WorldWideScience

Sample records for 20-500 ev optical

  1. Luminescence excitation characteristics of Ca-, Na- and K-aluminosilicates (feldspars), in the stimulation range 20-500 eV: optical detection of XAS

    We demonstrate that the visible/UV luminescence from common feldspar crystals (NaAlSi3O8, KAlSi3O8 and CaAl2Si2O8) can be used to detect detailed L-edge and associated near-edge absorption structure of the main constituent atoms (Ca, K, Na, Al, Si), when exciting in the energy range 20-500 eV. Comparisons of the spectral features are drawn with similar measurements made on the associated materials SiO2, Al2O3 and CaCO3. The potential for using optically detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a method for identifying the luminescent components of mixed mineral samples is considered

  2. Luminescence excitation characteristics of Ca-, Na- and K-aluminosilicates (feldspars), in the stimulation range 20-500 eV: optical detection of XAS

    Poolton, N R J; Quinn, F M; Pantos, E; Andersen, C E; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Johnsen, O; Murray, A S

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that the visible/UV luminescence from common feldspar crystals (NaAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 , KAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 and CaAl sub 2 Si sub 2 O sub 8) can be used to detect detailed L-edge and associated near-edge absorption structure of the main constituent atoms (Ca, K, Na, Al, Si), when exciting in the energy range 20-500 eV. Comparisons of the spectral features are drawn with similar measurements made on the associated materials SiO sub 2 , Al sub 2 O sub 3 and CaCO sub 3. The potential for using optically detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a method for identifying the luminescent components of mixed mineral samples is considered.

  3. 20--500 watt AMTEC auxiliary electric power system

    Ivanenok, J.F. III; Sievers, R.K. [Advanced Modular Power Systems, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Numerous design studies have been completed on Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) power systems for space applications demonstrating their substantial increase in performance. Recently design studies have been initiated to couple AMTEC power conversion with fossil fueled combustion systems. This paper describes the results of a Phase 1 SBIR effort to design an innovative, efficient, reliable, long life AMTEC Auxiliary Electric Power System (AEPS) for remote site applications (20--500 watts). The concept uses high voltage AMTEC cells, each containing 7 to 9 small electrolyte tubes, integrated with a combustor and recuperator. These multi-tube AMTEC cells are low cost, reliable, long life static converters. AMTEC technology is ideal for auxiliary electric power supplies that must operate reliably over a broad range of temperatures, fuel sources, power levels, and operational specifications. The simplicity, efficiency (20% systems) and modularity of this technology allow it to fill applications as varied as light-weight backpacks, remote site power supplies, and military base power. Phase 1 demonstrated the feasibility of a 20% system design, and showed that the development needs to focus on identifying long life AMTEC cell components, determining the AMTEC cell and system reliability, and demonstrating that a 20 watt AMTEC system is 3--5 times more efficient than existing systems for the same application.

  4. Association of the 6-eV optical band in sapphire with oxygen vacancies

    There is a characteristic 3.8-eV photoemission band associated with the particle-irradiation-induced coloration bands at 4.8, 5.4, and 6.0 eV in crystalline sapphire. Furthermore, excess aluminum has a strong influence in stabilizing the optically active lattice damage produced by energetic particles. The fact that excess anions produced by oxygen implantation do not result in uv absorption or emission bands suggests that these bands are to be associated with anion vacancies

  5. Transmittance and optical constants of Eu films from 8.3 to 1400 eV

    The optical constants of Eu films were obtained in the 8.3-1400 eV range from transmittance measurements performed at room temperature. Thin films of Eu were deposited by evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and their transmittance was measured in situ. Eu films were deposited onto grids coated with a thin C support film. The refractive index n of Eu was calculated using the Kramers-Kronig analysis. Data were extrapolated both on the high- and low-energy sides by using experimental and calculated extinction coefficient values available in the literature. Eu, similar to other lanthanides, has a low-absorption band just below the O2,3 edge onset; the lowest absorption was measured at about 16.7 eV. Therefore, Eu is a promising material for filters and multilayer coatings in the energy range below the O2,3 edge in which materials typically have a strong absorption. The consistency of the composite optical constants was tested with the f and inertial sum rules and found to be good

  6. Properties of the 4.45 eV optical absorption band in LiF:Mg, Ti

    The optical absorption (OA) and thermoluminescence (TL) of dosimetric LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) as well as nominally pure LiF single crystal have been studied as a function of irradiation dose, thermal and optical bleaching in order to investigate the role of the 4.45 eV OA band in low temperature TL. Computerised deconvolution was used to resolve the absorption spectrum into individual gaussian bands and the TL glow curve into glow peaks. Although the 4.45 eV OA band shows thermal decay characteristics similar to the 4.0 eV band its dose filling constant and optical bleaching properties suggest that it cannot be associated with the TL of composite peaks 4 or 5. Its presence in optical grade single crystal LiF further suggests that it is an intrinsic defect or possibly associated with chance impurities other than Mg, Ti. (authors)

  7. Optical Oscillator Strengths of Hydrogen Bromide in the 4.5-20 eV Excitation Energy Region

    李文斌; 朱林繁; 刘小井; 苑震生; 孙建敏; 成华东; 徐克尊

    2004-01-01

    The absolute optical oscillator strength density spectrum of HBr in the valence shell energy region of 4.5-20 eV has been determined by a high-resolution fast electron energy loss spectrometer. The optical oscillator strengths reported. It has been manifested clearly that the optical oscillator strengths of some transitions for the previous photoabsorption method are subject to severe line-saturation effects.

  8. Optical Oscillator Strengths of Hydrogen Chloride in the Energy Region of 5.5-20 eV

    李文斌; 朱林繁; 刘小井; 苑震生; 孙建敏; 成华东; 酒井康弘; 徐克尊

    2003-01-01

    Absolute optical oscillator strength density (OOSD) spectrum of HCl in the valence shell energy region of 5.5-20 eV has been determined by the high resolution fast electron energy loss spectrometer (EELS). The optical oscillator strengths for the broad A1Ⅱ + 13∑+ dissociation peak and the discrete transitions of b3Ⅱ(v′=0),C1Ⅱ(v′ = 0, 1, 2) and M1Ⅱ(v′= 0) are reported.

  9. 25 CFR 20.500 - Who is eligible for Child Assistance?

    2010-04-01

    ... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance § 20.500 Who is eligible for Child Assistance? A child... child's special needs in his/her own home; and (3) Provide a documented social services assessment from the social services worker of whether parent(s), custodian, guardian(s) are able to care for...

  10. Optical properties and complex dielectric function of metallic aluminum from 0.04 to 104 eV

    Measurements of the optical properties of metallic aluminum are reviewed and available data are analyzed to obtain the bulk values of the optical constants and the complex dielectric function from 0.04 eV to 10 keV. The intra- and interband contributions to the dielectric function are discussed briefly, and recently proposed values for the Drude parameters describing the intraband absorption are critically considered. Factors influencing experimental measurements are discussed, with emphasis on sample properties such as surface oxide layers, bulk inclusion of gases, surface roughness, and degree of crystallinity. The results of recent optical measurements are tabulated, along with recommended values of the optical properties resulting from a self-consistent Kramers-Kronig analysis of reflectance, transmission, and electron-energy-loss studies. The tabular data include the complex dielectric function, the complex index of refraction, and the reflectance and phase shift for normal incidence on a smooth, oxide-free surface. Detailed tabulations are given for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum

  11. Optical constants of magnetron-sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV.

    Soufli, Regina; Aquila, Andrew L; Salmassi, Farhad; Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Gullikson, Eric M

    2008-09-01

    This work discusses the experimental determination of the optical constants (refractive index) of DC-magnetron-sputtered boron carbide films in the 30-770 eV photon energy range. Transmittance measurements of three boron carbide films with thicknesses of 54.2, 79.0, and 112.5 nm were performed for this purpose. These are believed to be the first published experimental data for the refractive index of boron carbide films in the photon energy range above 160 eV and for the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure regions around the boron K (188 eV), carbon K (284.2 eV), and oxygen K (543.1 eV) absorption edges. The density, composition, surface chemistry, and morphology of the films were also investigated using Rutherford backscattering, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and extreme ultraviolet reflectance measurements. PMID:18758535

  12. Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Gd22Fe78 Thin Films in the Photon Energy Range From 1.5 to 5.5 eV

    Eva Jesenská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical and magneto-optical properties of amorphous Gd22Fe78 (GdFe thin films prepared by direct current (DC sputtering on thermally oxidized substrates were characterized by the combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and magneto-optical spectroscopy in the photon energy range from 1.5 to 5.5 eV. Thin SiNx and Ru coatings were used to prevent the GdFe surface oxidation and contamination. Using advanced theoretical models spectral dependence of the complete permittivity tensor and spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient were deduced from experimental data. No significant changes in the optical properties upon different coatings were observed, indicating reliability of used analysis.

  13. Optical constants and scattering factors from reflectivity measurements: 50 eV to 5 keV

    Blake, R.L.; Davis, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Graessle, D.E.; Burbine, T.H. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA (United States); Gullikson, E.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    An improved reflection technique has been introduced to permit more accurate measurements of material optical constants {delta} and {beta}, the density {rho}, and from these the atomic scattering factors f {prime} and f {double_prime}. Regions of normal and anomolous dispersion can be measured with resolving power 1000 or larger using a portable reflectometer that is moved to any of three beamlines at NSLS or two at CHESS. Herein the reflectometer and measurement techniques are described together with sample characteristics and preliminary results for the Ni LIII edge and the M edges of Au, Pt, and Ir. The primary accuracy limiting factors are density determination, accumulation of surface oxides or carbonaceous deposits, and synchrotron orbit stability. Each sample must be prepared for the specific energy range to be measured so that model fitting routines have the minimum possible number of free variables.

  14. Enumeration Verification System (EVS)

    Social Security Administration — EVS is a batch application that processes for federal, state, local and foreign government agencies, private companies and internal SSA customers and systems. Each...

  15. Optical properties of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry between 0.75 and 6.24 eV

    Optical properties of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te (CZT) were studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). Measurements made by VASE were performed on CZT and CdTe samples in air at room temperature at multiple angles of incidence. A parametric function model was employed in the VASE analysis to determine the dielectric functions (varepsilon)=(varepsilon)1 + i(varepsilon)2 in the range of 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A two-oscillator analytical model was used to describe the dielectric response of native oxides on CZT. Surface oxide optical properties and thickness on CZT were also determined in conjunction with the VASE measurement and analysis of a CdTe sample. Two samples of CZT of different oxide thicknesses were measured and their optical constants were coupled together in a multiple-sample, multiple-model VASE analysis to resolve correlations between fitting parameters. Effective medium approximation (EMA) was used to describe the optical properties of the CZT oxide with roughness. A Kramers-Kronig self-consistency check of the real and imaginary parts of the Cd0.9Zn0.1 dielectric functions was performed over the energy range 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A five-Lorentz-oscillator model was employed to describe the dielectric response of CZT in the range of 1.6 to 6.24 eV. Intensity transmission measurements were made on the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te and CdTe, showing the absorption energy band edges of ∼ 1.58 and 1.46 eV, respectively

  16. Electrical and Optical Performance Characteristics of 0.74-eV p/n InGaAs Monolithic Interconnected Modules

    Wilt, David M.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Weizer, Victor G.; Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Jain, Raj K.; Murray, Christopher S.; Riley, David R.

    1997-01-01

    There has been a traditional trade-off in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion development between system efficiency and power density. This trade-off originates from the use of front surface spectral controls such as selective emitters and various types of filters. A monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structure has been developed which allows for both high power densities and high system efficiencies. The MIM device consists of many individual indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating indium phosphide (InP) substrate. The MIM is exposed to the entire emitter output, thereby maximizing output power density. An infrared (IR) reflector placed on the rear surface of the substrate returns the unused portion of the emitter output spectrum back to the emitter for recycling, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. Initial MIM development has focused on a 1 sq cm device consisting of eight (8) series interconnected cells. MIM devices, produced from 0.74-eV InGaAs, have demonstrated V(sub oc) = 3.2 volts, J(sub sc) = 70 mA/sq cm, and a fill factor of 66% under flashlamp testing. Infrared (IR) reflectance measurements (greater than 2 micron) of these devices indicate a reflectivity of greater than 82%. MIM devices produced from 0.55-eV InGaAs have also been demonstrated. In addition, conventional p/n InGaAs devices with record efficiencies (11.7% AM0) have been demonstrated.

  17. Modeling of Electric Vehicles (EVs) for EV Grid Integration Study

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2010-01-01

    In order to successfully integrate EVs into power systems, it is necessary to develop a detailed EV model considering both the EV users’ driving requirements and the battery charging and discharging characteristics. A generic EV model was proposed which takes into account charging and discharging...... characteristics of EV batteries, the driving distance per trip and the availability of EVs for charging and providing grid service. The charging and discharging characteristics of EV batteries were used to determine the upper and lower limits of the state of charge (SOC) of EV batteries and to calculate the...... charging and discharging power. The driving distance per trip and availability of EVs were used to reflect the driving requirements and to implement intelligent charging and discharging management....

  18. Broadband multilayer mirror and diffractive optics for attosecond pulse shaping in the 280-500 eV photon energy range

    Schmidt J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chirped broadband multilayer mirrors are key components to shape attosecond pulses in the XUV range. Compressing high harmonic pulses to their Fourier limit is the major goal for attosecond physics utilizing short pulse pump-probe experiments. Here, we report about the first implementation of multilayers and diffractive optics fulfilling these requirements in the “water-window” spectral range.

  19. EV-GHG Mobile Source

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  20. Instant LEGO Mindstorm EV3

    Garber, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A concise guide full of step-by-step recipes to teach you how to build and program an advanced robot.""Instant LEGO Mindstorm EV3"" is for both the adult tinkerer who has never touched LEGO before and the experienced LEGO engineer who has evolved from Mindstorm NXT to EV3. If you are interested in entering or advising students in robot competitions such as the FIRST LEGO League, the Wold Robot Olympiad, or RoboGames, then this book is a must for you. Even if you haven't purchased yo

  1. Digitaliseerimise demopäev

    1999-01-01

    8. XI tarbekunstimuuseumis, 10. XI rahvusraamatukogus digitaliseerimise demopäev koostöös OÜ Art Digitali, Eesti Kultuuriministeeriumi, Tarbekunstimuuseumi ja Eesti Rahvusraamatukoguga. OÜ Art Digital (asutasid 1998. a. Rein Tammik, Mauri Gross) skaneeris 1999. a. suvel Eesti Kunstimuuseumis 2400 graafilist lehte ja maali. Eesti digikeskuse loomisest, ülesannetest

  2. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Their EVS?

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle (BEV) or Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle (EREV) and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, BEV, EREV, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are called plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  3. Absolute oscillator strength densities below 100eV of N2

    Sun Jian-Min; Zhong Zhi-Ping; Zhu Lin-Fan; Liu Xiao-Jing; Yuan Zhen-Sheng; Xu Ke-Zun

    2005-01-01

    The absolute optical oscillator strength density (OOSD) and generalized oscillator strength densities (GOSDs)below 100eV of N2 are determined with an incident electron energy of 2500eV and an energy resolution of 100 meV.The absolute generalized oscillator strengths (GOSs) for two transitions to the superexcited states at 23 and 31.4eV are determined and their momentum transfer dependence behaviours are discussed.

  4. Markets Share Models for EVs

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Christensen, Linda

    emissions from new cars to 95 g/km on average in 2020. The energy agreement from March 2012 states that the transport sec-tor is facing a radical change from fossil fuels to electricity and bio-mass in the long run. Here, the target for 2020 is 10% bio-fuels in 2020 and the tax exemption for EVs is...... small car choice model with the objective to project future sales of electric vehicles and to assess the effect of a number of political initiatives on the sales. The car choice model is based on a Danish stated preference experiment. The results from the choice experiment are con-densed in the...... estimation of a logit choice model and based on the estimated parameters a simulation model is set up. The model will be available for assessing different scenarios and forecasts of the sales of EVs under different assumptions of prices of the cars, life-time of batteries, the operations costs, the driving...

  5. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals.

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA. PMID:26917423

  6. Preliminary optical design of a varied line-space spectrograph for the multi-channel detection of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra in the 280-550 eV energy range

    Wheeler, B.S.; McKinney, W.R.; Hussain, Z.; Padmore, H.

    1996-07-01

    The optical design of a varied line-space spectrograph for the multi-channel recording of NEXAFS spectra in a single {open_quotes}snapshot{close_quotes} is proposed. The spectrograph is to be used with a bending magnet source on beamline 7.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Approximately 20 volts of spectra are simultaneously imaged across a small square of material sample at each respective K absorption edge of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Photoelectrons emitted from the material sample will be collected by an electron imaging microscope, the view field of which determines the sampling size. The sample also forms the exit slit of the optical system. This dispersive method of NEXAFS data acquisition is three to four orders of magnitude faster than the conventional method of taking data point-to-point using scanning of the grating. The proposed design is presented along with the design method and supporting SHADOW raytrace analysis.

  7. How much are Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project driven in EV Mode?

    John Smart

    2013-08-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how many miles are driven in EV mode, how far vehicles are driven between charging events, and how much energy is charged from the electric grid per charging event.

  8. EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children

    Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in Taiwan and in Singapore. Results from those clinical trials have indicated high safety and immunogenicity of EV71 vaccine. Protective efficacies were over 90% on EV71-associated HFMD and over 80% on other EV71-associated diseases. In this paper, we summarize the results from three EV71 vaccine Phase III clinical trials and discuss the challenges of incorporating EV71 vaccine into Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in countries with EV71 epidemics. PMID:25505956

  9. Presidendi sünnipäev

    2003-01-01

    Milliseid mõtteid või mälestusi tekitab Teis president Arnold Rüütli 75. juubelisünnipäev? Vastavad: Toivo Tootsen, Peeter Kreitzberg, Toomas Varek, Heiki Männik, Paavo Palk, Mai Vöörmann, Andres Keevallik

  10. Alkoholentwöhnung im Verbundsystem (EVS)

    Tielking, Knut Hrsg; Kuß, Gabriele Hrsg.

    2002-01-01

    Die Landesversicherungsanstalt (LVA) Oldenburg-Bremen und die Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg verfolgen mit dem Modellprojekt 'Alkoholentwöhnung im Verbundsystem (EVS)' das gemeinsame Ziel, die Qualität von Alkoholentwöhnungsbehandlungen zu verbessern und noch wirkungsvoller zu gestalten. Der Eröffnungsbericht ist eine Zwischenbilanz der bisherigen Arbeiten des Modellprojekts.

  11. Optics

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  12. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel about Charging Their EV at Home?

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Key Observations from the Survey of the EV Project Participants; In June 2013, 72% of EV Project participants were very satisfied with their home charging experience; 21% of participants relied totally on home charging for all of their charging needs; Volt owners relied more on home charging than Leaf owners, who reported more use of away-from-home charging; 74% of participants reported that they plug in their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) every time they park at home. Others plugged in as they determined necessary to support their driving needs; 40% of participants reported that they would not have or are unsure that in June 2013 whether they would have purchased an alternating current (AC) Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for home charging if it had not been provided by The EV Project; and 61% of participants reported that The EV Project incentive was very important or important in their decision to obtain a PEV.

  13. Supernova 2010ev: A reddened high velocity gradient type Ia supernova

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P; Folatelli, Gastón; Pignata, Giuliano; Anderson, Joseph P; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taubenberger, Stefan; Bufano, Filomena; Olivares, Felipe E; Haislip, Joshua B; Reichart, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We present and study the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2010ev. Methods. We obtain and analyze multi-band optical light curves and optical-near-infrared spectroscopy at low and medium resolution spanning from -7 days to +300 days from the B-band maximum. Results. A photometric analysis shows that SN 2010ev is a SN Ia of normal brightness with a light curve shape of $\\Delta m_{15}(B)=1.12 \\pm 0.02$ and a stretch s = $0.94 \\pm 0.01$ suffering significant reddening. From photometric and spectroscopic analysis, we deduce a color excess of $E(B - V) = 0.25 \\pm 0.05$ and a reddening law of $R_v = 1.54 \\pm 0.65$. Spectroscopically, SN 2010ev belongs to the broad-line SN Ia group, showing stronger than average Si II {\\lambda}6355 absorption features. We also find that SN 2010ev is a high-velocity gradient SN, with a value of $164 \\pm 7$ km s$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$. The photometric and spectral comparison with other supernovae shows that SN 2010ev has similar colors and velocit...

  14. Optics

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  15. Soft x-ray beamline (10--1000 eV) with a plane grating monochromator for surface studies

    The optical design and mechanical solution for a soft x-ray beamline BL-7A in PF-KEK for the energy range 10--1000 eV with a PGM are described. The optical characteristics of the beamline are tested with gas phase absorption and photoelectron spectroscopy

  16. EVS25,Calls for Sustainable Mobility Revolution

    Yang Wei; Li Yinghong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Want to low your cost and save energy for your car,and also be environmentfriendly in nearby future? May you can find an answer in Zhenshen,Guangdong province,China,where the 25th world battery,hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicle symposium and exhibition (EVS25) will be held.The special event will last from November 5 to 9,2010,and is expected to attract 2000-2500 visitors,with an exhibition size of 30 thousand square meters,the largest in all the sessions held.

