ and LOD were .025 μg/g and 0.008 μg/g respectively, for all 41 pesticides and the mean recoveries obtained for three fortification levels (0.025, 0.08 and 0.250 μg/g) were 71-119% with satisfactory precision (RSDTCMTB, three permitted pesticides, cinosulfuron, triadimenol and tricyclazole, found in positive rice samples were below MRLs established by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI). PMID:25276193

  17. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES). The evaluation system for pesticides (ESPE) is divided in three parts: 1) emission of the pesticide ; 2) distribution over and within the different environmental compartments and c...

  18. Swedish wind energy research program VKK, Annual report 2000/2001; Vindkraftsprogrammet VKK. Laegesrapport verksamhetsaaret 2000/2001

    Thor, S.E.

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the results that have been achieved during the period July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001, the last year in the three-year period of the present research programme financed by the Swedish Energy Administration. The yearly budget amounts to 15.6 MSEK (about 1.5 MUSD)

  19. Pesticide Movement in Response to Furrow Irrigation and Pesticide Parameters

    Peralta, Richard C.; Hill, Robert W.; Deer, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Production of adequate supplies of food and fiber currently requires that pesticides be used to limit crop losses from insects, pathogens, weeds and other pests. The term pesticide refers to a large number ofchemical compounds. Pesticides include acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, nematicides, algicides, arboricides, zoocides, and many more.

  20. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  1. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when

  2. Pesticides and earthworms. A review

    Pelosi, Céline; Barot, Sebastien; Capowiez, Yvan; Hedde, Mickaël; Vandenbulcke, Franck

    2014-01-01

    International audience Earthworms provide key soil functions that favour many positive ecosystem services. These services are important for agroecosystem sustainability but can be degraded by intensive cultural practices such as use of pesticides. Many literature reports have investigated the effect of pesticides on earthworms. Here, we review those reports to assess the relevance of the indicators of earthworm response to pesticides, to assess their sensitivity to pesticides, and to highl...

  3. Pesticide exposure--Indian scene.

    Gupta, P K

    2004-05-20

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. PMID:15138033

  4. In Case of Pesticide Emergency

    ... Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us In Case of Pesticide Emergency If someone has swallowed or inhaled a pesticide or gotten it in the eye or on ... for help with first aid information. The National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) (1-800-858-7378) also ...

  5. Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI), established in 1963, is the first professional pesticide institute in China. After being approved by the Science & Technology Committee of PRC, it became the base for Shanghai Branch of National Pesticide R&D South center.

  6. Pesticide reducing instruments

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin;

    2005-01-01

    the cost and to calculate general economic and sectoral consequences. This CGE model is linked to an agricultural sector model calculating the optimal use of land, and the agricultural sector model is then linked to a biological agent based simulation model (ABM) calculating changes in the population...... the collaboration and linkage of very different research disciplines and modeling tools. In the paper we combine several analytical tools in search of an effective pesticide instrument and an optimal application of such an instrument. The tools under considerations are firstly a CGE model used for evaluating...... of a key species of farmland bird, caused to changes in production and landscape. The results from the agricultural sector model are also used in evaluation of pesticide usage and the leaching of pesticides to ground water. First we analyze the implication of three different scenarios in all of the above...

  7. Control of Pesticides 2004

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...... coumatetralyl and one out of four contained dicamba complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the examined samples contained OPEO, but one of the samples contained NPEO. On three products...

  8. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    This PhD project was carried out as part of the Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) project, funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research (grant number 2104-08-0012). The environment is contaminated with various xenobiotic compounds e.g. pesticides......D student, to construct fungal-bacterial consortia in order to potentially stimulate pesticide degradation thereby increasing the chance of successful bioaugmentation. The results of the project are reported in three article manuscripts, included in this thesis. In manuscript I, the mineralization of 2...

  9. Control of pesticides 2003

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2003 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing clodinafop- propargyl, clomazone, fluroxypyr and glyphosate. 2) Fungicides containing bitertanol, fuberidazole, fenhexamid and pencycuron...... containing methoprene complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the 44 examined samples contained OPEO, but 5 of the samples contained NPEO. Three of these five samples were produced before...

  10. On the paradox of pesticides

    Li, Y. Charles; Yang, Yipeng

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pesticides is when the...

  11. INNOVATION AND REGULATION IN THE PESTICIDE INDUSTRY

    Ollinger, Michael; Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of new pesticide registrations and pesticide toxicity. Results suggest that regulation adversely affects new pesticide introductions but encourages the development of pesticides with fewer toxic side effects. The estimated regression model implies that a 10% increase in regulatory costs (about $1.5 million per pesticide) causes a 5% reduction in the number of pesticides with higher toxicity.

  12. Kombinationseffekter af pesticider

    Kudsk, Per; Andersen, Helle Raun; Cedergreen, Nina;

    Resumé: Effekten af 101 tokomponentblandinger og 20 trekomponentblandinger bestående af 22 forskellige pesticider blev undersøgt i 7 forskellige testsystemer. Effekterne af blandingerne blev sammenholdt med pesticidernes virkningsmekanismer/virkemåder med henblik på at undersøge, om det med...

  13. Postharvest Phytosanitary Pesticide Treatments

    This book chapter by Neil Heather and Guy Hallman, in “Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers,” CABI Press, covers the use of non-gaseous pesticides. Their use as phytosanitary treatments for edibles has never been great and is diminishing. They may still have promise for non-consumed pr...

  14. Analysis Method for Pesticides Residues by GC/MS in Lebanese Apple

    The apple's crop can be affected by many pests during the growing season, which requires careful monitoring. Both apple fruit and apple tree need to be treated by pesticides in order to protect them from pests. Such treatment often leads to the accumulation of stable pesticides inside the fruit. The local market provides a large variety of pesticides allowing farmers to use more than one active substance in order to protect their crop, often without proper advice. Monitoring pesticides on apples and other agricultural crops is the best way to protect consumers health from the hazards of pesticides residues. The development of new, rapid and effective method to analyze the multi pesticides residues at trace levels in apple samples is essential. This work describes the extraction procedure and the analytical method developed to detect the pesticide residues using the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric approach (GC-MS). The developed method was successfully applied to analyze apple samples collected from different Lebanese markets for a one year period in order to monitor the presence of pesticides and their stability in apple fruits during storage. (author)

  15. Multiresidue Analysis of 86 Pesticides Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry: II-Nonleafy Vegetables

    M. H. EL-Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1057 samples of fresh vegetables from import and domestic production were analyzed (cold pepper, egg plant, carrot, cucumber, potato, hot pepper, cultivation tomato, squash, beans, okra, onions, cauliflower, and green house tomato. The aim of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in market foods in Riyadh, which have been collected from Riyadh Development Company (Al-Tamer Vegetables Market. Pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GC-MSD. A multiresidue method was developed and described for simultaneous determination of 86 pesticides commonly used in crop protection. This method used to determine 86 pesticide residues with a broad range of physicochemical properties in fresh vegetables related to organophosphorus (OPP, organochlorines (OCP, pyrethroids, and carbamates mainly used in agriculture. Sample extract was cleaned up by using AOAC method. Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL were detected in 15.89% of the total samples (168 from 1057 samples, but 83.90% of the total samples (887 from 1057 samples has no residues or contained pesticide residues at or below MRL. The detected and most frequently found pesticide residues were permethrin (45 times and endosulfan (34 times followed by deltamethrin (27 times. The findings of this study pointed to the following recommendations: the need for a monitoring program for pesticide residues in imported food crops.

  16. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  17. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  18. 76 FR 63298 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2011-10-12

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  19. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the...

  20. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to...

  1. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  2. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency,...

  3. 75 FR 11884 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  4. 75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-06-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  5. 77 FR 14362 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2012-03-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... by the docket identification (ID) number and the file symbol for the pesticide of interest as...

  6. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the...

  7. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2012-06-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products...), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington,...

  8. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa;

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic...... cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  9. Levels of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Medicinal Plants Commonly Consumed in Iran

    Parisa Sarkhail

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The frequent occurrence of pesticide residues in herbal materials was indicated by previous studies. In this study, the concentration of some of the organophosphorus pesticides including parathion, malathion, diazinon and pirimiphos methyl in different kinds of medicinal plants were determined. The samples were collected randomly from ten local markets of different areas of Iran. At the detection limit of 0.5 ng g-1, parathion and pirimiphos methyl were not detected in any of the samples. Some amounts of malathion and diazinon were found in Zataria, Matricaria chamomile, Spearmint and Cumin Seed samples while, the concentrations of target organophosphorus pesticides in Borage samples were below the detection limits of the methods which could be a result of intensive transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by Borage. In addition the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all of the samples below the maximum residue levels (MRLs proposed by the international organizations.

  10. Levels of organophosphorus pesticides in medicinal plants commonly consumed in Iran

    Sarkhail Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The frequent occurrence of pesticide residues in herbal materials was indicated by previous studies. In this study, the concentration of some of the organophosphorus pesticides including parathion, malathion, diazinon and pirimiphos methyl in different kinds of medicinal plants were determined. The samples were collected randomly from ten local markets of different areas of Iran. At the detection limit of 0.5 ng g-1, parathion and pirimiphos methyl were not detected in any of the samples. Some amounts of malathion and diazinon were found in Zataria, Matricaria chamomile, Spearmint and Cumin Seed samples while, the concentrations of target organophosphorus pesticides in Borage samples were below the detection limits of the methods which could be a result of intensive transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by Borage. In addition the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all of the samples below the maximum residue levels (MRLs proposed by the international organizations.

  11. An agent-based approach equipped with game theory. Strategic collaboration among learning agents during a dynamic market change in the California electricity crisis

    An agent-based approach is a numerical (computer-intensive) method to explore the complex characteristics and dynamics of microeconomics. Using the agent-based approach, this study investigates the learning speed of traders and their strategic collaboration in a dynamic market change of electricity. An example of such a market change can be found in the California electricity crisis (2000-2001). This study incorporates the concept of partial reinforcement learning into trading agents and finds that they have two learning components: learning from a dynamic market change and learning from collaboration with other traders. The learning speed of traders becomes slow when a large fluctuation occurs in the power exchange market. The learning speed depends upon the type of traders, their learning capabilities and the fluctuation of market fundamentals. The degree of collaboration among traders gradually reduces during the electricity crisis. The strategic collaboration among traders is examined by a large simulator equipped with multiple learning capabilities. (author)

  12. An agent-based approach equipped with game theory. Strategic collaboration among learning agents during a dynamic market change in the California electricity crisis

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki [Department of Management, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Department of Industrial and Information Management, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2010-09-15

    An agent-based approach is a numerical (computer-intensive) method to explore the complex characteristics and dynamics of microeconomics. Using the agent-based approach, this study investigates the learning speed of traders and their strategic collaboration in a dynamic market change of electricity. An example of such a market change can be found in the California electricity crisis (2000-2001). This study incorporates the concept of partial reinforcement learning into trading agents and finds that they have two learning components: learning from a dynamic market change and learning from collaboration with other traders. The learning speed of traders becomes slow when a large fluctuation occurs in the power exchange market. The learning speed depends upon the type of traders, their learning capabilities and the fluctuation of market fundamentals. The degree of collaboration among traders gradually reduces during the electricity crisis. The strategic collaboration among traders is examined by a large simulator equipped with multiple learning capabilities. (author)

  13. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110

  14. Australian national residue survey – closing the loop on pesticide residue risk management for Australian grain

    Reichstein, I.; Healy, K; James, A.; Murray, B.

    2010-01-01

    Australia exports a major proportion of its agricultural production and is highly dependent on maintaining and developing access to, and competitiveness in, export markets. To preserve Australia’s status as a provider of high quality grain, the majority of Australian primary producers rely on pesticides to protect their crops from pests and diseases, particularly in post-harvest situations. The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) supports Australian agriculture by...

  15. Résistance aux médicaments et aux pesticides (biocides)

    Pasteur, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    The progress of the health of human populations in the 20th century is largely due to development and the marketing of biocides (drugs and pesticides). Biocides limit the proliferation of unwanted organisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoa or metazoa) or even cells (as in cancer). They include anti-bacterial, anti-parasitic, anti-cancer compounds, as well as pesticides (insecticides and herbicides, for example). The efficiency of a large number of biocides is now compromised by the emergence of r...

  16. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries.

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC-MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. PMID:26093223

  17. Choice of pesticide fate models

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested

  18. Study report on the market and price situation with natural fibers (Germany and European Union); Studie zur Markt- und Preissituation bei Naturfasern (Deutschland und EU)

    Karus, M.; Kaup, M.; Lohmeyer, D. [nova-Institut, Huerth (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The focus of the study is on the markets for short fibers for engineering applications and materials substitution in a variety of industrial branches, particularly in European countries. The study was intended to analyse existing and future markets and the economic situation of the producers, in order to derive information on future policy and framework conditions required for an appropriate development of the new markets in Europe in the light of international competition. The development will essentially depend on the reform of EU policy on aid from public funds, planned for 2000/2001. The extensive data compilation presented is based on inquiries among relevant enterprises and associations in EU member states by way of questionnaires or interviews. (orig./CB) [German] Die Studie konzentriert sich auf die Maerkte fuer technische Kurzfasern, die besonders in den neuen Flachs- und Hanflaendern in Europa von zentraler Bedeutung sind. Ziel der Studie war es, heutige und zukuenftige Maerkte und die oekonomische Situation der Produzenten zu analysieren, um anschliessend geeignete Rahmenbedingungen fuer eine sachgerechte Entwicklung der Maerkte abzuleiten. Diese wird wesentlich von der EU-Beihilfepolitik bestimmt werden, die fuer das Wirtschaftsjahr2000/2001 grundlegend reformiert werden soll. Die umfangreiche Datensammlung basiert auf Erhebungen bei relevanten Unternehmen und Verbaenden in der EU mittels Frageboegen und Interviews. (orig./CB)

  19. Quality control of pesticide products

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

  20. Sprinkler irrigation-pesticide best management systems

    Ranjha, A. Y.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, R. W.; Requena, A. M.; Deer, H. M.; Ehteshami, M.

    1992-01-01

    The relative reduction in potential groundwater contamination due to pesticides at several sites in Utah was determined by comparing alternative irrigation system designs, water management practices, and pesticides. Alternative sprinkler irrigation distribution coefficients were used to estimate irrigation application depths. The movement of pesticides through soils following sprinkler irrigations was simulated with a one-dimensional model. Pesticide contamination of groundwater can be reduce...

  1. Pesticide Productivity: Of Bugs and Biases

    Norwood, F. Bailey; Marra, Michele C.

    2003-01-01

    Pesticide productivity is both important and difficult to measure. Typically, pesticide marginal products are estimated without information on the pest pressure. Three theoretical models are developed which suggest absence of such information may cause an underestimation of pesticide productivity. Using application frequency variables as a proxy for pest populations, we show that pesticide marginal products are higher when pest pressure is accounted for.

  2. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws--2002 Update: A Review…

  3. Immunochemical Screening of Pesticides (Simazine and Cypermethrin) in Orange Oil

    Nichkova, Mikaela; Fu, Xun; Yang, Zheng; Zhong, Ping; Sanborn, James R.; Chang, Dan; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide residue analysis in citrus oils is very important for their quality and marketing. This study assessed the reliability and sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for simazine and cypermethrin screening in orange oil. Simazine was analyzed after extraction of the oil with methanolic phosphate buffer with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 40 µg/L for 1-fold and ~100 µg/L for 10-fold oils. Due to matrix effects the immunoanalysis of cypermethrin required hexane–aceton...

  4. A survey on the safe and effective use of pesticides in cut flower production: the case of highlands of northern Thailand.

    Stimamiglio, G.; Schiffers, Bruno; Ellis, W.

    1998-01-01

    To compete with the income gained from opium cultivation, cut flower growing has been introduced in the highlands of northem Thailand. High-value produce whose the physical appearance is essential to secure high market priees, cut flowers require intensive pesticide use. Farmer's practices in cut flower production raise, however, various problems related to pesticide overuse and misuse, leading to potential health hazards. To gain c1ear understanding of pesticide use practices and identify...

  5. The electricity market 2002

    taxes. The price of electricity dropped between 1997 and 2000, but began rising again to all electricity customers during 2000 and 2001. During the same period, the network charges remained largely unchanged, while the tax on electricity increased substantially. This led to an increase in the total cost to domestic customers, whereas the cost to industrial customers, who are exempt from taxes, is lower. The reform has enabled customers to choose freely the supplier from whom they want to buy their electricity. An opinion poll shows that most customers know that they can choose their supplier, and 37 % have acted on this by changing to a different supplier or negotiating their electricity price. The market concentration has increased in recent years since the dominating companies in Nordic countries have bought shares in competing companies on the Nordic market. The power companies and electricity trading companies are being developed towards bigger and more integrated energy companies, with operations in several countries. In recent years, the former surplus generation capacity in Sweden has been reduced. The oil-fired condensing power stations that were previously used in Sweden as reserve capacity have been decommissioned, and the first reactor in Barsebaeck was shut down. Svenska Kraftnaet, the Swedish grid utility, purchased a power reserve before the winter of 2000/2001 in order to strengthen the power balance during consumption peaks. During the autumn of 2001, the Government also entrusted Svenska Kraftnaet with the task of safe-guarding electricity generation capacity during very cold weather. This was to be done by purchasing reserve power capacity. The assignment resulted in additional power generation capacity consisting of previously decommissioned power generation plants and companies that were prepared to reduce their power consumption voluntarily. The procurement of reserve capacity is a temporary transitional measure. In the Government assignment

  6. PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNICS IMPROVEMENT

    Đuro Banaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Pesticide application tehnics improvement is the result of several-year recording theoretical models, numerous practical tests, and data collection relating to technical systems in plant protection and its environment in the narrowest sense. In this first edition, the authors cover the area they have dealt with for many years. The authors aimed to present complete and clear methods how to solve specific problems in the agricultural practice management, plant protection, and direct practice application – ‘‘Know- How'', with as many as possible useful data. References used, along with local ones, are mostly American and from Western Europe. This textbook is intended for those who already use the agricultural technique in plant protection and those who are just acquiring the basics of technical systems proper application in daily practice, regardless the size of the agricultural farm. The authors covered in details and explained some bases of physics logic, analysis, and synthesis of specific laws while using pesticides due to extremely importance in understanding the problem area.

  7. 75 FR 13284 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    2010-03-19

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs is inviting nominations of qualified...

  8. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  9. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pcabhilash@gmail.com [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Nandita, E-mail: nanditasingh8@yahoo.co.in [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2009-06-15

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  10. Current trends in pesticide usage in some Asian countries: Environmental implications and research needs

    The trends in pesticide consumption in some Asian countries clearly indicate that pesticides are not only a critical input in pest management, mainly to increase crop production, but also for public health, recreation, forestry, etc. A study was made to collect information from nine countries in Asia; they are listed in order of their pesticide consumption: India, the Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. In 1985 the total pesticide consumption of these countries was approximately 1.1 million tonnes, 70% of which (or 0.75 million tonnes) were manufactured locally. Twenty-one technical materials were produced in eight countries (excluding Sri Lanka). The total pesticide market of all these countries was estimated at US $1189 million, of which 74.2% are shared by four countries: India (26%), the Republic of Korea (19.6%), Indonesia (16.8%) and Malaysia (11.8%). The most important crop in Asia is rice, and the main pests are stem borers and planthoppers. Other important pests occur in the following crops: cotton, rubber, oilpalm, tea, sugarcane, jute, bananas, pineapples and vegetables. The problems of pesticide use are: (1) the pesticide treadmill, the increasing pesticide application and the decreasing efficacy, and the unequal sharing of benefits and environmental risks among the various community groups; (2) the side effects on non-target organisms and the environment, and on public health and poisoning problems as well as contamination of resources and products; (3) the lack of appropriate information for those concerned with pesticide distribution and usage; and (4) legislation problems, violation of pesticide codes and enforcement problems. 13 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Remediation of soil contaminated with pesticides by treatment with gamma radiation

    The discharge of empty plastic packaging of pesticides can be an environmental concern mainly by soil contamination. Nowadays, Brazil figures in third place among the leading world pesticide markets. An understanding of the processes that affect the transport and fate of pesticides is crucial to assess their potential for contamination of soil and groundwater, and to develop efficient and cost-effective site management and soil remediation strategies. Due to its impact on soil remediation has made sorption a major topic of research on soil-pesticide interactions. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the pesticides transferring from contaminated mixture of commercial polymeric packing of high-density polyethylene, HDPE, used in agriculture to soil and their removal by gamma irradiation. Two soil samples of argyles compositions and media composition were exposed to a mixture of commercial polymeric packing contaminated with the pesticides methomyl, dimethoate, carbofuran, methidathion, triazine, thiophos, atrazine, ametryne, endosulfan, chloropyrifos, thriazophos and trifluralin. The pesticides leaching from packaging to soil was homogeneous considering a experimental research. The radiation treatment presented high efficiency on removal pesticides from both soil, but it depends on the physical-chemical characteristics of the contaminated soil. The higher efficiency was obtained in soils with higher organic material and humidity. The higher efficiency was obtained for the medium texture soil, with 20 kGy all present pesticides were removed in all layers. In the case of argyles texture soil, it was necessary a 30 kGy to remove the totality of present pesticides. (author)

  12. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  13. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  14. 77 FR 64990 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    2012-10-24

    ... groups; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal...: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide industry and...

  15. Carrying out Credit Management of the Pesticide Industry Well to Improve the Prestige The speech abstract of Luo Haizhang on pesticide industry conference

    Luo Haizhang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The foundation and development of society credit management system is the requirement of market economy. Now more and more groups know the importance of industry credit management and enterprise credit management. Pesticide industry credit management can be done well by our common efforts.

  16. Challenges in Regulating Pesticide Mixtures

    Debra Denton; Bruce Hammock; Craig Wheelock; Jason Belden; Michael Lydy

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the field of mixture toxicity and the challenges in regulating pesticide mixtures. Even though pesticides are unique chemical stressors designed to have biological activity that can affect a number of nontarget species, they are intentionally placed into the environment in large quantities. Currently, methods and terminology for evaluating mixture toxicity are poorly established. The most common approach used is the assumption of additive concentration, with the concentr...

  17. Pesticide movement and water management

    Ehteshami, Majid; Peralta, R C

    1989-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals are essential components of agricultural production systems in the United states. Pesticides control weeds, insects, and have had an important role in increasing agricultural productivity in the last 50 years, despite diminishing crop land acreage. The benefits of chemicals use options in agriculture must be balanced against potential contamination of surface water and ground water resources. This study shows the effect of water management practices on pesticide movemen...

  18. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR FOOD SAFETY ATTRIBUTES IN FRESH APPLES: MARKET SEGMENTS, CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS, AND MARKETING OPPORTUNITIES

    Baker, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    Past research has yielded conflicting results on consumer valuation of food safety characteristics. In this study, conjoint analysis is used to evaluate consumer responses to hypothetical apple products in a nationwide survey. Product characteristics include price, quality, pesticide use levels and the corresponding cancer risk, and type of government inspection. Consumers expressed a broad preference for reduced pesticide usage. Four market segments were identified corresponding to consumers...

  19. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  20. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  1. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF < 1), which indicates reduction of pesticides under study during processing of the coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans. PMID:26344013

  2. Use of pesticides in Kazakhstan

    The Republic of Kazakhstan has 210 regional stations, 19 provincial stations and one co-ordinating government research and production station, all known as Republic Stations for Plant Protection. These stations have the following functions: they control pesticide use and development, and monitor pest populations; they inform and teach farmers the methods for controlling insect pests, diseases and weeds, and the rules for safe pesticide use; and they continually monitor the presence or spread of any adverse effects in order to make short and long term prognoses, which are then used to determine the pesticide requirements. The major functions of these government stations is to control the timely distribution of pesticides and their safe and timely application, so that regulations for their use can be monitored and control over technology maintained. The co-ordinating station evaluates all projects, provides documentation on the use and storage of pesticides, controls field trials carried out by foreign companies on the Republic's territory and regulates pesticide usage during campaigns against insect pests, diseases and weeds. The regional and district subdivisions of these government stations promote integrated pest management for protecting harvests. (author)

  3. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

  4. Pesticide use and biodiversity conservation in the Amazonian agricultural frontier.

    Schiesari, Luis; Waichman, Andrea; Brock, Theo; Adams, Cristina; Grillitsch, Britta

    2013-06-01

    Agricultural frontiers are dynamic environments characterized by the conversion of native habitats to agriculture. Because they are currently concentrated in diverse tropical habitats, agricultural frontiers are areas where the largest number of species is exposed to hazardous land management practices, including pesticide use. Focusing on the Amazonian frontier, we show that producers have varying access to resources, knowledge, control and reward mechanisms to improve land management practices. With poor education and no technical support, pesticide use by smallholders sharply deviated from agronomical recommendations, tending to overutilization of hazardous compounds. By contrast, with higher levels of technical expertise and resources, and aiming at more restrictive markets, large-scale producers adhered more closely to technical recommendations and even voluntarily replaced more hazardous compounds. However, the ecological footprint increased significantly over time because of increased dosage or because formulations that are less toxic to humans may be more toxic to other biodiversity. Frontier regions appear to be unique in terms of the conflicts between production and conservation, and the necessary pesticide risk management and risk reduction can only be achieved through responsibility-sharing by diverse stakeholders, including governmental and intergovernmental organizations, NGOs, financial institutions, pesticide and agricultural industries, producers, academia and consumers. PMID:23610177

  5. An industry approach to the risk assessment of pesticides

    The regulatory control of pesticides has developed over the last 40 years during which time major changes have occurred, not only in the scientific basis of risk assessment but also in the socio-political perception of pesticides and of the agricultural and chemical industries. Traditionally, and logically, the registration of pesticides has been based on a pre-marketing risk-benefit assessment by but changes have occurred in the relative importance associated with the two elements of this assessment. These potential risks have assumed a greater importance as has the acceptability of such risks. By contrast the benefits of using plant protection products to increase agricultural productivity and production has assumed less importance in the light of perceived agricultural surpluses, at least in the Developed Countries. This paper will consider current and future regulatory requirements for pesticides and identify some of the key areas which are of importance to the Plant Protection Industry. It will also discuss initiatives, by both the Industry and Government, aimed at ensuring the safe use of plant protection products, how such initiatives are likely to impact on new product developments and the consequential effects on global food supplies

  6. Monitoring of pesticide residue in bovine milk from Nadia district, West Bengal.

    Singh, Aruna Kumari; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Monitoring of 210 bovine milk samples collected from local markets in the Nadia district of West Bengal during 2011 was performed. Samples were collected in summer and winter seasons. Analysis of pesticides was performed by using a multiresidue method validated in the laboratory. The quantification was performed using GC-ECD. Analysis revealed the presence of lindane in less than 1 % of milk samples. Endosulfan I and II were also detected and were found to exceed MRL recommended by Codex. Overall 1.90 % of the analyzed samples showed trace to measurable amount of pesticide residues. The monitored area provided pesticide residues data of milk, assisting in future scientific assessment on pesticide usage. PMID:23708263

  7. Model-based computer-aided design for controlled release of pesticides

    Muro Sunè, Nuria; Gani, Rafiqul; Bell, G.; Shirley, I.

    2005-01-01

    , can be used to study and analyze some of the important issues related to the design/application of the pesticide. This paper highlights the needs for predictive models and proposes the use of a computer aided modelling framework through which a collection of reliable and predictive constitutive...... extended models have been developed and implemented into a computer-aided system. The total model consisting of the property models embedded into the release models are then employed to study the release of different combinations of AIs and polymer-based microcapsules.......In the field of controlled release technology for pesticides or active ingredients (AI), models that can predict its delivery during application are important for purposes of design and marketing of the pesticide product. Appropriate models for the controlled release of pesticides, if available...

  8. Determination of some organochlorine pesticide residues in honeys from Konya, Turkey.

    Yavuz, Halil; Guler, Gokalp O; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Cakmak, Yavuz S; Ozparlak, Haluk

    2010-09-01

    In this study, 24 organochlorine pesticide residues in 109 different honey samples collected from stores and open markets in Konya, Turkey were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Aldrin, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, oxy-chlordane, 2,4(')-DDE, and 4,4(')-DDE were found in all honey samples. The mean value was 0.0540 microg g(-1) for oxy-chlordane. In the 55 samples of 109, levels of organochlorine pesticide residues of oxy-chlordane were determined as higher than those of Turkish Alimentarius Codex maximum residual limits (MRLs). Other organochlorine pesticide residues also exceeded MRLs except for cis-heptachlor epoxide and alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane. Since all of the honey samples are found contaminated and most of these samples exceeded MRLs, a control of organochlorine pesticide residues in honey is necessary for consumer health. PMID:19685151

  9. Using the Stock Market to Teach Physics

    Faux, David A.; Hearn, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    Students are interested in money. Personal finance is an important issue for most students, especially as they move into university education and take a greater control of their own finances. Many are also interested in stock markets and their ability to allow someone to make, and lose, large sums of money, with their interest fueled by the boom in technology-based stocks of 2000/2001 followed by their subsequent dramatic collapse and the publicizing of so-called "rogue-traders." There is also a much greater ownership of stocks by families following public offerings, stock-based savings products, and the ability to trade stocks online. Consequently, there has been a steady growth of finance and finance-related courses available within degree programs in response to the student demand, with many students motivated by the huge salaries commanded by those with a successful career in the financial sector. We report here details of a joint project between Charterhouse School and the University of Surrey designed to exploit the excitement of finance to teach elements of the high school (age 16-18) curriculum through modeling and simulation.

  10. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2110 Microbial pesticides data requirements. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1) The following § 158.2120 through §...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2100 Microbial pesticides definition and applicability. (a) This subpart applies to all living or dead microbial pesticides...

  14. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing...

  15. 76 FR 552 - Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure...

    2011-01-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure Joint... the potential risks to people from exposure to the pesticide in and around the home. The REJV was... the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) regarding the data development...

  16. 76 FR 72404 - Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary Exposure Task...

    2011-11-23

    ... AGENCY Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary Exposure Task... registration, the Agency evaluates the potential risks to people from exposure to the pesticide in and around... the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) regarding the data development...

  17. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  18. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F;

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  19. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  20. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  1. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  2. Collective action and allocation of decision rights in pesticide safety risk management: the case of tomato producer organizations in France

    Codron, Jean Marie; Bouhsina, Zouhair; Bonnaud, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide safety management at the production/shipping level is a costly transaction between a farmer and a buyer. Within the safety-demanding global market, a frequent solution adopted to comply with end customer requirements is to allocate monitoring and decision rights to the shipper. Our paper aims to explain how and why farmers who are members of Producer Organizations (POs) allocate monitoring and decision rights to their managers to manage pesticide safety risks. It also distinguishes ...

  3. Time trends in cancer risk and pesticide exposure, a long-term follow-up of Danish gardeners

    Hansen, Eva Støttrup; Lander, Flemming; Lauritsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposure to petrochemical pesticides was high during the first 10-15 years after their introduction in the late 1940s, and, during these years, many cases of intoxication occurred. In the 1960s, the use and marketing of pesticides was regulated to reduce exposure to these substances......, and, since 1970, substantial exposure has been rare in Denmark. The present study aimed at investigating the extent to which these alterations have influenced the cancer risk of gardeners....

  4. UNWANTED AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES: STATE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    Centner, Terence J.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of pounds of unwanted pesticides have accumulated in barns throughout our country. The potential environmental and health risks posed by this situation has garnered public attention and governmental action. The federal government has revised its Universal Waste Rule so that it is easier to dispose of unwanted pesticides rather than simply banned pesticides. Nearly every state has initiated efforts to collect and dispose of accumulated pesticides in a safe manner. While the possession...

  5. Derivatives, Hedge Accounting Disclosure And Impact On Indian Financial Market

    Prabhakara T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In India, the emergence and growth of derivatives market is relatively a recent phenomenon. Since its inception in June 2000, derivatives market has exhibited exponential growth both in terms of volume and number of contract traded. The market turnover has grown from Rs.2365 Cr. in 2000-2001 to Rs.16807782.22 Cr. in 2012-13. Within a short span of twelve years, derivatives trading in India has surpassed cash segment in terms of turnover and number of traded contracts. The passed study encompasses in its objective and significance, concept, definition, types, features, market, trend, growth, Future prospects and challenges of derivatives in India. The problem is concerned with financial risks or not and why? Thus, the article reviews the use of derivative financial instruments for financial hedge and their effects to minimize the financial risks of the entities and bankrupt entities as well as their impacts on financial markets through decisions of investors and managers because their decisions are based on analysis results of financial statements. A country's accounting policy has not applied the derivative financial instruments for financial hedging, leading to affect that country's economy or not? Especially, the financial markets of Indian countries with similar economies have not also applied the hedge accounting to their hedge activities. The article uses the accounting theories of international accounting standards and Generally Accepted Accounting Principles and applies the methods of statistical data analysis about Indian derivatives market to show the results of hedge accounting that are concerned with the performance of derivatives products in Indian marke

  6. Pesticide Residues in Food: Your Daily Dose.

    Mott, Lawrie

    1985-01-01

    Extensive use of pesticides during food production has created concerns for certain involuntary risks. Examines these concerns: government role in control and monitoring pesticide use, proposals for reform, and how consumer awareness might be an effective pressure for finding remedies. A table listing produce and pesticide residues is included.…

  7. 75 FR 66095 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-10-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...) number for the pesticide of interest, specified within Unit II., by one of the following methods:...

  8. 75 FR 51045 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide....regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide...

  9. 75 FR 76463 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide....regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide...

  10. 77 FR 16544 - Pesticide Product Registration Approvals

    2012-03-21

    ... of receipt published on April 14, 2010 (75 FR 19388; FRL- 8808-5). One comment was received during... AGENCY Pesticide Product Registration Approvals AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... pesticide products and amended registrations for currently existing pesticide products. FOR...

  11. 75 FR 24695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide....regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide...

  12. Pesticides in Schools: Reducing the Risks.

    New York State Office of the Attorney General, Albany.

    This report presents findings of state-wide use of pesticides in New York public schools along with a description of the survey, information about the potential dangers of these chemicals, and the steps schools and communities can take to minimize pesticide use. Findings show that 87 percent of New York's schools use pesticides that contain…

  13. Determination of Carbamate and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetable Samples and the Efficiency of Gamma-Radiation in Their Removal

    Muhammed Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena (n=16, purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50% of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual levels above the maximum residue levels determined by the World Health Organisation. Three carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicarb and six organophosphates (phenthoate, diazinon, parathion, dimethoate, phosphamidon, and pirimiphos-methyl were detected in eggplant samples; the highest carbofuran level detected was 1.86 mg/kg, while phenthoate was detected at 0.311 mg/kg. Gamma radiation decreased pesticide levels proportionately with increasing radiation doses. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and phosphamidon were reduced by 40–48%, 35–43%, and 30–45%, respectively, when a radiation strength of 0.5 kGy was utilized. However, when the radiation dose was increased to 1.0 kGy, the levels of the pesticides were reduced to 85–90%, 80–91%, and 90–95%, respectively. In summary, our study revealed that pesticide residues are present at high amounts in vegetable samples and that gamma radiation at 1.0 kGy can remove 80–95% of some pesticides.