  17. Radar Observations and the Shape of Near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5

    Busch, Michael W; Benner, Lance A M; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D; Jao, Joseph S; Scheeres, Daniel J; Magri, Christopher; Nolan, Michael C; Howell, Ellen S; Taylor, Patrick A; Margot, Jean-Luc; Brisken, Walter

    2011-01-01

    We observed the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars and the Very Long Baseline Array during December 2008. EV5 rotates retrograde and its overall shape is a 400 /pm 50 m oblate spheroid. The most prominent surface feature is a ridge parallel to the asteroid's equator that is broken by a concavity 150 m in diameter. Otherwise the asteroid's surface is notably smooth on decameter scales. EV5's radar and optical albedos are consistent with either rocky or stony-iron composition. The equatorial ridge is similar to structure seen on the rubble-pile near-Earth asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4 and is consistent with YORP spin-up reconfiguring the asteroid in the past. We interpret the concavity as an impact crater. Shaking during the impact and later regolith redistribution may have erased smaller features, explaining the general lack of decameter-scale surface structure.

  18. Chopper Circuits Developed for EV Drive Application

    Tsuruta, Yukinori; Kawamura, Atsuo

    In this paper, the technical stream on a high efficiency and high frequency chopper for the automotive industry, new energy and energy conservation technology field is surveyed. QRAS (Quasi-resonant Regenerating Active Snubber) and SAZZ (Snubber Assisted Zero Voltage and Zero Current Transition) topologies aimed for the electric vehicle (EV) drive application are proposed. 25kHz-8kW QRAS, 100kHz-8kW SAZZ choppers and 50kHz-25kW bilateral SAZZ-1 chopper are constructed and tested under rating conditions. It is verified that SAZZ topology retains high efficiency even at the increased operating frequency of 100kHz. It is shown that high efficiency can be realized at high operating frequency even in high power converters by QRAS and newly proposed SAZZ soft switching topologies.

  19. Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

    Carrano, C J

    2004-01-13

    Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.

  20. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    Cuenca, R. M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM (original equipment manufacturer) cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains, are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  1. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Charging Their EV Away From Home?

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle or Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, battery electric vehicles, extended-range electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are called PEVs. The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  2. Effects of excess oxygen on the 4.5-6.3 eV absorption spectra of oxygen-rich high purity silica

    Magruder, R. H.; Robinson, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Type III silica samples were implanted with O using a multi-energy process that produced a layer of constant concentration to within ±5% beginning ∼80 nm from the surface and extending to ∼640 nm below the surfaces of the samples. The concentrations of excess oxygen in the layer ranged from 0.035 to ∼2.1at.%. In these samples we show that E‧ centers and NBOHCs, as well as the normal cadre of ODC (II) centers, were suppressed, and the optical absorption from 4.7 to 6.4 eV was primarily due to oxygen excess defects. Using Gaussian fitting techniques to examine the optical difference spectra, we have been able to identify four defect centers that are related to excess oxygen defect bands at 4.76 eV, 5.42 eV, 5.75 eV and 6.25 eV.

  3. Supernova 2010ev: A reddened high velocity gradient type Ia supernova

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Folatelli, Gastón; Pignata, Giuliano; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taubenberger, Stefan; Bufano, Filomena; Olivares E., Felipe; Haislip, Joshua B.; Reichart, Daniel E.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We present and study the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2010ev. Methods: We obtain and analyze multiband optical light curves and optical/near-infrared spectroscopy at low and medium resolution spanning -7 days to +300 days from the B-band maximum. Results: A photometric analysis shows that SN 2010ev is a SN Ia of normal brightness with a light-curve shape of Δm15(B) = 1.12 ± 0.02 and a stretch s = 0.94 ± 0.01 suffering significant reddening. From photometric and spectroscopic analysis, we deduce a color excess of E(B - V) = 0.25 ± 0.05 and a reddening law of Rv = 1.54 ± 0.65. Spectroscopically, SN 2010ev belongs to the broad-line SN Ia group, showing stronger than average Si iiλ6355 absorption features. We also find that SN 2010ev is a high velocity gradient SN with v˙Si = 164 ± 7 km s-1 d-1. The photometric and spectral comparison with other supernovae shows that SN 2010ev has similar colors and velocities to SN 2002bo and SN 2002dj. The analysis of the nebular spectra indicates that the [Fe ii]λ7155 and [Ni ii]λ7378 lines are redshifted, as expected for a high velocity gradient supernova. All these common intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the high velocity gradient (HVG) group are different from the low velocity gradient (LVG) normal SN Ia population and suggest significant variety in SN Ia explosions. This paper includes data gathered with the Du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS-2010A-Q-14). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programme 085.D-0577).

  4. Supernova 2010ev: A reddened high velocity gradient type Ia supernova

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Folatelli, Gastón; Pignata, Giuliano; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taubenberger, Stefan; Bufano, Filomena; Olivares E., Felipe; Haislip, Joshua B.; Reichart, Daniel E.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We present and study the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2010ev. Methods: We obtain and analyze multiband optical light curves and optical/near-infrared spectroscopy at low and medium resolution spanning -7 days to +300 days from the B-band maximum. Results: A photometric analysis shows that SN 2010ev is a SN Ia of normal brightness with a light-curve shape of Δm15(B) = 1.12 ± 0.02 and a stretch s = 0.94 ± 0.01 suffering significant reddening. From photometric and spectroscopic analysis, we deduce a color excess of E(B - V) = 0.25 ± 0.05 and a reddening law of Rv = 1.54 ± 0.65. Spectroscopically, SN 2010ev belongs to the broad-line SN Ia group, showing stronger than average Si iiλ6355 absorption features. We also find that SN 2010ev is a high velocity gradient SN with v˙Si = 164 ± 7 km s-1 d-1. The photometric and spectral comparison with other supernovae shows that SN 2010ev has similar colors and velocities to SN 2002bo and SN 2002dj. The analysis of the nebular spectra indicates that the [Fe ii]λ7155 and [Ni ii]λ7378 lines are redshifted, as expected for a high velocity gradient supernova. All these common intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the high velocity gradient (HVG) group are different from the low velocity gradient (LVG) normal SN Ia population and suggest significant variety in SN Ia explosions. This paper includes data gathered with the Du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS-2010A-Q-14). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programme 085.D-0577).

  5. Human SCARB2-mediated entry and endocytosis of EV71.

    Yi-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available Enterovirus (EV 71 infection is known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD and in severe cases, induces neurological disorders culminating in fatality. An outbreak of EV71 in South East Asia in 1997 affected over 120,000 people and caused neurological disorders in a few individuals. The control of EV71 infection through public health interventions remains minimal and treatments are only symptomatic. Recently, human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2 has been reported to be a cellular receptor of EV71. We expressed human SCARB2 gene in NIH3T3 cells (3T3-SCARB2 to study the mechanisms of EV71 entry and infection. We demonstrated that human SCARB2 serves as a cellular receptor for EV71 entry. Disruption of expression of SCARB2 using siRNAs can interfere EV71 infection and subsequent inhibit the expression of viral capsid proteins in RD and 3T3-SCARB2 but not Vero cells. SiRNAs specific to clathrin or dynamin or chemical inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis were all capable of interfering with the entry of EV71 into 3T3-SCARB2 cells. On the other hand, caveolin specific siRNA or inhibitors of caveolae-mediated endocytosis had no effect, confirming that only clathrin-mediated pathway was involved in EV71 infection. Endocytosis of EV71 was also found to be pH-dependent requiring endosomal acidification and also required intact membrane cholesterol. In summary, the mechanism of EV71 entry through SCARB2 as the receptor for attachment, and its cellular entry is through a clathrin-mediated and pH-dependent endocytic pathway. This study on the receptor and endocytic mechanisms of EV71 infection is useful for the development of effective medications and prophylactic treatment against the enterovirus.

  6. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Array

    Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Bæk, Rikke; Varming, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles......, 2013; 2: 10) has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes) for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment...

  7. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV Array

    Malene Møller Jørgensen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles, 2013; 2: 10 has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment or purification prior to analysis.

  8. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system tariff based on predicted day-ahead spot prices and predicted charging behaviors. Distribution grids of the Bornholm power system were......An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...

  9. Photoluminescence measurements of the 1,55 eV band of Ge doped Al sub(x)Ga sub(1-x)As

    The photoluminescence of the 1,55 eV band of Ge doped Al sub(x)Ga sub(1-x)As, with x=0.30-0.33, grown by liquid phase epitaxy is presented. The broad shape was found to be due to a lattice relaxation upon optical transitions. Resonant modes with (h/2π)ω sub(q) approx. 35 + - 2 meV and (h/2π) ω sub(q) approx. 45 + - 2 meV are found for the optical band, yielding a zero phonon transition energy - 1.73 + - 0.02 eV and a Franck-Condon shift approx. 0.17-0.20 eV for the optical center. The activation energy of thermal quenching yields an associated donnor binding energy of 0.17 + - 0.04 eV. Possible mechanisms for the radiative transitions are discussed. (Author)

  10. Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) into the Danish power system, the driving data in Denmark were analyzed to extract the information of driving distances and driving time periods which were used to represent the driving requirements and the EV unavailability. The...

  11. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Træholt, Chresten

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...

  12. Charge your electric vehicle when driving?; Rijdend je EV opladen?

    Ishii, M.

    2012-07-05

    In late June 2012 a team of Japanese Toyota and ToyohashiUniversity of Technology (TUT) successfully developed and demonstrated a new induction charging method for electric vehicles (EV) [Dutch] Eind junidemonstreerde een Japans team van Toyota en ToyohashiUniversity of Technology (TUT) met succes een nieuwe inductie oplaadmethode voor elektrisch vervoer (EV)

  13. Vabariigi aastapäev Ottawas / Walter Pent

    Pent, Walter

    2004-01-01

    EV 86. aastapäeva puhul toimus 21. veebr. 2004 Ottawa Eesti Seltsi organiseeritud aktus, kus kõne pidas EV Suursaatkonna Ottawas asjur Argo Küünemäe, kes korraldas 24. veebr. 2004 saatkonnas ka piduliku diplomaatilise vastuvõtu

  14. DOE Field Operations Program EV and HEV Testing

    Francfort, James Edward; Slezak, L. A.

    2001-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Field Operations Program tests advanced technology vehicles (ATVs) and disseminates the testing results to provide fleet managers and other potential ATV users with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance. The ATVs (including electric, hybrid, and other alternative fuel vehicles) are tested using one or more methods - Baseline Performance Testing (EVAmerica and Pomona Loop), Accelerated Reliability Testing, and Fleet Testing. The Program (http://ev.inel.gov/sop) and its nine industry testing partners have tested over 30 full-size electric vehicle (EV) models and they have accumulated over 4 million miles of EV testing experience since 1994. In conjunction with several original equipment manufacturers, the Program has developed testing procedures for the new classes of hybrid, urban, and neighborhood EVs. The testing of these vehicles started during 2001. The EVS 18 presentation will include (1) EV and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) test results, (2) operating experience with and performance trends of various EV and HEV models, and (3) experience with operating hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Data presented for EVs will include vehicle efficiency (km/kWh), average distance driven per charge, and range testing results. The HEV data will include operating considerations, fuel use rates, and range testing results.

  15. Development of EV71 virus-like particle purification processes.

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes the outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and results in deaths of hundreds of young children. EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty capsids consisting of viral structural proteins and can elicit potent immune responses, thus holding promise as an EV71 vaccine candidate. However, an efficient, scalable production and purification scheme is missing. For mass production of EV71 VLPs, this study aimed to develop a production and chromatography-based purification process. We first demonstrated the successful EV71 VLPs production in the stirred-tank bioreactor in which High Five™ cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus co-expressing EV71 structural polyprotein P1 and protease 3CD. The culture supernatant containing the VLPs was subjected to tangential flow filtration (TFF) for concentration/diafiltration, which enabled the removal of >80% of proteins while recovering >80% of VLPs. The concentrated VLPs were next subjected to hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC) in which the VLPs were mainly found in the flow through. After another TFF concentration/diafiltration, the VLPs were purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and concentrated/diafiltered by a final TFF. The integrated process yielded an overall VLPs recovery of ≈ 36% and a purity of ≈ 83%, which was better or comparable to the recovery and purity for the purification of live EV71 virus particles. This process thus may move the EV71 VLPs vaccine one step closer to the clinical applications. PMID:25939279

  16. Operation Strategy of EV Battery Charging and Swapping Station

    Zhuo Peng; Li Zhang; Ku-An Lu; Jun-Peng Hu; Si Liu

    2014-01-01

    An operation strategy of the electric vehicle (EV) battery charging and swapping station is proposed in the paper. The strategy is established based on comprehensively consideration of the EV charging behaviors and the possible mutual actions between battery charging and swapping. Three energy management strategies can be used in the station:charging period shifting, energy exchange between EVs, and energy supporting from surplus swapping batteries. Then an optimization model which minimizes the total energy management costs of the station is built. The Monte Carlo simulation is applied to analyze the characteristics of the EV battery charging load, and a heuristic algorithm is used to solve the strategy providing the relevant information of EVs and the battery charging and swapping station. The operation strategy can efficiently reduce battery charging during the high electricity price periods and make more reasonable use of the resources. Simulations prove the feasibility and rationality of the strategy.

  17. Lanthanum-molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV

    Hofstetter, M; Schultze, M; Guggenmos, A; Gagnon, J; Yakovlev, V S; Krausz, F; Kleineberg, U [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aquila, A; Yang, S; Gullikson, E [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2-400, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Huth, M; Nickel, B [Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Schellingstrasse 4, 80799 Munich (Germany); Goulielmakis, E, E-mail: michael.hofstetter@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    A novel multilayer material system consisting of lanthanum and molybdenum nano-layers for both broadband and highly reflecting multilayer mirrors in the energy range between 80 and 130 eV is presented. The simulation and design of these multilayers were based on an improved set of optical constants, which were recorded by extreme ultraviolet (XUV)/soft-x-ray absorption measurements on freestanding lanthanum nano-films between 30 eV and 1.3 keV. Lanthanum-molybdenum (La/Mo) multilayer mirrors were produced by ion-beam sputtering and characterized through both x-ray and XUV reflectivity measurements. We demonstrate the ability to precisely simulate and realize aperiodic stacks. Their stability against ambient air conditions is demonstrated. Finally, the La/Mo mirrors were used in the generation of single attosecond pulses from high-harmonic cut-off spectra above 100 eV. Isolated 200 attosecond-long pulses were measured by XUV-pump/IR-probe streaking experiments and characterized using frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts (FROG/CRAB) analyses.

  18. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 infections by a novel antiviral peptide derived from EV-71 capsid protein VP1.

    Chee Wah Tan

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD. In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC(50 values ranging from 6-9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71.

  19. Inhibition of Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) Infections by a Novel Antiviral Peptide Derived from EV-71 Capsid Protein VP1

    Tan, Chee Wah; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sim, Kooi Mow; Tan, Eng Lee; Poh, Chit Laa

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers) overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC50 values ranging from 6–9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71. PMID:22563456

  20. A multipolar SR motor and its application in EV

    In order to bring out the advanced features of EVs, a direct-drive (DD) with in-wheel (IW) layout has been considered, but it requires more motors than the conventional layout and the motors will be used in a hard environment. Because switched reluctance motors (SRMs) are simple and strong, we have developed a new outer-rotor-type multipolar SRM suitable for DD-IW EVs through simulations and experiments. We have implemented the developed SRMs into a prototype EV. This is the first-ever in-vehicle research to our knowledge; the developing process and the road test results will bring many useful guidelines for future developments

  1. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory (EV-GHG)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  2. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  3. EBSCO infopäev Tallinnas / Marika Meltsas

    Meltsas, Marika

    2008-01-01

    16. aprillil 2008 toimus Tallinnas EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) infopäev, kus maailma suurim elektrooniliste ja trükiajakirjade vahendaja tutvustas oma tooteid ja teenuseid Eesti raamatukogudele. Kommentaar korraldajalt Tiina Nurmilt

  4. Immunological Evaluation and Comparison of Different EV71 Vaccine Candidates

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth diseases (HFMDs, and EV71 is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia. Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are not available. The current results from mouse immunogenicity studies using in-house standardized RD cell virus neutralization assays indicate that (1 VP1 peptide (residues 211–225 formulated with Freund’s adjuvant (CFA/IFA elicited low virus neutralizing antibody response (1/32 titer; (2 recombinant virus-like particles produced from baculovirus formulated with CFA/IFA could elicit good virus neutralization titer (1/160; (3 individual recombinant EV71 antigens (VP1, VP2, and VP3 formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited antibody response with 1/128 virus neutralization titer; and (4 the formalin-inactivated EV71 formulated in alum elicited antibodies that cross-neutralized different EV71 genotypes (1/640, but failed to neutralize CVA16. In contrast, rabbits antisera could cross-neutralize strongly against different genotypes of EV71 but weakly against CVA16, with average titers 1/6400 and 1/32, respectively. The VP1 amino acid sequence dissimilarity between CVA16 and EV71 could partially explain why mouse antibodies failed to cross-neutralize CVA16. Therefore, the best formulation for producing cost-effective HFMD vaccine is a combination of formalin-inactivated EV71 and CAV16 virions.

  5. Järjekordne keelepäev Hamburgis (Emakeelepäev Hamburgis) I-III / Liilika M. Allev

    Allev, Liilika M.

    2007-01-01

    seekord oli keskseks teemaks lapse keeleareng, korraldajateks EV Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium, Eesti Keeleinstituut ja EÜSLi HEA Selts. Keelepoliitikast. Kuidas eesti laps rääkima hakkab? Kakskeelsuse omandamine

  6. Decays D → Kev, D → K*ev, D → πev in QCD sum rules method

    The form factors of the semileptonic decays D → Kev, D → K*ev, D → πev are calculated by means of the QCD sum rules method for the three-point correlators. The decay widths are obtained. Our results agree with the experimental data within the theoretical and the experimental uncertainties involved. The restriction on the Kobayashi-Maskava matrix elements Vcs, Vcd are found. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig

  7. First isolation of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 from Northern Brazil

    Lamarão Leticia Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 has been associated to cases of neurological disease in many countries including Brazil. This virus has now been reported from three of the five Brazilian regions. Our study relates the findings concerning to the first isolate of this virus in Northern region of Brazil. A 15-month old female patient, from the rural zone of the municipality of Santana do Araguaia in southern Pará state was admitted at the hospital with acute, flaccid, asymmetric and ascending motor deficiency, located in the right lower limb. Stools samples from this child were inoculated in RD cells and was isolated an EV-71. We plan to sequence our strain and compare it to other isolates in Brazil. Differences at the molecular level can explain why EV-71 strains circulating in other continents, such as Asia, appear to be more virulent.

  8. ZGODBE V TUJEM JEZIKU IN VLOGA STARŠEV

    Pušaver, Saša

    2016-01-01

    Zgodbe v tujem jeziku je empirično diplomsko delo, kjer predstavljamo zgodbe v tujem jeziku kot pripomoček za poučevanje tujega jezika v otroštvu. Osredotočamo se predvsem na vlogo staršev pri branju zgodb v tujem jeziku svojim otrokom. V empiričnem delu smo preverjali stališča staršev do branja zgodb v tujem jeziku svojim otrokom. Zaradi predvidevanja po upadu števila staršev, ki berejo svojim otrokom v tujem jeziku, smo sestavili tudi vprašanja za starše, ki zgodb v tujem jeziku svojim otro...

  9. KOMPETENTNOST STARŠEV ZA STARŠEVSKO VLOGO

    Križan, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo z naslovom Kompetentnost staršev za starševsko vlogo je sestavljeno iz teoretičnega in empiričnega dela. V teoretičnem delu so predstavljene različne teme, vezane na kompetentnost staršev za starševsko vlogo, ki so podkrepljene z ustrezno strokovno literaturo. Podrobno so opredeljeni pojem družina in njene oblike danes. Opisani so vzgojni stili, ki so podani glede na različne avtorje. V teoretičnem delu so predstavljene nove paradigme zgodnjega otroštva. Podrobno je opisano,...

  10. Mass Absorption Coefficient of Tungsten and Tantalum, 1450 eV to 2350 eV: Experiment, Theory, and Application

    Levine, Zachary H.; Grantham, Steven; Tarrio, Charles; Paterson, David J.; McNulty, Ian; Levin, T. M.; Ankudinov, Alexei L.; Rehr, John J.

    2003-01-01

    The mass absorption coefficients of tungsten and tantalum were measured with soft x-ray photons from 1450 eV to 2350 eV using an undulator source. This region includes the M3, M4, and M5 absorption edges. X-ray absorption fine structure was calculated within a real-space multiple scattering formalism; the predicted structure was observed for tungsten and to a lesser degree tantalum as well. Separately, the effects of dynamic screening were observed as shown by an atomic calculation within the...

  11. Developing of the EV charging and parking shed of BIPV

    Wu Shaobo; Wei Chuanchuan; Yu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is an important application way of solar photovoltaic power. The electric vehicle (EV) charging and parking shed of BIPV is the regeneration energy intellectual integration demonstration application system collection of photovoltaic (PV) grid power,PV off-grid power,EV charging and parking shed,and any part of the functions and their combination will be engaged in practical application on demand. The paper describes the PV shed system structure and design in detail with the present of its actual photos. The shed is 50 m long and 5.5 m wide and capable of parking 18 cars. Under the control of system intellectual con-troller,the power produced by PV from sunlight will charge the parking EV car prior to charging the storage bat-tery,charging the storage battery prior to grid power,grid power at last,and charge the EV by utility grid when it is a cloudy or rainy day.

  12. Philosophical Adventures in the Lands of Oz and Ev

    Matthews, Gareth B.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the philosophical adventures of the characters in L. Frank Baum's Lands of Oz and Ev stories and discusses how such stories can stimulate reflections on philosophically interesting questions. Frank Baum is considered as the first American writer of philosophical fantasy for children for writing "The…

  13. Naistepäev ikka hinnas / Ivar Jung

    Jung, Ivar

    2003-01-01

    Kunstihoone galeriis Ivika Kivi ja Dagmar Kase näituse "ID 2002" taustal 8. III toimunud Reet Varblase organiseeritud seminarist "Naised, ühiskond, ilu ja hügieen". Linnagaleriis lõpetas Meiu Mündi maalinäituse Oksana Titova tantsuetendus. 9. III Pärnus Taave Tuutma kureeritud tegevuskunstipäev

  14. Linear EV model with replicate observations on independent variables

    LIU; Jixue; ZHANG; Sanguo; CHEN; Xiru

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the linear EV model when replicate observations are made only on independent variables. We construct the estimates of regression coefficients and prove the consistency and asymptotic normality under some proper conditions. Results obtained reveal the difference between the case where the independent and dependent variables are observed repeatedly and simultaneously and the case studied in this article.

  15. Global EV Outlook: Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The Global EV Outlook represents the collective efforts of two years of primary data gathering and analysis from the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) and IEA. Key takeaways and insights include landscape analysis of electric vehicle (EV) stock/sales and charging station deployment. Existing policy initiatives are delineated and future opportunities highlighted in an ''Opportunity Matrix: Pathways to 2020''. Together EVI countries accounted for more than 90% of world EV stock at the end of 2012. Strong government support in EVI countries on both the supply and demand sides are contributing to rising market penetration. 12 out of 15 EVI countries offer financial support for vehicle purchases, and most employ a mix of financial and non-financial incentives (such as access to restricted highway lanes) to help drive adoption. The Global EV Outlook is a unique and data-rich overview of the state of electric vehicles today, and offers an understanding of the electric vehicle landscape to 2020.

  16. Developing a 500-eV proton beam

    Tests have been carried out which indicate that H- intensity limitations in lamb-shift polarized ion sources result from large diveregence in the 500-eV H+ ion beam. Intensity limitations due to other effects are not yet measurable

  17. Ponjat samogo sebja / Ze'ev Hanin ; interv. Josef Kats

    Hanin, Ze'ev

    2006-01-01

    Lääne tsivilisatsiooni katse seostada tähtsamad maailma poliitikasündmused Iisraeliga ei ole selle riigi süü ega teene, tegemist on euroopa tsivilisatsiooni sügava kriisiga - sellisel seisukohal on hiljuti Tallinna külastanud Bar-Ilani ülikooli õppejõud ja politoloog Ze'ev Hanin

  18. CONSISTENCY OF LS ESTIMATOR IN SIMPLE LINEAR EV REGRESSION MODELS

    Liu Jixue; Chen Xiru

    2005-01-01

    Consistency of LS estimate of simple linear EV model is studied. It is shown that under some common assumptions of the model, both weak and strong consistency of the estimate are equivalent but it is not so for quadratic-mean consistency.

  19. A platform for actively loading cargo RNA to elucidate limiting steps in EV-mediated delivery

    Leonard, Joshua N.; Hung, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate intercellular communication through transfer of RNA and protein between cells. Thus, understanding how cargo molecules are loaded and delivered by EVs is of central importance for elucidating the biological roles of EVs and developing EV-based therapeutics. While some motifs modulating the loading of biomolecular cargo into EVs have been elucidated, the general rules governing cargo loading and delivery remain poorly understood. To investigate how general ...

  20. Cascades from nu_E above 1020 eV

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2004-12-21

    At very high energies, the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect reduces the cross sections for electron bremsstrahlung and photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production. The fractional electron energy loss and pair production cross sections drop as the energy increases. In contrast, the cross sections for photonuclear interactions grow with energy. In solids and liquids, at energies above 10{sup 20} eV, photonuclear reactions dominate, and showers that originate as photons or electrons quickly become hadronic showers. These electron-initiated hadronic showers are much shorter (due to the absence of the LPM effect), but wider than purely electromagnetic showers would be. This change in shape alters the spectrum of the electromagnetic and acoustic radiation emitted from the shower. These alterations have important implications for existing and planned searches for radiation from u{sub e} induced showers above 10{sup 20} eV, and some existing limits should be reevaluated.

  1. Open Innovation in EVs: A Case Study of Tesla Motors

    Karamitsios, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the topic of open innovation in EVs. Initially a brief description of the concept of innovation and open innovation is carried out. Moreover, the three processes of open innovation are deployed while the coupled process is described in more detail. Furthermore, a short description is also given for corporate entrepreneurship, alliances, and the U.S. government policy. Also, this report considers Tesla Motors’ partnerships as a case study and it aims to give an insight of h...

  2. Observations from The EV Project in Q3 2013

    John Smart

    2013-12-01

    This is a brief report that summarizes results published in numerous other reports. It describes the usage of electric vehicles and charging units in the EV Project over the past 3 months. There is no new data or information provided in this report, only summarizing of information published in other reports (which have all been approved for unlimited distribution publication). This report will be posted to the INL/AVTA website for viewing by the general public.

  3. Requirements for EV charge stations with photovoltaic generation and storage

    Cairó, Ignasi; Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in electric mobility, public and private charge facilities will be required to provide solutions adjusted to the actual needs and requirements. A new methodology for dimensioning charge stations for electric vehicles (EVs) is presented in this paper. Such proposal is based on the Markov chains, and uses as output rates, the capabilities of the charge station in providing energy from the sun through photovoltaic generation, stored energy in local batteries and also as a...

  4. Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

    Letendre, Steven; Gowri, Krishnan; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Richard M.

    2013-12-01

    PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.

  5. Sensitivity of an image plate system in the XUV (60 eV < E < 900 eV)

    Failor, B H; Link, N G; Riordan, J C; Wilson, B C

    2012-01-01

    Phosphor imaging plates (IPs) have been calibrated and proven useful for quantitative x-ray imaging in the 1 to over 1000 keV energy range. In this paper we report on calibration measurements made at XUV energies in the 60 to 900 eV energy range using beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. We measured a sensitivity of ~25 plus or minus 15 counts/pJ over the stated energy range which is compatible with the sensitivity of Si photodiodes that are used for time-resolved measurements. Our measurements at 900 eV are consistent with the measurements made by Meadowcroft et al. at ~1 keV.

  6. The Swift/Fermi GRB 080928 from 1 eV to 150 keV

    Rossi, A; Klose, S; Kann, D A; Rau, A; Krimm, H A; Jóhannesson, G; Panaitescu, A; Yuan, F; Ferrero, P; Krühler, T; Greiner, J; Schady, P; Pandey, S B; Amati, L; Afonso, P M J; Akerlof, C W; Arnold, L; Clemens, C; Filgas, R; Hartmann, D H; Yoldaş, A Küpcü; McBreen, S; McKay, T A; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; E., F Olivares; Paciesas, B; Rykoff, E S; Szokoly, G; Updike, A C; Yoldaş, A

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive study of the Gamma-Ray Burst 080928 and of its afterglow. GRB 080928 was a long burst detected by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM. It is one of the exceptional cases where optical emission was already detected when the GRB itself was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. For nearly 100 seconds simultaneous optical, X-ray and gamma-ray data provide a coverage of the spectral energy distribution of the transient source from about 1 eV to 150 keV. Here we analyze the prompt emission, constrain its spectral properties, and set lower limits on the initial Lorentz factor of the relativistic outflow. In particular, we show that the SED during the main prompt emission phase is in agreement with synchrotron radiation. We construct the optical/near-infrared light curve and the spectral energy distribution based on Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIa (Australia) and GROND (La Silla) data and compare it to the X-ray light curve retrieved from the Swift/XRT repository. We show that its bumpy shape ca...

  7. Recombination in the evolution of enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus. However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A-C. In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5'UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses.

  8. Assessment of battery technologies for EV (Electric Vehicle) applications

    Ratner, Elliot Z.; Henriksen, Gary L.; Warde, Charles J.

    To guide future R and D program planning, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned an assessment of all viable battery techniques for EV applications. Sixty-seven technology developers in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, and Africa were solicited to design a power pack for an Improved Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsions (IDSEP) van. A team of 10 consultants and 8 representatives from DOE's National Laboratories evaluated 43 developer responses and consultant-prepared conceptual designs. Using six criteria---five technical/economic criteria and a maturity/technical barriers criterion---the assessment identified 12 most promising battery technologies.

  9. Air shower universality from 1014 to 1022 eV

    Scaling properties of nuclei- and photon-initiated air showers are examined in wide primary energy range (1014 ÷ 1022 eV) taking into account Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal and geomagnetic field effects. It is shown that the invariance in lateral distribution and also the universal dependence between shower age and root mean square radius of electron component exist up to the highest energies. The implications of shower universality for reanalysis, crosschecking and validation of the results of different experiments together with decreasing of the influence of hadronic model uncertainties are discussed in detail.

  10. "Iga päev..." : [luuletused] / Doris Kareva

    Kareva, Doris, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Tekst eesti ja inglise k. D. Kareva lühibiograafia eesti ja inglise k. lk. 175. Sisu: "Iga päev..." = "Every day..." ; "Ma nägin unes - Saatan kõneles..." = "I dream that I heard Satan speak..." ; "Viib sünnieelsest unest surmaunne..." = "Rainbow-coloured confusion bears us..." ; "Vaadeldes vikerkaarlevat maailma..." = "Viewing the rainbowing world..." ; "Ei jõua kirjutada puhtandit..." = "No time to write the final draft..." ; "Põletatud luuletused..." = ""Burnt poems..." ; Fraktalia ; Müsteerium 1-5 = Enigma 1-5 ; "Jumal juhtub..." = "God happens..." ; Moira 1-7 = Wishing well 1-7 ; Concerto strumenti e voce

  11. Estimation in partial linear EV models with replicated observations

    CUI Hengjian

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct the parameter estimators in the partial linear errors-in-variables (EV) models and explore their asymptotic properties. Unlike other related References, the assumption of known error covariance matrix is removed when the sample can be repeatedly drawn at each designed point from the model. The estimators of interested regression parameters, and the model error variance, as well as the nonparametric function, are constructed. Under some regular conditions, all of the estimators prove strongly consistent. Meanwhile, the asymptotic normality for the estimator of regression parameter is also presented. A simulation study is reported to illustrate our asymptotic results.

  12. A Non-Mouse-Adapted Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Strain Exhibits Neurotropism, Causing Neurological Manifestations in a Novel Mouse Model of EV71 Infection

    Khong, Wei Xin; Yan, Benedict; Yeo, Huimin; Tan, Eng Lee; Lee, Jia Jun; Ng, Jowin K. W.; Chow, Vincent T.; Alonso, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that has been consistently associated with the severe neurological forms of hand, foot, and mouth disease. The lack of a relevant animal model has hampered our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, in particular the route and mode of viral dissemination. It has also hindered the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic approaches, making EV71 one of the most pressing public health concerns in Southeast Asia. Here we report a novel mou...

  13. Protective effect of enterovirus‑71 (EV71) virus‑like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model.

    Cao, Lei; Mao, Fengfeng; Pang, Zheng; Yi, Yao; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Ruiguang; Meng, Qingling; Jia, Zhiyuan; Bi, Shengli

    2015-08-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehensive immunogenicity of a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on VLPs was evaluated in a neonatal mouse model. Despite lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to EV71 in the sera of VLP-immunized mice compared with those in mice vaccinated with inactivated EV71, the VLP-based vaccine was shown to be able to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA memory-associated cellular immune responses to EV71. Of note, the EV71 VLP vaccine candidate was capable of inhibiting viral proliferation in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, lung and intestine of immunized mice and provided effective protection against the pathological damage caused by viral attack. In particular, the VLP vaccine was able to inhibit the transportation of EV71 from the central nervous system to the muscle tissue and greatly protected muscle tissue from infection, along with recovery from the viral infection. This led to nearly 100% immunoprotective efficacy, enabling neonatal mice delivered by VLP-immunized female adult mice to survive and grow with good health. The present study provided valuable additional knowledge of the specific protective efficacy of the EV71 VLP vaccine in vivo, which also indicated that it is a promising potential candidate for being developed into an EV71 vaccine. PMID:25936344

  14. Protective effect of enterovirus-71 (EV71) virus-like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model

    CAO, LEI; MAO, FENGFENG; PANG, ZHENG; YI, YAO; QIU, FENG; TIAN, RUIGUANG; MENG, QINGLING; JIA, ZHIYUAN; BI, SHENGLI

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehensive immunogenicity of a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on VLPs was evaluated in a neonatal mouse model. Despite lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to EV71 in the sera of VLP-immunized mice compared with those in mice vaccinated with inactivated EV71, the VLP-based vaccine was shown to be able to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA memory-associated cellular immune responses to EV71. Of note, the EV71 VLP vaccine candidate was capable of inhibiting viral proliferation in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, lung and intestine of immunized mice and provided effective protection against the pathological damage caused by viral attack. In particular, the VLP vaccine was able to inhibit the transportation of EV71 from the central nervous system to the muscle tissue and greatly protected muscle tissue from infection, along with recovery from the viral infection. This led to nearly 100% immunoprotective efficacy, enabling neonatal mice delivered by VLP-immunized female adult mice to survive and grow with good health. The present study provided valuable additional knowledge of the specific protective efficacy of the EV71 VLP vaccine in vivo, which also indicated that it is a promising potential candidate for being developed into an EV71 vaccine. PMID:25936344

  15. Progress on the research and development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines

    Liang, Zheng-Lun; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Feng-cai; Li, Jing-Xin; Xin YAO; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Xu, Miao; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of diseases caused by EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific region. Due to a lack of effective treatment options, controlling EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on the research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccines. Thus far, five organizations have completed pre-clinical studies focused on the development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, including vaccine strain screening, process optimization, safety and immunogenicity evalu...

  16. Discovery of Gramine Derivatives That Inhibit the Early Stage of EV71 Replication in Vitro

    Yanhong Wei; Liqiao Shi; Kaimei Wang; Manli Liu; Qingyu Yang; Ziwen Yang; Shaoyong Ke

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a notable causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, which is associated with an increased incidence of severe neurological disease and death, yet there is no specific treatment or vaccine for EV71 infections. In this study, the antiviral activity of gramine and 21 gramine derivatives against EV71 was investigated in cell-based assays. Eighteen derivatives displayed some degree of inhibitory effects against EV71, in that they could effectively inhib...

  17. Allocation of Battery Production Impact between EVs and Battery Reuse Applications

    Furuseth, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Significant environmental impacts associated with electric vehicle (EV) Li-ion battery pack production has lead to a desire to explore the possibility of offsetting some of the environmental burdens associated with the battery pack production from the EV to a post-vehicle application. In this study, different battery characteristics were calculated in order to allocate environmental EV Li-ion battery pack production impacts between an EV and selected reuse applications. The battery characteri...

  18. Storage Application in Smart Grid with High PV and EV Penetration

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Yang, Guangya; Østergaard, Jacob; You, Shi; Cha, Seung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    grids with residential PVs and Electric Vehicles (EVs). The effect of EV home charging on EESS capacity in high PV penetration is also addressed. The results indicate that increasing the EV penetration in the network can decrease the EESS capacity need. This decrease is highest in situations with low PV...

  19. On the 7.8 eV isomer transition in {sup 229}Th

    Stellmer, Simon; Schreitl, Matthias; Winkler, Georg; Tscherne, Christoph; Kazakov, Georgy; Schumm, Thorsten [VCQ and Atominstitut / TU Wien, Vienna (Austria); Fleischmann, Andreas; Gastaldo, Loredana; Pabinger, Andreas; Enss, Christian [KIP, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The best atom clocks today employ an optical transition between two electronic states of an atom or ion. It seems tantalizing to utilize a nuclear transition instead, as such a transition would be well-isolated from collisional, electronic, and even chemical perturbations from the environment. In addition, such transitions are expected to be very sensitive probes of drifts in fundamental constants. The only isotope known to possess an isomer transition in the optical domain is the radioactive element {sup 229}Th. Various attempts have been carried out to measure or calculate the transition energy and linewidth. To date, all of these measurements have been refuted, corrected, or at least strongly debated. While a direct evidence of this transition is still pending, its commonly agreed-upon energy is 7.8(5) eV. In this talk, we present the current status of a novel measurement campaign. In a concerted effort of the Heidelberg and Vienna groups, we use a microcalorimeter to measure the spectrum of gamma photons originating from the decay of excited nuclear states. A double-peaked structure would reveal the existence of the isomer state and allow us to measure its energy with unprecedented precision.

  20. In Vivo therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles with optical imaging reporter in tumor mice model.

    Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Gangadaran, Prakash; Li, Xiu Juan; Oh, Ji Min; Lee, Ho Won; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as a therapeutic armor for cancer. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from MSCs have been evaluated for anticancer effects. In vivo targeting of EVs to the tumor is an essential requirement for successful therapy. Therefore, non-invasive methods of monitoring EVs in animal models are crucial for developing EV-based cancer therapies. The present study to develop bioluminescent EVs using Renilla luciferase (Rluc)-expressing MSCs. The EVs from MSC/Rluc cells (EV-MSC/Rluc) were visualized in a murine lung cancer model. The anticancer effects of EVs on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and other cancer cells were assessed. EV-MSC/Rluc were visualized in vivo in the LLC-efffuc tumor model using optical imaging. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed with Annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. EV-MSC/Rluc and EV-MSCs showed a significant cytotoxic effect against LLC-effluc cells and 4T1; however, no significant effect on CT26, B16F10, TC1 cells. Moreover, EV-MSC/Rluc inhibited LLC tumor growth in vivo. EV-MSC/Rluc-mediated LLC tumor inhibitory mechanism revealed the decreased pERK and increased cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP. We successfully developed luminescent EV-MSC/Rluc that have a therapeutic effect on LLC cells in both in vitro and in vivo. This bioluminescent EV system can be used to optimize EV-based therapy. PMID:27452924

  1. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to interference of ~1 eV sterile neutrino. The specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST) starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in searches for sterile neutrino mixed with electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST) we find the regions in model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle), which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  2. Mobile metering. Enabling cost-efficient smart charging for EVs

    Hechtfischer, Knut; Pawlitschek, Frank [ubitricity GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Berg, Andreas [VOLTARIS, Merzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Users of electric vehicles want to and should be mobile with the least possible limitations. A fundamental requirement is an affordable and easy to use charging infrastructure that allows charging of the vehicle, if achievable wherever the EV is parked. ubitricity and VOLTARIS are developing and testing the On-Board Metering system and the underlying business and security concepts for such an ubiquitous charging infrastructure for electric mobility. Further leading partners are supporting the project that is being co-funded by research grants of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. The basic idea is to install metering and communication technology inside the car to generate the information required for billing processes. (orig.)

  3. Approximation of Vorob'ev expectation for random closed sets

    Heinrich, Philippe; Tran, Viet Chi

    2010-01-01

    Random sets appear in many applications, in particular in image analysis. The issue of a "mean shape" often arises since there is no canonical definition. In this paper, we propose a consistent and ready to use estimator for the Vorob'ev expectation of a random set $X$. It is a kind of mean closely linked to quantile-like quantities and built from independent copies of $X$ with spatial discretization. The convergence is established through the Strong Law of Large Numbers of Kovyazin. The control of discretization errors is handled with a mild regularity assumption on the boundary of $X$: a not too large 'box counting' dimension. Some examples, including Boolean models, are studied.

  4. On the maximal terms of succesive Gelfond-Leont’ev-Salagen and Gelfond- Leont’ev-Ruscheweyh derivatives of a function analytic in the unit disc

    M. M. Sheremeta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For a function analytic in the unit disc the concepts of Gelfond-Leont'ev-Salagen and Gelfond-Leont'ev-Ruscheweyh derivatives of n-th order are introduced and the asymptotic behaviour of the maximal terms of their power development as n→+∞ is investigated.