  14. Pesticides: Food and environmental implications

    Pesticides are an integral part of modern agriculture, also in most developing countries. Although the annual average consumption of active ingredients in agriculture may be below 0.1 kg a.i./ha, most countries now consume more than 2 kg a.i./ha; some of the intensively cropped regions in South-East Asia are exposed to even higher amounts. Inherent contamination of the environment follows if rules and regulations are not strictly adhered to. The search for safer, less persistent and more specific pesticides and examination of the fate of applied pesticides in various regions of the world were the main themes of the symposium. Special emphasis was placed on the use of nuclear techniques, especially on labelled compounds in research. The Proceedings include all the papers and posters that were presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. State governance of pesticide use and trade in Vietnam

    Pham Van Hoi; A P J Mol; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing serious challenges with respect to the amount and toxicity of the pesticides used. With hardly any domestic pesticides production, Vietnam experienced an exponential growth of both the quantity and the value of imported pesticides in recent years. And the increasing import of newly formulated (and safer) pesticides has not replaced or reduced the highly toxic pesticides with low efficacy. The improper use of pesticides by farmers (too high dosages, cocktailing of pesticides,...

  16. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination in surface water. However, pesticide behaviours in urban areas, particularly on hard surfaces, are far less studied than those in agricultural areas. Pesticide application on hard surfaces (e.g. roadsides and walkways) is of particular concern due to the high imperviousness and therefore high pesticide runoff potential. Experimental studies have shown that pesticide behaviours on and interactions with hard surfaces are important factors controlling the pesticide runoff potential, and therefore the magnitude and timing of peak concentrations in surface water. We conceptualized pesticide behaviours on hard surfaces and incorporated the conceptualization into a new pesticide runoff model. The pesticide runoff model was implemented in a catchment hydrological model WetSpa-Python (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere, Python version). The conceptualization for pesticide processes on hard surfaces accounts for the differences in pesticide behaviour on different hard surfaces. Four parameters are used to describe the partitioning and wash-off of each pesticide on hard surfaces. We tested the conceptualization using experimental dataset for five pesticides on two types of hard surfaces, namely concrete and asphalt. The conceptualization gave good performance in accounting for the wash-off pattern for the modelled pesticides and surfaces, according to quantitative evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias. The resulting pesticide runoff model WetSpa-PST (WetSpa for PeSTicides) can simulate pesticides and their metabolites at the catchment scale. Overall, it includes four groups of pesticide processes, namely pesticide application, pesticide interception by plant foliage, pesticide processes on land surfaces (including partitioning, degradation and wash-off on hard surface; partitioning, dissipation, infiltration and runoff in soil) and pesticide processes in

  17. Pesticide mass budget in a stormwater wetland.

    Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are reactive landscape zones that provide ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. Field studies distinguishing pesticide degradation from retention to evaluate the sink and source functions of wetlands are scarce. This study evaluated based on a complete mass budget the partitioning, retention, and degradation of 12 pesticides in water, suspended solids, sediments, and organisms in a wetland receiving contaminated runoff. The mass budget showed the following: (i) dissolved pesticides accounted for 95% of the total load entering the wetland and the pesticide partitioning between the dissolved phase and the suspended solids varied according to the molecules, (ii) pesticides accumulated primarily in the dithiocarbamates were degraded under oxic conditions in spring, whereas glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) degradation occurred under reducing conditions during the summer. The complete pesticide mass budget indicates the versatility of the pesticide sink and source functions of wetland systems. PMID:25003558

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    Although people of color and low-income groups bear a disproportionate share of the health risks from exposure to pesticides, research attention has been meager, and data on acute and chronic health effects related to their toxic exposures are generally lacking. ncreased resource...

  19. Chiral Synthons in Pesticide Syntheses

    Feringa, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The use of chiral synthons in the preparation of enantiomerically pure pesticides is described in this chapter. Several routes to chiral synthons based on asymmetric synthesis or on natural products are illustrated. Important sources of chiral building blocks are reviewed. Furthermore the implicatio

  20. Pesticides, People, and the Environment

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2005-01-01

    If a teacher were to ask his/her students what they do when they find ants or other insects in their homes, their most common response would probably be, "Get the bug spray!" Because students are not only being exposed to pesticides but are also developing patterns of behavior likely to continue throughout their lives. Discussions about…

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  3. 40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for handlers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.230 Pesticide safety... of restricted-use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter. (2) A handler who satisfies the...

  4. Marketing; Il marketing

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  5. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  6. The use and disposal of household pesticides

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

  7. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  8. The Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Brüsch, Walter Michael; Juhler, Rene K.;

    In 1998, the Danish Parliament initiated the Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme (PLAP), an intensive monitoring programme aimed at evaluating the leaching risk of pesticides under field conditions. The objective of the PLAP is to improve the scientific foundation for decision-making in the...... Danish regulation of pesticides. The specific aim is to analyse whether pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations leach to groundwater in unacceptable concentrations. The programme currently evaluates the leaching risk of 41 pesticides and 40 degradation products at five agricultural...... report covers the period May 1999-June 2009 and presents the monitoring results from the five agricultural sites presently monitored. The main focus is on evaluating the leaching risk of the pesticides applied during 2007....

  9. Managing Pesticide Risks for Non-Target Ecosystems with Pesticide Risk Indicators: a Multicriteria Approach

    Travisi, Chiara Maria; NIJKAMP Peter; Vighi, Marco; Giacomelli, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    In the search for effective pesticide risk management tools, the design of pesticide risk indicators is nowadays receiving increasing attention as a complement to more established regulatory strategies. In the present paper, we apply some recently developed pesticide risk indices and test their potential for management purposes. A pilot approach is proposed, which explores pesticide worst-case hazard scenarios at different space-time scales by means of a set of 5 ecotoxicological risk indices...

  10. AFFINITY OF THE ALLIGATOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR FOR SERUM PESTICIDE CONTAMINANTS

    Top predators, like the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) bioaccumulate and biomagnify persistent pollutants, such as organochlorine pesticides. In a recently published study, several pesticides and pesticide metabolites not previously reported in alligator eggs wer...

  11. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  12. Reduction of substituted benzonitrile pesticides

    Sokolová, Romana; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Fiedler, Jan; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Giannarelli, S.; Valášek, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 622, č. 2 (2008), s. 211-218. ISSN 1572-6657 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400505; GA MŠk OC 140; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : benzonitrile pesticides * polarography * voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.484, year: 2008

  13. Pests and pesticides, risk and risk aversion

    Pannell, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical and applied literature on risk in decision making for agricultural pest control is reviewed. Risk can affect pesticide decision making either because of risk aversion or because of its influence on expected profit. It is concluded that risk does not necessarily lead to increased pesticide use by individual farmers. Uncertainty about some variables, such as pest density and pest mortality, does lead to higher optimal pesticide use under risk aversion. However, uncertainty about oth...

  14. The enzymatic basis for pesticide bioremediation

    Scott, Colin; Pandey, Gunjan; Hartley, Carol J.; Jackson, Colin J.; Cheesman, Matthew J.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Pandey, Rinku; Khurana, Jeevan L.; Teese, Mark; Coppin, Chris W; Weir, Kahli M.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Lal, Rup; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes are central to the biology of many pesticides, influencing their modes of action, environmental fates and mechanisms of target species resistance. Since the introduction of synthetic xenobiotic pesticides, enzymes responsible for pesticide turnover have evolved rapidly, in both the target organisms and incidentally exposed biota. Such enzymes are a source of significant biotechnological potential and form the basis of several bioremediation strategies intended to reduce the environmen...

  15. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    Hoi, Van, P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their vegetable crops from pests and disease attacks, started using more pesticides. Pesticide use in agriculture has, therefore, increased astonishingly in recent decades which causes increasing anxiet...

  16. Monitoring of pesticides in human milk

    After establishing proper analytical methodology for multiple pesticide residues, cotton-growing areas of Multan Division of Pakistan were surveyed and 40 samples of human milk from cotton pickers were collected during two crop seasons. Screening of these samples showed 72.5% contamination with 19 different pesticides/metabolites. The most frequently occurring pesticides were DDT and its metabolites, dimethoate, cyhalothrin, monocrotophos, profenofos and quinalphos. (author)

  17. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates

    Beketov, Mikhail A.; Kefford, Ben J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Liess, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused ...

  18. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Benoit Roig; Olivier Thomas; Aghleb Bartegi; Wissem Mnif; Aicha Bouaziz; Aziza Ibn Hadj Hassine

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several yea...

  19. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David;

    2009-01-01

    outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67) of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91) purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for...

  20. Pesticides: Benefaction or Pandora's Box? A synopsis of the environmental aspects of 243 pesticides

    Linders JBHJ; Jansma JW; Mensink BJWG; Otermann K; ACT

    1994-01-01

    The report provides an overview of physical, chemical and environmental data of 243 pesticides. The data mentioned are based on confidential information supplied by the manufacturers of the pesticides. For all pesticides mentioned a Final Environmental File, which is public, is derived. Tables with

  1. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2174 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. 158.2174 Section 158.2174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2174 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2173 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158.2173 Section 158.2173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2173 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table....

  4. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  6. PESTICIDE USE AND HUMAN HEALTH IN NORTHWESTERN JAMAICA

    Ncube, Ngqabutho; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Pauline E; Tint, Kyaw; Fogo, Christopher; Binns, Alvin; Jolly, Curtis M.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have detected high levels of pesticide residues in surface water and aquatic life in Jamaica and acute pesticide poisoning is believed to be widespread there. Despite efforts by the Jamaican government to create awareness of the dangers of pesticides and adopt safe a pesticide disposal method, many farmers still display poor pesticide handling and disposal practices. The objectives of this study were to 1) describe pesticide use by farmers in northwestern Jamaica including...

  7. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara;

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from...... of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus ®, 0.1 μg active...

  8. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  9. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  10. Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Neverth......Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure...

  11. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    Crentsil Kofi Bempah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present research study was to assess the concentration of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from markets in Kumasi and to generate awareness about the lethal effects of these pesticides on human beings as well as to estimate the potential health risks associated with the pesticide residue with regard to consumers. A total of 350 locally produced fruits and vegetables were purchased from six main markets in Kumasi and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for organochlorine (gamma-HCH, methoxychlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, p,p’-DDE, p,p’-DDT and pyrethroid (permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin residues. The residual concentrations of selected pesticides in the various fruit and vegetable samples and the potential health risks associated with the exposure to these pesticides were also assessed. The results obtained showed that 37.5% of the fruit and vegetable samples analyzed contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides, 19.0% of the samples gave results with levels of insecticides residues above the MRL, while 43.5% of the samples showed results below the MRL. The analysis of health risk estimates revealed that none of the pesticides exceeded the reference dose in both fruit and vegetables except endrin which exceeded reference dose in vegetables, suggesting a great potential for systemic toxicity in children considered the most vulnerable population subgroup. Based on observations made in these studies, it is proposed that more extensive monitoring investigation covering all fruits and vegetables in all the ten regions of Ghana be carried out to find the exact position of pesticide residues.

  12. The impact of pesticides use on surface water and groundwater: a case study in the Kadjebi District, Volta Region, Ghana

    The Kadjebi district is predominantly made up of farming communities, hence, the major economic activities in the area are the cultivation of cocoa, ginger, maize, vegetables. The extensive use of organochlorines, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroids have raised concerns about potential adverse effect on human health and the environment. This study aims at assessing the impact of pesticide use on surface water and groundwater in the Kadjebi District of the Volta Region of Ghana. Results of the study revealed that about 92.6% of farmers used one or more pesticides obtained from agro-chemical shops, Cocoa Marketing Board, cooperative societies and relatives in labelled and unlabeled containers. Of these numbers, 62% admitted not having access to services of the extension officers on the use and application of pesticides, hence, believe that, the more the chemical applied the faster and better the result. 18% of the farmers reported positively to the use of protective gears to cover the whole body during pesticide application, 12% cover only the face while 45% do not use any protective gear. On the disposal of the pesticide containers, 51% indicated that, they re-use the containers for food and water storage after thoroughly washing with soap and water. The data obtained also showed a high risk of pesticide poisoning and occupational exposure, about 68% of the respondents reported clinical symptoms of pesticide poisoning such as nausea, headache, blurred vision, eye irritation, dizziness, vomiting and skin irritation. About 51% of water samples analyzed showed positive detections of pesticide residues while all sediments samples showed positive detections of pesticides residues varying from one to five different types of pesticides residues. The common pesticides residues found in the samples were Deltamethrine, Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Dieldrin, Fenvaerate, Lambda-cyhal, p,p’ DDT. Synthetic pyrethroids (72%) were the dominant residues detected. Deltamethrine

  13. Some organochlorine pesticide residues in fish species in Konya, Turkey.

    Kalyoncu, Leyla; Agca, Ihsan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2009-02-01

    The levels of organochlorine pesticides were measured in 18 fish species from Konya markets, Turkey. These species were selected on the basis of their importance to local human fish consumption. The extracted residues were analyzed on a micro capillary gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Total 14 different organochlorine pesticides were determined. These residues were detected in all fish species, except in trout, horse mackerel and bonito. DDT and its metabolites and HCH were the predominant contaminants in fish muscles. The mean concentrations of summation operator DDT were in the range between 0.0008 and 0.0828 microg g(-1). DDT was the predominant residue in Sparus aurata. Detectable levels of HCH, aldrin, and heptachlor were found in most samples. However, dieldrin, endrin, beta endosulfan, p-p' DDT, and p-p' DDD were not found in Salmo trutta. The mean of endrin ranged from 0.0040 microg g(-1) (Triglia lineate) to 0.0326 microg g(-1) (Trachurus trachurus). These results give no indication of important health risks associated with the consumption of these fishes in Konya markets. PMID:19103455

  14. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Cabbage with Minimized Pesticide Residues in Southern Benin

    Faustin Vidogbéna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassicaceae is one of the most frequently consumed exotic vegetables in Benin and also the most affected by insects. To meet growing food demand, farmers rely heavily on synthetic pesticides that are harmful for themselves, consumers and the environment. Integrated pest management has been proposed as the means to improve vegetable productivity and quality in many developing countries. One approach is to substitute pesticides with physical barriers to insects, like nets. Here, we assess consumers’ perceptions about cabbage and their purchasing behavior towards cabbage that was produced using these nets in two major cities in Benin. Results indicate that consumers are aware of the health risks associated with intensive use of pesticides but were not able to recognize the quality difference between cabbage produced under nets from those using pesticides. All consumers were willing to pay a price premium for cabbage with minimized pesticides residues compared with conventionally produced cabbage, the average premium being 38%. Women, older, highly educated consumers and those able to distinguish cabbage qualities were willing to pay the most. We suggest that farmers will obtain higher prices if their production of cabbage with preferred characteristics is accompanied by an improved marketing strategy.

  15. Pesticide poisoning in the developing world--a minimum pesticides list

    Eddleston, Michael; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nick;

    2002-01-01

    In parts of the developing world, pesticide poisoning causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Use of pesticides is poorly regulated and often dangerous; their easy availability also makes them a popular method of self-harm. In 1985, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) produced a...... voluntary code of conduct for the pesticide industry in an attempt to limit the harmful effects of pesticides. Unfortunately, a lack of adequate government resources in the developing world makes this code ineffective, and thousands of deaths continue today. WHO has recommended that access to highly toxic...... pesticides be restricted--where this has been done, suicide rates have fallen. Since an Essential Drugs List was established in 1977, use of a few essential drugs has rationalised drug use in many regions. An analogous Minimum Pesticides List would identify a restricted number of less dangerous pesticides to...

  16. Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanwhile, the development trend of pesticide varieties and consumption was also prospected and discussed. It was found that worldwide consumption structure of pesticides has undergone significant changes since 1960s. The proportion of herbicides in pesticide consumption increased rapidly and the consumption of insecticides and fungicides/bactericides declined. China has become the largest pesticide producer and exporter in the world. Pesticide pollution of air, water bodies and soils, and pesticide-induced deaths in China has been serious in past years. Bio-pesticides should be further developed in the future.

  17. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  18. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Eddleston Michael

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5% were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36. In 511 (76% cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67 of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91 purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46% or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%. Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment.

  19. Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.

    Hock, Winand K.

    This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

  20. Interaction of pesticides with natural organic material

    Wershaw, R. L.; Burcar, P.J.; Goldberg, M.C.

    1969-01-01

    Two examples of the interaction of pesticides with natural organic materials have been investigated. Sodium humate solubilizes DDT in water and humic acid strongly sorbs 2,4,5-T. These two types of interactions are indicative of the types that one would expect when any organic pesticide is applied to a natural soil-water system.

  1. 33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide management. 274.4... DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.4 Pesticide management. (a... control management personnel prior to advertisement of the contract and procurement of services....

  2. 75 FR 31785 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-06-04

    ..., sunflower, wheat, and triticale seed. 4. File Symbol: 7969-GNI. Product name: BAS 700 03 F. Active... Fluxapyroxad, an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the..., an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to...

  3. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case-control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ∼600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale geno-typing to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene-environment interaction studies. (authors)

  4. 75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-11-24

    ...-RR) was published in a separate notice (see 75 FR 11175; March 10, 2010; FRL-8811-6). File symbol... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing...

  5. QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis

    This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures

  6. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  7. Carbamate pesticide induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Rajendran N

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old male alleged to have consumed carbamate pesticide liquid (Baygon@ developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN within twenty-four hours of intake. Though drugs have been commonly incriminated as offending agents for TEN, carbamate pesticide was found to be the causative agent in our case.

  8. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  9. MARKETING ENVIRONMENT

    Munaga Ramakrishna Mohan Rao

    2014-01-01

    A firm marketing environment consists of the factors and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management’s ability to develop and maintain successful transactions with the target customers. To be successful, a marketer must develop its marketing mix factors and strategies according to the opportunities and threats existed in the environment. Marketers need to be good at building relationship customers. Others in the company and external partners surround all of these ...

  10. Marketing Communications

    Svatoňová, Michala

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis touches the concept of marketing in the general, then is specially focused on the marketing communication and finally evaluates the situation of a selected international company Raytheon Professional Services with regard to implementation of marketing communication plan. Thesis is divided into two main parts. The first part is concerned about the theoretical background of marketing and marketing communication, marketing mix in order to gain the knowledge needed for set...