  5. Construction Project Forecasting "Practical Use of EV Metrics"

    Reda Abbas Sabry

    2014-01-01

    During this professional research--Construction Project Forecasting (Practical Use of EV Metrics), which criticize earned value management as a most distinguished methodology for forecasting the project expected end dates and expecting budget at completion, the field for the research is construction field and specially the projects which content different phases without repetitive tasks. Forecasting for construction project is a complicated process need more than applying one equation only. As assuming that, project performance during finishing stage will be similar to project performance during concrete stage is totally wrong. The case study techniques have been used to prove an important idea and also to implement a suggested protocol which actually implemented and tested and it should be considered as a research finding. The project used in this case study is "Hurgadah Intemational Airport--New Terminal Building", while executing this complex construction projects with different stages the forecasting for the project end date and final end budget were completely not realistic. The above leads to questioning the next: "Is it true that using the earned value indexes for forecasting construction projects end date and final budget is the right way? And if not, what is the right process that should be used in order to reach acceptable forecasting method?" We implement the EV measurements by the normal technique and also implement in the same month the suggested protocol for forecasting, comparing the results proof the effectiveness of the suggested protocol. The findings prove that, the construction projects need special treatment when use the EVM for forecasting. The earned value indexes created to serve the projects which have repeated tasks or can say which got one stage only, like information technology (IT) projects as those projects depending on manpower productivity and also based on few different qualifications. On such type of projects

  6. Analyzing public awareness and acceptance of alternative fuel vehicles in China: The case of EV

    The aim of this paper is to analyze consumers' awareness towards electric vehicle (EV) and examine the factors that are most likely to affect consumers' choice for EV in China. A comprehensive questionnaire survey has been conducted with 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. Three binary logistic regression models were used to determine the factors that contribute to consumers' acceptance of EVs, their purchase time and their purchase price. The results suggest that: (1)Whether a consumer chooses an EV is significantly influenced by the number of driver's licenses, number of vehicles, government policies and fuel price. (2)The timing of consumers' purchases of an EV is influenced by academic degree, annual income, number of vehicles, government policies, the opinion of peers and tax incentives. (3)The acceptance of purchase price of EVs is influenced by age, academic degree, number of family members, number of vehicles, the opinion of peers, maintenance cost and degree of safety. These findings will help understand consumer's purchase behavior of EVs and have important policy implications related to the promotions of EVs in China. - Highlights: → We survey 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. → We analyze consumer's awareness towards electric vehicle (EV). → The factors affecting consumers' choice for EV are examined by three binary logistic models. → Factors contributing to consumers' acceptance of EVs, purchase time and purchase price are indicated.

  7. EV71 infection correlates with viral IgG preexisting at pharyngolaryngeal mucosa in children

    Jingchang; Xue; Yaoming; Li; Xiaoyi; Xu; Jie; Yu; Hu; Yan; Huimin; Yan

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71) infection causes severe central nervous system damage, particularly for children under the age of 5 years old, which remains a major public health burden worldwide. Clinical data released that children may be repeatedly infected by different members in enterovirus and get even worsen. Mucosa, especially epithelium of alimentary canal, was considered the primary site of EV71 infection. It has been elusive whether the preexsiting viral antibody in mucosa plays a role in EV71 infection. To answer this question, we respectively measured viral antibody response and EV71 RNA copy number of one hundred throat swab specimens from clinically confirmed EV71-infected children. The results released that low-level of mucosal Ig G antibody against EV71 broadly existed in young population. More importantly, it further elucidated that the children with mucosal preexsiting EV71 Ig G were prone to be infected, which suggested a former viral Ig G mediated enhancement of viral infection in vivo.

  8. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines

    Qingyong Ng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD, which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with the increasing spread of these viruses, the development of such drugs and vaccines becomes the top priority in protecting our younger generations. This article, hence, reviews some of the recent progress in the formulations of anti-therapeutics and vaccine generation for EV71, covering (i inactivated vaccines; (ii baculovirus-expressed vaccines against EV71; (iii human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg treatment; and (iv the use of monoclonal antibody therapy as a prevention and treatment for EV71 infections.

  9. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines.

    Ng, Qingyong; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with the increasing spread of these viruses, the development of such drugs and vaccines becomes the top priority in protecting our younger generations. This article, hence, reviews some of the recent progress in the formulations of anti-therapeutics and vaccine generation for EV71, covering (i) inactivated vaccines; (ii) baculovirus-expressed vaccines against EV71; (iii) human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment; and (iv) the use of monoclonal antibody therapy as a prevention and treatment for EV71 infections. PMID:26670245

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv.

    Carla Bianca Luena Victorio

    Full Text Available Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv, which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1 and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D. Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro.

  11. The Swift/Fermi GRB 080928 from 1 eV to 150 keV

    Sonbas, Eda; Rossi, A.; Schulze, S.; Klose, S.; Kann, D. A.; Ferrero, P.; NicuesaGuelbenzu, A.; Rau, A.; Kruehler, T.; Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Clemens, C.; Filgas, R.; KuepcuYoldas, A.; McBreen, S.; Olivares, F.; Szokoly, G.; Yoldas, A.; Krimm, H. A.; Johannesson, G.; Panaitescu, A.; Yuan, F.; Pandey, S. B.; Akerlof, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive study of the Gamma-Ray Burst 080928 and of its afterglow. GRB 08092 was a long burst detected by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM, It is one of the exceptional cases where optical emission was already detected when the GRB itself was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. for nearly 100 seconds simultaneous optical X-ray and gamma-ray data provide a coverage of the spectral energy distribution of the transient source from about 1 eV to 150 keV. Here we analyze the prompt emission, constrain its spectral propertIes. and set lower limits on the initial Lorentz factor of the relativistic outflow, In particular. we show that the SED during the main prompt emission phase is in agreement with synchrotron radiation. We construct the optical/near-infrared light curve and the spectral energy distribution based on Swift/UVOT. ROTSE-Illa (Australia) and GROND (La Silla) data and compare it to the X-ray light curve retrieved from the Swift/XRT repository. We show that its bumpy shape can be modeled by multiple energy injections into the forward shock. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the temporal and spectral evolution of the first strong flare seen in the early X-ray light curve can be explained by large-angle emission. Finally, we report on the results of our search for the GRB host galaxy, for which only a deep upper limit can be provided.

  12. Design of a polarised light beamline in the energy range of 30-4000 eV

    Chaudhari, S M; Phase, D M; Dasannacharya, B A

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the design of a possible polarised light beamline for magnetic circular dichroism and photoemission experiments on a bending magnet source of 2.5 GeV storage ring, Indus-2. It will have an energy range of 30-4000 eV and will deliver circular as well as linearly polarised light to perform absorption and photoemission experiments covering relevant L and M edges of most of the elements. The beamline optics consists of a vertically moveable aperture for polarisation selection. It has three spherical gratings and a double crystal monochromator necessary for energy selection in low and high-energy ranges respectively. Corresponding pre- and post-mirror optics, which is common for both the monochromators is the highlight of this design. Detailed ray-tracing calculations, which were carried out to evaluate and optimise the performance of the proposed beamline, are presented in this article.

  13. Determinants of EV71 immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge in a mouse model.

    Chang, Junliang; Li, Jingliang; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xin; Liu, Guanchen; Yang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Wenyan; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-07-01

    Circulating enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health problem in the Asian-Pacific region. An EV71 vaccine for HFMD prevention is currently being developed. However, viral determinants that could influence the vaccine's efficacy have not been well characterized. In this study, we isolated and characterized several EV71 strains that are currently circulating in northern and southern China. We determined that VP1 variation is a major determinant of EV71 immunogenicity. A single amino acid variation in VP1 can lead to significant differences in the breadth and potency of immune responses against primary EV71 isolates as well as the sensitivity of EV71 to heterologous neutralizing antibody responses. We also identified EV71 strains that could induce potent immunogenic and cross-neutralizing antibody responses against diverse EV71 strains. Furthermore, these neutralizing antibodies could protect neonatal mice from lethal dose challenge with various circulating EV71 viruses. Our study provides useful information for EV71 vaccine development and evaluation. PMID:26025091

  14. Analysis method and utilization mechanism of the overall value of EV charging

    Highlights: • Analysis on the overall value of EV charging from a viewpoint of system. • An analytical model of the overall value of EV charging was presented. • A model was proposed to calculate the value of emission reduction by EV. • A model to evaluate the improvement in new energy utilization was given. • A utilization mechanism apt to overall optimization was proposed. - Abstract: Electric Vehicle (EV) can save energy while reducing emissions and has thus attracted the attention of both academics and industry. The cost and benefit of charging are one of the key issues in relation to EV development that has been researched extensively. But many studies are carried out from a viewpoint of some local entities rather than a global system, focus on specific types or aspects of EV charging, or use mixed models that can only be computed by computer simulation and lack physical transparency. This paper illuminated that it is necessary to consider the value of EV charging on a system scale. In order to achieve this, it presents an analytical model for analyzing the overall value of EVs, an analysis model to evaluate the reduction of pollutions relevant to photovoltaic power, and a model to transfer the intrinsic savings of wind power to the off-peak charging loads. It is estimated that EV charging has a significant positive value, providing the basis for enhanced EV subsidies. Accordingly, a utilization mechanism apt to optimize globally is proposed, upon which sustainable business models can be formed by providing adequate support, including the implementation of a peak–valley tariff, charging subsidies and one-time battery subsidies. This utilization mechanism, by taking full advantage of the operation system of power utilities to provide basic support and service, may provide new approaches to the development of EVs. The method proposed here is of important value for the systematic considerations about EV development and maybe can help broaden the

  15. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  16. Consistency of modified MLE in EV model with replicated observations

    ZHANG; Sanguo

    2001-01-01

    [1]Kendall, M., Stuart, A., The Advanced Theory of Statistics, Vol. 2, New York: Charles Griffin, 1979.[2]Anderson, T. W., Estimating linear statistical relationships, Ann. Statist., 1984, 12: 1.[3]Cui Hengjian, Asymptotic normality of M-estimates in the EV model, Sys. Sci. and Math. Sci., 1997, 10(3): 225.[4]Madansky, A., The fitting of straight lines when both variables are subject to error, JASA, 1959, 54: 173.[5]Villegas, C., Maximum likelihood estimations of a linear functional relationship, Ann. Math. Statist., 1961, 32(4): 1048.[6]Stout, W. F., Almost Sure Convergence, New York: Academic Press, 1974.[7]Petrov, V. V., Sums of Independent Random Variables, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975.[8]Lai, T. L., Robbins, H., Wei, C. Z., Strong consistency of least squares estimates in multiple regression, J. Multivariate Anal., 1979, 9: 343.[9]Chen Xiru, On limiting properties of U-statistics and von-Mises statistics, Scientia Sinica (in Chinese), 1980, (6): 522.

  17. Baseline Testing of The EV Global E-Bike

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption and reduce Operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done Linder the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The E-Bike is a state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the vehicle's power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W. electric hub motor and a 7-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the E-bike, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans is the subject of this report. The report concludes that the E-Bike provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  18. Baseline Testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX

    Eichenherg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX as an update of the state of the art in hybrid electric bicycles. The E-bike is seen as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The SX is a high performance, state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the SX's 36 V power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W, electric hub motor, and a seven-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the SX, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are given in this report. The report concludes that the SX provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  19. EV City Casebook: A Look At The Global Electric Vehicle Movement

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) hold the potential of transforming the way the world moves. EVs can increase energy security by diversifying the fuel mix and decreasing dependence on petroleum, while also reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Just as important, EVs can unlock innovation and create new advanced industries that spur job growth and enhance economic prosperity. However, the mass deployment of EVs will require transportation systems capable of integrating and fostering this new technology. To accelerate this transition, cities and metropolitan regions around the world are creating EV-friendly ecosystems and building the foundation for widespread adoption. In recognition of the importance of urban areas in the introduction and scale-up of electric vehicles, the EV City Casebook presents informative case studies on city and regional EV deployment efforts around the world. These case studies are illustrative examples of how pioneering cities are preparing the ground for mass market EV deployment. They offer both qualitative and quantitative information on cities' EV goals, progress, policies, incentives, and lessons learned to date. The purpose of the EV City Casebook is to share experiences on EV demonstration and deployment, identify challenges and opportunities, and highlight best practices for creating thriving EV ecosystems. These studies seek to enhance understanding of the most effective policy measures to foster the uptake of electric vehicles in urban areas. The cities represented here are actively engaging in a variety of initiatives that share the goal of accelerating EV adoption. This publication is the result of an effort to coordinate those initiatives and provide a global perspective on the electric vehicle movement. This international knowledge-sharing network consists of the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI), a multi-government initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial; Project Get Ready, a Rocky Mountain Institute

  20. Evaluating AAL systems through competitive benchmarking (EvAAL) - technical aspects of the first competition

    Chessa, Stefano; Furfari, Francesco; Potort?, Francesco; Barsocchi, Paolo; Tazari, Mohammad-Reza; Wichert, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    EvAAL (Evaluating AAL Systems Through Competitive Benchmarking) is an international competition aimed at the evaluation and assessment of Ambient Assisted Living systems components, services and platforms. In 2011 took place the first edition of EvAAL on the special theme of Indoor Localization and Tracking for AAL. This paper describes the technical aspects of the first edition of EvAAL and draws a roadmap for the future editions.

  1. Moby.Cockpit Project for EV seamless integration in the cooperative transport infrastructure

    João C. Ferreira; Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Afonso, João L.

    2013-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) are being introduced in the market, however the reduced energy storage capacity of their batteries and the lack of a high density charging infrastructure, limits their autonomy range. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose the development of a new solution for EV drivers that enables to travel longer distances. This is achieved by integrating some components of the cooperative transport infrastructure, as EV battery charging systems and public transports syste...

  2. Magnetic Alignment Detection Using Existing Charging Facility in Wireless EV Chargers

    Yabiao Gao; Aleff Antonio Oliveira; Kathleen Blair Farley; Zion Tsz Ho Tse

    2016-01-01

    Wireless charging is a promising outlet to promote the electric vehicle (EV) industry due to its safe and noncontact manner. Wireless EV chargers require the secondary receiver coil to be well aligned with the primary station for efficient charging, which could require more of the driver’s time and attention when parking a vehicle. Therefore, this paper presents a magnetic alignment system to assist the EV driver during parking. The magnetic alignment approach uses the existing coil and frequ...

  3. Control of EV charging points for thermal and voltage management of LV networks

    J. Quiros, L.F. Ochoa, B. Lees

    2015-01-01

    High penetrations of domestic electric vehicles (EVs) in UK low voltage (LV) networks may result in significant technical problems. This paper proposes an implementable, centralized control algorithm, currently being trialed in 9 UK residential LV networks, that uses limited information to manage EV charging points to mitigate these technical problems. Two real UK LV networks are used to quantify the potential impacts of different EV penetration levels and to demonstrate the effectiveness of ...

  4. Optimization and control method for smart charging of EVs facilitated by Fleet operator

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Si, Chengyong;

    2013-01-01

    challenges to the utility system operator; accordingly, smart charging of EVs is needed. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging of EVs found in the literature. The study is mainly executed from the control theory perspectives. Firstly, service dependent aggrega-tion...... and control of smart charging of EVs. Finally, the paper discusses and proposes future research directions in the area....

  5. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2009/2010; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2009/2010

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented.

  6. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2010/2011; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2010/2011

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented.

  7. The cosmic ray spectrum and composition measured by KASCADE-Grande between 10{sup 16} eV and 10{sup 18} eV

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Blümer, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cantoni, E. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Souza, V. de [Universidade São Paulo, Instituto de Física de São Carlos (Brazil); and others

    2014-11-15

    The shape and composition of the primary spectrum of cosmic rays are key elements to understand the origin, acceleration and propagation of the Galactic cosmic rays. Besides the well known knee and ankle features, the recent results of KASCADE-Grande indicate that the measured energy spectrum exhibits also a less pronounced but still clear deviation from a single power law between the knee and the ankle, with a spectral hardening at 2 × 10{sup 16} eV and a steepening at 10{sup 17} eV. The average mass composition gets heavier after the knee till 10{sup 17} eV where a bending of the heavy component is observed. An indication of a hardening of the light component just above 10{sup 17} eV has been measured as well. In this paper the major results obtained so far by the KASCADE-Grande experiment are reviewed.

  8. Real-Time Welfare-Maximizing Regulation Allocation in Dynamic Aggregator-EVs System

    Sun, Sun; Dong, Min; Liang, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The concept of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) has gained recent interest as more and more electric vehicles (EVs) are put to use. In this paper, we consider a dynamic aggregator-EVs system, where an aggregator centrally coordinates a large number of dynamic EVs to perform regulation service. We propose a Welfare-Maximizing Regulation Allocation (WMRA) algorithm for the aggregator to fairly allocate the regulation amount among its EVs. Compared to previous works, WMRA accommodates a wide spectrum of vi...

  9. The arrival directions of cosmic rays of energy > 5 x 1018 eV

    We analyse the arrival directions of air showers falling on the Sydney University Giant Air Shower Recorder from January 1968 to March 1975. The showers are selected to have zenith angles 0 and energies > 5 x 1018 eV (Sydney conversion). Using the method of analysis suggested by Krasilnikov et al, the probability that the distribution for -300 > delta >= -900 is due to chance selection for a random distribution is 23% for showers with Ep > 5 x 1018 eV, 4% for Ep > 1019 eV and 0.7% for Ep > 3 x 1019 eV. (orig./BJ)

  10. A Novel Recombinant Enterovirus Type EV-A89 with Low Epidemic Strength in Xinjiang, China

    Qin Fan; Yong Zhang; Lan Hu; Qiang Sun; Hui Cui; Dongmei Yan; Huerxidan Sikandaner; Haishu Tang; Dongyan Wang; Zhen Zhu; Shuangli Zhu; Wenbo Xu

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. To date, only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been published. Here, we report the molecular identification and genomic characterization of a Chinese EV-A89 strain, KSYPH-TRMH22F/XJ/CHN/2011, isolated in 2011 from a contact of an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patient during AFP case surveillance in Xinjiang China. This was the first report of EV-A89 in China. The VP1 coding sequence of this strain demons...

  11. CDMA 1x EV-DO覆盖模型的分析与仿真%Analysis and Simulation of CDMA 1x EV-DO Coverage Model

    梅琼

    2006-01-01

    结合经过校正后的适合于本地无线环境的OKUMURA-HATA传播模型,建立起一种新的本地化基于1x EV-DO系统数据业务吞吐量分析的覆盖预测仿真模型,可应用于1x EV-DO系统的网络规划及系统性能分析.

  12. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Annual report 1999/2000; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 1999/2000

    Schuette, A.

    2001-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. outlines the state of the art and the boundary conditions of energy plant utilisation. The organisational struture of the association and its research projects are presented. [German] Der Jahresbericht der Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. stellt Stand der Technik und Rahmenbedingungen fuer die Verwendung von Energiepflanzen dar. Die Organisation des Vereins sowie die gefoerderten Forschungsprojekte werden vorgestellt.

  13. Electronic structure of antiferromagnetic UN and UPtGe single crystals from optical and magneto-optical spectroscopy

    In this thesis the study of the magneto-optical Kerr effect and the determination of the optical constants by means of ellipsometry and Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy of UN and UPtGe is described. In UPtGe an optical anisotropy was detected over a spectral range from 6 meV to 32 eV. (HSI)

  14. Ratio of the 10BF3 and 3He(n,p) cross sections between 0.025 eV and 25,000 eV

    The /sup 10/BF/sub 3/(n,/alpha/) and /sup 3/He(n,p) cross sections have been compared in the energy range from 0.025 to 25,000 eV. Measurements at National Bureau of Standards using filtered beams gave results at 2 and 25 keV. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the ORELA facility measurements were completed between 0.025 and 10,000 eV. Normalizing the ratio of BF/sub 3//He to 1 at 0.03 eV, the ratio increases by 1% at 10 eV, by 2% at a few hundred ev, by 4% at 2 kev, and by 16% at 25 keV. The large deviations at the higher energies are expected purely from the nuclear parameterization of the cross sections. However, the deviations from 1/v in the ratio below 100 ev are surprising and perhaps might have their origin in the molecular binding for /sup 10/B in the /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ system. 8 refs

  15. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    David Rohrbaugh; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  16. Discovery of Gramine Derivatives That Inhibit the Early Stage of EV71 Replication in Vitro

    Yanhong Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a notable causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, which is associated with an increased incidence of severe neurological disease and death, yet there is no specific treatment or vaccine for EV71 infections. In this study, the antiviral activity of gramine and 21 gramine derivatives against EV71 was investigated in cell-based assays. Eighteen derivatives displayed some degree of inhibitory effects against EV71, in that they could effectively inhibit virus-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs, but the anti-EV71 activity of the lead compound gramine was not observed. Studies on the preliminary modes of action showed that these compounds functioned by targeting the early stage of the EV71 lifecycle after viral entry, rather than inactivating the virus directly, inhibiting virus adsorption or affecting viral release from the cells. Among these derivatives, one (compound 4s containing pyridine and benzothiazole units showed the most potency against EV71. Further studies demonstrated that derivative 4s could profoundly inhibit viral RNA replication, protein synthesis, and virus-induced apoptosis in RD cells. These results indicate that derivative 4s might be a feasible therapeutic agent against EV71 infection and that these gramine derivatives may provide promising lead scaffolds for the further design and synthesis of potential antiviral agents.

  17. Catalytic Assessment: Understanding How MCQs and EVS Can Foster Deep Learning

    Draper, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    One technology for education whose adoption is currently expanding rapidly in UK higher education is that of electronic voting systems (EVS). As with all educational technology, whether learning benefits are achieved depends not on the technology but on whether an improved teaching method is introduced with it. EVS inherently relies on the…

  18. Immunogenicity Studies of Bivalent Inactivated Virions of EV71/CVA16 Formulated with Submicron Emulsion Systems

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chow, Yen-Hung; Huang, Ming-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV) 71 and coxsackievirus (CV) A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG. A single dose of inactivated EV71 virion (0.2 μg) emulsified in submicron particles was found (i) to induce potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibody responses and (ii) consistently to elicit broad antibody responses against EV71 neutralization epitopes. A single dose immunogenicity study of bivalent activated EV71/CVA16 virion formulated with either Alum or PELC/CpG adjuvant showed that CVA16 antigen failed to elicit CVA16 neutralizing antibody responses and did not affect EV71-specific neutralizing antibody responses. A boosting dose of emulsified EV71/CVA16 bivalent vaccine candidate was found to be necessary to achieve high seroconversion of CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses. The current results are important for the design and development of prophylactic vaccines against HFMD and other emerging infectious diseases. PMID:25006583

  19. Immunogenicity Studies of Bivalent Inactivated Virions of EV71/CVA16 Formulated with Submicron Emulsion Systems

    Chih-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV 71 and coxsackievirus (CV A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG. A single dose of inactivated EV71 virion (0.2 μg emulsified in submicron particles was found (i to induce potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibody responses and (ii consistently to elicit broad antibody responses against EV71 neutralization epitopes. A single dose immunogenicity study of bivalent activated EV71/CVA16 virion formulated with either Alum or PELC/CpG adjuvant showed that CVA16 antigen failed to elicit CVA16 neutralizing antibody responses and did not affect EV71-specific neutralizing antibody responses. A boosting dose of emulsified EV71/CVA16 bivalent vaccine candidate was found to be necessary to achieve high seroconversion of CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses. The current results are important for the design and development of prophylactic vaccines against HFMD and other emerging infectious diseases.

  20. Sõlmornamendist, eriti muinaskäevõrudel ja setu naiste ülerõivastel / Mare Piho

    Piho, Mare, 1944-

    2006-01-01

    Artikli ajendiks sai 1972. aastal Setumaalt juhuleiuna saadud 11. sajandi käevõru. Käevõrul kujutaud plettornamenti on kasutatud setu naiste 19. sajandi keskpaiga - 20. sajandi riietelel. Sõlmest kui märgist ja selle tähendusest. Sõlmornamendist setu naiste pealisriietel. Sõlmornamendi järjepidevusest ja püsimisest

  1. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated. PMID:26732723

  2. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  3. Comparison of the LEGO Mindstorms NXT and EV3 Robotics Education Platforms

    Sherrard, Ann; Rhodes, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The release of the latest LEGO Mindstorms EV3 robotics platform in September 2013 has provided a dilemma for many youth robotics leaders. There is a need to understand the differences in the Mindstorms NXT and EV3 in order to make future robotics purchases. In this article the differences are identified regarding software, hardware, sensors, the…

  4. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of anti-EV71 agents.

    Li, Peng; Yang, Bailing; Hao, Fei; Wang, Ping; He, Haiying; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Shengbin; Peng, Xuanjia; Yin, Ke; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Xinsheng; Gu, Zhengxian; Wang, Li; Shen, Liang; Hu, Guoping; Li, Ning; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Qingming; Chang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Lanjun; Cai, Qixu; Lin, Tianwei

    2016-07-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which can spread its infections to the central nervous and other systems with severe consequences. In this article, design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of various anti-EV71 agents which incorporate Michael acceptors are described. Further SAR study demonstrated that lactone type of Michael acceptor provided a new lead of anti-EV71 drug candidates with high anti-EV71 activity in cell-based assay and enhanced mouse plasma stability. One of the most potent compounds (2K, cell-based anti-EV71 EC50=0.028μM), showed acceptable stability profile towards mouse plasma, which resulted into promising pharmacokinetics in mouse via IP administration. PMID:27234148

  5. Study on the economic and environmental benefits of different EV powertrain topologies

    Highlights: • EV powertrain topologies can be realized by flexible distributed electric motors. • Model-based design optimization method is used to analyze and evaluate the EV. • The wheel-hub drive with reducer possesses the most competitive advantages. • US06 and NYCC result in the deterioration of EVs’ cost and GHG emissions. - Abstract: Numerous feasible schemes of powertrain topology can be designed for the electric vehicles (EVs) based on the distributed configurations of the electric motors. In this study, the effects of different EV powertrain topologies on the energy efficiency, vehicle ownership cost and lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of EVs are investigated. Energy-based vehicle simulation model including the regenerative braking function and battery degradation prediction method is established firstly. An optimization scheme combining the energy-based vehicle simulation model is conducted to minimize the electric energy consumption under various scenarios and driving conditions. Then the vehicle ownership cost and lifecycle GHG emissions of EVs are evaluated based on Chinese EV market and electricity grid. The sensitivity analyses of EV powertrain topology are implemented based on the different vehicle weights, CO2 intensities of electricity and all-electric ranges. Results show that EVs using the powertrain of wheel-hub drive with the gear reducer have lower energy consumption. Furthermore, the driving cycles with more aggressive acceleration/deceleration and frequently stop-and-go conditions can increase both the vehicle ownership cost and lifecycle GHG emissions simultaneously. Chinese city traffic conditions will help EVs to obtain more benefits in respect of the economy and environment

  6. Electronic structure of the 2.3149-eV complex defect in Ag-doped ZnTe

    Monemar, B.; Chen, W. M.; Holtz, P. O.; Gislason, H. P.

    1987-09-01

    A detailed analysis of magneto-optical Zeeman data for the dominating trigonal complex defect in Ag-diffused ZnTe, with a bound exciton (BE) at 2.3149 eV, is presented. The electronic structure of this BE can be explained in a satisfactory way assuming a neutral (isoelectronic) defect, where both electron and hole wave functions are rather localized, approximately leading to a triplet BE configuration at lowest energy. The strong 2.3149-eV line corresponds to a ``MS=+/-1'' doublet of this triplet. The electron is rather strongly localized, with an isotropic g value ge=+0.55, quite different from the value for shallow donors in ZnTe (ge=-0.40). This conclusion is also supported by the low value of the quadratic Zeeman shift rate for the MS=+/-1 doublet, C=3.5×10-3 meV/T2. The hole is also rather strongly localized, and is approximately spinlike, but with a strong residual angular momentum &=2.70, &=1.20, with reference to the trigonal defect axis. This is consistent with the assumed identity of the defect: a trigonal pair AgZn-Agi, where AgZn is a moderately deep substitutional acceptor, and Agi is a deep donor, presumably at a tetrahedral interstitial site.

  7. A-periodic multilayer development for attosecond pulses in the 300-500 eV photon energy range

    Guggenmos, Alexander; Hofstetter, Michael; Kleineberg, Ulf [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Rauhut, Roman [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The development of ultrafast X-ray pulses in the sub-femtosecond time regime is a cutting edge technology for studying electron dynamics in atoms, molecules or solid surfaces/nanostructures by means of pump/probe electron spectroscopy. XUV elements as multilayer mirrors and thin metal filters are used to filter and shape attosecond bursts from high harmonic radiation. One near future goal is to extend the current technology to higher photon energies, reaching the water window range around 300-500 eV, where the in-vitro investigation of bio-materials on ultra-short time scales becomes possible. Following the ideas of nowadays experimental setups, both the spectral and the temporal resolution can be determined and guided by means of periodic and a-periodic multilayer mirrors, allowing for spectral and temporal soft X-ray pulse shaping. We will present first investigations of periodic and a-periodic multilayer XUV optics in that energy range of 300-400 eV and discuss their applications for filtering single attosecond pulses from High Harmonic radiation. Simulations and optimizations of various binary and ternary multilayer material systems as well as first experimental results achieved by Ion Beam Deposition and in-situ ellipsometry of the deposited nanolayers are demonstrated.

  8. A-periodic multilayer development for attosecond pulses in the 300-500 eV photon energy range

    The development of ultrafast X-ray pulses in the sub-femtosecond time regime is a cutting edge technology for studying electron dynamics in atoms, molecules or solid surfaces/nanostructures by means of pump/probe electron spectroscopy. XUV elements as multilayer mirrors and thin metal filters are used to filter and shape attosecond bursts from high harmonic radiation. One near future goal is to extend the current technology to higher photon energies, reaching the water window range around 300-500 eV, where the in-vitro investigation of bio-materials on ultra-short time scales becomes possible. Following the ideas of nowadays experimental setups, both the spectral and the temporal resolution can be determined and guided by means of periodic and a-periodic multilayer mirrors, allowing for spectral and temporal soft X-ray pulse shaping. We will present first investigations of periodic and a-periodic multilayer XUV optics in that energy range of 300-400 eV and discuss their applications for filtering single attosecond pulses from High Harmonic radiation. Simulations and optimizations of various binary and ternary multilayer material systems as well as first experimental results achieved by Ion Beam Deposition and in-situ ellipsometry of the deposited nanolayers are demonstrated.

  9. Attosecond Nonlinear Optics

    We report nonlinear multiphoton processes in atoms and molecules by intense high harmonics and their applications to attosecond pulse characterization. Phase matched high harmonics by a loosely focusing geometry produce highly focusable intensity with fully spatiotemporal coherence, which is sufficient to induce nonlinear optical phenomena in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray (XUV) region. With this XUV coherent light source, two-photon double ionization in He is demonstrated with 42-eV high harmonic photons. On the other hand, when intense high harmonics around 20 eV is subjected to N2 molecules, occurrence of Coulomb explosion following to two-photon double ionization is observed in attosecond temporal precision. Taking advantage of larger cross section of two-photon ionization in molecules, we successfully perform the interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train with the ion signals produced by Coulomb explosion of nitrogen molecules. The result reveals the phase relation between attosecond pulses in the train.

  10. A modification potential method for electron scattering total cross section calculations on several molecules at 30-5000eV

    施德恒; 孙金锋; 朱遵略; 刘玉芳

    2005-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule is employed to calculate the total cross sections for electron scattering in such molecules as N2, NO, NO2, CH4, CF4, CF3H, C2H2 and C2H4 at 30-5000eV using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The quantitative total cross sections are compared with those obtained in experiments and other theories, wherever available, and good agreement is obtained at 30-5000eV. It is shown that the modified calculation results are much closer to the available experimental data than the unmodified ones at lower energies, especially below 500eV. Therefore, considering the overlapping effect of electron clouds in the complex optical model potential could be helpful for better calculation results about electron scattering total cross sections from molecules.

  11. A Correlation Potential Method for Electron Scattering Total Cross Section Calculations on Several Diatomic and Polyatomic Molecules over Energy Range 10 ~ 5000 eV

    LIU Yu-Fang; SHI De-Heng; SUN Jin-Feng; ZHU Zun-Lue; YANG Xiang-Dong

    2005-01-01

    A complex optical model potential correlated by the concept of bonded atom, which considers the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is firstly employed to calculate the total cross sections for electron scattering on several molecules (NH3, H2O, CH4, CO, N2, O2, and C2H4) over the energy range 10 ~ 5000 eV using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The difference between the bonded atom and the free one in states is that the overlapping effect of electron clouds of bonded atoms in a molecule is considered. The quantitative total cross sections are compared with the experimental data and with the other calculations wherever available and good agreement is obtained over the energy range 10 ~ 5000 eV. It is shown that the correlated calculations are much closer to the available experimental data than the uncorrelated ones at lower energies, especially below 500 eV. Therefore,considering the overlapping effect of electron clouds in the complex optical model potential could be helpful for the better accuracy of the total cross section calculations of electron scattering from molecules.

  12. Optical properties of GaAs

    J.O.Akinlami; A.O.Ashamu

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of gallium arsenide (GaAs) in the photon energy range 0.6-6.0 eV.We obtained a refractive index which has a maximum value of 5.0 at a photon energy of 3.1 eV; an extinction coefficient which has a maximum value of 4.2 at a photon energy of 5.0 eV; the dielectric constant,the real part of the complex dielectric constant has a maximum value of 24 at a photon energy of 2.8 eV and the imaginary part of the complex dielectric constant has a maximum value of 26.0 at a photon energy of 4.8 eV; the transmittance which has a maximum value of 0.22 at a photon energy of 4.0 eV; the absorption coefficient which has a maximum value of 0.22 × 108 m-1 at a photon energy of 4.8 eV,the reflectance which has a maximum value of 0.68 at 5.2eV;the reflection coefficient which has a maximum value of 0.82 at a photon energy of 5.2 eV; the real part of optical conductivity has a maximum value of 14.2 × 1015 at 4.8 eV and the imaginary part of the optical conductivity has a maximum value of 6.8 × 1015 at 5.0 eV.The values obtained for the optical properties of GaAs are in good agreement with other results.

  13. Total Cross Sections for Electron Scattering from the Isoelectronic (Z = 14) Molecules (C2H2, CO, HCN and N2) at 100-5000 eV

    SHI De-Heng; ZHU Zun-Lue; SUN Jin-Feng; YANG Xiang-Dong; LIU Yu-Fang; ZHAO Ye

    2004-01-01

    @@ A complex optical model potential correlated by the conception of bonded atom, which considers the overlapping effect of electron clouds between the two atoms in a molecule, is firstly employed to calculate the total cross sections for electron scattering from the isoelectronic (Z = 14) molecules (C2H2, CO, HCN, and N2) at 100-5000eV using the additivity rule at the Hartree-Fock level The difference between the bonded atom and the free one is that the overlapping effect of electron clouds of bonded atoms in molecules is considered. The quantitative molecular total cross section results are compared with the experimental data and with the other calculations wherever available and good agreement is obtained above 100eV. It is shown that the additivity rule along with the complex optical model potential considering the overlapping effect of electron clouds can give the results better than that uncorrelated by it. The correlating calculations are much closer to the experiments than the spherical-complex-optical-potential results in the lower energy region [Phys. Rev. A 45 (1992) 202]. Therefore,considering the overlapping effect of electron clouds in the complex optical potential could be helpful for the better accuracy of the total cross section calculations of electron scattering from molecules.

  14. The extreme ultraviolet emission spectrum of CO produced by electron impact at 20 and 200 eV

    In this first part of a laboratory study of predissociation in CO we have measured the electron-impact-induced fluorescence spectrum of CO in the wavelength range 40-125 nm at a spectral resolution of 0.5nm. The experiment was performed in a cross-beam configuration under optically thin conditions. Our spectral measurements at 200 eV electron impact energy provide the emission cross sections of atomic dissociation fragments (C 1, C 11, O 1, O 11) and the vibrational transitions of the B1Σ+, C 1Σ+, E 1II-X 1Σ+ band systems of CO. The measured emission cross sections of these molecular transitions will be needed for comparison with excitation cross sections from electron energy-loss spectra to determine predissociation yields. (Author)

  15. Electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for H2CO and HCOOH over a wide range of incident energy (0.01-2000 eV)

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H2CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy (∼15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.

  16. In situ observation of the generation and annealing kinetics of E ' centres induced in amorphous SiO2 by 4.7 eV laser irradiation

    The kinetics of E ' centres induced in silica by 4.7 eV laser irradiation was investigated observing in situ their optical absorption band at 5.8 eV. After exposure, the defects decay due to reaction with diffusing molecular hydrogen of radiolytic origin. Hydrogen-related annealing is also active during exposure and competes with the photo-induced generation of the centres until a saturation is reached. The concentrations of E ' and H2 at saturation are proportional, so indicating that the UV-induced generation processes of the two species are correlated. These results are consistent with a model in which E ' and hydrogen are generated from a common precursor Si-H

  17. Inherited MST1 deficiency underlies susceptibility to EV-HPV infections.

    Amandine Crequer

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV is characterized by persistent cutaneous lesions caused by a specific group of related human papillomavirus genotypes (EV-HPVs in otherwise healthy individuals. Autosomal recessive (AR EVER1 and EVER2 deficiencies account for two thirds of known cases of EV. AR RHOH deficiency has recently been described in two siblings with EV-HPV infections as well as other infectious and tumoral manifestations. We report here the whole-exome based discovery of AR MST1 deficiency in a 19-year-old patient with a T-cell deficiency associated with EV-HPV, bacterial and fungal infections. MST1 deficiency has recently been described in seven patients from three unrelated kindreds with profound T-cell deficiency and various viral and bacterial infections. The patient was also homozygous for a rare ERCC3 variation. Our findings broaden the clinical range of infections seen in MST1 deficiency and provide a new genetic etiology of susceptibility to EV-HPV infections. Together with the recent discovery of RHOH deficiency, they suggest that T cells are involved in the control of EV-HPVs, at least in some individuals.

  18. Quantifying EV battery end-of-life through analysis of travel needs with vehicle powertrain models

    Saxena, Samveg; Le Floch, Caroline; MacDonald, Jason; Moura, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Electric vehicles enable clean and efficient transportation, however concerns about range anxiety and battery degradation hinder EV adoption. The common definition for battery end-of-life is when 70-80% of original energy capacity remains, however little analysis is available to support this retirement threshold. By applying detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars, we show that EV batteries continue to meet daily travel needs of drivers well beyond capacity fade of 80% remaining energy storage capacity. Further, we show that EV batteries with substantial energy capacity fade continue to provide sufficient buffer charge for unexpected trips with long distances. We show that enabling charging in more locations, even if only with 120 V wall outlets, prolongs useful life of EV batteries. Battery power fade is also examined and we show EVs meet performance requirements even down to 30% remaining power capacity. Our findings show that defining battery retirement at 70-80% remaining capacity is inaccurate. Battery retirement should instead be governed by when batteries no longer satisfy daily travel needs of a driver. Using this alternative retirement metric, we present results on the fraction of EV batteries that may be retired with different levels of energy capacity fade.

  19. Management Approach for NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) Airborne Science Investigations

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Denkins, Todd C.; Allen, B. Danette

    2013-01-01

    The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (PO) is responsible for programmatic management of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) Earth Venture (EV) missions. EV is composed of both orbital and suborbital Earth science missions. The first of the Earth Venture missions is EV-1, which are Principal Investigator-led, temporally-sustained, suborbital (airborne) science investigations costcapped at $30M each over five years. Traditional orbital procedures, processes and standards used to manage previous ESSP missions, while effective, are disproportionally comprehensive for suborbital missions. Conversely, existing airborne practices are primarily intended for smaller, temporally shorter investigations, and traditionally managed directly by a program scientist as opposed to a program office such as ESSP. In 2010, ESSP crafted a management approach for the successful implementation of the EV-1 missions within the constructs of current governance models. NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements form the foundation of the approach for EV-1. Additionally, requirements from other existing NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs), systems engineering guidance and management handbooks were adapted to manage programmatic, technical, schedule, cost elements and risk. As the EV-1 missions are nearly at the end of their successful execution and project lifecycle and the submission deadline of the next mission proposals near, the ESSP PO is taking the lessons learned and updated the programmatic management approach for all future Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS) missions for an even more flexible and streamlined management approach.

  20. Management approach for NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) airborne science investigations

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Denkins, Todd C.; Allen, B. Danette

    2013-09-01

    The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (PO) is responsible for programmatic management of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) Earth Venture (EV) missions. EV is composed of both orbital and suborbital Earth science missions. The first of the Earth Venture missions is EV-1, which are Principal Investigator-led, temporally-sustained, suborbital (airborne) science investigations costcapped at $30M each over five years. Traditional orbital procedures, processes and standards used to manage previous ESSP missions, while effective, are disproportionally comprehensive for suborbital missions. Conversely, existing airborne practices are primarily intended for smaller, temporally shorter investigations, and traditionally managed directly by a program scientist as opposed to a program office such as ESSP. In 2010, ESSP crafted a management approach for the successful implementation of the EV-1 missions within the constructs of current governance models. NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements form the foundation of the approach for EV-1. Additionally, requirements from other existing NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs), systems engineering guidance and management handbooks were adapted to manage programmatic, technical, schedule, cost elements and risk. As the EV-1 missions are nearly at the end of their successful execution and project lifecycle and the submission deadline of the next mission proposals near, the ESSP PO is taking the lessons learned and updated the programmatic management approach for all future Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS) missions for an even more flexible and streamlined management approach.

  1. A clinically authentic mouse model of enterovirus 71 (EV-A71)-induced neurogenic pulmonary oedema.

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chua, Beng Hooi; Alonso, Sylvie; Chow, Vincent T K; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that sporadically causes fatal neurologic illness among infected children. Animal models of EV-A71 infection exist, but they do not recapitulate in animals the spectrum of disease and pathology observed in fatal human cases. Specifically, neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPE)-the main cause of EV-A71 infection-related mortality-is not observed in any of these models. This limits their utility in understanding viral pathogenesis of neurologic infections. We report the development of a mouse model of EV-A71 infection displaying NPE in severely affected animals. We inoculated one-week-old BALB/c mice with an adapted EV-A71 strain and identified clinical signs consistent with observations in human cases and other animal models. We also observed respiratory distress in some mice. At necropsy, we found their lungs to be heavier and incompletely collapsed compared to other mice. Serum levels of catecholamines and histopathology of lung and brain tissues of these mice strongly indicated onset of NPE. The localization of virally-induced brain lesions also suggested a potential pathogenic mechanism for EV-A71-induced NPE. This novel mouse model of virally-induced NPE represents a valuable resource for studying viral mechanisms of neuro-pathogenesis and pre-clinical testing of potential therapeutics and prophylactics against EV-A71-related neurologic complications. PMID:27357918

  2. Energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays from 1016eV to 1019eV determined from air showers observed at 5200 m a.s.l

    Energy spectra of primary cosmic rays from 1016eV to 1019eV have been determined from electron-sizes as well as from muon-sizes of the same air showers observed at Mt. Chacaltaya. The spectrum from electron-sizes is significantly higher than that from muon-sizes. The discrepancy is discussed and an explanation is given under the assumption of possible existence of copious direct production of photons besides the production of charged and neutral pions at these high energies. The spectra are also compared with those by other groups and the discrepancies are discussed. (author)

  3. Optic glioma

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  4. Asymptotic Normality of LS Estimate in Simple Linear EV Regression Model

    Jixue LIU

    2006-01-01

    Though EV model is theoretically more appropriate for applications in which measurement errors exist, people are still more inclined to use the ordinary regression models and the traditional LS method owing to the difficulties of statistical inference and computation. So it is meaningful to study the performance of LS estimate in EV model.In this article we obtain general conditions guaranteeing the asymptotic normality of the estimates of regression coefficients in the linear EV model. It is noticeable that the result is in some way different from the corresponding result in the ordinary regression model.