  11. Inbound Marketing

    Hesoun, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In my work I focus on Inbound Marketing, which represents a new perspective on marketing, that has not been given the attention it deserves. It is a combination of existing and proven marketing methods that are used to obtain new customers with minimal marketing costs to the organization. The first section of my work is devoted to defining the concept of Inbound Marketing definitions and explanations. Furthermore, I present a list of instruments used in Inbound Marketing, and showcase the def...

  12. Toxicity of pesticides on photosynthesis of diatoms

    Pakistan being an agricultural country, a large amount of pesticides are used, including organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. These pesticides are released through rivers and other tributeries into the coastal environment, thus posing a contiguous threat to marine organisms. In the present study two species of diatoms Amphora and Navicula were selected for the assessment of impact of organ phosphate and pyrethroid toxicity on these primary producers. The study shows that rate of photosynthesis was inhibited in both Amphora and Navicula species exposed to pesticide. The acute toxicity of pesticide was determined by measuring IC50 of the test organisms. IC50 calculated for diatom species depicts that different pesticides had variable effects on the photosynthesis of microalgae. High sensitivity of marine organisms is alarming as it may have implications on the marine ecosystem and fisheries. The results are also useful in setting control limits for the release of these chemicals in nature. (author)

  13. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  14. An EPA Modeling Dashboard for Ecological Assessment of Pesticides

    The EPA registers pesticides for use in the US and approves imported pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Before a pesticide can be registered, the EPA must assess whether the pesticide can be used without eing harmful to humans or pos...

  15. 33 CFR 274.7 - Authorization of pesticide use.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of pesticide use... of pesticide use. (a) Programs approved in § 274.6(b) must be those as described on the pesticide label. Pesticide uses which are different from the registered use, require amendment of the...

  16. Degradation of three pesticides used in viticulture by electrogenerated Fenton's reagent

    Oturan, Nihal; A. Oturan, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of three pesticides: Mistel GD (Cymoxanil + Mancozeb + additives), Cuprofix CZ (Cymoxanil + Zineb + CuSO4 + additives) and Lannate 20L (Metomyl + ethanol + other additives) (Fig. 1), used in viticulture and marketed by various companies, was studied by the Electro-Fenton process. The Fenton's reagent, generated in situ by electrochemistry in a catalytic way, leads to the production of hydroxyl radicals which are very powerful oxidizing agents. These radicals react with organic...

  17. Canadian electricity exports and imports : an energy market assessment

    This energy market assessment (EMA) report focuses on recent trends in exports and imports of Canadian electricity and the associated revenue and pricing. It also outlines major developments in electricity markets in Canada and the United States in the past decade with reference to the implications of electricity trade for both consumers and the power industry. This guide comes at a time of market openings in Alberta and Ontario, and with recent increases in applications to the National Energy Board for electricity exports and international power lines. The first chapter presents an overview of current Canadian federal regulatory regime for electricity exports and restructuring of the electric power industry in Canada and the United States. The second chapter reviews electricity exports and imports from a national perspective. Provincial analyses were presented in the third chapter which also covered international interconnections, export and import trends, export and import pricing, implications for consumer prices, and factors affecting future trade. The final chapter presents some observations on each of these issues. It is noted that exports have fluctuated significantly from year to year due to specific events including the shutdown of nuclear power plants, high gas prices, and the California electricity crisis in 2000-2001. Canadian international electricity trade has continued to yield net revenues of $1 to $2 billion per year due to strong electricity export prices. The relationship between export and import prices varies from province to province. Canadian utilities have emphasized the need for more transmission to the U.S. to foster future trade and improve transmission reliability. refs., tabs., figs

  18. 76 FR 61647 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    2011-10-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 174 and 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The...

  19. 76 FR 82238 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    2011-12-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The...

  20. 78 FR 13295 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    2013-02-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The Agency...

  1. 76 FR 3885 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    2011-01-21

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments... 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  2. 75 FR 14154 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    2010-03-24

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  3. 76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    2011-01-12

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments... 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined that...

  4. 75 FR 65321 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    2010-10-22

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  5. 75 FR 60452 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    2010-09-30

    ... AGENCY Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must... part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined...

  6. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  7. 75 FR 54629 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    2010-09-08

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  8. 75 FR 80489 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  9. Characteristics of pesticide pyrotechnic smoke devices.

    Roff, M W; Griffiths, L K; Gobeau, N; Johnson, P D; Pickering, D; Rimmer, D A; Saunders, C J; Wheeler, J P

    2006-10-01

    Pesticide smoke generating products are widely used by amateurs and professionals but there is little published information available about their burn and deposition characteristics to enable the risks associated with using these devices to be assessed. This paper investigates their burn characteristics, deposition patterns, pesticide air concentrations and potential exposure to operators. Thirteen firings were carried out in different spaces with different ventilation conditions. Three types of devices were investigated: dicloran, permethrin and red dye. Pesticide air concentrations increased after firing, reaching a maximum determined by the room volume in approximately 10 min and decreasing exponentially as a result of ventilation and deposition. Ejected pesticide was present in the aerosol phase but there were only occasional traces of vapour. Settlement of pesticide was affected by surface orientation, height, sampling material and the pesticide-to-space volume ratio. The manufacturer's recommended treatment period for dicloran of 4 h followed by half an hour of ventilation may be insufficient to reduce pesticide to safe levels for re-entry under very calm conditions. PMID:16984945

  10. Dynamics of pesticides in potato crops.

    López-Pérez, Gonzalo C; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; López-Periago, Eugenio; Soto-Gonzalez, Benedicto; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gandara, Jesús

    2006-03-01

    This study investigated the behavior of pesticides commonly used on potato in a part of northwestern Spain with a large area devoted to this crop. Experimental potato plots were treated with commercial formulations of two insecticides, a nematicide, a herbicide, and a combination of two fungicides, and the concentrations of the active ingredients were monitored throughout the growing season in the 0-1 and 1-15 cm soil layers, in water dripping off the potato plants, and in the potatoes themselves. The technique used for pesticide determination was gas chromatography with mass selective detection. For potato analyses, pesticide extraction was optimized. The only pesticide ever detected in potato tubers was metalaxyl, the concentration of which never exceeded half the maximum residual limit even when it was applied several times more often than is officially recommended for potato crops. Metalaxyl was also the only pesticide detected in wash-off, apparently due to its being more soluble in water than the other pesticides applied to the growing plants. A mathematical model of pesticide transport in soil was fitted to the experimental data using the program HYDRUS-1D. PMID:16506836

  11. Urbanisation shapes behavioural responses to a pesticide.

    Tüzün, Nedim; Debecker, Sara; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2015-06-01

    The degree of urbanisation is rapidly increasing worldwide. Due to anthropogenic impact, urban populations are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and higher temperatures. Despite this, urbanisation is a largely overlooked spatial component in ecotoxicology. We tested in a common garden rearing experiment whether replicated urban and rural populations of the damselfly Coenagrion puella differ in their vulnerability to sublethal levels of a widespread pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in terms of ecologically relevant behaviours (exploration behaviour, activity, boldness and food intake), and to what extent these patterns are affected by temperature (20 and 24°C). Except boldness, all behaviours were affected by previous pesticide exposure. While the pesticide did not affect exploration behaviour at 20°C, it was associated with increased exploration at 24°C, which may reflect an increased toxicity of chlorpyrifos at higher temperatures. Importantly, rural and urban larvae showed consistently different, sometimes even opposite behavioural responses to pesticide exposure. When exposed to the pesticide, rural larvae decreased activity and food intake at both temperatures; urban larvae instead increased activity at both temperatures and only reduced food intake at the high temperature. This suggests that urban larvae were less affected by the pesticide, which would be consistent with a scenario of local adaptation to higher contaminant levels. Our results highlight that urbanisation may be an important factor to arrive at a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment, and may be an ignored reason why studies on the same species may generate widely different vulnerabilities to pesticides. PMID:25863029

  12. Marketing research

    Wienerová, Alžběta

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis deals with marketing research of fair trade coffee market. Theoretical part is applied types of marketing research and characterization of theirs. It’s explained single steps of marketing research and activities which are practised in these. Final is chapter explained fiction of social responsible marketing. In practical part are information about fair trade certificate, about Starbucks and about purchase of coffee this corporate. After was maked research in on...

  13. MARKET SEGMENTATION

    Munaga Ramakrishna Mohan Rao

    2015-01-01

    Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that involves dividing a broad target market into subsets of consumers, businesses, or countries who have common needs and priorities, and then designing and implementing strategies to target them. Market segmentation strategies may be used to identify the target customers, and provide supporting data for positioning to achieve a marketing plan objective. Businesses may develop product differentiation strategies, or an undifferentiated approach, inv...

  14. Marketing plan

    Hejňáková, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's work is an exemplification applicability individual aspects of marketing planning Y company in the conclusion is drown a marketing plan up with advising action programs for year 2014. The theoretical part is defined by marketing and stadium of marketing planning using descriptive models and comparison technical literature. At the conclusion is drown a marketing plan up. The practical part is made on the base of gained information by semistructured interview with a m...

  15. Internal marketing

    Potter, Ned

    2012-01-01

    This chapter from The Library Marketing Toolkit focuses on Internal stakeholders. They often hold the purse-strings to our libraries, so marketing successfully to them is absolutely essential. The first part of this chapter covers language, telling stories, using statistics, marketing upwards and communicating your message well. The second part covers marketing with internal stakeholders, such as a parent company within whose branding guidelines you must promote the library, or marketing as p...

  16. Strategic Marketing

    Potter, Ned

    2012-01-01

    This chapter from The Library Marketing Toolkit focuses on marketing strategy. Marketing is more successful when it happens as part of a constantly-renewing cycle. The aim of this chapter is to demystify the process of strategic marketing, simplifying it into seven key stages with advice on how to implement each one. Particular emphasis is put on dividing your audience and potential audience into segments, and marketing different messages to each group. It includes case studies from Terr...

  17. Personnel marketing

    Taubenhanslová, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis on Personnel Marketing deals with personnel marketing in the company Československá obchodní banka, a. s. (hereinafter ČSOB). The thesis is divided into two main parts theoretical and practical. The theoretical part of this thesis deals with characteristics of concepts especially from the field of human resources management, which are clearly divided according to personnel marketing point of view to external personnel marketing and internal personnel marketing. The pract...

  18. Internet Marketing

    Trofymchuk, Dmytro

    2011-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  19. Modeling of pesticide emissions from agricultural ecosystems

    Li, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Pesticides are applied to crops and soils to improve agricultural yields, but the use of pesticides has become highly regulated because of concerns about their adverse effects on human health and environment. Estimating pesticide emission rates from soils and crops is a key component for risk assessment for pesticide registration, identification of pesticide sources to the contamination of sensitive ecosystems, and appreciation of transport and fate of pesticides in the environment. Pesticide emission rates involve processes occurring in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on vegetation surfaces and are highly dependent on soil texture, agricultural practices, and meteorology, which vary significantly with location and/or time. To take all these factors into account for simulating pesticide emissions from large agricultural ecosystems, this study coupled a comprehensive meteorological model with a dynamic pesticide emission model. The combined model calculates hourly emission rates from both emission sources: current applications and soil residues resulting from historical use. The coupled modeling system is used to compute a gridded (36 × 36 km) hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America for the year 2000 using a published U.S. toxaphene residue inventory and a Mexican toxaphene residue inventory developed using its historical application rates and a cropland inventory. To my knowledge, this is the first such hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America. Results show that modeled emission rates have strong diurnal and seasonal variations at a given location and over the entire domain. The simulated total toxaphene emission from contaminated agricultural soils in North America in 2000 was about 255 t, which compares reasonably well to a published annual estimate. Most emissions occur in spring and summer, with domain-wide emission rates in April, May and, June of 36, 51, and 35 t/month, respectively. The spatial distribution of emissions depends

  20. Analysis of Some Pesticide Residues in Cauliflower by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Sheheli Islam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increased use of chemicals on vegetables started gaining momentum and continued its up-trend in Bangladesh. Wide spread use of pesticides in agriculture concern of residue accumulation, which may remain in food and agricultural environment causing concern of human health and risking ecological balance. Attempt made to ensure that their applications were correct and safe and result in no residues in food beyond codex developed maximum residue limits. Approach: This study reported a method based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC for determination of pesticide residues used in Cauliflower. Cauliflower sprayed with, 4 different pesticides (diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin at recommended dose and double of recommended dose were analyzed for their residual contents. Samples were collected at same day after application of pesticide. Commercial samples of cauliflowers were collected from different markets of Dhaka city. Reversed-phase HPLC system with UV detection was used for the separation, identification and quantification of all these analytes using acetonitrile-water (70:30, v/v as mobile phase. Results: Limit of detection of 0.02 mg kg-1 was obtained. Calibration curves that constructed for the analytes spiked into samples followed linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (R2>0.990. In the analysis, from vegetables treated with diazinon and chlorpyrifos at recommended and double of recommended doses, residual amounts above respective MRL values were found. Conclusion: Method used permitted the determination of these pesticides in cauliflower at concentration level demanded by current legislation. Attention paid on excess use or abuse of pesticides by judicious application for safety of public health in Bangladesh. Additional data to monitor residues in food and to fill gaps in current knowledge would be helpful in assessing human exposure risks from ingestion of contaminated

  1. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In this study effects of pesticides on biological systems will be presented in genaral terms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000: 215-228

  2. Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications

    Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

  3. Choosing Organic Pesticides over Synthetic Pesticides May Not Effectively Mitigate Environmental Risk in Soybeans

    Christine A Bahlai; Yingen Xue; McCreary, Cara M.; Schaafsma, Arthur W.; Hallett, Rebecca H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selection of pesticides with small ecological footprints is a key factor in developing sustainable agricultural systems. Policy guiding the selection of pesticides often emphasizes natural products and organic-certified pesticides to increase sustainability, because of the prevailing public opinion that natural products are uniformly safer, and thus more environmentally friendly, than synthetic chemicals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the results of a study examining t...

  4. Pesticides

    ... Health Dioxins Endocrine Disruptors Reproductive Health Related Links Profile: Report on Carcinogens: Captafol Share This Page: Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase ...

  5. Pesticides

    ... and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology . 3rd ed. Elsevier Academic Press; 2013:chap 42. Heindel JJ, Zoeller ... Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 153. Karr CJ, Solomon GM, ...

  6. Pesticides

    ... Club ACMT Grand Rounds Medical Toxicology LLSA JMT Peer Reviewer Webinar Resident-Medical Student Webinars 2015 Fellows-in-Training Research Webinar Other Enduring Education PEHSU National Classroom Chemical Agents of Opportunity Webinars Podcasts Public Health ...

  7. Semen quality and heavy metal and pesticides toxicity

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive function has deteriorated significantly in the past 50 years and this change could be related to an exposure to occupational and environmental pollutants and toxicants. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the negative impact of human exposure to heavy metals and pesticides on the male reproductive function. Most pesticides and heavy metals are considered reproductive toxicants and may adversely harm the male reproductive system due to their disrupting effect on the hypothalamus- pituitary gland-gonads axis or by directly affecting spermatogenesis, resulting in impaired semen quality. The negative effects of these compounds have been linked to the main sperm parameters (concentration, normal morphology and motility, semen volume and total sperm count and DNA sperm damage, as well as to changes in serum reproductive hormone levels. Some of these substances have already been banned, whereas others are still on the market. Stricter laws are needed to completely prevent exposure to these toxicants given their proven deleterious effect on male reproductive health.

  8. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    Leach, A.W. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.w.leach@imperial.ac.uk; Mumford, J.D. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.mumford@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-01-15

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient.

  9. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient

  10. Marketing fundamentals.

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

  11. Politisk marketing

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  12. Management of pesticide residues in China

    CHEN Zeng-long; DONG Feng-shou; XU Jun; LIU Xin-gang; ZHENG Yong-quan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed management of pesticide residues in China including laws and regulations, the supervision system, the standard system, and the quality and safety of agricultural products. The process of establishment and international-ization of standards for pesticide residues were also discussed. Results indicate that the progress of the management of pesticide residues has been steadily made in China. However, the folowing aspects which refer to updates to regulations, supervising efifciency, standard system, risk assessment, international cooperation and communication, should be further improved. China should draw lessons from international experience, and then establish its own management system, which focuses on pesticides controls by strictly folowing relevant laws and technical standards to ensure the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  13. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  14. Neonatal outcome following exposure to organophosphorous pesticides

    Đorđević M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the neonatal outcome in mothers and children exposed to organophosphorous pesticides (OP. We found that 22.4% pregnant women were exposed to organophosphorous pesticides. OP pesticide concentration was higher in breast milk, newborn sera than maternal sera. Newborn parameters such as birth weight, birth length, head circumference, Apgar score and presence of meconium, as well as gestational age of delivery, showed no significant difference between the two groups. However, postpartum weight loss, hospitalization duration, levels of newborn bilirubin and glycaemia differed significantly between the two groups. Morbidity and presence of CNS disorders were six times and more than twelve times higher, respectively, in the OP-exposed than in the OP pesticide non-exposed group.

  15. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Ali Mamane; Isabelle Baldi; Jean-François Tessier; Chantal Raherison; Ghislaine Bouvier

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspno...

  16. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Šovljanski Radmila A.; Klokočar-Šmit Zlata D.; Inđić Dušanka V.

    2006-01-01

    According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction) do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS) (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methid...

  17. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    Ergul Belge Kurutas; Metin Kilinc

    2003-01-01

    The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In ...

  18. Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  19. Comportement des pesticides ionisables dans les sols

    Kah, Mélanie; Brown, Colin D.

    2007-01-01

    Ionisable pesticides can be partially ionised within the range of natural soil pH and this strongly influences their reactivity in soils. This group includes important, worldwide contaminants of groundwater and surface waters. It is essential that their specific behaviour is recognised within risk assessment procedures. Experiments were carried out with ten pesticides (six acids and four bases) and nine arable soils (range in pH, texture and organic matter content) to advance the understandin...