  5. Total cross sections for electrons scattering from simple molecules containing the larger atom sulfur at 30-5000eV

    Shi De-Heng; Liu Yu-Fang; Sun Jin-Feng; Yang Xiang-Dong; Zhu Zun-Lue

    2005-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds, is employed to calculate the total cross sections for electrons scattering from simple molecules (SO2, H2S, OCS, CS2 and SO3) containing the larger atom, sulfur, at 30-5000eV by using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The quantitative molecular total cross section results are compared with those obtained in experiments and other calculations wherever available, and good agreement is obtained. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the complex optical model potential modified by the concept of bonded atom can give the results closer to the experiments than the one unmodified by it. So, the introduction of bonded-atom concept in complex optical model potential betters the accuracy of the total cross section calculations of electrons from the molecules containing the larger atom, sulfur.

  6. A modification potential method of calculating total cross sections of electrons scattering from complex molecules C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 at 100 eV-5000 eV

    Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Liu Yu-Fang; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is first employed to calculate the total cross sections for electrons scattering from such complex molecules as C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level over the energy range from 100 eV to 5000 eV. The total cross sections are quantitatively compared with those obtained by experiments wherever available, and they are in good agreement with each other over a wide energy range. It is shown that the modified potential together with the additivity rule model is completely suitable for the calculation of total cross sections of electrons scattering from such complex molecules as C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 above 200 eV-300 eV.

  7. Effects of electric vehicles (EV) on environmental loads with consideration of regional differences of electric power generation and charging characteristics of EV users in Japan

    In order to evaluate the reduction effect of electric vehicles (EVs) on various atmospheric environmental loads, we have performed a life-cycle inventory analysis (LCI), including the installation of charging stations and regional, seasonal and temporal difference of the energy mix of electricity generation. For an EV converted from a small gasoline vehicle, a regional LCI analysis was carried out in the following steps: (1) location of the charging stations, (2) modeling of charging characteristics of station users, (3) calculation of temporal life-cycle emission intensities of CO2, NOx and SOx by region, season and day. Assuming that total traveling distance is 100,000 km, the electricity consumption rate is 0.119 kWh/km and the charging/discharging efficiency is 70%, the average life-cycle emission of CO2 for that EV was 3.6 t-C throughout Japan. However, if we took regional difference into account, the emission ranged over 70-160% of the average amount. It was revealed that the regional difference of the primary energy mix significantly affected the emissions of EVs during the operation phase. (Author)

  8. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2011/2012; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2011/2012

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants in Germany. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented for the fiscal year 2011/2012.

  9. Eesti Vabariigi aastapäev Karlsruhes pakkus vaimset toitu ja sealiha / Meeli Bagger

    Bagger, Meeli, 1958-

    2003-01-01

    22. veebr. 2003 tähistas Karlsruhe Saksa-Eesti Selts EV 85. aastapäeva koosviibimisega, kus Euroopa Parlamendi liige Evelyn Gebhardt esitas ettekande teemal "Eesti Euroopa Liidu lävel", toimus kontsert ja traditsiooniline pidu

  10. The energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays at 1014-1016 eV

    The new data on electron and muon size spectra are obtained at Tien Shan complex array. The shape of the primary energy spectrum at 1014-1016 eV is analysed on the base of these characteristics. (orig.)

  11. Kaks nooremat luuletajat : Bernard Kangro "Vanad majad" ja Heiti Talviku "Kohtupäev" / Ants Oras

    Oras, Ants

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Kangro, Bernard. Vanad majad : luuletusi 1936-37. Tartu : Eesti Kirjanikkude Liit, 1937 ; Talvik, Heiti. Kohtupäev. Tartu : Eesti Kirjanikkude Liit, 1937. Varem ilmunud: Eesti Kirjandus, 1937, nr. 12, lk. 618-622

  12. space pattern of events with halo in the field of energies E≥1015 eV

    In Roentgen emulsion chamber of 'Adron-44' facility located at 3340 m, we have registered two exotic interactions with build-up of halo- diffuse dark spots several cm2 in size in the area of energy > 1015 eV. Similar events were registered in rock experiments of some foreign teams (Japan-Brazil collaboration, 'Pamir' cooperation etc.). Nature of halo build-up is not clear enough even now, that is why detailed study of this phenomena is of great interest. In the report there are space and energy parameters of secondary gamma-quanta building halo in events with E = 4.4·101'5 eV and 3.3·1015 eV. Space distribution is compared with calculated distributions basing on scaling model. The comparison helps to conclude that there is possible scaling failure in the field of fragmentation of impinging hadron at E0∼1016 eV

  13. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines. PMID:25536888

  14. Arrival directions of cosmic rays of energy 2 1015 to 2 1017 eV

    In addition to the continuing operation of our array sensitive above 6 1016 eV, we are investigating the range 2 1015 to 2 1017 eV using one 50m array, responding over the range 2 1015 to 2 1016 eV, and four 150m arrays which respond from 2 1016 to 2 1017 eV. The arrival direction of each event is measured to 10-2 sr, and the ground parameters measured as estimators of the primary energy are the water-Cerenkov densities at 50m, rho(50) and 150m, rho(150), for the smaller and larger arrays respectively. Background rates above 0.2m-2 and 1m-2 are monitored continuously in each 13.5m2 detector, together with atmospheric pressure and temperature, and the detector temperature

  15. Analysis of Cross-Reactive Neutralizing Antibodies in Human HFMD Serum with an EV71 Pseudovirus-Based Assay

    Jin, Jun; Xu, Lin; Sun, Shiyang; Jiang, Liping; Li, Xiaojun; Shao, Jie; Ma, Hongxia; Huang, Xueyong; Guo, Shijie; Chen, Haiying; Cheng, Tong; Yang, Lisheng; Su, Weiheng; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Jiang, Chunlai

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, has recently become an important public health issue throughout the world. Serum neutralizing antibodies are major indicators of EV71 infection and protective immunity. However, the potential for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies for different EV71 genotypes and subgenotypes is unclear. Here we measured the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against EV71 of different genotypes or subgenotypes in sera collected from EV71-infected children and vaccine-inoculated children in a phase III clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01636245) using a new pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. Antibodies induced by EV71-C4a were cross-reactive for different EV71 genotypes, demonstrating that C4a is a good candidate strain for an EV71 vaccine. Our study also demonstrated that this new assay is practical for analyses of clinical samples from epidemiological and vaccine studies. PMID:24964084

  16. Analysis of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in human HFMD serum with an EV71 pseudovirus-based assay.

    Huafei Zhang

    Full Text Available Hand, foot and mouth disease, associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71 infections, has recently become an important public health issue throughout the world. Serum neutralizing antibodies are major indicators of EV71 infection and protective immunity. However, the potential for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies for different EV71 genotypes and subgenotypes is unclear. Here we measured the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against EV71 of different genotypes or subgenotypes in sera collected from EV71-infected children and vaccine-inoculated children in a phase III clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01636245 using a new pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. Antibodies induced by EV71-C4a were cross-reactive for different EV71 genotypes, demonstrating that C4a is a good candidate strain for an EV71 vaccine. Our study also demonstrated that this new assay is practical for analyses of clinical samples from epidemiological and vaccine studies.

  17. Algupärase lastekirjanduse päev : [Tartu Linnaraamatukogus 12. aprillil 11-17

    2006-01-01

    12. aprillil kl 11́ on linnaraamatukogu saalis (Kompanii 3/5) algupärase lastekirjanduse päev. Teemal "Noorkirjandus ja noorte raamat" arutlevad kirjandusuurija Jaanika Palm, TÜ õppejõud Reet Liimets, noor kirjanik Diana Lee-salu, tegevpsühholoog ja nõustaja Elle Purde jpt. Ettekandepäev omamaisest laste- ja noortekirjandusest toimub tänavu kaheksandat korda

  18. A deduction on primary cosmic ray composition and spectra above 1014 eV

    The spectra of primary cosmic ray nuclei are fitted from experimental data under 1014 eV and extrapolated to their bending energies. The primary cosmic ray composition above 1014 eV is deduced according to the rigidity cut off model by selecting an appropriate bending energy for proton so that the sum of various nucleus components is consistent with the experimental total particle spectrum. The method used is independent on the behaviour of hadronic interaction

  19. Optimal Charging Strategy for EVs with Batteries at Different States of Health

    Tianxiang, Jiang; Putrus, Ghanim; Zhiwei, Gao; Conti, Matteo; McDonald, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is targeted as an efficient method of decreasing CO2 emission and reducing dependence on fossil fuel. Compared with filling up the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle, the EV power charging time is usually long. However,to the best of our knowledge, the current charging strategy does not consider the battery state of health (SOH). It is noted that a high charging current rate may damage the battery life. Motivated by this, an optimal charging strategy is propose...

  20. A REVIEW ON WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER (WPT) FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV) APPLICATIONS

    Mr. Sujay R. Kale*; Mr. Santosh Rayarao

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the wireless power transfer (WPT) or contactless power transfer (CPT) for charging electric vehicles (EV). This technology is recent method in electrification for transportation, useful for the environment. This type of system mainly consists of two parts such as transmission unit and receiving unit, transmission unit send power or electricity and receiving unit received this power and charge the battery of electric vehicle (EV). WPT is applicable for mobile devices, house...

  1. NANO-BATTERY TECHNOLOGY FOR EV-HEV PANEL: A PIONEERING STUDY

    Ataur Rahman; M Rashid; A K M Mohiuddin; M. N. A. Hawlader

    2015-01-01

    Global trends toward CO2 reduction and resource efficiency have significantly increased the importance of lightweight materials for automobile original equipment manufacturers (OEM). CO2 reduction is a fundamental driver for a more lightweight automobile. The introduction of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) is one initiative towards this end. However EVs are currently facing several weaknesses: limited driving range, battery pack heaviness, lack of safety and thermal control, high cost, and overall ...

  2. Complete Genome Analysis of an Enterovirus EV-B83 Isolated in China.

    Tang, Jingjing; Li, Qiongfen; Tian, Bingjun; Zhang, Jie; Li, Kai; Ding, Zhengrong; Lu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus B83 (EV-B83) is a recently identified member of enterovirus species B. It is a rarely reported serotype and up to date, only the complete genome sequence of the prototype strain from the United States is available. In this study, we describe the complete genomic characterization of an EV-B83 strain 246/YN/CHN/08HC isolated from a healthy child living in border region of Yunnan Province, China in 2008. Compared with the prototype strain, it had 79.6% similarity in the complete genome and 78.9% similarity in the VP1 coding region, reflecting the great genetic divergence among them. VP1-coding region alignment revealed it had 77.2-91.3% with other EV-B83 sequences available in GenBank. Similarity plot analysis revealed it had higher identity with several other EV-B serotypes than the EV-B83 prototype strain in the P2 and P3 coding region, suggesting multiple recombination events might have occurred. The great genetic divergence with previously isolated strains and the extremely rare isolation suggest this serotype has circulated at a low epidemic strength for many years. This is the first report of complete genome of EV-B83 in China. PMID:27405393

  3. Two models for changes of EV71 immunity in infants and young children.

    Tu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yongmei; Zhu, Fengcai; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been associated with outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in China. Susceptibility to EV71 is associated with age, but few studies have been accomplished to measure such a relationship. A better understanding of the connection between susceptibility and age is necessary to develop strategies for control of HFMD. In 2010, a survey of an epidemic of EV71 was conducted in a northern city of Jiangsu Province in China. Samples were tested serologically to identify the EV71 neutralizing antibody. Two different mathematical models have now been employed to describe how this antibody varied with age, and parameters in the model were estimated from survey data. Both models depicted the variations in EV71-neutralizing antibody. Seroprevalence was high for neonates but decreased to near zero at 5 months of age. Subsequently, the EV71 antibody levels increased and then remained stable after about 36 months. For models 1 and 2, values for the coefficient of determination (R(2)) were 0.9458 and 0.9576, and values for root mean square error (RMSE) were 0.0755 and 0.0752, respectively. Model 2, formulated from the characteristics of development of the immune system, was more reliable than model 1, formulated from survey data, because the impact of the survey on the structure of the model was removed. Moreover, model 2 provided the possibility to define the parameters in a biological sense. PMID:25906390

  4. Two models for changes of EV71 immunity in infants and young children

    Tu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yongmei; Zhu, Fengcai; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been associated with outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in China. Susceptibility to EV71 is associated with age, but few studies have been accomplished to measure such a relationship. A better understanding of the connection between susceptibility and age is necessary to develop strategies for control of HFMD. In 2010, a survey of an epidemic of EV71 was conducted in a northern city of Jiangsu Province in China. Samples were tested serologically to identify the EV71 neutralizing antibody. Two different mathematical models have now been employed to describe how this antibody varied with age, and parameters in the model were estimated from survey data. Both models depicted the variations in EV71-neutralizing antibody. Seroprevalence was high for neonates but decreased to near zero at 5 months of age. Subsequently, the EV71 antibody levels increased and then remained stable after about 36 months. For models 1 and 2, values for the coefficient of determination (R2) were 0.9458 and 0.9576, and values for root mean square error (RMSE) were 0.0755 and 0.0752, respectively. Model 2, formulated from the characteristics of development of the immune system, was more reliable than model 1, formulated from survey data, because the impact of the survey on the structure of the model was removed. Moreover, model 2 provided the possibility to define the parameters in a biological sense. PMID:25906390

  5. Stopping power and mean free path for low-energy electrons in ten scintillators over energy range of 20–20,000 eV

    Systematic calculations of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for 20–20,000 eV electrons in a group of 10 important scintillators have been carried out. The calculations are based on the dielectric model including the Born–Ochkur exchange correction and the optical energy loss functions (OELFs) are empirically evaluated because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the scintillators under consideration. The evaluated OELFs are examined by both the f-sum rule and the calculation of mean ionization potential. The SP and IMFP data presented here are the first results for the 10 scintillators over the energy range of 20–20,000 eV, and are of key importance for the investigation of liquid scintillation counting. - Highlights: ► Scintillators are important materials used in liquid scintillation counting (LSC). ► Stopping power (SP) and inelastic mean free path (IMFP) are important for LSC. ► SPs and IMFPs for electrons of 20 eV–20 keV in 10 scintillators systematically calculated. ► Dielectric model used and optical energy loss function empirically evaluated. ► SP and IMFP data presented here are the first results for the 10 scintillators.

  6. Study of optical spectra of semiconducting compound CuInSe2 in wide energy region

    The precise reflectivity spectra of copper indium diselenide are obtained in energy range 1 to 5 eV at 80 K for polarized light (E perpendicular c, E||c*). For the first time the spectra for pure polarization E||c are evaluated. Optical functions in energy range 1-23 eV are calculated using Kramers-Kronig transformations. (authors)

  7. Optical bleaching of the F+ optical absorption bands in ZnS crystals

    The optical bleaching of the 2.3 and 2.9 eV bands related to the F+ centers in the electron-irradiated and Zn-treated ZnS crystals are measured from 25 K to room temperature under illumination of light from 395 to 702 nm. It is found that the 2.9 eV band is bleached in exactly the same manner as the 2.3 eV band and that under illumination of light around 2.9 eV, these bands are bleached with a decay constant independent of temperature, while under illumination of light around 2.3 eV, they are bleached by two stages, where the first stage has a decay constant independent of temperature and the second stage has a decay constant with an activation energy of (49 ± 5) meV. These bands are confirmed to be due to the same defects. It is deduced that the 2.3 eV absorption band is due to the transition of electrons from the ground state to the lower excited state located (49 ± 5) meV below the conduction band, while the 2.9 eV band is due to the transition to the higher excited state located in or closely below the conduction band. (author)

  8. Optical functions of InGaSe2

    The calculation results of optical functions : imaginary and real parts of dielectric, constant, main index of refraction and its imaginary part, reflection coefficient and imaginary part of reverse value of complex dielectric constant, real and imaginary parts of optical electric conduction of InGaSe2 compounds at polarizations in energy intervals 0-12 eV are given in the work

  9. Total Cross Sections for Electron Scattering on Polyatomic Molecules (CH4, CO2,NO2, and N2O) at 10 ~ 3000 eV

    SUN Jin-Feng; XU Bin; LIU Yu-Fang; SHI De-Heng

    2005-01-01

    A new modified formulation of the Additivity Rule (AR) was proposed to calculate the total electron scattering cross sections for CH4, CO2, NO2, and N2O, considering the overlapping between atoms in molecules and the not fully transparency of the molecules. The present calculation covers the range of impact energy from 10 to 3000 eV. The results are compared with experimental data and other theories where available. The atoms are presented by spherical complex optical potential, which is composed of static, exchange, polarization, and absorption terms.

  10. Resonance ionization spectroscopy of thorium isotopestowards a laser spectroscopic identification of the low-lying 7.6 eV isomer of 229Th

    Raeder, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Gottwald, T; Moore, I. D.; Reponen, M.; Rothe, S.; Trautmann, N; Wendt, K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was used to identify an efficient and selective three step excitation/ionization scheme of thorium, suitable for titanium:sapphire (Ti:sa) lasers. The measurements were carried out in preparation of laser spectroscopic investigations for an identification of the low-lying 229 m Th isomer predicted at 7.6 ? 0.5 eV above the nuclear ground state. Using a sample of 232 Th, a multitude of optical transitions leading to over 20 previously unk...

  11. Multiple ionization of atoms with xuv attosecond pulses: Two-photon double ionization of helium with 50 eV photons

    Bachau, H [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux I-CNRS-CEA, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Foumouo, E; Antoine, Ph; Piraux, B [Laboratoire de Physique Atomique, Moleculaire et Optique, unite PAMO, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 2 chemin du cyclotron, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Chuluunbaatar, O [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region, 141980 (Russian Federation); Popov, Y [Nuclear Physics Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Shakeshaft, R, E-mail: bachau@celia.u-bordeaux1.f [Physics Department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We consider two-photon double ionization of helium by two xuv photons in the region around the sequential ionization threshold. We show that, on the attosecond timescale, the mechanism for double ionization is dominated by the absorption of one photon by each electron in the fundamental state He(1s{sup 2}). We examine the dynamics of two-photon double ionization of helium for an averaged photon energy {omega} = 50 eV, with a pulse duration of two optical cycles. The double ionization rate, energy and angular distributions are calculated by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Results are discussed on the basis of a model.

  12. Multiple ionization of atoms with xuv attosecond pulses: Two-photon double ionization of helium with 50 eV photons

    We consider two-photon double ionization of helium by two xuv photons in the region around the sequential ionization threshold. We show that, on the attosecond timescale, the mechanism for double ionization is dominated by the absorption of one photon by each electron in the fundamental state He(1s2). We examine the dynamics of two-photon double ionization of helium for an averaged photon energy ω = 50 eV, with a pulse duration of two optical cycles. The double ionization rate, energy and angular distributions are calculated by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Results are discussed on the basis of a model.

  13. A new treatment for neurogenic inflammation caused by EV71 with CR2-targeted complement inhibitor

    Qiu Shaofu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71, one of the most important neurotropic EVs, has caused death and long-term neurological sequelae in hundreds of thousands of young children in the Asia-Pacific region in the past decade. The neurological diseases are attributed to infection by EV71 inducing an extensive peripheral and central nervous system (CNS inflammatory response with abnormal cytokine production and lymphocyte depletion induced by EV71 infection. In the absence of specific antiviral agents or vaccines, an effective immunosuppressive strategy would be valuable to alleviate the severity of the local inflammation induced by EV71 infection. Presentation of the hypothesis The complement system plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response. Inappropriate or excessive activation of the complement system results in a severe inflammatory reaction or numerous pathological injuries. Previous studies have revealed that EV71 infection can induce complement activation and an inflammatory response of the CNS. CR2-targeted complement inhibition has been proved to be a potential therapeutic strategy for many diseases, such as influenza virus-induced lung tissue injury, postischemic cerebral injury and spinal cord injury. In this paper, a mouse model is proposed to test whether a recombinant fusion protein consisting of CR2 and a region of Crry (CR2-Crry is able to specifically inhibit the local complement activation induced by EV71 infection, and to observe whether this treatment strategy can alleviate or even cure the neurogenic inflammation. Testing the hypothesis CR2-Crry is expressed in CHO cells, and its biological activity is determined by complement inhibition assays. 7-day-old ICR mice are inoculated intracranially with EV71 to duplicate the neurological symptoms. The mice are then divided into two groups, in one of which the mice are treated with CR2-Crry targeted complement inhibitor, and in the other with phosphate-buffered saline. A

  14. Optic neuritis

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  15. Optical properties of hydroxyethyl cellulose film treated with nitrogen plasma

    Mahmoud, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) film has been prepared by casting technique. The prepared sample has been treated with nitrogen plasma at different exposure times. The optical absorption was recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range of 200-800 nm. Absorbance fitting procedure curves revealed a direct allowed transition with optical band gap, Eopt, of 4.9 eV for pristine film, and this value decreases to 4.30 eV for 20 min plasma treatment time. The band tail values (Ee) were found to be increased under plasma time treatment from 1.74 eV in case of the pristine film to 2.20 eV for 20 min. The dispersion of refractive index and complex dielectric constants under plasma treatment was also studied. Variation of color parameters under effect of the plasma treatment is analyzed in the framework of CIE L*U*V* color space.