  20. Types of pesticides and determination of their residues

    The pesticide is any material or component used to protect from pests. Its toxic effect is related to the chemical structure, which can be divided into 3 types : 1- Metal pesticides : Sulphur, cupper, zinc, mercury; 2- Vegetal pesticides : advanced and less toxic to the general health; 3- Synthetic organo pesticides : organo chlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroids. Pesticides in the soil undergo biological dissociation according to their concentration and chemical structure. High concentration of the pesticides in the soil may lead to fertility decrease due to destruction of micro-organisms by the pesticides. Many methods are used to analyze the residues of pesticides in plant or soil : 1- Chromatographic methods : Gas chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography; 2- Spectroscopy methods : spectrophotometer and mass spectrometer; 3- Isotopic methods : based on tracers technique which is the most sensitive and accurate method and can estimate minor amounts of the pesticides. (author)

  1. Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention

    Christos A. Damalas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesticide spray solutions and during the cleaning-up of spraying equipment. Farmers who mix, load, and spray pesticides can be exposed to these chemicals due to spills and splashes, direct spray contact as a result of faulty or missing protective equipment, or even drift. However, farmers can be also exposed to pesticides even when performing activities not directly related to pesticide use. Farmers who perform manual labor in areas treated with pesticides can face major exposure from direct spray, drift from neighboring fields, or by contact with pesticide residues on the crop or soil. This kind of exposure is often underestimated. The dermal and inhalation routes of entry are typically the most common routes of farmers’ exposure to pesticides. Dermal exposure during usual pesticide handling takes place in body areas that remain uncovered by protective clothing, such as the face and the hands. Farmers’ exposure to pesticides can be reduced through less use of pesticides and through the correct use of the appropriate type of personal protective equipment in all stages of pesticide handling.

  2. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  3. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  4. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  5. Multiresidue method for the quantitation of 20 pesticides in aquatic products.

    Cho, Ha Ra; Park, Jun Seo; Kim, Junghyun; Han, Sang Beom; Choi, Yong Seok

    2015-12-01

    As the consumption of aquatic products increased, the need for regulation of pesticide residues in aquatic products also emerged. Thus, in this study, a scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) method employing a novel extraction and purification step based on QuEChERS with EDTA was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of 20 pesticides (alachlor, aldicarb, carbofuran, diazinon, dimethoate, dimethomorph, ethoprophos, ferimzone, fluridone, hexaconazole, iprobenfos, malathion, methidathion, methiocarb, phenthoate, phosalone, phosmet, phosphamidon, pirimicarb, and simazine) in aquatic products. Additionally, the present method was validated in the aspects of specificity, linearity (r ≥ 0.980), sensitivity (the limit of quantitation (LOQ) ≤ 5 ng/g), relative standard deviation, RSD (1.0% ≤ RSD ≤ 19.4%), and recovery (60.1% ≤ recovery ≤ 117.9%). Finally, the validated method was applied for the determination of the 20 pesticide residues in eel and shrimp purchased from local food markets. In the present study, QuEChERS with EDTA was successfully expanded to residual pesticide analysis for the first time. The present method could contribute to the rapid and successful establishment of the positive list system in South Korea. PMID:26466578

  6. Pesticide Residues Contamination of Vegetables and their Public Health Implications in Ghana

    Botwe, B. O.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the residues concentrations of pesticides in vegetables, and assessing the health risk due to the daily consumption of contaminated vegetables for adults in the prominent farming community of Akumadan in Ghana. Fifteen pooled samples, belonging to five vegetable types (tomato, cabbage, pepper, onion and eggplants purchased from local markets across Ghana were analysed for DDTs, endosulfan, HCHs, methoxychlor, dimethoate and lambda-cyhalothrin using GC-MS. The concentrations of the pesticides ranged from 0.01 to 46.95 µg/kg wet weight. Dietary data were collected from 130 residents. By combining the dietary and contaminant data, dietary exposure to the identified pesticides was calculated. Dietary exposure to pesticide residues at Akumadan is low and there is no associated health risk. However, the results of persistent contaminants are of particular health concern because of this persistence. The estimated exposure distributions were shown to be insensitive to valuation of the non-detect residue samples.

  7. Social marketing

    Robinson-Maynard, Audrey

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the impact and sustainability of relationships and exchanges that have been established between marketers and target audiences, in social marketing campaign activities designed to produce behavioural changes.

  8. MARKET WATCH

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese stock market showed signs of recovery and the new stock investors have been rushing in. Many people withdrew their insurance to invest in the stock market, as insurance watchdog statistics showed. Meanwhile, the Chinese trade surplus grew to

  9. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Annual Report 2000-2001

    ANSTO's main activities and outputs during the year under review (1 July 2000- 30 June 2001) are presented in this report. Highlights include: the replacement research reactor project, to be completed in 2005, proceeded on schedule and within budget, a great deal of effort has been expended on the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the reactor, as well as the review of the detailed engineering design; the fifth shipment of spent fuel was made successfully, so that more than half of the spent fuel accumulated over the entire lifetime of HIFAR has now been shipped overseas; radiopharmaceutical sales reached $17.9 million, a $2 million increase over the previous year. Another milestone this year, not only for ANSTO but Australia as a whole, was the entry into force in January of an Integrated Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. ANSTO, together with the Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office have led the world on the implementation of integrated safeguards, and other countries are now following. In the health sector, ANSTO's reputation and capabilities continued to grow with Therapeutic Goods Administration approval for FDGenTM, a metabolic tracer used in the diagnosis of the staging of cancer in cardiac imaging and the imaging of certain neurological conditions. In the field of strategic research, the use of neutron scattering techniques to understand the structure of a range of materials from charcoal to polymers has yielded significant results. In response to funding challenges, the organisation increased external earnings, improved efficiencies and reduced expenditure on research and development. With regard to revenue, ANSTO generated $35.8 million (1999-2000, $32.2 million) from external services, representing 29.5% of total income, excluding capital use charge. With the aim of establishing an appropriate base for the future, ANSTO undertook an output pricing review with the Department of Finance. This review concluded that the price for operating the nuclear facilities and delivering nuclear expertise is appropriate, and that ANSTO's management and pricing are consistent with world's best practice. Government has agreed that ANSTO be supplemented for the increased costs associated with regulation, that backlog maintenance funding be provided for three years, and that there be no further cuts to ANSTO's research funding. Copyright (2001) Commonwealth of Australia

  10. Contaminants in fish and birds of Watson Lake, Arizona 2000-2001

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A wood treatment facility located on Yavapai-Prescott Indian Tribe land near Prescott, Arizona released pentachlorophenol (PCP), arsenic, and chromium into the...

  11. New Results from Air Pollution Studies in Bulgaria (Moss Survey 2000-2001)

    Stamenov, J N; Vachev, B; Gueleva, E; Yurukova, L; Ganeva, A; Mitrikov, M; Antonov, A; Srentz, A; Varbanov, Z; Batov, I V; Damov, K; Marinova, E; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Strelkova, L P

    2002-01-01

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin.

  12. W00003: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Outside Source Data Surveys Conducted in 2000, 2001-06-06

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. W00118: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Outside Source Data Surveys Conducted in 2000, 2001-02-20

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  14. W00054: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Outside Source Data Surveys Conducted in 2000, 2001-03-30

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  15. W00111: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Outside Source Data Surveys Conducted in 2000, 2001-02-20

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. W00055: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Outside Source Data Surveys Conducted in 2000, 2001-03-01

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Olsen, Erik

    2009-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood River subbasin were initially devised based on various assumptions about (1) subbasin carrying capacity, (2) survival rates for selected life history stages, and (3) historic and current escapements of wild, natural, and hatchery stocks of anadromous salmonids to the Hood River subbasin. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife began funding a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) project in December 1991 to collect the quantitative biological information needed to (1) more accurately assess the validity of these assumptions and (2) evaluate the proposed hatchery supplementation component of the HRPP. Bonneville Power Administration assumed funding of the M&E project in August 1992. The M&E project was initially confined to sampling anadromous salmonids escaping to an adult trapping facility operated at Powerdale Dam; which is located at River Mile (RM) 4.5 on the mainstem of the Hood River. Stock specific life history and biological data was collected to (1) monitor subbasin spawner escapements and (2) collect pre-implementation data critical to evaluating the newly proposed HRPP's potential biological impact on indigenous populations of resident fish. The scope of the M&E project was expanded in 1994 to collect the data needed to quantify (1) subbasin smolt production and carrying capacity, (2) smolt to adult survival rates, and (3) the spatial distribution of indigenous populations of summer and winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon. A creel was incorporated into the M&E project in December 1996 to evaluate the HRPP with respect to its defined subbasin and spawner escapement objectives for Hood River stocks of wild and hatchery summer and winter steelhead and for natural and Deschutes stock hatchery spring chinook salmon. In 1996, the M&E project also began monitoring streamflow at various locations in the Hood River subbasin. Streamflow data will be used to correlate subbasin smolt production with summer streamflows. Data collected from 1991-1999 is reported in the following annual progress reports: Olsen et al. (1994), Olsen et al. (1995), Olsen and French (1996), Olsen et al. (1996), Olsen and French (1999), and Olsen and French (2000). The annual progress reports document information collected on (1) rearing densities of indigenous fish, (2) subbasin steelhead smolt production, (3) post-release survival of acclimated and direct released hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (4) smolt to adult anadromous salmonid survival rates, (5) jack and adult anadromous salmonid escapements and harvest, (6) spatial distribution of adult anadromous salmonid holding in the Hood River subbasin, (7) selected life history patterns and morphological and meristic characteristics of wild, natural, and hatchery resident and anadromous salmonids, and (8) summer streamflows.

  18. Mission of evaluation about data and work plan elaboration 2000-2001

    The main aim of this project is to learn through of isotopics studies about the underground dynamic water; it evaluates their disponibility and sustantibility, as well as the Raigon Aquifer strategy, use and protection.

  19. Status report of seabird surveys at Horns Rev, 2000-2001

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I. [NERI, Dept. of Coastal Zone Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-07-01

    The present report presents the results of three bird surveys conducted in the Horns Rev area during the second half of 2001. Due to poor weather conditions in December 2001, the last survey was, however, performed on 7 January 2002. The surveys are part of the base-line investigations of birds performed in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. The results of the surveys during August 2001 - January 2002 are presented together with the results obtained during the period August 2000 - April 2001, and are also compared to results obtained during the period August 1999 - April 2000. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 16 aerial surveys performed during August 1999 - January 2002, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, mainly occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common Scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of the Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Common scoters occurred in very high numbers in January 2002. This was probably related to increased immigration of birds from the inner Danish waters during a cold period in late December 2001. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affect less than 1% of the various species, except divers where 1.58% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 8-11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrated through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with a less pronounced variation in staging and wintering species (divers, herring gull, common scoter). (au)

  20. Anomalous attenuation of extraordinary waves in ionosphere heating experiments experimental results of 2000-2001

    Zabotin, N A; Kovalenko, E S; Frolov, V L; Komrakov, G P; Mityakov, N A; Sergeev, E N

    2001-01-01

    Multiple scattering from artificial random irregularities HF-induced in the ionosphere F region causes significant attenuation of both ordinary and extraordinary radio waves together with the conventional anomalous absorption of ordinary waves due to their conversion into the plasma waves. To study in detail features of this effect, purposeful measurements of the attenuation of weak probing waves of the extraordinary polarization have been performed at the Sura heating facility. Characteristic scale lengths of the involved irregularities are ~0.1-1 km across the geomagnetic field lines. To determine the spectral characteristics of these irregularities from the extraordinary probing wave attenuation measurements, a simple procedure of the inverse problem solving has been implemented and some conclusions about the artificial irregularity features have been drawn. Theory and details of experiments have been stated earlier. This paper reports results of two experimental campaigns carried out in August 2000 and Ju...

  1. Lack of Governance During 2000-2001 Economic Crises in Turkey

    Demet ÇAK

    2015-01-01

    Governance covers the quality of institutions and their effectiveness in translating policy into successful implementation. There are different types of governance such as global governance, corporate governance, regulatory governance, public sector governance, etc., however, we mainly focus on public sector’s governance. In this article we will try to explain evaluation of policies the 2000 and 2001 economic crises in Turkey before and during the crisis by adding crises management policies i...

  2. Contaminants in Waterbirds, Grackles, and Swallows Nesting on the Lower Colorado River, Arizona, 2000-2001

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Levels and potential effects of organochlorine compounds and metals were assessed in 106 eggs representing nine avian species nesting at four lower Colorado River...

  3. Research on captive broodstock programs for pacific salmon: annual report, 2000-2001; ANNUAL

    It is not yet possible to define a feeding regimen for captively-reared stocks similar to their natural regimen that enhances the post-release fitness of juveniles and improves the reproductive performance of adults. In the natural environment, seasonal differences in food quality and quantity have profound effects on growth and 'wild' attributes, such as external coloration and fin quality. Formulating the right feeds for conservation fish held for long periods in captivity before release is more complicated than formulating diets for farm fish. Recent research in salmonid nutrition shows it is necessary to consider daily dietary protein intake and protein intake relative to total dietary energy level, rather than simply the levels of total dietary lipid

  4. Frog malformations at the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge complex 2000-2001

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2000 a nationwide survey of amphibian malformations was initiated. Because of its history of contamination with agricultural drainwater, the San Luis NWR Complex...

  5. Rapid change in agricultural policies : the BSE-crisis in Germany (2000-2001)

    Lange, Hellmuth

    2004-01-01

    "Today, 'governance' is regarded as the most effective tool to work on and to solve civil political conflicts between competing social claims (Grote/Mbikpi2001). This applies for the field of agricultural and rural problems, too (Berkes/Folke/Colding 1998; Lance/Gunderson/Holling 2001). Governance is considered to compensate the weaknesses of traditional forms of political-administrative interventions (state failure due to continuous functional differentiation and individualisa...

  6. Risk-informed technology developments for nuclear power plants within the ASME in 2000-2001

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information on developments within the ASME to support risk-informing NRC regulations for nuclear power plants. This paper builds on a publication at ICONE-8 that discussed ASME risk-informed nuclear power plant initiatives, both in Research and in Codes and Standards, particularly those related to risk-informing Part 50 of the 10 CFR (Code of federal regulations). During the past year, the ASME BNCS formed a Task Force to focus the Society's efforts to support risk-informing 10 CFR Part 50. Key efforts underway that are guided by the task force include finalizing the ASME PRA (probability risk assessment) Standard, developing a Code Case to risk-inform the repair, replacement, and modification activities for ASME components, and developing a Code Case to risk-inform the safety classification of pressure boundary components. Several other initiatives are also under investigation such as introducing risk insights into other ASME nuclear codes and standards supported by appropriate research and technical basis information. Supplementary information will also be provided to update an initial high level plan of ASME risk-informed initiatives for nuclear power plants that was presented at ICONE-8, including plans to communicate these risk-informed technology developments to the public. The authors included and acknowledged contributions from several other cognizant members of the ASME BNCS (board on nuclear codes standards) Task Group on RIP50 in the paper. (authors)

  7. National Agricultural Research Organisation. Fisheries Resources Research Institute Annual Report 2000/2001

    2001-01-01

    It is now clear that fisheries resources are among the key assets contributing to the national development objective of poverty eradication through providing food, employment, income and export earnings. It was recently reported in the papers that monthly fish exports had increased by 23% and fetched about US$ 10 Million during the month of November 2001 alone. This value may be underestimated as it is based solely on recorded exports from fish processing factories numbering 12. A...

  8. Toy Action Guide [and] Media Violence and Children: A Call to Action! 2000-2001.

    TRUCE: Teachers Resisting Unhealthy Children's Entertainment, West Somerville, MA.

    Play is essential to children's healthy development and learning, and toys are the tools of children's play. Noting that parents are constantly faced with decisions about what toys to buy and what toys to avoid, this guide is intended to help parents promote their children's creative and constructive play by making informed choices about toys, and…

  9. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Volkman, Jed; Sexton, Amy D. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR)

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of these efforts is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. Six projects, two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and one property on the mainstem Walla Walla River were part of the exercise. Several thousand native plants as bare-root stock and cuttings were reintroduced to the sites and 18 acres of floodplain corridor was seeded with native grass seed. Pre and post-project monitoring efforts were included for all projects, incorporating methodologies from CTUIR's Draft Monitoring Plan.

  10. 78 FR 64984 - Distribution of the 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 Cable Royalty Funds

    2013-10-30

    ..., 1998) (1990-1992 Determination); 1993-1997 Librarian Order, 66 FR 66433. Relative marketplace value is... retransmission of broadcast television programs. See, e.g., 1993-1997 Librarian Order, 66 FR at 66445; 1987 Music...., 1993-1997 Librarian Order, 66 FR at 66447, actual measured viewing is significant to...

  11. Youth Reintegration Training and Education for Peace (YRTEP) Program: Sierra Leone, 2000-2001. Impact Evaluation.

    Fauth, Gloria; Daniels, Bonnie

    Management Systems International (MSI), with funding from United States Agency for International Development Office of Transition Initiatives (USAID/OTI) and in coordination with other partners, is implementing a program in Sierra Leone entitled "Youth Reintegration Training and Education for Peace" (YRTEP). The object is to provide non-formal…

  12. Verbrauchereinstellungen zu Bioprodukten : Der Einfluß der BSE-Krise 2000/2001

    Bruhn, Maike

    2003-01-01

    Ziel des vorliegenden Arbeitsberichtes ist es, anhand der langfristigen Analyse von Verbrauchereinstellungen und ?verhalten am Markt für Bioprodukte, den Einfluß der BSE-Fälle Ende 2000 in Deutschland auf die Nachfrage nach Bioprodukten abzuschätzen. Gerade im Zusammenhang mit der verstärkten Diskussion des ökologischen Landbaus und der angekündigten Agrarwende, ist die Frage von großem Interesse, ob der Verbraucher bereit ist, die ihm zugedachte Rolle zu übernehmen, einen Marktanteil von 20%...

  13. Credit Policies for Courses in Minnesota Colleges & Universities: International Baccalaureate, 2000-2001.

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, St. Paul.

    This guide is designed to help Minnesota high school students in their educational planning and to encourage colleges and universities to state clearly their policies in granting college credit for successful completion of Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate (IB) examinations in high school. The guide also represents certification…

  14. Annual report of the Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, 2000-2001

    Some scientific achievements and advisory activities of Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), during the year are highlighted, including: development of a standardised assessment protocol for estimating the levels of radiofrequency radiation as a function of distance from mobile phone base stations; advice to Australian Customs on high energy X-ray beam facilities; advice on the health risks of naturally occurring radioactivity in relation to emissions from the BHP Sinter Plant in Wollongong; participation in the National Repository Advisory Committee and National Store Advisory Committee dealing with radioactive waste management for Australia; several publications of work associated with assessment of exposures to ultraviolet radiation. Three personal UV dosimetry projects have been organised or commenced in collaboration with health-related organisations. The licensing of the existing nuclear installations at ANSTO was a major activity during the year. There were some difficulties in obtaining and making public sufficient information to allow adequate public comment on the proposals. In the case of the HIFAR facility, the ARPANSA licence was replacing a regulatory system administered by the former Nuclear Safety Bureau, but it was still a challenge to demonstrate through a safety evaluation report that it met the statutory conditions required for issuing a licence under the ARPANS Act and ARPANS Regulations. For the other nuclear facilities, they were being brought within a formal regulatory process for the first time. The licences now issued include additional conditions requiring the licence holder to provide improved documentation and justification of safety practices. One of the roles inherited by ARPANSA from the Nuclear Safety Bureau is the monitoring of the operations of the ANSTO nuclear plant. From its monitoring over the year, ARPANSA has concluded that overall ANSTO's nuclear plant continued to be operated safely during the year

  15. Key Elements in Successful Training A Comparative Study of Two Workplaces. Project Report, 2000-2001.

    Adult Literacy and Numeracy Australian Research Consortium, Alice Springs. Northern Territory Centre.

    This publication presents case studies of two sites--one with and one without a history of involvement in Workplace English Language and Literacy (WELL)-funded training programs. Case study 1, "Partnership, Flexibility, and Experience: Key Elements in Successful Training" (Jenny McGuirk), investigates a food processing company in New South Wales…

  16. COMPOSITION OF THE JOINT ADVISORY DISCIPLINARY BOARD 2000/2001 EXERCICE

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Appointed by the Director-General Appointed by the Staff Association Members Achille Petrilli/as Michel Bonnet/ep 1st deputies Wisla Carena/ep Daniel Boimond/ps 2nd deputies Roland Garoby / ps Juan Diaz-Montoya/ac Messrs. Petrilli and Bonnet have drawn up the following list of staff members from among whom the Chairman of the Board may be chosen when required: Doris Burckhart/ep Patrick Geeraert/fi Margrit Burri/ep Bertrand Nicquevert/ep Nicole-Laurence Cremel/it Keith Potter/est Friedemann Eder/dsu Pedro Ribeiro/sl Laure esteveny/as Pierre Strubin/lhc

  17. COMPOSITION OF THE JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARDS 2000/2001 EXERCISE

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Appointed by the Director-General  Appointed by the Staff Association Members Fréderick Bordry /sl Irene Seis/it 1st deputies Christian Fabjan/ep Jean-Claude Carlier/tis 2nd deputies Sue Foffano Morna Robillard/hr Mr Bordry and Mrs Seis have drawn up the following list of staff members from among whom the Chairman of the Board may be chosen when required: Christophe Delamare/est Guy Maurin/ep Maria Dimou/it Mats Moller/as Tobias Dobers/est Alasdair smith/ep Luc Durieu/ps Marilena Streit-Bianchi/tis Lennart Jirden/spl John Poole/sl Mediators [see Administrative Circular N° 6 (Rev. 1) entitled 'Review procedure'] will also be selected from this list of ten staff members.

  18. The Implementation of the California Community Colleges Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program, 2000-2001.

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This is the sixth report on the status and progress of the Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program (TTIP), submitted by the California Community Colleges. In California, familiarity with and use of computers is fundamental to economic success. California is home to many of the major companies involved in creating the future of the…

  19. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Dittman, Andrew H. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester, WA); Hardy, Ronald W. (University of Idaho, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, Hagerman, ID)

    2001-06-01

    It is not yet possible to define a feeding regimen for captively-reared stocks similar to their natural regimen that enhances the post-release fitness of juveniles and improves the reproductive performance of adults. In the natural environment, seasonal differences in food quality and quantity have profound effects on growth and 'wild' attributes, such as external coloration and fin quality. Formulating the right feeds for conservation fish held for long periods in captivity before release is more complicated than formulating diets for farm fish. Recent research in salmonid nutrition shows it is necessary to consider daily dietary protein intake and protein intake relative to total dietary energy level, rather than simply the levels of total dietary lipid.

  20. Experience with contamination protection of spent fuel transport packages in Germany since 2000/2001

    On April 30, 1998 just a few days before the PATRAM 1998 conference at Paris, the French Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate (DSIN now DGSNR) published a press release, that during the year before some 35% of the spent fuel transports to the reprocessing plant of COGEMA at La Hague have non-fixed surface contamination in excess of the regulatory standard. A few day in advance DSIN informed in French Ministries and the competent foreign authorities of the customer countries of COGEMA. The consequences of this publication were multi-fold and perceived by the public as an act negligence of the nuclear industry. Because of concerns about additional radiation exposure to the railway workers by the unions the French Railway company SNCF suspended all transports by May 6, 1998 until implementation of corrective measures. This decision of SNF interupted also the spent fuel transports from continental Europe to the reprocessing plant of BNFL at Sellafield all performed across France to the port of Dunkirk. Furthermore on May 25, 1998 the German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety (BMU) imposed a transport ban for shipment of spent fuel from commercial power plants and for high active waste returned from La Hague to the Gorleben site. The conditions for resumption of these transports were outlined by NMU in a 10-point programme. In response to these publications on contamination findings competent German State and Federal Authorities commissioned investigations by independent experts dealing with the identification of the causes, the proposal of counter measures, the investigation of shortcomings in the transport system in general and recommendations for retification of it

  1. Contaminants in bighorn sheep on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, 2000-2001

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Soils of abandoned mines on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR) are contaminated with arsenic, barium, mercury, manganese, lead, and zinc. Previous studies...

  2. New results from air pollution studies in Bulgaria (moss survey 2000-2001)

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin

  3. Factors Affecting the Recreational Fishery in Moses Lake, Washington, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Burgess, Dave

    2003-02-04

    The Moses Lake Project (project No. 199502800) was first funded by Bonneville Power Administration during the FY 99. Work commenced and proceeded through September 2001 when questions arouse on the Scope of Work. Due to funding issues at the beginning of FY 2001 we were unable to secure monies to continue with our proposed scope of work. Consequently, the Moses Lake Project was reduced to one full-time employee. An extension of fifty thousand dollars was granted in which the project with one remaining member by October 2001 continued to operate. By December 2001 the NWPPC granted an additional 20K in spending to secure an advisor that could assist in providing a proposal that the ISRP would find amenable. By Jan 2002, the Moses Lake staff put Dr. David Bennett, from the University of Idaho on payroll. With the guidance of Dr. Bennett the Moses Lake project staff was successful in turning in a new version of the proposal and ultimately received funding by July of 2002. Consequently, the lack of manpower and time spent revising and resubmitting said proposal hampered progress. Consequently, this report covers work conducted on the original Scope of Work (SOW) to July 2002 and then follows the new and accepted SOW from July 2002 through September 2002. Work on the tasks within the newest proposal began prior to official acceptance so as not to loose the window of opportunity to collect data during the summer field season. As of July 2000 we moved forward and began the appropriate tasks outlined in our scope of work. Therefore, portions of the FY 2001 annual report address tasks outlined in the original (appendix 1, original FY2000 SOW) and newest scope(s) of work (Appendix 2, new FY 2000 SOW).

  4. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Steigerwald Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Technical Report 2000-2001.

    Allard, Donna

    2001-09-01

    Steigenvald Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, refuge) was established as a result of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) transferring ownership of the Stevenson tract located in the historic Steigerwald Lake site to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS, Service) for the mitigation of the fish and wildlife losses associated with the construction of a second powerhouse at the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River and relocation of the town of North Bonneville (Public Law 98-396). The construction project was completed in 1983 and resulted in the loss of approximately 577 acres of habitat on the Washington shore of the Columbia River (USFWS, 1982). The COE determined that acquisition and development of the Steigenvald Lake area, along with other on-site project management actions, would meet their legal obligation to mitigate for these impacts (USCOE, 1985). Mitigation requirements included restoration and enhancement of this property to increase overall habitat diversity and productivity. From 1994 to 1999, 317 acres of additional lands, consisting of four tracts of contiguous land, were added to the original refuge with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds provided through the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement. These tracts comprised Straub (191 acres), James (90 acres), Burlington Northern (27 acres), and Bliss (9 acres). Refer to Figure 1. Under this Agreement, BPA budgeted $2,730,000 to the Service for 'the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River or its tributaries' in the state of Washington (BPA, 1993). Lands acquired for mitigation resulting from BPA actions are evaluated using the habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the Federal Columbia River Power System Loss Assessments and adopted as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program as a BPA obligation (BPA, 1994). Steigenvald Lake NWR is located in southwest Washington (Clark County), within the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. Historically part of the Columbia River flood plain, the refuge area was disconnected from the river by a series of dikes constructed by the COE for flood control in 1966. An aerial photograph from 1948 portrays this area as an exceedingly complex mosaic of open water, wetlands, sloughs, willow and cottonwood stands, wet meadows, upland pastures, and agricultural fields, which once supported a large assemblage of fish and wildlife populations. Eliminating the threat of periodic inundation by the Columbia River allowed landowners to more completely convert the area into upland pasture and farmland through channelization and removal of standing water. Native pastures were 'improved' for grazing by the introduction of non-native fescues, orchard grass, ryegrass, and numerous clovers. Although efforts to drain the lake were not entirely successful, wetland values were still significantly reduced.

  5. International Atomic Energy Agency publications. Publications catalogue 1986-1999. Supplement 2000-2001

    This supplement to the IAEA Publications Catalogue lists all the sales publications issued from January 2000 to September 2001. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance are included. The supplement is divided into two parts. The first lists all publications by subject category in alphabetical order. The second part consists of indexes. All indexes list the page(s) on which the publication appears in the firs part. The keyword index lists all publications in alphabetical order as well as under keyword

  6. Status report of seabird surveys at Horns Rev, 2000-2001

    The present report presents the results of three bird surveys conducted in the Horns Rev area during the second half of 2001. Due to poor weather conditions in December 2001, the last survey was, however, performed on 7 January 2002. The surveys are part of the base-line investigations of birds performed in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. The results of the surveys during August 2001 - January 2002 are presented together with the results obtained during the period August 2000 - April 2001, and are also compared to results obtained during the period August 1999 - April 2000. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 16 aerial surveys performed during August 1999 - January 2002, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, mainly occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common Scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of the Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Common scoters occurred in very high numbers in January 2002. This was probably related to increased immigration of birds from the inner Danish waters during a cold period in late December 2001. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affect less than 1% of the various species, except divers where 1.58% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 8-11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrated through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with a less pronounced variation in staging and wintering species (divers, herring gull, common scoter). (au)

  7. Towards the field-scale experiments and numerical modeling of pesticides in tropical soils

    Dusek, J.; Ray, C.; Sanda, M.; Vogel, T.; Green, R.; Loo, B.

    2004-12-01

    Intensive use of pesticides in agriculture inevitably poses an increased threat to groundwater. Recent findings of pesticide residues in selected drinking water wells in Hawaii brings further attention to this problem since the primary source for potable water in Hawaii is groundwater from basal or dike-confined aquifers. A challenging research project was carried out at the University of Hawaii to elucidate potential impacts of selected pesticides on groundwater and to understand pesticide behavior in tropical soils. The major outcome of the project will be a recommendation to the Hawaii Department of Agriculture whether to restrict or approve these pesticide products entering Hawaii's agricultural market. Three sites on Oahu, one on Maui, and one on Kauai were selected for field evaluation of leaching. The soil types on Oahu are Wahiawa Oxisol (Poamoho), Molokai Oxisol (Kunia), and Waialua Vertisol (Waimanalo). The soil at Kula, Maui is an andisol (loam of Kula series) and that at Mana, Kauai is a Vertisol of Malama series. Three herbicides (S-metolachlor, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl), one fungicide (trifloxystrobin), and one insecticide (imidacloprid) were used in our study. In addition, a commonly used herbicide (atrazine) and potassium bromide tracer were applied as reference chemicals. After spraying, the plots were covered with straw to decrease evaporation from bare soil surface and irrigated with aerial sprinklers for a period of 16 weeks. Disturbed soil samples from various depths were taken at regular intervals for pesticide analysis. Water flow dynamics was monitored with TDR probes and tensiometers installed at three depths. Weather data were acquired simultaneously. In-situ measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity were done using a tension disc infiltrometer. Laboratory experiments of soil-water retention, as well as degradation, sorption, and column displacement experiments for the selected pesticides were conducted. Hence, comprehensive

  8. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. 158.2084 Section 158.2084 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2084 Experimental use permit biochemical...

  9. VIRAL MARKETING

    Howeidi, Mohammad; Nguyen, David

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in communication technology has given rise to the new phenomenon of viral marketing. Virality has become the new buzzword organizations desire and marketers adopt. The fundamental goal remains the same that is to increase awareness of a product or service. With this in mind, the objective of this study is to explore viral marketing through a content and receptiom analysis, so that marketers can gain a better understanding of how and which elements have driven two s...

  10. Marketing Research

    Spieglerová, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor thesis titled “Marketing Research” is made up of two parts. The first being the theoretical part, which covers the basic knowledge about a market and how it can be marketed. It also focuses on the identification for the need for marketing research, whilst providing the information about targets and about the ways of implementing the research and its overall progress (preparation, analysis and interpretation of results). In this part there is also a description of the various types of...

  11. Marketing divadla

    MARŠÍKOVÁ, Petra

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the theatre marketing. It is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part of the thesis focuses on knowledge in the field of theatre marketing, marketing mix, types of theatres and financing theatres. The practical part focuses on the amateur theatre association Comica Economica. The aim of the thesis is to analyse the theatre association Comica Economica from the point of marketing mix and, based on this analysis, questionnaire research and SWOT an...

  12. Postmoderne marketing

    Urquizu, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This thesis will challenge the traditional marketing perspective by adding a post-modern approach to marketing. Secondary an analysis of the post-modern consumer as well as the importance of neo tribalism in marketing will be described. Additionally the necessity of including countercultural segments and the importance of countercultures will be argued. Finally this thesis will examine which marketing method is the most useful when working with countercultures.

  13. Market institutions

    Chowdhury, Shyamal; Negassa, Asfaw; Torero, Maximo

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how market institutions can affect links between urban and rural areas with specific emphasis on goods market integration in the national context.Traditionally, development researchers and practitioners have focused either on rural market development or on urban market development without considering the interdependencies and synergies between the two. However, more than ever before, emerging local and global patterns such as the modern food value-chain led by supermarkets...

  14. Marketing Strategy

    Pokorná, Martina

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with issues of marketing strategy of a company in chosen retail business. Its main aim is to suggest new advertising strategy of a company for the purpose of increasing awareness customers and marketability of products. On the grounds of consultations with the management of the company, analysis of current marketing strategy and results of market research I have fulfiled this task. In the theoretical part of this diploma thesis I deal with introduction to strat...

  15. Mobile marketing

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  16. Multiresidue levels of pesticides in selected fruits in Ghana; a preliminary study in the Yilo and Lower Manya Krobo Districts of the Eastern Region of Ghana

    Locally produced fruits (mango, pineapple and banana) were sampled and purchased from farms and markets with the Yilo and Lower Manya Krobo districts and analyzed for pesticide residues by gas chromatography equipped with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD). In all, 80 samples made up of 40 mango samples and 20 samples each of pineapples and bananas were extracted and analyzed for mainly organochlorine residues (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, dieldein, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, endosulfan s, p, p'-DDE etc.) and synthetic pyrethroid residues (allethrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, etc.). Analysis indicates that about 88% of the mangoes sampled from the farms contained one or more of these pesticide residues. 75% and 65% of the pineapples and bananas respectively from farms and markets had one or more of the analyzed pesticide residues. The data revealed that about 6.2% of the fruit samples analyzed contained organochlorine pesticide residues of γ-HCH (0.013mg/kg and 0.038mg/kg respectively in mangoes and pineapples); δ-HCH [0.014mg/kg (mango) and 0.024mg/kg (pineapple)]; methoxychlor [0.027 mg/kg (mango) and 0.048mg/kg (pineapple)]. Synthetic pyrethoid residues of cyfluthrin [0.078mg/kg (mango) and 0.059 mg/kg (pineapple) and fenvalerate [0.025 mg/kg and 0.028 mg/kg respectively for mango and pineapple] were also found above their respective maximum residue limits (Table 4.8) whereas 78.2% of detected pesticide residues were below the MRLs. Nonetheless, the continuous consumption of these fruits with even the modest pesticide levels can result in accumulation that could result in deadly chronic effects. In assessing the consumers' perception of pesticide residues in fruits, about 69% of the respondents were aware of pesticide residues in fruits and the corresponding adverse effect on human health. Some have experienced pesticide poising after fruit consumption. Thus many wish pesticide usage in fruit and crop cultivation in general is curbed or

  17. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  18. Viral marketing

    BLÁHOVÁ, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the viral marketing and to analyze selected viral campaigns. There is a description of advantages and disadvantages of this marketing tool. In the end I suggest for which companies viral marketing is an appropriate form of the promotion.