  16. Circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS) measurements in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (@16 eV to 500 eV)

    Maestre, M.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bustamante, C. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Snyder, P. (Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Rowe, E.; Hansen, R. (Wisconsin Univ., Stoughton, WI (United States). Synchrotron Radiation Center)

    1991-03-01

    We propose the use of recently developed techniques of circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS), as extended to the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (16 eV to 500 eV), to study the higher order organization of the eukaryotic chromosome. CIDS is the difference in scattering power of an object when illuminated by right circularly polarized vs. left circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary wavelength. CIDS has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of the helical organization of the scattering object eg. the eukaryotic chromosome. Preliminary results of measurements of samples of bacteriophages and octopus sperm done at SRC, Wisconsin, show the technique to be very sensitive to the dimensional parameters of the particles interrogated by circularly polarized light. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  17. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facilitya)

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Blenski, T.; Caillaud, T.; Ducret, J. E.; Foelsner, W.; Gilles, D.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Poirier, M.; Serres, F.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Villette, B.

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ⟨E/δE⟩ ˜ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  18. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility

    Reverdin, Charles; Caillaud, T.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Thais, Frederic; Loisel, Guillaume; Blenski, T.; Poirier, M. [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, Service Photons, Atomes et Molecules, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Busquet, M. [ARTEP Inc, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Serres, F. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Ducret, J. E. [CELIA, UMR5107, CEA, CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, 33400 Talence (France); Foelsner, W. [Max Planck Instituet fuer Quantum Optik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gilles, D.; Turck-Chieze, S. [CEA, DSM, IRFU, Service d' astrophysique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-10-15

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution {approx} 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique (France) to measure the {Delta}n = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  19. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility.

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Blenski, T; Caillaud, T; Ducret, J E; Foelsner, W; Gilles, D; Gilleron, F; Pain, J C; Poirier, M; Serres, F; Silvert, V; Soullie, G; Turck-Chieze, S; Villette, B

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ∼ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented. PMID:23126955

  20. Earth sciences within the project Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesy and geophysics; Le scienze della Terra nel progetto Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesia e geofisica

    Poretti, Giorgio [Trieste, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Matematiche

    1997-05-01

    Earth Sciences started the Ev-K2-CNR project in 1987 with the comparison between the heights of Mt. Everest and K2. Several gravimetric campaigns followed in the most difficult areas of the Himalayas. In 1991 a GPS network was established in Nepal for the determination of the Earth crust movements in the area. In 1992 a precise measurement of mount Everest was performed with classical and satellite technologies. Mount K2 was remeasured in Summer 1996.

  1. New training simulators of state-of-the-art coal fired power plants at KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V.; Neue Schulungssimulatoren moderner Kohlekraftwerke bei der KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V.

    Kroeck, Martin; Fehse, Klaus; Nacke, Heinrich [Kraftwerksschule e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    For more than 20 years, KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V. (KWS - PowerTech Training Center) operates training simulators for fossil-fired power plants at its Essen headquarters. In the course of the construction of the new 800 MW and 1100 MW high-efficiency power plants with hypercritical steam generators, a growing demand for - even multilingual - training of operator personnel from such plants at simulators is arising. Thus, new training simulators are being erected. (orig.)

  2. The dissociative photoionization of hydrogen via two-electron excitation at 27.5 eV and 30.5 eV

    The kinetic energy spectra of the protons produced in the dissociative photoionization of H2 directed predominantly along the E vector of a photon beam have been measured at photon energies of 27.5 and 30.5 eV. Protons arising from autoionization of the lowest two-electron excited states exhibit an energy distribution which, unlike previous experimental results, is in accord with theory. (Author)

  3. Energy spectra of primary cosmic radiation in the 1013-1016 eV energy range

    Investigations of the primary cosmic radiation energy spectrum in the 1013-1016 eV energy range are performed using the Tien Shan complex device designed for the investigation of extensive air showers. On the basis of the analysis of experimental data, a conclusion is drawn that at present the energy spectrum of all particles is investigated for sure within the energy range up to (1-5)x1014 eV. In the framework of traditional models of hadron interaction and above experimental data on primary composition of cosmic rays at 1015-1016 eV energies, the energy spectrum of all primary particles in the first approximation is described with the power function of F (> E0) approximately Esub(0)sup(-#betta#sub(E)) with the power of #betta#sub(Esub(1))=1.63-1.68 at E0 15 eV and with #betta#sub(Esub(2))=2.0-2.1 in the 5x1015-5x1017 eV energy range

  4. MSC secretes at least 3 EV types each with a unique permutation of membrane lipid, protein and RNA

    Lai, Ruenn Chai; Tan, Soon Sim; Yeo, Ronne Wee Yeh; Choo, Andre Boon Hwa; Reiner, Agnes T.; Su, Yan; Shen, Yang; Fu, Zhiyan; Alexander, Lezhava; Sze, Siu Kwan; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), a widely used adult stem cell candidate for regenerative medicine, has been shown to exert some of its therapeutic effects through the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs). These homogenously sized EVs of 100–150 ηm exhibited many exosome-like biophysical and biochemical properties and carry both proteins and RNAs. Recently, exosome-associated proteins in this MSC EV preparation were found to segregate primarily to those EVs that bind cholera toxin B chain (CTB), a GM1 ganglioside-specific ligand, and pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that these EVs have endosomal origin and carried many of the exosome-associated markers. Here, we report that only a fraction of the MSC EV proteome was found in CTB-bound EVs. Using Annexin V (AV) and Shiga toxin B subunit (ST) with affinities for phosphatidylserine and globotriaosylceramide, respectively, AV- and a ST-binding EV were identified. CTB-, AV- and ST–binding EVs all carried actin. However, the AV-binding EVs carried low or undetectable levels of the exosome-associated proteins. Only the ST-binding EVs carried RNA and EDA-containing fibronectin. Proteins in AV-binding EVs were also different from those released by apoptotic MSCs. CTB- and AV-binding activities were localized to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of MSCs, while ST-binding activity was localized to the nucleus. Together, this study demonstrates that cells secrete many types of EVs. Specifically, MSCs secrete at least 3 types. They can be differentially isolated based on their affinities for membrane lipid-binding ligands. As the subcellular sites of the binding activities of these ligands and cargo load are different for each EV type, they are likely to have a different biogenesis pathway and possibly different functions. PMID:26928672

  5. The evolution of Vp1 gene in enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genus Enterovirus (Family Picornaviridae, consists of twelve species divided into genetically diverse types by their capsid protein VP1 coding sequences. Each enterovirus type can further be divided into intra-typic sub-clusters (genotypes. The aim of this study was to elucidate what leads to the emergence of novel enterovirus clades (types and genotypes. An evolutionary analysis was conducted for a sub-group of Enterovirus C species that contains types Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA-21, CVA-24, Enterovirus C95 (EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99. VP1 gene datasets were collected and analysed to infer the phylogeny, rate of evolution, nucleotide and amino acid substitution patterns and signs of selection. In VP1 coding gene, high intra-typic sequence diversities and robust grouping into distinct genotypes within each type were detected. Within each type the majority of nucleotide substitutions were synonymous and the non-synonymous substitutions tended to cluster in distinct highly polymorphic sites. Signs of positive selection were detected in some of these highly polymorphic sites, while strong negative selection was indicated in most of the codons. Despite robust clustering to intra-typic genotypes, only few genotype-specific 'signature' amino acids were detected. In contrast, when different enterovirus types were compared, there was a clear tendency towards fixation of type-specific 'signature' amino acids. The results suggest that permanent fixation of type-specific amino acids is a hallmark associated with evolution of different enterovirus types, whereas neutral evolution and/or (frequency-dependent positive selection in few highly polymorphic amino acid sites are the dominant forms of evolution when strains within an enterovirus type are compared.

  6. Optical CMR in manganites

    Colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and metal insulator transition in the perovskite manganites are still puzzling phenomena. We focussed on epitaxial films of (La1-yPry)0.7Ca0.3MnO3 with y=0-0.7, where a phase separation scenario with coexisting ferromagnetic metallic and charge-ordered insulating phases is believed to be the origin of the CMR. Using reflectivity measurements, we observed changes in the optical conductivity with external magnetic field in the visible range. This optical CMR peaks at the metal insulator transition temperature TMI as does the CMR. Furthermore the magnetic field behaviour resembles the field dependence of the resistance. Moreover optical CMR shows a pronounced spectral dependence for photon energies E=1.2-4 eV. This indicates that with optical CMR we probe the short range order of the Mn-spins. Since this optical technique generates information on the volume of our samples, we get further insight to the CMR-effect, proving the percolative nature of phase transition by modelling the results within random resistor networks.

  7. Optimal Operation of EVs and HPs in the Nordic Power System

    Liu, Zhaoxi

    the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and the fossil fuel consumption in the transportation and heating sectors but also as a potential approach to cope with the intermittency due to the further utilization of renewable energy sources (RES) in the Nordic region. With increasing amounts of RES in the power system......-ahead electricity market are also analyzed in the Ph.D. study. The electrical demand of EVs and HPs under non-market environments is modeled with the detailed driving and heating requirements in the Nordic countries. With the uncontrolled charging scheme, the peak EV charging demand coincides with the peak...... conventional demand. With the timed charging scheme, the EV charging demand is delayed to avoid the conventional peak demand to some extend. However, most of the charging congregates in a short period when the timed charging is set started. The HP demand with the least-energyconsumption control scheme...

  8. Impact Study of Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration on Low Voltage (LV) Grids

    Wu, Qiuwei; Cha, Seung-Tae; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob; Ding, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) has become a very interesting option because it can both reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the transport sector and facilitate the integration of more renewable energy resources (RES) by providing the flexibility of EV charging demands...... (LV) grids. The work consists of modeling a typical LV grid, EV charging schedule managment, and impact study of different charging scenarios on LV grid. The modelling work of the LV grid is done using the data from the Bornholm power system. The topology data of the LV grid are used to develop the...... two charging power levels are 1 phase 16 A and 3 phase 16 A. The loading of the power components and voltage profile are analyzed to quantify the impact of the charging scenarios and charging power levels on LV grids....

  9. Construction and characterization of infectious cDNA clones of enterovirus 71(EV71)

    Ying-wei; Ma; Shu-bin; Hao; Le-le; Sun; Jing; Li; Qiao; Qiao; Feng; Gao; Li; Zhao; Xue-jie; Yu; Zhi-yu; Wang; Hong-ling; Wen

    2015-01-01

    Dear Editor,Enterovirus 71(EV71),a member of the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae,is a single-stranded,positive-sense RNA virus that usually causes mild handfoot-mouth disease(HFMD)in children,with symptoms such as fever,diarrhea,and herpangina(Liu et al.,2013).However,certain strains of EV71 infection can cause severe neurological complications,such as SDLY107(Sun et al.,2014).EV71 is classified into three distinct genotypes(A–C);the B and C genotypes are further divided into B1–B5 and C1–C5 genotypes,respectively,based on

  10. Synchrotron radiation study of the optical absorption of F+-center in corundum

    Optical absorption 6.3 and 7 eV bands of naminally pure corundum (α-Al2O3) monocrystal irradiated with 50 MeV energy electrons are detected using a high degree of synchrotron variation (SR) polarization. A strong anisotropy for 6.3 eV absorption band is observed. It is ascertained that under the parallel orientation of SR electric vector E relative to the crystal C3 axis 6.3 eV absorption band intensity is higher than under orthogonal orientation. It is detected that under the crystal irradiation a more distinct 7 eV band occurs in 7-7.3 eV region instead of structureless wide band. A conclusion is drawn that 6.3 and 7 eV bands are conditioned by electron transitions inside F+-center

  11. Differential cross sections of elastic electron scattering from CH4, CF4 and SF6 in the energy range 100-700eV

    Ma Er-Jun; Ma Yu-Gang; Cai Xiang-Zhou; Fang De-Qing; Shen Wen-Qing; Tian Wen-Dong

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the differential cross sections (DCS) of elastic electron scattering from CH4, CF4 and SF6 at six impact energies in a range of 100-700eV by employing the independent atom model (IAM) together with the relativistic partial waves. The atom is present in an optical potential which is complex, spherically symmetric, and energy dependent. The optical potential of the atom is the sum of the direct static, dynamic polarization, local exchange and modified absorption potentials. The results obtained by using a modified absorption potential show significant improvements on the unmodified absorption potential results. The present results are generally in good agreement with experimental data available. In addition, the present results indicate that the structure of molecule manifests the observable effects on electron-molecule scattering.

  12. NANO-BATTERY TECHNOLOGY FOR EV-HEV PANEL: A PIONEERING STUDY

    Ataur Rahman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global trends toward CO2 reduction and resource efficiency have significantly increased the importance of lightweight materials for automobile original equipment manufacturers (OEM. CO2 reduction is a fundamental driver for a more lightweight automobile. The introduction of Electrical Vehicles (EVs is one initiative towards this end. However EVs are currently facing several weaknesses: limited driving range, battery pack heaviness, lack of safety and thermal control, high cost, and overall limited efficiency. This study presents a panel-style nano-battery technology built into an EV with CuO filler solid polymer electrolyte (SPE sandwiched by carbon fiber (CF and lithium (Li plate. In addition to this, an aluminum laminated polypropylene film is used as the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC shield. The proposed battery body panel of the EV would reduce the car weight by about 20%, with a charge and discharge capacity of 1.5 kWh (10% of car total power requirement, and provide the heat insulation for the car which would save about 10% power consumption of the air conditioning system. Therefore, the EV would be benefited by 30% in terms of energy reduction by using the proposed body. Furthermore, the proposed body is considered environmental-friendly since it is recyclable for use in a new product. However, the main limiting factors of the SPE are its thermal behavior and moderate ionic conductivity at low temperatures. The SPE temperature is maintained by controlling the battery panel charging/discharge rate. It is expected that the proposed panel-style nano-battery use in an EV would save up to 6.00 kWh in battery energy, equivalent to 2.81 liters of petrol and prevent 3.081 kg of CO2 emission for a travel distance of 100 km. KEYWORDS: epoxy resin; carbon fiber; lithium thin plate; energy generation; solid electrolyte battery

  13. Vloga staršev pri vključevanju otrok v sodobni ples

    Verglez, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    V diplomskem delu preučujemo vlogo staršev pri vključevanju otrok v sodobni ples. V teoretičnem delu najprej predstavljamo nekatera dosedanja dognanja na področju gibalnega razvoja v zgodnjem otroštvu ter neločljivo vzajemno povezanost gibalnih in kognitivnih sposobnosti, ki so individualno pogojene. Pedagoški proces v sodobnem plesu se namreč naslanja na poznavanje slednjega. Vloga staršev pri izbiri organiziranih gibalnih/športnih in seveda tudi plesnih dejavnosti je kompleksna in široka. S...

  14. Project of Antarctic Balloon-Borne Measurements of the CR spectrum above 1020 EV.

    Antonov, R. A.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Chernov, D. V.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Sysojeva, T. I.

    Relatively simple detector SPHERE (spherical mirror ˜ 1.5m2 and retina of 100 pixels) is presented for the Antarctic balloon-borne measurements of the CR spectrum. Long time winter flight make it possible to measure the spectrum above 1020 eV . Comparison with satellite and ISS projects of the nearest future show that the efficiency of this detector is sufficiently high. The energy threshold is less (˜ 1018 eV ). The accuracy of the energy definition is high as two methods are together the measurement of the EAS fluorescence track in the atmosphere and the measurement of the full flux of the EAS Cherenkov light.

  15. GLASBENE PREFERENCE PREDŠOLSKIH OTROK IN NJIHOVIH STARŠEV TER VZGOJITELJEV

    Berič, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo z naslovom Glasbene preference predšolskih otrok in njihovih staršev ter vzgojiteljev je sestavljeno iz teoretičnega in empiričnega dela. V teoretičnem delu so podrobneje predstavljene glasbene preference otrok, katere označujejo človekova nagnjenja do določene glasbene zvrsti in glasbene dejavnosti, glasbeni razvoj otroka in glasbene dejavnosti v vrtcu. Namen empirične raziskave je bil raziskati glasbene preference predšolskih otrok, njihovih staršev in vzgojiteljev v Vrtcu Le...

  16. Generating Geospatially Realistic Driving Patterns Derived From Clustering Analysis Of Real EV Driving Data

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Aabrandt, Andreas; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a vehicle fleet that realistically represents the predicted Electric Vehicle (EV) penetration for the future, a model is required that mimics people driving behaviour rather than simply playing back collected data. When the focus is broadened from on a traditional user...... scales, which calls for a statistically correct, yet flexible model. This paper describes a method for modelling EV, based on non-categorized data, which takes into account the plug in locations of the vehicles. By using clustering analysis to extrapolate and classify the primary locations where the...

  17. Radiative capture yield of thorium-232 from 100 to 4000 ev

    The neutron capture yield in two /sup 232/Th samples (0.0008 and 0.0027 atom/b, respectively) was measured with the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator time-of-flight facility over incident neutron energies from 100 to 4000 eV. A detailed comparison of the measured capture yields with calculations based on ENDF/B-V resonance parameters suggests that above 500 eV the evaluation needs additional work; in particular, the average capture appears systematically underestimated. 28 refs

  18. Developing Online Marketing in Social Media for DORTMUNDtourismus e.V.

    Steinrücken, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The thesis discussed the topic of online marketing in social media. The focus was set on the social media platforms Facebook, YouTube and Flickr. Commissioner of the thesis was DORTMUNDtourismus e.V., the destination management organization for Dortmund, Germany. The research problem was to identify ways to develop online marketing in social media in a cost-efficient and innovative way in order to raise the awareness of DORTMUNDtourismus e.V. and Dortmund in social media and as a destination....

  19. KOMUNIKACIJA IN ZADOVOLJSTVO STARŠEV Z VRTCI OBČINE ŽALEC

    Špacapan, Boštjan

    2013-01-01

    V diplomskem delu s področja organizacije predšolske vzgoje smo ugotavljali, v kakšni povezanosti sta komunikacija in zadovoljstvo pri starših otrok. V teoretičnem delu so povzeti temeljni elementi komunikacije. V tem delu je prav tako obravnavana komunikacija v procesu predšolske vzgoje. V raziskovalnem delu smo ugotavljali ali obstaja povezanost med zadovoljstvom staršev s komunikacijo strokovnih delavcev in prisotnostjo staršev na govorilnih urah in rednih roditeljskih sestankih. Ugotavlja...

  20. Optical properties of armchair (7, 7) single walled carbon nanotubes

    Full potential linearized augmented plane waves method with the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation potential was applied to calculate the optical properties of (7, 7) single walled carbon nanotubes. The both x and z directions of the incident photons were applied to estimate optical gaps, dielectric function, electron energy loss spectroscopies, optical conductivity, optical extinction, optical refractive index and optical absorption coefficient. The results predict that dielectric function, ε (ω), is anisotropic since it has higher peaks along z-direction than x-direction. The static optical refractive constant were calculated about 1.4 (z-direction) and 1.1 (x- direction). Moreover, the electron energy loss spectroscopy showed a sharp π electron plasmon peaks at about 6 eV and 5 eV for z and x-directions respectively. The calculated reflection spectra show that directions perpendicular to the tube axis have further optical reflection. Moreover, z-direction indicates higher peaks at absorption spectra in low range energies. Totally, increasing the diameter of armchair carbon nanotubes cause the optical band gap, static optical refractive constant and optical reflectivity to decrease. On the other hand, increasing the diameter cause the optical absorption and the optical conductivity to increase. Moreover, the sharp peaks being illustrated at optical spectrum are related to the 1D structure of CNTs which confirm the accuracy of the calculations

  1. Trapping of a microsphere pendulum resonator in an optical potential

    Jonathan M. Ward; Wu, Yuqiang; Minogin, V. G.; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method to spatially confine or corral the movements of a micropendulum via the optical forces produced by two simultaneously excited optical modes of a photonic molecule comprising two microspherical cavities. We discuss how the cavity enhanced optical force generated in the photonic molecule can create an optomechanical potential of about 10 eV deep and 30 pm wide, which can be used to trap the pendulum at any given equilibrium position by a simple choice of laser frequencies. T...

  2. Optical study on relaxation of excitons and initiation of photopolymerization in diacetylene crystals at low temperatures

    Chihiro Itoh

    1999-01-01

    Luminescence and optical absorption induced by irradiating with a pulse of 266nm laser beam have been measured in 5,7-dodecadiyne-1,12-diol bis[phenyl carbamate] (DA-TCDU). In addition to the recombination luminescence of the lowest triplet state, luminescence from the excited single state is identified. Irradiation with a pulse of 266 nm laser beam having the fluence above 4.4 mJcm-2 leads to formation of series of optical absorption bands at 3.05 eV, 2.52 eV and 2.18 eV, which are ascribed ...