  19. Stock Markets

    亚玲

    2005-01-01

    There are stock markets in large cities in many countries. Stock markets in Paris, London, Tokyo, Shanghai and New York are among the largest and most well-known. The stock market, also called stock exchange, is a place where people can buy or sell shares of a factory or company. And each share means certain ownership of a factory or company.

  20. Marketing 101.

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  1. MARKET WATCH

    2007-01-01

    The hottest financial market topic of the moment could be the subprime loan crisis in the United States. The crisis has stormed the U.S. stock market, dragging it to its biggest falls in a single trading day. Other markets, such as Japan’s, were also vul

  2. Shopper marketing

    Klímová, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    The "Shopper marketing" thesis measures and evaluates the effectiveness of shopper marketing activities during the Sochi 2014 Olympic Games. This thesis includes empirical research conducted in an FMCG environment. The research implemented in this work investigates the shopper marketing practises and their effectiveness in selected Czech stores. The conclusions and recommendations within this diploma thesis are based on the analysis of research results.

  3. The establishment and evaluation of near infrared universal model to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide rapidly

    Yan Mei Xiong; Xiang Zhong Song; Chang Zhou Chen; Hong Ping Lin; Guo Tang; Yue Huang; Jia Duan; Shun Geng Min

    2012-01-01

    A near infrared universal quantitative analysis model was established to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide EC (hikernalisation) by the PLS (partial least squares) algorithm,the model predictive ability was evaluated by the external inspection method.The model was established among samples containing the same active ingredient from five different companies,and the model determination coefficient R2 and RMSECV (root mean square error of cross validation) were 0.9997 and 0.0223,respectively,the relative error between predicted value and chemical value of the testing set samples was between -2.71% and 3.36%,which indicated that the method to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide EC by the established universal model can meet the need of pesticide market monitoring.

  4. 75 FR 33744 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Proposed...

    2010-06-15

    ... ``Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment'' (71 FR 47330... ``significant regulatory action'' under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR... (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999), because it would not have substantial direct effects on the States,...

  5. Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

  6. Pesticide Transport with Runoff from Creeping Bentgrass Turf: Relationship of Pesticide Properties to Mass Transport

    The off-site transport of pesticides with runoff is both an agronomic and environmental concern resulting from reduced control of target pests in the area of application and contamination of surrounding ecosystems. Experiments were designed to measure the quantity of pesticides in runoff from creepi...

  7. Spatial and temporal analysis of pesticides concentrations in surface water: Pesticides atlas

    Vijver, M.G.; Zelfde, van 't M.; Tamis, W.L.M.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch water boards have a well-established program for monitoring pesticide contamination of surface waters. These monitoring data have been processed into a graphic format accessible online and designed to provide insight into pesticide presence in Dutch surface waters and trends over time: the Pes

  8. Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms

    Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 75 of the 83 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of bioassays per compound (1 to 65). There were a total of 2,824 bioassays for the 75 compounds, including 287 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a nonlethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 585 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 1,952 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups.While the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is toxic, its values can be used to rank or compare the toxicity of samples or sites on a relative basis for use in further analysis or

  9. An agriculture and health inter-sectorial research process to reduce hazardous pesticide health impacts among smallholder farmers in the Andes

    Chacon Aura

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral ‘wicked problem’. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean highlands, working with partners from multiple sectors to confront this problem over several projects. Methods We engaged in iterative cycles of mixed methods research around particular questions, actions relevant to stakeholders, new proposal formulation and implementation followed by evaluation of impacts. Capacity building occurred among farmers, technical personnel, and students from multiple disciplines. Involvement of research users occurred throughout: women and men farmers, non-governmental development organizations, Ministries of Health and Agriculture, and, in Ecuador, the National Council on Social Participation. Results Pesticide poisonings were more widespread than existing passive surveillance systems would suggest. More diversified, moderately developed agricultural systems had lower pesticide use and better child nutrition. Greater understanding among women of crop management options and more equal household gender relations were associated with reduced farm pesticide use and household pesticide exposure. Involvement in more organic agriculture was associated with greater household food security and food sovereignty. Markets for safer produce supported efforts by smallholder farmers to reduce hazardous pesticide use. Participatory interventions included: promoting greater access to alternative methods and inputs in a store co-sponsored by the municipality; producing less harmful inputs such as compost by women farmers; strengthening farmer organizations around healthier and more sustainable agriculture; marketing safer produce among social sectors; empowering farmers to act as social monitors; and using social monitoring results to inform decision makers. Uptake by policy makers has included: the

  10. MARKET SEGMENTATION

    Munaga Ramakrishna Mohan Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that involves dividing a broad target market into subsets of consumers, businesses, or countries who have common needs and priorities, and then designing and implementing strategies to target them. Market segmentation strategies may be used to identify the target customers, and provide supporting data for positioning to achieve a marketing plan objective. Businesses may develop product differentiation strategies, or an undifferentiated approach, involving specific products or product lines depending on the specific demand and attributes of the target segment.

  11. Guerilla marketing

    Burkoňová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    Thesis on the topic of „Guerilla Marketing“ deals with modern trends in the field of Marketing. The theoretical section of this thesis is focused on a literature review of Guerilla Marketing, where Guerilla Marketing trend is explained in detail and modern trends of Guerilla Marketing are described, inclusive practical examples. The practical section of the thesis deals with a company called RobZone Int. s.r.o. and the analysis of their corporate marketing mix. In order to acquire relev...

  12. Marketing maloobchodu

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  13. Stock market and capital market

    Dziková, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis provides an overview of selected topics related to the capital market. For completeness, the first part deals with the financial market whose characteristics can then be applied to the capital market. Furthermore, the stock exchange with its important features is introduced as well as the over-the-counter market, which is recently undergoing dramatic changes. Investment instruments are also listed in the thesis and the nature of the individual groups that make up the finan...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2170 - Experimental use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides.

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-microbial pesticides. 158.2170 Section 158.2170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2170 Experimental use permit data requirements—microbial pesticides. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1)...

  15. SPORTS MARKETING

    Ridvan Ekmekci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization popularity, either media or sports business co. started to focus on marketing structure like other business services. Because of definition of sports usage, the term of “Sports Marketing” was used firstly by Advertising Age in 1978 as an increasing presentation tool in industrial merchandise and service marketing. Sport marketing, adapted from general marketing definitions, was defined as “ includes arrangement of all activities to meet needs and wants of sports consumers.” (Mullin, Hardy, Sutton, 2000:8-9.

  16. Market Survey Turkey. Electricity Market

    The present market survey presents the Turkish power market and derives business opportunities and prospects for Dutch trade and industry. This market survey has been carried out for the following four, from time to time overlapping, sectors that have been identified by EVD as potential opportunities for Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SME): renewable energy, energy efficiency, electricity generation, electricity distribution

  17. Challenges and opportunities of the bio-pesticides production by solid-state fermentation: filamentous fungi as a model.

    De la Cruz Quiroz, Reynaldo; Roussos, Sevastianos; Hernández, Daniel; Rodríguez, Raúl; Castillo, Francisco; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, production and use of bio-pesticides have increasing and replacing some synthetic chemical pesticides applied to food commodities. In this review, biological control is focused as an alternative, to some synthetic chemical treatments that cause environmental, human health, and food quality risks. In addition, several phytopathogenic microorganisms have developed resistance to some of these synthetic chemicals and become more difficult to control. Worldwide, the bio-pesticides market is growing annually at a rate of 44% in North America, 20% in Europe and Oceania, 10% in Latin and South American countries and 6% in Asia. Use of agro-industrial wastes and solid-state fermentation (SSF) technology offers an alternative to bio-pesticide production with advantages versus conventional submerged fermentations, as reduced cost and energy consumption, low production of residual water and high stability products. In this review, recent data about state of art regarding bio-pesticides production under SSF on agroindustrial wastes will be discussed. SSF can be defined as a microbial process that generally occurs on solid material in the absence of free water. This material has the ability to absorb water with or without soluble nutrients, since the substrate must have water to support the microorganism's growth and metabolism. Changes in water content are analyzed in order to select the conditions for a future process, where water stress can be combined with the best spore production conditions, obtaining in this way an inexpensive biotechnological option for modern agriculture in developing countries. PMID:24494699

  18. UV-MALDI mass spectrometric quantitation of uracil based pesticides in fruit soft drinks along with matrix effects evaluation.

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on the development of the accurate and precise quantitative method for the determination of pesticides bromacil (1), terbacil (2), lenacil (3), butafenacil (4) and flupropacil (5) in fruit based soft drinks. Three different types of drinks are bought from market; huddled orange fruit drink (100%) (I), red-oranges (II) and multivitamin drink containing strawberry, orange, banana and maracuja (III). Samples were analyzed "with" and "without" pulp utilizing LC-ESI (or APCI) MS/MS, HPLC-ESI-(or APCI)-MS/MS and UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS methods. The effect of high complexity of the food matrix on the analysis was discussed. Study focuses on the advantages of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method compared to the traditionally involved GC alone or hybrid methods such as GC-MS and LC-MS/MS for quantification of pesticides in water and soft drinks. The developed method included the techniques performed for validation, calibration and standardization. The target pesticides are widely used for the treatment of citrus fruits and pineapples, but for soft drink products, there are still no clear regulations on pesticide residues limits. The matrix effects in the analysis of fruit drinks required implementation of the exact standard reference material corresponds to the variety of food matrices. This paper contributed to the broad analytical implementation of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method in the quality control and assessment programs for monitoring of pesticide contamination in fruit based sodas. PMID:24018142

  19. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  20. FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT (FRANCO MODEL)

    This report describes a method for statistically characterizing the occurrence and duration of pesticide concentrations in surface waters receiving runoff from agricultural lands. The characterization bridges the gap between simulated instream pesticide modeling and the risk asse...

  1. IMPROVED SILICA GEL CLEANUP METHOD FOR ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

    Quantitative recovery of some organophosphorus pesticide residues has not been possible with existing silica gel-cleanup procedures. The authors have developed a modification that permits quantitative recovery of all organophosphorus pesticides tested, except those with a carbama...

  2. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    The objective of this work was to investigate organophosphorus (OP) pesticide transformation pathways as a class in the presence of aqueous chlorine. Seven priority OP pesticides were examined for their reactivity with aqueous chlorine: chlorpyrifos (CP), parathion (PA), diazino...

  3. Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes

    Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet

  4. Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus

    WenJun Zhang; FuBin Jiang; JianFeng Ou

    2011-01-01

    Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanw...

  5. Pesticides, Chromosomal Aberrations, and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Chiu, Brian C. -H.; Blair, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    An excessive incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) has been reported among farmers and other occupational groups working with pesticides. Some pesticides exhibit immunotoxic and genotoxic activities. Individuals exposed to pesticides have also been found to have an increased prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities including the t(14;18)(q32;q21), one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in NHL. Two recent epidemiologic studies reported that the association between pesticide exposu...

  6. Pesticides et toxicité chez l'abeille - USA

    Johnson, Reed M.; Ellis, Marion D.; Mullin, Christopher A.; Frazier, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Until 1985 discussions of pesticides and honey bee toxicity in the USA were focused on pesticides applied to crops and the unintentional exposure of foraging bees to them. The recent introduction of arthropod pests of honey bees, Acarapis woodi (1984), Varroa destructor (1987), and Aethina tumida (1997), to the USA have resulted in the intentional introduction of pesticides into beehives to suppress these pests. Both the unintentional and the intentional exposure of honey bees to pesticides h...

  7. Procedures for Removal of Pesticides from the Environment

    Đokić, M.; Bilandžić, N.; Briški, F.

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in food production, and it is believed that more than 1000 types of pesticides are in use. Organochlorines and organophosphorous pesticides are used in large quantities due to their efficacy and low cost. These persistent organic pollutants remain in the soil, silt, and sediment long after application, and enter into watercourses, finding their way directly into the food chain. Today, the following procedures are used to remove pesticides from polluted localities: l...

  8. Assessing pesticide pollution risk: from field to watershed

    Houdart, Marie; Tixier, P.; Lassoudière, A.; Saudubray, F.

    2009-01-01

    Pesticides used for intensive agricultural production threaten the water resources of the French West Indies. For example, the pesticide chlordecone was used until the nineties in banana fields. Operational and simple tools are needed to assess the potential risk of pollution by pesticides. Here, we propose a method to assess the spatial variability of pollution risk on a watershed scale. This method proceeds in four steps: (1) surveying practices; (2) determining the pesticide load for each ...

  9. Some laboratory blood indicators in tractor drivers exposed to pesticides

    Prokeš Bela L.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides represent group of extremely different compounds or mixed compounds. They are produced in the form of powder for direct application, powder for suspension, concentrated suspension, concentration of emulsion, and in other forms as well. Influence of pesticides to exposed workers mainly depends on technology of pesticide application use. All poisons, just like pesticides that come in organism in some way and reach the location of their metabolism, accumulation in the body or ex...

  10. Determinants of Agricultural Pesticide Concentrations in Carpet Dust

    Gunier, Robert B.; Ward, Mary H.; Airola, Matthew; Bell, Erin M.; Colt, Joanne; Nishioka, Marcia; Buffler, Patricia A.; Reynolds, Peggy; Rull, Rudolph P.; Hertz, Andrew; Metayer, Catherine; Nuckols, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications has been used as a surrogate for exposure in epidemiologic studies, although little is known about the relationship with levels of pesticides in homes. Objective: We identified determinants of concentrations of agricultural pesticides in dust. Methods: We collected samples of carpet dust and mapped crops within 1,250 m of 89 residences in California. We measured concentrations of seven pesticides used extensively in agri...

  11. Use-Exposure Relationships of Pesticides for Aquatic Risk Assessment

    Luo, Yuzhou; Spurlock, Frank; Deng, Xin; Gill, Sheryl; Goh, Kean

    2011-01-01

    Field-scale environmental models have been widely used in aquatic exposure assessments of pesticides. Those models usually require a large set of input parameters and separate simulations for each pesticide in evaluation. In this study, a simple use-exposure relationship is developed based on regression analysis of stochastic simulation results generated from the Pesticide Root-Zone Model (PRZM). The developed mathematical relationship estimates edge-of-field peak concentrations of pesticides...

  12. Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat

    Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but l...

  13. Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment: Summary and Implications

    Liu, Jianghong; Schelar, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Widely used around the world, pesticides play an important role in protecting health, crops, and property. However, pesticides may also have detrimental effects on human health, with young children among the particularly vulnerable. Recent research suggests that even low levels of pesticide exposure can affect young children’s neurological and behavioral development. Evidence shows a link between pesticides and neonatal reflexes, psychomotor and mental development, and attention-deficit hyper...

  14. Risk Preferences and Pesticide Use by Cotton Farmers in China

    Elaine Liu; JiKun Huang

    2013-01-01

    Despite insect-resistant Bt cotton has been lauded for its ability to reduce the use of pesticides, studies have shown that Chinese Bt cotton farmers continue to use excessive amounts of pesticides. Using results from a survey and an artefactual field experiment, we find that farmers who are more risk averse use greater quantities of pesticides. We also find that farmers who are more loss averse use lesser quantities of pesticides. This result is consistent with our conceptual framework and s...

  15. Parkinson’s disease risk from ambient exposure to pesticides

    Wang, Anthony; Costello, Sadie; Cockburn, Myles; Zhang, Xinbo; Bronstein, Jeff ,; Ritz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Due to the heavy and expanding agricultural use of neurotoxic pesticides suspected to affect dopaminergic neurons, it is imperative to closely examine the role of pesticides in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We focus our investigation on pesticide use in California’s heavily agricultural central valley by utilizing a unique pesticide use reporting system. From 2001 to 2007, we enrolled 362 incident PD cases and 341 controls living in the Central Valley of Californ...

  16. Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment

    Yang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment: a case study of glyphosate fate in Chinese Loess soil Xiaomei Yang Abstract: Repeated applications of pesticide may contaminate the soil and water, threatening their quality within the environmental system and beyond it through water erosion related processes and leaching. Taking into account the situation of intense farming, pesticide use and erosion in China, and in the loess area in particular, this study aims to further the science of pesticide...

  17. A new crop of concerns: Congress investigates pesticide safety.

    Taylor, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    A March 2000 report by the General Accounting Office, Pesticides: Improvements Needed to Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children, states that much remains unknown about the risks faced by children in agriculture, and that enforcement of pesticide protection standards for farmworkers is patchy and unsystematic. Many cases of farmworkers' pesticide-related illnesses go unreported, leaving health workers with an inadequate basis for tracking patterns and fine-tuning pesticide standar...

  18. Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Children and Adolescents Applying Pesticides

    O Hendy; M Abou Salem; G Abdel Rasoul; D Rohlman; A. Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides.Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides.Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50) were recruited for this study. They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; ex...

  19. Trade marketing

    Khodl, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define the term "trade marketing" and evaluate its role within the Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company. With the use of internal resources and relevant literature, I will describe the use of trade marketing from both theoretical and practical point of view. I will also introduce the Coca-Cola HBC and its position on the carbonated soft drinks market in the Czech republic.

  20. Event marketing

    Pham, Quynh Trang

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyze event-marketing activities of the small firm and propose new events. At first the theoretical part describes marketing and communication mix and then especially planning and development of event marketing campaign. Research data were collected by the method of survey to propose the new events. Randomly selected customers were asked to fill the questionnaire. Its results were integrated into the proposal of the new events. The interview was realized with the owner of...

  1. Theatre marketing

    Hajtol, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with problems of the marketing strategy in the theater sector. The main aim is to analyze, how theatres, which are very specific segment, access to the marketing and mainly to the communication mix. I deal with this issue in the theoretical part. In the practical part I analyze the concrete theater Comica Economica, which acts as an amateur student theater at the University of Economics. In this section I analyze the marketing and especially communication mix, of the theater....