  3. Electronic and Optical Properties of Monoclinic and Rhombohedral Vanadium Sesquioxide①

    LIU Guang-Hua; DENG Xiao-Yan; WANG Chun-Hai

    2011-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of monoclinic and rhombohedral V2O3 are investigated in the framework of density fimctional theory (DFT) and GGA+U. It is found that, the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in V2O3 is induced by the on-site correlation effect, accompanied with a distinct orbital occupation change. The MIT is independent of the structural transition. The theoretical energy gap 0.6 eV agrees with the experimental value of 0.66±0.05 eV very well.Subsequently, the optical properties are also investigated. Interestingly, the insulating V2O3 shows minimal absorption in the infrared region, but the metallic V2O3 becomes opaque in such region.Therefore, a threshold at about 1 eV interprets the experimental charge gap (Perucchi et al., 2009)theoretically. Such infrared thermochromism makes it a potential candidate for several optical applications.

  4. Equal energy sharing double photo ionization of the Helium atom at 20eV and 40eV above threshold

    Das, J. N.; Chakrabarti, K.; Paul, S

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present triple differential cross sections for equal energy sharing kinematics for double photoionization of the helium atom at 20 and 40eV above threshold in the framework of the hyperspherical partial wave theory. This supplements our earlier work \\cite{DCP03} in which we were successful in showing fully, gauge independence of the results in our formalism. Also in this work we treat cases in which the Stokes parameter S$_1 < 1$ so that partial polarization of the photon s...

  5. EV71可感染幼龄中缅树鼩%Experimental studies on infant Tupaia belangeri chineses with EV71 infection

    王文广; 黄晓燕; 徐娟; 孙晓梅; 代解杰; 李琦涵

    2012-01-01

    Tupaia belonged are small mammals with a squirrel-like appearance; they were formerly classified under the primates order despite the lack of derived features characteristic of primates. Given that T. Belangeri are easy to raise, cheap to maintain, and have a small body size, a high reproductive rate, and close affinity to primates, these animals would be used as an alternative to primates in biomedical research. Three-month old T. Belangeri chineses were infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71) via three different routes, namely, oral administration, nasal dripping, and tail intravenous injection, to study the infection in infant T. Belangeri and find a feasible scheme to make them an ideal animal model of EV71 in place of primates. Daily activities were regularly observed, body temperatures were measured, and blood tests were conducted. Blood and fecal samples were regularly collected. The infection was examined via the neutralizing antibody test, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Real-Time PCR, and pathological analysis. The temperature, as well as the white blood cell count and the number of lymphocytes, increased four days after infection. Virus loads were determined in all three groups, and the peak appeared on, before, or after the tenth day, respectively. Thus, oral administration proved to be the best route. The highest serum antibody titer obtained was 1:16. Acute paralysis with urinary retention manifested after about two weeks, and pathological changes were observed in the brain, heart, lung, spleen, kidney, and other tissues. In conclusion, T. Belangeri chineses can infected with EV71 via oral administration, nasal dripping, and tail intravenous injection. Therefore, T. Belangeri are potential EV71 animal models for further studies on the mechanism of pathogenesis or vaccine evaluation.%树鼩是灵长类动物的近亲,且具有体型小、繁殖周期短、饲养管理成本低等优点,长期以来被认为有望替代灵长类

  6. Simultaneous Optimal Placement of Distributed Generation and Electric Vehicle Parking Lots Based on Probabilistic EV Model

    M.H. Amini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High penetration of distributed generations and the increasing demand for using electric vehicles provide a lot of issues for the utilities. If these two effective elements of the future power system are used in an unscheduled manner, it may lead to the loss increment in distribution networks, dramatically. In this paper, the simultaneous allocation of distributed generations (DGs and electric vehicles (EVs parking lots has been studied in a radial distribution network. A distribution network which is upgrading and equipped with DGs is considered and these resources' optimal placement is achieved in interaction with the EV parking lots in order to minimize the power distribution network loss. The proposed method considers not only the loss minimization but also the reliability of the parking lot from the investor's point of view. The output of this model is the daily electricity demand of parking lot. The proposed method includes two levels. At the first level of the proposed algorithm, the parking lot investor makes decision and selects three candidate buses for each parking based on three main criteria. After making decision by the parking lot investor, the candidate buses are introduced to the distribution network operator. At the second stage, the distribution network operator allocates the DGs and EV parking lots based on the candidate buses of investor in order to achieve the minimum loss of the distribution network. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by allocating of DGs and EV parking lots simultaneously on the standard distribution test system.

  7. Vabariigi aastapäev Ottawas Taani suursaadiku osalemisel / Walter Pent

    Pent, Walter

    2003-01-01

    EV 85. aastapäeva üritusel pidas kõne Taani suursaadik Kanadas Svend R. Nielsen ning anti üle Kotkaristi Kuldrist Ottawa Eesti Seltsi esimehele, lennuväekolonel Margus Arujale teenete eest eesti sõjaväe loomisele kaasaaitamisel\\

  8. What kind of charging infrastructure do Chevrolet Volts Drivers in The EV Project use?

    John Smart

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how much Volt drivers charge at level 1 vs. level 2 rates and how much they charge at home vs. away from home.

  9. Coordinated Control of PV Generation and EVs Charging Based on Improved DECell Algorithm

    Guo Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the coordination of EVs’ charging and renewable energy has become a hot research all around the globe. Considering the requirements of EV owner and the influence of the PV output fluctuation on the power grid, a three-objective optimization model was established by controlling the EVs charging power during charging process. By integrating the meshing method into differential evolution cellular (DECell genetic algorithm, an improved differential evolution cellular (IDECell genetic algorithm was presented to solve the multiobjective optimization model. Compared to the NSGA-II and DECell, the IDECell algorithm showed better performance in the convergence and uniform distribution. Furthermore, the IDECell algorithm was applied to obtain the Pareto front of nondominated solutions. Followed by the normalized sorting of the nondominated solutions, the optimal solution was chosen to arrive at the optimized coordinated control strategy of PV generation and EVs charging. Compared to typical charging pattern, the optimized charging pattern could reduce the fluctuations of PV generation output power, satisfy the demand of EVs charging quantity, and save the total charging cost.

  10. Crystal structures of enterovirus 71 (EV71) recombinant virus particles provide insights into vaccine design.

    Lyu, Ke; Wang, Guang-Chuan; He, Ya-Ling; Han, Jian-Feng; Ye, Qing; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Rong

    2015-02-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) remains a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific regions, and its major causative agents include human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16. A desirable vaccine against HFMD would be multivalent and able to elicit protective responses against multiple HFMD causative agents. Previously, we have demonstrated that a thermostable recombinant EV71 vaccine candidate can be produced by the insertion of a foreign peptide into the BC loop of VP1 without affecting viral replication. Here we present crystal structures of two different naturally occurring empty particles, one from a clinical C4 strain EV71 and the other from its recombinant virus containing an insertion in the VP1 BC loop. Crystal structure analysis demonstrated that the inserted foreign peptide is well exposed on the particle surface without significant structural changes in the capsid. Importantly, such insertions do not seem to affect the virus uncoating process as illustrated by the conformational similarity between an uncoating intermediate of another recombinant virus and that of EV71. Especially, at least 18 residues from the N terminus of VP1 are transiently externalized. Altogether, our study provides insights into vaccine development against HFMD. PMID:25492868

  11. ev kukub põgeneja käest : [luuletused] / Helgi Muller

    Muller, Helgi, 1932-1971

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kui minu tuppa ei kostaks ; Imelind ; Kodumaa ; Karikakar I ; "Taevas vaatab sind ..." ; Öö musta jõge pidi ; Põuavägud ; "Kas põletada ..." ; Pihud ; Hingetuisk ; "Nagu hüüd ..." ; Päev jälle kukub käest. Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 192

  12. "Maarahva lunastamine" ja talutööde päev Soeras / Harda Roosna

    Roosna, Harda, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    Viimast korda etenduvale Elmo Ellori külajandile "Maarahva lunastamine" Soera talumuuseumis järgneb talutööde päev. Etenduse tõi välja Kärdla kultuurikeskuse näitering Koit Randuse juhendamisel

  13. Composition of Near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5: Potential target for Robotic and Human Exploration

    Reddy, Vishnu; Hicks, Michael; Lawrence, Kenneth; Buratti, Bonnie; Abell, Paul; Gaffey, Michael; Hardersen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We observed potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) 2008 EV5 in the visible (0.30-0.92 microns) and near-IR (0.75-2.5 microns) wavelengths to determine its surface composition. This asteroid is especially interesting because it is a potential target for two sample return mission proposals (Marco Polo-R and Hayabusa-2) and human exploration due to its low delta-v for rendezvous. The spectrum of 2008 EV5 is essentially featureless with exception of a weak 0.48-microns spin-forbidden Fe3+ absorption band. The spectrum also has an overall blue slope. The albedo of 2008 EV5 remains uncertain with a lower limit at 0.05 and a higher end at 0.20 based on thermal modeling. The Busch et al. (2011) albedo estimate of 0.12 is consistent with our thermal modeling results. The albedo and composition of 2008 EV5 are also consistent with a C-type taxonomic classification (Somers et al. 2008). The best spectral match is with CI carbonaceous chondrites similar to Orgueil, which also have a weak 0.48-microns feature and an overall...

  14. Invent--Innovate--Implement--Interview with Dr. Christian Schaefer, Senior Vice President Sales, EV Group

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dr. Christian Schaefer, Senior Vice President Sales of EV Group, has 15 years of international management experience in the materials and equipment industry. During his tenure, Schaefer spearheaded the consolidation 9f RHI following the first Asian crisis and guided the company through major mergers and acquisitions,accomplishments that ultimately helped the company increase market share, revenues and profits.

  15. What kind of charging infrastructure do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project use?

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01

    This document will describe the charging behavior of Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will include aggregated data from several thousand vehicles regarding time-of-day, power level, and location of charging and driving events. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  16. Excitation and dissociation of molecules by low-energy (0-15 eV) electrons

    The author deals with excitation and dissociation processes which result from the interaction between low-energy (0.15 eV) electrons and molecules. Low-energy electron-impact spectroscopy is used to gain a better knowledge of the electronic structure of halomethanes, ethylene and some of its halogen substituted derivatives, and some more complex organic molecules. (Auth.)

  17. Arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays of energy 10 (18) eV

    Reid, R. J. O.; Eames, P. V.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Morello, C.; Watson, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Haverah Park air-shower experiment recorded over 8500 events with primary energy 10 to the 18th power eV between 1963 and 1983. An analysis of these events for anisotropies in celestial and galactic coordinates is reported. No very striking anisotropies are observed.

  18. Arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays of energy 10 (18) eV

    The Haverah Park air-shower experiment recorded over 8500 events with primary energy 10 to the 18th power eV between 1963 and 1983. An analysis of these events for anisotropies in celestial and galactic coordinates is reported. No very striking anisotropies are observed

  19. HiggsToFourLeptonsEV in the ATLAS EventView Analysis Framework

    Lagouri, T; Del Peso, J

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This experiment has been designed to study a large range of physics topics, including searches for previously unobserved phenomena such as the Higgs Boson and super-symmetry. The physics analysis package HiggsToFourLeptonsEV for the Standard Model (SM) Higgs to four leptons channel with ATLAS is presented. The physics goal is to investigate with the ATLAS detector, the SM Higgs boson discovery potential through its observation in the four-lepton (electron and muon) final state. HiggsToFourLeptonsEV is based on the official ATLAS software ATHENA and the EventView (EV) analysis framework. EventView is a highly flexible and modular analysis framework in ATHENA and it is one of several analysis schemes for ATLAS physics user analysis. At the core of the EventView is the representative view of an event, which defines the contents of event data suitable for event-level physics analysis. The HiggsToFourLeptonsEV package prepares the dat...

  20. HiggsToFourLeptonsEV in the ATLAS EventView Analysis Framework

    Lagouri, T; Del Peso, J

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This experiment has been designed to study a large range of physics topics, including searches for previously unobserved phenomena such as the Higgs Boson and super-symmetry. The physics analysis package HiggsToFourLeptonsEV for the Standard Model (SM) Higgs to four leptons channel with ATLAS is presented. The physics goal is to investigate with the ATLAS detector, the SM Higgs boson discovery potential through its observation in the four-lepton (electron and muon) final state. HiggsToFourLeptonsEV is based on the official ATLAS software ATHENA and the EventView (EV) analysis framework. EventView is a highly flexible and modular analysis framework in ATHENA and it is one of several analysis schemes for ATLAS physics user analysis. At the core of the EventView is the representative "view" of an event, which defines the contents of event data suitable for event-level physics analysis. The HiggsToFourLeptonsEV package, presented in ...

  1. Dissociative Electron Attachment to Carbon Dioxide via the 8.2 eV Feshbach resonance

    Slaughter, Dan; Adaniya, Hidihito; Rescigno, Tom; Haxton, Dan; Orel, Ann; McCurdy, Bill; Belkacem, Ali

    2011-08-17

    Momentum imaging experiments on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to CO{sub 2} are combined with the results of ab initio calculations to provide a detailed and consistent picture of the dissociation dynamics through the 8.2 eV resonance, which is the major channel for DEA in CO{sub 2}. The present study resolves several puzzling misconceptions about this system.

  2. Optical absorption of boron nitride nanomaterials

    Optical absorption spectra have been measured for hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), rhombohedral BN(rh-BN), and material obtained by laser vaporization of BN target under a nitrogen atmosphere and contained single-wall BN-nanotubes. Band gap of the BN materials was found to have a value of 6.0-6.3 eV. The spectra of h -BN and vaporized material exhibited a peak at ∝5.5 eV, moreover, the latter sample showed an absorption band around 4.5 eV. The vaporized material has been fractionated to the BN-platelets and single-wall BN-nanotubes. Absorption peaks, located bellow the bottom of the conductance band, were found to be characteristics of thin BN-platelets and they could be attributed to defects in BN network. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  4. Development of nickel/metal-hydride batteries for EVs and HEVs

    Taniguchi, Akihiro; Fujioka, Noriyuki; Ikoma, Munehisa; Ohta, Akira

    This paper is to introduce the nickel/metal-hydride (Ni/MH) batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) developed and mass-produced by our company. EV-95 for EVs enables a vehicle to drive approximately 200 km per charge. As the specific power is extremely high, more than 200 W/kg at 80% depth of discharge (DOD), the acceleration performance is equivalent to that of gasoline fuel automobiles. The life characteristic is also superior. This battery gives the satisfactory result of more than 1000 cycles in bench tests and approximately 4-year on-board driving. EV-28 developed for small EVs comprises of a compact and light battery module with high specific power of 300 W/kg at 80% DOD by introducing a new technology for internal cell connection. Meanwhile, our cylindrical battery for the HEV was adopted into the first generation Toyota Prius in 1997 which is the world's first mass-product HEV, and has a high specific power of 600 W/kg. Its life characteristic was found to be equivalent to more than 100,000 km driving. Furthermore, a new prismatic module in which six cells are connected internally was used for the second generation Prius in 2000. The prismatic battery comprises of a compact and light battery pack with a high specific power of 1000 W/kg, which is approximately 1.7 times that of conventional cylindrical batteries, as a consequence of the development of a new internal cell connection and a new current collection structure.

  5. Isotropy Constraints on Powerful Sources of Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Rays at 1019 eV

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) produced by powerful sources is numerically evaluated. We show that nondetection of significant anisotropy at ≈ {10}19 eV at present and in future experiments imposes general upper limits on UHECR proton luminosity of steady sources as a function of source redshifts. The upper limits constrain the existence of typical steady {10}19 eV UHECR sources in the local universe and limit their local density to ≳ {10}-3 Mpc {}-3, assuming average intergalactic magnetic fields less than {10}-9 G. This isotropy, being stronger than that measured at the highest energies, may indicate the transient generation of UHECRs. Our calculations are applied for extreme high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae objects 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1101-232, and 1ES 0347-121, to test the UHECR-induced cascade model, in which beamed UHECR protons generate TeV radiation in transit from sources. While the magnetic-field structure surrounding the sources affects the required absolute cosmic-ray luminosity of the blazars, the magnetic-field structure surrounding the Milky Way directly affects the observed anisotropy. If these magnetic fields are weak enough, significant UHECR anisotropy from these blazars is detectable by the Pierre Auger Observatory unless the maximum energy of UHECR protons is below 1019 eV. Furthermore, if these are the sources of UHECRs above 1019 eV, a local magnetic structure surrounding the Milky Way is needed to explain the observed isotropy at ˜ {10}19 eV, which may be incompatible with large magnetic structures around all galaxies for the UHECR-induced cascade model to work with reasonable jet powers.

  6. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies against EV71 screened from mice immunized with yeast-produced virus-like particles.

    Lin, Tao; Xianyu, Lingzhi; Lyu, Songya

    2015-06-01

    Periodic outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occur in children under 5 years old, and can cause death in some cases. The C4 strain of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen that causes HFMD in China. Although no drugs against EV71 are available, some studies have shown that candidate vaccines or viral capsid proteins can produce anti-EV71 immunity. In this study, female BABL/c mice (6-8 weeks old) were immunized with virus-like particles (VLPs) of EV71 produced in yeast to screen for anti-EV71 antibodies. Two hybridomas that could produce neutralizing antibodies against EV71 were obtained. Both neutralizing mAbs (D4 and G12) were confirmed to bind the VP1 capsid protein of EV71, and could protect >95% cells from 100 TCID50 EV71 infection at 25 µg/mL solution (lowest concentration). Those two neutralizing mAbs identified in the study may be promising candidates in development for mAbs to treat EV71 infection, and utilized as suitable reagents for use in diagnostic tests and biological studies. PMID:26040893

  7. A Method for Remote Control of EV Charging by Modifying IEC61851 Compliant EVSE Based PWM Signal

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach;

    2016-01-01

    The Electric Vehicle (EV) has properties that can not only load but can elevate its value as a resource to the power system. An EV represents a high-power, fast-responding flexible demand unit, with an attached energy storage (battery) and the potential for bi-directional capabilities (V2G). These...... properties can be used in a number of power and energy services, which can support power system operation while lowering the cost of EV ownership. Such services depend on the support from the communications technologies and standards that connect controllers and logic in the EVs with those in the charging...

  8. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies against EV71 screened from mice immunized with yeast-produced virus-like particles

    Tao; Lin; Lingzhi; Xianyu; Songya; Lyu

    2015-01-01

    Periodic outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD) occur in children under 5 years old, and can cause death in some cases. The C4 strain of enterovirus 71(EV71) is the main pathogen that causes HFMD in China. Although no drugs against EV71 are available, some studies have shown that candidate vaccines or viral capsid proteins can produce anti-EV71 immunity. In this study, female BABL/c mice(6–8 weeks old) were immunized with virus-like particles(VLPs) of EV71 produced in yeast to screen for anti-EV71 antibodies. Two hybridomas that could produce neutralizing antibodies against EV71 were obtained. Both neutralizing m Abs(D4 and G12) were confirmed to bind the VP1 capsid protein of EV71, and could protect > 95% cells from 100 TCID50 EV71 infection at 25 μg/m L solution(lowest concentration). Those two neutralizing m Abs identified in the study may be promising candidates in development for m Abs to treat EV71 infection, and utilized as suitable reagents for use in diagnostic tests and biological studies.

  9. Simulasi Kinerja Layanan Data Berkecepatan Tinggi pada Sistem CDMA 20001X EV-DO (Evolution Data Optimezed).

    Sidauruk, Nando Boy Inton

    2011-01-01

    Teknologi komunikasi selular jauh sebelumnya telah berkembang dan memberikan beberapa keuntungan. CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO sebuah teknologi berbasis komunikasi selular di desain untuk proses pengiriman data secara efisien. IS–856 (CDMA2000 1X EV-DO) adalah standar yang membutuhkan lebar-pita yang cukup besar (1,25 MHz).CDMA2000 1X EV-DO (data optimized) dapat mengirimkan data sampai 2,4 Mbps dan mendukung aplikasi seperti konferensi video. Varian lainnya adalah CDMA2000 1X EV-DO yang mengintegrasik...

  10. Electron scattering by atomic hydrogen: elastic and inelastic phenomena at 13.9 to 200 eV

    A six state coupled-channel optical potential method for electron-atom scattering is applied to electron-hydrogen scattering at energies of 13.87, 16.46, 19.58, 35, 40, 54.4, 100, and 200 eV. The n = 1, 2, and 3 channels are coupled explicitly whereas the rest of the excited states of the atom including the continuum are taken into account via the 'ab initio' complex non-local polarization potential. The differential and integrated cross sections, as well as the exchange asymmetries for n = 1 and 2 channels, the total cross section, and the λ, R and I parameters for the 2p excitation are presented at each energy. The ratio of differential cross sections for n = 1 to n = 2, and for 2s to 2p, and the 2s + 2p differential cross sections are found to be in good agreement with experiment. There are still some discrepancies between experiment and theory for the 2p angular correlation parameters λ, R and I. 24 refs., 9 tabs., 6 figs