  2. Power marketing

    One of the most significant developments in the US electric power industry in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of power marketing. What was barely a blimp on the radar screen in 1992 has turned out to be a jumbo jet. This article explains what is power marketing who are power marketers, what role play these players and what will be their longer-term impact on the traditional industry

  3. Viral Marketing

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  4. Online marketing

    Zrůst, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate pay per click marketing as suitable marketing tool for promotion and distribution of a given product. The paper describes basic vocabulary related to PPC advertising, common metrics, tools used by online marketers, and logic of running PPC campaigns. The paper also tries to quantify impact of Internet on economies. The second part applies the theory to analysis of consumers' conversion path while searching online in common search engines where PPC marketi...

  5. Sport Marketing

    Ridvan EKMEKCI; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  6. Affiliate marketing

    Žlábek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis focuses on the topic of online affiliate marketing from the perspective of an internet entrepreneur. In the first, theoretical part, it characterizes the affiliate marketing, describes different, significant affiliate solutions in the Czech market and opportunities for their implementations. In the second, practical part, it concentrates mainly on an affiliate program of a company called GameLeader, s.r.o. It analyses expectations of the business from the implementation...

  7. Content Marketing

    Le, Duc

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  8. MARKET WATCH

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The country was faced with heavy inflationary pressure as the CPI and PPI numbers both continued to run at a high growth rate.The government decided to enforce a tightened monetary policy and stock investors rushed to pull money out of the stock market and stash it in the banks.To save the stumbling stock market,QFIIs were allowed to triple their investments in China’s financial markets.

  9. Marketing Communications

    Rigerová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Marketing communications is the main theme of this dissertation. Aim of dissertation is to describe and to analysis marketing and also communication instruments of company Berger Huck, s.r.o. Output of practical part will be used for advertising campaign project. In the first part is processed of theoretical solutions. Technical literature is source of materials for this part of dissertation. In the theoretic parts is briefly described history and progress of marketing, main substance, d...

  10. Marketing Communication

    Kozáková, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Marketing communication plays an important role in every competitive organization. It is an integral part of a successful sales and create a long-term relationships with customers and other public. This thesis consists of two parts. The theoretical part and a practical part. The theoretical part describes the concept of marketing mix and its components, there is also clarified the concept of communication, marketing communication and the five main components of the communication mix. An in...

  11. MARKET WATCH

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT:China’s financial markets remained stable in 2007, the central bank said,but the stock market stumbled on the heels of international market fluctuations.Food supplies were in short- age as the blizzard in southern provinces blocked transportation and destroyed farm produce.China Minmetals moved abroad to Canada for gold and copper,while the South Korean Lotte Shopping looked to China for the supermarket boom.

  12. COMPARISON OF PESTICIDE ROOT ZONE MODEL PREDICTIONS WITH OBSERVED CONCENTRATIONS FOR THE TOBACCO PESTICIDE METALAXYL IN UNSATURATED ZONE SOILS

    The pesticide root zone model (PRZM) was developed to evaluate pesticide leaching threats to ground water for different crops under varying climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and cropping practices. In the study, PRZM was evaluated to establish its predictive capability b...

  13. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    Dorin Ţibulcă; Mirela Jimborean; Dan Sălăgean; Ariana Caraba

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  14. Ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure: A recent review

    Jaga, Kushik; Dharmani, Chandrabhan

    2006-01-01

    Toxic effects on eyes result from exposure to pesticides via inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact and ocular exposure. Exposure of unprotected eyes to pesticides results in the absorption in ocular tissue and potential ocular toxicity. Recent literature on the risks of ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure is limited.

  15. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    2010-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  16. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    2010-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001 (c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  17. Pesticide Substitution: Combining Food Safety with Environmental Quality

    Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Various pesticides are authorized for use on agricultural food crops. Despite regulatory risk assessments aiming at ensuring consumer and environmental safety, pesticides contribute to human and environmental impacts. Guidance is needed to optimize pesticide use practice and minimize human and en...

  18. 75 FR 60113 - Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal

    2010-09-29

    ...EPA announces the withdrawal of the pesticide science policy document ``Use of the Pesticide Data Program (PDP) in Acute Risk Assessment.'' In estimating dietary exposure to pesticides, the Agency uses a variety of data and different models. This science policy document was developed to explain a particular statistical methodology, known as decomposition, for using information from the U.S.......

  19. Effects of pesticides aerial applications on rice quality

    Aerial application of pesticides has become an important research topic in recent years. This research investigated the effects of two types of commercial pesticides on the rice quality under low volume aerial application. It could provide guidance for the pesticide application and choose the right ...

  20. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use...

  1. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements;...

  3. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use...

  4. 29 CFR 1440.1 - Arbitration of pesticide data disputes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. 1440.1 Section 1440... ARBITRATION OF PESTICIDE DATA DISPUTES § 1440.1 Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. (a) Persons requesting... in writing to the appropriate American Arbitration Association Regional Office. Such requests...

  5. Sensation Marketing

    Nufer, Gerd; Kern, Aline

    2012-01-01

    Sensation Marketing beschreibt eine Form des Guerilla Marketings, bei der eine eigens inszenierte und außergewöhnliche Aktion in der Öffentlichkeit durchgeführt wird. Die Art der Realisierung dieser Sensation bringt es mit sich, dass die Rezipienten ohne ihr Wissen ggf. sogar selbst Bestandteil dieses Marketing-Erlebnisses werden. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird Sensation Marketing zunächst definiert und beschrieben, um anschließend näher auf seine Ziele und Instrumente einzugehen. Des Weite...

  6. Marketing Plan

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  7. Services Marketing

    Jägerová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to verify the category of stars and their informational value for customers at the Four Season Hotel in Pankrác. The theoretical part describes a comparison with the literature, solutions marketing with a focus on the specifics of marketing mix and marketing services. It is then investigated using the marketing mix in practice in the above subjects in the form of structured observation in the natural environment of the hotel without the knowledge of the monitored perso...

  8. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    Al Zadjali, Said [Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs, P O Box 321 Muscat 100 (Oman); Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Deadman, Mike, E-mail: mikedeadman59@gmail.com [Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box 34, Al Khod 123 (Oman)

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service. - Highlights: • Recent

  9. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service. - Highlights: • Recent

  10. Summary of Validation of Multi-Pesticide Methods for Various Pesticide Formulations

    The validation of multi-pesticide methods applicable for various types of pesticide formulations is treated. In a worked-out practical example, i.e. lambda cyhalothrin, the theoretical considerations outlined in the General Guidance section are put into practice. GC conditions, selection of an internal standard and criteria for an acceptable repeatability of injections are outlined, followed by sample preparation, calibration, batch analysis and confirmation of results through comparison using different separation columns. Complete sets of data are displayed in tabular form for other pesticide active ingredients and real formulations. (author)

  11. International safety assessment of pesticides: dithiocarbamate pesticides, ETU, and PTU--a review and update.

    Vettorazzi, G; Almeida, W F; Burin, G J; Jaeger, R B; Puga, F R; Rahde, A F; Reyes, F G; Schvartsman, S

    For the last 30 years the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) has carried out toxicological evaluations and safety assessments of dithiocarbamate pesticides, continuously adjusting previous appraisals in the light of new data and advances in the understanding of the principles and mechanisms of toxic action of these compounds. The historical narrative of the evaluative process is followed by an account of the present international safety assessment status of the dithiocarbamate pesticides so far examined by the JMPR. They are ferbam, mancozeb, maneb, metiram, nabam, propineb, thiram, zineb, ziram, and the associated substances, ethylenethiourea (ETU) and propylenethiourea (PTU). PMID:8732882

  12. Assessing Children’s Dietary Pesticide Exposure: Direct Measurement of Pesticide Residues in 24-Hr Duplicate Food Samples

    Schenck, Frank J.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Wong, Jon W.; Lu, Chensheng Alex

    2010-01-01

    Background: The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in foods representing actual consumption with those reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Objective: We measured pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from a group of 46 young children participating in the Children’s Pestici...

  13. Pesticides and respiratory symptoms among farmers

    Faria Neice Müller Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture there are few studies assessing the risk of respiratory conditions from this exposure. The study aimed at quantifying the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among farmers and evaluating its relationship with occupational use of pesticides and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,379 farmers from two municipalities of Southern Brazil in 1996. Frequency and type of chemical exposure and pesticide poisoning were recorded for both sexes. All subjects aged 15 years or older with at least 15 weekly hours of agricultural activity were interviewed. An adapted questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society was used for the assessment of respiratory symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: More than half (55% of interviewees were male. The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 12% and chronic respiratory disease symptoms was 22%. Higher odds ratios for both asthma (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.07-2.14 and chronic respiratory disease (OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.81 symptoms were found in women. Logistic regression analysis identified associations between many forms of exposure to pesticides and increased respiratory symptoms. Occurrence of pesticide poisoning was associated with higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.04-2.58 and chronic respiratory disease symptoms (OR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.08-2.28. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of causality limitations, the study results provide evidence that farming exposure to pesticides is associated with higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, especially when the exposure is above two days per month.

  14. Use of fungi in bioremediation of pesticides

    Fragoeiro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    Eight isolates (7 species) of white rot fungi were grown on soil extract agar amended with 0, 5 10 and 20 mg l- simazine, trifluralin and dieldrin, individually and as a mixture, under two different water regimes (-0.7 and -2.8 MPa water potential). The best isolates were T.versicolor (R26 and R101) and P.ostreatus, exhibiting good tolerance to the pesticides and water stress and the ability to degrade lignin and produce laccase in the presence of these pesticides. As a res...

  15. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia;

    2007-01-01

    evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results: Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal...... aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions: Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage...

  16. Applicability and modelling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for remediation of groundwater polluted with pesticides and pesticide transformation products

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The main body of research on pesticide removal with membranes has looked at pesticides used for pest control, but during transport from surface to groundwater aquifers, pesticides are transformed. Therefore the real polluting compounds are often transformation products, and this vastly increases ...

  17. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields – Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. - Highlights: • Field-results reveal shortcomings in the EU authorization procedure for pesticides. • The plough layer can be bypassed via preferential transport in e.g. wormholes. • Pesticides properties are decisive for leaching pattern on the sandy fields. • The hydrogeological settings control the leaching patterns on the loamy fields. • Pesticide detection frequency seems to be independent of the month of the year. - Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveals shortcomings in the European Union authorization procedure for pesticides

  18. Sexual Markets or Black Markets?

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2014-01-01

    transactional sex with sugar-daddies, called sponsors or patrons, who provide for them in exchange for sex while male peers often become street vendors, street artists or petty criminals engaged in the so-called ‘black’ markets of theft, sale of counterfeits, and circulation of stolen goods, alcohol and drugs....... As I show, these gendered markets are highly entangled and interdependent, and as I argue, male and female markets use many of the same technologies, sources and circuits of exchange...

  19. Art Markets

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of digitization has had a profound impact on the art market and its institutions. In this chapter, we focus on the market for visual arts as it finds its expression in (among other) paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, sculpture and the like. These artistic disciplines cl

  20. MARKET WAICH

    2007-01-01

    The bullish Chinese stock market defied the fou r th interest rate hike of the year to reapa total market value of over 22 trillion yuan ($2.9 tril -lion) by August 22—its highest mark ever . Chineseindividual investors were allowed to buy over seas shar

  1. Marketing Training

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  2. Green marketing

    Kymlová, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    The thesis acquaints readers with the basic ideas of a new trend in marketing -- green marketing. It points out its particularities, historical evolution and potential application, including warning about common mistakes. The thesis aspires to bring an overview of the topic.

  3. Tourism Marketing.

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  4. Market Review

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market Oct. 10~20 Price of Eu-rich and Yt-medium RE concentrate in domestic market rose to RMB $ 74,000/ton from RMB $72,000/ton. It was still on rising. Price of RE carbonate in Baotou was over RMB$10,000/ton due to the strict volume control of rare earth concentrate.

  5. Market Review

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market Dec. 10-20 Price of Pr-Nd oxide and Pr-Nd mischrnetal kept on rising in domestic market recently due to the tight supply of RE carbonate. Short supply of ion adsorption clay in southern China did not affect the prices of dysprosium and terbium obviously.

  6. Market review

    2007-01-01

    @@ RE Market June 10-20 Driven by price rising of Nd and Pr, domestic RE market was very active recently. It was thought that the price rising was led by the large demand of NdFeB magnet industry and tight supply of RE raw materials.

  7. Nutrition marketing

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  8. Market Review

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market May 10-20 Learned from Inner Mongolia Rare Earth Association,domestic rare earth market was in good situation driven by high demand. Price of neodymium rose strongly. Dysprosium oxide and terbium oxide still hovered at the higher price level. Price of europia remained stable.

  9. Marketing Management

    Wilke, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009......Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009...

  10. Public health pesticide use in California: a comparative summary.

    Howard, Timothy S; Novak, Mark G; Kramer, Vicki L; Bronson, Larry R

    2010-09-01

    California pesticide use summary data and use reports from local vector control agencies were reviewed to document public health pesticide use patterns. During the 15-year period 1993-2007, public health pesticide use averaged 1.75 million lb (0.79 million kg) (AI), accounted for 99% of all reported public health pesticide use. Petroleum distillates, principally larviciding oils, accounted for 88% of public health pesticide use. Pyrethrins and naled, used as mosquito adulticides, increased substantially in recent years (post-2004), coinciding with increased West Nile virus control activities and availability of emergency funding. PMID:21033068

  11. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  12. Health impact from pesticide residues in a desert environment.

    Gomes, James

    1998-01-01

    The amount and frequency of use of pesticides in vegetable farming have been shown to be high in the five farming areas in Al-Ain, UAE. The mean usage of all pesticides was high (6.81 g/m2) while the usage of organophosphorus pesticides (2.11 g/m2) was higher compared to the usage of all the other types of pesticides. A number of pesticides banned from use in the developed countries are still used in vegetable farming. The depletion of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity among...

  13. Kinetic Modelling of Pesticidal Degradation and Microbial Growth in Soil

    LIUDUO-SEN; WANGZONG-SHENG; 等

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses such models for the degradation kinetics of pesticides in soil as the model expressing the degradation rate as a function of two varables:the pesticide concentration and the number of pesticide degrading microorganisms,the model expressing the pesticide concentration as explicit or implicit function of time ,and the model exprssing the pesticide loss rate constants as functions of temperature,These models may interpret the degradation curves with an inflection point.A Kinetic model describing the growth processes of microbial populations in a closed system is reported as well.

  14. How to minimise direct pesticide load on bees

    Ørum, Jens Erik; Navntoft, Søren

    Monitoring, warning and decision support systems (MWD systems) may be profitable solutions to crop protection problems, and at the same time they may reduce the use of pesticides and the pesticide load on human health, non-target organisms and ground water resources. This presentation describes a...... simple method to pinpoint pesticide problems that causes the highest regional pesticide load (regional hot spots) to various non-target organisms. Finally the potential of MWD systems to reduce the pesticide load in these regional hotspots are discussed with a special focus on bees and other insects. The...

  15. RELIGIOUS MARKETING

    Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presented to the society’s actual characteristics. This can be achieved by using appropriate marketing tools and methods; however, the particularities of religion must be taken into account in order not to alter its religious values.

  16. Marketization Revisited

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    2016-01-01

    out; Benchmarking and yardstick competition; and Public-Private collaboration. On the basis of the review of the seven articles, it is found that all elements in all marketization models are firmly embedded but also under dynamic change within public service delivery systems. The review also...... special issue shows that marketization is still a concurrent phenomenon, which is driving substantial change in public service delivery systems while at the same time being under dynamic change itself.......Purpose: The purpose of this introduction article to the IJPSM special issue on marketization is to clarify the conceptual foundations of marketization as a phenomenon within the public sector and to gauge current marketization trends on the basis of the seven articles in the special issue. Design...

  17. Border markets

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while......The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... favoring regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high...

  18. Developing markets?

    Figueiredo, Bernardo; Chelekis, Jessica; DeBerry-Spence, Benet;

    2015-01-01

    Situated at the intersection of markets and development, this commentary aims to promote a cross-fertilization of macromarketing and transformative consumer research (TCR) that directs attention to the sociocultural context and situational embeddedness of consumer experience and wellbeing, while...... acknowledging complex, systemic interdependencies between markets, marketing, and society. Based on a critical review of the meaning of development and an interrogation of various developmental discourses, the authors develop a conceptual framework that brings together issues of development, wellbeing, and...... social inequalities. We suggest that these issues are better understooda nd addressed when examined via grounded investigations of the role of markets in shaping the management of resources, consumer agency, power inequalities and ethics. The use of markets as units of analysis may lead to further cross...

  19. Monitoring of pesticide residues in apples, lettuce and potato of the Slovene origin in the years 2001 to 2004

    Baša Česnik, Helena; Gregorčič, Ana; VELIKONJA BOLTA, Špela; Kmecl, Veronika

    2006-01-01

    Abstract 404 samples of apples, lettuce and potato produced in the Republic of Slovenia were analysed for pesticide residues at the Agricultural Institute of Slovenia in the years 2001 to 2004. Surveillance sampling in eight agricultural production areas was performed at market producers at the harvesting of products or in storehouses, after the pre-harvest interval of plant protection products used. Samples exceeding the maximum residue levels were the following: 3 apple samples (...

  20. Heterogeneity Index of Trade and Actual Heterogeneity Index - the case of maximum residue levels (MRLs) for pesticides

    Burnquist, L.H.; Shutes, K.; Rau, M.L.; Souza, de, H.R.; DE Faria

    2011-01-01

    Non-tariff measures (NTMs) beyond traditional trade policy instruments define the requirements that importing countries imposed on foreign products. Due to differences across countries, requirements for supplying foreign markets can lead to trade costs and thus hamper international trade. In this paper, we introduce two regulatory heterogeneity indexes which are subsequently applied to the case maximum residue levels (MRLs) of pesticides. The Heterogeneity Index of Trade (HIT) reflects the re...